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Dynamics of Machinery (PU)
11
Gyroscope
Chapter 1
Gyroscope
TOPICS
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Introduction to Gyroscopic Effect Gyroscope Precessional Angular Motion Concept of Gyroscopic Couple Gyroscopic Effect on Aeroplanes Gyroscopic Effect on Ships Gyroscopic Stabilization Stabilization of Ships Stability of Fourwheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path
1.10 Stability of Four Wheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path With Banking 1.11 Stability of Two Wheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path 1.12 Gyroscopic Effect on Inclined Rotating Disc 1.13 List of Formulae y Exercise
¤ ¦ ¡ ¢ £ Dynami f achinery P ¥
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yroscope
1.1 y
INTRODUCTION TO GYROSCOPIC EFFECT
Whenever a body i rotating or spinni ng i n a plane (pl ane YZ) about an axis (axis OX) and its axis of rotation or spi n is made to precess i n an another perpendi cular plane (plane XZ), as shown i n F ig. 1.1, the coup l e is i nduced on the rotating or spinni ng body across the axis of rotation or spin in a third mutuall y perpendi cular plane (plane XY).
Fig. 1.1 : Gyroscopic Effect
y
Conversel y, whenever a body is rotati ng i n a plane (plane YZ) about an axis (axis OX) and a coupl e is applied on the rotati ng body across the axis of rotati on or spin i n an another perpendi cul ar plane (plane XY), the rotati ng or spinni ng body starts processi ng in a third mutuall y perpendi cular plane (plane XZ). The above stated effects are known as gyroscopic effects. The two things are necessary for existence of gyroscopi c effect. 1. 2. Rotating body Force or coupl e tryi ng to change the ori entation of axis of rotation of a rotati ng body.
y y
y y
The gyroscopi c effect is observed i n aeroplanes, ships, two wheel ers, four wheel ers, etc. The gyroscopi c effect finds its application i n instruments like : gyrocompass used in aeroplanes; missil es and space vehi cl es to sense the angular moti on of a body; gyroscopi c flow meter; gyroscopi c altitude i ndi cator, etc.
Dynamics of
achinery P
yroscope
1.2 y
GYROSCOPE Gyroscope is a mechani cal system or arrangement havi ng a rotor (usuall y heavy) spinni ng at high speed about its axis and bei ng free to turn in any directi on, as shown i n F ig. 1.2.
It consist of a rotor rotating on an axl e whi ch is supported by a ring call ed inner gimble, with beari ngs. This inner gi mbl e is supported i n one more ri ng call ed outer gimble, with bearings; and this outer gi mbl e is supported i nside a frame, with beari ngs. The frame is supported on a heavy stand as shown in F ig. 1.2. The rotor of gyroscope has three degrees of freedom : 1. Spinni ng about axis XX. 2. Tilting about axis YY. 3. Veeri ng about axis ZZ.
y
y
Fig. 1.2 : Gyroscope
1.3 y
PRECESSIONAL ANGULAR MOTION
Consi der a disc spinning about an axis OX with an angular speed µ[¶ as shown i n F ig. 1.3(a). After a short i nterval of ti me µdt¶, let the disc is spinni ng with an angular vel ocity ( [ + H[ ) about the new axis of spin OXd at an angl e HU with an axis OX.
p Usi ng the right hand rul e, the initial angular vel ocity of disc µ[¶ is represented by ox and p the final angular vel ocity of the disc ( [ + H[ ) is represented by oxd, as shown in F ig. 1.3(b).
Dynamics of
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yroscope
Fig. 1.3 : Precessional Motion
y
The vector xxd represents the change of angular vel ocity i n ti me Ht. This change i n p angular velocity can be resolved into two components one : parall el to ox and other p perpendi cular to ox. Correspondingl y there are two components of angular accel eration of the disc :
y 1. 2.
p Component of Angular Acceleration Along ox ( Et ) p Component of Angular Acceleration Perpendicular to ox ( Ec )
p 0 1 2 0 0 21 5 (om )on n of Angul 3 A44 l 3 ion Along o ( E6 ) :
1.
p Component of angular accel eration al ong ox is, Et =
or lim [oa ± ox] lim [oxd cos HU ± ox] lim xa = = Ht p 0 Ht p 0 Ht Ht p 0 Ht Ht lim [([ + H[) cos HU ± [ ] lim [[ cos HU + H[ cos HU ± [] = Ht p 0 Ht p 0 Ht Ht
Et =
since HU is very small, cos HU 1, hence we get, lim [[ + H[ ± [] lim H[ Et = = Ht p 0 Ht Ht p 0 Ht or
Et =
d[ dt
...(1.1)
3. Ec = [ [ p [p = .. (ii) E c = [ [p : Representing the change in direction of the axis of spin with respect to time. hence we get.(1. The precession of spin axis takes place in a plane XOXd and about perpendicular axis passing through O.2) dU = rate of precession of spin axis dt = angular velocity of precession (or processional angular velocit y). lim [[ H U] dU Ec = =[ dt Ht p 0 Ht or where. E = Et + p E c or or E = E = d[ dU +p[ dt dt d[ + p [ [p dt .Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 15 @ Gyroscope 2.(1. C 7mp78e 8t 7 9@ 8ABlar p D ccelerati 78 Perpe 8dicBlar t 7 ox C Ec E p Component of angular acceleration perpendicular to ox is. H[ HU 0. sin HU HU. . lim [[ HU + H[ HU] lim [([ + H[) HU] = Ec = Ht p 0 Ht p 0 Ht Ht as H[ and HU are very small.3) Thus.. lim axd lim oxd sin HU lim ( [ + H[ ) sin HU Ec = = = Ht p 0 Ht Ht p 0 H t p0 Ht Ht Since HU is very small. the total angular acceleration of the disc µE¶ is the vector sum of : (i) E t = d[ / dt : Representing the change in magnitude of the angular velocit y of disc µ[¶ with respect to time... hence we get. Total F GHIlar F cceleration P E R Q The total angular acceleration of the disc is given by.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 16 S Gyroscope 4.(a) Case II : Magnitude of angular velocity of disc is constant : y y In this case..4(a) y Consider a disc spininning (rotating) with an angular velocity µ[¶ about spin axis . total angular acceleration of the disc is given by. Et = 0 dt .e. Hence..(b) 1 U4 Fig. 1. Ec = 0 dt Hence. d[ E = dt d[ = 0 i. [p = dU = 0 i. total angular acceleration of the disc is given by.e.. dU E = [ dt or E = [ [p a c VWXVY` WF b dWeVW`fV VWg`L Y . Special Cases of ngular cceleration of Disc T S Case I : Direction of axis of spin is fixed : y y In this case..
