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UNIT 4 SLABS

Structure
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Introduction
Objectives

Slabs

General Principles of Design and Detailing of Slabs Design and Detailing of a Cantilever Slabs Design and Detailing of One-way Simply Supported Slabs Design and Detailing of Two-way Simply Supported Slabs Design and Detailing of Two-way Restrained Slabs Summary Answers to SAQs

4.1 INTRODUCTION
A slab is like a flat plate loaded transversely and supported on its edges. Under the loads, it bends and the directions of its bending depend on its shape and support conditions. A beam bends only in one direction, i.e. in its own plane; whereas a slab may have multidirectional bending. Therefore, slabs may have different names depending upon its bending, support conditions and shapes. For example, a slab may be called (a) (b) (c) (d) One-way simply supported rectangular slab, Two-way simply supported or restrained rectangular slab, Cantilever rectangular slab, Fixed or simply supported circular slab, etc.

One-way slab means it bends only in one direction and, therefore, reinforcement for bending (i.e. main reinforcement) is provided only in that direction. A slab supported on all sides bends in all the directions so the main reinforcements provided shall be such that they may be effective in all directions. For ease of analysis and convenience of reinforcement detailing, the bending moments in a slab are calculated in two principal directions only and, therefore, such a slab is called a two-way slab. A slab is designed as a beam of unit width in the direction of bending. In this unit, only the most commonly used rectangular slabs, with uniformly distributed load is described.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to describe the design and detailing of cantilever slabs, design and explain detailing of one-way and two-way simply supported slabs, and explain the design and detailing of two-way restrained slabs. 75

Theory of Structures-II

4.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND DETAILING OF SLABS


Following are the general principles for design and detailing applicable to all types of slabs. (a) The maximum diameter of reinforcing bars shall not exceed

1 th of 8

total thickness (D) of the slab. (b) Normally, shear reinforcement is not provided in slabs. The shear resistance requirements may, then, be complied either by increasing the percentage of tensile reinforcement or by increasing the depth of slab, but the latter is preferred as it is economical. For solid slabs, the design shear strength for concrete slab shall be c K, where K has the values given below :
Overall Depth of Slab (mm) K 300 or more 275 250 225 200 175 150 or less

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1.30

(c)

To take care of temperature and shrinkage stresses, minimum reinforcement in either direction shall not be less than 0.15 percent and 0.12 percent of total cross section area of concrete section for mild steel and high strength deformed bars, respectively. To meet the requirement for limit state of cracking the following two rules are observed: (i) The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement shall not be more than 3 times the effective depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is smaller. The horizontal distance between parallel bars provided against temperature and shrinkage shall not be more than 5 d or 450 mm, whichever is smaller.

(d)

(ii)

4.3 DESIGN AND DETAILING OF CANTILEVER SLABS


Design and detailing of a cantilever slab is the same as that of a cantilever beam (Section 3.3) of unit width. Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement is provided along the direction perpendicular to the span. This is illustrated through the following example.
Example 4.1

Design the cantilever slab of a bus stand shown in Figure 4.1. Load data and design parameters are given below :
Load Data

Lime terrace topping of 100 mm thickness is provided over the slab.


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Imposed load = 0.75 kN/m2.

Design Parameters fck = 25 N/mm2; fy = 415 N/mm2 and Nominal cover = 30 mm.

Slabs

Figure 4.1 : Cantilever Roof Shade for Bus Stop

Solution Effective Span (lef) lef = 3 + 0.3* = 3.3 m Depth of Slab (D) From Deflection Control
l ef d k B k1 k 2 k 3 k 4 , where kB = 7;

k1 = 1 as lef < 10 m

* Estimate of effective depths (d) : l ef 300 d = 428.57 mm 7 7 d 300 mm = 0.3 m added 2 for evaluating lef (Cl. 22.2c).

