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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY FARMERS IN ADOPTION OF COMPOUNDED CATTLE FEED IN GODREJ AGROVET LIMITED
Submitted to Lovely Professional University
In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of Degree of Master of Business Administration
Submitted by: Sahil Kumar University Registration No.2020070068
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY PHAGWARA (2008)
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE STUDENT DECLARATION SUMMER TRAINING CERTIFICATE PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT 1.1 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 History of Indian Feed Industry Introduction to Feed Industry The live Stock Industry of India Ingredients in Animal Feed Uses of Compounded Feed Future of Indian Feed Industry
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER – 2 INTRODUCTIONS TO THE ORGANIZATION 2.1 OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRY 2.1.1 History 2.1.2 Landmark 2.1.3 Major players
2.2 PROFILE OF ORGANIZATION 2.3 COMPANY’S HISTORY 2.4 RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS & MILESTONE 2.5 PRODUCT RAGE OF THE COMPANY CHAPTER-3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY & RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 3.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.3.1 Sources of Data 3.3.2 Methodology & Presentation of Data 3.3.3 Tools & Techniques used for analysis 3.3.4 Analysis of Data 3.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY CHAPTER-4 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
4.1 INTERPRETATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE 4.2 CHI SQURE TEST
CHAPTER-5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 FINDINGS/ CONCLUSIONS 5.2 BIBLOGRAPHY ANNEXURES
I hereby declare that the project report entitled, “BEHAVIOUR OF DAITY FARMERS IN ADOPTION OF COMPOUNDED CATTLE FEED (GODREJ AGROVET)” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Business Administration to LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY OF phagwara., is my original work and not submitted for the award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship, or any other similar title or prizes.
Place: Jalandhar (Sahil Kumar) Reg. No. 2020070068
SUMMER TRAINING CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled, “BEHAVIOUR OF DAITY FARMERS IN ADOPTION OF COMPOUNDED CATTLE FEED (GODREJ AGROVET)” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration of LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY OF Phagwara. Sahil Kumar has worked under my supervision and guidance and that no part of this report has been submitted for the award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship or other similar titles or prizes and that the work has not been published in any journal or magazine. Reg. No. 2020070068 Certified:Dr Pardeep LAB HEAD
This project is the result of six weeks training at Godrej Agrovet Khana. Summer training is an integral part of “Master in Business management” course and it aims at providing a first hand experience of industry to students. This practical experience helps the students to view the real Business World closely. I was really fortunate of getting an opportunity to pursue my Summer Training in reputed, well established, fast growing and professionally managed organization like Godrej Agrovet.
Project assigned, To Measure the Consumer Behaviour of dairy farmer in adoption of compounded cattle feed. Required a lot of extensive study, as I did a lot of study of feed industry at various production plants of Punjab. It gave me a great deal of exposure and practical experience.
An individual cannot do project of this scale. I take this opportunity to express my acknowledgement and deep sense of gratitude to the individuals for rendering valuable assistance and gratitude to me. Their inputs have played a vital role in success of this project. I am grateful to Dr Pardeep Kumar, who provided me an opportunity to undertake a project, which enabled me to interact with dealers, customers of company to have better understanding, practical exposure of industry. I express my sincere thanks to my project guide Dr Rajesh Verma, assistant Professor for his generous support, constant direction and mentoring at all stages of training. I am also indebted to Mr. Kapil Kumar (Agency Holder, Guru Har Sahai) who was a real source of help and assistance to me during the course of project. I take this opportunity to thank all dealers, customers who spared their precious time to provide me with valuable inputs for project without which it would have not been possible. I firmly believe that there is always a scope of improvement. I welcome any suggestions for further enriching the quality of this report.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The object of this management training of marketing imparted is to provide us an insight into the methods, both culture and the ground realities of an industry. I undertook my training at the Godrej Agrovet (Khanna) from 23th June, 2008 up to 2nd August, 2008 for a period of 6 weeks. I was allotted the duty to survey rural area in order to know farmers behavior towards different feed brands. And I was allowed to visit to agency holders for the collection of information required for the analysis of the given work. This report is the reflection of what I have assimilated during the training period at Godrej Agrovet. I have studied about all the marketing aspects and all other expenses of the company. The first few pages talk about the introduction of the subject and also of the organization. This is followed by literature review followed by the objectives of the study and research methodology. Then comes real part of the study in which I have written all what I had learnt there in the bank about the various components of working capital management. The last part consists of findings, recommendations, limitations, conclusion and bibliography. The objectives of the study which I undertook in Godrej were to know the market value of Godrej feed and its competitors, for this I have used the statistical method of Chi Squire and presenting it in very effective manners by tables. One of my objectives was to study the buying behavior of dairy farmers like before purchase behavior and after purchase behavior, for this I have made structure questionnaire and interpretation for the same has been done and also in order to make it more effective I have used tables and bar charts. Another objective of my study was to study the actual results given by different feeds by having a comparison study of quantity of milk given by cattle’s, for this I have made structure questionnaire and interpretation for the same has been done and also in order to make it more effective I have used tables and bar charts. Another objective was to study the perception of dairy farmer that how they perceive different feed brands when they look of at price and other services, for obtaining the information I went to various farmers personally and I am able to know about views and their expectations. I found that tara feed has more demand than Godrej feed in the area. I also found that there are some complaints about Godrej feed by the consumer and same has to be looked upon. I also found that consumer has a good perception toward Tara than Godrej and it is fulfilling their expectations. As from my all study, I have concluded that
Godrej feed has not capture as such market as in other cities or states. Instead of Godrej has got first place in Indian feed industry, but in the area a very few people are aware about Godrej feed. According to me from various reasons the biggest reason of non-awareness is less manpower for marketing and less advertisement of the product. Other brands that is more preferable than Godrej due to good advertisement strategies used by them. According to me Godrej should spend a lot of money in order to create a good brand image and awareness of the product to consumer. Godrej can also think about some good marketing strategies that can implement in the area. As we come to know that some farmers who have visited to Godrej Adhar are very impressed by services and various features provided to farmers. I think the best place for Godrej Adhar is on the main road of Ferozepur to Fazilka that combine all the villages together. Godrej Adhar helps farmers in providing awareness about various agri input and also provide various services like bank loan etc. Thus Godrej Adhar can be a good source of creating a good relation with farmers. It is also a source of advertisement. People are expecting more good results from Godrej feed. Overall I found farmers satisfy with the quality of Godrej feed users except some bad stock and looking for a good and loyal relation with the company. It has been in some cases that agents are not fully satisfied with whatever gets from the company, in monetary terms or in any other forms of non financial incentives. More emphasis is being given to the production side in the company rather than to marketing side though marketing and sales activities are responsible for earning revenue for the company. Less emphasis is being given on marketing research, which provides the company with the information regarding the market & its dynamics. Product promotion is an area which required to be geared up. The study revealed that marketing is the area which seems to be neglected because the company products were in great demand. However the scenario is changing, which makes it necessary for the company to establish a full-fledged marketing department. The company should change its stance from production oriented to marketing oriented. Presently the company seems to be depending on depot sales but direct sales marketing and sales through agents are the other avenues available to the company. Hence the company may concentrate on direct sales marketing through personal selling or marketing representative follow up with industrial consumers. The company should develop a
marketing information system, at present through its depot managers and existing agents further with the help of personal selling staff. The company is advised to formulate a promotion mix keeping in mind a changing scenario of market. To begin with, the company may advertise the product and the company brand in industrial journals like “Indian Feed” & in future introduce sales promotion through additional agents and personal selling staff which would constitute a proper mix. Company should provide food and Stephen to the trainees. The company is advised to formulate a promotion mix keeping in mind a changing scenario of market. To begin with, the company may advertise the product and the company brand in industrial journals like “Indian Feed” & in future introduce sales promotion through additional agents and personal selling staff which would constitute a proper mix. Company should provide food and Stephen to the trainees. I hope that my experience at Godrej will not only help me in my future in marketing field but also in my current studies.
CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT
I.I THEROTICAL FOUNDATION
1.1.1 HISTORY OF INDIAN FEED INDUSTRY The Indian feed industry is about 35 years old. It is mainly restricted to dairy and poultry feed manufacturing; the beef and pork industry is almost non-existent. The quality standards of Indian feeds are high and up to international levels. Raw materials for feed are adequately available in India. The industry's production is about 3.0 million tonnes, which represents only 5 percent of the total potential, and feed exports are not very high. The feed industry has modern computerized plants and the latest equipment for analytical procedures and least-cost ration formulation, and it employs the latest manufacturing technology. In India, most research work on animal feeds is practical and focuses on the use of by-products, the upgrading of ingredients and the enhancing of productivity. The country has entered into a period of liberalization and this is bound to influence the livestock industry. The per capita consumption of milk, eggs and broiler meat will grow. The Indian feed industry is undergoing a very exciting phase of growth for the next decade.
1.1.2 INTRODUCTION TO FEED INDUSTRY Feed manufacturing on a commercial and scientific basis started around 1965 with the setting up of medium-sized feed plants in northern and western India. Feed was produced mainly to cater to the needs of dairy cattle. The poultry sector was not developed at that time and was restricted to backyard production, with the desi kept mainly for the production of eggs. The poultry industry is now growing in importance. Today, the Indian feed industry is worth approximately Rs 45 billion that is about US$1 billion.
1.1.3 THE LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY OF INDIA India's animal wealth is quite large in terms of its populations of cattle, poultry, sheep and
goats, camels, horses and pets. Recently, aquaculture has also been growing in importance in India.
TABLE 1 Livestock type Population (millions) Cattle Buffaloes Sheep Goats Pigs Horses/ponies Mules Donkeys Camels Yaks Mithuns Total livestock 204.5 84.2 50.8 115.3 12.8 0.8 0.2 0.9 1.0 0.06 0.15 470.86
Dairy cattle Worldwide, India is number one in milk production, at 78.0 million tones per annum, and the dairy industry is spread across the whole country. India has one of the largest populations of cattle and buffalo in the world. In a total of 288 million head, there are 10 million crossbred cows, 15 million good milk cows of local varieties and 36 million buffaloes of good milk varieties. The remainder of the cattle population is of a non-descript variety and a sizeable proportion consists of bullocks.
TABLE 2 Cattle and poultry indicators Dairy Cross-bred cows (millions) Improved cows (millions) Improved buffaloes (millions) Milk production (million tonnes) Per capita consumption (g/day) Poultry Commercial layers (millions) Commercial broilers (millions) Stock breeders (millions) Egg production (109) Per capita availability (eggs/year) Poultry meat production (million tonnes) Per capita availability (g/year) Poultry feed production (million tonnes) Annual growth Dairy industry Layer industry Broiler industry 5% 6-7% 10% 150 650 6.5 40 40 1.0 1 000 9.0 10.0 15.0 36.0 78.0 240
The crossbred population is either Jersey or Holstein-Friesian, crossed with local cows. Crossbreeding was a natural solution to upgrading the milk yield in the absence of high-value imported varieties of purebred animals. The buffalo breeds are unique to India, and produce milk with a fat content of 7 to 8 percent. Milk is seen as a health drink and a variety of Indian sweets are prepared from milk. The icecream market is growing.
Farms are located on the outskirts of cities and within cities. Almost all villages have a number of cattle, but there are only a few organized dairy farms. In India, dairy is not so much an industry as a smallholder farming activity. Growth in the milk sector has occurred mainly through cooperative efforts. Cooperatives started by supplying milk collection centre, where milk was collected from villagers in quantities as small as 1 liter, and gradually started to provide other services to farmers, including education, artificial insemination, veterinary health support and feeding. The small farmers became prosperous, loan facilities were made available through banks, and member farmers started to share the profits from cooperatives. Cooperatives also set up their own modern computerized feed plants. They have modern milk processing plants from which they produce and market pasteurized milk, butter, butter oil, chocolate, ice-cream and milk sweets, which are very popular with Indian consumers. Today, the feed production from cooperatives is about 0.6 million tones per year. The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), which has excellent facilities for research on breeding, nutrition and health care, has played a pivotal role in setting up cooperatives. Without NDDB and several of the existing dairy cooperatives, the milk sector in India would have suffered. The dairy industry in India is expected to grow, but growth will be restricted to individual small farmers. It is unlikely that India will see the advent of large, organized dairy farming in the near future. Poultry Compared with the rest of the livestock sector, the poultry industry in India is more scientific, better organized and continuously progressing towards modernization. Breeding and feeding management has improved through education, training, competition, expansion and survival instincts. India is the world's fifth largest egg producer, with a total production of 40 billion eggs per year. The broiler industry is growing at the rate of 10 percent per annum. Indicators are given in Table 2. India has 150 million layers and 650 million broilers. Annual per capita consumption of eggs is 40, and that of broiler meat is 1 000 g. Although these figures are low in comparison with those for developed countries, the industry has great potential to expand because 30 percent of the country's population (about 300 million people) is developing economically and the
demand for poultry products is therefore likely to grow. The poultry industry has witnessed several ups and downs in the last 25 years as a result of unplanned growth and a lack of government regulation. Currently, it is growing at the rate of 10 percent in broilers and 6 to 7 percent in layers and is going through a phase of integration in broilers, which is likely to change the face of the industry. Although the phenomenon is new, it is expected that there will be very rapid changes towards integration as more farmers find it increasingly difficult to run farms with marginal profits or negative margins. The poultry industry is very modern, with pure-line breeding, the latest vaccines and medicines, environmentally controlled poultry houses, up-to-date processing units, the latest management practices, chicken processing, exports of hatching eggs and excellent feed quality.
Sheep, goats and camels The sheep and goat sector is mostly in the hands of nomadic tribes and no significant scientific husbandry, rearing and management practices are implemented. Research on breeding and nutrition is being conducted at research institutes and agricultural universities. Most of the country's camels are located in the desert area of the western part of India, in the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat, bordering Pakistan. Camels are reared by individuals who feed them local ingredients. There is a lack of scientific management practices, genetic studies and scientific feeding practices in camel rearing and the industry survives mostly on the basis of local, long-established knowledge of feeding and breeding. There is, however, a fairly good disease diagnosis and treatment system, with modern medicines and vaccines. Swine India is a multilingual, multiracial country whose people hold various religious beliefs. Although the majority of the population is Hindu, there are sizeable minorities of Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsees and others. India also has a large tribal population and is a plural society in which the sentiments of each social and religious group need to be respected for harmony and peaceful coexistence. Thus, most states in India have banned cow slaughter and the beef industry is therefore non-existent. The majority of people disapprove of pork consumption, maybe because of the lack of scientific management on swine farms.
Swine reared on the streets are very unhygienic and buyers are always suspicious about the source of pork, so there is no organized pork industry.