The horizontal plane XOZ is called as plane of precession and axis OY is called as precession axis.e. kgm [ = angular velocity of the disc.4(a). (i) Initial Angular Momentum of Disc : When the initial position of the spin axis is OX. the magnitude of angular . 1. I = Mass moment of inertia of the disc about OX. (b) Fig. y y y The plane in which the disc is spinning (rotating) i. as shown in Fig. rad/s [p = angular velocity of precession of axis of spin.4 : Concept of Gyroscopic Couple Let. rad/s 2 y The initial position of the spin axis is OX. Let the spin axis OX is turned through a small angle µHU¶ in time µ Ht¶ in the horizontal plane XOZ about the precession axis OY. The axis of spin is precessing in a horizontal plane XOZ about an axis OY with an angular velocity µ[ p¶. plane YOZ is called as plane of spin. 1.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 17 Gyroscope OX in an anticlockwise direction.
4(b).4(b).4) C = I [ [p The couple given by Equation (1.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 18 Gyroscope momentum of disc is I[. as shown in Fig. Therefore. is called the . (ii) Final Angular Momentum of Disc : After time µHt¶ when the final position of the spin axis is OXd. As the angular momentum is a vector quantit y.. which must be applied to the disc across the axis of spin to cause it to precess in the horizontal plane about the axis of precession. Using right hand rule. the magnitude of angular momentum of disc remains same i. represents the rate of change of angular momentum. (iii) Change in Angular Momentum of Disc : Change in angular momentum p p = oxd ± ox p p = xxd = oxd HU = I [ HU p « [ ··· ox = I [ ] (iv) Gyroscopic couple on disc : HU Ht This rate of change of angular momentum will result due to application of couple to a disc. as shown in Fig.(1.1 ctive and Reactive Gyroscopic Couples [ University Exam h Dec. Rate of change of angular momentum = I [ C = or lim dU HU =I[ I[ dt Ht p 0 Ht « [ ··· dU = [p ] dt . the couple applied to the disc for causing precession is given by.e. I[.4) is known as gyroscopic couple.. it is represented by p oxd . 2007 !!! ] The gyroscopic couples can be categorized into two types : 1. Active Gyroscopic Couple Reactive Gyroscopic Couple i ctive Gyroscopic Couple p y y p The couple of magnitude C = I [ [p which acts in the direction of xxd . 1. 1. using right hand rule it is represented by p ox. 2. This couple.4. 1. 1.
The magnitude of the reactive gyroscopic couple is same as that of the active gyroscopic couple but direction is opposite.2 y y (i) (ii) (iii) y The spin vector. 1. as shown in Fig. Therefore. precession vector and active gyroscope couple vector are mutually perpendicular to each other. then the thumb will indicate the direction of active gyroscopic couple vector.4. y When the axis of spin precess itself or is made to precess with angular velocity µ[p¶. anticlockwise direction). to the frame. 1. xxd is perpendicular to the vertical plane XOY. the direction of curling fingers indicates the direction of active gyroscope couple. the shaft on which the disc is mounted applies reactive gyroscopic couple through support bearings.5. The direction of reactive gyroscope couple vector is opposite to the direction of active gyroscopic couple vector. precession vector and gyroscopic couple vector. 2. Therefore the gyroscopic couple causing change in angular momentum. . as shown in Fig. 3. Consider a disc rotating in an anticlockwise direction when viewed from front. Reactive Gyroscopic Couple q y y 2. the direction of curling fingers indicates the direction of precession. then the thumb will indicate the direction of spin vector. In case of small HU. Rotate the spin vector by 90r in the direction of precession so as to get the direction of active gyroscope couple vector. the plane XOY is called the plane of gyroscopic couple and axis OZ is called the axis of gyroscopic couple or gyroscopic axis.5. Curl the fingers of the right hand such that. curl the fingers along the direction of spin (rotation) of the disc (i. Curl the fingers of the right hand such that. 1. the active gyroscopic couple is the couple applied to the disc across the axis of spin so as to cause its precession. will be in a plane XOY.e. In short. The direction of thumb gives the spin vector. p p The vector xxd lies in a plane XOZ (plane of precession). The direction of active gyroscopic couple vector is obtain as discussed below : y 1. the direction of curling fingers indicates the direction of spin. Directions of ctive and Reactive Gyroscope Couples The right hand rule is used in deciding the directions of spin vector.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 19 Gyroscope y active gyroscopic couple. then the thumb will indicate the direction of precession vector. Using the right hand. Curl the fingers of the right hand such that.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 110 Gyroscope .
It is mounted centrall y on the hori ontal axl e of 80 mm l ength between the bearings. 2TN 2T v 800 = = 83. Usi ng the right hand.p.5 y y y E m l 1. in an anticl ockwise directi on when vi ewed from top.p.23 rad/s 60 60 Distance between bearings. as shown in F ig. Speed of disc. 1. Reactive Gyroscopic Couples y The spin vector is rotated by 90r in the directi on of precession (i.p. point the thumb in the direction of acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (i. [ = Angular precessional velocity. r = = = 0.e. in counter cl ockwise directi on when vi ewed from the right hand side beari ng. The axl e is made to precess about a vertical axis at 50 r. The curli ng fi ngers give the directi on of acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. 1. It spins about an axl e at 800 r. Np = 50 r.15 m d 0.m. in anti clockwise directi on when vi ewed from the top) so as to get the directi on of acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector.p.Dynamics of r s u achinery P t vw vv x yroscope Fig. m = 4 kg.e.15 @ Radius of disc.1 : A uni form disc of 150 mm diameter has a mass of 4 kg. d = 150 mm = 0.m.m. i o oi ou l : Angular vel ocity.5 : Directions of Active. 1. along OZ). Precession speed. The directi on of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is opposite to the directi on of active gyroscopi c coupl e. [p y Mass moment of inertia of disc is. l = 80 mm = 0.08 m N = 800 r. . Solu ion : Given : Diameter of disc.m. Determi ne the resultant reaction at each beari ng due to mass and gyroscop i c effect.77 rad/s 60 60 2TNp 2T v 50 = = = 5.075 m 2 2 Mass of disc.
N RB = Reacti on at bearing B.01125 v 83.01125 kgm I = mk = y y The axl e is made to precess.1.1 2. y Fig.23 or C = 4. RA = Reacti on at bearing A. The gyroscopi c coupl e appli ed by the disc is. y The axl e is subjected to : (i ) Reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. (C) Let.2 shows a loadi ng diagram of an axl e.1. 1.1. B ij ij n o king l m ion : F ig.9347 Nm The directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e is shown i n F i g. The reactive gyroscopi c coupl e tends to raise beari ng B and l ower the bearing A.Dynamics of d achinery P 2 g ef e 2 2 h yroscope or m r 4 v (0. Hence reacti ve gyroscopic coupl e is applied by the disc through the axl e on the support. C = I [ [p = 0. 1. (mg) . (ii) Weight of the disc.1. N.075) = 2 2 2 I = 0. 1.77 v 5.
