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Prepared for: DETR/BR By: S M Doran and L Kosmina BRE East Kilbride December 1999 Report No 78129

(revised June 2000) Final approval on behalf of BRE : Final approval on behalf of BRE: Signed ________________ Date ________________

Mrs H J Cuckow, Director, BRE East Kilbride

BRE East Kilbride Kelvin Road East Kilbride Glasgow G75 0RZ Tel : 01355 576200 Fax : 01355 576210 Email : EastKilbride@bre.co.uk

© Building Research Establishment Ltd 1999

Examples of U-value calculations using BS EN ISO 6946:1997 S M Doran and L Kosmina, BRE East Kilbride December 1999 This document illustrates the procedures given in BS EN ISO 6946:19971 for calculating the U-value of opaque elements. The procedures are explained using examples of U-value calculations for some typical wall, roof and floor designs which contain repeating thermal bridges.

Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Introduction Outline of the procedure Cavity wall with lightweight masonry leaf and insulated dry lining Timber framed wall Insulated cavity wall with metal wall ties Wide cavity wall with vertical twist ties Pitched roof with insulation between and over the joists Room in roof construction Room in roof construction with limited rafter depth Floor above unheated space Suspended beam and block floor Suspended timber ground floor 1 2 3 8 13 18 21 24 27 31 34 38 41 45

Appendix : Data tables References

1. Introduction For building elements which contain repeating thermal bridges, such as timber joists between insulation in a roof, or mortar joints around lightweight blockwork in a wall, the effect of thermal bridges should be taken into account when calculating the U-value. At present, Building Regulations specify that U-values should be calculated using the Proportional Area Method, which is described in the CIBSE Guide, Section A32. Future regulations, however, are likely to be based upon the method for calculating U-values defined in BS EN ISO 6946:1997, which includes the Combined Method for repeating thermal bridges and correction procedures for the effects of metal fixings, air gaps and unheated spaces. This paper illustrates the use of BS EN ISO 6946:1997 for some typical wall, roof and floor designs. Thermal conductivity values for common building materials can be obtained from the CIBSE Guide Section A3, 1999 Edition (especially for masonry) or from prEN 125243. For specific insulation products, however, data should be obtained from manufacturers’ declared values. A table is provided at the end of this document giving typical conductivities for some common building materials.

2. Outline of the procedure The following is an outline of the calculation procedure: 1. Calculate the upper resistance limit (Rupper) by combining in parallel the total resistances of all possible heat-flow paths (i.e. sections) through the building element. 2. Calculate the lower resistance limit (Rlower) by combining in parallel the resistances of the heat flow paths of each layer separately and then summing the resistances of all layers of the building element. 3. Calculate the total thermal resistance (RT) from RT = R upper + R lower 2

4. Calculate, where appropriate, corrections for air gaps (∆Ug) and mechanical fasteners (∆Uf). Examples of corrections for air gaps are shown in sections 3, 4, 10 and 12 and examples of corrections for mechanical fasteners are shown in sections 5, 6 and 9. 5. Calculate the U-value from U = (1 / RT) + ∆Ug + ∆Uf The standard permits ∆Ug and ∆Uf to be omitted if, taken together, they amount to less than 3% of the U-value. This has been done in the examples that follow.

3. Cavity wall with lightweight masonry leaf and insulated dry-lining In this examplea) there are two bridged layers - insulation bridged by timber and example). The construction consists of outer leaf brickwork, a clear cavity, 100 mm AAC blockwork, 38 89 mm timber studs with insulation between the studs and one sheet of 12.5 mm plasterboard.

102 mm brick (conductivity 0.77 W/m·K) 50 mm air cavity (thermal resistance 0.18 m²K/W) 100 mm AAC blocks (conductivity 0.11 W/m·K) bridged by mortar (conductivity 0.88 W/m·K) mineral wool (conductivity 0.038 W/m·K) between 38 × 89 mm timber studs (conductivity 0.13 W/m·K) at 400 mm centres 12.5 mm plasterboard, conductivity 0.25 W/m·K) (conductivity heat flow

Total thickness

354 mm

U-value

0.31 W/m·K

The thickness of each layer, together with the thermal conductivities of the materials, are shown below. The external and internal surface resistances used are those two thermal conductivities are given for each layer to reflect the bridged part and the bridging part in each case. For each homogeneous layer and for each section (expressed in metres) by the thermal conductivity.

Layer

Thickness (mm) -

1 3(a) 3(b) 4(b) 5

outer leaf brick air cavity mortar (6.6%) mineral wool (90.5%) plasterboard

conductivity (W/m·K) 0.77 0.11 0.88 0.13 0.25 -

resistance (m²K/W) 0.132 0.180 0.114 2.342 0.050

50 100 89 (89) -

a)

Due to requirements for sound insulation this wall construction may only be suitable for

845 (93. A conceptual illustration of the method of calculating the upper limit of resistance is shown below:- F1 1 F2 external 1 surface F3 1 F4 1 2 3(b) 4(b) 5 2 3(a) 4(b) 5 2 3(b) 4(a) 5 internal surface 2 3(a) 4(a) 5 Figure 3.2 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the upper limit of resistance Resistance through section containing AAC blocks and mineral wool External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of AAC blocks (93. The method of combining differs in the two cases. R3 and R4 are the corresponding total thermal resistances of the sections. F3 and F4 are the fractional areas of sections 1.Both the upper and the lower limits of thermal resistance are calculated by combining as illustrated below. The upper limit of upper.130 = 3.909 = 2. Upper resistance limit considered to consist of a number of thermal paths (or sections). F2.4%) Resistance of mineral wool (90. In this example there are four sections (or paths) through which heat can pass.783 m²K/W .132 = 0. R2.5%) Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R1) Fractional area F1 = 0.342 = 0.180 = 0.050 = 0. 3 and 4 respectively and R1.5%) = 0.4% × 90. is given by R upper = 1 F F1 F2 F + + 3 + 4 R1 R 2 R 3 R 4 where F1. 2.040 = 0.

5%) Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R3) Fractional area F3 = 0. the resistance of a bridged layer is determined by combining in parallel the resistances of the unbridged part and the bridged part of the layer.5%) Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R2) Fractional area F2 = 0.180 = 0.132 = 0.040 = 0.6% × 9.4%) Resistance of timber (9.040 = 0.5%) Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R4) Fractional area F4 = 0.089 0.988 2.050 = 0.050 = 0.5%) Resistance through section containing mortar and timber External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of mortar (6. The resistances of all the layers in the element are then added together to give the lower limit of resistance.130 = 2.845 0.132 = 0.050 = 0.331 R1 R 2 R 3 R 4 = 0.132 = 0.450 m²K/W.685 = 0.909 = 0.783 2.130 = 1.180 = 0.988 m²K/W Lower resistance limit When calculating the lower limit of thermal resistance.089 (93.Resistance through section containing mortar and mineral wool External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of mortar (6.5%) Resistance through section containing AAC blocks and timber External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of AAC blocks (93.180 = 0.5%) Combining these resistances we obtain: R upper = 1 1 = = 3.114 = 0.6%) Resistance of timber (9. F3 0.6%) Resistance of mineral wool (90.114 = 2.342 = 0. .685 = 0.006 F1 F2 F4 + + + + + + 3.060 (6.6% × 90.006 (6.126 m²K/W = 0.130 = 2.126 1.040 = 0.4% × 9.331 m²K/W = 0.060 0.