Horses and pets The Indian equine industry goes back more than 50 years and is considered modern, scientific and very well equipped in terms of every aspect of animal husbandry practices. The equine industry is spread across India and is restricted to horse racing. Imports of good genetic material are quite common in this industry. The feeding of these valuable animals is mostly at the farm level under the supervision of experienced people following traditional practices. What innovation there is tends to be closely guarded by the companies concerned. The Indian pet industry is in a nascent stage, with the main focus being on dogs rather than cats and the emphasis on breeding and training. Regular dog shows are held by enthusiastic dog owners to increase awareness of the rearing of good-quality pure-breeds; dogs are a source of pride for households. In many cities, animal health care systems are run by qualified vets with well-equipped facilities such as X-ray machines, surgical facilities, imported vaccines and the latest drugs. The feeding of pets is however, left to the household. Some commercial preparations are available in the form of dog biscuits, chews, etc., but dogs are fed mostly on home-cooked food. One of the reasons for this could be the high cost of commercial pet food.
1.1.4 INGREDIENTS IN ANIMAL FEEDS India is currently self-sufficient in livestock feeds and does not depend on imports. Instead, the country exports large quantities of solvent extracted meals, which are a major source of foreign exchange earning. Cereals and grains Maize, sorghum and bajra (a type of millet) are commonly used in animal feeds. Wheat and rice are mainly retained for human consumption. Cakes and meals Commonly used commodities of this kind are soybean, groundnut, rapeseed, and sesame and
sunflower meals in poultry feed. In cattle feed, in addition to these meals, others such as cottonseed and copra are used as premium ingredients. Feeds of animal origin Meat-meal, fishmeal, bone meal and dicalcium phosphate of bone origin are the common raw materials available for animal feeding. It is interesting to note that, with the exception of some bone-based dicalcium phosphate, the Indian feed industry does not use materials of animal origin in dairy cattle feed. This was not out of fear of any zoonotic problems but the result of deep-rooted beliefs that the cow is sacred and must therefore be vegetarian. Now even the use of bone-based dicalcium phosphate has been banned and mineral-based dicalcium phosphate is used instead. Fishmeal and meat-meal were popularly used in poultry feed, but the increased production, improved availability and better awareness of soybean meal has led to its replacing fishmeal and meat-meal in most poultry rations. It should be mentioned that farmers have faced production problems owing to the bacterial contamination of fishmeal and meat-meal. The quality of fishmeal is also very poor.
Popular by-products Some by-products are very nutritious and palatable to cattle, and these products form the bulk of cattle feed. They include wheat bran, rice bran and oil-extracted rice bran, tapioca, guar meal, safflower meal, maize gluten and molasses. A special mention should be made of Indian cattle feed's unique use of hulls or shells, popularly known as chunis in the local language. These shells come from pulses: horse gram, black gram, mung bean and pigeon pea. Minerals and vitamins Cattle feed is necessarily enriched with vitamins A and D3, and trace minerals such as iron, zinc, manganese, copper, cobalt and iodine. Calcium and phosphorus are also included. Poultry feed is enriched with all of these and all of the B complex vitamins. Feed additives and supplements Feed additives and supplements have played a very important role in enhancing the performance of dairy animals and, even more so, poultry. Today they are necessary in any
feed formulation and essential for the formulation of a balanced diet. The additives and supplements used are antibiotic growth promoters (their usage is not banned in India), prebiotics, probiotics, enzymes, mould inhibitors, toxin binders, anti-coccidian supplements, acidifiers, amino acids, by-pass fat, by-pass protein, non-antibiotic growth promoters, milk boosters, antioxidants, feed flavors and herbal preparations of Indian origin. A number of these products are imported from developed countries.
1.1.5 USES OF COMPOUNDED FEED In India, the term "compound feed" refers to feed that is nutritionally balanced and has been manufactured using the facilities of an analytical laboratory and under the supervision of nutritionists. There are also a large number of small-scale feed mixers who produce feed for local consumption. Such feed is termed "self-mixed feed" or "home-mixed feed". Cattle feed Cattle feeding practices are very traditional. Farmers choose their own ingredients and prepare their own formulations, believing that by these means they are able to pay more individual attention to their cattle. The productivity of the cattle is limited because of their poor genetic make-up, so high-quality compound feed (industry feed) may not necessarily generate a significant improvement in productivity and this has hampered growth of the cattle feed industry because most farmers are reluctant to use compound feed fully. Instead they compromise by using such feed in proportions of 5 to 60 percent, making up the balance with their own formulations. It is only in the case of highly productive animals that compound feed has been able to show its real potential and the importance of technology has been demonstrated. The share of compound cattle feed manufactured by the industry, in relation to the overall potential, is low for the following reasons: •The cattle population is fragmented and spread over large parts of the country. Farmers' low level of education and strong traditional beliefs mean that there is generally little awareness of compound cattle feed. •More than 50 percent of the country's total milk production comes from a very large number of low-yielding cows and buffaloes. A further 25 percent of milk production
comes from buffaloes and only the remaining 25 percent of the total is produced by crossbred and improved cows. •Industrially manufactured compound cattle feed has proved its value for crossbred cows and buffaloes but not for low-yielding cattle because of their genetic limitations. Homemixed feed is very frequently used for buffaloes and low-yielding cattle. Poultry feed Poultry feed is divided into layer and broiler feed. In the case of layer feed, cost is the main constraint in using compound feed. An innovative, high-value compound feed can result in increased numbers of eggs, but the risks are too high because of the birds' long life cycle. Compound feed has, however, made a major contribution to broiler feeding. This is an example of excellent coordination among instrument technology, formulations and use of feed additives and supplements. Cost is a less important factor because the performance improvements are greater than the cost increases and the birds' life cycle is short. Two types of poultry feed are prepared. One is ready-made and in the form of mash or pellets. The second is in concentrated form for mixing with an energy source. Concentrates are protein sources, balanced in amino acids and containing vitamins, minerals and feed additives. They are mixed with energy sources such as maize, sorghum or bajra to prepare poultry rations. 1.1.7 FUTURE OF INDIAN FEED INDUSTRY At the beginning of the twenty-first century, India has a population of 1 billion people. Although the annual growth rate has slowed from 2 to 1.8 percent, the base is so broad that changes in population dynamics are not perceptible. The population may stabilize by sometime between 2030 and 2040 if all sections of society support family planning wholeheartedly. The purchasing power of the middle class is growing (the middle class accounts for approximately 300 million people) and food habits are also changing. The Indian economy is growing at the rate of 6 to 8 percent per annum. The livestock industry in India is the second largest contributor to gross domestic product (GDP), after agriculture, and accounts for 9 percent of the total. Consumption is likely to increase as follows: per capita milk from 240 to 450 g per year; per capita eggs from 40 to 100 per year;
and per capita broiler meat from 1 000 to 2 000 g per year. A major change is occurring in India on the economic front. The country has adopted a model that lays midway between liberal and public sector production, but growth has been affected by the poor performance of most of the public sector units, rising government costs and fiscal deficit, and the economy has suffered. A process of liberalization was set in motion by the government and has been implemented for the last eight to ten years. This has caused India to open up and invite investment from multinationals, liberalize imports, reduce government expenditure and remove public sector businesses. It also means that the days of nationalization, unnecessary government controls and restrictions will soon be over thanks to progress in the country's economy. India has entered into an agreement with its trade partners under the World Trade Organization (WTO). The changes brought about by the liberalization process will be slow but certain. The government is opening up imports in a phased manner, and it is expected that this process will be completed by April 2003. In the meantime, about 930 items, including agricultural products, will be open for import under open general license from April 2001, making it possible to import dressed chicken, milk and milk products. Various livestock industry associations have taken issue with such imports in an attempt to protect their members. If the livestock industry is affected, the feed industry will also be affected. The Government of India has raised the tariff on all poultry and poultry products from 35 percent to the WTO boundary level of 100 percent. It therefore appears that there will be a level playing field. In view of the expected rise in per capita consumption of chicken meat, eggs and milk, livestock production and productivity will grow. The dairy industry, which is cooperativebased, is growing with the increased capacities of milk processing units. The population of crossbred cattle and buffaloes is also growing. Milk is very popular in India. The poultry industry is developing towards vertical integration and a few multinational companies have already entered the Indian poultry business. Although the live bird market currently accounts for about 90 percent of the total market, it is expected that the consumption of dressed chicken will grow in the next five years, from the existing 10 percent to 25 percent or more. This would mean establishing very hygienic and scientific processing units. Cold chains, branded chicken, chicken cuts, etc. will be introduced and, depending on the success and
consistent quality, consumer preference for dressed meat will grow. The next decade will see significant changes in restructuring, mergers, acquisitions, amalgamations, joint ventures, diversification, integration and efficient service chains, ecommerce and use of the latest information technology in global tenders, trading, export/import and other commercial activities. At the root of all these developments will be the scientific development of feed manufacturing technology. The Indian feed industry will increasingly use biotechnology, more scientific formulations, new molecules and natural and herbal products to improve animal productivity. Indian agriculture will also use biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to support the feed industry, which is entering a very exciting phase of growth for the next decade.