1. RB v 0.9347 = 0 @ RA = 81.Dynamics of p q s achinery P r v tu t w yroscope Fig. [ = angular vel ocity of propell er or engi ne.08 ± 4 v 9. RA v 0.2 y Taki ng moments about point B.3 N (upward) y Taki ng moments about point A. rad/s I = mass moment of inertia of propell er and other rotating parts attached 2 to it.08 ± 4 v 9.06 N (downward) « Ans.04 ± 4.6 shows an aerop lane taking a turn.81 v 0. @ RB v 0.81 v 0. rad/s R .1.5 y GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON AEROPLANES F ig.04 ± C = 0 @ RA v 0. Let the propell er or engi ne rotates i n an anti cl ockwise direction when seen from the front end of the aerop lane. about an axis of rotation. m V [p = angular vel ocity of precession = . 1. kgm V = linear vel ocity of an aeroplane.06 N (upward) or RB = 42.08 ± mg v 0.04 + C = 0 « Ans.04 + 4.08 ± mg v 0. 1.9347 = 0 @ R B = ± 42. m/s R = radius of curvature. Let.
Case I : When propell er rotates in anticlockwise direction and aeroplane takes right turn. Case IV : When propeller rotates in clockwise di rection and aeroplane takes left turn.7. y The magnitude of reactive gyroscopic couple is given by. Using the right hand.7. the reactive gyroscopic couple is applied by the propeller shaft on the frame or body of the aeroplane. the spin axis (axis OX) precesses about the precession axis (axis OY). 1. 1. The aeroplane takes the right turn as shown in Fig. y . y Due to this.6 : Gyroscopic Effect on Aeroplane y The propeller spins (or rotates) about axis OX. The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector as shown in Fig. 1. curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of propeller i. the direction of thumb gives the spin vector. As the aeroplane takes the turn. turn the spin vector through 90r in the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector (which is not existing). Case I y y y : When propeller rotates in anticlockwise direction and aeroplane takes right turn : Let us consider the propeller rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the front or nose end of the aeroplane. Case III : When propeller rotates in clockwise direction and aeroplane takes right turn. Case II : When propeller rotates in anticlockwise direction and aeroplane takes left turn.e. C = I [ [p y The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple applied by the propeller shaft on the body of the aeroplane is determined by considering following four cases.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 114 Gyroscope Fig. in anticlockwise direction. Hence.
8. y y y The direction of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector as shown i n F ig. . 1.8.7 : When Propeller Rotates in Anticlockwise Direction and Aeroplane Takes Right Turn y y Usi ng ri ght hand. the directi on of thumb gi ves the spin vector. Usi ng ri ght hand. in anti cl ockwise direction. 1.e. 1. Hence. curl the fi ngers along the directi on of rotati on of propell er i. The aeroplane takes the l eft turn as shown i n F ig.Dynamics of x y { achinery P z ~ }  yroscope Fig. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector. The effect of this reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the tail and dip the nose of the aeroplane. The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. Case II : When propeller rotates in anticlockwise direction and aeroplane takes left turn: y y y Let us consi der the propell er rotates i n anticl ockwise direction when vi ewed from the front or nose end of the aerop lane. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector. The effect of this reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the nose and dip the tail of the aeroplane. Usi ng the right hand. turn the sp in vector through 90r in the directi on of precession so as to get the directi on of i magi nary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e.
9. 1.9. Usi ng the right hand.8 : When Propeller Rotates in Anticlockwise Direction and Aeroplane Takes Left Turn Case III : When propeller rotates in clockwise direction and aeroplane takes right turn: y y y Let us consider the propell er rotates i n cl ockwise directi on when vi ewed from the front or nose end of the aerop lane. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector. The effect of this reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the nose and dip the tail of the aeroplane.Dynamics of achinery P yroscope Fig. in cl ockwise directi on. curl the fi ngers along the directi on of rotati on of propell er i. The direction of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector as shown i n F ig. turn the sp in vector through 90r in the directi on of precession so as to get the directi on of imagi nary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. the directi on of thumb gi ves the sp in vector. Hence. 1. Usi ng ri ght hand. y y y .e. The aeroplane takes the ri ght turn as shown i n F ig. 1.
The curling fi ngers gives the directi on of curli ng fi ngers gi ves the direction of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e.Dynamics of achinery P yroscope Fig. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector. 1. 1.e. in cl ockwise directi on. Hence. The direction of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector as shown i n F ig. turn the sp in vector through 90r in the directi on of precession so as to get the directi on of i magi nary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing).10. curl the fi ngers along the directi on of rotati on of propell er i. The aeroplane takes the l eft turn as shown i n F ig.9 : When Propeller Rotates in Clockwise and Aeroplane Takes Right Turn Case IV : When propeller rotates in clockwise direction and aeroplane take left turn : y y y Let us consider the propell er rotates i n cl ockwise directi on when vi ewed from the front or nose end of the aerop lane. Usi ng ri ght hand. the directi on of thumb gi ves the sp in vector. The effect of this reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the tail and dip the nose of the aeroplane. y y y . 1. Usi ng the right hand.10.
towards left when flying at 400 km/hr. k = 30 cm = 0.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 118 Gyroscope Fig. C = I [ [p = 45 v 314.p.11 m/sec Mass of engine and propeller.3 m Speed of engine. Solution Given : Radius of curvature. Find the gyroscopic couple and its effect on aeroplane. V = 400 km / hr = 400 v 1000 60 v 60 = 111.p.11 = R 100 or y [p = 1. 1. [p = V 111.16 rad/s 1 Reactive Gyroscopic Couple y Mass moment of inertia of engine and propeller is.10 : When Propeller Rotates in Clockwise and Aeroplane Takes Left Turn Example 1.16 v 1. when viewed from front end.2 An aeroplane makes a half circle of 100 m radius.3) or I = 45 kgm 2 2 2 y Precessional angular velocit y is.m. The engine rotates at 3000 r.1111 rad/s Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on aeroplane is. N = 3000 r. R = 100 m Flying speed. m = 500 kg Radius of gyration of engine and propeller. [ = 2T v 3000 60 = 314. I = m k = 500 v (0.1111 or C = 15707. anticlockwise.m. The engine and propeller of plane weights 500 kg and has a radius of gyration of 30 cm.84 Nm .
cl ockwise when vi ewed from the rear.2. Under this conditi on i f aeroplane takes a l eft turn. What will be the effect i f the aeroplane turn to its right instead of to the l eft.707 kNm . towards l eft when fl yi ng at 200 km/hr. 1. Fig..p. then effect of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the nose and dip the tail of the aeroplane.Ans. F ind the gyroscopi c coupl e on the plane and state its effect on it.. T he engi ne runs at 2400 r.Dynamics of achinery P yroscope 2 ¡ £ Eff of i ¢o o ¤i ¥ou ¤l : @ C = 15.m. The rotati ng engi ne and the propell er of the plane have a mass 400 kg with a radi us of gyration of 40 cm.2.1 : When Propeller Rotates in Anticlockwise and Aeroplane Takes Left Turn E ¦§ m ¨l 1.1). 1.3 © An aeroplane makes a compl ete hal f circl e of 50 m radi us. The propell er rotates anticl ockwise when vi ewed from front end. V = 200 km / hr = 200 v 1000 60 v 60 . (Refer F ig. Solu ion : ª Given : Radius of curvature. R = 50 m F l yi ng speed.