For k2,

fs = 0.58 fy

Area of cross section of steel required Area of cross section of steel provided

Assuming area of cross section of steel required = Area of cross section of steel provided = Area of balanced tensile steel for M 25 concrete and Fe 415 steel (pt% = 1.19%). According to above assumptions fs = 0.58 fy 1 = 0.58 415 240 N/mm2 and k2 = 0.96 (Figure 1.2) k3 = k4 = 1 as the slab is singly reinforced and it is not a flanged section. Substituting all these values
lef d d 7 1 .96 1 1 = 6.72

or

3.3 10 3 = 491 mm 6.72

Taking

D=d+

10 + nominal cover = 491 + + 30 = 526 mm 2 2 (assuming = 10) 10 Nominal cover = 550 30 = 515 mm 2 2
0.515 = 3.26 m 2

D = 550 mm
d =D lef = 3 +

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Theory of Structures-II

From Moment of Resistance Consideration Loads

Self Lime Terrace Ceiling Plaster Total (Dead Load) Imposed Load (IL) Total Load, w Maximum BM, Mu =
M u , lim = 0.36 xu ,

= 1 1 0.550 25 = 1 1 0.1 18.8 = 1 1 0.01 20.4

= 13.75 kN/m2 = 1.88 kN/m2 = 0.204 kN/m2 = 15.834 kN/m2 = 0.750 kN/m2 = 16.584 kN/m2

wu lef 2 2
max

1.5 16.584 3.26 2 = 132.2 kNm 2


bd 2 f ck

x 1 0.42 u ,max d

132.2 10 6 = 0.36 0.48 (1 0.42 0.48) 1000 d 2 25

or

d = 195.8 mm

Hence, provided D = 550 mm and d = 515 mm as above.


Tensile Reinforcement (Ast)
Ast f y M u = 0.87 f y Ast d 1 bd f ck
Ast 415 1000 515 25

132.2 106 = 0.87 415 Ast 515 1 or, or


2 132.2 10 6 = 185940.75 Ast 5.993 Ast 2 Ast 31026.322 Ast + 22059068.9 = 0

Solving the above equation, we get


Ast = 728.06 mm2/m width

i.e.

10 bars @ 105 mm c/c.


Ast , min =
0.12 1000 515 = 618 mm 2 /m < 728.06 mm 2 /m width 100 1000 50 = 80 mm c/c perpendicular to the main 618

Spacing of 8 bars = reinforcement. Maximum Spacing

3 d = 3 515 = 1545 > 105 mm c/c 300 > 105 mm c/c Hence, provided 10 @ 105 mm c/c as main reinforcement and 8 @ 80 mm c/c as temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.

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Check for Shear

Slabs

SF at critical section, i.e. at d from the face of support = Vu = 1.5 16.584 (3 0.515) = 61.817 kN
= Vu 61.817 10 3 = bd 1000 515

= 0.12 N/mm 2

c, min for M 25 concrete


= 0.29 N/mm2 > 0.12 N/mm2 Hence, O.K.
Detailing of Reinforcement

As Ast, min (= 618 mm2) is more than 50% of Ast (742.857 mm2/m) provided, hence, all the tensile reinforcement shall be extended up to free end of the slab.
Development Length
Ld = s 10 0.87 415 = = 403 mm 4bd 4 1.6 1.4

Value of a 90o bend is 8 = 8 10 = 80 mm.

Length of bar required = 403 80 = 323 mm say 325 mm.

The detailing of the reinforcement has been shown in Figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2 : Detailing of Reinforcement of Cantilever Roof

4.4 DESIGN AND DETAILING OF ONE-WAY SIMPLY SUPPORTED SLABS


Design and Detailing of One-way Slab Simply Supported on all Edges

If the ratio
Long span l y Short span l x > 2,

the design is same as that for simply supported beam of unit width, as the slab bends mainly along the short span (Figure 4.3). Only temperature and shrinkage reinforcement is provided along the long span.

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Figure 4.3 : Bending Profile of an One-way Slab Supported on all Edges

Example 4.2

Design a roof slab simply supported on all its four edges of effective spans 3 m 7 m. The top of slab is covered with 100 mm lime terrace. Imposed load may be taken as 1.5 kN/m2. Design parameters are :
fck = 20 N/mm2; fy = 415 N/mm2 and Nominal Cover = 20. Solution
ly lx = 7 = 2.33 > 2 3

Hence the slab will be designed as one-way simply supported slab.