622 = 1.058 m²K/W .685 Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total (Rlower) Total resistance of wall The total resistance of the wall is the average of the upper and lower limit of resistances: = 0.904 = 0.040 = 0.180 = 0.130 = 3.shown below: 3(a) external surface 1 2 3(b) 4(a) 5 4(b) internal surface Figure 3.050 = 0.934 0.905 0.132 = 0.342 0.3 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the lower limit of resistance The resistance of the bridged layer consisting of AAC blocks and mortar is calculated using: R first = 1 Fblocks F + mortar R blocks R mortar and the resistance of the bridged layer consisting of insulation and timber is calculated using: R second = 1 Finsul Ftimber + R insul R timber The lower limit of resistance is then obtained by adding together the resistances of the layers: External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of first bridged layer 1 R first = 0.066 + 0.114 Resistance of second bridged layer 1 R second = 0.095 + 2.909 0.

RT = R upper + R lower 2 = 3.450 + 3. In the above calculation it is assumed that the noggings (or dwangs) do not penetrate the whole of the insulation.003 W/m²K U-value of the wall The effect of air gaps or mechanical fixings should be included in the U-value unless they lead to an adjustment in the U-value of less than 3%.254)² = 0. Note 1.31 W/m²K. RI is the thermal resistance of the layer containing the gaps and RT is the total resistance of the element.904 / 3. where ∆Ug = ∆U’’ × (RI / RT)² and where ∆U’’ = 0. Since the cavity wall ties do not penetrate any insulation no correction need be applied to the U-value to take account of them.307 W/m²K.01 (referred to in BS EN ISO 6946 as correction level 1). 2.01 × (1. . Since ∆Ug is less than 3% of (1 / RT). there is no continuous layer of insulation) a correction should be applied to the U-value in order to account for air gaps. ∆Ug is therefore ∆Ug = 0. The overall U-value of the wall should include a term ∆Ug.058 = 3.254 = 0.254 m²K/W 2 Correction for air gaps between the timber studs Since the insulation is entirely between studs (ie. If the noggings (or dwangs) do penetrate the whole of the insulation thickness they should be included as part of the timber percentage used in the calculation. U = 1 / RT + ∆Ug U = 1 / RT (if ∆Ug is not less than 3% of 1 / RT) (if ∆Ug is less than 3% of 1 / RT) In this case ∆Ug = 0.003 W/m²K and 1 / RT = 0. U = 1 / 3.

77 0. The construction consists of outer leaf brickwork.4. b) This construction provides satisfactory sound insulation .1 : Timber framed wall construction The thicknesses of each layer.13 W/m·K) at 400 mm centres 2 × 12.5 mm plasterboard (conductivity 0. For each homogeneous layer and for each section through a bridged layer. together with the thermal conductivities of the materials in each layer. Timber framed wall In this exampleb) there is a single bridged layer in the wall.09 m²K/W) 19 mm plywood (conductivity 0. 102 mm brick outer leaf (conductivity 0.5 mm thick. the thermal resistance is calculated by dividing the thickness (in metres) by the thermal conductivity. involving insulation bridged by timber studs.100 0.25 W/m·K) heat flow Total thickness 336 mm U-value 0.180 1. The method of combining differs in the two cases.31 W/m·K Figure 4.077 0. a clear ventilated cavity. The external and internal surface resistances are taken from Table 1 of this document.77 W/m·K) 50 mm ventilated cavity (thermal resistance 0.13 0. one for the unbridged part and one for the bridging part of the layer.040 0. Layer Material Thickness (mm) 102 50 19 120 20 (140) 25 Thermal conductivity (W/m·K) 0.158 0. as illustrated below.132 0.146 3.038 W/m·K) between 38 × 140 mm timber studs (conductivity 0.130 1 2 3 4(a¹) 4(a²) 4(b) 5 external surface outer leaf brick air cavity plywood mineral wool between timber studs air space next to mineral wool 38 mm × 140 mm timber studs at 400 mm centres plasterboard internal surface Both the upper and the lower limits of thermal resistance are calculated by combining the alternative resistances of the bridged layer in proportion to their respective areas.038 0. 19 mm plywood.090 0. are shown below. 38 × 140 mm timber framing with 120 mm of insulation between the timbers and 2 sheets of plasterboard each 12.25 Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0.13 W/m·K) mineral wool (conductivity 0. Layer 4 is thermally bridged and two thermal conductivities are given for this layer.13 0.

The upper limit of resistance is calculated from: 1 R upper = F1 F2 + R1 R 2 where F1 and F2 are the fractional areas of the two sections and R1 and R2 are the total resistances of the two sections.5%) = 0.100 = 0.5%) Resistance of air space next to mineral wool Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total (R1) Fractional area F1 = 0.905 (90.132 = 0.976 m²K/W .040 = 0.180 = 0.158 = 0.2 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the upper limit of thermal resistance Resistance through the section containing insulation External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of plywood Resistance of mineral wool (90.146 = 3. The method of calculating the upper resistance limit is illustrated conceptually below:F1 external surface F2 1 2 3 4(b) 5 1 2 3 4(a) 5 internal surface Figure 4.Upper resistance limit When calculating the upper limit of thermal resistance.090 = 0.130 = 3. the building element is considered to consist of two thermal paths (or sections).

5%) Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total (R2) Fractional area F2 = 0.5%) The upper limit of resistance is then: R upper = 1 F1 F2 + R1 R 2 = 1 0.095 + 3.130 = 1. F1 4(a) external surface 1 2 3 F2 4(b) 5 internal surface Figure 4.040 = 0.715 = 3.132 = 0.715 m²K/W Lower resistance limit:When calculating the lower limit of thermal resistance.100 = 0. the resistance of a bridged layer is determined by combining in parallel the resistances of the unbridged part and the bridged part of the layer. The resistance of the bridged layer is calculated using: R= 1 Finsul F + timber R insul R timber The method of calculating the lower limit of resistance is illustrated conceptually below.090 = 0. The resistances of all the layers in the element are then added together to give the lower limit of resistance.533 m²K/W = 0.976 1.Resistance through section containing timber stud External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of plywood Resistance of timber studs (9.146 = 1.095 (9.905 0.3 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the lower limit of thermal resistance .077 = 0.

132 = 0.421 m²K/W Total resistance of wall (not allowing for air gaps in the insulation) The total resistance of the wall is the average of the upper and lower resistance limits: RT = R upper + R lower 2 = 3.783 Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total (Rlower) = 0. RT is 3.421 = 3.783 m²K/W. In this example RI is 2. RT is the total resistance of the element and ∆U’’ is a factor which depends upon the way in which the insulation is fitted.783 / 3.130 = 3.077 = 0. U = 1 / RT + ∆Ug U = 1 / RT c) (if ∆Ug is not less than 3% of 1 / RT) (if ∆Ug is less than 3% of 1 / RT) Using Table D.04.04 × (2. where ∆Ug = ∆U’’ × (RI / RT)² and where RI d) is the thermal resistance of the layer containing gaps.The lower limit of resistance is then obtained by adding up the resistances of all the layers: External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of air cavity Resistance of plywood Resistance of bridged layer = 1 0.477 m²K/W and ∆U’’ is 0.100 = 0. The correctionc) for air gaps is ∆Ug.158 + 0.905 0.090 = 0.146 = 2.533 + 3.1 of BS EN ISO 6946 In this example RI is the same as the resistance of the bridged layer used in the calculation of the lower resistance limit d) .040 = 0.026 W/m²K U-value of the wall The effect of air gaps or mechanical fixings should be included in the U-value unless they lead to an adjustment in the U-value of less than 3%.095 + 3. The value of ∆Ug is then ∆Ug = 0.477 m²K/W 2 Correction for air gaps If there are small air gaps penetrating the insulating layer a correction should be applied to the U-value to account for this.477)² = 0.180 1.