46 Nm C = 17..4) or y I = 64 kgm 2 Precessional angular velocit y is.4 m Speed of engine. 1.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 120 Gyroscope = 55. k = 40 cm = 0. [p = V 55. I = mk 2 2 = 400 v (0. 2. Under this condition if aeroplane takes a left turn.Ans.32 v 1. (Refer Fig.m.p.55 m/sec Mass of engine and propeller.3. N = 2400 r. then effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to raise the nose and dip the tail of the aeroplane.1).3216 rad/s 1. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple when eroplane takes a Left Turn The propeller rotates clockwise when viewed from rear end. m = 400 kg Radius of gyration of engine and propeller.87 kNm ¬ .. C = I [ [p = 64 v 251.55 = R 50 or y [p = 1.1111 rad/s Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on aeroplane is. Reactive Gyroscopic Couple « y Mass moment of inertia of engine and propeller is. .1111 or or C = 17871. 2T v 2400 [ = 60 = 251.
3. then effect of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the tail and dip the nose of the aeroplane (Refer F ig. 1. .11 shows three vi ews of ship. Eff · of ¹ »o ·o ½i · ¾ou ½l ¶ ¸ º ¼ ¸Â ¶¿ ¶ ¶ Á ¶ ÂÁ ¶¼ Á À n A »o ½l n Ã »ig À u »n : Fig. under this condition i f aeroplane takes a ri ght turn.3.Dynamics of ® ¯ ± achinery P ° ´ ²³ ² µ yroscope Fig. 1.6 GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON SHIPS F ig. 1.3.2 : When Propeller Rotates in Clockwise Direction and Aeroplane Takes Right Turn The propell er rotates clockwise when vi ewed from rear end. 1.2) 1.1 : When Propeller Rotates in Clockwise Direction and Aeroplane Takes Left Turn 3.
6.2 y y Steering of a ship is the turning of a complete ship in a curve towards the left or right.6. y . (vi) Pitching of ship : Pitching is the cyclic up and down motion of the bow and stern in a vertical plane about the transverse axis. The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple is determined by considering following four cases. Gyroscopic Effect on Ships During Steering 1. (ii) Stern or aft or rear end : It is the rear end of the ship. Due to this. Hence. (rear end) (iv) Port : It is the left hand side of the ship when seen from the stern.11 : Three Views of Ship 1. steering of the ship leads to the precession of the spin axis. (iii) Starboard : It is the right hand side of the ship when seen from the stern. the reactive gyroscopic couple is applied by the rotor shaft on the ship. The rotor and propeller of the ship is spinning about its own axis.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 122 Gyroscope Fig.1 y (i) Terminology Used in Ship The terms used in connection with ships are as follows : Bow or fore end : It is the front end of the ship. pitching and rolling are discussed below. y The gyroscopic effect in ships during steering. (rear end) (v) Steering of ship : Steering is the turning of a complete ship in a curve towards the left or right. (vii) Rolling of ship : Rolling is the cyclic up and down motion of the port and the starboard about the longitudinal axis. 1.
The effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is the raise the stern or rear end and dip the bow or fore end. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1.12. in anticlockwise direction. 1. Using the right hand.12. The curling fingers gives the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple. the direction of thumb gives the spin vector.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 123 Gyroscope Case I Case II Case III Case IV : : : : When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship steers to right. The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector. curl the fingers along the direction of rotation of rotor i. When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship steers to left. y y y . point the thumb in the direction of reactive gyroscopic couple vector. as shown in Fig. The ship steers to right.e. Using right hand. 1. Hence. When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship steers to right. turn the spin vector through 90r in the direction of precession so as to get the direction of imaginary active gyroscopic couple vector (which is not existing).12. Case I : When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship steers to right : y y y Let the rotor and propeller rotate in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the bow or fore end and ship is taking right turn. When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship steers to left.
The ship steers to l eft. curl the fi ngers along the direction of rotation of rotor i.13. 1. as shown in F ig. 1. The direction of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector.13. y y y .e. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector.12 : When Rotor Rotates in Anticlockwise Direction and Ship Steers to Right Case II : When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship steers to left : y y y Let the rotor and propell er rotate i n anti clockwise directi on when vi ewed from the bow or fore end and ship is taking left turn as shown in F ig.13. turn the sp in vector thorough 90r i n the directi on of precessi on so as to get the directi on of i maginary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). anti cl ockwise direction. the directi on of thumb gi ves the spin vector. Usi ng the right hand. The effect of this reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the bow or fore end and dip the stern or rear end. 1. The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. as shown in F ig. 1. Usi ng ri ght hand.Dynamics of Ä Å Ç achinery P Æ ÊË ÈÉ Ì yroscope Fig. Hence.
1.e. The effect of this reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to raise the bow or fore end and dip the stern or rear end.Dynamics of Í Î Ð achinery P Ï ÓÔ ÑÒ Õ yroscope Fig. 1. Usi ng the right hand. y y y .14.13 : When Rotor Rotates in Anticlockwise and Ship Steers to Left Case III : When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship steers to right : y y y Let the rotor and propell er rotate in cl ockwise direction when vi ewed from the bow or fore end and ship is taking right turn. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector.14. The ship steers to l eft. as shown in F ig. cl ockwise directi on. as shown in F ig. 1. the directi on of thumb gi ves the sp in vector. The direction of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector. as shown in F ig. curl the fi ngers along the direction of ro tation of rotor i. The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. turn the sp in vector thorough 90r i n the directi on of precessi on so as to get the directi on of i maginary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). Usi ng ri ght hand. 1. Hence.14.
The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. as shown i n F ig. 1. The effect of this reactive gyroscopi c coupl e is the raise the stern or rear end and dip y y y the bow or fore end. Usi ng ri ght hand.15.15. turn the sp in vector through 90r i n the directi on of processi on so as to get the directi on of i magi nary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). the directi on of thumb gi ves the sp in vector. in cl ockwise directi on.Dynamics of Ö × Ù achinery P Ø ÜÝ ÚÛ Þ yroscope Fig. 1. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector. Hence. as shown in F ig.e. The direction of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the direction of imaginary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector. The ship steers to l eft.14 : When Rotor Rotates in Clockwise Direction and Ship Steers to Right Case IV : When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship steers to left : y y y Let the rotor and propell er rotate in cl ockwise direction when vi ewed from the bow or fore end and ship is taking left turn. 1. . curl the fi ngers al ong the directi on of rotati on of rotor i. 1. Usi ng the right hand.15. as shown in F ig.
3 o o i Eff on S i u ing Pi ing : y Pitch ièé of shiê is the cyclic up and down motion of bow and stern in a vertical plane about transverse axis.Dynamics of ß à â achinery P á åæ ãä ç yroscope Fig. . 1. as shown in F ig. 1. Fig.16 : Pitching of Ship . 1.15 : When Rotor Rotates in Clockwise and Ship Steers to Left 1.16.
