MEMORANDUM To: Shri V. K. Sinha, Additional Director General Roads, MORTH Shri R. P.

Indoria, Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress From: Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal, Jaipur Subject: Revision of MORTH Orange Book Section 500 on Bituminous Pavements Date: 18 May 2009 Gentlemen, As requested by you, I have prepared draft revisions to the entire Section 500 of 2001 MORTH Specifications (Fourth Revision), that is, the so-called small orange book on bituminous pavements. The recommended revisions follow this memorandum for your consideration. I am really glad MORTH has finally undertaken the revision of the orange book earnestly. I hope the revised book will be published very soon. I have recommended radical surgery of Section 500 (Bituminous Pavements) to remove the unnecessary dead wood and to overhaul the total bituminous specifications to bring it up to date. This action warrants the following general statement so that the MORTH reviewers (who will finalize the revision of the orange book) are objective rather than subjective in their judgment. GENERAL STATEMENT There is a proliferation of bituminous paving mixes in our orange book. It provides 6 types of bituminous base courses, 6 types of bituminous binder courses, and 6 types of bituminous wearing courses (total 18 types). These also include Premix Carpet and Mixed Seal Surfacing for wearing course and Bituminous Penetration Macadam (BPM) and Built-Up Spray Grout (BUSG) for binder course. Too many options for a specific bituminous course have created confusion in mix selection and are mainly responsible for the poor performance of flexible pavements in India. What is so special about India when most countries of the world including the US can build excellent roads (ranging from rural to national highways) with only one bituminous mix for a specific bituminous course such as base course, binder course, and wearing course? If the life of the roads in India was equal or better than that in other countries, keep all these 18 mixes by all means. However, we have a dismal record on road performance and durability. Most highway engineers now agree that the life of bituminous surfaces in India is 3 to 5 years compared to 8 to 10 years in most other countries. The reviewers of the orange book should be requested to read the paper titled, “ A Critical Review of Bituminous Mixes Used in India”, by P. S. Kandhal, V. K. Sinha, and A.

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Veeraragavan recently published in the Journal of the Indian Roads Congress, Volume 692, July-September 2008 and presented at the IRC Session in Kolkata. The authors have made a detailed technical and economical comparison of BM with DBM in Section 5.1 of the paper in terms of permeability, structural strength, use as PCC, cost considerations, traffic conditions, and general statements. It was concluded with technical justifications that dense graded DBM should be used in lieu of open graded, undrained BM especially to obtain long lasting pavements. Numerous positive comments have been received on this paper, which made a strong case of drastically reducing the number of bituminous mixes in the orange book by deleting some mixes such as Bituminous Macadam (BM) and Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC), which are fundamentally flawed and are not cost effective. However, despite many fundamental, technical flaws associated with BM as mentioned in the paper, some engineers still advocate to retain it in the specifications. This is probably due to the following misconceptions: • Dense graded DBM is not flexible enough to be placed directly on WMM and therefore a “flexible” BM course is necessary between the WMM and DBM. If the DBM was not flexible it would not rut at all. But that is not the case. If there is uneven settlement /consolidation of WMM, the DBM is flexible enough to deform and adjust similar to BM if that is what is desired. It is a common practice in most countries of the world to place DBM type bituminous base course directly on crushed stone base course (we call it WMM). That practice has resulted in durable long lasting pavements without any problems. BM is cheaper than DBM and that is why it is good for a developing country like India. A detailed, comparative cost analysis given in the paper shows that the DBM is cheaper than the BM by 15 to 21% if the relative structural strengths are considered. Only when the BM is used as PCC to correct camber/super elevation it is cheaper than the DBM. But the problem still remains that the undrained BM PCC would trap moisture/water creating a “bath tub” within the pavement and thus will be potentially detrimental to the pavement.

Some engineers have suggested retaining the BM but providing outlet for the water trapped in the open graded BM. To do this, the BM has to be extended all the way to the edge of the embankment (that is, day lighted) or pavement edge drains have to be constructed to drain the BM. Both of these configurations which are shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) of the paper to drain a permeable asphalt treated base (PATB) are very expensive propositions. Even developed countries use the PATB as a drainage layer only on selected heavy duty roads. It should also be mentioned here that if we must use a drainage layer in India in exceptional circumstances, we should use PATB rather than the BM because the former with 2-3% bitumen content and coarser gradation is not only cheaper but also more permeable. If BM is used as PCC for correcting camber, it may not be possible to drain the BM wedge (triangle) especially if it is towards a raised median. Moreover, rainwater falling in the raised median may also enter sideways into the open graded BM wedge and cause

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stripping and potholes. Such a case has been observed on a national highway in India. As mentioned in the paper, it is time to move on from open graded “cheaper” mixes to dense graded, durable mixes if our objective is to have long lasting pavements both for low-volume and high-volume roads. Time is of essence. There is no need to conduct any research, as some might say, and wait for the results. That will simply delay this change, which is based on common sense, is already practiced in the world, and is now long overdue in India. There is a trend in the world to use only dense-graded bituminous mixes both for low and high traffic roads so that long lasting pavements, which require minimal maintenance, can be constructed. (Obviously, use of premix carpet directly on WBM for rural roads is acceptable.) The revised Section 509, “Dense Graded Bituminous Mixes” recommends only 4 mixes: one for base course, one for binder course, and two for wearing course. If the dense graded 9.5 mm NMAS wearing course as recommended in proposed Clause 509 is adopted, there is no need for the “semi-dense” SDBC, which is technically flawed due to pessimum voids as explained in the IRC paper. The recommended dense graded mix (which can also be used in thin 25 mm applications) will be more durable and cost effective than the SDBC, because the former is only about 5% costlier than the latter. Two new Clauses 423 and 424 have been added to include specifications for cold, stockpileable pothole repair mix and stone matrix asphalt (SMA), respectively. This memorandum along with my recommended revisions to Section 500 (Bituminous Pavements), the entire small orange book, is being shared with over 600 highway engineers (government, contractors, consultants, and academia) all across India. I believe they all are looking forward to a simpler (that is, less number of mixes by cutting the dead wood and eliminating outdated and technically flawed mixes) and a progressive orange book. Only an objective review (free of preconceived notions and misconceptions) can accomplish this objective. I sincerely hope MORTH review and the final revisions will not disappoint them. My recommendations for revising Section 500 now follow.

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Recommended Revisions to MORTH Specifications for Road and Bridge WorksSection 500 (Fourth Revision) By Prof. Prithvi S. Kandhal, Jaipur (18 May 2009) Note: My comments to support the suggested revisions are given in italics within parenthesis. [General comment for the entire orange book: In the revised orange book please do not number the tables and figures in a sequence in the entire book. If we delete a clause from the orange book, the whole sequence is disturbed and renumbering of the tables and figures is required. I suggest to assign number to the tables within the clause. For example, tables in clause 509 will be numbered as 509.1, 509.2, 509.3 and so forth. This way, if Clause 509 is deleted in future it does not affect the numbers of other tables in the orange book.] 501. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT LAYERS Clause 501.2.1 Binder Delete 2 sentences starting and ending as follows: “Where penetration grades………… …..penetration range 30 to 40.” Substitute the following in lieu of the deleted 2 sentences: Where viscosity grades of bitumen are specified, they are referred as VG grades such as VG-30 and VG-10 in accordance with IS:73:2006. [Comment: The above revision is necessary in view of change in bitumen grading from penetration to viscosity.] Clause 501.2.3 Fine Aggregates Insert the following sentence after the first sentence: “The amount of natural sand in the total fine aggregate may be limited as set forth in the individual relevant clause for the material in question.” [Comment: We are allowing naturally occurring mineral material, which is essentially natural rounded sand. Most agencies in the world limit the amount of natural sand to 50 percent in the base courses and 10 percent in the binder and wearing courses (layers within 100 mm of the road surface) to minimize rutting problem. Right now our specification is vague and one can use 100 percent natural sand, which will get us into rutting problems.]

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] TABLE 501. [Comment: It is essential to refer to essential features of the mixing plant to be used. it is possible to establish mixing and compaction temperatures as per MS-2 of the Asphalt Institute.] 5 . “Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen from Bituminous Paving Mixtures”. LAYING AND ROLLING TEMPARATURES FOR DENSE MIXTURES (DEGREE CELCIUS) Bitumen Viscosity Grade VG-40 VG-30 VG-20 VG-10 Bitumen Temperature 160-170 150-165 145-165 140-160 Aggregate Temperature 160-175 150-170 145-170 140-165 Mixed Material Temperature 160-170 150-165 145-165 140-160 Laying Temperature 150 Min 140 Min 135 Min 130 Min *Rolling Temperature 100 Min 90 Min 85 Min 80 Min *Rolling must be completed before the mat cools to these minimum temperatures. [Comment: Since viscosity grading has been adopted. laying and rolling temperatures for dense graded bituminous mixtures are given in Table 501.Clause 501.1. Bitumen content of the produced mix shall be determined by ASTM D 2171. Both viscosity values shall be supplied by the bitumen supplier because the paving bitumen is based on viscosity grading.] Exact mixing and compaction temperatures for VG-30 and other viscosity grades will be determined based on paving bitumen viscosities at 60 C and 135 C following the procedure given in the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2. [Comment: Ranges of mix temperatures have been revised in view of the new viscosity grades. MIXING.3 Mixing Delete Paragraph 1 and substitute the following two paragraphs and table instead: Premixes bituminous materials shall be prepared with a hot mix plant of adequate capacity and capability of yielding a mix of proper and uniform quality of thoroughly coated aggregates. In case of modified bitumen. The essential features of the hot mix plant are given in Appendix A. In order to ensure uniform quality of mix the plant shall be calibrated from time to time. the temperature of mixing and compaction shall be higher than the mix with conventional bitumen as binder. The exact temperature depends upon the type and amount of modifier used and shall be adopted as per the recommendations of the manufacturer.1. The laying temperatures are 10 C less than the minimum mix production temperatures. Include Appendix A in orange book after copying from IRS:27 Specifications for Bitumen Macadam because the BM specification may be deleted in due course. which will account for some cooling in the transport. Mixing.