the noggings (or dwangs) penetrate the whole of the insulation thickness they should be included within the timber percentage used in the calculation.026 . and wall ceiling junctions.00 ∆Ug W/m²K 0.01 W/m²K.04 W/m²K.477 + 0. 3. air circulation is possible on the warm side then it should be set to 0. Note 1.04 0. If 140 mm of insulation was used instead of 120 mm so as to fill the space between the studs. however. U = 1 / RT = 1 / 3.31 W/m²K. The additional timbers at the junctions of plane elements. If. Air gaps may penetrate the insulation. Since ∆Ug is not less than 3% of (1 / RT). correction level 1 would be appropriate. The Standard (BS EN ISO 6946) states that if the insulation is fitted in such a way that no air circulation is possible on the warm side of the insulation then ∆U’’ is set to 0. Insulation installed in such a way that no air circulation is possible on the warm side of the insulation. The possible correction levels are summarised as follows: Description of air gap Correction level 0 ∆U’’ W/m²K 0. If.01 0. 1 0.006 2 0.288 W/m²K.026 W/m²K and 1 / RT = 0. for example wall/wall. 2. on the other hand. In this example correction level 2 is appropriate because air may circulate on the warm side of the insulation.In this case ∆Ug = 0. Air gaps may penetrate the insulation layer. Air circulation possible on the warm side of the insulation. and the additional timbers surrounding openings are taken account of in the treatment of such details and so are not taken into account in the calculation of the U-value of the wall. In the above calculation it is assumed that the noggings (or dwangs) do not penetrate the whole of the insulation. wall/floor.026 = 0. 4. No air gaps penetrating the entire insulation layer.000 Insulation installed in such a way that no air circulation is possible on the warm side of the insulation.

11 m²K/W) bridged by mortar (conductivity 0.32 W/m·K heat flow Figure 5. are shown below.130 e) This construction provides satisfactory sound insulation from neighbouring dwellings .88 W/m·K) Total thickness 13 mm lightweight plaster. 100 mm of AAC blockwork and 13 mm of lightweight plaster.072 0.88 0. together with the thermal conductivities of the materials in each layer.5. The external and internal surface resistances used are those given in Table 1 of this document. a cavity filled with mineral wool batts.6%) lightweight plaster internal surface Thermal conductivity (W/m·K) 0.11 0. (conductivity 0. The third layer contains AAC blockwork bridged by mortar with the mortar occupying 6. Insulated cavity wall with metal wall ties In this examplee) an insulated cavity wall has stainless steel double triangle wall ties penetrating the insulation layer.038 0. The wall ties are spaced 900 mm horizontally and 450 mm vertically. The metal ties are not treated as repeating thermal bridges but instead are accounted for at the end of the calculation.4%) mortar (6.18 W/m·K) 290 mm U-value 0.974 0.1 : Insulated cavity wall (fully-filled) with metal wall ties The thicknesses of each layer. 102 mm brick (conductivity 0.132 1.77 0.6% of the cross-sectional area.77 W/m·K) 75 mm cavity filled with mineral wool (conductivity 0.18 - Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0.909 0. Layer Material Thickness (mm) 102 75 100 (100) 13 - 1 2 3(a) 3(b) 4 external surface outer leaf brick mineral wool batts AAC blocks (93. The construction consists of outer leaf brickwork.114 0.038 m²K/W) 100 mm AAC blocks (conductivity 0.040 0.

130 2.Upper resistance limit:When calculating the upper limit of thermal resistance.066 + 3.257 .4%) Resistance of lightweight plaster Internal surface resistance Total (R1) Fractional area F1 = 0.066 (6.072 0.974 0.257 2.4%) Resistance through section containing mortar External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of mineral wool slabs Resistance of mortar (6.462 0. The upper limit of resistance is calculated from: 1 R upper = F1 F2 + R1 R 2 where F1 and F2 are the fractional areas of the two sections and R1 and R2 are the total resistances of the two sections.462 = 3.040 0. A conceptual diagram of the upper limit of resistance is shown immediately below F1 external surface F2 1 2 3(b) 4 1 2 3(a) 4 internal surface Figure 5.130 3.132 1.974 0.6%) Resistance of lightweight plaster Internal surface resistance Total (R2) Fractional area F2 = 0.114 0.934 (93.934 0.2 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the upper limit of resistance Resistance through section containing concrete blocks External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of mineral wool slabs Resistance of AAC blocks (93.189 m²K/W 0.6%) Combining the resistances in their appropriate proportions the upper limit of resistance (Rupper) is given by: R upper = 1 F1 F2 + R1 R 2 = 1 0.040 0. the building element is considered to consist of two thermal paths (or sections).132 1.072 0.909 0.

970 The total resistance of the wall is the average of the upper and lower resistance limits: RT = R upper + R lower 2 = 3. such as cavity wall ties. Since wall ties of low conductivity.3 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the lower limit of resistance External surface resistance Resistance of bricks Resistance of mineral wool slabs Resistance of AAC blocks & mortar = 1 0.970 = 3. The resistances of all the layers are then added together to give the lower limit of resistance.072 = 0. The corrections are only applied where wall ties actually penetrate the insulation.040 = 0.Lower resistance limit:To calculate the lower resistance limit the resistance of the bridged layer is determined by combining in parallel the resistances of the unbridged part and the bridged part of the layer.909 0. or part of it.622 Resistance of lightweight plaster Internal surface resistance Total (Rlower) Total resistance of wall (ignoring wall ties) = 0. the Standard (BS EN ISO 6946) only requires a correction to be made if the conductivity of the tie. be taken into account. The following describes how the effect of the wall ties is incorporated into the U-value. do not affect the U-value significantly. In this example the wall ties are of stainless steel (double triangle) and are 3. They are arranged at 900 mm .189 + 2.132 = 1.114 = 0. In practice this means that plastic wall ties can be ignored in the U-value calculation but metal wall ties generally need to be included. The method of correction is the same for both fully filled and partially filled cavity walls.7 mm in diameter giving a cross-sectional area of 10.080 m²K/W 2 Correction for cavity wall ties The method of calculating U-values as given in BS EN ISO 6946 requires that mechanical fixings.75 mm².934 0. such as plastic ties.066 + 0. is more than 1 W/m·K. A conceptual illustration of the method of calculating the lower limit of resistance is shown below:F1 3(a) external surface 1 2 F2 3(b) 4 internal surface Figure 5.130 = 2.974 = 0.