1.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Dolberg (1995) describes the three major problems. First are those farmers having very little land for there feed resources, as they have no much money for investment? Second the economic situation of these three countries in not well. Third urban cities have a rapid population growth, which lead to more demand of milk and beef. IFAD has developed considerable institutional skills in executing rural development projects, which have had a
positive impact positively on the rural poor. Factors such as increased income, population growth, and expanded urbanization will all result in an increase in demand for animal products in the future. This would imply that increasing areas of fertile, irrigated, agricultural land would be used for feed and fodder - mainly for milk production.
Mehren (1998) talks about the quantity of feed one need to feed their animal. One way to estimate feed use is to determine how much net feed is available. Reducing the feed by the percentage of shrink does this. Shrink is weight lost between the times you put it up and the time you begin feeding it. We then estimate how much each animal will eat daily. We use 3% of their average body weight to estimate daily dry matter intake. One question that frequently comes up is the value of straw versus alfalfa hay. Straw may be selling for $65.00/ton and hay that we purchased cost $120/ton. If you run the values per unit of protein and per unit of TDN, the straw is not a good buy for protein. Choosing the right supplement can have a tremendous impact on cost and amount bought.
Mehren (1998) describe that we can save a lot of money if we have a deep knowledge about the ingredient and their nutrient that can be used for feeding your animal. Knowing what nutrients are in your feeds can save thousands of dollars in maintaining productivity of the herd and in purchasing the correct supplement to match the needs of the cows. A fairly easy program for feeding straw with some alfalfa is to begin feeding 25% hay and 75% straw; then when cows are within 60 days of calving change to 50% hay and 50% straw; and finally when they begin calving change to 75% hay and 25% straw. Cows that are old or thin and heifers might be fed the 75% hay and 25% straw from the beginning so that they can gain weight and remain a healthy and productive part of the herd.
Mehren (2000) talks about the limit feeding as a way to feed early-weaned calves when very few options are present. First and second calf heifers are always candidates for early weaning of their calves. Early weaning their calves allows them to gain weight rather than produce milk for that young calf. Even with a supplement, gains are only 0.5 lb daily. Without
supplement, they will lose weight. You must have enough bunk space for every calf to eat at the same time. The feed cost will be very attractive because the calves will gain quite efficiently.
Sherman (2004) expresses to change the behavior of farmers about calves feeding. Some farmers feed their dairy calves looks nothing like mother's milk. It's brown and is derived from cattle blood. The diagnosis last month of a case of the brain-wasting disease in a Washington state cow has brought renewed attention to the issue. Scientists have long said it is at least possible that blood can transmit the human version of mad cow disease. In the United States, people who spent significant time in the United Kingdom and Europe are not permitted to donate blood. The reason blood products are unsafe is that blood has been shown to transmit the disease.
Peck (2004) describe that all the ingredients of feed should be mix properly in order to make it perfect or nutrient in every bite. We can mix in many forms like feeding straw in the a.m. and Hay in the p.m. Feeding straw on Monday, Wednesday and Friday while feeding hay on the other days of the week. Mixing hay and straw in a feed mixer and feeding this mix to the herd. A creep feed could be considered mixing, because part of the calf’s diet comes from the creep and the remainder comes from milk and grass. Ideally, cattle eat or are fed a diet that has all of their nutrients in every bite. They also are able to eat when they feel hungry. Studies conducted in the feedlot have found that cattle want to eat at the same time each day. When feed isn’t mixed properly or fed in a timely manner, we can see bloat and acidosis. Lovaas (2006) states the cattle disease BVD has been studied. BVD is a viral disease that's been around for a long time. In the quest for minimizing costs, BVD has surfaced as a profit killer in many feedlots across the continent. There are relatively few cattle in the national population that are persistently infected (PI) with the BVD virus. However, the actual impact of BVD goes far beyond those few head. There are many different strains of the BVD virus, and every one is capable of mutation. The BVD virus can sometimes affect the cells in the body that help with blood clotting.
Mehren (2006) describes that animals for slaughter must be raised under organic guidelines from the last trimester of gestation until processed. This means that cows must be fed organically grown feedstuffs the last three months before the calves are born. Grass and forage will be the feed source consumed for the lifetime of the ruminant animal with the exception of milk consumed prior to weaning. To be labeled natural the product must meet three criteria. Second that it can contain no artificial ingredients. Third that it cannot contain preservatives. Haley (2006) describes about ingredients that contain different nutrients. Which feed you using are contain all nutrient that required for the health of your cattle. Before you buy and start feeding something you know little or nothing about do some investigating like does the feed have natural toxins such as nitrates, molds, muster feed, cottonseed, and wheat? You must take care of various such questions like is it exceptionally high in a nutrient or several nutrients? Does it need to be covered or put in a tank? Mehren (2007) describe that we should feed a mix of straw and alfalfa while the calves were still on the cows. To feeding all the straw the cows needed would meet the needs of the cows for energy and protein. Feed intake of cattle is controlled by a variety of factors. Any single one of them can make a big difference in what the cattle will eat. A musty or moldy odor will have an adverse effect on intake. Hopefully the person feeding the animals doesn’t force them to eat moldy feed rather than starve. Better yet, drink a glass full and you will soon detect a strong bitter flavor that we think of as ‘sweet to the taste’, and that cattle consume readily. Mehren (2007) This article talks about feed tags. All feed tags have a lot and batch number on them. The lot number refers to a single formula. This can be used to find out where and when it was made. This is true whether the feed is medicated or not. If a manufacturer has more than one production site, they use these numbers to identify the plant. Sometimes the lot number is just the date in reverse order. The manufacturer used their lot and batch numbers to identify the feed that was subject to recall. A feed recall is a complex process because the product may have been sent to distributors, who in turn delivered it to feed stores, who sold the product to the final consumer. The feeding directions can be used to estimate how much feed your animals will eat for any length of time.
