SPM Chemistry Form 5 ± Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds 1.

Organic compounds ± carbon containing compounds with covalent bonds. 2. Inorganic compounds ± non-living things and usually do not contain carbon but few carbon containing inorganic compounds such as CO2, CaCO3 and KCN. 3. Hydrocarbons ± organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atom only. 4. Non-hydrocarbons ± organic compounds that contain other elements (oxygen, nitrogen, iodine, phosphorus) 5. Saturated hydrocarbons ± only single bonded (Carbon-Carbon) hydrocarbons. 6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons ± at least one double / triple bonded (Carbon-Carbon) hydrocarbons. 7. Complete combustion ± organic compounds burn completely which form CO2 and H2O. Example: C2H5OH (l) + O2 (g) ±> 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l) 8. Incomplete combustion ± organic compounds burn with limited supply of O2 which form C (soot), CO, CO2 and H2O. Homologous Series Homologous series ± organic compounds with similar formulae and properties. It have thephysical properties that change gradually as the number of carbon atoms in a molecule increases. General Formula Carbon Compounds Alkane CnH2n+2 n = 1, 2, 3, « Functional group

Carbon-carbon single bond -C±CCarbon-carbon double bond -C=CCarbon-carbon triple bond -C=C-C=Cdelocalised / free to move around the ring

Alkene

CnH2n

n = 2, 3, 4, «

Alkynes

CnHn

n = 2, 3, 4, «

Arenes

CnH2n-6

n = 6, 7, 8, «

Alcohol

CnH2n+1OH

n = 1, 2, 3, «

Hydroxyl group - OH Carboxyl group - COOH Carboxylate group - COO -

Carboxylic Acids Esters

CnH2n+1COOH

n = 0, 1, 2

CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 n = 0, 1, 2, « m = 1, 2, 3, «

Sources of Hydrocarbon: 1. Coal ± from the lush vegetation that grew in warm shallow coastal swamps or dead plantsslowly become rock. Mainly contains of hydrocarbon and some sulphur and nitrogen. It is used to produce: fertiliser, nylon, explosives and plastics. 2. Natural gas ± from plants and animals and trapped between the layers of impervious rocks (on top of petroleum). Mainly contains of methane gas and other gas such as propane andbutane. It is used for: cooking, vehicle and generate electrical power. 3. Petroleum ± from plants and animals and trapped between the layers of impervious rocks. It is a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons and sulphurcompound. These compounds can be separated by using fractional distillation. 
      

< 35°C ± petroleum gas 35°C ± 75°C ± Petrol (gasoline) 75°C ± 170°C ± Naphtha 170°C ± 230°C ± Kerosene 230°C ± 250°C ± Diesel 250°C ± 300°C ± Lubricating oil 300°C ± 350°C ± Fuel oil > 350°C ± Bitumen

3. Number of side chain 2 3 4 5 6 Prefix DiTriTetraPentaHexa- 4. name them in alphabetical order. « (n = number of carbon) Formula CH3 C2H5 C3H7 C4H9 C5H11 Branch or name of group methyl ethyl propyl butyl pentyl 2. Prefix ± name of the branch or side chain. Alkyl group signifies that it is not part of the main chain. 3. 1. Two or more types of branches are present. Organic compound is divided into three portions which is Prefix + Root + Suffix. 2.A) IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) ± is used to nameorganic compound. prefixes are used. General formula: CnH2n+1 ±Where n = 1. . More than one side chains are present.

8. Prefix + Root + Suffix . Suffix ± functional group. 6. Example: 4-methylhept-2-ene. Homologous series Functional group Suffix Alkane Alkene Alcohol Carboxylic acid Ester -C±C-C=C± OH ± COOH ± COO ± -ane -ene -ol -oic -oate 7. Identify the number of carbon. Number of carbon atoms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10   Root name methethpropbutpenthexheptoctnandec- The longest continuous (straight chain) carbon chain is selected. Root ± the parent hydrocarbon (denotes the longest carbon chain).5.