“A Critical Review of Bituminous Mixtures Used in India” by Kandhal. Engineer.Clause 501.” [Comment: It is not always practical to keep the traffic away from the binder course because it may not be possible to place the wearing course within 3 days.” [Comment: Most highway departments stop paving when rain is imminent. and present BC Grading 2 as a wearing course. Sinha anf Veeraragavan published in the Journal of the Indian Roads Congress. “If the surface of the base course……….5. 69-2.” [Comment: Most countries in the world control field density not based on the percentage 6 . which does not adversely affect the bituminous mix may be applied to the interior of the vehicle to prevent sticking and to facilitate discharge of the material.” [Comment: Most countries in the world do not allow application of diesel oil which can affect the bituminous mix making it soft and causing flushing. present BC Grading 1 as a binder course. This has been required because both DBM Gradings 1 and 2 have open surfaces which can absorb rainwater and are also affected adversely in terms of raveling by traffic . July. Vol. a thin coating of diesel or lubricating oil or an asphalt release agent.4 Transporting Revise the second sentence as follows: “Subject to the approval of the Engineer.] Clause 501. With this arrangement traffic can be allowed for a limited period of time on the binder course (BC Grading 2). We should be proactive and make this change now to permit the use of such release agents.4. fog and dust storm.5. These days. or during rain. we should be practical.September 2008. The recommendation is to use DBM Grading 2 as a base course.However. Solution to this problem is already provided in the IRC paper.1 Weather and Seasonal Limitations Revise the first sentence as follows: “Laying shall be suspended when rain is imminent.6 Compaction Add the following sentence to the first paragraph: “The compacted layers of Dense Graded Bituminous Macadam (DBM) and Bituminous Concrete (BC) shall have a minimum field density equal to or more than 92% of the average theoretical maximum specific gravity (Gmm) obtained on the day of compaction in accordance with ASTM D2041. like it is done in other countries.] Clause 501.] Clause 501.which is relatively impervious to water and also resistant to raveling under traffic. Cleanliness and Overlaying Delete Paragraph 2 except its last sentence. Surface treatment will be expensive. asphalt release agents consisting of soap or limewater are available.

My extensive research on longitudinal joint construction has revealed that rubberized bitumen tack coat gives the best result. which includes rubberized asphalt tack coat on the vertical joint.] Clause 501. a lower lab density results and the contractor has easy time achieving the compaction in the field if it is based on lab density. Gmm. it orients the aggregate particles in a certain manner but that orientation is disturbed again due to vibrations applied later. The overlapped mix should be bumped back with a lute just across the joint so that the excess material on the hot side can be pressed to obtain a high joint density. If the mix is compacted in the lab when it is relatively cold. -Kandhal] 7 .of the lab density but based on the percentage of the theoretical maximum specific gravity. The vibratory roller should be used in static mode (vibrations turned off) for the first 2 passes only if the mix is tender and unstable to sustain vibratory compaction. If a static mode is used first for initial or breakdown rolling. Basing the field compaction on the daily lab density brings in one more variable unnecessarily. unless the mix is tender requiring initial two passes in a static mode (vibration turned off). more than 92 percent of Gmm means no more than 8 percent air voids in the compacted mat. This way. the best packing of aggregates and high density is achieved with the vibrations. While spreading the material along the joint the material spread shall overlap 25 mm to 30 mm on the previously laid mix beyond the vertical face of the joint. The intermediate rolling shall be done with a pneumatic tyred roller of 12 to 15 tonnes weight having nine wheels with a tyre pressure of at least 5. Even countries like the US cannot afford it.” [Comment: The polymer modified adhesive bitumen tape is too expensive. In other words. which directly controls the air voids in the compacted mat. All loosened material shall be discarded and the vertical face be coated with VG-30 or VG10 viscosity grade bitumen or cold applied emulsified bitumen or rubberized asphalt tack coat (minimum thickness 3 mm). We have to change the mindset of the people to get optimum compaction.] Revise the last 3 sentences of Paragraph 2 as follows: “The intial or breakdown rolling shall be done with a vibratory roller (8 to 10 tonnes dead weight).” [It is a common practice in the US to use the vibratory roller in vibratory mode for initial or breakdown rolling.6 kg/sq cm. The finish rolling shall be done with 6 to 8 tonnes smooth wheeled tandem rollers. I have written a manual on longitudinal joint construction for airfield runways for the US Federal Aviation Administration. so I have included it as well. The thickness of the loose overlap material should be approximately a quarter more than the final compacted thickness.7 Joints Revise Item (iii) as follows: “All joints shall be cut vertical to the full thickness of the previously laid mix.

Sinha and Veeraragavan for a detailed discussion on why BM is detrimental to the pavement when used as PCC. If some engineers are adamant and still want to use the technically flawed BM. TACK COAT Delete the existing specification and substitute the latest IRC:16-2008 on tack coat recently developed by the Flexible Pavement Committee of IRC. Numerous studies have shown even specialized. the oil companies do not want to supply cutbacks because it uses kerosene. Sinha and Veeraragavan (published in the Journal of the Indian Roads Congress. we must make an exception and not restrict the use of cutback as a primer. The use of cutbacks is discouraged in the US but cutbacks are permitted as a primer coat because of their superiority over emulsions.2. Therefore. 504. Vol.Clause 501. inverted emulsions are not as good as medium curing cutback bitumens. [Comment: IRC:16-2008 now permits the use of medium curing cutback bitumen such as MC-30. BITUMINOUS MACADAM Delete this clause altogether at least from the orange book to obtain long lasting pavements in India.” [Comment: Please refer to the IRC paper by Kandhal.] 502. MC-70 and MC-250. With the availability of portable hot mix plants 8 . 2008) referred earlier. July-September. Many emulsions do not penetrate granular base enough and just form a skin at the surface contrary to what the manufacturers of specialty emulsions may say. Bituminous Macadam shall be used as a profile corrective course. 69-2. 541 by Kandhal. Moreover. they can refer to IRC documents.] 503. BITUMINOUS PENETRATION MACADAM Delete this clause from the orange book. See detailed explanation in the beginning general statement and in Paper No.8. 505. PRIME COAT OVER GRANULAR BASE Delete the existing specification and substitute the latest IRC:16-2008 on prime coat recently developed by the Flexible Pavement Committee of IRC.4 Profile Corrective Course and Its Application Add the following sentence at the end of the first paragraph: “In no case.

BUILT-UP SPRAY GROUT Delete this clause from the orange book.1. The MORTH should check whether the penetration macadam is still used in the country. 505.2. Clause 506. Bitumen: Revise as follows: “The bitumen shall be paving bitumen of viscosity grade complying with latest revision of IS:73. With the high cost of bitumen. If it is used substantially. If not. The MORTH should check whether the BUSG is still used in the country. an appropriate grade of emulsion complying with IS 8887 may be used. SEMI-DENSE BITUMINOUS CONCRETE Delete Clause 508. If it is used substantially. it also may not be very cost effective. Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) completely. Where permitted by the Engineer. If not.2. DBM will now be included in Clause 509. it also may not be very cost effective.] 506.penetration macadam is probably not used substantially. it should be deleted.” [Comment: Penetration grades have been changed to viscosity grades and cutback has been deleted. 508. then the following revisions should be made.1 Bitumen Substitute the following: “The binder shall be paving bitumen of suitable Viscosity Grade within the range of VG40 to VG-10 as per Indian Standards Specifications for Paving Bitumen IS:73. With the availability of portable hot mix plants BUSG is probably not used substantially. then the following revisions should be made. The actual grade of bitumen or cutback to be used shall be specified or as directed by the Engineer. With the high cost of bitumen. it should be deleted. “Dense Graded Bituminous Mixes”. This is what the Flexible Pavement Committee of the IRC has done over the last several years and we should not have any contradictions between the orange book and IRC specification. at least from 9 .” 507. DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MACADAM Delete this clause.

Overall. The detailed explanation is given in the general statement made in the beginning and the IRC paper by Kandhal. and gradations have been fine tuned as explained in detail in the IRC paper. An alternate better. construction and controls needed while laying dense graded bituminous mixes in base course. The gradations have also been revised slightly to make them more rut resistant as explained in that paper.1.] 509. existing BC Grading 1 as a binder course. 509. cost effective dense graded mix with 9. Dense graded bituminous mixes shall consist of mineral aggregate and appropriate bituminous binder. urban streets.the orange boo. an additional wearing course mix has been added. the specification has been copied from the IRC draft on Specifications for Dense Graded Bituminous Mixes recently developed by the Flexible Pavement Committee of the IRC except that SDBC has been deleted. mixed in a hot mix plant and laid with a mechanized paver. Four different gradations for dense graded bituminous mixes are available for use for highways. It now includes existing DBM Grading 2 as a base course. A new BC Grading 3 has been added for use as a wearing course on low to medium traffic roads. Sinha and Veeraragavan as referred earlier. Bitumen: The bitumen for dense graded bituminous mixes shall comply with Indian Standard Specification for viscosity-graded paving bitumen. This dense graded mix can also be used in thin applications such as 25 mm. Materials 509. and thin (25 mm) applications. binder course and wearing course for highways.5 mm NMAS is proposed in Clause 509 to take its place. IS: 73 or modified bitumen complying with IS: 15462. Binder course is the intermediate layer between bituminous base course and bituminous wearing course. 509. DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES [Comment: This clause has been renamed from “Bituminous Concrete” to “Dense Graded Bituminous Mixes”.2. Scope This specification deals with the basic outline for the design.2. to obtain long lasting pavements in India. This mix has pessimum voids and is technically flawed.1. Sinha and Veeraragavan. Guidelines for selection of grade of 10 . This arrangement of 4 dense graded mixes is explained in detail in the IRC paper by Kandhal. Dense graded bituminous mixes such as binder and wearing courses are usually laid on a previously prepared bituminous layer. This can be used in lieu of SDBC which has been proposed to be deleted. and existing BC Grading 2 as a wearing course.

Both the highest daily mean air temperature and the lowest daily mean air temperatures mentioned in Tables 509.3.3.2. the lowest daily mean air temperature (which usually occurs on some day in January) can also be obtained from the IMO. which may have occurred in a specific year. 509. Likewise. The type and grade of modified bitumen to be used shall be specified in the Contract.2 and 509. Since these are mean temperatures based on the average of 30-40 years data. high altitude regions of North India Use in spraying applications and for paving in very cold climate in lieu of old 80/100 penetration grade 11 .2 and 509. VISCOSITY GRADED (VG) BITUMENS AND THEIR GENERAL APPLICATIONS Viscosity Grade (VG) VG-40 (40-60 penetration) VG-30 (50-70 penetration) VG-20 (60-80 penetration) VG-10 (80-100 penetration) General Applications Use in highly stressed areas such as those in intersections. The use of polymer modified bitumen is recommended for very heavy traffic roads in very hot climate.viscosity-graded paving bitumen and modified bitumen are given in Tables 509.1. near toll booths. The highest of the 365 daily mean high air temperatures (which usually occurs on some day in May or June) is used in Tables 509. and truck parking lots in lieu of old 30/40 penetration grade Use for paving in most of India in lieu of old 60/70 penetration grade Use for paving in cold climatic. and 509. these temperatures are significantly lower than the absolute maximum temperatures.1. The IMO has data on daily mean high temperature for all 365 days in a year for all weather stations based on historical records of the last 30-40 or more years. This daily mean high temperature on a specific day is the same as daily “normal” high temperature for that day as usually reported in some newspapers. TABLE 509.3 can be obtained for the weather station nearest to the project site from the Indian Meteorological Organization (IMO).

