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Wind Home Systems
Wind Home Systems

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Assessment of Wind Home System's Potential in Coastal Areas of Pakistan

Mujeebudin Memon, Khanji Harijan, and Mohammad Aslam Uqaili Citation: AIP Conf. Proc. 941, 80 (2007); doi: 10.1063/1.2806075 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2806075 View Table of Contents: http://proceedings.aip.org/dbt/dbt.jsp?KEY=APCPCS&Volume=941&Issue=1 Published by the AIP Publishing LLC.

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Downloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138.253.100.121. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

In Pakistan. decentralized renewable electricity especially wind power appears to be one of the viable option.75 MW and 135 GWh/year respectively. coastal areas. Keywords: Wind power. This paper presents the assessment of potential of wind home systems (WHS) for rural electrification in coastal areas of Pakistan using the wind speed data recorded by Pakistan Metrological Department (PMD) and power curve of a reference wind turbine. Extension of existing centralized grid system to rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads is economically and technically unfeasible. which would be sufficient for meeting the electricity demand of a rural household. Jamshoro 76062. CP941. They have low population density.253. Fax: +92-22-2771382. Mehran University of Engineering and Technology. V.D. Department of Mechanical Engineering.aip.Assessment of Wind Home System's Potential in Coastal Areas of Pakistan Mujeebudin Memon"'*. Department of Electrical Engineering. Jamshoro 76062. Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development edited by P.00 80 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138. Jamshoro 76062.121. Khanji Harijan'' and M o h a m m a d Aslam Uqaili" '^Professor. About 50 and 90 percent of the total population of rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene and LPG. In this situation. Pakistan *Corresponding author Tel: +92-22-2772280. Pakistan Ph. of which. rural electrification. com Abstract. Electricity is the most versatile form of energy and is the key to the modem world.hotmail. Nayar © 2007 American Institute of Physics 978-0-7354-0454-0/07/$23. A 150 Wp wind turbine could generate about 345 kWh and 250 kWh of electricity per year in coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan respectively. only 55 percent population has access to electricity and per capita consumption is about 520 kWh. Pakistan '^Professor. About 68 percent of the coimtry's population lives in rural areas and most of them have no access to electricity. Ho. Department of Mechanical Engineering.org/about/rights_permiss . About 50 and 90 percent of the total population of rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene and LPG. INTRODUCTION Energy is a vital input for the economic and social development of any coimtry. 250 km is falling in Sindh and 800 km in Balochistan. Mathew. Mehran University of Engineering and Technology. Mehran University of Engineering and Technology.100. Jennings. Pakistan has 1050 km long coastline. The total installed capacity and technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as 63. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Student. E-mail address: muieeb63(a). and C. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings. The population density in rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces is about 100-150 and 10-50 persons per km^ respectively. Rural villages of Pakistan's coastal areas are scattered over a large area and located far from the main electric grids. Pakistan" 1. G. The average theoretical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan is about 2245 and 1800 FLH respectively. K.

conventional electricity is generated from oil. Hence there are remote chances of getting grid connection to most of the rural population in the near future. hydel and nuclear energy has 66. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings.2 percent share respectively in total conventional electricity generation in Pakistan during 2004-05. 2. Though Pakistan has huge coal potential but has not been utihzed to its full potential due to various reasons. The conventional power is even not sufficient for meeting the growing demand of electricity from the existing customers.org/about/rights_permiss . The continental shelf of the Sindh coast extends to a distance of 150 km whereas that of Balochistan only measures 15-40 km. Electricity demand in urban areas is also growing day by day due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Further more the extension of existing centralized grid system to far away from grid line rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads are economically and technically unfeasible. coal and nuclear energy.100.8 percent. Power generation from imported oil increases the cost of electricity and over burdens the national economy. At all theses locations. hydro. Government of Pakistan in 2002. gas. improvement in the standard of living etc. Nuclear power has not been developed according to expectation and further growth is imcertain due to high capital cost. 81 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138. PMD has measured and recorded the wind speed and direction at 45 locations in the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan imder Wind Mapping Project fimded by Ministry of Science and Technology.aip. renewable energy sources such as wind energy.about 100-150 and 10-50 persons per km^ in Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the coimtry heavily depends on imported oil. DESCRIPTION OF DATA USED Pakistan's coastline extends 1050 km. The need of electrification of entire country has become essential for our economic revival. Power generation from fossil fuels is also a major source of environmental degradation. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan will grow at 7-11 percent per annum. safety and security concerns. environment friendly. Thermal. increase in per capita income. Figure 1 and 2 shows the different locations in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively where the wind speed has been measured and recorded by PMD. In Pakistan.121. 30 percent and 3. and requires small load.253. This paper presents the assessment of potential of WHS for rural electrification in coastal areas of Pakistan using the wind speed data recorded by PMD and power curve of a reference wind turbine. 250 km falling in Sindh and 800 km in Balochistan. This whole situation requires urgent measures on priority basis for the development of indigenous. one minute average wind speed was recorded at 10m and 30 m heights.

