Complex Variables

De Moivre = x + iy = eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ 1 z ¯ = = x − iy = e−iθ = cos θ − i sin θ z θ θ + 2πk θ + 2πk ei n = cos + i sin n n z Trigonometric z = sin θ = z = cos θ = tan θ = 1 eiθ − e−iθ 1 z− = 2i 2i z iθ − iθ e +e 1 1 = z+ 2 2 z sin θ cos θ

Powers (cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos nθ + i sin nθ (cos θ + i sin θ)−n = cos nθ − i sin θ 2 cos nθ = z n + z −n 2i sin nθ = z n − z −n Hyperbolic eθ − e−θ 2 eθ + e−θ cosh θ = 2 sinh θ tanh θ = cosh θ sinh θ =

Complex Equivalences cos iz sin iz = i sinh z sinh iz Hyperbolic Identities cosh(a + b) = cosh a cosh b + sinh a sinh b cosh z = cosh x cos y + i sinh x sin y = i sin z cosh iz cosh x = k → = cosh z = cos z √ x = ln(k ± k 2 − 1), where(k > 1)

Complex Roots ω = z
1 n 1

Roots of Unity = r (cos θ + i sin θ) = r e θ + 2πk θ + 2πk cos + i sin n n
1 n 1 n 1 n θ in

= rn

1 = cos 2πk + i sin 2πk = ei2πk 2πi 1, α, α2 , . . . , αn−1 with α = exp n

Author: Martin Blais, 2009. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons “Attribution - Non-Commercial - Share-Alike” license.

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