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION
2.1 OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY
2.1.1History The Company celebrated its centenary in 1997. In 1897 a young man named Ardeshir Godrej gave up law and turned to lock making. Ardeshir went on to make safes and security equipment of the highest order, and then stunned the world by creating toilet soap from vegetable oil. His brother Pirojsha Godrej carried Ardeshir's dream forward, leading Godrej towards becoming a vibrant, multi-business enterprise. Pirojsha laid the foundation for the
sprawling industrial garden township (ISO 14001-certified) now called Pirojshanagar in the suburbs of Mumbai. Godrej touches the lives of millions of Indians every day. To them, it is a symbol of enduring ideals in a changing world. Time and again, with the launch of every new product, Ardeshir Godrej changed perceptions in the Industry by adding exciting new dimensions. Be it the manufacture of the finest range of security equipment or soap from vegetable oils, the world was thrilled and stunned too. His dream had become a huge movement, which was carried forward by another just as capable Godrej. The man, who did so, was Ardeshir Godrej's own brother Pirojsha Godrej. He laid the foundation of the Godrej Empire.
2.1.2LANDMARK Incorporation Established in 1897, the Company was incorporated with limited liability on March 3, 1932, under the Indian Companies Act, 1913. The Beginning The beginning of the Godrej Group can be traced to India's freedom struggle. Its founder, Ardershir Godrej, a lawyer by profession and a staunch nationalist, believed that India could attain freedom only by being self-reliant. In doing so, India would overcome economic degradation.
The Godrej Name The Godrej Name displaced well-established foreign brands from the Indian market. The name 'Godrej' engraved into the shiny metal of the Godrej Locks came to be known as a symbol of self-reliance, trust-worthiness, assertiveness and progressiveness for a new generation of Indians.
1971 Started as Animal Feeds division of Godrej Industries Ltd.
1984 Diversified into Agricultural Inputs 1992 Godrej Agrovet born as a separate corporate entity expanded into Chemical Pesticides. 1993 Acquired Unicorn Biotech a Tissue Culture business. 1995 Foray into branded chicken- Real Good Chicken . 1997 Acquired Oil Palm Plantation business of Godrej Industries Ltd. 1999 Acquired India Poultry Farm breeding and hatchery business to become an integrated player. 2001 Acquired Hindustan Unilever Feed business - GOLDMOHUR FOODS & FEEDS LTD. (Now a 100% subsidiary of Godrej Agrovet Limited)
2.1.3 GODREJ MISSION
Our Mission is to operate in existing and new businesses, which capitalize on the Godrej brand and our corporate image of reliability and integrity. Our objective is to delight our customer both in India and abroad. We shall achieve this objective through continuous improvement in quality, cost and customer service. We shall strive for excellence by nurturing, developing and empowering our employees and suppliers. We shall encourage an open atmosphere, conducive to learning and teamwork.
2.1.4 GODREJ VALUES • • • Commitment to Quality Customer Orientation Dedication & Commitment
• • • • • •
Discipline Honesty & Integrity Openness & Transparency Respect/Care & Concern for People Team work Trust
2.1.6 MAJOR PLAYERS AND THEIR MARKET SHARE
That is a proximate view about demand of all Compounded feed.
TABLE 3 Compounded feed Brands Local Brands (Goka, P4, Chardi Kla etc) Tara Godrej Mark fed Percentage of Demand 75% 25% 10% 5%
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percentage of Demand Godrej Mark fed Local Brands( Goka, P4, Chardi Kla etc) Tara
2.2 PROFILE OF THE COMPANY
Godrej Agrovet was formerly a division of Godrej Soaps Limited. It was set up as a separate company with focus on the Agri-sector. Over the years, the company has developed and nurtured a close relationship with farmers. Providing them with innovative Products as well as educating them on world-class farming practices. Together with its subsidiaries Goldmohur Foods and Feeds Limited and Golden Feed Products Limited , Godrej Agrovet has revenues close to Rs 1000 Crores (US $ 250 million FY 2007). The activities of the company are vast: Compound Animal feeds, Agricultural Inputs, Integrated Poultry Business, Oil Palm Plantations, Plant Biotech, Retailing of Fresh Farm Produce in urban areas, and rural retailing of a wide range of products including Agricultural inputs. Godrej Agrovet acquired Goldmohur Foods and Feeds Limited from Hindustan Lever, a Unilever subsidiary in India, in 2001.Goldmohur Foods and Feeds Limited enjoys strong brand equity due to its poultry and cattle feed brands. Goldmohur Foods and Feeds Limited have a state-of-the-art R&D centre in Bangalore named 'ANIC' (Animal Nutrition Innovation Centre). This centre is devoted to development of innovative animal feed products. Today, Godrej Agrovet together with its subsidiaries has manufacturing facilities spread over 40 strategic locations and a network of over 10,000 distributors, dealers and C&F agents. In its journey of growth, Godrej Agrovet has set new standards of corporate performance, reliably delivering quality products and services to all its customers at competitive prices. GLOBAL FORAYS: Having successfully grown to be the leader in many segments, Godrej Agrovet feels confident to take on global competition and has started making its presence felt in the international arena too. A joint venture with ACI Group of Bangladesh for poultry and feed operations in Bangladesh, and acquisition of controlling stake in Al-Rahaba, which runs broiler farms in UAE exemplify this confidence.
Board of Directors • Nadir B. Godrej Chairman
• • • • • • • • •
Jamshyd N. Godrej Ardeshir B. Godrej Balram Singh Yadav Executive Director & President Dr. Sudheer L. Anaokar Vijay M. Crishna Tanya A. Dubash Kavas N. Petigara Amit B. Choudhury Nisaba A. Godrej
2.3 HISTORY OF GODREJ AGROVET
Godrej Agrovet Limited is an Rs 1000 Crores company. Manufacturing facilities spread over 40 strategic locations. Its network is over 10000 distributors, dealers and C&F agents. First Company in India to retail processed fresh chicken, under the brand name "Godrej Real Good Chicken". First Company in India to retail fresh fruits and vegetables under the brand name “Godrej Nature’s Basket” First Company in India to set up rural service & retail chain for complete Agri-solutions under the brand name “Godrej Aadhaar”. Started in 1897 as a lock manufacturing company, the Godrej Group is today one of the most accomplished and diversified business houses in India. Godrej’s success has been driven by the company’s commitment to delivering innovation and excellence. Through the consistent application of this commitment and a century of ethical business conduct, Godrej has earned an unparalleled reputation for trust and reliability. In 1930, Godrej became the first company in the world to develop the technology to manufacture soap with vegetable oils; that spirit of innovation has continued throughout the organization’s history. Today Godrej is delivering consumers exciting innovations across a spectrum of businesses. The company’s pursuit of excellence is equally well established and enduring. In the 1944 Mumbai docks blast, Godrej safes were the only security equipment whose contents were unharmed; an equal level of product quality continues to be expected
from every product bearing the Godrej brand name. Godrej management understands that the company’s greatest asset is the trust and faith that consumers have reposed in it, and recognizes that the company must continue to earn this trust. This translates to the organization delivering outstanding quality and value in everything it does. Godrej’s ethical and visionary practices have allowed the company to successfully expand into a number of businesses. Today Godrej is a leading manufacturer of goods and provider of services in a multitude of categories: home appliances, consumer durables, consumer products, industrial products, and agri products to name a few. A recent estimate suggested that 400 million people across India use at least one Godrej product every day. The group has more recently entered the real estate and information technology sectors, and management views these as avenues for enormous growth. The 6000 Crores - FY 2007 (US $1.5 Billion) Godrej Group is one of India's largest professionally run private sector groups. It has a well-established presence in varied businesses ranging from foods and consumer durables to real estate and information technology. In 1997, Godrej completed 100 years of service to the nation. Today, the name Godrej is synonymous with Quality & Trust. It is amongst the most admired Business Groups in India, delivering quality products and services to its customers at competitive costs.