apur [ Tando Ada M i r p u r Khas -. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings. 1 Tliano Bula Khan T«onal)a H''*. . Wind mapping locations of coastal area of Balochistan. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract.253. j Kotri Umarkot Hyderabad Chachro T H A R Chailar Nohtun jo Goth ^Bhorila D E S E R T FIGURE 1. Wind mapping locations of coastal area of Sindh. Hub Ghoki i Karachi'^ i* pmmmPmMt-pniMwiniMinnaSr FIGURE 2. 82 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138.org/about/rights_permiss .aip. Tando Allahyar L j Jamesabad Naya Chor 25^ 30' R A N G E ™ .100.121.

3.e. Jamshoro. In this study. TABLE 1. Ormara. Badin.Sept. Thatta and Defense Housing Authority (DHA) Karachi. Sindh Balochistan Hawksbay. 40 different locations have been selected and data provided by PMD have been used for the estimation of potential of WHS. 2002 . Mand.May 2004 Sept 2002 . Hoshab. Jamshoro The mean of wind duration availability in terms of numbers of hours the wind remained in a particular bin. for other three locations the same data provided by PMD has been used in this study. Basol.Aug 2003 Thatta.org/about/rights_permiss . Pasni. Data recording period for different locations.Aug 2004 Gawadar Gaddani. Phore. Hyderabad. The wind duration availability in terms of numbers of hours the wind remained in a particular bin was also calculated by constructing the wind rose diagrams by PMD. Nooriabad.100. of two years for 37 locations has been estimated and used in this study. Tump. Chuhar Jamali. Pishukan. 2004 Sept 2002 . DHA Karachi. 83 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138. Two sample wind duration curves have been constructed for 12 locations and are shown in Figure 3 to 4.July 2004 May 2002 . Wind duration curves are important to know the availability of wind speed in terms of number of hours the wind remained between certain wind speed intervals during the year. the data of one year was available.aip.121. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings. Baghan. Matli. Jati. Othal Makola Nalent Apr 2002 . ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL OF WHS IN COASTAL AREA OF PAKISTAN Small wind turbines appear competitive only in areas far from the grid due to their relative high initial investment cost. Shahbander.Feb 2004 Hubchoki. For the remaining three locations i.253. According to reports. Jiwani. Turbat. Two years data was available with PMD for 37 locations but recording periods were different as shown in Table 1. therefore. Data Period Mar 2002 . This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Mirpursakro. Sajwal. Talahar. The estimation of the potential of WHS is. Gharo.Apr 2004 Oct. Winder Ramra. Liari Aghore. Ketibandar. Kadhan.Average monthly wind speed at 10m height at all locations has been estimated from the recorded data by PMD. about 50% and 90% of the total population of rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan respectively have no access to electricity. However. practically the search for non-electrified households which situate in good wind regions.Mar 2004 Aug 2002 . Managi June 2002 . Thanubolakhan Gharo.