This data is available from the Indian Meteorological Organization. from practical considerations selection should be based on air temperatures. The closest to that approach which we can use in India is the highest daily mean air temperature in the region. the highest daily mean air temperature in India (usually in May-June) generally ranges from 31 to 42 C only from Punjab to Kanya Kumari and from Gujrat to Assam. Therefore. C Less than 20 C 20 to 30 C More than 30 C VG-10 VG-10 VG-20 VG-10 VG-30 VG-20 TABLE 509. For this range of high temperatures. it will be too complex for the field engineers to convert air temperatures to pavement temperatures. Fortunately. Softer viscosity grades such as VG-20 and VG-10 are recommended for regions with highest daily mean air temperatures of 30 C and lower (such as cold 12 . SELECTION CRITERIA FOR GRADE OF MODIFIED BITUMEN Highest Daily Mean Air Temperature. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR VISCOSITY-GRADED (VG) PAVING BITUMENS BASED ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lowest Daily Mean Air Temperature. Kandhal.3. [Comment: Ideally.2. selection of bitumen grade should be based on high and low pavement temperatures. the 7-day maximum pavement temperature (based on more than 20 years’ weather data) in the region is used for high temperature grade.TABLE 509. These comments have been made by Prof. C More than -10 C -10 C or lower Grade of Modified Bitumen PMB/NRMB 120 CRMB 50 PMB/NRMB 120 CRMB 50 PMB/NRMB 70 CRMB 55 PMB/NRMB 120 CRMB 50 PMB/NRMB 40 CRMB 60 PMB/NRMB 70 CRMB 55 PMB = Polymer modified bitumen NRMB= Natural rubber modified bitumen CRMB= Crumb rubber modified bitumen Note to reviewers: All italicized comments in parentheses as under are for your information only to explain the revision and will not be part of this specification. C More than –10 C -10 C or lower Highest Daily Mean Air Temperature. In the Superpave performance grading (PG) system for bitumen. C Less than 20 C 20 to 30 C More than 30 C Lowest Daily Mean Air Temperature. a VG-30 grade is suitable based on experience in other countries. However.

3. 55 IS 2386 Part IV IS 2386 Part IV IS 2386 Part IV Strength * 13 .2 Where crushed gravel is proposed for use as aggregate.1 The coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed rock.2. 5% passing 0.Max.75mm sieve shall have at least two fractured faces.075 mm Test method IS 2386 Part I IS 2386 Part I Max. 27% Min.4.2. 40% BC -Max. The aggregate should preferably be of low porosity. crushed gravel or other hard material retained on 2. 35% Max. The coarse aggregate shall satisfy the physical requirements specified in Table 509. Viscosity graded VG-30 bitumen is suitable down to –10 C (due to its controlled temperature susceptibility).4. At temperatures lower than –10 C we can use softer grades such as VG-20 and VG-10.36 mm sieve. Coarse aggregate 509.3.3.] 509. hard. 509. Indian Meteorological Organization climatic data.2. durable and have cubical shape. It shall be clean. 30% DBM -Max 35% BC .climatic high altitude regions of North India). free from dust and soft organic and other deleterious substances. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COARSE AGGREGATE Property Cleanliness Particle Shape Test Grain size analysis Flakiness and Elongation Index (combined) Heavy traffic (more than 1500 commercial vehicles/day) Light traffic (less than 1500 commercial vehicles/day) Los Angeles Abrasion Value Aggregate Impact Value Polishing ** Polished Stone Value Requirement Max. The lowest daily mean air temperatures (which are also fairly close to pavement temperature) occur in India in January. The preceding 2 tables have been formulated in view of the above discussion. TABLE 509. not less than 90% by weight of the crushed material retained on 4. 24% DBM -Max. They range from –2 C to 21 C from Kashmir to Kanya Kumari. and practical considerations such as minimizing temperature ranges and viscosity grades. It is not advisable to use the highest air temperature ever recorded because rutting is not caused during one hot day but during sustained hot days.

36 mm sieve and retained on 0. IS 6241 has been retained only as a screening test for the coarse aggregate. 12% IS 2386 Part V Magnesium Sulphate Max. 18% Max. This test is already in the MORTH specifications Section 800 as a “water sensitivity” test and therefore has been proposed for the whole mix later in this specification. ** Only for wearing courses *** This test shall be conducted as a screening test for coarse aggregate only. therefore antistripping agents are not used when actually needed resulting in stripping problems. 2% Min. which is conducted on coarse aggregate only is antiquated and proven to be inadequate based on past extensive research.] 509. It is mandatory to conduct AASHTO T283 (Annexure I). The fine aggregate shall be clean. which is conducted on the whole bituminous mix as specified in Tables 509.3.3 Fine aggregate 509. or a combination of two. The plasticity index of the fraction passing the 0.1 Fine aggregate shall consist of crushed or naturally occurring mineral material.Durability Soundness (Either Sodium or Magnesium Sulphate) – 5 cycles Sodium Sulphate Max. No more than 10 percent natural sand will be allowed in the binder and wearing courses and no more than 50 percent natural sand will be allowed in the base courses. the fine aggregate is hydrophilic and causes stripping which can be worse than that from the coarse aggregate. [Comment: The stripping test IS 6241.7 and 509.3. Most mixtures pass this easy static-immersion test and.8. See Annexure I for the outline of this test. which is most commonly called Moisture Susceptibility test is also used in the Superpave mix design. durable. Retained Coating 95% IS 2386 Part V IS 2386 Part III IS:6241 Water Absorption Stripping *** Water Absorption Coating and Stripping of Bitumen Aggregate Mixtures Notes: * The aggregate may satisfy either of the two tests. dry and free from dust and soft organic and other deleterious substances. passing 2.425 mm sieve shall not exceed 4 when tested in accordance with IS 2720 Part 5. We should only use the Water Sensitivity or Moisture Susceptibility test AASHTO T283. Many of our stripping problems (especially potholes after monsoons) in India are potentially due to reliance on this antiquated test. In many cases. This test.075 mm sieve. which is conducted on the whole bituminous mix. hard.3. Fine aggregate shall have a sand equivalent value not less than 50 when tested in accordance with the requirement of IS 2720 Part 37. [Comment: Many agencies in the world limit the amount of natural sand (which has rounded particles) to 50 percent in the base courses and 10 percent in the binder and 14 .

Cement does not have any advantage even over stone dust. Where the complete bituminous mixture fails to satisfy requirement of Moisture Susceptibility test (AASHTO T 283 with freeze & thaw option).4 Filler 509.2 The filler shall be inert material free from organic impurities and have plasticity index not greater than 4.6. 2% by total weight of aggregate of hydrated lime shall be used and percentage of fine aggregate reduced accordingly.3.3. Right now our specification is vague and one can use 100 percent natural sand in all courses.4. shall confirm to limits given in Table 509.] 509. so why waste money unnecessarily. This way we do not have to worry about the coarse aggregate alone.100 85 .6 0. See Annexure I for the outline of AASHTO T 283. or hydrated lime or cement approved by the Engineer. GRADING REQUIREMENT OF MINERAL FILLER IS Sieve (mm) 0. wet sieving method.3. fine aggregate and filler. The use of hydrated lime is encouraged because of its very good antistripping and antioxidant properties.5.1The combined grading of the coarse aggregate. The filler shall be graded within the limits indicated in Table 509.] 509. TABLE 509.3.wearing courses (layers within 100 mm of the road surface) to minimize rutting problem.1 Filler shall consist of finally divided mineral matter such as rock dust.5.4.4.100 509. Moisture susceptibility test AASHTO T283 is mandatory and is conducted on the entire mixture because both coarse and fine aggregate and filler can cause stripping. [Comment: Most highway agencies prefer the use of hydrated lime rather than cement because the former not only is an antistripping agent but also retards the oxidation or aging of bitumen during service.4 Aggregate grading and bitumen content 509.3 0.075 Cumulative % passing by weight of total aggregate 100 95 .3. Plasticity index requirement will not apply if filler is hydrated lime or cement. 15 . which may get us into rutting problems. when tested in accordance with IS 2386 Part 1.

5.075 Bitumen Content 25 mm 75-100 mm 19 mm 12.0 100 90-100 71-95 56-80 38-54 28-42 7-21 4-7 4.0-5.2 The combined aggregate grading shall not vary from the lower limit on one sieve to the higher limit on the adjacent sieve to avoid gap grading.18 0. which retains more than 10% material.5 mm 9.36 1.6 0. GRADATION OF FOUR DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES Grading DBM Base BC Binder BC Wearing BC Wearing Course Course Course Grading 1 Course Grading 2 Nominal Aggregate Size* Lift Thickness Sieve Size.5 Note: Wearing course grading 1 is recommended for heavy traffic roads. mm 37.5 19 13.15 0. and for thin (25 mm) applications.6. * nominal maximum aggregate size is one size larger than the first sieve.TABLE 509.5 26. 509.2-7. Wearing course grading 2 is recommended for light to medium traffic roads.5 100 90-100 55-75 40-55 29-44 21-33 14-25 7-15 4-7 5.5 mm 25-40 mm 50-75 mm 30-50 mm Percent Passing 100 90-100 66-86 55-75 35-55 28-44 20-34 15-27 10-20 5-13 4-7 4. in urban areas.5 100 90-100 70-88 53-71 38-54 24-38 17-29 12-22 7-15 4-7 5.2 9.0-7.0-5.75 2.5 4. 16 .3.3 0.