« (n = number of carbon) 2. Name of alkane Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Molecular formula of alkane CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each type of elements present in a molecule of the compound. General formula: CnH2n+2 Where n = 1. 3. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon.B) Family of Hydrocarbon ± Alkane 1. Example: molecular formula of butane is C4H2´4+2 = C4H10 . Each carbon atom in alkanes is bonded to four other atoms by single covalent bonds. 2.

70 Gas Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 16 30 44 58 72 86 100 114 . 3.63 0.Name Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Condensed structural formula of alkane CH4 CH3CH3 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Structural formula is a chemical formula that shows the atoms of elements are bonded(arrangement of atoms) together in a molecule by what types of bond. Physical properties of alkanes Name Molecularformula RMM Density(g Physical state at cm-3) 25°C 0.68 0.66 0.

Boiling and melting points ± all alkanes in general have low boiling points and melting points. Alkanes do not react with chemicals such as oxidizing agents. Alkanes have strong carbon-carbon (C ± C) bonds and carbon-hydrogen (C ± H) bonds. Chemical properties of alkanes  Reactivity of alkanes Alkanes are less reactive (saturated hydrocarbon). relative molecular mass of alkanes is higher due to the higher force of attraction between molecules and alkane molecules are packed closer together. Electrical conductivity ± all members in alkanes do not conduct electricity.Nonane Decane C9H20 C10H22 128 142 0.    4. When going down the series. All are single bonds which require a lot of energy to break.  Solubility in water ± all members in alkanes are insoluble in water but soluble in many organic solvent (benzene and ether). Example: Alkanes react with bromine vapour (or chlorine) in the presence of UV light.   . Substitution reaction of alkanes take place in ultraviolet light. reducing agents. acids and alkalis. Density of alkane ± the density of water is higher than density of alkane. Alkanes are held together by weak intermolecular forces. Combustion of alkanes Complete combustion of hydrocarbons CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 ±> xCO2 + y/2 H2O CH4 + 2O2 ±> CO2 + 2H2OIncomplete combustion occurs when insufficient supply of oxygen CH4 + O2 ±> C + H2O 2CH4 + 3O2 ±> 2CO + 4H2O Substitution reaction of alkanes (Halogenation) Substitution reaction is one atom (or a group of atoms) in a molecule is replaced by another atom (or a group of atoms).73 Liquid Liquid Alkanes with more than 17 carbon atoms are solid. Alkanes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions.72 0.

The functional group in alkenes is carbon-carbon double (C = C) bond.CH4 + Cl2 ±> HCl + CH3Cl (Chloromethane) CH3Cl + Cl2 ±> HCl + CH2Cl2 (Dichloromethane) CH2Cl2 + Cl2 ±> HCl + CHCl3 (Trichloromethane) CHCl3 + Cl2 ±> HCl + CCl4 (Tetrachloromethane) The rate of reaction between bromine and alkanes is slower than the rate of reaction between chlorine and alkanes. Example: molecular formula of butene is C4H2x4 = C4H8 . 4 « (n = number of carbon) 2. General formula: CnH2n Where n = 2. Name of alkene Ethene Propene Butene Pentene Hexene Heptene Octene Nonene Decene  Molecular formula of alkene C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms of eachtype of elements present in a molecule of the compound. Family of Hydrocarbon ± Alkene 1. 3. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain one or more carbon-carbon (C = C) double bonds in molecules. 3.

6980 0. Alkenes are held together by weak attractive forces between molecules (intermolecular forces) van der Waals¶ force. When going down the series. the boiling and melting points increases. Electrical conductivity ± all members in alkenes do not conduct electricity.0011 0.7310 0.    .7430 Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Ethene Propene Butene Pentene Hexene Heptene Octene Nonene Decene  C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140 Solubility in water ± all members in alkenes are insoluble in water but soluble in many organic solvent (benzene and ether).6430 0. Physical properties of alkenes Name Molecularformula RMM Density(g Physical state at cm-3) 25°C 0. Density of alkene ± the density of water is higher than density of alkene. Hence. Alkenes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions.4. Boiling and melting points ± all alkenes in general have low boiling points and melting points.7160 0.0018 0. When going down the series. more energy is required to overcome the attraction.0023 0. relative molecular mass of alkenes is higher due to the higher force of attraction between molecules and alkene molecules are packed closer together.6750 0.