. y Magnitude of Reactive Gyroscopic Couple : The angular displacement of axis of spin from its mean position at time t is given by.6) 2..5) y From Equation (3).(b) y y y The maximum gyroscopic couple is given by. The transverse axis of the ship is the axis of precession.. kg.. the pitching of the ship about the transverse axis is nothing but the precession of the spin axis.(1.e. Direction of Reactive Gyroscopic Couple : The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple is determined by considering following four . U = J sin [o t ..(a) where.m [ = angular velocity of rotor. i..H. dU d = (J sin [o t) [p = dt dt or [p = J [o cos [o t. the reactive gyroscopic couple is applied by the rotor shaft on the ship.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 128 Gyroscope y y The rotor is spinning about its own axis.. I = moment of inertia of turbine rotor. Maximum angular acceleration of precession is.) 1. d[p Ep = dt d (J [o cos [o t) = dt 2 or EP = ± J [o sin [ o t Hence.H. Cmax = I [ [p (max) where. The maximum angular velocity of precession is. Due to this. The pitching of ship is assumed to take place with simple harmonic motion (S. the angular acceleration of precession is.. rad/s. 2 . EP (max) = ± J [o 2 y . s The angular velocity of precession is given by. J = amplitude of swing. Hence. The angular velocity of precession will be maximum when cos [o t = 1. [p (max) = J [o y .(1. [o = angular velocity of S. cases.M. 2T rad/s = TP TP = time period of pitching. maximum angle turned form the mean position. rad.M.
curl the fi ngers al ong the directi on of rotati on of rotor i. Case I : When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship pitches upward y y y Let the rotor rotates i n anti clockwise direction when vi ewed from the bow or fore end and ship pitches upward. 1. as shown in F ig. as shown in F ig. When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship pitches downward. 1. turn the sp in vector through 90r in the directi on of precession.17.Dynamics of ë ì î achinery P í ñò ïð ó yroscope Case I Case II Case III Case IV : : : : When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship pitches upward. in anti cl ockwise direction. When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship pitches downward.17. The ship pitches upward as shown in F ig. . so as to get the direction of i magi nary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing) Fig.e. When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship pitches upward. 1. Hence. Usi ng the right hand. 1.17 : When Rotor Rotates in Anticlockwise and Ship Pitches Upward y The directi on of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the directi on i magi nary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector.17. the directi on of thumb gi ves the spin vector.
in anti cl ockwise direction. as shown in F ig. The ship pitches upward as shown in F ig. Case II : When rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction and ship pitches downward : y y y Fig.Dynamics of ô õ ÷ achinery P ö úû øù ü yroscope y y Usi ng ri ght hand.18.18. Usi ng the right hand. The effect of this reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is to turn the ship towards starboard side or right side. 1. The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. the directi on of thumb gi ves the spin vector. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reacti ve gyroscope coup l e vector. Usi ng ri ght hand. The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. Let the rotor rotates i n anti clockwise direction when vi ewed from the bow or fore end and ship pitches downward. 1. . as shown in F ig.18. 1. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reacti ve gyroscope coup l e vector. turn the sp in vector through 90r in the directi on of precession.e. Hence.18 : When Rotor Rotates in Anticlockwise Direction and Ship Pitches Downward y y The directi on of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the directi on i magi nary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector. curl the fi ngers al ong the directi on of rotati on of rotor i. so as to get the direction of i magi nary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). 1.
Usi ng the right hand. The ship pitches upward as shown in F ig. the directi on of thumb gi ves the sp in vector.e. Usi ng ri ght hand.19. Let the rotor rotates i n cl ockwise direction when vi ewed from the bow or fore end and ship pitches upward. . turn the sp in vector through 90r in the directi on of precession. Hence. as shown in F ig. The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e.Dynamics of ý þ achinery P ÿ ¡¢ £ ¡ ¤ yroscope y The effect of this reactive gyroscopi c coupl e is to turn the ship towards port side or left side. in cl ockwise directi on.19 : When Rotor Rotates in Clockwise and Ship Pitches Upward y y The directi on of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the directi on i magi nary active gyroscopi c coupe vector. Case III : When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship pitches upwards : y y y Fig. 1. 1. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reacti ve gyroscope coup l e vector.19. so as to get the direction of i magi nary acti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). curl the fi ngers al ong the directi on of rotati on of rotor i.19. 1. as shown in F ig. 1.
Usi ng ri ght hand. The ship pitches downward as shown i n F ig. 1. poi nt the thumb i n the directi on of reacti ve gyroscope coup l e vector. so as to get the direction of i magi nary active gyroscopi c coupl e vector (whi ch is not existing). as shown in F ig. as shown in F ig. 1.20 : When Rotor Rotates in Clockwise Direction and Ship Pitches Downward y y y The directi on of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e vector is opposite to the directi on i magi nary active gyroscopi c coupe vector.20. The curli ng fi ngers gives the direction of reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e. The effect of this reactive gyroscopi c coupl e is to turn the ship towards star board side or right side. Hence. Usi ng the right hand. turn the sp in vector through 90r in the directi on of precession. Fig. .20.20.e. in cl ockwise directi on. 1.Dynamics of ¥ achinery P § ¦ ¨ © yroscope y The effect of this reactive gyroscopi c coupl e is to turn the ship towards port side or left side. the directi on of thumb gi ves the sp in vector. curl the fi ngers al ong the directi on of rotati on of rotor i. 1. Case IV : When rotor rotates in clockwise direction and ship pitches downwards y y y Let the rotor rotates i n cl ockwise direction when vi ewed from the bow or fore end and ship pitches downward.
the magnitude and direction of disturbing coupl e is not al ways constant.7 y y y y y y y GYROSCOPIC STABILIZATION A spi nning body al ways tends to mai ntain the ori entation of its spin axis in space. The external torque in suitabl e directi on is required to change the ori entati on of spin axis. port and starboard side goes up and do wn alternately as shown i n F ig.Dynamics of achinery P ! yroscope 1. aeroplanes and ships. etc. 1.21. . there is no gyroscopic effect during rolling of the ship. For the stability of such vehi cl e it is essential to neutrali& e the effect of external disturbi ng coupl e by appl yi ng equal and opposite coup le. y Fig. in stabili$ ing ri fl e bull et. al ways external disturbing coupl e is acting on the vehi cl e. In air or sea vehi cl es such as. This property is used i n automati c pilot for ships and a ir crafts. el ectri c motor) such that the reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e should be as for as possible equal and opposite to the external disturbi ng coupl e. In such vehi cl es the axis of gyroscope is made to precess by some external means (e. in stabili$ ing air and sea vehi cl es. very little or no success is obtained in stab ili% ation of the si ngl e track land vehi cl es. Thus the basi c property of the gyroscope is. In case of rolli ng action the axis of rotor and axis of rolling of ship are same.21 : Rolling of Ship 1. Of course. it opposes the precessi on of the axis of spin by appl yi ng the reactive gyroscopi c coupl e. for exampl e. y y . Hence.g. in rolling motion.e. However. This can be achi eved with the help of gyroscope. bull et fired form a ri fl e. 1.4 o o i Eff on S i u ing olling : y Rolli"# of ship is the side wise oscillating motion of ship about longitudinal axis i. there is no precession of the axis of rotor or axis of spin and hence.