REQUIREMENT OF THE DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIX WHEN USING UNMODIFIED BITUMEN Specification Compaction level (Number of blows) Minimum stability (kN at 60oC) AASHTO T 245 Minimum flow (mm) AASHTO T 245 Maximum flow (mm) AASHTO T 245 % Air Voids (MS-2 and ASTM D 2041) % Voids filled with bitumen (VFB) Asphalt Institute MS-2 Requirements 75 blows on each face of the specimen for heavy traffic and 50 blows on each face for light to medium traffic 9.5.3.5. The fine tuned gradations are given in columns 2-4 of Table 509. DESIGN OF MIX 509.2 for all mixes in Table 509. The exact bitumen content required shall be determined following the Marshall Mix Design procedure contained in the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2 (Sixth Edition).1 Besides conforming to the requirement of grading and quality for individual ingredients the mix shall meet the requirement set out in Tables 509.3 for light to medium traffic roads (50-blow Marshall specimen) 2 4 3 –5 65 – 75 for heavy traffic* (75-blow Marshall specimen) 65-78 for light to medium traffic (50-blow Marshall specimen) 17 .7.4.4.0 for heavy traffic roads* (75-blow Marshall specimen) 5.8 depending upon the type of binder.7 and 509. 509.7 correspond to paving bitumen as per IS:73 and requirements set out in Table 509.6 to 1. Sinha and Veeraragavan mentioned earlier.6.4 The fines to bitumen (F/B) ratio by weight of total mix shall range from 0.6 is the minimum only.4.1. TABLE 509.6. [Comment: Gradations given in the MORTH Section 500 (Orange Book) for DBM and BC have been fine tuned to make them more rut resistant as detailed in the IRC paper by Kandhal.509.3.8 correspond to modified bitumen as per IS: 15462.] 509. Requirements set out in Table 509.1 Mix Requirements 509.3 Bitumen content indicated in Table 509.

the bitumen will harden by that time due to aging and that will overshadow the effect of slightly higher bitumen content in the mix. If we want to reduce the bitumen content in most of our roads by as much as 0. We already have a severe problem of unusually low road durability in India. which is equivalent to 50blow Marshall and is used on most roads with light to medium traffic. AASHTO T283 (with freeze & thaw option)(see Annexure I for the outline of this test method) % Voids in Mineral aggregate VMA Nominal Maximum Particle size (mm) ** 9.5 37. In Superpave. there is a compaction level in terms of gyrations. ***For intermediate value of designed percentage air voids interpolate the VMA. %. So we must allow 50-blow Marshall Design for low to medium traffic roads such as MDR or ODR. which retains more than 10% material. Even in the Superpave mix design there are 4 levels of compaction depending on traffic. The minimum stability.5 3 14 13 12 11 10 2 to 5 80 Min % VMA related to designed % air voids*** 4 15 14 13 12 11 5 16 15 14 13 12 * Heavy traffic roads are those roads carrying more than 1500 commercial vehicles per day (CVD). SH. it will not be possible to justify that move technically at all. and ODR. range of flow. Only high-volume roads should use 75-blow Marshall Design like it is done in most countries of the world.0 26. [Comment: This specification should be able to be used on all types of roads: NH. However. which will reduce the durability of such roads.5 13. ** The nominal maximum particle size is one size larger than the first sieve. MDR. kN /mm (stability/flow) Tensile Strength Ratio (minimum).2 19. and VFB values for both 50 and 75 blow Marshall designs have been taken from the latest sixth edition of the Asphalt Institute MS-2 which 18 . then we can consider using only 75 blows for all roads in India.Marshall Quotient. Even if an ODR becomes MDR or SH later after a few years. It is neither technically correct nor desirable to design all roads with 75 blows because it will give undesirably low bitumen contents for low to medium traffic roads.5 percent and can tolerate lower life.

High rainfall can potentially increase the moisture damage in the mix.] TABLE 509. mm Marshall Quotient kN /mm Voids in Compacted mix % Tensile Strength Ratio (minimum). tropical countries successfully. %.is widely used successfully worldwide and has been referred to in our specification at several places. It has worked very well in hot and heavy rainfall area of the US (rainfall significantly more than India).5 – 4 2. minimum 95 [Comment: The values in Table 509. Therefore. It had also included criteria for heavy rainfall areas.8 are based on some research done in India.8.7 and 509. It is the pavement temperature and not the amount of rainfall. which is also reflected in the latest Asphalt Institute MS-2.5 – 5 Method of Test AASHTO T245 AASHTO T245 Stability /flow MS-2 and ASTM D2041 AASHTO T283 (freeze and thaw option) (see Annexure I for outline of this test) 95 AASHTO T 195 6 Coating of aggregate particles with bitumen. Since we 19 . which affects these properties. Extensive research has shown that the air void range of 3 to 5 percent applies to all courses. This is unlike past practice when higher air voids were specified for base courses compared to binder and wearing courses.8. In fact. rainfall has not been considered in Tables 509.5 – 5 3–5 80 3. These values have been used in very hot climate areas such as in Arizona in the US and other hot. There is no sound technical reason whatsoever for having a different Marshall stability and flow criteria for heavy rainfall areas. REQUIREMENT OF THE DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES WHEN USING MODIFIED BITUMEN SN 1 2 3 4 5 Properties Marshall stability (kN at 60oC) (minimum) 75 blow Marshall flow. which do not get further compaction from traffic. % Requirement Hot Cold Climate Climate 12 10 2. For that AASHTO T283 is enough with 80 % minimum tensile strength requirement. some states in the US specify even lower air voids 2 to 4 percent for the base courses.

20 .7 and 509.4. Source and location of all materials 2. and test results of AASHTO T 283 Moisture Susceptibility Test. [Comment: This is in accordance with the latest (sixth edition) of the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2 as well as Superpave mix design wherein the design bitumen content is selected to correspond with 4 percent air voids for all types of mixtures.1 The laboratory mix design gives the proportion of the mineral aggregate combination in terms of individual sieve sizes. Binder type and percentage by weight of total mixture 4.8 shall be multiplied by 2.2.4. the specified minimum stability values and the specified flow values given in Tables 509. This mineral aggregate combination together with the corresponding optimum bitumen content as determined in the laboratory. The test results of mix design such as maximum specific gravity of loose mix (Gmm). respectively. modified Marshall method using 6-inch diameter specimen described in the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2 (Sixth Edition) and ASTM D 5581 shall be used. which is less severe than AASHTO T 283. air voids. 509. This test method requires modified equipment and procedure.1 The binder content shall be selected to obtain 4 percent air voids in the mix design and shall meet all requirements given in Tables 509.4.have AASHTO T 283 which also requires 60 C water bath conditioning.4. 7. there is no need to have Retained Marshall stability after 24 hours in water at 60 C. VMA. for actual operational purpose in the field. Proportions of all materials 3. 6. constitute the job mix formula for implementation during construction.] 509.5.3 Job mix formula 509. The individual grading of the individual aggregate fraction and the proportion of each in the combined grading. fine aggregate and filler needed to give the ultimate gradation.2 Where maximum size of the aggregate is more than 25 mm. flow. 5.] 509.7 and 509. The selected binder content must satisfy all other Marshall and void properties. When the modified Marshall test is used. VFB and related graphs.4.2.3. the individual weight of each type of aggregate and binder per batch.25 and 1. 7. compacted specimen densities.2 Binder Content 509. The job mix formula proposed for the use in the work shall give the following details: 1. This blending ratio is obtained on a weight basis giving percent weight of the coarse aggregate. Marshall stability.8. Coarse aggregate/ fine aggregates/ mineral filler as percentage by weight of total aggregate including mineral filler. A single definite percentage passing each sieve for the mix aggregate. blending of the two or more sizes of aggregates (each size having within its range of individual sieve size) would be necessary. The Marshall Method for designing the mix shall be adopted as described in the sixth edition of the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2. In case of batch mixer.

8.4. and methodology are capable of producing satisfactory results.4. TABLE 509.3% 10 o C 509. 1.5 mm 4.75 mm 2.6.075 mm Binder Content Mixing Temperature Permissible Variation DBM BC + + + + + + + + 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 2% 0. The laying trial shall be carried out in an area. 21 .4.9. 0.4.1 Laying trials are carried out to establish that the proposed mix can be successfully laid and compacted. Mixing and compacting temperatures 509. compaction plan. PERMISSIBLE VARIATION FROM THE JOB MIX FORMULA Description Aggregate passing 19 mm or larger 13.9. See Annexure II for the outline of ASTM D 2041. which does not form a part of the work.5% 0. It should be ensured that it is based on the truly representative samples of the material that will be used for the work.4.4.3. The density of finished paving layer should not be less than the 92% nor more than 97% of the average (Sample size N=3) theoretical maximum specific gravity of the loose mix (Gmm) obtained on the day of trial following ASTM D 2041. 509.18 mm.6 mm 0. 509. equipment and mix shall also be similar to those proposed for the project.2 Approval of the job mix formula shall be based on independent testing by the Engineer on the samples furnished by the Contractor. The minimum area for laying trials shall be 100 square meters.5.5 Laying trials 509. 0. Methodology.5.15 mm 0.2 The trials establish that the proposed laying plan. Test results of aggregates.3% 10 o C + + + + + + + + 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 1. This shall be similar to the project area on which the bituminous layer is to be laid. 9.1 Plant trial shall be carried out to establish that the plant can produce uniform mix conforming to the job mix formula.36 mm.4. The permissible variation of the various ingredients in the actual mix from the job mix formula shall be within the limits as given in Table 509. New job mix formula shall be got approved whenever there is change in the material used for the work.2 mm/9.3 mm. These variations are intended to apply to individual specimen taken for quality control test in accordance with Clause 509.4 Plant trial 509.