Depth of Slab (D)

From Deflection control


l ef d < k B k1 k 2 k 3 k 4

where

kB = 20; and k1 = 1 as lef < 10 m

Assuming Ast required = Ast provided


f s = 0.58 f y A st required = 0.58 415 = 240 N/mm2 A st provided

Assuming balanced section, for M 25 and Fe 415


pt% = 0.96%

80

Therefore, k2 = 1

k3 = k4 = 1 as the slab is singly reinforced and it is not a flanged section. Substituting all the values in the above equation.
3 1000 20 1 1 1 1 d

Slabs

or

3 1000 = 150 mm 20 150


8 = 150 + 20 + = 174 mm 2 2

Taking

D = d + Nominal Cover +

D = 185 mm
D = 185 8 20 = 161 mm 2

From Moment of Resistance Consideration Loads

Self Lime concrete Ceiling plaster Total DL IL Total (DL+IL)

= 1 1 0.185 25 = 1 1 0.1 18.8 = 1 1 0.01 20.4

= 4.625 kN/m = 1.880 kN/m = 0.204 kN/m = 6.709 kN/m = 1.500 kN/m = 8.209 kN/m

wu = 1.5 8.209 = 12.31 kN/m


M u , max = wu l 2 ef 12.31 3 2 = = 13.849 kN/m 8 8
X u , max X 1 0.42 u , max d d bd 2 f ck

M u , lim = 0.36

13.849 10 6 = 0.36 0.48 (1 0.42 0.48) 1000d 2 20

d = 70.85 < 161 mm

Hence, provided D = 185 mm and d = 161 mm.


Tensile Reinforcement (Ast)
Ast f y M u = 0.87 f y Ast d 1 b f d ck

or

Ast 415 13.849 106 = 0.87 415 Ast 161 1 1000 161 20
2 58129.05 Ast + 13.849 106 = 0 7.492 Ast 2 Ast 7758.816 Ast + 1848505.07 = 0

or or

Solving the above equation, we get


Ast = 246.05 mm 2 /m

i.e. 8 @ 200 mm c/c (Ast = 250 mm2/m)

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Ast , min =

0.12 1000 161 = 193.2 mm 2 /m < 250mm 2 /m width 100

Hence, provided 8 @ 200 mm c/c. Maximum Spacing (a) (b)


Check for Shear

3d = 3 170 = 510 > 200 mm c/c 300 > 200 mm

Hence, O.K. As the width of support is not given, clear span (lc) may be taken as (lef d) = 3 0.161 = 2.839 m Critical section for shear force is at d from the face of the support (Figure 4.4).

Figure 4.4 : Explaining Critical Section for SF

l 2.839 Vu = wu c d = 12.31 0.161 = 15.492 kN 2 2 = Vu 15.492 10 3 = = 0.096 N/mm 2 bd 1000 161

For Ast,min and M 20 concrete


k c min = k 0.28 = 0.28k > 0.096 N/mm 2 (k 1)

Hence, O.K.
Detailing of Reinforcements
Ld = s 8 0.87 415 = = 376 4bd 4 1.6 1.2 Ld 376 = = 125 3 3

(a)

The positive main reinforcement shall extend into the support a distance of

(b) where

Ld

1.3M 1 + Lo V Ast f y bd f ck

M1 = 0.87 fy Ast d 1

Taking Ast as 50% of total reinforcement at mid span extending into the support. i.e. 82 Ast =

250 = 125 mm2/m < Ast, min (= 193.2 mm2/m) 2

Hence, all the reinforcement shall extend into the support


250 415 M1 = 0.87 415 250 161 1 1000 161 20 or

Slabs

M1 = 14.06 kN-m/m
wu lef 2 = 12.31 3 = 18.465 kN 2

Vu at simple support =

1.3M 1 Ld + Lo V or 1.3M 1 Lo Ld V
1.3M 1 1.3 14.06 106 = 614 mm = 376 V 18.465 103

Now, Lo Ld i.e. Lo = 0.

