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Course 18.327 and 1.

130
Wavelets and Filter Banks

Filter Banks: time domain
(Haar example) and frequency domain;
conditions for alias cancellation
and no distortion

Haar Filter Bank
Simplest (non-trivial) example of a two channel FIR perfect reconstruction filter bank. v0[n] r0[n] t0[n] å 2 é 2 h0[n] f0[n] y0[n] ^ x[n] x[n] Synthesis Analysis t1[n] r1[n] v [n] å2 f1[n] 1 é2 h1[n] y1[n]
1 µ2
-1 0
2

1 µ2

1 µ2

1 µ2

h0[n] =

0

1

f0[n] =

1

1 µ2

1 µ2
0 1

h1[n] =

f1[n] =
-1 µ2

-1 -1 µ2

0

Analysis: 1 r0[n] = µ2 (x[n] + x[n œ 1]) y0[n] = r0[2n] 1 y0[n] = (x[2n] + x[2n œ 1]) µ2 Similarly 1 y1[n] = (x[2n] œ x[2n œ 1]) µ2 lowpass filter downsampler -----------------j

------------------k
3

Matrix form
4 y0[0] y0[1] : : y1[0] y1[1] 4
4 3 1 3 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 1 3
0 3 1 3
: x[-1] x[0] x[1] x[2] : :

=

1 µ2

4
3 -1 1 3 0 0 4 0 -1

yo y1

L = B
x

-------------------l

4

2

Synthesis t0[n] =

&)')(
&)')(
-

y0[n/2] 0
1 µ2

n even upsampler n odd

v0[n] =
&)')(
&)')(

( t0[n + 1] + t0[n]) y0[n/2] y0[ n + 1 ]
2

lowpass filter

=

1 µ2
1 µ2

n even n odd

5

Similarly v1[n] =

1 µ2
1 µ2

y1[n/2]
y1[ n + 1 ]
2

n even
n odd

So, the reconstructed signal is ^ x[n] = v0[n] + v1[n]
1 µ2

(y0[n/2] + y1[n/2])
(y0[ n + 1] - y1[ n + 1 ])
2
2

n even
n odd

=

1 µ2

6

3

i.e. ^
x[2n-1] =
^ x[2n]
^ So x[n] =
1 µ2
1
µ2

(y0[n] œ y1[n]) = x[2n-1]
from j and k
(y0[n] + y1[n]) = x[2n]
x[n] Ω Perfect reconstruction!

=

In general, we will make all filters causal, so we will have ^
x[n] = x[n œ n0] Ω PR with delay

7

Matrix form 4 ^ x[-1] ^ x[0] 1 = ^ µ2 x[1] ^ x[2]
4

4 4 1 0 1 0 3
3 3

4 4 -1 0 1 1

0 1 0 1 4 4

0 -1 -1 1 4 4

3

4 y0[0] y0[1] 4 4 y1[0] y1[1] 4

^ x

y0

=

LT

BT
y1

----------------m

8

4

Perfect reconstruction means that the synthesis bank is the inverse of the analysis bank.
^ = x Ω x

L

LT

BT
&'(

= I
B

&'(
W-1

W ≈ Wavelet transform ’ ÷ Δ matrix ◊ « In the Haar example, we have the special case Wœ1 = WT ç orthogonal matrix So we have an orthogonal filter bank, where Synthesis bank = Transpose of Analysis bank f0[n] = h0[- n] = h1[- n] f1[n]

9

Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks General two-channel filter bank
H0(z)
x[n]
r0[n]

é2

y0[n]

3 3

å2

t0[n]

v0[n]

F0(z)

H1(z)
Ñ

r1[n]

é2

y1[n]

å2

t1[n]

F1(z)

^ x[n] § v1[n]

z-transform definition: X(z) = ƒ x[n]z-n
n=-Ñ

Put z = ei w to get DTFT

10

5

Perfect reconstruction requirement: ^ x[n] = x[n - ?] ^ X(z) = z- ? X(z) (? time delays)

H0(z) and H1(z) are normally lowpass and highpass, but not ideal H1(w) 1 H1(w) H0(w)

p w 0 -p p 2 2 Ω Downsampling operation in each channel can produce aliasing

-p

11

Let‘s see why: Lowpass channel has Y0(z) = ²{R0(z²) + R0(-z²)} (downsampling)