Since ∆Uf is less than 3% of (1 / RT). U = 1 / RT = 1 / 3.3247 W/m²K. due to their greater cross-sectional area. ∆Uf. If vertical twist wall ties are used instead of double triangle ties the correction to the U-value can be considerably larger than that shown above.003 W/m²K) to the U-value which would be obtained without any correction for wall ties (0. The final quoted U-value. and λf is the conductivity of the fixings. 2. obtained by rounding the (uncorrected) U-value to two significant figures.47 × 0.00001075 m².32 W/m²K. A value for ∆Uf of 0. no correction is applied and ∆Uf is taken to be zero. is calculated as follows using the above information on the wall tie spacing. If instead of stainless steel ties. Using the procedure in BS EN ISO 6946.horizontal centres and 450 mm vertical centres.47 900 × 450 Af is the cross-sectional area of the wall tie. which is 17 W/m·K in this example. The Standard (BS EN ISO 6946). permits the effects of mechanical fixings to be ignored if they lead to an increase of less than 3% in the U-value. 3.003 W/m²K is obtained using the above formula: ∆Uf = 6 × 17 × 2.328 W/m²K. galvanised steel ties of conductivity 50 W/m·K are used. which is 0. nf = 1000 000 = 2. The number of wall ties per square metre which penetrate the insulation. nf. If the thermal conductivity of the tie. which is 6 for wall tiesf).003 W/m²K) is less than 3% of (1 / RT) the correction need not be applied. f) see Table 3 of this document .080 = 0. is less than 1 W/m·K.325 W/m²K) this would imply a U-value of 0. Since the ∆Uf correction (0.003 W/m²K U-value of the wall The effect of air gaps or mechanical fixings should be included in the U-value unless they lead to an adjustment in the U-value of less than 3%. 4. This would apply. for instance.003 W/m²K and 1 / RT = 0. however.008 W/m²K. is given by ∆Uf = α λf nf Af where α is the scaling factor for mechanical fixings. the adjustment to the U-value. U = 1 / RT + ∆Uf U = 1 / RT (if ∆Uf is not less than 3% of 1 / RT) (if ∆Uf is less than 3% of 1 / RT) In this case ∆Uf = 0. in the case of plastic wall ties. expressed in m². By adding ∆Uf (0. this will increase ∆Uf from 0.003 W/m²K to 0.32 W/m²K Note 1. or part of it.00001075 = 0. is 0.

4 : Conceptual diagram illustrating how the U-value is corrected for the presence of wall ties. is incorporated into the overall U-value calculation: U-value in absence of wall ties effect of wall ties Figure 5. .The following is a conceptual diagram showing how the effect of the wall ties. The U-value calculation is firstly carried out ignoring the effects of the wall ties and an adjustment is then applied in order to obtain the final U-value. where applicable.

8 mm². are shown below. the mortar joints between the bricks and concrete blocks could be taken into account.13 m²K/W) Total thickness 335 mm 13 mm dense plaster (conductivity 0.1 m²K/W the mortar parts may be ignored.30 W/m·K heat flow Figure 6. (conductivity 1. however since the resistances of the mortar parts do not differ from the brick or block parts by more than 0. The vertical twist wall ties have a cross sectional area of 60. The wall ties are spaced 750 mm horizontally and 450 mm vertically.77 W/m·K) 120 mm cavity filled with mineral wool (conductivity 0. Strictly speaking. 102 mm brick (conductivity 0.038 m²K/W) 100 mm concrete blocks. together with the thermal conductivities of the materials. The external and internal surface resistances used are those given in Table 1 of this document. g) Due to requirements for sound insulation this construction may only be suitable for detached dwellings . In this example there is no distinction between the upper and lower limit of resistance because all of the layers are considered to be sufficiently homogeneous (for the purposes of thermal calculations).57 W/m·K) U-value 0. Wide cavity wall with vertical twist ties In this exampleg) a wide cavity wall is fully filled with mineral wool insulation with stainless steel vertical twist wall ties in the filled cavity. To obtain the U-value allowing for the wall ties the thermal resistance (RT) should first be calculated ignoring the effect of the wall ties and then a correction should be made for the presence of the ties.6.1 : Insulated cavity wall (fully-filled) with metal wall ties The thicknesses of each layer.

Af.30 W/m²K Note 1. U = 1 / RT + ∆Uf U = 1 / RT (if ∆Uf is not less than 3% of 1 / RT) (if ∆Uf is less than 3% of 1 / RT) In this case ∆Uf = 0. Using the procedure in BS EN ISO 6946. which is 17 W/m·K for stainless steel.054 W/m²K. and λf is the conductivity of the fixings.The wall construction may be summarised as follows: Layer Material Thickness (mm) 102 120 100 13 Thermal conductivity (W/m·K) 0. is given by ∆Uf = α λf nf Af where α is the scaling factor for mechanical fixings.96 / m².040 0.158 0.33 W/m²K h) see Table 3 of this document . ∆Uf.018 W/m²K = 0.57 Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0. Note that Af.130 3. the value of ∆Uf will be 0. the correction to be applied.0000608 = 0. The correction to be applied is therefore ∆Uf = 6 × 17 × 2. Since ∆Uf is not less than 3% of (1 / RT). In this example the wall ties are of metal (vertical twist) and have a cross-sectional area.8 mm².088 0.571 + 0. is calculated to be 2. If galvanised steel ties (with a conductivity of 50 W/m·K) are used instead of stainless steel ties.018 W/m²K U-value of the wall The effect of air gaps or mechanical fixings should be included in the U-value unless they lead to an adjustment in the U-value of less than 3%.054 = 0.280 W/m²K. The number of wall ties per square metre which penetrate the insulation. U = 1 / 3. of 60.038 1.77 0.018 W/m²K and 1 / RT = 0.96 × 0.571 1 2 3 4 external surface outer leaf brick mineral wool batts concrete blockwork dense plaster internal surface Total (RT) Correction for cavity wall ties A correction has to be applied to allow for the additional heat loss due to the wall ties. This will give a final Uvalue of U = 1 / 3.132 3. nf.571 + 0. which is 6 for wall tiesh).13 0. is expressed in m².023 0. the cross-sectional area of the wall tie.

28 W/m²K 3.2. plastic ties) the value of ∆Uf may be taken to be zero and the U-value will be U = 1 / RT = 1 / 3.571 = 0. or part of it. the mortar joints between the bricks and concrete blocks could be taken into account in the U-value calculation. however it is permissible to ignore the mortar in both of these layers because the resistances of the mortar joints differ from the resistances of the bricks or concrete blocks by less than 0.1 m²K/W . If the thermal conductivity of the tie. Strictly speaking. is less than 1 W/m·K (eg.

042 0.13 0.5 mm of plasterboard.7.042 0.2 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the upper limit of resistance i) Using Table 3 of BS EN ISO 6946 .050 0. Pitched roof with insulation between and over the joists (loft space and pitched roof above) U-value 0. The external and internal surface resistances used are those given in Table 1 of this document.100 1 2 3(a) 3(b) 4 external surface roof space beneath tiled roof with felt or boardsi) continuous layer of mineral wool mineral wool between 48 × 100 mm timber joists with 600 mm between centres 48 × 100 mm timber joists between insulation plasterboard internal surface Upper resistance limit:A conceptual illustration of how the upper limit of resistance is calculated is shown immediately below F1 external surface F2 1 2 3(b) 4 1 2 3(a) 4 internal surface Figure 7.20 W/m·K insulation joist Figure 7. The roof is tiled with felt or boards under the tiles.381 2.5 Thermal conductivity (W/m·K) 0.769 0. Layer Material Thickness (mm) 100 100 (100) 12.381 0.040 0.1 : Insulation between and over joists at ceiling level A pitched roof has 100 mm of mineral wool tightly fitted between 48 × 100 mm timber joists spaced 600 mm apart (centres to centres) and 100 mm of mineral wool over the joists.25 Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0.200 2. The roof construction is summarised below. The ceiling consists of 12.