the number of non electrified rural households would be about 300 thousand and 125 thousand in coastline of Sindh and Balochistan respectively. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings. Wind duration curves for different locations of Sindh coastal area. Wind duration curves for different locations of Balochistan coastal area. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. 2500 - —•— Gaddani —•— Phore —•— Jiwani —1— Orniara Liari —— Basol — — 2000 - 1500 1000 500 - _ky^^^^^^^^V 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Wind Speed (ni/s) 0 FIGURE 4.50 persons per km^ respectively.253.150 and 10 .The population density in rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces is about 100 . 84 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138. Based on these figures.aip. A wind turbine of 150 Wp would be sufficient for meeting the electricity demand of a rural household in Pakistan. 2000 —•— Hawksbay Keti Bander —•— Jamshoro ^ « ^ Shahbander —i— Hyderabad 1 1500 o o Z 1000 - \\ K- -hX- —*— Nooriabad 500 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 '~~r~*^ i ¥ i i i ( i « i i i i i K i « i » 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Wind Speed (ni/s) FIGURE 3.121.100.org/about/rights_permiss .

2005).7 m Swept area 2. TABLE 2. Power curve of wind turbine. Also. Detailed Specifications of the wind turbine.6 wind turbine per annum can be estimated using equation (Nguyen. 85 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138. E(kWh) generated by PD 170. in terms of number of hours wind remained between certain wind speed intervals during the year.6 wind turbine (Nguyen. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract.org/about/rights_permiss . Indicator Value Rotor diameter 1. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings.121.6 (150 Wp) of the Research Center of Thermal Equipment and Renewable Energy Vietnam as reference turbine and the wind duration data. Turbine capacity factor has been estimated by dividing the theoretical electricity generated in kWh by 8760 and is also presented in Table 3. Figure 5 shows the power curve of PD 170.aip."""" \ \ \ wind Speed (m/s) FIGURE 5.253. The technical data of this turbine is given in Table 2.27 m2 Rated Power 150 kW Starting wind speed 3 m/s Rated wind speed 8m/s Cut-out wind speed 16 m/s Number of blades 6 Tower height 10m J 140 1 0 - ^ J i J / f V"""". Theoretical electricity in kilowatt-hours.100. Theoretical potential in terms of full load hours can be estimated by dividing the theoretical electricity generated in kWh by rated power of the turbine. 2005): E{kWH) = Y: fiy)-P(y) (1) Where f(v) is the wind frequency distribution and P(v) is the turbine power at wind speed V. The energy output for each location has been calculated and presented in Table 3 in the form of kWh and hours of full power.The theoretical potential of WHS has been estimated by using a wind turbine model PD 170.

2 1941.50 204.5%) and FLH is the full-load hours.4 24.00 454.253.0 1360.5 40.3 23.6 Balochistan 125 18. Province RHHwe Installed Average Technical (thousand) Capacity FLH Potential (MW) (hrs) (GWh/y) Sindh 300 45.6 15.5 1605.5 43.7 25.0 25.0 37.3 16.15 346.5 20.75 85.B Khan Thatta DHA Khi Hawksbay Average 524.10 531.90 452.org/about/rights_permiss .8 4.2 27.FLH (2) Where E is the wind energy output (kWh/y).0 2038.60 305.37 240.0 2125.0 3019.3 584.6 1219.3 34.93 328.5 49. loss in the line.2 1695.V^.0 11.9 13.9 1482.5 3286. Theoretical Power Produced Using PD 170.2 18.7 13.5 2187.91 572.3 19.RHH„J^. TABLE 4.5 1654.62 141.2 373.100.86 164.7 1577.2 6.0 23.6 4323.0 40.2 12.0 541.63 248.9 10.05 236.2 3030.3 12.55 156.28 366.22 173.00 149. Jamali Golarchi Kadhan Matli Sajawal Talhar T.63 329.11 178. Technical potential of WHS in coastal areas of Pakistan.00 56.07 310.05 401. of rural households with out electricity.0 1662.1 22.75 1662 21.7 1188.5 19.0 13.6 22.2 2197.4 10.20 87. The technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Pakistan has been estimated using eq.9 4.8 1155. (2) and is given in Table 4.77 492. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings.8 2445. RHHwe is the no.2 2203. tja is the system efficiency (battery.9 25. Tc is the turbine capacity (Wp).7 1096.6 2678.5 3498.18 81.6 23.1 953.53 291.Sindh TABLE 3.60 289.4 3541.F (KWh) FLH (MWh) FLH (%) Turbine C.6 2033.1 Total 425 63.5 2213.34 167.6 6.48 330.F (%) Ramra Ormara Jiwani Pasni Gawadar Turbat Aghore Basol Gaddani Hoshab Hubchoki Liari Makola Managi Mand Nalent Othal Phore Pishukan Winder Average 182.5 34.5 1748.3 1930.2 995. 67.6 Wind Turbine.8 3343.2 25.48 262.84 182.00 2126 64.3 The technical potential of WHS can be estimated using the equation: E = Y.aip.0 1044.9 13.05 648.4 38. charge controller.9 18.0 1213.6 1113.26 143.8 2070.27 332.7 86 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138.7 18.2 11.2 408.63 613.0 Jamshoro Hyderabad Gharo Ketibander Nooriabad Shahbander Mirpursakro Jati Badin Baghan Chr.121.84 222.25 250. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Power generation Turbine Balochistan Power generation C.1 944.03 254.57 501.70 305.9 30.4 3813.

