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UFPPC ( Digging Deeper Xl @ Mandolin Café (Tacoma, WA) February 4, 2008, 7:00 p.m.

Paul Hawken, Blessed Unrest: How the Largest Movement in the World Came into Being and Why No One Saw It Coming (New York: Viking, 2007).
Title: From a remark by Martha Graham circa 1942, as reported by Agnes de Mille; refers to the life force, a “divine dissatisfaction, a blessed unrest that keeps us marching and makes us more alive” (9). Thesis: A vast world-changing “movement with no name” is now forming; Hawken believes it will prevail (189-90). This passage, introducing the appendix on the WiserEarth project (which is not mentioned in the book itself), gives an idea of his conception of the movement: “It is axiomatic that we are at a threshold in human existence, a fundamental change in understanding about our relationship to nature and each other. We are moving from a world created by privilege to a world created by community. The current thrust of history is too supple to be labeled, but global themes are emerging in response to cascading ecological crises and human suffering. These ideas include the need for radical social change, the reinvention of market-based economics, the empowerment of women, activism on all levels, and the need for localized economic control. There are insistent calls for autonomy, appeals for a new resource ethic based on the tradition of the commons, demands for the reinstatement of cultural primacy over corporate hegemony, and a rising demand for radical transparency in politics and corporate decision making. It has been said that environmentalism failed as a movement, or worse yet, died. It is the other way around. Everyone on earth will be an environmentalist in the not too distant future, driven there by necessity and experience” (194).

ahead is choosing a measure of “the most salient evidence of progress” (22). A process is underway of “reconstituting the notion of what it means to be a human being” (23). “[H]ow each person comes to realize his responsibility to a greater whole is a unique experience” (24). But all the organizations can be traced back to a dozen people who in 1787 “began meeting in a small print shop in London to abolish the lucrative slave trade” (citing Adam Hochschild’s Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves [2005]) (24). “[P]revention of irreversible losses of planetary capacity to support life” is an “exponentially more difficult” task (24). The Feb. 15, 2003, worldwide demonstrations against the Iraq war demonstrated the “superpower” of “world public opinion,” in Patrick Tyler’s phrase (24). “Evolution arises from the bottom up―so, too, does hope” (25). “This movement is a new form of community and a new form of story” (26). [Ch. 3] The Long Green. Epigraphs from John Muir and Jerry Martien (27). Environmentalism has been unaware of its own history (29). It emerged as biology became a science (30-32). Evolution destroyed the concept of a Divine Authority (32). Evolution occurs constantly; Peter and Rosemary Grant’s study of Daphne Major (birds) on one island revealed that evolution is occurring constantly and more rapidly than thought (32-33). Habitat: “we have the same impact in five minutes that our ancestors [in 5000 BCE] did in a year” (33). “Environmental historian Donald Wormser [Nature’s Economy, the Roots of Ecology (1977)] suggests that the nineteenth century may come to be called the Age of Ecology, for the science and philosophies of that era are the foundation for today’s environmental movement” (34). Ralph Waldo Emerson’s “belief in reason wedded to nature and self-reliance” (36; 34-36). Thoreau (36-37). Discovery (by August T. Dowd in the spring of 1852), cutting, and exhibition of giant sequoias led to Horace Greeley’s 1859 call for protection, Carleton Watkins’s 1861 photographs, and Lincoln’s 1864 Yosemite Land Grant (37-41). Hawken 1994 visit to “the Kitlope, North America’s largest uncut temperate rain forest” (41). Thoreau’s debate with Greeley over “spontaneous generation” (42). The 19th century created a two-strand environmental movement, divided between “the idea of man and nature as one” and “the conviction that man is necessarily superior,” the latter view rooted in George Perkins Marsh’s Man and Nature (1864) (43; 42-45). In the 20th century, mainstream establishment environmentalism can be distinguished from grassroots confrontational environmentalism (45-47).

[Ch. 1] The Beginning. Over the years, Hawken has come to the realization that there are 1-2 million organizations working toward ecological sustainability and social justice, forming a new kind of social movement (1-3). “[T]his is the largest social movement in all of human history” (4). This is the story of “what is going right” (4-5). Description of book’s structure (5-8). [Ch. 2] Blessed Unrest. Epigraphs from Martha Graham, Barry Lopez, and Walt Whitman (9). Envisioning a worldwide movement with “three basic roots: environmental activism, social justice initiatives, and indigenous cultures’ resistance to globalization” (12; 11-12). Social justice defined as “the implementation and realization of human rights as defined by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ratified by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948, with the addition of the right to a productive, safe, and clean environment; the right to security from political tyranny; and the right to live and express one’s own culture” (12). The movement is a response to dramatically changing circumstances: population growth and globalization (13-14). The movement is not seen more because it is hard to visualize and because “it is not an outgrowth of any particular ideology . . . what unites it is ideas, not ideologies” (15-16). Varieties of “pseudo-populism” distract government and media (17-18). The new movement is “nonideological” and “engages citizens’ localized needs” (18). The movement’s fragmentedness is a source of weakness (18-20). Yet the organizations share broad principles and values (21). A crucial issue