Distribution Steel
Astd = 0.12 0.12 1000 161 bd = 100 100

= 193.2 mm 2 /m

Hence, provided 8 @ 255 mm c/c. Maximum spacing (a) (b) 5d = 5 161 = 805 > 255 450 > 255

Hence, O.K. Reinforcement detailing has been shown in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5 : Reinforcement Detailing of the Designed Slab

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* Two-way Slab means the slab bends about both the axes x and y like a saucer (Figure 4.6).

4.5 DESIGN AND DETAILING OF TWO-WAY* SIMPLY SUPPORTED SLABS


For a rectangular slab, simply supported on all its edges, having no provisions to resist torsion at corners and to prevent corners from lifting, the maximum bending moment per unit width are calculated by the following equations :
2 M x = x w lx

and

2 M y = y w lx

where w = Design loads per unit area and lx and ly = Short and Long spans, respectively, Mx and My = moments of strips of unit width spanning lx and ly, respectively and x and y are the coefficients given in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 : Bending Moment Coefficients for Slab Spanning in Two Directions at Right Angles, Simply Supported on Four Sides
ly/lx x y 1.0 0.062 0.062 1.1 0.074 0.061 1.2 0.084 0.059 1.3 0.093 0.055 1.4 0.099 0.051 1.5 0.104 0.046 1.75 0.113 0.037 2.0 0.118 0.029 2.5 0.122 0.020 3.0 0.124 0.014

It is evident from the above table that if one-way and designed as in Section 4.4.

ly lx

> 2 , the slab will be treated as

At least 50% of the reinforcement provided at mid span shall extend into the supports and the remaining 50% may extend to within 0.1 lx or 0.1 ly of support as appropriate. The other specifications for design and detailing for the slab are the same as those for simply supported beams (Section 3.2).

Figure 4.6 : Bending of Two-way Slab like a Saucer

SAQ 1
(a) (b)
84

Define one-way and two-way slabs. How shear resistance of a slab can be increased economically? How temperature and shrinkage stresses is taken care of?

(c)

(d)

Why the maximum horizontal distance between parallel bars are limited? Describe the maximum horizontal distance between parallel main bars and that between parallel temperature and shrinkage bars.

Slabs

4.6 DESIGN AND DETAILING OF TWO-WAY RESTRAINED SLABS


A rectangular slab supported on beams on all sides and monolithically cast with them and having
ly lx 2

behaves as a two-way slab. Being monolithic with the beams, the corners are prevented from lifting and, therefore, torsional reinforcements are provided to resist the resultant torsional moments. Main reinforcements are provided along both the principal axes to resist corresponding moments Mx and My, respectively. Detailing of reinforcement is done in the following manner : (a) A slab is divided in edge strips and a middle strip in both directions as shown in Figure 4.7.

Figure 4.7 : Division of Slab into Middle and Edge Strips

(b)

The maximum moments Mx and My both for spans and supports are determined as
2 M x = x w lx

and

2 M y = y w lx

The values of x and y for different edge conditions are given in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2 : Bending Moment Coefficients for Rectangular Panels Supported on Four Sides with Provision for Torsion at Corners

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Case No.

Type of Panel and Moments Considered


1.0 1.1 (4) 0.037 0.028

Short Span Coefficients, x (Values of ly/lx)

Long Span Coefficients, y for All Values of

1.2 (5) 0.043 0.032

1.3 (6) 0.047 0.036

1.4 (7) 0.051 0.039

1.5 (8) 0.053 0.041

1.75 (9) 0.060 0.045

2.0 (10) 0.065 0.049

ly / lx
(11) 0.032 0.024

(1) 1.

(2)

(3) 0.032 0.024

Interior Panels :
Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span

2.

One Short Edge Discontinuous :


Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span 0.037 0.028 0.043 0.032 0.048 0.036 0.051 0.039 0.055 0.041 0.057 0.044 0.064 0.048 0.068 0.052 0.037 0.028

3.

One Long Edge Discontinuous


Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span 0.037 0.028 0.044 0.033 0.052 0.039 0.057 0.044 0.063 0.047 0.067 0.051 0.077 0.059 0.085 0.065 0.037 0.028

4.

Two Adjacent Edges


Discontinuous : Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span 0.047 0.035 0.053 0.040 0.060 0.045 0.065 0.049 0.071 0.053 0.075 0.056 0.084 0.063 0.091 0.069 0.047 0.035

5.