2.4 RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS AND MILESTONES
Strategic tie-ups and acquisitions have been a way of life at Godrej Agrovet Limited. Meaningful alliances and useful acquisitions have been providing impetus to its growth. The acquisition of business has been in different segments ranging from Goldmohur Foods and Feeds (Animal Feed), to India Poultry Farm (Poultry), Krithika (Oil Palm Plantations), and Higashimaru (Marketing of Shrimp Feed). Strategic investments have been made in business, which have a strategic fit and which complement our business e.g. Creamline (Diary), Polchem (Bio-technology).
2.5 PRODUCT RANGE OF THE GODREJ AGROVET
ANIMAL FEED DIVISION
Godrej Agrovet has a rich experience of over 3 decades in the business of Animal Feeds. Starting from humble beginnings of a single feed mill in Mumbai, it has grown into the largest producer of commercial Animal Feed in India, with a strong presence in Dairy Feed, Aqua Feed and Poultry Feed sectors. Its production facilities are spread over 40 locations across the country. Despite the vast geographical and cultural diversity of India, Godrej Agrovet has managed to develop quality feeds appreciated by farmers across the country. This can only be attributed to its strong grass root level understanding of India. Godrej Agrovet's success in the livestock sector is based on a single guiding principle what’s good for the consumer is good for the business. A great example of this philosophy in action is Manthan - a highly creative and effective demand creation model that guides and provides customized solutions to help cattle farmers increase milk output and also market the end produce. Such successful initiatives have not only benefited the farmers, but have also made Godrej Agrovet the leader in this business.
Key Highlights • • • • • • No. 1 in cattle feed 1st to market poultry feed in crumb form 1st to market poultry feed in pellet form No. 1 in commercial broiler feed State-of-the-art R&D centre 'ANIC' Strong brand equity for poultry feed brands
INTEGRATED POULTRY BUSINESS
It is foresight that led the way for Godrej Agrovet in the Indian poultry industry. Godrej Agrovet envisaged that poultry farming would evolve from a backyard business to a consolidated, value added business. Godrej Agrovet set up Integrated Poultry Business (IPB) in 1999 with a view to organize the chicken processing industry and give it a professional and modern approach. Today, the company covers the whole spectrum of the poultry business. Right from breeding, hatching rearing of broilers to processing and marketing of its branded chicken ' Godrej Real Good Chicken’ Integrated Poultry Business has turned out to be one of the key diversifications of Godrej Agrovet. It has the support of world-class infrastructure, professionalism and the relentless pursuit of providing the Indian consumer with superior quality products. From breeding to retailing
Grandparent Farm: Is located at Bangalore and has an in-house laboratory that follows global standards for bio-security, sanitation and management practices. Parent Breeding: Over 20 parent breeding farms in south and west India Hatchery: Has state-of-the-art facilities, catering to both domestic and international markets. Contract Farming: Has operations spread over South and West India. Working with over 1000 farmers Godrej Real Good Chicken: In May 1999, Godrej Agrovet introduced the Indian consumer to the concept of processed fresh chicken by launching Godrej Real Good Chicken. Godrej Real Good Chicken has over the years, become a popular household name across various cities in India.
Key Highlights • •
First to give the poultry industry in India a professional and modern approach. Covers entire spectrum of the poultry business, from farm to plate.
Has world-class farms and state-of-the-art processing plants
The Agri-Inputs division of Godrej Agrovet Limited was started in the year 1997. Its primary objective was to market plant growth promoters developed by the company's very own inhouse R&D Department. There's been no looking back since then. Today, the division can take credit for creating many unique and innovative agricultural solutions that cover the entire range of agricultural crops.
These products, while improving agricultural productivity and profitability, cause zero -minimal damage to the environment. The company also provides farmers with technical advice and services. A technically qualified field force works with the farmers, conducting method and result demonstrations to educate them on maximizing farm productivity.
• Largest marketer of unique innovative agricultural products
OIL PALM DIVISION
In order to bridge the widening gap between demand and production for edible oils in India, Oil Palm Division was started in the early 90's. Over the years, Godrej Agrovet has developed 6500 hectares of oil palm in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Goa and Karnataka. Oil mills have been set up in Andhra Pradesh and Goa. Oil Palm plantation activities have also been taken up in Gujarat, Orissa and Mizoram. Godrej Agrovet has put together a dedicated extension team that helps oil palm growers improve productivity. Godrej Agrovet has set up one-stop shops providing farmers with seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, technical guidance on cultivation and 100% buyback of fresh fruit bunches. With such a strong commitment to development and service, it is no wonder that Godrej Agrovet is today, the largest producer of palm oil in the country.
Key Highlights • • • • Largest producer of palm oil in India Dedicated and trained team Factories in Andhra Pradesh and Goa Supported by best quality seeds & 100% buyback of fresh fruits
PLANT BIOTECH DIVISION
Godrej Plant Biotech Division is engaged in micro-propagation of plants through tissue culture. It is also actively involved in contract research on another culture, seasonal variation, production of secondary metabolites through plant cell culture and genetic engineering. It also exports foliage, flowering, fruits and medicinal and oil bearing plants. The Division has four growth rooms conforming to US class 100, 40 laminar airflow workstations and a large environmentally controlled fully automated greenhouse for hardening tissue culture plants.
Its also provides technical guidance ranging from resource analysis to crop production and produce marketing. This guidance is provided in three phases: Phase 1: Pre-planting: The Company carries out resource analysis on soil and water and provides advice on climatic suitability to the crop. Phase 2: Planting to harvest: A wholesome crop cultural practice is provided. Periodic visits are conducted to monitor the crop and ensure full productivity. Phase 3: Post-harvest and marketing: The company provides market intelligence on produce marketing in different parts of the country.
The first Godrej Aadhaar Centre was started in December 2003 in Manchar, Pune District. Since then Godrej Aadhaar Centre’s have been set up across the country in the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and West Bengal. These centres provide valuable technical guidance, soil & water testing services. They also retail quality products of leading companies. Aadhaar centre’s also a facilitate credit to farmers and provide a platform to sell their produce. To farmers, it’s a complete solution under one roof.
• Godrej Aadhaar, to provide complete agricultural solutions to farmers
Nature’s Basket is the first-of-its-kind store selling a wide range of vegetables, fruits and herbs, both local and exotic. The first Nature’s Basket outlet was opened at Bhulabhai Desai Road, Mumbai. Two more Nature’s Basket outlets have opened at Cuffe Parade, South Mumbai and Lokhandwala, North Mumbai. Many more outlets are in the offing in different cities across the country.
Key Highlights • Nature’s Basket, a first-of-its-kind, one-stop retail outlet for fresh farm produce
CHAPTER-3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY & RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To know the market value of Godrej feed and its competitors. To study the buying behavior of dairy farmers like before purchase behavior and after purchase behavior. To study the actual results given by different feeds by having a comparison study of quantity of milk given by cattle’s.
3.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of study was not limited up to one FEED Industry but it also covers the survey of the sample that represents the whole population. It is done in order to know the customers awareness of feed Industry.
3.3 RESEARCH METHODOLGY
3.3.1 SOURCES OF DATA
Primary data: Primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. It is the backbone of any study. It is obtained from respondents with the help of widely used and well-known method of survey, through a well-structured questionnaire.
Secondary data: Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. In this case one is not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. Secondary data either is published data or unpublished data. Secondary data is collected from govt. publications, journals, magazines, financial records, web sites and annual publications of the company. In this study secondary source used is websites.