= ²{H0(z²) X (z²) + H0(-z²)X(-z²)} In frequency domain: X(z) ç X(w) X(-z) ç X(w + p) w X(z²) ç X( 2 )
Y0(w) = ²{H0(
w ) 2

or X(eiw)

X(

w ) 2

+ H0(

w 2

+ p)X(

w 2

+ p)}
12

6

Suppose X(w) = 1 (input has all frequencies) Then R0(w) = H0(w), so that after downsampling we have
²R0(
w 2

+ p)

²

²R0( w )
2

²R0(

w 2

+ p)

Y0(w) =
-p 0 p
aliasing

w

Goal is to design F0(z) and F1(z) so that the overall system is just a simple delay - with no aliasing term: V0(z) + V1(z) = z- ? X(z)
13

V0(z) = F0(z) T0(z) = F0(z) Y0(z2) (upsampling)

= ²F0(z){ H0(z) X(z) + H0(-z) X(-z)} V1(z) = ²F1(z){ H1(z) X(z) + H1(-z) X(-z)}

So we want
² {F0(z) H0(z) + F1(z) H1(z) } X(z)
+ ² {F0(z) H0(-z) + F1(z) H1(-z) } X(-z)
14

= z- ? X(z)

7

Compare terms in X(z) and X(-z): 1) Condition for no distortion (terms in X (z) amount to a delay) F0(z) H0(z) + F1(z) H1(z) = 2z- ?
--------------j

2) Condition for alias cancellation (no term in X(-z)) F0(z) H0(-z) + F1(z) H1(-z) = 0
--------------k

To satisfy alias cancellation condition, choose F0(z) = H1(-z) F1(z) = -H0(-z)

----------------------l
15

What happens in the time domain? F0(z) = H1(-z) F0(w) = H1(w + p) = ƒ h1[n] (-z)-n
n

= ƒ (-1)n h1[n] z-n
n

So the filter coefficients are f0[n] = (-1)n h1[n] f1[n] = (-1)n+1 h0[n] Example h0[n] = { a0, a1, a2}
h1[n] = { b0, b1, b2}

alternating signs rule
f0[n] = { b0, -b1, b2 } f1[n] = {-a0, a1, -a2}
16

8

Product Filter Define P0(z) = F0(z) H0(z)

------------------------------m

Substitute F1(z) = -H0(-z) , H1(z) = F0(-z) in the zero distortion condition (Equation j) F0(z) H0(z) - F0(-z) H0(-z) = 2z- ? i.e. P0(z) - P0(-z) = 2z-? ----------------------------n

Note: ? must be odd since LHS is an odd function.

17

Normalized Product Filter Define P(z) = z? P0(z)

----------------------------o

P(-z) = -z? P0(-z) since ? is odd So we can rewrite Equation n as z- ? P(z) + z- ? P(-z) = 2z- ? i.e. P(z) + P(-z) = 2
---------------------------p

This is the condition on the normalized product filter for Perfect Reconstruction.
18

9

Design Process 1. Design P(z) to satisfy Equation p. This gives P0(z). Note: P(z) is designed to be lowpass. 2. Factor P0(z) into F0(z) H0(z). Use Equations l to find H1(z) and F1(z). Note: Equation p requires all even powers of z (except z0) to be zero: ƒ p[n]z-n + ƒ p[n](-z)-n = 2
n n

&'(

Ω p[n] =

1 ; 0 ;

n=0 all even n (n ò 0)

19

For odd n, p[n] and œp[n] cancel. The odd coefficients, p[n], are free to be designed according to additional criteria. Example: Haar filter bank H0(z) = µ2 (1 + z-1) F0(z) = H1(-z) =
1

H1(z) = µ2 (1 œ z-1)

1

1 (1 + z-1) µ2 1 F1(z) = -H0(-z) = µ2 (1- z-1) 1 P0(z) = F0(z) H0(z) = 2 (1 + z-1)2

20

10

So the Perfect Reconstruction requirement is P0(z) œ P0(-z) =
1 1 + 2z-1 + z-2) 2
1 1 œ2z-1 + z-2) 2

= 2z-1 P(z) = z? P0(z) =
lm

Ω

? = 1

1 -1 2 (1 + z)(1 + z )

z Zeros of P(z): 1+z = 0 1 + z-1 = 0 1 Re

2nd order zero at z = -1

21

11

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