Conduction defined as transferring heat or electricity through a conducting medium by way of direct contact .Introduction Heat transfer Discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the transfer of thermal energy from one physical system to another.

Introduction Losses by convection -small air gaps exist between the surface wall and insulation Radiant heat loss -occurs as a result of highly energized molecules transmitting heat by way of waves or particles .

in addition to reducing costs and environmental impacts of energy consumption. The benefits include. Reduction of unwanted heat gain to air-conditioned spaces. Control of noise. to save energy and improve effectiveness of thermal systems. . Protection from dangerous pipe temperatures.     Reducing or eliminating condensation on cold pipes.Introduction Pipe insulation -thermal insulation used to prevent heat loss and gain from pipes.

silver chrome(aluminum pigment) paint respectively. •One of the lengths is bare and the others are aircell asbestos insulation. 85 % magnesia insulation. .Setup: •The test section is consists of four 10 ft lengths of 1-inch standard steel pipe mounted on a framework of welded 2 inch steel angles.

Drain 10 ft Bare 1 in standard steel pipe Air cell asbestos Globe valve header 85% magnesia 1 in standard steel pipe 10 ft Silver chrome paint 2 inches pipe .

•The test pipes are connected to a common header into which steam is introduced either directly from the main or from a line containing a reducing valve. .

collected in beakers and measured. .•Each end of the tested pipe is equipped with a plug-type valve where steam condensate is drained .

In this apparatus . determining the heat loss from bare and lagged pipe is conducted through : •Supplying heat from the condensation of steam into the pipe to be tested •Surface temperatures are measured by means of a portable thermocouple potentiometer. .

PROCEDURE  Steam is first introduced to the common header where in the flow is regulated through a reducing valve. Make 3 runs with steam pressure at 10psig. and then closed them until only a small amount of steam escapes along with the condensate.  The four plug-type valves were then opened to blow out any condensate from the pipes. . 20psig and 30 psig. crack the drain cock under the header to remove water from the steam line and header.  After adjusting the system to the desired pressure.

collect and measure the condensate from each pipe over a timed interval of 15 . as determined by surface temperature measurements reading on the thermocouple. and then during this period.30 minutes and 1hr. When the system has reached equilibrium (measured at various points). . record the following data needed for calculations:  Barometric pressure  Room temp  Steam pressure and temp  Surface temperatures  The surface-film coefficients and the lagging efficiency are calculated from the temperature of the surfaces and the room.

calculations .

and 1 hour . Determine the theoretical surface temperature at equilibrium and the theoretical condensate in time intervals 15 min.PROBLEM… Assume boiler runs with steam in the pipes at 10 psig. 20 psig. 30 min. and 30 psig.

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696psi thermal conductivities: steel = 26 Btu/hr °F ft asbestos = 0.steady state constant pressure velocity = 1ft/sec length of pipe: room temperature: atmospheric pressure: 10ft 86°F 14.034 Btu/hr °F ft Silver Chrome (Al pigment) = .14 Btu/hr °F ft 85% magnesia = 0.

D’: Pipe 1 (asbestos) : Pipe 2 (Bare): Pipe 3 (Siver Chrome): Pipe 4 (85%Magnesia): 2.1875’’ .315’’ 1.315’’ 3.875’’ 1.Outside diameter.

Condensation in Collecting beakers Convection Current in Air. Its hard to determine which of the pipes has the described insulation Pipes are not properly insulated Difficulty in determining the surface temp.the convection on air affects the heat . Data’s that are necessary for       calculations like mass flow rate. Condensation of Steam in Parts of the system other than the test pipes.PROBLEMS  Defective Boiler  No enough description of the boiler.

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Install new insulation for the pipes and keep track of it’s performance Each pipe should be tested for leakage Label the Pipes properly Use thermo couple The beaker used should be heated first to avoid error Put the equipment in a controlled temp.Recommendations  Rehabilitate or Buy a new Boiler  Keep track of the boiler’s performance  Keep all records and gather enough data’s of the boiler if        ever buy a new one. room Plug type valves at each end of the pipe should be replaced .

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