to generate equal and opposite reacti ve coupl e. as shown i n F ig. The fundamental requirement of the gyroscop i c stabiliQ ation is that. it is essential to vary the magnitude and directions of vel ocity of precessi on. To keep the ship on even keel. y y Fig. the reactive gyroscopi c coupl e exerted by the rotor shoul d oppose any disturbi ng coupl e whi ch may act on the ship. Duri ng steering. as shown in F ig. stabiliP ing the ship. the gyroscope should be made to precess by some external means (e. 8 E F . hence stab iliI ation of ships is necessary. The amplitude of rolli ng is much higher than the amplitude of pitchi ng. as shown in F ig. Suppose the disturbing coupl e due to rolling acti on is acti ng in cl ockwise directi on when vi ewed from the bow end.23.Dynamics of ' achinery P ) ( 0 12 34 5 yroscope Accordi ngl y. 1. el ectri c motor) in such a way that.g. 1. Due to sea waves. 1. the axis of spi n of rotor is made to precess by an el ectri c motor in clockwise directi on when vi ewed from port side.22 : Rolling of Ship y y y This is achi eved by a gyroscope havi ng horiR ontal rotor. 1.22. Consi der a rolling of a ship due to disturbing couple. The disturbi ng coupl e is caused by buoyant forces whi ch are di fferent on the two side of a wave sl ope. The shaft or axis of the rotor is made to precess by an el ectri c motor in a verti cal plane.23. y In order to control the vel ocity of precessi on. Suppose the rotor rotates in an anti clockwise direct ion when vi ewed form the top.8 STABILIZATION OF SHIPS [ 6 ni 78 @ A B 9 i E CD m:M DB 2007. the spin axis does not precess and will no cause any gyroscop i c effect. 1. ship will either roll or pitch. A disturbing coupl e acts on the ships due to sea waves. T he gyroscope can be used for reduci ng the amplitude of rolling and hence. the feedback is taken form the disturbi ng coupl e. In this case. . disturbi ng coupl e has to be opposed by another coupl e of same magnitude and in opposite directi on. 2007 GGG H y y Ships or sea vessels required stabiliI ation when they face heavy sea waves.
Fig.23 : Stabilization of Ship y y y E bc If the disturbing coupl e and the reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e are equal. m dl 1. 1. If the ship is maki ng ri ght turn at 5 rad/s. m = 350 kg Radius of gyration of rotor. T he rotor rotates at 1200 r.6 m . i n an anti clockwise sense when vi ewed from the front. 2007) Solu ion : f Given : Length between two beari ngs. The rolling amplitude cannot be eli minated totall y but its value can be reduced.m. whi ch opposes the disturbi ng coupl e. then the ship will remain on the even keel. The rotor has a mass of 350 kg and radius of gyrati on of 600 mm. determi ne the magnitude and directi on of the bearing reacti ons due to gyroscopi c effect. reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e should also be peri odi c in nature. as rolling or disturbi ng couple is peri odi c in nature. l = 5 m Mass of rotor. (PU : Dec.p.Dynamics of S achinery P U T V WX Y` a yroscope y This produces reactive gyroscopi c coupl e. k = 600 m = 0.4 : e A rotor of a turbi ne on ship has its axes of rotation parall el to the propell er shaft and is supported in bearings 5 m apart. It is important to note that.
1] .4. The rotor rotates in anticl ockwise direction when viewed from the front.66 v 5 or C = 79168. [P = 5 rad/s Mass moment of inertia of rotor is. 1.66 rad/s 60 Precessional angular vel ocity.1681 kNm .p. 1.m. I = m k = 350 v (0.131 Nm @ y C = 79. wx w v y y i o o i y ou l : w y y y Angular vel ocity of rotor. C = I [ [P = 126 v 125. Hence.Dynamics of g achinery P i h p qr st u yroscope Speed of rotor. the effect of reacti ve gyroscopi c couple is to raise the stern and dip the bow.6) or I = 126 kgm 2 2 2 y Reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e acti ng on ship is.. N = 1200 r. [F ig.Ans.. [ = 2 T v 1200 = 125.
Dynamics of
achinery P
yroscope
Fig. 1.4.1 2. B
ing
f d e
ion :
g
y
Due to reactive gyroscopi c coupl e, the force appli ed by the shaft on the bearing µA¶ near the bow end is in downward direction and on the bearing µB¶ near the stern end is i n upward directi on as shown in F ig. 1.4.1 The bearing reactions are opposite to these forces. F ig. 1.4.2 shows the reactive gyroscopi c coupl e acting on the shaft and bearing reactions.
y y
Fig. 1.4.2
y
Taki ng moments about B, RA v 5 ± C = 0
@
RA v 5 ± 79.1681 = 0
@ RA = 15.83 kN (upward) y
Taki ng moments about A, RB v 5 + C = 0
« Ans.
@
R B v 5 + 79.1681 = 0
@ R B = ± 15.83 kN (upward)
or
E
hi
RB = 15.83 kN (downward)
« Ans.
m jl 1.5 :
k
A ship is propell ed by a turbine rotor having a mass of 6000 kg and speed of 2400 r.p.m. The directi on of rotation of rotor is anticl ockwise when vi ewed from the bow end. The radi us of gyrati on of rotor is 450 mm. Determi ne the gyroscopi c effect when : (i ) Ship is steeri ng to the l eft in a curve of 60 m radius at a speed of 18 knots (1 knot = 1860 m/hr). (ii) Ship is pitchi ng in S.H.M. with bow descendi ng (falling) with maxi mum vel ocity. The ti me peri od of pitchi ng is 18 seconds and the ship pitches 7.5r above and 7.5r
Dynamics of Machinery (PU)
138
Gyroscope
below the normal position. (iii) (iv) Ship is rolling and at the instant, its angular velocity is 0.035 rad/s counter clockwise when viewed from stern. Also find the maximum angular acceleration during pitching.
l
Solution
Given :
Mass of rotor, m = 6000 kg Speed of rotor, N = 2400 r.p.m. 2T v 2400 @ Angular speed of rotor, [ = 60 = 251.32 rad/s Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 450 mm = 0.45 m Mass moment of inertia of rotor, I = m k = 6000 v (0.45) = 1215 kgm Radius of rotation of ship, R = 60 m Speed of ship, V = 18 knots = 18 v 1860 m / hr or V = 18 v 1860 = 9.3 m /s 3600
2 2 2
1.
When Ship is Steering to Left
m
y y
Precessional angular velocit y, Reactive gyroscopic couple is,
[p =
V 9.3 = = 0.155 rad/s. R 60
C = I [ [p C = 1215 v 251.32 v 0.155 or
@ y
C = 47331.23 Nm
C = 47.3312 kNm
...Ans.
The rotor rotates anticlockwise when viewed from the bow end and ship takes left turn, then effect of gyroscopic couple is to raise the bow and dip the stern of the ship [Fig. 1.5.1].