100 = 5.200 = 2.040 = 0.540 m²K/W = 0.92 (92%) Resistance through section containing timber joists External surface resistance Resistance of roof space Resistance of mineral wool over joists Resistance of timber joists Resistance of plasterboard Inside surface resistance Total (R2) Fractional area F2 = 0.200 = 2.769 = 0.050 = 0.540 R1 R 2 = 0.92 0.100 = 3.08 F1 F2 + + 5.381 = 0.Resistance through section containing both layers of insulation External surface resistance Resistance of roof spacei) Resistance of mineral wool over joists Resistance of mineral wool between joists Resistance of plasterboard Inside surface resistance Total (R1) Fractional area F1 = 0.152 m²K/W .050 = 0.381 = 0.152 3.971 m²K/W 0.040 = 0.381 = 2.08 (8%) The upper resistance limit is given by R upper = 1 1 = = 4.

381 0. .971 + 4.3 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the lower limit of resistance External surface resistance Resistance of roof space Resistance of mineral wool over joists Resistance of bridged layer 1 1 = = Finsul Ftimber 0.810 m²K/W 4.200 = 2.100 = 4.769 R insul R timber Resistance of plasterboard Inside surface resistance Total (Rlower) Total resistance of roof RT = R upper + R lower 2 = = 0. a correction for air gaps need not be applied. Since there are two layers of insulation. one between joists and the other as a continuous layer covering the first layer.381 = 2.Lower resistance limit:A conceptual illustration of the method of calculating the lower limit of resistance is shown below:F1 3(a) external surface 1 2 F2 3(b) 4 internal surface Figure 7.92 0.040 = 0.20 W/m²K Note 1.08 + + 2. Since the nails or fixings do not penetrate any insulation.039 = 0.050 = 0.891 m²K/W 2 U-value of the roof U = 1 / RT = 0. a correction for mechanical fixings need not be applied.810 = 4. 2.

038 internal surface 0. a 50 mm air gap between rafters and 100 mm of insulation between rafters and spacers.620 6 plasterboard 9.025 4. Plasterboard. A 50 mm space is reserved for ventilation above the insulation. felt. U-value 0. laminated to insulation. phenolic foam or polyurethane. The construction consists of roof tiles.1 : Roof construction shown as two cross-sections (fixing nails not shown) The construction may be summarised as follows:Layer Material Thickness (mm) Thermal conductivity (W/mK) Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0. 1 2 3 j) For example.13 0. where the conductivity has an allowance for ageing and variation in manufacture .8.27 W/m·K A Plan at A-A A Figure 8.5 mm of plasterboard.5 0. Beneath the rafters and spacers there is an insulation laminate consisting of 15.769 occupying 12% of face area 5 insulation boardj) 15. In this example the rafters are 100 mm deep but 50 mm timber spacers have been attached below the rafters in order to extend the total rafter depth to effectively 150 mm. is then attached below the rafters.100 external surface* tiles* 19 roofing felt* 1 ventilated airspace between rafters 50 and spacers* 4(a) insulation boardj) occupying 88% of 100 0.25 0.100 *All layers to the cold side of the well ventilated airspace are ignored in the U-value calculation and the surface bounding this airspace is taken to have the same resistance as an internal surface.5 mm of insulation bonded to 9.025 0. Room in roof construction An existing loft is converted to a habitable space by inserting tightly fitted insulation between the rafters in the roof.5 0.000 face area (between rafters and spacers) 4(b) rafters (beneath ventilated area) (100) 0. The internal surface resistance is taken from Table 1 of this document. Timber packing pieces of the same width as existing 100 mm deep rafters are attached beneath the rafters in order to provide additional room for insulation.

923 m²K/W .038 0.858 1.627 = 3.038 0.000 0. Conceptual diagrams of the methods of calculating upper and lower limits of resistance are shown below:- F1 external surface insulation F2 external surface insulation rafters rafters insulation plasterboard internal surface insulation plasterboard internal surface Figure 8.620 0.620 0.100 4.10 m²K/W.88 (88%) = = = = = = 0. all layers above the airspace are ignored in the thermal calculation and the airspace is treated as a surface resistance of 0.12 + 4.12 (12%) = = = = = = 0.100 1.100 0.858 m²K/W Resistance through the section through the rafters Effective external surface resistance Resistance of rafters Resistance of insulation beneath rafters Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R2) Fractional area F2 = 0.769 0.2 : Conceptual diagrams of how to calculate the upper and lower limits of resistance Upper resistance limit:Resistance through the section between the rafters Effective external surface resistance Resistance of insulation between rafters Resistance of insulation beneath rafters Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R1) Fractional area F1 = 0.100 4.Since the airspace between the rafters is well ventilated.627 m²K/W The upper limit of resistance is then obtained from: R upper = 1 F1 F2 + R1 R 2 = 1 0.88 0.

only 75 mm) there may be practical problems in achieving the required U-value due to a lack of space being available for the insulation. . 2.517 m²K/W U-value of the roof U = 1 / RT = 0. In such cases the insulation beneath the rafters may need to be thicker in order to compensate for the limited rafter depth.923 + 3. In this example the effects of the fixing nails may be ignored since they do not penetrate the main insulating layer. In instances where the rafters are insufficiently deep (e.12 + 4.88 0.27 W/m²K Note 1.100 3.769 Resistance of insulation beneath rafters Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (Rlower) Total resistance of roof The total resistance is the average of the upper and lower limits RT = R upper + R lower 2 = 3. This example assumes that the rafter depth is 100 mm and that 50 mm timber spacers can be attached below the rafters. 3.659 = = = = 0.100 = 2. Since there are two layers of insulation.038 0.517 = 3.000 0. one between rafters and the other as a continuous layer covering the first layer.620 0.g.720 m²K/W 2 = 0.Lower resistance limit Effective external surface resistance Resistance of bridged layer 1 = 0. a correction for air gaps need not be applied.

The insulation laminate is nailed to the rafters and the nails have a horizontal spacing of 400 mm and a vertical spacing of 150 mm. As in the previous example the insulation is tightly fitted between the rafters. are not extended in depth but instead a thicker plasterboard-insulation laminate is attached below the rafters. Room in roof construction with limited rafter depth This roof is similar to that shown in the previous example except that the existing rafters.5 0.5 mm of plasterboard.050 internal surface 0. The construction consists of roof tiles. which are only 75 mm deep in this case.025 2.5 0. The external and internal surface resistances used are those given in Table 1 of this document. felt. To calculate the U-value a calculation is first carried out ignoring the nails and then a correction is applied to account for the nails.25 0.100 *All layers to the cold side of the well ventilated airspace are ignored in the U-value calculation and the surface bounding this airspace is taken to have the same resistance as an internal surface.000 face area (between rafters and spacers) 4(b) rafters (beneath ventilated area) (25) 0.192 occupying 12% of face area 5 insulation board 57. 1 2 3 . The internal surface resistance is taken from Table 1 of this document.9.100 external surface* tiles* 19 roofing felt* 1 ventilated airspace between rafters 50 and spacers* 4(a) insulation board occupying 88% of 25 0.33 W/m·K The construction may be summarised as follows:Layer Material Thickness (mm) Thermal conductivity (W/mK) Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0.13 0. a 50 mm air gap between rafters and 25 mm of insulation between rafters and spacers.300 6 plasterboard 12. Beneath the rafters and spacers there is an insulation laminate consisting of 57.1 : Roof construction U-value 0.025 1. A Plan at A-A A Figure 9.5 mm of insulation bonded to 12.