All the reaction occur at the double bonds. Polymerisation is small alkene molecules (monomers) are joined together to form a long chain (polymer). nCH2 = CH2 ±> -(. Alkenes have carbon-carbon (C = C) double bonds which is more reactive than carboncarbon (C-C) single bonds. Addition of hydrogen (Hydrogenation) Addition reaction is atoms (or a group of atoms) are added to each carbon atom of a carbon-carbon multiple bond to a single bond. Combustion of alkenes Complete combustion of hydrocarbons (alkenes) CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 ±> xCO2 + y/2 H2O C2H4 + 3O2 ±> 2CO2 + 2H2O (Alkenes burn with sootier flames than alkanes.5.CH2 ± CH2 -)-n ethene (monomer)(unsaturated compound) ±> polyethene polymer (saturated compound) It must be carry out in high temperature and pressure. Addition of halogen (Halogenation) Halogenation is the addition of halogens to alkenes (no catalyst of ultraviolet light is needed). Alkene + Halogen ±> Dihaloalkane C2H4 + Br2 ±> C2H4Br2 In this reaction the brown colour of bromine decolourised (immediately) to produce acolourless organic liquid. Chemical properties of alkenes  Reactivity of alkenes Alkenes are more reactive (unsaturated hydrocarbon).   . It is because the percentage of carbon in alkene molecules is higher than alkane molecules and alkenes burn plenty of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water)  Incomplete combustion occurs when insufficient supply of oxygen C2H4 + O2 ±> 2C + 2H2O C2H4 + 2O2 ±> 2CO + 2H2O (The flame in the incomplete combustion of alkenes is more smoky than alkanes)  Polymerisation reaction of alkenes Polymers are substances that many monomers are bonded together in a repeating sequence. C2H4 + H2 ±> C2H6 (catalyst: nickel and condition: 200°C) Example: margarine (produce from hydrogenation of vegetable oils).

Also used to identify the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond in a chemical test. H3PO4). It can react with a mixture ofalkene and steam pass over a catalyst (Phosphoric acid. hydrogen iodide and etc. CnH2n + HX ±> CnH2n+1X C2H4 + HBr ±> C2H5Br (Bromoethane) (There are two products for additional of hydrogen halide to propene. The products are 1bromopropane and 2-bromopropane).  Addition of hydrogen halides Hydrogen halides (HX) are hydrogen chlorine. The product is an alcohol. CnH2n + H2O ±> CnH2n+1OH C2H4 + H2O ±> C2H5OH Additional of acidified potassium manganate(VII). KMnO4 CnH2n + [O] + H2O ±> CnH2n(OH)2 C2H4 + [O] + H2O ±> C2H5(OH)2 The purple colour of KMnO4 solution decolourised immediately to produce colourlessorganic liquid. This reaction takes place rapidly in room temperature and without catalyst.Bromination is also used to identify an unsaturated (presence of a carbon-carbon double bond) organic compound in a chemical test. hydrogen bromide. Addition of water (Hydration) Alkenes do not react with water under ordinary condition.   .

carbon atom per molecule increases). Reaction with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution . Insoluble in water (soluble Same with alkanes. Same with alkanes. Reaction with bromine solution No reaction. Decolourise purple acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution. Alkenes (Addition reaction) Reactive Burn in air and produce yellow and sootier flame compare to alkanes. Electrical conductivity. in organic solvent) Alkanes (Substitution reaction) Unreactive Burn in air and produce yellow sooty flame. Low densities (number of Same with alkanes. Decolourise brown bromine solution. Boiling points and melting points Do not conduct electricity Same with alkanes. Low boiling points and melting points (number of carbon atoms per molecule increases). at any state. Density Solubility in water Chemical Properties Reactivity Combustion No reaction.Comparing (Similarities and Differences) Properties of Alkanes and Alkenes Physical Properties Physical state Alkanes Alkenes Physical state changes from gas to liquid when going down the series. Same with alkanes.