Cores are taken after the mat has cooled below 60C after some hours.1.2 Filling up of potholes and sealing of cracks: Any potholes and/or cracks shall be repaired and sealed. There is no need to beat a dead horse. 509. No problems of core distortion whatsoever have been encountered.1. 509.1 Preparation of base 509. No more than 97% of Gmm means no less than 3% air voids in the compacted mix. which is tested any way during the mix design and daily Marshall Test.5. In other cases the profile corrective course shall be constructed as a separate layer. The former criterion has caused all kinds of problems including a large day to day variation. Durability of bituminous pavement is directly related to air voids in the mat on the day of construction.5. The later criteria gives air voids in the paved mat directly.[Comment: Most states in the US and many countries have changed the compaction criteria from percentage of the lab density of the compacted specimen to percentage of theoretical maximum specific gravity (Gmm) of the loose asphalt mixture.1 Cleaning of the surface: The surface shall be cleaned of all loose extraneous matter by means of mechanical broom and high.1.4 Profile correcting course: Depending upon requirement. 509. More and more agencies are moving towards Gmm. There is no technical reason whatsoever not to allow coring during the first 24 hours as stipulated in the MORTH specifications.1. So we are not introducing a new test. and only vaguely and indirectly related to lab density obtained by a technician on the day of construction. 509.5.] 509.5.5. profile-correcting course for correcting the existing pavement profile shall be laid either as a separate layer or as a composite layer with varying thickness. When it is laid as a separate layer. This point has been debated extensively in the US for many years.5.pressure air jet from compressor or any other approved equipment/method. No less than 92% of Gmm means no more than 8 % air voids in the compacted mat. Where the maximum thickness of the profile corrective course is less than 40 mm.3 Geosynthetics or stress absorbing layers: Where required layer of geosynthetics/stress absorbing material shall be laid. In no case BM shall be used as profile corrective course. Restricting percent air voids in the mat also allows easy forensic analysis of compacted pavement later in its life without looking for old records on lab compacted density in files.5. CONSTRUCTION OPERATION 509. which may cause bleeding/rutting.2 Tack coat 22 . the profile corrective course shall be laid as an integral part of the overlaying layer. In fact many agencies in the US prefer taking cores on the day of paving before the mat is opened to traffic. type of material for the use as the profile corrective course may differ.

laying.3. meters depending upon the type of surface and its porosity. Both viscosity values will be supplied by the bitumen supplier because the paving bitumen is based on viscosity grading. In order to ensure uniform quality of mix the plant shall be calibrated from time to time.10. Exact mixing and compaction temperatures for VG-30 and other viscosity grades shall be determined based on paving bitumen viscosities at 60 C and 135 C following the procedure given in the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2.] 509.5. The exact temperature depends upon the type and amount of modifier used and shall be adopted as per the recommendations of the manufacturer.5. The laying temperatures are 10 C less than the minimum mix production temperatures. and rolling temperatures for dense graded mixtures.4 Transportation 23 .35 kg / sq. MIXING.5.10 gives the mixing.3 Mixing 509.509. Table 509.20 to 0. The tack coat shall be applied by a self propelled or towed bitumen pressure sprayer equipped for spraying the bitumen emulsion uniformly at a specified rate.2. the temperature of mixing and compaction shall be higher than the mix with conventional bitumen as binder. [Comment: Ranges of mix temperatures have been revised in view of the new viscosity grades. In this regard guidelines can be taken from the literature supplied by the manufacturer. Quantity of liquid bituminous material shall vary from 0. In case of modified bitumen.5.1 A bitumen emulsion complying with IS 8887 of a type and grade shall be applied on the existing bituminous layer. The tack coat shall be left to cure until all the volatiles have evaporated before laying of subsequent layer. which will account for some cooling in the transport. TABLE 509. “Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen from Bituminous Paving Mixtures”. 509.1 Dense graded bituminous mixes shall be prepared in a hot mix plant of adequate capacity and capable of yielding a mix of proper and uniform quality with thoroughly coated aggregate The essential features of the hot mix plant are given in Appendix A. LAYING AND ROLLING TEMPARATURES FOR DENSE MIXTURES (DEGREE CELCIUS) Bitumen Viscosity Grade VG-40 VG-30 VG-20 VG-10 Bitumen Temperature 160-170 150-165 145-165 140-160 Aggregate Temperature 160-175 150-170 145-170 140-165 Mixed Material Temperature 160-170 150-165 145-165 140-160 Laying Temperature 150 Min 140 Min 135 Min 130 Min *Rolling Temperature 100 Min 90 Min 85 Min 80 Min *Rolling must be completed before the mat cools to these minimum temperatures. Bitumen content of the produced mix shall be determined by ASTM D 2171.

5. which does not adversely affect the bituminous mix.5. These days.2 Preparation of the base: Base shall be prepared by carrying out all or some of the operations as per Clause 509. raked and leveled with suitable hand tool by trained staff. 509. tearing and segregation. free from dragging.5. approaches to expansion joints etc) where paver cannot be used.3 Spreading: Except in areas where paver cannot access bituminous material shall be spread. the machine laying shall be stopped about 300 mm short of joint. The travel rate of paver and the method of operation shall be adjusted to ensure even and uniform flow of bituminous material across the screed. leveled and tamped by self-propelled hydrostatic paver finisher preferably with sensor. asphalt release agents consisting of soap or lime water are available.1 Weather and seasonal limitations: Dense graded bituminous mixes shall not be laid: • in presence of standing water on the surface.1 Bituminous material shall be transported in clean.] 509.5 Laying 509.1. • when the air temperature on the surface on which it is to be laid is less than 10oC for mix with conventional bitumen as binder and is less than 15oC for mix with modified bitumen as binder. the material shall be spread. or dust storm • when the base/binder course is damp. Table 11 gives the minimum laying temperatures.5. footways. insulated covered vehicles. Restricted areas (such as confined space. waterproofing system unless precautions against the heat damage have been taken. • when rain is imminent and during rains. • When the wind speed at any temperature exceed the 40 km/h at 2 meter height.5.5.5. The reminder of the pavement up to the joint and the corresponding area beyond it shall be laid manually. fog. irregular shape and varying thickness. Bituminous material.5. When laying dense graded bituminous mixes near expansion joint. An asphalt release agent. The rate of delivery of material to the paver shall be regulated to enable the paver to operate continuously. with temperature greater than 145OC shall not be laid or deposited on bridge deck.5.6 Compaction 24 . may be applied to the interior of the vehicle to prevent sticking and to facilitate discharge of the material. 509. [Comment: Most countries in the world do not allow application of diesel oil which can affect the bituminous mix making it soft and causing flushing.5.4. 509. depending upon the site conditions. We should be proactive and make this change now.509. As soon as possible after arrival at site the material shall be supplied continuously to the paver and laid without delay.

most states in the US and many countries have changed the compaction criteria from percentage of the lab density of the compacted specimen to percentage of theoretical maximum specific gravity (Gmm) of the loose asphalt mixture.3 The dense graded bituminous mixes shall be rolled in the longitudinal direction. All precautions shall be taken to prevent dropping of oil. which is tested any way during the mix design and daily Marshall Test as per MORTH specifications. The initial or breakdown rolling shall be done with a 8 to 10 tonnes dead weight vibratory steel wheel roller. where it shall progress from lower edge to upper edge parallel to centerline of the pavement. See Annexure II for the outline of ASTM D 2041. The later criterion gives air voids in the paved mat directly. before initial rolling is commenced.] 509. The wheel of the rollers shall be kept moist with the water or spray system provided with the machine to prevent the mixture from adhering to the wheels. grease. [Comment: As mentioned earlier. The former criterion has caused all kinds of problems including a large day to day variation. The overlap on successive passes should be at least one-third of the width of the rear roll or in the case of pneumatic wheeled rollers. breakdown rolling can be done in static mode for the first two passes.5. petrol or other foreign material on the pavement.56 MPa. No less than 92% of Gmm means no more than 8 % air voids in the mat. So we are not introducing a new test.7 Joints 25 .5.2 All deficiencies in the surface after laying shall be made good by the attendant behind the paver.1 Compaction shall commence as soon as possible after laying and shall be completed before the temperature falls below the minimum rolling temperatures given in Table 509.5. If the mix is tender. The roller should move at a speed of no more than 5 km /hour.5. Rolling of the longitudinal joints shall be done immediately behind the paving operation. with a tire pressure of at least 0. 509.The density of finished paving layer shall not be less than the 92% nor more than 97% of the average (sample size N=3) theoretical maximum specific gravity of the loose mix (Gmm) obtained on that day in accordance with ASTM D 2041. Minimum moisture to prevent adhesion between wheels and mixture shall be used and surplus water shall not be allowed to stand on the partially completed pavement.6.5. 509. a lower lab density results and the contractor has easy time achieving the compaction in the field if it is based on lab density.6. with the roller as close as possible to the paver. which has not been fully compacted.4 The density of the finished paving layer shall be determined by taking 150-mm diameter cores . 509.6. If the mix is compacted in the lab when it is relatively cold.10. at least the nominal width of 300 mm.509. The intermediate rolling shall be done with a pneumatic roller of 12 to 15 tonnes.6. Rolling shall continue till all the roller marks are removed from the surface and the minimum specified field density is achieved. More and more agencies are moving towards Gmm. The finished rolling shall be done with 6 to 8 tonnes smooth wheel roller. The roller shall not be permitted to stand on pavement. After this the rolling shall commence at the edge and progress towards the center longitudinally except at sections with unidirectional camber.

prior to laying the adjacent lane.2 All joints shall be cut vertical to the full thickness of the previously laid mix. In multi-layer construction the joint in one layer shall offset the joint in the underlying layer by about 150 mm. A requirement of 60 C mat temperature throughout the depth is insurance enough. 509.5. Extensive research on longitudinal joint construction by Prof. While spreading the material along the joint the material spread shall overlap 25 mm to 30 mm on the previously laid mix beyond the vertical face of the joint.7.4 By heating the joints with an approved infrared joint heater when the adjacent lane is being laid. It defeats the purpose of using hot mix asphalt.509.7.] 26 .8.1 It shall be ensured that traffic is not allowed on the surface until the paved mat has cooled below a temperature of 60 C in its entire depth.] 509. but without cutting back or coating with the binder. 509.5.7.5. Even countries like the US cannot afford it. The heater shall raise the temperature of the full depth of material. where this is practicable and in sufficient proximity for adjacent width to be fully compacted by continuous rolling. This practice is being adopted more widely in the US. it has been retained in case somebody wants to use it.7. [Comment: The current MORTH specification does not allow traffic for 24 hours after compaction. The thickness of the loose overlap material should be approximately a quarter more than the final compacted thickness. to minimum rolling temperature for a width of 75 mm. There is no technical reason not to allow traffic for 24 hours. the method suggested in Section 509.3 By using two or more pavers in echelon. All loosened material shall be discarded and the vertical face be coated with VG-30 or VG-10 viscosity grade bitumen or cold applied emulsified bitumen or rubberized asphalt tack coat (minimum thickness 3 mm). the material shall be fully compacted and the joint made flush in one of the following ways.2 can be adopted.5.7.5. However. 509. so it has been included as well. or polymer modified adhesive bitumen tape with the minimum thickness of 2 mm. If we are afraid the traffic will rut the pavement that means we have not rolled it enough. Kandhal has revealed that rubberized bitumen tack coat on the edge of the first paved lane gives the best result. 509.1 Where joints are made.7. The overlapped mix should be bumped back with a lute just across the joint so that the excess material on the hot side can be pressed to obtain a high joint density. However the joint in the top layer shall be along the centre line of the pavement.5 For transverse joints.8 Arrangement for traffic 509.5.5. [Comment: The polymer modified adhesive bitumen tape is too expensive. Such unreasonable requirement of 24 hours does not exist anywhere in the world. which lends itself to fast opening to traffic. The temperature shall not exceed 175 C.5.