Dynamics of Machinery (PU)
139
Gyroscope
Dynamics of
n
achinery P p
o
q
rs
tu
v
yroscope
Fig. 1.5.1 2.
w y x
n S xiz i Pi
{

}x
ing n Bo
~
{
i
y{ y }
n ing (i.e. Pi

}x
ing i
{
o n
~
):
y
Amplitude of swi ng is,
J = 7.5r = 7.5 v y
Angular vel ocity of S.H.M. is,
T = 0.13089 radians 180
[o = y
Angular vel ocity of precessi on is,
2T 2T = = 0.3490 rad / sec Tp 18
[p = J [o cos [o t
Angular vel ocity of precessi on will be maxi mum, if cos [o t = 1. Therefore, the maxi mum angular vel ocity of precession is,
[p (max) = [o J = 0.3490 v 0.13089
or
[p (max) = 0.04569 rad/sec
y
Maxi mum reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is, C max = I [ [p (max) = 1215 v 251.32 v 0.04569 or C max = 13952.02 Nm Cmax = 13.9520 kNm
@ y
...Ans.
The rotor rotates in anti clockwise direction when vi ewed from the bow end and p itchi ng is downward. Hence, the effect of reacti ve gyroscopic coupl e is to move the ship
en S i i olling : y In case of rolling action. dU dt = J [o cos [o t. Hence. 1. there is no precession of the axis of rotor and hence.2 3. there is no gyroscopi c effect during rolling of the ship. y Angular accel eration duri ng pitchi ng is. U = J s in [ o t y Angular precessional velocity during pitchi ng is. Fig. M 4.5.Dynamics of achinery P yroscope towards port side. the axis of rotation of rotor and the axis of rolling of ship are same. imum Angul Aeleration u ring Pitch ing : y Angular displacement at any i nstant during pitchi ng is. .
. Example 1. R = 100 m Speed of ship. [ = 2T v 3000 = 314.6 The turbine rotor of ship has a mass of 2000 kg and it rotates at a speed of 3000 r. The radius of gyration of rotor is 500 mm (i) Determine the gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship is steering to right in a curve of 100 m radius at a speed of 30 km/hr (ii) Calculate the gyroscopic torque and its effect when the ship is pitching in SHM.5) = 500 kgm Radius of rotation of ship. Ep (max) = J [o 2 2 = ± 0. R 100 . k = 500 mm = 0.p.083333 rad/s.333 = = 8. V = 30 km/hr or V = 1.15 rad / s 60 2 2 2 Radius of gyration of rotor.3490) or y EP (max) = ± 0.Ans.015949 rad/sec 2 . Reactive gyroscopic couple is.5 m Mass moment of inertia of rotor. with bow falling with its maximum velocit y. (PU : May 2006) Solution Mass of rotor.3333 m/s 3600 y y Precessional angular velocit y. m = 2000 kg Speed of rotor.m. maximum angular acceleration of precision is. N = 3000 r. [p = V 8.p.m clockwise when seen from the rear. When Ship Steer To Left 30 v 1000 = 8. @ Angular speed of rotor. I = m k = 2000 v (0.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 142 Gyroscope 2 dU 2 dt y 2 = ± J [o sin [o t Angular acceleration is maximum when sin [o t = 1 Therefore..13089 v (0. Negative sign indicates maximum angular retardation. The period of pitching is 50 sec and the total angular displacement between the two extreme positions is 12r. (iii) What is the effect of rolling in this case.
The rotor rotates anti clockwise when vi ewed from the rear end and ship takes ri ght turn.08333 or C = 13089. Pitch ing i ¢ ¥ o n ard) : ¤ ¤ y Total angular displacement between the two extreme position is.e.58 Nm @ y C = 13.Ans. hen Sh i¡ i Pitch ing an £ Bo ¢ ¤ ¢ i Falling (i.. then effect of gyroscop i c coupl e is to raise the stern and dip the bow of the ship [Refer F ig.6.08 kNm .1].6. 1.1047 radians .1 2. 1. 2J = 12r J = 6r = 6 v T 180 = 0.Dynamics of achinery P yroscope C = I [ [p = 500 v 314.15 v 0. Fig..
12566 v 0. Hence. the maximum angular velocit y of precession is.6.01315 or or Cmax = 2066. 1.Ans..H. [p = J [o cos [o t Angular velocity of precession will be maximum..1047 or y [p (max) = 0. Cmax = I [ [p (max) = 500 v 314. y The rotor rotates in clockwise direction when viewed from the rear end and pitching is downward.2].12566 rad / sec y Angular velocity of precession is.M. [o = 2T 2T = Tp 18 = 0.63 Nm Cmax = 2. .066 kNm . the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple is to move the ship towards port side [Refer Fig.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 144 Gyroscope y Angular velocity of S.01315 rad/s Maximum reactive gyroscopic couple is.15 v 0. is. if cos [o t = 1. [p (max) = [o J = 0. Therefore.
STABILITY OF FOURWHEEL VEHICLE MOVING IN CURVED PATH Consi der a fourwheel vehi cl e taki ng a l eft turn as shown i n Fig. the axis of rotation of rotor and the axis of rolling of ship are same. m Iw = mass moment of inertia of each wheel. M = total mass of the vehi cl e.24. there is no gyroscopi c effect during rolling of the ship. m r = radius of the wheels.9 y y Let. 1. 1. Hence.Dynamics of ¦ achinery P ¨ § © ª« ¬ ® yroscope Fig. of the vehi cl e above the road surface.6. ¯ hen Sh i° i ± ² olling : y In case of rolling action. there is no precession of the axis of rotor and hence. The wheels C and D are call ed inner wheels and wheels A and B are call ed outer wheels. B. kgm 2 2 IE = mass moment of inertia of rotating parts of the engi ne. m h = hei ght of C. m a = wi dth of track. C and D. m/s [E = angular vel ocity of the rotati ng parts of the engine. kgm V = linear vel ocity of the vehi cl e. The four wheels are : A. 1. kg R = radius of curvature of curved path or track.2 3. rad/ s .G.
y . the following three loads (forces and couples) are acting on the vehicle [Fig.1 y [E [w Reactions of Ground on our Wheels of Vehicle When the vehicle is taking the turn. the total weight of the vehicle will be equally distributed over the four wheels. which acts vertically downwards. 2. of the vehicle is at the center of vehicle.24] : 1. of the vehicle. 1. the total weight of vehicle will not be equally distributed over the four wheels. 3. 1. rad/s [p = precessional angular velocity of the wheel axis = V . Weight of vehicle (Mg) Centrifugal force ( Fc ) Reactive gyroscopic couple (C) Weight of vehicle ³´ g) µ y The weight of vehicle µMg¶ acts vertically downwards through the C.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 146 Gyroscope [w = angular velocity of the rotating parts of the wheel.G. If the C.9. of the vehicle is not at the center of vehicle.G. rad/s R G = gear ratio = 1.G. If the C.