(no isomer) 3 Structure name Ethene Propene But-1-eneBut-2-ene2methylpropene Pent-1-enePent-2-ene2methylbut-1-ene 3-methylbut-1-ene 2-methylbut-2-ene C5H10 5 .2.(no isomer) 2 Structure name Methane Ethane Propane Butane2methylpropane Pentane2methylbutane2.(no isomer) .(no isomer) . Isomerism in alkanes Molecular formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 Number of isomers .2dimethylpropane C5H12 3 Isomerism in alkenes Molecular formula C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 Number of isomers . Isomerism Isomerism ± phenomenon that two or more molecules are found to have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.(no isomer) .

Non-Hydrocarbon ± Alcohol 1. 2. Physical properties of alcohol Name Molecular formula CH3OH C2H3OH C3H5OH C4H7OH C5H9OH Melting Boiling Physical state at point (°C) point (°C) 25°C -97 -117 -127 -90 -79 65 78 97 118 138 Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol Pentanol . 3. Name of alcohol Molecular formula of alcohol CH3OH C2H5OH C3H7OH C4H9OH C5H11OH C6H13OH Methanol Ethanol Propanol / Propan-1-ol Butanol / Butan-1-ol Pentanol / Pentan-1-ol Hexanol / Hexan-1-ol Heptanol / Heptan-1-ol C7H15OH Octanol / Octan-1-ol Nonanol / Nonan-1-ol Decanol / Decan-1-ol C8H17OH C9H19OH C10H21OH 4. The functional group in alcohols is hydroxyl group. ± OH. hydrogen and oxygen atoms. 3 « (n = number of carbon) 2. Alcohols are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon. General formula: CnH2n + 1OH  Where n = 1.

vinegar. H2SO4. Colour and Smell ± alcohols are colourless liquid and have sharp smell. perfumes).    5. Alcohol as a source of chemicals (polymer. C2H5OH + 2[O] ±> CH3COOH + H2O Ethanol oxidised to ethanoic acid (a member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids ± will be discussed in Part 6). rubbing alcohol). Therefore. Misuse and Abuse   Depressant drug Alcoholic drinks. fiber). it is a clean fuel as it does not pollute the air. Volatility ± all alcohols are highly volatile. unglazed porcelain chips. Alcohol burns plenty of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.) Other example: 2C3H7OH + 9O2 ±> 6CO2 + 8H2O Oxidation of ethanol In the laboratory. Alcohol as a fuel (fuel for racing car. varnishes. It results in the formation of a C=C double bond. This reaction releases a lot of heat. CnH2n+1OH ±> CnH2n + H2O C2H5OH ±> C2H4 + H2O Two methods are being used to carry out a dehydration in the laboratory. Uses of Alcohol     Alcohol as a solvent (cosmetics. C2H5OH + 3O2 ±> 2CO2 + 3H2O (Alcohol burns with clean blue flames. toiletries. clean fuel. Chemical properties of alcohol  Combustion of alcohol Complete combustion of alcohol. pumice stone or porous pot. Alcohol as a source of medical product (antiseptics for skin disinfection. Solubility in water ± all members in alcohol are very soluble in water (miscible with water). explosives. Boiling and melting points ± all alcohols in general have low boiling points (78°C). alternative fuel). Other example: C3H7OH + 2[O] ±> C2H5COOH + H2O Removal of water (Dehydration) Alcohol can change to alkene by removal of water molecules (dehydration). b) Ethanol is heated under reflux at 180°C with excess concentrated sulphuric acid. 7. a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated catalyst such asaluminium oxide. thinners. two common oxidising agents are used for the oxidation of ethanol which are acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution (orange to green) and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution (purple to colourless). Other example: C3H7OH ±> C3H6 + H2O   6. Addictive drugs .