Two Short Edges Discontinuous :


Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span 0.045 0.035 0.049 0.037 0.052 0.040 0.056 0.043 0.059 0.044 0.060 0.045 0.065 0.049 0.069 0.052 ---0.035

6.

Two Long Edges Discontinuous


Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span ---0.035 ---0.043 ---0.051 ---0.057 ---0.063 ---0.068 ---0.080 ---0.088 0.045 0.035

7.

Three Edges Discontinuous


(One Long Edge Continuous) : Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span 0.057 0.043 0.064 0.048 0.071 0.053 0.076 0.057 0.080 0.060 0.084 0.064 0.091 0.069 0.097 0.073 ---0.043

8.

Three Edges Discontinuous


(One Short Edge Continuous) : Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span ---0.043 ---0.051 ---0.059 ---0.065 ---0.071 ---0.076 ---0.087 ---0.096 0.057 0.043

9.

Four Edges Discontinuous :


Positive moment at mid-span 0.056 0.064 0.072 0.079 0.085 0.089 0.100 0.107 0.056

A continuous edge is that on which slab extends on its both sides whereas on discontinuous edge the slab extends only on one side. 86

(c)

Tension reinforcement provided at mid-span in the middle strip shall extend in the lower part of the slab to within 0.25 l of a continuous edge (Figure 4.8), or 0.15 l of discontinuous edge.

Slabs

Figure 4.8 : Curtailment Rules for Two-way Slab

(d)

(e) (f) (g)

Over the continuous edge of the middle strip, tension reinforcement shall extend in the upper part of the slab a distance equal to 0.15 l from the support and at least 50% shall extend a distance of 0.3 l (Figure 4.8). At discontinuous edge, tension reinforcement equal to 50% of that provided at mid-span shall extend 0.1 l from the support (Figure 4.8). Minimum reinforcement in edge strip shall be sufficient (Figure 4.7). Torsion reinforcement at corners are provided as follows (Figure 4.9). (i) Where corners are bound by discontinuous edges, torsion reinforcement both at top and bottom and in both directions equal to 3/4th the area of short span reinforcement and of length lx/5 shall be provided. (ii) If the corner is bound by continuous edge on one side and discontinuous on the other, half of the area of reinforcement that prescribed in (a) shall be provided. (iii) Torsion reinforcement need not be provided at corners for which both the edges are continuous.

(a) Corner with Two Discontinuous Ends

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(b) Corner with One Discontinuous End Figure 4.9

Example 4.3

Design slab S1 and S2 of a roof (Figure 4.10) cast monolithically with beams. The slab has a topping of 120 mm thick lime terrace and 10 mm thick ceiling plaster. Design parameters are as follows : Imposed load on roof = 1.5 kN/m2; fck = 20 N/mm2; fy = 415 N/mm2 and Nominal cover = 20 mm.

Figure 4.10 : Plan of Slab System

Solution Type of Slab

Outer edges are taken as discontinuous edges whereas inner edges are continuous. Slab S1 Short span, lx = 3.5 m Long span, ly = 5.5 m Ratio,
ly lx

= 1.57 < 2,

Hence, the slabs are two-way slabs.


Depth of Slab (D)

From Deflection Control


l ef d k B k1 k 2 k 3 k 4

88

kB = (20 + 26)/2 = 23 (for one edge continuous and other discontinuous).

Slabs

For M 20 and Fe 415, pt% = 0.96 % for balanced steel k2 = k3 = k4 = 1


d l ef k B k1 k 2 k 3 k 4 = 3.5 10 3 = 152.17 mm 23 1 1 1 1

D = d + Nominal cover +

8 = 152.17 + 20 + = 176.17 mm 2 2

Taking

D = 180 mm

d = 180 20

8 = 156 mm 2

From Moments of Resistance Consideration

Loads

Self Lime concrete Ceiling plaster Total DL IL

= 0.180 1 1 25 = 0.12 1 1 18.8 = 0.01 1 1 20.4

= 4.5 kN/m2 = 2.26 kN/m2 = 0.20 kN/m2 = 6.96 kN/m2 = 1.50 kN/m2 = 8.46 kN/m2

Values of coefficients x and y and Bending Moments Mx and My are given in Figure 4.11.