25 m along the length and 0. UNEVENNESS Evenness Type of Surface Bituminous Concrete MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE FREQUENCY OF Maximum Number of Surface Unevenness.e.2 The maximum permissible surface evenness using longitudinal profile 3-m straight edge shall 5 mm for BC wearing course.5 m in width.6.6.2.6. 509.2 For checking the compliance with the above requirement measurements of the surface level shall be taken on a grid of points spaced 6.6.2. the full depth of the layer shall be removed and replaced with fresh 27 . the surface is low or high.6.509. TABLE 509. 509. In all cases of replacement the area treated shall not be less than 5m in length and not less than 3. The maximum permissible unevenness using transverse profile camber shall be 4 mm.1 The measurement and checking of surface evenness shall be done by a 3-m straight edge in accordance with the procedures in IRC:SP:16-2004.6.6.11.3 The maximum permissible frequency of surface evenness in 300 m length in longitudinal profile shall be as per Table 509. 509. 509.5 m from the edges and at the centre of the pavement.1. mm 3–5 NH/SH 15 MDR and Lower Category 30 509.1 Surface Finish 509. 509.1.3 In case where surface levels fall outside the specified tolerance. the Contractor shall be liable to rectify these by replacing the full depth of layer.2.6.6. CONTROLS 509. The compliance shall be deemed to be met for the final road surface only if the tolerance given above is satisfied for any point on the surface.1 The levels of the dense graded bituminous mixes shall not vary from those calculated with reference to longitudinal and cross profile of the roads as per the Contract beyond + 6 mm provided that the negative tolerance shall not be permitted in conjunction with the positive tolerance for the base course if the thickness of the former is thereby reduced by more than 6 mm.4 Where the surface unevenness falls outside the tolerance.1.2.2 Surface Evenness 509.11.6. in either case i.

To ensure the quality of the material and the work.7.7 Surface Roughness 509. CONTROL TESTS FOR DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES AND THEIR MINIMUM FREQUENCY SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TEST Quality of binder Aggregate impact value/ Los Angeles Abrasion value Flakiness index Soundness test (Sodium and Magnesium Sulphate test) Water absorption of aggregate Sand equivalent test Plasticity Index Polished stone value Percent of fractured faces Mix grading FREQUENCY Number of samples per lot and tests as per IS 73:2006 or IRC SP:53 One test per 50 m3 of aggregate One test per 50 m3 of aggregate 1 test for each method for each source and when ever there is change in the quality of aggregate 1 test for each source and when ever there is change in the quality of aggregate 1 test for each source 1 test for each source 1 test for each source One test per 50 m3 of aggregate when crushed gravel is used. TABLE 509. The tests and minimum frequency for each test is indicated in Table 509. 509.material and compacted to the specification.13.12.2 The maximum permissible value of surface roughness measured with a bump integrator are given in Table 509. 509. MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE VALUES OF ROUGHNESS (mm/km) FOR SURFACE WITH DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES Type of Surface BC Condition of Road Surface (mm / km) Good Average Poor < 2000 2000 – 3000 > 3000 509. The material supplied and the work shall conform to the specifications prescribed in the preceding Clauses.5 m in width.6.12.7.13. 509.5 In all cases of removal and replacement the area treated shall not be less than 5 m in length and 3. control tests shall be conducted during the execution of the paving project.1.8 Quality Control during Construction 509.2. One set for individual constituent and mixed 28 .1 Surface roughness shall be checked in accordance with procedures in IRC:SP:16 –2004. TABLE 509.8.

Annexure I to Clause 509 Outline of AASHTO T 283. Also. the inadequate stripping test has been deleted and the Moisture Susceptibility test AASHTO T 283 has been retained.] 509. flow value.9 Acceptance criteria 509.65/(No of samples) 0.1.9.11 12 13 14 15 16 Stability and voids analysis of mix including theoretical maximum specific gravity of loose mix Moisture Susceptibility of mix (AASHTO T 283) Temperature of binder in boiler.5 ] X standard deviation 509.9. density and void contents for each 400 tonnes of mix subject to minimum of two tests per day per plant 1 test for each mix type whenever there is change in the quality or source of coarse or fine aggregate At regular intervals One set for each 400 tonnes of mix subject to minimum of three tests per day per plant After every 5th truck load One test per 250 m2 area. nobody uses it especially when there is a better test (AASHTO T283) to replace it.2 Table 509. The acceptance criteria for test on density (N = 3 minimum) and Marshall stability (N = 3 minimum) shall be subjected to the condition that the mean value of N samples is not less than the specified value plus [1. [Comment: As discussed earlier.9 will govern the permissible variation in the mix and temperature.65 – 1. the swell test is antiquated. aggregate in dryer and mix at the time of laying and compaction Binder content Rate of spread of mix material Density of compacted layer aggregate from dryer for each 400 tonnes of mix subject to minimum of two tests per day per plant 3 tests for stability. “Resistance of Compacted Asphalt Mixtures to Moisture-Induced Damage” A. The result 29 . Scope and Summary of Test Method This method covers preparation of compacted bituminous mixtures and the measurement of the change of diametral tensile strength resulting from the effects of water saturation and laboratory accelerated stripping phenomenon with a freeze-thaw cycle.

5 percent.1 C and 25 C +/. Steel loading strips with a concave surface having a radius equal to the normal radius of the test specimen.5 inch) wide for specimens 100 mm (4 inches) in diameter. 2.0. This level of high air voids can be obtained by adjusting the number of Marshall blows applied on each side of the specimen by trial and error (start at about 10 blows as a starting point). One subset is tested in dry condition for indirect tensile strength. Test Procedure 1. The loading strips shall be 12.75 inch) wide. Numerical indices of retained indirect tensile strength properties are calculated from the test data obtained by testing the two subsets: dry and conditioned. B. Some extra specimens will need to be made to establish compaction procedures in order to obtain specified air void contents in the test specimens by trial and error. and other accessories as specified in ASTM D2041. vacuum pump.05 mm (0. manometer. Compact the 6 specimens with a Marshall compactor so that the compacted specimens have air voids of 7.1 percent of the test load 3. Each set of 6 compacted specimens is divided into two equal subsets. Balance or scale accurate to 0. Steel strip are provided at the top and bottom of specimens during indirect tensile testing.7 mm (0. 3 to be tested dry and 3 to be tested after partial saturation and moisture conditioning with a freeze-thaw cycle. Loading jack and ring dynamometer (Marshall stability testing machine can be used) to provide a vertical rate of deformation of 50 mm (2 inches) per minute and capable of reading the maximum failure load 7. Air void content must be calculated from the bulk specific gravity of the compacted specimen (determined by saturated surface dry method as per procedure given in the Asphalt Institute MS-2) 30 . “Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Paving Mixtures”. The other subset is subjected to vacuum saturation and a freeze-thaw cycle (thawing in a hot water bath) before testing for indirect tensile strength. 10-ml graduate cylinder 6. Testing Equipment 1.5 C 4.0 +/.0. which are added to the mineral aggregate. 2.may be used to predict long-term stripping susceptibility of bituminous mixtures and evaluate liquid anti-stripping additives that are added to bitumen or pulverized mineral materials such as hydrated lime. C. Vacuum container. Freezer maintained at –18 C +/. Make at least 6 compacted specimens for each mixture. Two water baths capable of maintaining temperatures of 60 C +/.3 C 5. The loading strips for 150 mm (6 inches) diameter specimens shall be 19. The length of the loading strips shall exceed the thickness of the specimens.

Apply a vacuum of 13-67 kPa absolute pressure (10-26 inches Hg partial pressure) for 30 minutes. Remove the conditioned specimens and test for indirect tensile strength. Place the plastic bag in a freezer at temperature of –18 C +/.5 C water bath for 2 hours prior to determining their indirect tensile strength. St = tensile strength. [Note: The water saturation procedure noted above deviates from AASHTO T 283.5 C for 2 hours. Remove the plastic bag and the plastic film from each specimen after placing the specimens under water. Remove the specimens from hot water bath and place in a water bath maintained at 25 C +/.3 C for a minimum of 16 hours.5 C after removing from water bath. (c).0. Record the maximum compressive strength noted on the testing machine and continue loading until a vertical crack appears in the specimen. Place the specimens in a water bath maintained at 60 C +/. Wrap a plastic film around each saturated specimen and place the wrapped specimen in a plastic bag containing 10 ml of water and seal the plastic bag. which obtains a specified degree of saturation. Apply load to the specimens diametrally at a vertical rate of 50 mm (2 inches) per minute. Keep it at room temperature and then place in a 25 C +/. Remove the cracked specimen from the machine and visually estimate the approximate degree of moisture damage (extent of stripped or bare aggregate) on the fractured faces of the specimen on a scale of 0 to 5 (5 being the most stripping). and the maximum theoretical specific gravity of the loose bituminous mixture obtained by ASTM D 2041. 4. Calculate the tensile strength of each specimen as follows in SI units: St = 2000 P/ π t d Where.0. Remove the vacuum and leave the specimens submerged in water for 5 to 10 minutes.3.0.1 C for 24 hours.] (b). First. Then place the two steel loading strips on the bottom and top of the specimens across diameter and place in the Marshall testing machine or a compression-testing machine. measure their mean thicknesses (t). Separate the 6 specimens into 2 subsets so that the average air voids of the two subsets are approximately equal. 6. Place and submerge the 3 specimens in the vacuum container filled with water at room temperature. 5. Determine the indirect tensile strength of the 3 dry and 3 conditioned specimens at 25 C +/. 8. One set will be tested dry. 7. (d). kPa P = maximum loads. The above procedure keeps the time of saturation constant. (e). The other subset will be conditioned as follows: (a). Remove the specimens from the freezer. N 31 .