Smell ± carboxylic acid (< 10 carbon) are colourless and pungent smell. Carboxylic acids are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon. ± COOH. 2. This is due to the presence of carboxyl group in carboxylic acid.    . The functional group in alcohols is carboxyl group. Name of carboxylic acids Molecular formula of alcohol Methanoic acid(Formic HCOOH acid) Ethanoic acid(Acetic acid) Propanoic acid Butanoic acid CH3COOH C2H5COOH C3H7COH 4. 3 « (n = number of carbon) 2.Non-Hydrocarbon ± Carboxylic Acids 1. 3. Density of carboxylic acid ± density of carboxylic acid increases due to the increases in the number of carbon atoms in a molecule. General formula: CnH2n+1COOH  Where n = 0. 1. Physical properties of carboxylic acid Name Molecularformula Boiling point (°C) 101 118 141 164 Methanoic HCOOH acid(Formic acid) Ethanoic CH3COOH acid(Acetic acid) Propanoic acid Butanoic acid  C2H5COOH C3H7COH Solubility in water ± generally in carboxylic acid (the less than four carbon atoms) arevery soluble in water and ionise partially to form weak . Carboxylic acid (>10 carbons) are wax-like solids. hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Boiling points ± all carboxylic acid in general have relatively high boiling points than the corresponding alkanes.

Reaction with carbonates Ethanoic acid reacts with metal carbonates (calcium carbonate.+ H+ Ethanoic acid turns moist blue litmus paper red. 2CH3COOH + CaCO3 ±> Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O In this reaction. magnesium carbonate. C2H5OH + 2[O] ±> CH3COOH + H2O Carried out by refluxing* ethanol with an oxidising agent [acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution ± orange colour turns to green / acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution ± purple colour turns to colourless] * reflux = upright Liebig condense to prevent the loss of a volatile liquid by vaporisation. an ester (colourless sweet-smelling liquid) (butyl ethanoate) and water are formed. Preparation of carboxylic acid  Oxidation of an alcohol The oxidation of ethanol is used to prepare ethanoic acid. CH3COOH <±> CH3COO. Chemical properties of carboxylic acid  Acid properties Ethanoic acid is a weak monoprotic acid that ionises partially in water (produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions). propanol.     . Reaction with bases acid neutralises alkalis (sodium hydroxide). Cu. Reaction with alcohols (Esterification) Ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol (ethanol. a colourless solution (zinc ethanoate) is formed. Fe. 2CH3COOH + Mg ±> Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2 In this reaction. Mg. Hg. carbon dioxide and water are formed. 6. butanol) CH3CO-OH + H-OC4H9 ±> CH3COOC4H9 + H2O (Concentrated H2SO4 is a catalyst) In this reaction. Reaction with metals Ethanoic acid reacts with reactive metals (copper and metals below it in the reactivity series cannot react with ethanoic acid). a colourless solution (magnesium ethanoate) is formed. Na. a salt (calcium ethanoate). Al. Au) 2CH3COOH + Zn ±> Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2 In this reaction. Zn.5. zinc carbonate). Pb. a salt (sodium ethanoate) and water are formed. (K. CH3COOH + NaOH ±> CH3COONa + H2O In this reaction. Sn.

  Non-Hydrocarbon ± Esters 1. 3 « and m = 1. 2. Esters are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon. 3. 1. The functional group in ester is carboxylate group. Benzoic acid is used as food preservative. Vinegar (dilute 4% of ethanoic acid) is used as preservative and flavouring. CnH2n+1COOH + CmH2m+1OH ±> CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 + H2O   First part: taken from the alcohol (alkyl group) Second part: taken from the carboxylic acid (-oic to -oate) Molecular formula of ester HCOOC2H5 CH3COOCH3 CH3COOC3H7 C2H5COOC2H5 Prepared from Name of ester Ethyl methanoate Methyl ethanoate Propyl ethanoate Ethyl propanoate Ethanol + Methanoic acid Methanol + Ethanoic acid Propanol + Ethanoic acid Ethanol + Propanoic acid . General formula: CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 Where n = 0. Ethanoic acid is used to make polyvinvyl acetate which is used to make plastics and emulsion paints. Uses of Carboxylic Acid    Carboxylic acid (methanoic acid and ethanoic acid) is used to coagulate latex.7. hydrogen and oxygen atoms. 3 « (n and m = number of carbon) RCOORµ where R and Rµ represented the same or different alkyl groups. ± COO -. 2. Butanoic acid is used to produce ester (artificial flavouring). 2.