3.3.2 SAMPLING AREA Sample is taken from FEROZPUR DISTRICT. These include those farmers who have diaries are taken to be consideration. 3.3.3 SAMPLE PLAN
SAMPLE SIZE: A sample of minimum respondents will be selected from various areas of Ferozpur. An effort has been made to select respondents evenly. The survey is carried out on 50 respondents
SAMPLING UNIT: - It indicates who is to be surveyed. The researcher must define the target population that will be sampled. In this project sampling unit is all the farmers, dairy farmers, feed buyers, etc of Ferozpur
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: For the purpose of research random sampling is being used. Randomly we catch the different people from different areas of Ferozepur Distt. Every respondent has his different viewpoint about the topic and they fill the questionnaire accordingly. The entire respondents are chosen randomly.
3.3.4 METHODOLOGY & PRESENTATION OF DATA The data so collected is than coded in the tables to make the things presentable in more effective. The results of various statistical tools that is CHI SQURE shown through Bar Diagrams and Charts which helps me out in easy and effective presentation and hence results are being obtained.
3.4 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Carrying the survey was a general learning experience for us but we also faced some problems, which are listed here: The market of Godrej Agrovet is too vast and it is not possible to cover each and every dealer, manufacturer and seller in the available short span of time.
Generally the respondents were busy in their work and were not interested in responding rightly.
Respondents were reluctant to discover complete and correct information about themselves and their organization.
Most respondents were not maintaining proper records of their feed consumption, so they were unable to provide exact information.
Most of the respondents don’t want to disclose the information about the various other companies’s from whom they buy feed.
Most of the respondents were using the feed of more than one company and they were not able to properly differentiate among their product.
Due to human behavior information may be biased.
CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS
4.1 INTERPRETATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE Q1: - How many cattle and buffalos do you have?
Options a) 1-5 b) 5-15 c) 15-30 d) More than 30
No. of Selected 28 19 3 0
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected
a) 1-5 b) 5-15 c) 15-30 d) More than 30
Interpretation: - From the above table I come to know that most of the people
have 1-5 cows or buffalos, and there are 39% of people who have 1-5 cattle’s or buffalos. Only a few have 15-30 animals.
Q2: - Which type of cattle you have?
Options Desi Valati
No. of Selected 3 20
20 15 10 5 0
No. of Selected
Interpretation: - The above table shows that there are only 46% of people in
the area who have cows. Major part is valati and minor is desi.
Q3:- Do you use feed?
Options Yes No
No. of Selected 50 0
50 40 30 20 10 0 No. of Selected
Interpretation: - I visited to only those people who use feed.
Q4: - Which feed you are currently using?
Options Home Mix Compounded
No. of Selected 13 37
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected FIG: 5 Home Mix Compounded
Interpretation: - The above table graph show that most of the people use
compounded feed than home mix.
Q5: - Reason for not using compounded feed?
Options a) Quality b) Cost c) Trust d) Awareness
No. of Selected 8 1 4 0
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 No. of Selected FIG: 6 a) Quality b) Cost c) Trust d) Awarness
Interpretation: -The above chart shows that most of the farmers don’t like
the quality of compounded feed. They also not trust the ingredients used in compounded feed.
Q6: - If compounded feed then which brand?
Options a) Godrej b) Tara c) Markfed d) Any other
No. of Selected 8 10 4 15
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 No. of Selected FIG: 7 a) Godrej b) Tara c) Markfed d) Any other
Interpretation: - From the table it depicts that most of the farmer prefer local
brand feed, like Goka, P4, and Makhan Malai.
Q7: - What you like in that particular feed?
Options a) Price b) Quality c) Delivery d) Any other
No. of Selected 6 39 5 0
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected a) Price b) Quality c) Delivery d) Any other
Interpretation: - Above chart shows that most of the people gives preference to quality while buying any feed product as 78% people has selected quality.
Q8: - How you use feed?
Options a) Regular b) Once in a week c) Twice in a week d) Some Times
No. of Selected 50 0 0 0
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected FIG: 9 a) Regular b) Once in a week c) Twice in a week d) Some Times
Interpretation: - Above chat shows that 100% people gives feed to their animals regularly.
Q9: - How much quantity of feed you are giving per cattle in K.G? TABLE 12
Options a) 1-2 b) 2-4 c) 4-6 d) More than 6
No. of Selected 2 39 7 2
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected FIG: 10 a) 1-2 b) 2-4 c) 4-6 d) More than 6
Interpretation: - From the graph it depicts that most of the farmer give 2-4 kg
of feed per cattle, which is the perfect quantity.
Q10: - Have you heard about Godrej feed?
Options Yes No
No. of Selected 35 15
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected FIG: 11 Yes No
Interpretation: - Above table show that there is a large no. of people who
heard about Godrej feed, but they have not used it.
Q11: - Have you ever used Godrej feed?
Options Yes No
No. of Selected 15 35
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected FIG: 12 Yes No
Interpretation: - Above table show that there is only 30% of people who ever
used Godrej feed.
Q12: - How much milk you are getting per cow?
Options a) 3-5 b) 5-10 c) 10-15 d) 15-25
No. of Selected 0 11 10 2
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 No. of Selected FIG: 13 a) 3-5 b) 5-10 c) 10-15 d) 15-25
Interpretation: - Above table show that there are only 22% of people in the
area who are getting 5-10 kg of milk per cow and there are 23% people who are getting 10-15kg milk per cow.
Q13: - How much milk you are getting per buffalo?
Options a) 3-5 b) 5-10 c) 10-15 d) 15-25
No. of Selected 0 30 13 0
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected
a) 3-5 b) 5-10 c) 10-15 d) 15-25
Interpretation: - Above table show that there are only 60% of people in the
area who are getting 5-10 kg of milk per buffalo, and there are 29% people who are getting 10-15 kg milk per buffalo and others are getting less milk .
Q14: - For which purpose you are using milk?
Options a) For Sale b) For own consumption c) Both
No. of Selected 2 18 30
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No. of Selected FIG: 15 a) For Sale b) For own consumption c) Both
Interpretation: - Above table shows that there is a few farmers who use milk
just for selling. As most of the farmer use milk for selling milk and own consumption.
5.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
Agency Holder As I did my first visit to Mr. Kapil Kumar Agency holders of the area. He give me basic knowledge about feed, Godrej feed types and competitors. He also made me aware about various consumer of Godrej feed. I also come to know that the biggest competitor of Godrej feed in the area is Tara feed. After that I visit to agency holder of Tara feed. He showed me three samples of Tara feed that was in little boxes. We can have an idea of the quality of different feed samples by just smelling those samples. He also told us various consumers and there home towns of Tara feed. From these two agency holders we came to know that: Tara feed has more demand than Godrej feed in the area. There are some complaints about Godrej feed by the consumer.
Consumer has a good perception toward Tara than Godrej. Godrej agency holder are not satisfied with the supply chain management of the company as they think Tara has a more good supply chain management as when there truck came for delivery they deliver goods also on those shops those has given order to agency holder. But it is the responsibility of Godrej agency holder to deliver goods to other shopkeepers that increase cost of goods. One more complaint by shopkeeper is that Godrej feed has fewer margins that are 10-15 per feedbag, where Tara has about 25-30.
5.2 FINDINGS OF THE FARMERS
5.2.1 VIEWS Compounded feed is costly and animal don’t like to eat It contain more quantity of Urea that is not good for the health of the animal It should not make animal feed hot in the summer season. Compounded feed does not help in increasing the quantity of milk as its price is paid. They don’t have trust in ingredients used in compounded feed. They believe that the packet of white powder in the Godrej feed is not good at all. It influences the health of cattle. Price should be less. 5.2.2 EXPECTATIONS Feed should contain more quantity of muster feed or cotton seed.
