Adenohypophysis Cell Type

Somatotrophs (GH/Prolactin family)

Product
GH (somatotrophin)

Target/ Action
-Adipocytes-↑ lipolysis -Hepatocytes-↑ IGF -Somatic Cells-↑ protein synthesis (via IGF-1) -Chondrocytes, Myoblasts-↑ mitosis (via IGF-1) Mammary gland/alveolar cells↑ milk Adrenal cortex-↑ glucocorticoid synth Ovaries-follicle devo, ↑E Testis(Sertoli)-↑ gametogenesis Ovaries-follicle maturation and ovulation, forms CL (↑E, Progesterone) Testis(Leydig cells)-↑ testosterone Thyroid Follicular Cells-↑ Iodine uptake, ↑T3, T4

Stimulation
GH-RH, Neuronal

Inhibition
Somatostatin (GH-inhibiting hormone or SRIF)

% of Pituitary
50

Clinical
Hyposecretion-short stature Hypersecretion -pre puberty-gigantism -post puberty-acromegaly

Lactotrophs (GH/Prolactin family) Corticptrophs (POMC family) Gonadotrophs (Glycoprotein family)

Prolactin (PRL)

Suckling TRH CRH

Dopamine (PIF)

10-25

HyperS- d/t prolactinoma (most common tumor)-gonadal dysfxn, galactorrhea in m&f HyposS-2° adrenal insufficiency HyperS-Cushing’s Dz F-anorexia, obesity, stress, athletics can lead to ↓ gonadotrophin secretion and oligo/amenorrhea M-X-linked disorder causes ↓ GnRH –eunichoid appearance, tall stature (b/c ∅T to close growth plates) Hypothyroidism -Children-Cretinism -Adults-Myxedema Goiter (d/t ↑TSH) Hyperthyroidism-Grave’s dz

ACTH

(-) feedback from adrenal hormones (+) & (-) feedback from sex steroids

15-20

FSH, LH

GnRH

10-15

Thryotrophs (Glycoprotein family)

TSH

TRH

Somatostatin

<10

Neurohypophysis Cell Type
Magnocellular Neurons of supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus

Product
Oxytocin

Target/ Action
Female -Uterus SM-Cx for parturition -Myoepithelial cells of BreastCx for milk ejection Male -Prostate-expel prostatic secretions at ejaculation -Nephron Collecting Duct-↑ H2O permeability (↑ H2O reabsorption) -Vascular SM-vasoconstriction

Stimulation
Suckling, parturition, stress

Inhibition

Clinical

ADH(Vasopressin)

Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus –measure solute levels Nausea

Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus –measure solute levels Alcohol

HypoS-(Central Diabetes Isipidus)-↑urine, thirsty HyperS-(Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH-SIADH)concentrated urine, hyponatremia