  5.4. Esters are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent. The higher and more complex esters have higher boiling points and less volatile. Esters are covalent compounds. Waxes (beewax) are solid ester derived from long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Esters used as solvents for glue and varnishes. . Esters used to make plastics softer. Esters are neutral and cannot conduct electricity. Synthetic esters used as food additives (artificial flavour). Esters are less dense than water. wax (esters) helps to prevent dehydration and attack of microorganisms. Natural esters serves as storage reserve of energy in living things. Natural sources:  Vegetable oils (palm oil) and liquids esters can be found in plants derived from glycerol and fatty acids. Esters have sweet pleasant smell. In plant. Uses of Esters         Preparation of cosmetics and perfumes (esters are volatile and have sweet smell). Esters used to produce polyester (threads and synthetics fabrics) Esters used to produce soap and detergents. Physical properties of ester Name 3-metylbutyl acetate Ethyl butanoate Octyl ethanoate Isoamyl isovalerate        Odour Banana Pineapple Orange Apple Simple esters are colourless liquid and are found in fruits and flowers. Fats are solid esters (milk fat) derived from glycerol and fatty acids.

Fatrs are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon. Physical properties of fats Saturated Types of fatty acids Bonding Melting point Sources Cholesterol State at room temperature C-C single bonds single higher animals high solid Unsaturated C=C double bonds double lower plants low liquid . 5. Name of fat Molecular formula of ester Types of fatty acids Lauric acid* Palmitic acid* Stearic acid* Oleic oxide ** CH3(CH2)10COOH CH3(CH2)14COOH CH3(CH2)16COOH CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Saturated Saturated Saturated Unsaturated Unsaturated Linoleic acid*** CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Linolenic acid*** CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Unsaturated * Saturated: C-C single bonds ** Unsaturated (monounsaturated): C=C double bonds *** Unsaturated (polyunsaturated): C=C double bonds 4. 6. 2. Natural esters are formed from glycerol and fatty acids. Fats (lipids / triglycerides) are belonging to the group in ester.Non-Hydrocarbon ± Fats 1. 3. Animal fats have higher percentage of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Plant oils have higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated fatty acids.

Chemical properties of fats  Unsaturated fats can be converted into saturated fats by hydrogenation (additional reaction) in 200°C and 4 atm in the presence of nickel catalyst. K (insoluble in water) Example: butter.Fats (animal) in general are solids at room temperature and acted as:        thermal insulator protective cushion to protect the vital organ provide energy and stored in body carry Vitamin A. squeezed out the oil 5. palm oil and bran oil 7. peanut oil. sterilising (oil palm fruit) 2. Oils are liquids at room temperature. E. digestion (crushing the husk and fruit and separate the oil by heating) 4. purification the oil (palm oil is treated with phosphoric acid and then steam is passed through to separate the acid) 7. fish oil (liquid in room temperature) Fats (plant) are called oils. Palm oil ± extracted from the pulp of the fruits. Effect of fats Fatty food produce high energy but high consumption of fatty food will results:    obesity raise the level of cholesterol deposition will cause block the flow of blood which lead to stroke and heart attack. Palm oil   It is extracted from fresh oil palm fruits. 9. Steps in extraction of palm oil: 1. Example: olive oil. stripping 3. Example: production of margarine from sunflower oil of palm oil. vacuum . extraction (separate the oil from water) 6.  8. D.

and proteins)  3. 2. extracting kernel oil 5. Polymer can be classified into two groups:  synthetic polymers / man-made polymers (polythene. sterilising (oil palm fruit) 2. and polypropene) natural polymers (natural rubber. Polymer ± many small units (monomers) joining together to formed large molecule.H2O) . Steps in extraction of palm oil: 1. starch. Polymers 1. rich in vitamin A (carotenoid) rich in vitamin E (tocophenols and tocotrienols) resist oxidation in high temperature. Natural polymer: Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) (starch. artificial silk. cellulose. easy to digest and absorb. crushing the husk and fruit 4. glycogen and cellulose)     General formula: Cx(H2O)y with the ratio of H:O = 2:1 Carbohydrates have cyclic structure.Palm kernel oil ± extracted from the kernel or seed. purification (purify the oil from kernel) Goodness in palm oil:      higher proportion of unsaturated fats. PVC ± polyvinyl chloride. stripping 3. Monomer: glucose (C6H12H6) Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (.