Ingredients should mix properly. It should contain minder mixture. GUR DA SHERA should use that is good for the health of animal. 5.2.3 COMPLAINTS These complaints are for a specific period when some bad stock delivers After using with water its colour change into black and smelled badly. It influences the health of animal. Quantity of milk decreases and there is a problem in their breast.
The Buying Behavior of Dairy farmers
Before Buying: There are various factors that influence before buying behavior like quality, price, and availability. Mainly they have a quality perception in minds for different feed brands .They got such behavior from their friends neighbors relatives and advertisement They also influenced by camp arranged by different feed industry like Tara always arranged camp in different villages that give awareness to farmers about various Agri inputs mainly feed. They also provide tea and snacks to those farmers who visit to their camp.
Finally they influence by visit done in the industry. As Tara sends a lot of buses in different villages and provide farmers a visit to industry. They showed them their production plants and other equipment used for production. They showed them production process and ingredients used for production. That helps industry to have a good and loyal relation with farmers. To have a booth in big festival where a lot of farmers get together like Ludhiana agricultural university fest, Muktsar Maghi fest that helps in advertisement and awareness to farmers about product. These booth are arranged by various feed companies to aware farmer about agri input. A very few farmers are aware about Godrej Adhar in the area that is a source of advertisement, awareness and brand image.
After Buying: Mainly two factors that influence after buying behavior are result given by feed and quality delivers by farmers. These two factors play different role For e.g.:- might be you are getting good result but delivering not a good quality means you increase the quality of milk but your cattle health is influenced by that. From our surveys we have found that Tara is giving a very good result. They told us that they got 8-12 liter milk by using Tara but Godrej has not such results. But we also found problems with the health of animals those who are using Tara like animal started eating less in hot summer days and animal feel weakness it is also harmful for cow’s child. But Godrej consumers have no such kind of problems.
The actual result given by feed
Home Mix: - From our questionnaire I have found that home mix results are better as compare to compounded feed. Average of the farmers is getting 10-15 liter milk by using home mix. Maximum results are more than 25 liter. Tara: - I have found that average of the farmers are getting 8-12 liter as half of the questionnaire are 5-10 and half are 10-15. Godrej: - I have found that average of the farmers is getting 5-10 liter milk and maximum is10-15.
As from my all study, I have concluded that Godrej feed has not capture as such market as in other cities or states. Instead of Godrej has got first place in Indian feed industry, but in the area a very few people are aware about Godrej feed. According to me from various reasons the biggest reason of non-awareness is less manpower for marketing and less advertisement of the product. Other brands that is more preferable than Godrej due to good advertisement strategies used by them. According to me Godrej should spend a lot of money in order to create a good brand image and awareness of the product to consumer. Godrej can also think about some good marketing strategies that can implement in the area.
As we come to know that some farmers who have visited to Godrej Adhar are very impressed by services and various features provided to farmers. I think the best place for Godrej Adhar is on the main road of Ferozepur to Fazilka that combine all the villages together. Godrej Adhar helps farmers in providing awareness about various agri input and also provide various services like bank loan etc. Thus Godrej Adhar can be a good source of creating a good relation with farmers. It is also a source of advertisement. People are expecting more good results from Godrej feed. Overall I found farmers satisfy with the quality of Godrej feed users except some bad stock and looking for a good and loyal relation with the company. It has been in some cases that agents are not fully satisfied with whatever gets from the company, in monetary terms or in any other forms of non financial incentives. More emphasis is being given to the production side in the company rather revenue for the company. Less emphasis is being given on marketing research, which provides the company with the information regarding the market & its dynamics. Product promotion is an area which required to be geared up. than to marketing side though marketing and sales activities are responsible for earning
On the basis of conclusions drawn & enumerated in previous pages, an attempt has been made to suggest the following recommendations. 1. The study revealed that marketing is the area which seems to be neglected because the
company products were in great demand. However the scenario is changing, which makes it necessary for the company to establish a full-fledged marketing department. The company should change its stance from production oriented to marketing oriented.
2. Presently the company seems to be depending on depot sales but direct sales marketing and sales through agents are the other avenues available to the company. Hence the company may concentrate on direct sales marketing through personal selling or marketing representative follow up with industrial consumers. 3. The company should develop a marketing information system, at present through its depot managers and existing agents further with the help of personal selling staff. 4. The company is advised to formulate a promotion mix keeping in mind a changing scenario of market. To begin with, the company may advertise the product and the company brand in industrial journals like “Indian Feed” & in future introduce sales promotion through additional agents and personal selling staff which would constitute a proper mix. 5. Company should provide food and Stephen to the trainees. So that the students give their best effort to make the project in such a way which is beneficial for the company
5.3.1 Referred Books 1. Aggarwal .S.L.,Bharwaj .S.L., Gupta .S.P., Singh .Hardeep (2000), “Ouantitative Techniques” Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana
Kotler Phillip (2007),”Marketing Management” Macgroth Hill, New Delhi
Feed Resources for Landless and Small Farmers in Asia: Research Requirements, Written by Frands Dolberg (1995)
How Much Feed Do I Need? Written by Mike Mehren
Cattle feed ban allows calves to be fed blood, Written by Mark Sherman (2004)
Cattle Update: BVD In the Feedlot, Written by Bethany Lovaas (2006) Feed Intake, Written by Mike Mehren (2005) Feed Mixing, Written by Mike Mehren (2007) Feeding a Niche, Written by Mike Mehren (2008) Limit Feeding Young Calves, Written by Mike Mehren (2006) THE DREADED FEED TAG, Written by Mike Mehren (2007) NOVEL FEEDS FOR CATTLE, Written by Mike Mehren (2007) Thoughts for Winter Feeding, Written by Mike Mehren (2006)
WEBSITES www.feedmachinery.com/articles www.feedmachinery.com/articles/feed www.wind-works.org/articles/feed_laws.html www.oregonfeed.org/mehren.htm www.poulvet.com/poultry/articles/mycotoxins_binders.php www.feedmanufacturing.com www.amazines.com/article_feed.cfm www.articlegimp.com www.netmanners.com/email-etiquette-rss-feed.html www.4kids.tv/buzz/feed www.yardbarker.com/sites/view_rssarticles/402 www.feedmanufacturing.com/articles/feed-safety
Q1:- How many cattle and buffalos do you have? a) 1-5 b) 5-15 c) 15-30 d) More than 30
Q2: - Which type of cattle you have? a) Desi b) Vallati
Q3:- Do you use feed? a) Yes b) No
Q4: - Which feed you are currently using? a) Home Mix b) Compounded
Q5:- Reason for not using compounded feed? a) Quality b) Cost c) Trust d) Awareness
Q6:- If compounded feed then which brand? a) Godrej b) Tara c) Markfed d) Any other
Q7:- What you like in that particular feed? a) Price b) Quality c) Delivery d) Any other
Q8:- How you use feed? a) Regular b) Once in a week c) Twice in a week d) Some times
Q9: - How much quantity of feed you are giving per cattle in K.G? a) 1-2 b) 2-4 c) 4-6 d) More than 6
Q10:- Have you heard about Godrej feed? a) Yes b) No
Q11:- Have you ever used Godrej feed? a) Yes b) No
Q12: - How much milk you are getting per cow? a) 3-5 b) 5-10 c) 10-15 d) 15-25
Q13: - How much milk you are getting per buffalo? a) 3-5 b) 5-10 c) 10-15 d) 15-25
Q14: - For which purpose you are using milk? a) For sale b) Own consumption c) Both
--- How you want feed to be or what are your expectations from feed? Ans:-
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