Water at 25 C is added to completely submerge the sample. The theoretical maximum specific gravity (Gmm) is used: (a) to calculate air voids in compacted bituminous mixtures.t = specimen thickness. “Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Paving Mixtures” A. mm 9. Calculate the tensile strength ratio (TSR) as follows: Tensile strength ratio (TSR) = S2 / S1 Where. (b) to calculate the amount of bitumen absorbed by the aggregate. A specified amount of vacuum is gradually applied to remove the air bubbles entrapped between asphalt mix particles. Container (either a or b below) (a) Vacuum bowls – Either a metal or plastic bowl with a diameter ranging from 180 to 260 mm and a bowl height of at least 160 mm. kPa **************** Annexure II to Clause 509 Outline of ASTM D 2041. After the vacuum is released. The bowl shall be equipped with a stiff. Express the numerical index of resistance of bituminous mixture to the detrimental effects of water as the ratio of the original strength that is retained after accelerated moisture and freeze-thaw conditioning. A sample of loose paving mixture is placed in a tared vacuum vessel. Testing Equipment 1. B. transparent cover fitted with a rubber gasket and a connection for the vacuum line. the volume of the sample of the voidless paving mixture is obtained by either immersing the vacuum container with the sample in a water bath and weighing or by filling the calibrated vacuum container level full of water and weighing in air. S1 = average tensile strength of the dry subset. Scope and Summary of the Test Method This test method covers the determination of the theoretical maximum specific gravity and density of uncompacted bituminous paving mixtures at 25 C. 32 . kPa S2 = average tensile strength of the conditioned subset. mm d = specimen diameter. and (c) to provide target value for the compaction of paving mixtures in the field.

(b) Vacuum flask for weighing in air only – A thick-walled volumetric glass flask with a capacity of approx.1 C.1 gram. [Note: The minimum sample size shall be 1500g for mixes with nominal maximum aggregate sizes of 12. 3.1 C. Place the container with the sample and water on a mechanical agitation device or agitate manually at frequent intervals (2 to 3 minutes). If weighing is to be done under water. Provide a suitable trap between the pump and container to minimize water vapour entering the vacuum pump. lid and water.1 C and suitable for immersion of the suspended container. and shall be 2500g for mixes with nominal maximum aggregate sizes from 19 to 25 mm. capable of evacuating air from the vacuum container to a residual pressure of 4. 5. The hose connection shall be covered with a small piece of fine wire mesh to minimize loss of any fine material from the mix. Add sufficient water at 25 C to cover the sample completely. 2. Remove the water-filled bowl with the lid in place and dry prior to determining the combined mass of the bowl. Designate the average mass as D.2. The hose connection shall be covered with a small piece of fine wire mesh to minimize loss of any fine material from the mix. C. Begin removing entrapped air by gradually applying vacuum and increasing the 33 .0 kPa (30 mm of Hg) or less. Place the cover (bowels) or stopper (flasks) on the containers. Test Procedure 1. Calibration of Containers 1. Place the mix sample directly into the tared bowl or flask. Bowls – Determine the mass (B) of the container immersed in water at 25 +/.5 mm or smaller. fitted with a rubber stopper with a connection for the vacuum line. Residual pressure manometer or calibrated absolute pressure gauge with a bleed valve to adjust the vacuum level. Repeat 3 times and average the 3 masses. 4000 ml. Use a glass cover plate to ensure the flask is completely full. Weigh the container with the sample and designate the net mass of the sample only as A. 3. Don’t fracture the aggregate. Balance capable of being read to the nearest 0. place the volumetric lid on the bowl while under water. Flasks – Calibrate the volumetric flask by accurately determining the mass of the flask filled with water at 25 +/. D. If the bowl is used for weighing in air. 4. Separate the particles of the loose paving mixture (while it is warm) by hand so that the particles are not larger than about 6 mm. Water bath capable of maintaining a constant temperature of 25 +/.] 2. a suitable suspension arrangement shall be provided for weighing the sample while suspended from the center of the balance Vacuum pump.

sample. Completely fill the flask with water using a cover plate without entrapping air beneath the cover plate. Determine the mass of the bowl. g D = mass of lid and bowl with water at 25 C. Determine the mass of the flask. and lid and designate it as E. Keep it there for 10 +/.5 mm of Hg). Wipe the exterior of the flask and cover plate. g C = mass of bowl and sample under water. Place the flask in water bath for 10 +/. Calculations Calculate the maximum specific gravity of the sample of loose paving mixture as follows: (a) Bowls Used Under Water Determination: Gmm = A / [A-(C-B)] Where: Gmm = maximum specific gravity of the mixture A = mass of the dry sample in air.1 C water bath.0.5 +/. Immerse the lid in water and slide it onto the bowl without removing water from the bowl so that no air is trapped inside the bowl. continue the vacuum and agitation for 15 +/. 6.2. (b) Flask – Fill the flask slowly with water ensuring not to introduce any air into the sample. g (b) Bowls in Air Determination: Gmm = A / (A+D-E) Where: Gmm = maximum specific gravity of the mixture A = mass of dry sample in air.1 minutes. g B = mass of bowl under water. Weighing in water – Suspend the bowl (without lid) and contents in water for 10 +/. plate and its contents completely filled with water. Designate this mass as E. 5. Designate the mass under water of the bowl and sample as C. Gradually release the vacuum with the bleed valve.vacuum pressure until the residual manometer reads 3. After achieving this level within 2 minutes. Remove the bowl with the lid in place from the water bath. 4. g 34 . Dry the bowl and lid with a dry cloth.7 +/.1 minutes to stabilize the temperature at 25 C without submerging the top of the flask.3 kPa (27.1 minutes and then determine mass.2 minutes. Weighing in air (a) Bowl – Submerge the bowl and sample slowly in the 25 +/.

E = mass of lid. Tables 5 (a) and 5 (b). cover plate. After the cover aggregates are rolled into position. Gmm = maximum specific gravity of the mixture A = mass of dry sample in air. Binder General requirements Substitute the following: The type of binder to be used will be stated in the contract documents and shall comply with one of the following: Paving bitumen: Viscosity Grade VG-10 conforming to IS:73 Bitumen emulsion: Cationic Rapid Setting conforming to IS:8887 The selected binder shall be fluid enough to permit uniform spraying . sample.] Clause 4. Approximate Rate of Application of ………. g 510. and water at 25 C. g (c) Flask Determination Gmm = A /(A+D-E) Where.1.1. binder shall be hard enough to hold the particles in position against displacement by traffic.Aggregates Substitute “Viscosity grade” in lieu of “Penetration grade” in column headings in both tables. sample and water at 25 C. bowl. Paving Bitumen: Substitute “viscosity” for “penetration” in this clause. 35 .1.. g E = mass of flask. SURFACE DRESSING Delete and substitute “IRC:110-2005 Design and Construction of Surface Dressing” because it has been published not long ago except the following change needs to be made in IRC:110. g D = mass of cover plate and flask filled with water at 25 C. [Clause numbers correspond to IRC:110.] 4. [Comment: Viscosity grade VG-10 has been substituted for penetration grade 80-100.2.

Spraying Temperatures for Binders Revise the table as follows: Binder Grades Whirling spray jet Min. What is it? 512. Table 7 Change “Bitumen penetration” to “Bitumen Grade” in first column heading. Binder Revise as follows: The binder shall be a viscosity grade bitumen of a suitable grade as specified in the Contract or as directed by the Engineer and satisfying the requirements of IS:73. Sinha and Veeraragavan. I do not understand why the aggregate and bitumen quantities are given per square meter.1. C Max. These surfacings may not be as cost effective and durable as 25 mm thick BC 9.Table 1(a). General Since it is mix made in a hot mix plant.5 mm NMAS mix given in Section 509 earlier. C 175 70 VG-10 Rapid Setting Cationic Emulsion [Comment: The above table has been revised in accordance with the latest IRC:1102005 Surface Dressing revised recently. Substitute VG-40 for 30-40. C 165 50 Max.] 511. viscosity grade has replaced penetration grade.1. We have unnecessarily created too many 36 . VG-30 for 60-70. CLOSE-GRADED PREMIX SURFACING/MIXED SEAL SURFACING Delete it as per recommendations in IRC Paper by Kandhal. I need to know the bitumen content by weight of the aggregate or mix to make the mix in a plant. Also. OPEN-GRADED PREMIX SURFACING Delete and substitute IRC:14-2004 Open Graded Premix Carpet with the following changes (Clause numbers correspond to IRC:14) 3. C 100 68 200 80 Slot jets Min. and VG-10 for 80-100 in the first column.

517. The heated filler is added in increments to the hot bitumen while mixing with a spatula. SLURRY SEAL Delete and substitute IRS:SP:81-2008 Specification for Slurry Seal and Microsurfacing since it has been published only last year.2.7 Surface Finish In the 3rd sentence (line 9). It is a speciality penetration grade and we do not have exact equivalent viscosity grade. 513. SEAL COAT 513. Scope Add the following: “Mastic asphalt shall not be used on road pavements with a speed limit above 30 km per hour unless it is covered with aggregate exactly as specified in Clause 515. 515.1 Binder [Do not make any change to penetration grade bitumen specified in this clause.2.1 Binder: Revise the first paragraph as follows: “A VG-10 grade paving bitumen conforming to IS:73 shall be used”.surfacing. RECYCLING OF BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT 37 .2. MASTIC ASPHALT 515. substitute “VG-30 Viscosity Grade” in lieu of “S-65 penetration grade”. At least 75 g of filler when mixed with 15 g of bitumen at 163 C should result in a homogeneous mixture to pass this test.” 515. 516.7 Surface Finish.1. which is reported to be essential for obtaining satisfactory mastic asphalt.4.” 515.] 515.4.4 Filler: Add the following to the first paragraph: “The suitability of limestone powder shall be determined in a laboratory as follows: The filler must meet the compatibility (miscibility) requirement.

as specified in the Contract.2. which gives the highest stabiliy as well as thorough coating of sand particles shall be selected. [Comment: It is almost impossible to obtain air voids in the range of 3 to 5 percent.] 38 . and cold in-place and central plant recycling. the suggested method is appropriate for sand asphalt mixes. Usually. [Comment: It is very important to use the hardest grade of bitumen available to impart some reasonable stiffness to low-stability sand asphalt mix.[Comment: There is a need to breakdown Clause 517 into 4 specifications: milling of bituminous pavement. hot mix recycling (central plant). SAND ASPHALT BASE COURSE 520. If you so desire. I can prepare the drafts for these 4 types of recycling. –Kandhal] [If the present Clause 517 is retained.3. hot in-place recycling.1 Bitumen Revise as follows: The bitumen shall be paving bitumen of Viscosity Grade VG-40. [Comment: We cannot use MS-2 for selecting optimum binder content. both as per Indian Standard Specifications for Paving Bitumen IS:73.] Table 500-42 Delete the requirement for air voids.2 Binder Content Revise as follows: The binder content.] 520. revise it as follows.] 520.] Revise Table 500-34 as follows: Specified Grade of Binder (Viscosity) VG-40 VG-30 VG-10 Minimum Recovered Penetration Value of Binder after Mixing 27 36 54 [Comment: The above table is based on minimum 60% retained penetration of the mean penetration for the corresponding VG grade. air voids are very high in sand mixes based on my experience and research in Rajasthan.