10 m²K/W.88 (88%) = = = = = = 0. all layers to the cold side of the airspace are ignored in the thermal calculation and the airspace is treated as a surface resistance of 0.88 0.192 2.12 (12%) = = = = = = 0.100 3.100 0.742 = 3.050 0.429 .2 : Conceptual diagrams of how to calculate the upper and lower limits of resistance Upper resistance limit:Resistance through the section between the rafters Effective external surface resistance Resistance of insulation between rafters Resistance of insulation beneath rafters Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R1) Fractional area F1 = 0.742 m²K/W The upper limit of resistance is then obtained from: R upper = 1 F1 F2 + R1 R 2 = 1 0.300 0.550 2.300 0. Conceptual diagrams of the methods of calculating upper and lower limits of resistance are shown below:- F1 external surface insulation F2 external surface insulation rafters rafters insulation plasterboard internal surface insulation plaster board internal surface Figure 9.Since the airspace between the rafters is well ventilated.000 2.550 m²K/W Resistance through the section through the rafters Effective external surface resistance Resistance of rafters Resistance of insulation beneath rafters Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R2) Fractional area F2 = 0.100 1.050 0.12 + 3.100 2.

λf.000 0. In this example.000005 m². The adjustment to the U-value is ∆Uf.192 Resistance of insulation beneath rafters Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance Total thermal resistance = 0.664 = = = = 2. Their cross-sectional area.322 m²K/W 2 Correction for the presence of fixing nails The method of calculating U-values as given in BS EN ISO 6946 requires that mechanical fixings. U-value of the roof The effect of air gaps or mechanical fixings should be included in the U-value unless they lead to an adjustment in the U-value of less than 3%.7 / m² 400 × 150 The nails are made of steel with a their thermal conductivity. such as nails or screws for example. where ∆Uf = α λf nf Af = 5 × 50 × 16. the plasterboard-insulation laminate is fixed to the rafters using nails.021 m²K/W.429 + 3.050 0. U = 1 / RT + ∆Uf U = 1 / RT k) (if ∆Uf is not less than 3% of 1 / RT) (if ∆Uf is less than 3% of 1 / RT) see Table 3 of this document . The following describes how the effect of the fixing nails is incorporated into the U-value. Af.Lower resistance limit:Effective external surface resistance Resistance of bridged layer 1 = 0. be taken into account. The nails are arranged at 150 mm vertical centres and since the rafters are 400 mm apart the number of nails per square metre of sloping ceiling will be nf where nf = 1000 000 = 16.100 3. is 5 mm² or 0.000005 = 0.214 m²K/W Total resistance (without correction for the fixing nails) The total resistance is the average of the upper and lower limits RT = R upper + R lower 2 = 3.12 + 1. of 50 W/m·K.7 × 0.88 0.214 = 3. Rf is the thermal resistance of the insulation penetrated by the nails and RT is the total thermal resistance of the roof.300 0. where α is 5 for all roof fixingsk).100 = 0.

301 W/m²K.32 W/m²K. one between rafters and the other as a continuous layer covering the first layer. Since ∆Uf is not less than 3% of (1 / RT). . Note Since there are two layers of insulation.021 m²K/W and 1 / RT = 0. a correction for air gaps need not be applied.In this case ∆Uf = 0.322 + 0.021 W/m²K = 0. U = 1 / RT + ∆Uf = 1 / 3.

The total area (Ai) of components between the internal environment and the unheated space is 35 m² and the total area (Ae) of components between the unheated space and the external environment is 35 m².25 W/m·K 12.154 0. where Ru = 0.4 Ai / Ae giving Ru = 0.5 mm plasterboard forming the ceiling of the garage.040 W/m·K) between the joists and 12.09 + 0.12 (i.10.13 0. Timber fraction is 0. The external and internal surface resistances used are those given in Table 1 of this document.13 0. 19 mm plywood next to heated area 150 mm timber joists with mineral wool between the joists. is added as if it were an additional homogenous layer. Floor of heated room above an unheated space In this example a floor has insulation between timber joists.e.5 mm of plasterboard over the unheated space.750 1.25 Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0.1 : Floor construction over an unheated space The construction consists of 19 mm of plywood over timber joists with mineral wool insulation (of conductivity 0. Using the procedure in BS EN ISO 6946 for unheated spaces. Layer Material Thickness (mm) 19 150 (150) 12.146 3.040 0. an additional thermal resistance. Below the joists is 12. Ru.5 Thermal conductivity (W/m·K) 0.040 1 2(a) 2(b) 3 4 internal surface plywood glass mineral wool timber joists (occupying 12%) plasterboard external A conceptual illustration of the calculation of the limits of resistance is shown below: .5 mm plasterboard above unheated area Figure 10. 12%) Total thickness 182 mm U-value 0.490 The floor consists of 19 mm plywood over 150 mm timber joists with 150 mm glass mineral wool between the joists. The floor is situated above an unheated space such as a garage or an unheated corridor.170 0.050 0.

2 : Conceptual illustration of how to calculate the upper and lower limits of resistance Upper resistance limit:Resistance through the section containing the insulation: Internal surface resistance Resistance of plywood Resistance of mineral wool insulation Resistance of plasterboard Ru External surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R1) Resistance through the section containing joists: Internal surface resistance Resistance of plywood Resistance of timber joists Resistance of plasterboard Ru External surface resistance Total thermal resistance (R2) The upper limit of resistance is then obtained from: R upper = 1 F1 F2 + R2 R2 = 1 0.040 = 4.050 = 0.F1 internal surface plywood plywood 2(a) plasterboard Ru external surface 2(a) 2(b) plasterboard Ru external surface 2(b) internal surface Figure 10.170 = 0.646 2.146 = 3.040 = 2.750 = 0.170 = 0.154 = 0.88 0.12 + 4.146 = 1.033 m²K/W = 0.050 = 4.050 m²K/W = 0.050 = 0.490 = 0.490 = 0.646 m²K/W .

146 = 2. RI is the thermal resistance of the layer containing the gaps and RT is the total resistance of the element.490 = 0.88 0. ∆Ug is therefore ∆Ug = 0. U = 1 / RT = 1 / 3. where ∆Ug = ∆U’’ × (RI / RT)² and where ∆U’’ = 0.849 m²K/W Correction for air gaps Since the insulation is entirely between the joists a correction should be applied to the U-value in order to account for air gaps.750 1.01 × (2.005 W/m²K and 1 / RT = 0.154 Resistance of plasterboard Ru External surface resistance Total (Rlower) Total resistance of floor The total resistance of the wall is the average of the upper and lower resistance limits RT = R upper + R lower 2 = 4.01 (referred to in BS EN ISO 6946 as correction level 1).953 / 3.941)² = 0.254 W/m²K.050 = 0. The overall U-value of the floor should include a term ∆Ug. .941 m²K/W 2 = 0.12 + 3.849 = 3.Lower resistance limit:Internal surface resistance Resistance of plywood Resistance of bridged layer 1 = 0.941 = 0.040 = 3.25 W/m²K.953 = 0. U = 1 / RT + ∆Ug U = 1 / RT (if ∆Ug is not less than 3% of 1 / RT) (if ∆Ug is less than 3% of 1 / RT) In this case ∆Ug = 0.170 = 0. Since ∆Ug is less than 3% of (1 / RT).033 + 3.005 W/m²K U-value of the floor The effect of air gaps or mechanical fixings should be included in the U-value unless they lead to an adjustment in the U-value of less than 3%.