3-diene. Rubber molecules (polymers) are set free 4.4. 8. methanoic acid. Monomer: isoprene. 3. Coagulation process occurs in slower pace due to the bacteria (microorganism) action which produce acid) . Rubber molecules combine with one another (coagulation). phosphorus and other elements) Monomer: amino acids Amino acids have two functional group which are carboxyl group (-COOH) and amino group(NH2) Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (. suphuric acid and hydrochloric acid. oxygen and nitrogen (some have sulphur. Coagulation process of latex The process for the coagulation of latex is summarised as: 1. Latex is exposed to air without adding acid (duration ± overnight). Rubber particle contains rubber molecules which are wrapped by a layer of negatively-charged protein membrane. Example of acid: formic acid. 7.H2O)    5. Natural coagulation process of latex For the natural coagulation of latex: 1. This prevent rubber from coagulate. hydrogen. Natural polymer: Protein (polypeptide)  Protein consists of carbon. Natural polymer: Natural rubber     Extracted from the latex of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) which the tree originates from Brazil. Acid (H+) can neutralise the negatively-charged protein membrane. 2. The rubber molecules will collide after the protein membrane is broken. C3H8 or 2-methylbuta-1. A molecule of rubber contains 5000 isoprene units. Reaction to form polymer: additional polymerisation (one of the double bond in isoprene becomes single bond) 6. 2. Structure of rubber molecule   Latex is colloid (35% rubber particles and 65% water). Same charge of rubber molecules repels each other.

sunlight and other chemicals. Therefore. Therefore. vulcanised rubber is more elastics and stronger.9.from ammonia solution. This increases the molecular size and the intermolecular forces of attraction between rubber molecules. hard and brittle ± cooled) easily oxidised (present of C=C) insoluble in water (due to the long hydrocarbon chains) soluble in organic solvent (propanone.   . vulcanised rubber is more resistant to oxygen. petrol etc. ozone. Example: ammonia (NH3). This also reduces the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in rubber molecules. Therefore. Properties of vulcanisation of rubber  The sulphur atoms are added to double bonds in the natural rubber molecules to formdisulphide linkages (-C-S-S-C-) / sulphur cross-links between the long polymer chains. Vulcanisation of rubber Vulcanisation ± process of hardening rubber and increases rubber elasticity by heating it withsulphur or sulphur compounds. decompose ± above 200°C. 10. Positively-charged hydrogen ion / H+ produced by bacteria can be neutralised by negativelycharged hydroxide ion / OH. Methods:   heating natural rubber with sulphur at 140°C using zinc oxide as catalyst or dipping natural rubber in a solution of disulphur dichloride (S2Cl2) in methylbenzene. vulcanised rubber is more resistant to heat (does not become soft and sticky when hot). 12. benzene. Alkaline / Basic solution is added to the latex. Properties of natural rubber   elastic cannot withstand heat (become sticky and soft ± above 50°C. 2.)    11. Prevent coagulation process of latex The following are latex coagulation prevention method: 1.

Comparison between the properties of vulcanised rubber and unvulcanised rubber Properties Double bonds Melting point Elasticity Vulcanised rubber Unvulcanised rubber Decreases (formation of sulphur More number of double cross-links) bonds High (presence of sulphur) More elastic (sulphur crosslinks prevents the polymer chain or rubber from slipping past. R & D of rubber     RRIM ± Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia MRB ± Malaysian Rubber Board Rubber Technology Centre Various local higher institutions of learning .13. Strong and hard (depends on degree of vulcanisation) Low Less elastics Strength and hardness Weak and soft (polymer chain of rubber will break when rubber is over stretched. (reduction of number of double UV light (presence of many bonds per rubber molecule) double bonds per rubber molecules) 14. Poor resistant to heat Resistant to heat Resistant to heat Oxidation Resistant to oxidation Easily oxidised by oxygen. .

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