520. P. the range of acceptable mixing and rolling temperatures for viscosity grade bitumen are given in Table 500-5. IRC:SP:53 is being revised. OctoberDecember 2008.] 521. 523. CRACK PREVENTION COURSES 522.2 Modifier: Substitute IRC:SP:53 in lieu of IRC:SP:53-1999 since the latter is being revised right now.” [Comment: It will be naïve.5 Spreading Delete the 3rd and 4th sentences: “The ideal mixing………………. why repeat? Moreover. “The performance of different types of modified binders is not equal. S. 544. Therefore.” Substitute the following in lieu of the deleted sentences: For guidance. Volume 69-3.4.2. 521. the Engineer shall specify the type of modifier to be used on the project.1 Binder Substitute “VG-10 Viscosity Grade” in lieu of “80-100 penetration”.1 Scope Add the following to the scope at the end. revise as follows..] 521. 522. This mix has been used successfully in the US and recently in India as 39 . READYMADE STOCKPILE BITUMINOUS PATCHING MIX [Comment: This is a new clause based on specification appended to Paper No. MODIFIED BINDER [Comment: Do we need this clause when we have IRC:SP:53? In case it is retained in the orange book. unethical and highly untechnical if we think all modifiers perform equally.shown in Table 500-5.2. Tables 500-44 and 500-45 Delete these tables and make reference to IRC:SP:53. Kandhal and published in the Journal of Indian Roads Congress. “A Simple and Effective Method of Repairing Potholes in India” authored by Prof.

This new clause will fulfill that need. our engineers do not have a suitable mix for repairing potholes so they fill potholes with soil. not less than 90% by weight of the crushed material retained on 4.2 Coarse Aggregate 2. durable and cubical shape. This yearly certificate must be on file and shall be available at the hot mix plant when required by the Engineer.2.2. Where crushed gravel is proposed for use as aggregate. The material shall be capable of being stocked for at least six months without stripping and shall be workable at all times.reported in the paper.] 1.36 mm sieve. free from dust and soft organic and other deleterious substances. MC Cutback Bitumen shall be treated with a proper type and amount of an antistripping agent by the bitumen supplier so that when combined with the proposed job aggregate the resulting mix shall pass the Wet Coating Test. Static Immersion Test and Stripping Test as given in Annexure I. Add 523 before every clause number. This material is intended for patching holes up to 75 mm (3 inches) deep. Right now. Materials 2. They cite a lack of specification for such mix in the orange book. 2. 2.75mm sieve shall have at least two fractured faces resulting from crushing operation. MC-250 grade may be specified if the stockpile is intended to be used during winter or at high altitude locations. Scope The material shall consist of plant mixed readymade stockpile patching bituminous mixture composed of mineral aggregate coated with bituminous material. hard. etc. For proper mixing. MC-800 grade shall be used. The contractor shall furnish the sample of the job aggregate each year to the bitumen supplier for these coating and stripping tests and obtain a certificate that the bitumen material has been treated to suit the job aggregate. The aggregate shall satisfy the physical requirements specified in Table 1. The contractor shall also forward a copy to the Engineer. bare aggregate. It shall be clean. WMM. the bitumen shall be heated as specified in Section 3. Unless otherwise specified. 40 .2. crushed gravel or other hard material retained on 2. which is unacceptable.1 Bitumen Medium Curing Cutback Bitumen MC-800 or MC-250 conforming to Indian Standards Specification IS:217 Specification for Cutback Bitumen shall be used in preparing the stockpile mix. 2.1 The coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed rock.

40% IS 2386 Part I Index (combined) Los Angeles Abrasion Max. 2. It shall be clean. 2. mm Percent passing 41 . hard. 2% passing IS 2386 Part I 0.4. 30% IS 2386 Part IV Soundness (Sodium or Magnesium). 2% IS 2386 Part V IS 2386 Part V IS 2386 Part III Durability Water absorption Water absorption * The coarse aggregate may satisfy either of the two strength tests. 40% IS 2386 Part IV Value Aggregate Impact Value Max. and free from dust and soft organic and other deleterious substances. the combined aggregate grading shall fall within the limits shown in Table 2.0 or less shall be used.075 micron Flakiness & Elongation Max. Gradation of Stockpile Patching Mix Sieve size.075 mm sieve) and the minimum residual bitumen content. The amount of residual bitumen binder (total cutback bitumen minus diluent such as kerosene) in the mix shall be as shown in Table 3. Table 2. As far as possible an aggregate with water absorption of 1. durable.3 Fine Aggregate Fine aggregate shall consist of crushed mineral material passing 2. 18% Max. No natural sand shall be permitted. Physical Properties of Coarse Aggregate Property Cleanliness Particle shape Strength * Test Grain size analysis Requirement Test method Max. The stockpile mix shall be rejected if it does not meet the grading (especially the 0. 12% Magnesium Sulphate Max. 5 cycles Sodium Sulphate Max.TABLE 1.36 mm sieve and retained on 75-micron sieve. Composition of Mixtures When tested in accordance with IS:2386 Part 1 (wet sieving method).

6 to 2. Table 4.5 m for the first 48 hours. the Engineer can specify amount of residual bitumen higher than that shown in Table 3. % % Less than 1.95 Since the range of aggregate temperature is rather low and the maximum aggregate temperature is restricted to 65 C.1 to 1.5 5. Pre-drying the aggregate at high temperatures will also help in reducing the fines (material passing 0.075 100 85 – 100 10 – 40 0 . the aggregate can be processed in a dryer at high temperatures and allowed to cool before the bituminous binder is added.075 mm sieve). Minimum Residual Bitumen Content by Weight of Mix Aggregate water absorption. The temperature of aggregate and bituminous material should comply with those shown in Table 4. C Bitumen temperature. C MC-250 5 – 65 55 -80 MC-800 5 – 65 75 . and finished without stripping of the bitumen from the aggregate.10 0–2 Table 3. The mineral aggregate should be clean and surface dry before mixing.0 5. Minimum residual bitumen content. which will go into the baghouse. Temperature Ranges for Producing Stockpile Patching Mix Bituminous material Aggregate temperature. placed.18 0.5 4. Preparation of Mixture The stockpile patching mix shall be produced in a conventional batch type hot mix plant.75 2. 3. the mixed material should not be stockpiled no higher than 1. To help prevent stripping and avoid heat buildup in a stockpile (which may burn the entire stockpile).0 1.5 Based on the characteristics of the aggregate and the performance of the mix.9.5 1. handled. Therefore.36 1. it may not be possible to dry the aggregate within this temperature range.0 4. 42 . The resulting mix then would have fines less than 2 % as required in the stringent gradation specifications. The stockpile then can be raised in height and made conical in shape. The mix should be such that it can be stocked.

Wet Coating Test 43 . until such time as the problem is resolved to the satisfaction of the Department. at any time during the six month period if. Refusal by the contractor to remove unacceptable material from the Department stocking area will be sufficient grounds to suspend the contractor from the Department's bidding list for patching material. in the opinion of the Engineer. If the mix fails this test. freshly prepared or taken from a stockpile at any time during its storage life (usually 6 months). FOB the hot mix plant. it means a proper type and/or amount of an antistripping agent has not been used in the bituminous binder. excessive fines or improper gradation. Acceptance of Mixture The following two tests shall be performed by the contractor (in presence of a Department representative) on the mixture. at the work site. Test D) The water resistance test would indicate whether the patching mix has a potential for stripping in the pothole in presence of water. it will be the contractor's responsibility to remove any unacceptable material within two weeks of notification. or at other destination as specified in the contract. If the mix fails in workability it could be due to improper bitumen type. When the patching material has been delivered directly to a Department stockpile before Department approval. low bitumen content. ANNEXURE I A. 6. 5. Rate The readymade bituminous stockpile patching material shall be paid for at the contract unit price per ton. the patching material has stripped (more than 10% uncoated particles) or otherwise become unfit for use. Stocked patching material may be rejected. Measurement for Payment The tonnage of the readymade stockpile patching mix shall be measured and determined from the actual plant batch reports as recorded by a representative of the Engineer assigned to the work. • • Water Resistance Test (See Annexure I. Test C) Workability Test (See Annexure I.4.

Heat the unwashed job aggregate. cutback bitumen and distilled water to 40 C in a suitable oven. Transfer the contents into a 400 ml beaker containing 150 ml of distilled water (22 – 32 C). After cooling. Let stand for 15 minutes and visually determine the percent of retained coating. Just copy the recent SMA specification published by the Indian Roads Congress in IRC:SP:79-2008] 44 . Static-Immersion Test The coated aggregate as prepared in the preceding wet coating test shall remain immersed in the beaker of distilled water (22 – 32 C) for 24 hours. visually determine the percent of retained coating while the sample remains immersed in water. which should be at least 95 percent. Mix rigorously with the spatula until all aggregate is coated. Add cutback bitumen equivalent to 5. STONE MATRIX ASPHALT [There is an urgent need to include this SMA specification in the orange book because it is needed on important heavy-traffic highways especially those carrying overloaded trucks. Workability Test Approximately 2. B. by increasing the bitumen content and/or gradation changes). Weigh 100 g of dry aggregate into a suitable mixing container (such as seamless tin can. D. This test shall be performed when the mix is produced and thereafter anytime during storage. and then placed in 400 ml of boiling water in a 600-ml glass beaker and stirred with a glass rod at the rate of 1 revolution per second for 3 minutes.5 kg of the patching mix shall be cooled to –7 C in a freezer. Mix thoroughly with a spatula until the aggregate particles are uniformly wetted. which should be at least 98 percent.2 g of bitumen residue. The water shall be decanted and the mix shall be spread on an absorbent paper for visual observation of the coating. 524. Water Resistance Test Fifty grams of patching mix. but not more than 5 minutes. At the end of this period. This test is also applicable in areas with hot climate because it amplifies the workability characteristics of the mix by using a lower test temperature. C. the mixture shall be capable of being broken up readily with a spatula that has a blade length of approximately 200 mm. 16 oz capacity). cooled to 95 C in laboratory air. If the mix is not workable at –7 C.0 +/ 0. whether freshly prepared or taken from the stockpile. it shall be rejected and the composition of the mix shall be properly modified (for example. Add 3 ml of distilled water. shall be heated at 120 C in a laboratory oven for 1 hour. The aggregate shall be at least 90 % coated with a bituminous film.