70 100 440 U-value 0. 440 mm wide concrete beams. The surface resistance for the lower side of the floor deck is taken to be 0. Beneath the beams and blocks there is an underfloor space over sandy soil.18 1.11.6 metres and its area is 79.1 : Beam and block suspended floor .13 Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0.24 W/m·K Figure 11. Suspended beam and block floor A beam and block floor consists of blocks of lightweight concrete which are 100 mm thick and 440 mm wide suspended on T-beams which are 70 mm wide.41 0. 70 mm wide lower surface * The internal surface resistance is taken from Table 1 of this document.040 0. Above the beams and blocks is 65 mm of flooring screed and 100 mm of polystyrene insulation.088 0.556 0. The beams protrude below the blocks by 75 mm.170 0. as this is the value that applies for downwards heat flow in a non-external environment.1 m² giving a perimeter to area ratio of 0. The perimeter of the ground floor is 35.45. In order to calculate the U-value. BS EN ISO 6946 is applied to determine the thermal resistance between the dwelling and the underfloor space.170* 1 2 3(a) 3(b) 4 internal surface screed polystyrene light concrete blocks.17 m²K/W. The construction of the floor deck can be summarised as follows: Layer Material Thickness (mm) 65 100 100 (100) Thermal conductivity (W/m·K) 0.159 2.500 0.

159 = 2.internal surface screed insulation beams lower surface blocks beams internal surface screed insulation blocks lower surface underfloor space & soil underfloor space & soil Figure 11.555 3.7%) The upper limit of resistance is then obtained from: R upper = 1 F1 F2 + R1 R 2 = 1 0.087 m²K/W . as follows: Upper resistance limit (of floor deck) Resistance through section containing lightweight blocks Internal surface resistance Resistance of screed Resistance of polystyrene Resistance of light concrete blocks Resistance of lower surface of floor deck Total thermal resistance (R1) Fractional area F1 = 0.159 = 2.3%) = 0. 86.137 (i.e.500 = 0. as indicated in BS EN ISO 6946.863 (i.170 = 0.2 : Conceptual diagram of how to calculate the upper and lower limits of resistance Since the conductivity of the beams is less than 2. 13.555 m²K/W Resistance through section containing concrete beams Internal surface resistance Resistance of screed Resistance of polystyrene Resistance of beams Resistance of lower surface of floor deck Total thermal resistance (R2) Fractional area F2 = 0.556 = 0. The U-value between the dwelling and the underfloor space is calculated using BS EN ISO 6946.e.483 = 0.088 = 0.170 = 3.500 = 0.137 + 3.170 = 0.0 W/m·K the part of the beam which protrudes below the blocks is ignored.087 = 3.863 0.170 = 3.

part 3. and Rsi.088 Resistance of lower surface of deck Total (Rlower) Total resistance of floor deck The total resistance of the floor deck is the average of the upper and lower resistance limits R= R upper + R lower 2 = 3. equal to 0.2). It should be borne in mind that Uf includes the surface resistances for the upper and lower sides of the deck.556 0. The overall U-value of the suspended floor is then calculated using the following: U= 1 1 1 + − R si.upper is the surface resistance of the upper side of the floor deck.402 m²K/W 2 = 0.294 W/m²K. equal to 0.5.402 = 0.159 = 2. This table gives the U-value of an uninsulated suspended floor.upper − R deck. already includes surface resistances the surface resistances need to be subtracted from U0. equal to 0.321 m²K/W Uf = 1 / R = 1 / 3.170 = 0.170 = 3. Since Uf.322 = 0.20 m²K/W (see CIBSE Guide A3. where the U-value of the floor deck has been calculated using standard assumptions about the thermal resistance of the floor deck and the surface resistances at the upper and lower sides of the deck.294 W/m²K This gives a U-value (Uf) for the floor deck of 0.lower is the surface resistance of the lower side of the floor deck.lower U f U0 where Rsi.17 m²K/W (see Table 1 of this document). U0.uninsulated is the thermal resistance of a notional uninsulated floor deck.uninsulated − R si.500 = 0. Resistance of the remainder of the floor For determining the resistance of the remaining part of the floor. Rdeck. Table 4 of the Appendix is used.17 m²K/W (see Table 1 of this document).5. calculated above. .863 0.483 + 3.321 = 3.Lower resistance limit (of floor deck):Internal surface resistance Resistance of screed Resistance of polystyrene Resistance of bridged layer 1 = 0.137 + 0.

76 = 0. which represent the surface resistances of the upper and lower surface resistances of the (notional) floor deck are obtained from Table 1.upper + R deck.3 m sandy 0. showing how the resistance of the remaining part of the floor is combined with the U-value of the floor deck calculated above.uninsulated + R si. Rsi. .upper and Rsi. Summary of floor details exposed perimeter (P) floor area (A) perimeter to area ratio (P/A) wall thickness (w) soil type ventilation parameter (ε) 35.The remaining calculation is now carried out below.294 0.24 W / m²K Explanatory note: The value of 0.1 m² 0.5.2) and represents the thermal resistance of a notional uninsulated floor deck.2 used in the above equation is based on the CIBSE Guide A3 (3.lower ) Uf U0 = 1 1 1 + − (0.6 m 79.2 + 0.17 ) 0.76 W/m²K (see Table 4 of this document) U-value of the floor The U-value of the suspended floor is therefore U= 1 1 1 + − (R si.lower.45 m-1 0.015 m²/m The U-value of the floor in the absence of floor insulation is U0 = 0.17 + 0.5.

The surface resistance for the lower side of the floor deck is taken to be 0.146 3.22 W/m·K Figure 12. Layer Material Thickness (mm) 19 150 (150) Thermal conductivity (W/m·K) 0. Beneath the floor deck there is an underfloor space over clay soil.750 1. Suspended timber ground floor U-value 0. Between the joists there is 150 mm of tightly fitted mineral wool (with a conductivity of 0.17 m²K/W.1 : Suspended timber floor A suspended timber ground floor consists of 19 mm of chipboard over timber joists.040 W/m·K) suspended on netting.2 : Conceptual illustration of the methods of calculating the upper and lower limits of thermal resistance .040 0.154 0. The perimeter of the ground floor is 40 metres and the area is 100 m².170 0.13 Thermal resistance (m²K/W) 0. as this is the value that applies for downwards heat flow in a non-external environment. BS EN ISO 6946 is applied to obtain the thermal resistance of the floor deck.170* 1 2(a) 2(b) internal surface chipboard glass mineral wool on netting timber joists (occupying 12%) lower surface *The internal surface resistance is taken from Table 1 of this document.13 0. The methods of calculating the upper and lower limits of resistance are illustrated conceptually below:- upper surface chipboard mineral wool lower surface underfloor space and soil underfloor space and soil joists mineral wool upper surface chipboard joists lower surface Figure 12.12. The timber joists are 150 mm × 48 mm at 400 mm centres giving a 12% timber fraction.

170 0.560 + 3.Upper resistance limit (for floor deck):Resistance through section containing mineral wool on netting Internal surface resistance = Resistance of chipboard = Resistance of mineral wool = Resistance of lower surface of floor deck= Total thermal resistance (R1) = Fractional area F1 = 0.12 + 4.154 0.640 = 3.146 2.146 1.146 3.439 m²K/W .e.170 1.e.170 4. 88%) Resistance through section containing timber joists Internal surface resistance = Resistance of chipboard = Resistance of timber = Resistance of lower surface of floor deck= Total thermal resistance (R2) = Fractional area F2 = 0. 12%) The upper limit of resistance is: R upper = 1 F1 F2 + R1 R 2 = 1 0.12 + 3.154 Resistance of lower surface of floor deck= Total (Rlower) = Overall resistance of floor deck The resistance of the floor deck is the average of the upper and lower resistance limits RT = R upper + R lower 2 = 3.750 0.953 0.88 0.750 1.170 0.439 = 3.500 m²K/W 2 0.236 1.12 (i.236 m²K/W Lower resistance limit (for floor deck) Internal surface resistance = Resistance of chipboard = Resistance of bridged layer 1 = = 0.88 0.640 m²K/W 0.560 m²K/W 0.88 (i.170 0.170 3.