[Ch. 4] The Rights of Business. Epigraphs from a letter to the New Yorker and Rashida Bee (49). The controversy over Silent Spring (1962) “established a basic dynamic between environmentalists and industry,” each using fear and threats (54; 51-56). Rachel Carson’s battle with cancer (56-58). Silent Spring birthed a larger and more vocal environmental movement (58-59). Underlying it is “a long struggle between human and commercial rights” (59-62). Bhopal (62-64). Exxon’s campaign against climate science (64-67). Antithetical corporate leader: Ray Anderson, CEO of Interface (67-68). [Ch. 5] Emerson’s Savants. Epigraphs from Emerson, Martin Luther King Jr., and Sri Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita (69). “[W]e are nature, literally, in every molecule and neuron” (71; cf. 171). Emerson’s epiphany in the Paris Jardin des Plantes in July 1833 (72-74). Thoreau’s refusal to pay the poll tax to protest the Mexican-American War expressed a belief in “human interdependency” (7476). Thoreau’s “Resistance to Civil Government” (1849; delivered as lecture entitled “The Rights and Duties of the Individual in Relation to the Government” in 1848 and republished posthumously with a title of uncertain provenance: Civil Disobedience) (76-78). Gandhi read Thoreau in 1906 or 1907 (78-79). Rosa Parks’s refusal to change her seat on Dec. 1, 1955, was informed by a summer course at the Highlander School, founded by Myles Horton, an admirer of Gandhi, in the 1930s (79-81). Martin Luther King Jr., chosen to head the Montgomery Improvement Asso-ciation, “schooled . . . in the Gandhian revolution” by Bayard Rustin and Glenn Smiley in late Feb. 1956 (81-84). “What distinguishes one life from another is intention, the one thing we can control” (85; cf. 186). “Individuals start where they stand and, in Antonio Machado’s poetic dictum, make the road by walking” (86). [Ch. 6] Indigene. Epigraphs from Paul Keating, Mrs. Felicia Itsero, Wade Davis, and White Feather (87-88). Bigotry in the encounter with the Fuegians of Tierra del Fuego (89-93). Endangered languages (93-95). Deeply rooted patronizing tendencies of Western cultures (95-97). Achievements of Amerindian cultures (97-99). The importance of indigenous cultures (100-02). Globalization and the struggle of corporations for the lands and resources of indigenous cultures (102-12). President Evo Morales of Bolivia (112-13). Paradoxically, globalization is fostering our appreciation of diversity (113-14). [Ch. 7] We Interrupt This Empire. Epigraphs from John Kenneth Galbraith and U. Utah Phillips (115). Praise for the WTO protests in Seattle in 1999, which belled the cat of globalization, an inegalitarian project embodied in a regimented structure of world trade dominated by the rights of business (117-23). The fruits of globalization are clear and justify global resistance (123-26). The Seattle ministerial broke down inside its conference rooms (127-28). “In all WTO rulings one common

denominator prevails, and that denominator is money” (129). The World Bank dominates the flow of money to the developing world (129-32). WTO policies must take into account the time frames of culture, governance, and nature, as well as of commerce (132-35). The plight of the impoverished (135-38). [Ch. 8] Immunity. Epigraphs from Gerald Callahan and Kenny Ausubel (139). The developing movement proceeds not by ideology but by identifying what is and is not humane, like an immune system (141-46). There are various kinds of organizations: keeper groups devoted to preservation, watch organizations devoted to monitoring, friends organizations devoted to upkeep, defender groups devoted to resistance, coalitions, alliances, incubator NGOs supporting other groups, networks, worker’s rights organizations, street theater groups devoted to satire, culture jammers subverting corporatism, real billionaires (Soros, Gates, Buffet, Moore, and the Clinton Global Initiative) (146-51). ‘Social entrepreneur’ is a term promoted by Bill Drayton of Ashoka (151-52). Business, philanthropy, technology, and nonprofit activity are hybridizing (152-53). Examples: in architecture (153), in Stewart Brand’s “slow” movement (153-55), in food (156-57), Wikipedia, itself an exemplar of “a bottom-up world” (157-58). Annual reports of three radically different “movement organizations”: the Audubon Society, Friends of the Earth, and the India Resource Center (158-61). The movement needs to develop more cooperation and synergies, though how this develops will had a complexity analogous to that of the immune system, the body’s more complex system (162-64). “The hundreds of thousands of organizations that make up the movement are social antibodies attaching themselves to the pathologies of power” (164). “[T]he defense of the world can truly be accomplished only by cooperation and compassion. . . . According to immunologist Gerald Callahan, faith and love are literally buried in our genes and lymphocytes, and what it takes to arrest our descent into chaos is one person after another remembering who and where they really are” (165). [Ch. 9] Restoration. Epigraphs from Julia Whitty, Richard Fortey, and François Jacob (167). “We have always been a work in progress, a cumulative animal, a chimeric fusion of different organisms” (169). The evolution of prokaryotes (e.g. bacteria) and eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, protists) (170-71). “Complex, multitrillion-celled replicating organisms called Homo sapiens can argue with one another about the environment and how serious climate change is. But we cannot sit down with a cell and discuss our personal aspirations or the flaws of free-market capitalism. Life is life, and nothing politicians have said or voted for can influence primary biological principles” (171). Life is resilient (171-72). “Sustainability is about stabilizing the currently disruptive relationship between earth’s two most

