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solar discussion-I

solar discussion-I

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05/11/2014

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Refresher Training Course on Thermal and Photovoltaic Applications of Solar Energy Preliminary Inputs for Discussion Session-I

Tara C. Kandpal

Centre for Energy Studies Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Hauz khas, New Delhi -

Tentative List of Issues for Discussion • • • • • • Potential End Uses and Their Prioritization Niche Areas of Each Identified End-Use Maximum Utilization Potential Barriers (Causal factors) to Dissemination Incentives for Enhanced Dissemination Policy Measures (what?, how?, when?, where?) (R&D support, financial/fiscal incentives, regulations, quality control etc)

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Year 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Reported Cumulative Achievements Solar water heating systems (m2) -----12283 24147 44392 66307 88836 1 lakh -----1.9 lakh 2.29 lakh ------------------------------4.5 lakh 5.5 lakh 6 lakh 6.8 lakh 8 lakh 10 lakh 15 lakh Solar cookers (No.) 18000 30000 46000 72000 92000 1.1 lakh -----1.77 lakh 2.01 lakh 2.3 lakh ----------4.1 lakh 4.2 lakh ----------4.62 lakh ----------5.3 lakh ----------5.99 lakh 23000 ----------------------------------------342607 ----------Solar home systems (No.) ----------------------------------------5050 PV lanterns (No.) ---------------------------------------------11600 ---------------50000 ----------------------------------------538718

Solar Thermal Applications
End Use Water Heating Domestic Community Commercial Industrial Cooking Cooling and Refrigeration Space Heating Drying Power Generation Distillation Any Other Priority Assigned Remarks

Characteristics of Solar Energy Resource
Low flux density Large collection area to meet a specific demand Material Requirement Monetary cost Embodied energy Space Requirement
In short Competition with supply in urban agricultural areas activities

Problem for users with low purchasing power

Issue of energy payback

Characteristics ------ energy resource (Contd) Intermittent availability Problem in need satisfaction during the period(s) of insufficient availability Poor reliability

Use of auxiliary system(s)

and /or

Add storage

Increased cost

Increased cost

Low sustainable energy fraction

Storage tech. not yet fully mature

Cost of storage

Cost of increased collection area

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (A) Domestic Water Heating Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas
• Low ambient temperature (less than 25 0 C) in the morning during most of the year • Daily solar radiation availability of more than ------- kWh/m2 • Annual income of more than-----• Existing water heating options using electricity /LPG /Kerosene

Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)
• Total number of households in areas with ambient temperature less than 25 0C at 6.00 am • Factor for solar radiation availability • Factor for purchasing power • Factor for propensity to use solar systems • Factor for availability of cheaper alternative option(s).

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (A) Domestic Water Heating (continued…) Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (continued…..) (B) Solar Cooking Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas
• Boiling type cooking predominant • Daily solar radiation (total/steam) availability of more than------ kWh/m2 • Annual income of more than Rs-----• Lunch time after 1.00 pm • Small/Large Family size (??) • Person (s) available for reorientating the cooker and other associated tasks • Existing cooking with LPG / Kerosene /electricity /natural gas

Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)
• Total number of households in the country in areas with daily solar radiation availability of more than • Factor for lunch timings • Factor for family size • Factor for availability of manpower to reorient/adjust (and attend to) the solar cooker • Factor for availability of cheaper alternative options.

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (continued…..) (B) Solar Cooking (continued…) Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (continued…..) (C) Solar Drying Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas
• Cash crops (high selling price per unit amount, incremental cost of solar drying may not be significant) • High perishable (seasonal) fruits and vegetables • Industrial products

Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)
• Amounts of different cash crops produced and ownership pattern • Factor for matching between the time of load and solar radiation availability • Any other??

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (continued…..) (C) Solar Drying (continued..) Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (A) Solar Domestic Water Heating systems Potential Causal Factor
• Low capacity utilization • High capital cost • Lack of services promotions, After sales

Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination
• Integration with other possible end uses (e.g. cooling) • Financial/Fiscal incentives to the users and/or Production incentives to the manufacturers • Carbon benefits internalized • Promotional campaigns in the niche areas • Entrepreneurship training in niche areas • Business development meets

• Poor system design, site selection

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (A) Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems (continued…) Potential Causal Factor Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (B) Solar Cookers Potential Causal Factor
• Non-satisfaction of perceived need(s) of the user ─ Cooking time ─ Convenience ─ Taste ─ Reliability

Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination
• Technology modification/upgradations, development of new designs • User training to adapt to solar cooking • Provide financial/fiscal incentives to the user • Provide production incentives to the manufacturers

• Higher cost as compared to other • Internalize carbon benefits available options for domestic cooking • Promotional campaigns in the niche • Lack of promotion, after sales service areas • Entrepreneurship training in niche areas • Business development meets

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (B) Solar Cookers (continued…) Potential Causal Factor Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (C) Solar Dryers (for Agri-produce) Potential Causal Factor Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination

• Poor capacity utilization (due to • Develop multi-crop dryers and/or seasonal production) integrate with possible end uses • Unreliability / mismatch between solar • Design, develop and disseminate hybrid radiation collection and the rate of dryers with optimal solar fraction energy requirement • Promote community applications and/or • High capital cost facilitate availability of solar dryers on rental basis • Poor awareness • Awareness/demonstration programmes in niche areas with higher capacity utilization applications

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (C) Solar Dryers (for Agri-produce) (continued…..) Potential Causal Factor Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (D) Solar Cooling Potential Causal Factor
• Very high capital cost

Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination

• Develop low cost yet efficient collectors for providing higher operating • Mismatch between objectives of temperatures collector efficiency maximization and • ?? engine efficiency maximization • Unavailability of commercially viable solar collectors for providing higher operating temperatures • Unavailability of appropriate cooling technology that suits solar application

Technical barriers

O&M capital cost Cost effectiveness

Economic/ financial barriers

Site selection

Social/environmental barriers Local capacity: infrastructure and knowledge barriers Political, institutional and legislative barriers

Leadership Labour Land

Honesty Habits and Customs Hybrid Systems

Availability of Resources Appropriateness of Technology Anthropological Issues National Priority/Goals Need satisfaction

E

L

E

P

H

A

N

T

Economic Feasibility Energetic Viability Environmental Sustainability Equity Education Employment Experience Sharing

Technology Transfer Traditions

Perceived Needs Purchasing Power Peoples Participation

THANK YOU FOR YOUR INPUTS

Experience Curve: Reasons for Decline in Marginal Cost
• Changes in Production: Process innovation, learning effect, economies of scale • Changes in the Product: Product innovation, product redesign, product standardization • Changes in input prices

Green House Gas Mitigation Benefits
• Increasing concern for environmental sustainability in selecting energy resource technology combinations. • Most of the renewable energy options are relatively much less GHG emitting (often, only embodied emissions). • Credits under CDM can help make them more attractive.

PURCHASING POWER AND MOTIVATION TO USE SOLAR ENERGY
Monthly repayment installment (MRI) depends upon
total cost Co of the system fraction ( f ) of the capital cost provided as loan loan repayment installments (N) effective interest rate per period (de)
MRI =
d (1 +d ) N    e f Co  e  N (  1 +d e ) −1   

Gross income > n [ MRI ]
where n is a specific multiplying factor depending upon the country/specific location

Annual Income vs. Number of Households in India
100 Number of households (million) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20000 30000 40000
Number of households (million) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000

Annual income (Rs)

50000

60000

70000

80000

90000

Annual income (Rs)

FUEL PURCHASE vs. FUEL GATHERING
Use of non-commercial fuels Fuelwood Agricultural residues Dungcakes at ZERO PRIVATE COST to the user Negligibly small opportunity cost of the fuel saved by solar energy technologies Little motivation to invest in solar energy technologies

DIFFUSION CRITERIA
xResource availability xTechnological appropriateness xEnergetic feasibility xSocio-cultural acceptability xEnvironmental sustainability xFinancial and economic viability

Photovoltaic Applications
End Use Domestic Lighting SHS Lantern Mini-grid Street Lighting Water Pumping Grid-connected Power Generation Communication Kiosks Light Houses Fencing Battery Chargers Priority Assigned Remarks

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (A) Solar Home Systems /PV Lantern Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas
• Remote un-electrified households

Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)
• Total number of households in unelectrified areas • Factor for purchasing power • Factor for propensity to use solar systems • Factor for availability of cheaper alternative option(s).

• Households in areas suffering from • Factor for solar radiation availability frequent power cuts • Daily solar radiation availability of more than ------- kWh/m2 • Annual income of more than------

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (A) Solar Home Systems /PV Lantern (continued…) Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (B) PV Pumps for Irrigation Water Pumping Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas
• Un-electrified villages • Villages suffering power cuts from frequent

Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)
• Total number of landholdings of size larger than -------- hectares in unelectrified areas • Factor for solar radiation availability • Factor for purchasing power • Factor for propensity to use solar systems • Factor for availability of cheaper alternative option(s).

• Daily solar radiation availability of more than ------- kWh/m2 • Annual income of more than------

Niche areas and Utilization Potential (B) PV Pumps for Irrigation Water Pumping (continued….) Desirable Characteristics of Niche Areas Factors to be Used in Estimating Utilization Potential (maximum)

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (A) Solar Home Systems /PV Lantern Potential Causal Factor
• Decentralized low capacity utilization • High capital cost • Lack of promotional and after-sales services • Poor system design, site selection

Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination
• Innovative financing mechanisms • Financial/Fiscal incentives to the users and/or Production incentives to the manufacturers • Carbon benefits internalized • Promotional campaigns in niche areas • Entrepreneurship training in niche areas • Business development meets

Potential Causal Factors and Possible Strategies (A) Solar Home Systems /PV Lantern (continued…) Potential Causal Factor Possible Approach for Enhancing Dissemination

Additional Issues
• Progress towards development of low cost solar cells • Operation in ESCO mode • Linking income generation with improved and additional illumination • Benefits of programmatic CDM • Quality Control • Auxiliary/Back up arrangements

Thank You for your inputs

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