The figures 0.17 + 0.Correction for air gaps Since the insulation layer is entirely between joists a correction should be applied to the floor deck U-value in order to account for air gaps. the area 100 m.286 0.007 W/m²K and 1 / RT = 0.01 (referred to in BS EN ISO 6946 as correction level 1).007 W/m²K U-value of the floor deck (Uf) The effect of air gaps or mechanical fixings should be included in the U-value unless they lead to an adjustment in the U-value of less than 3%. The overall U-value of the floor deck should be adjusted by adding a term ∆Ug.286 W/m²K. Uf = 1 / RT + ∆Ug Uf = 1 / RT (if ∆Ug is not less than 3% of 1 / RT) (if ∆Ug is less than 3% of 1 / RT) In this case ∆Ug = 0.2 used in the above equation is based on the CIBSE Guide A3 (part 3.286 W/m²K U-value of the floor Since the floor perimeter is 40 m.17 and 0.17 represent the surface resistances of the upper and lower surface resistances for the same notional floor deck (taken from Table 1 of this document).17 ) + − (0. and the ground of clay soil. where ∆Ug = ∆U’’ × (RI/RT)² and where ∆U’’ = 0.953 / 3.65 = 0.01 × (2.5.500 = 0. the U-value of the floor ignoring insulation is U0 = 0.22 W/m²K Note The value of 0.500)² = 0. Since ∆Ug is less than 1 / RT the U-value of the floor deck is Uf = 1 / 3.65 W/m²K (using Table 4) U= 1 1 = 1 1 1 1 + − (0. .2 + 0. RI is the thermal resistance of the layer containing the gaps and RT is the total resistance of the element.2 of the 1999 edition) and represents the thermal resistance of a notional uninsulated floor deck.17 + 0. ∆Ug is therefore ∆Ug = 0.17 ) U f U0 0.5.2 + 0.

.

13 0.11 0.18 0.04 underfloor space* 0.16 0.00 0.11 7 0.17 outside resistance 0.15 0.19 50 0.17 *These values should be used for the upper and lower surfaces of the underfloor space according to BS EN ISO 13370:1998 Table 2 Air space resistances for roofs.16 0.17 0.16 0. walls and exposed floors (m²K/W) from BS EN ISO 6946 Direction of heat flow Upwards Horizontal Downwards inside resistance 0.22 300 0. walls and exposed floors (m²K/W) from BS EN ISO 6946 Thickness of air Direction of heat flow layer (mm) Upwards Horizontal Downwards 0 0.04 0.10 0.18 0.15 0.13 10 0.21 100 0.18 0.13 0.11 0.Appendix : Data tables Table 1 Surface resistances for roofs.13 0.18 0.13 0.23 Table 3 Scaling factors for ceiling fixings and wall ties from BS EN ISO 6946 type of mechanical fastenings scaling factor (α) 5 roof fixings 6 wall ties between masonry leaves .16 0.00 0.15 15 0.00 5 0.04 0.16 0.17 25 0.

00 1.10 0.96 0.95 0.42 0.05 1.05 1.04 1.74 0.96 0.70 0.63 0.01 1.09 1.78 0.72 0.64 0.12 1.51 0.94 0.95 0.97 0.03 1.07 1.06 1.81 0.20 0.86 0.03 0.15 0.The following table provides U-values for suspended floors without insulation.76 0.55 0.52 0.49 0.76 0.87 0.00 . Table 4 U-values of uninsulated suspended floors (from CIBSE Guide A3) Soil type and ventilation opening area per unit perimeter of underfloor space (in m²/m) clay/silt sand/gravel homogeneous rock 0.46 0.38 0.45 0.58 0.20 0.55 0.97 0.00 1.05 0.73 0.003 0.003 0.50 0.93 0.85 0.75 0.85 0.94 0.99 1.58 0.61 0.02 1.50 0.88 0.43 0.83 0.0015 0.88 0.13 0.25 0.91 0.79 0.10 1.76 0.62 0.82 0.44 0.65 0.00 1.83 0.36 0.56 0.40 0.0015 0.87 0.0015 0.76 0.08 1.14 1.65 0.98 1.85 0.95 0. For a detailed calculation of the thermal resistance below the deck of a ground floor the reader is referred to the procedure in BS EN ISO 13370.63 0.88 0.72 0.82 0.35 0.80 0.54 0.79 0.17 0.91 0.69 0.68 0.16 0.98 1.44 0.43 0.91 0.98 0.97 1.33 0.11 1.92 0.93 0.85 0.90 0.70 0.90 0.71 0.94 0.99 1.01 0.91 0.60 0.11 1.56 0.32 0.95 1.69 0.30 0.06 0.89 0.27 0.82 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.02 1.92 0.64 0.003 0.79 0.15 perimeter/area 0.85 0.77 0.67 0.19 0.

18 50.25 2. soft Limestone.0 17.18 0.94 0.1 0.5 0.3 1.23 0.3 0.25 1.57 0.57 0.10 .56 0.70 0.59 1.77 0.3 2.93 2.43 0.33 1.Table 5 Thermal conductivity of some common building materials Density (kg/m³) Walls Brickwork (outer leaf) Brickwork (inner leaf) Concrete block (medium density) Concrete block (low density) 1700 1700 1400 600 Conductivity (W/m·K) 0.0 Concrete (medium density) (inner leaf) 1800 2000 2200 Concrete (high density) : 2400 Reinforced concrete (1% steel) Reinforced concrete (2% steel) Mortar (protected) Mortar (exposed) Gypsum 2300 2400 1750 1750 600 900 1200 900 2600 1800 2200 400 900 2300 500 700 7800 7900 Gypsum plasterboard Sandstone Limestone.18 1.7 0.88 0.1 1.30 0.13 0.0 1.13 1.57 0.0 1.18 500 2100 1100 1200 2000 2000 2100 500 0. hard Fibreboard Plasterboard Tiles ceramic Timber (softwood) Steel Stainless steel Surface finishes External rendering Plaster (dense) Plaster (lightweight) Roofs Aerated concrete slab Asphalt Felt/bitumen layers Screed Stone chippings Tiles (clay) Tiles (concrete) Wood wool slab 1300 1300 600 0.16 0.5 0.41 2.

042 0.040 0.13 0.24 0.038 0. plywood.025 0.18 0.0 0. .025 Note: If available. certified test values should be used in preference to those in the table.Floors Cast concrete Metal tray (steel) Screed Hardwood timber Softwod timber.35 50.41 0. chipboard Insulation Expanded polystyrene (EPS) board Mineral wool quilt Mineral wool batt Phenolic foam board Polyurethane board 2000 7800 1200 700 500 1000 15 12 25 30 30 1.

London. Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. 1999 3. 1997 2. Environmental design : Thermal properties of building structures. London. BS EN ISO 6946:1997. British Standards Institution. CIBSE Guide A3. Building components and building elements – Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance – Calculation method.References 1. prEN 12524 Building materials and products – Hygrothermal properties – Tabulated design values .

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