complex systems―human culture and the living world” (172). In 2005, the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment indicated that “[w]e are on the brink of disaster” (173). In 2006 the Economist reversed course and addressed climate change (173-74). Since faith in the system seems misplaced, “the way to change the world is to change one’s own practices, including one’s own home, source of energy, method of agriculture, diet, transport patterns, and communities” (174). The movement will have a life-like development (17576). “Because the movement is not an ideology, there can be no concision of goals, no succinct slogans representative of the whole. It is a body of thought that coheres into a values system but not a belief system” (176). Humanity cannot be managed by conventional means; what operates us “is not knowable” (177). The organizations of the movement do not need to dominate the world, they need, in Wendell Berry’s phrase, “to solve for pattern” (178). Earth as spaceship (the metaphor was coined by Kenneth Boulding in 1965) (179-81). The elimination of material and social waste (18183). Consideration of the present era as an extension the Axial Age, which saw religions arise that were also social movements (183-86). James Carse’s concept of “infinite games” invoked (18688). Apology, reconciliation, and forgiveness are needed to heal the past (188). The movement is “relentless and unafraid” because it is life itself (188). “I believe this movement will prevail” (189). Environmentalism and social justice must join together (190).
Appendix. WiserEarth (=World Index of Social and Environmental Responsibility) project ( (191-94). Classes of organizations: Agriculture and Farming (195-201), Animalia (201-08), Arts (208-09), Biodiversity (20910), Business and Economics (210-14), Children and Youth (214-16), Civil Society Organizations―Nonprofits, Philanthropy, and Social Entrepreneurs (216-19), Coastal and Marine Ecosystems (219-21), Community Development (22123), Conservation (224-27), Cultural Heritage (227-28), Democracy and Voting (228-30), Ecology (230-32), Education (232-34), Energy (234-37), Fisheries (237-38), Food and Nourishment (238-40), Forestry (240-43), Global Climate Change (243-44), Globalization (244-46), Governance (24648), Greening of Industry (248-51), Health (251-56), Human

Rights and Social Justice (256-60), Indigenous People and Rights (260-61), Inland Water Ecosystems (261-63), Law, Policy and Property Rights (263-67), Media (267-69), Mining (269-71), Peace, War, and Security (271-73), Plants (274-75), Pollution (275-78), Population (278-79), Poverty Eradication (279-81), Religion, Ecology, and Sustainability (281-83), Seniors (283), Sustainable Cities and Design (283-88), Sustainable Development (288-90), Technology (290-91), Terrestrial Ecosystems (292-94), Water (294-97), Women (297-300), Work (300-02). Acknowledgments. Isabel Stirling of UC Berkeley library. Kent Bicknell, Thoreau collector. William Kovarik, historian of the social justice and environmental movements. Readers. Peter Coyote, editing. Rick Kot, Hawken’s editor. Notes. 14 pp. Bibliography. 242 books. Index. 12 pp. [About the Author. Paul Hawken was born on Feb. 8, 1946. Had a Swedish grandmother and a Scottish grandfather with a farm (181). His father worked at UC Berkeley. As a teenager, he “roam[ed] the peaks of the Sierra Nevada, the dry eastern valleys that sprawl down to Mono Lake, and the White Mountain area above Owens Valley” (41), and worked in the civil rights movement in the South. He has written six books, including The Next Economy (1983), The Ecology of Commerce (1993), Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution (1999) (with Amory & Hunter Lovins), which have been translated into 26 other languages. He has founded a number of businesses (Erewhon Trading Co., Smith & Hawken, Datafusion, Groxis), and directs the Natural Capital Institute in Sausalito, CA, which is currently making a documentary film based on Blessed Unrest. Hawken is Stewart Brand’s neighbor; in 2002, Fortune called him “the original hippie entrepreneur, the merchant of Marin County who got turned on to business when others were still dropping out,” writing: “Today Hawken occupies a unique niche in the American landscape, combining bottom-line business credentials [he regularly addresses corporate audiences] with credibility among environmentalists and social critics. He once wrote, and stands by, the following sentence: ‘There is no polite way to say that business is destroying the world.’ Yet he also believes, passionately, that business―with its restless energy, imagination, and creativity―will one day get us out of the mess it has made. Says Hawken: ‘I believe business is on the verge of . . . a change brought on by social and biological forces that can no longer be ignored or put aside.’” Paul Hawken was hired by Ben & Jerry’s to perform a social audit.]