Figure 4.11 : Values of Moment Coefficient and Moment along X and Y-axes

Illustration for calculation of x , y and M for three edges discontinuous and one short edge continuous (S1). For (+)ve moment at mid-span
x = 0.076 + (0.087 0.076) (1.57 1.5) = 0.079 (1.75 1.5)

2 M x = x wl x = 0.079 1.5 8.46 3.5 2 = 12.28 kNm

For ()ve moment at continuous edge, y = 0.057


2 M y = y wl x = 0.057 1.5 8.46 3.52 = 8.86 kN-m

M u = 0.36

xu , max x 1 0.42 u , max d d

f ck bd 2

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12.28 10 6 = 0.36 0.48 (1 0.42 0.48) 20 1000 d 2

or

d = 66.7 mm < 156 mm

Hence, provided D = 180 mm and d = 180 20


Tensile Reinforcement (Ast)

8 = 156 mm. 2

Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d 1

Ast f y bd f ck

Ast 415 12.28 10 6 = 0.87 415 Ast 156 1 1000 156 20

or or

12.28 106 = 56323.8 Ast 7.492 Ast2


Ast2 7517.86 Ast + 1639081.69 = 0

Solving the above equation, we get


Ast = 24.74 mm 2

Hence, provided 8 @ 220 mm c/c.


Check

(a) (b)

d = 3 156 = 468 c/c > 220 mm c/c

300 > 220 mm c/c.

Negative reinforcement in long span. Average of BM on both sides of the edge


=
(8.86 + 7.00) = 7.93 kN-m/m width 2

Ast f y M u = 0.87 f y Ast d 1 bd f ck

Ast 415 7.93 10 6 = 0.87 415 Ast 156 1 1000 156 200

7.93 106 = 56323.8 Ast 7.492 Ast2 or


Ast2 7517.86 Ast + 1058462.36 = 0

Solving the above equation, we get


Ast = 143.53 mm 2 /m width

Provided 8 @ 345 mm c/c.


Check

(a) (b) 90

3d = 3 156 = 468 c c > 345 mm c/c 300 < 345 mm c/c

Hence, provided 8 @ 300 mm c/c.

Slabs

SAQ 2
(a) (a) (b) (c) Sketch the detailing of tensile reinforcement at support of a cantilever slab. Sketch the plan and section showing detailing of reinforcement of a two-way simply supported slab. Sketch the section of a two-way restrained slab of two spans, l1 and l2 continuous at interior support and discontinuous at ends. Design an RC slab 4.5 m 6.5 m in plan supported on 25 mm wide beams. Two of its adjacent edges are discontinuous. Imposed load is 2 kN/m2. Mix M 20 concrete and Fe 415 bars are used.

4.7 SUMMARY
Four types of slab have been described in this unit : (a) (b) (c) (d) Cantilever slab One-way simply supported slab Two-way simply supported slab Two-way restrained slab

Cantilever Slab

This type of rectangular slab has one edge fixed and the other three edges free. Therefore, under gravity loads, it bends about its axis of support causing hogging bending moment and requiring main reinforcement only on top face perpendicular to its support axis.
One-way Simply Supported Slab

This type of slab may be either simply supported on two opposite faces or, if supported on all four edges the ratio loads, it bends only in one direction.
Two-way Simply Supported Slab
ly lx ly lx > 2 . Therefore, under gravity

A slab simply supported on all its four edges having

2 , bends about

both of its principal axes under gravity loads. Hence, main reinforcements are provided in both directions.
Two-way Restrained Slab
ly lx 2 is monolithic with its supporting beams and the

When a slab

corners are prevented from lifting under bending, additional reinforcements are provided at the corners to resist torsion. Hogging bending moments at the supports are taken care of by providing reinforcement at the top face.

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4.8 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1

(a) (b) (c) (d)


SAQ 2

Refer Section 4.1. Refer Section 4.2. Refer Section 4.2. Refer Section 4.2. Refer Section 4.3. Refer Section 4.5. Refer Section 4.6.

(a) (b) (c)

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