which shows that the coastal area of Pakistan is suitable for WHS.100. The average wind turbine capacity factor in Sindh and Balochistan is 25% and 19% respectively. environmental degradation due to fossil fuels use. in terms of number of hours wind remained between certain wind speed intervals during the year. Also due to increasing power demand from the existing customers. high values of theoretical wind power are foimd at Gaddani. Basol and Phore sites where as low values are foimd at Othal. Talhar.4% of the total electricity consumption in the domestic sector of Pakistan. Hubchoki. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The theoretical wind power potential at different locations has been estimated by using the power curve of a wind turbine model PD 170. high values of theoretical wind power are found at Noriabad. high values of theoretical wind power are found at Gaddani. The extension of existing centrahzed grid system is economically and technically unfeasible. The results show that the average theoretical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan has been estimated as 2126 and 1662 FLH respectively. Kadhan and Golarchi. diminishing resources of thermal power generation. there are remote chances of getting grid connection to most of the costline's rural population in the near future. considering about 300 thousand and 125 thousand households in coastline of Sindh and Balochistan respectively without electricity and assuming a wind turbine of 150 Wp would be sufficient for meeting the electricity demand of a household. The technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Pakistan has been estimated as 86 GWh per year.4. as 63. In Sindh.6 (150 Wp) of the Research Center of Thermal Equipment and Renewable Energy (RECTERE) Vietnam and the wind duration data.aip. Hawksbay and Jamshoro sites and in Balochistan. The installed capacity of WHS in the coastal area of Pakistan has been estimated.121. WHS appears to be one of the viable options for electrification of rural households in the coastal areas of Pakistan. The technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Pakistan has been estimated as 86 GWh per year. Ketibandar. Similarly in Balochistan. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract.75 MW. which is about 0. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings. Hawksbay and Jamshoro sites where as low values are foimd at Matli. Basol and Phore The total installed capacity of WHS has been estimated as 63. Ormara. Ketibandar. Mand and Nalent sites. CONCLUSION Rural villages of Pakistan's coastal areas are scattered over a large area and located far from the main electric grids.75 MW. increase in the price of fossil fuels. In Sindh. 87 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138. 5.253.org/about/rights_permiss . high values of theoretical wind power are foimd at Noriabad. Most of the villages have no access to electricity. The average theoretical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan is about 2126 and 1662 FLH respectively. Ormara.

D..org/about/rights_permiss . "Fossil fuel consumption in Pakistan: Environmental Problems and Possible Solutions". Hamburg Institute of International Economics. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. HDIP. lOI-lIO.003. 6. The development and utilization of this source for power generation would reduce the pressure on oil imports and deforestation.10I6/i. Rehman. A.rser. M. K. U. The nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138.121. Ministry of Science and Technology. pp..aip.htm 8. Harijan. May 2006. Government of Pakistan. December 2001. M. M. Pallav Purohit.. Majeed. Saudi Arabia and Dr. protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people of Sindh.. M. GOP. Various Technical Reports". Government of Pakistan..A. Economic Advisor's Wing..100. 2. Neuer Jimgfemstieg. Pakistan. GOP for their financial support to carry out this research work.. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract.Wind energy is indigenous.com/IntroductiontoPakistan/coastlineofPakistan. A. Harijan also greatly acknowledge the Higher Education Commission. Ahmad. Aqeel. Pakistan. K. 2. M. Germany for their help and encouragement. The coauthor K.. Pakistan Metrological Department. K. "Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2005". Harijan.K. Ministry of Environment. Memon. 9. D. Hamburg.gov. No. "Wind Energy Development in Pakistan". 7. "Housing Units by Source of Water and Lighting" Statistical Division. 5. Volume 8. and Butt. "Wind Mapping Project in Coastal Areas of Sindh and Balochistan. Research Programme on International Climate Policy. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. N. 1-2 February. Mirza. and Harijan. 2004.2006. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings. Proceedings. and Uqaili. PMD. free of cost and environment friendly and should be developed for meeting growing power demand in Sindh. T. Third International Mechanical Engineering Congress. 2006. Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan. Karachi. Islamabad. GOP.pdf (Accessed on 15th December 2006). "Economic Survey of Pakistan 2003-04".statpak. 2005.wildlifeofpakistan .. DOI:I0. Asia-Pacific Development Journal..253. 3. Renewable Energy Research Cell. 4.. Memon. Available at: www. Finance Division. REFERENCES 1. "The Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth". ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge Prof S. S. Government of Pakistan.03. 2005.pk/depts/pco/statistics/other_tables/housing_imits_by_water lighting. Uqaili. Islamabad. www. Government of Pakistan. Paper presented at conference on Renewable Energy Sector. "Reducing Dependence on Kerosene for Lighting Using Renewables in Rural Areas of Pakistan".

Saudi Arabia". WWl.121. University of Oldenburg. 13.. Proceedings.K. Wallace. AIT. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. pp.. Shen. 2004. Aretz. Harijan. A. M. Dissertation. M.. 26. "Renewables for Power Generation: Status and Prospectus" 2003 Edition. 2005. "Analysis and Assessment of the Technical Potential of Wind Energy for Power Generation in China and India Considering its Environmental Benefits". Paris. 16. Energy Policy. 20-21 March. France. An International Conference. 10.. Theses. "On the Global and Regional Potential of Renewable Energy Sources".D. Karachi.. pp. S. Thailand. Pakistan. No. Worldwatch Institute. Faculty of Physics. lEA. Available @ www.100.org/about/rights_permiss . Energy Conversion and Management. M. International Energy Agency. 14-16 January. Rehman.253. 2005. No. Department of Science.. pp.. 89 nloaded 08 Jul 2013 to 138. Technology and Society. D. 12. Utretch University.net 17. 2006.ren21. 11. "Long Term Optimization of Energy Supply and Demand in Vietnam with Special Reference to the Potential of Renewable Energy". Uqaili. 2002. 2004. "Renewable Energy Technologies for Rural Electrification in Pakistan: Status and Prospects". Vol. A. Hoogwijk.Institution of Engineers Pakistan. 2004.. and Memon M. "The Economics of Sustainable Energy for Rural Development : A Study of Renewable Energy in Rural China". Nguyen. Faculty of Economics and Law. 14. 1998. Dissertation.aip. W.. Electric Supply Industry in Transition: Issues and Prospects for Asia.01-08. 2003. University of Oldenburg. B. Q. Mirani. K. 45-54. 15. 1. 2019-2032. Byrne.. Netherland. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://proceedings. "Renewables 2005: Global Status Report". "Wind Energy Resources Assessment for Yanbo. 13/14. Ph. J. Vol. 45.

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