À eacti e Á Ã Â ro co Åic Æou Åle ( Æ) : Ä y y In vehi cl e. 1. Hence. Due to this. T he effect of this centri fugal force is to overturn the vehi cl e. the reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is applied by the axl e and wheels.. of the vehi cl e is. 1. the four wheels and rotating parts of engine are spinning about their own axis. we have to consi der the reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e due to four wheels as well as engi ne separatel y. C w = 4 [ Iw [ w [ p ] y y y The reactive gyroscopi c coupl e due to rotati ng parts of engi ne is. When the vehi cl e is moving al ong the curved path.(1. ¿ en trifug al Fo rce ( Fc ) : y S ince the vehi cl e moves al ong a curved path having radi us µR¶ whil e taki ng a turn.. The reactive gyroscopi c coupl et due to four wheels is. Fc = M [P R = M or 2 y V 2 R R .G. The four wheels and engi ne are considered two di fferent sets of rotors si nce they are rotati ng with di fferent speed and may be i n di fferent directi ons..24 : Forces and Couple Acting on FourWheels of Vehicle Moving in Curved Path 2.24.G. the precessi on of axis of rotation take place.Dynamics of ¶ achinery P ¸ · ¹ º» ¼½ ¾ yroscope Fig.. The centri fugal force acting through the C. C E = I E [E [p = IE G [w [p . ¬··· G = « [E » ¼ [w½ . the centri fugal force µFc¶acts radiall y outward through the C. as shown in F ig. of the vehi cl e.7) 2 Fc = MV R 2 3.
since the reactive gyroscopic couples due to wheels and engine will act in opposite direction.8). the positive sign is used when the wheels and engine rotate in same direction.. It is important to note that.(1. .N Ri = reaction of ground on each inner wheel. Reactions of Ground on Wheels Ç R i and Ro ) y y y 4. 1. only engine parts which are rotating in a plane parallel to plane of wheels are taken into account.8) is neglected. since reactive gyroscopic couples due to wheels and engine will act in same direction. Ro = reaction of ground on each outer wheel . then the term µG IE¶ in Equation (1.25 shows loading diagram of four wheels. N Fig..8) y In Equation (1. If the wheels and engine rotate in opposite direction then the negative sign is used. If the mass moment of inertia of the rotating parts of engine is negligible. C = Cw s CE or or C = 4 [ Iw [w [p ] s IE G [w [p C = ( 4 Iw s G IE ) [w [p . Let.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 148 Gyroscope y The total reactive gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle is.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 149 Gyroscope Fig. 2 Ro v a ± Mg v @ @ @ @ @ a ± Fc v h ± C = 0 2 Mg a + Fc h + C 2 Ro a = 2 Ro = Ro = Ro = Mg Fc h C + + 4 2a 2a Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE) [w [p + + R 2a 2a 4 2 Mg M V h (4 Iw s G IE) V V + + 2a 4 2Ra r R 2 2 2 Ro Mg M V h (4 Iw s G IE) V = + + 4 2Ra 2Rra «(1. ± 2 Ri v a + Mg v @ @ a ± Fc v h ± C = 0 2 Mg a 2 Ri a = ± Fc h ± C 2 Ri = Mg Fc h C ± ± 2a 2a 4 .25 : Loading Diagram of Four Wheels of Vehicle Moving in Curved path y Taking moments about C and D. 1.9) y Taking moments about A and B.
the conditions for the stability of vehicle are : y y Ro u 0 and y y . y Ri u 0 2 Mg M V h (4 IW s G IE) V ± ± 2Rra 2Ra 4 2 . it is seen that the reaction of ground on each outer wheel i. However.10) Condition for Stability of our Wheel Vehicle For the stability of the fourwheel vehicle moving in a curved path.9. if it is in upward direction.. the condition for stability is.(c) u 0 @ @ Mg 4 u 2 (4 Iw s G IE)» V « ¼ ¬M h + r 2 Ra ½ MgR a 2 u V (4 I s G I ) « w E » ¼ 2 ¬M h + r ½ .. Hence.e. Hence. from Equation (1.. Therefore the inner wheels may lift from the ground and vehicle may overturn.. the reaction of ground on each inner wheel i.9).e. it is assumed that the reaction of ground on the wheel is positive.e. the net vertical force applied by the wheel on the ground should be downwards i. R i may be zero or negative. Ro can not be zero or negative.. To fulfill this condition.. the net force applied by the ground on the wheels (reaction of th e ground on the wheels) should be upwards.10) it is seen that.(a) .(b) Ri u 0 From Equation (1.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 150 Gyroscope 2 @ @ Ri = Mg MV h (4 IW s G IE) [W [p ± ± 2a R 2a 4 2 Mg M V h (4 IW s G IE) V V Ri = ± ± 4 2Ra 2a r R or 1. In above analysis.2 y y Mg M V h (4 IW s G IE) V Ri = ± ± 4 2Rra 2Ra 2 2 «(1. it is essential that no wheel should be lifted off the ground while the vehicle takes the turn.
The gear ratio between the engine and the back wheels is 5.7 È An automobile is traversing along a curved track of 200 m mean radius. r = @ Mass moment of inertia of engine. a 1.5 m. The rotating parts of the engine have a mass moment of inertia of 10 kgm .8 = 0. IE Gear ratio.8 m @ Radius of each wheel.32 m 2 @ Mass moment of inertia of wheel..11) Example 1. above the road surface.(1. Iw = mW k = 125 v (0. Mg = 3000 v 9.32 m. = = = = = 0. Solution È Given : Radius of curvature of path.81 or Mg = 29430 N V V = = 2. mW = 125 kg Radius of gyration of wheel. The engine axis is parallel to the front axle and the crankshaft rotates in the same direction as the road wheels. The effective diameter of each 2 wheel is 0.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 151 Gyroscope or V e MgR a (4 Iw s G IE)» « ¼ 2 ¬M h + ½ r ..4 m 2 2 10 kgm 5 3000 kg 0.5 m above the road level. Each of the four road wheels has a mass of 125 kg with radius of gyration of 0. Calculate the limiting speed of the vehicle around the curve for all four wheels to maintain contact with the road surface. kW = 0.5 V rad / s r 0.4 y Angular velocity of the wheels is. Mass of each wheel.5 m Ê Centrifugal Éorce and Reactive Gyroscopic Couple y Weight of the vehicle is. G Mass of vehicle. The wheel track is 1. h Wheel track.5 m 1.G.8 kgm W 2 2 Diameter of each wheel. [W = . D = 0.32) = 12. R = 200 m.8 m. The vehicle has a mass of 3000 kg and its centre of gravity is 0. M Height of C.
5 2 v 1. 1. ± 2 Ri v a + Mg v @ @ a ± Fc v h ± C = 0 2 Mg a ± Fc v h ± C 2 Ri a = 2 Ri = Mg Fc h C ± ± 2 2a 2a 2 2 29430 15 V v 0.5 1. V V = = 0.5 V v 0.5 2 2 2 or Ro = 7357. Fc = or M V 3000 V = R 200 2 2 2 y Fc = 15 V .7. @ or C = (4 v 12.5 + 2.7.005 V rad / s [p = R 200 Centrifugal force acting on vehicle is.5 ± 2.2 shows loading diagram of wheels. Taking moments about A and B. N 2 Taking moments about C and D.92167 V .5 2 v 1.265 V ± ± 4 2 v 1.1 shows forces and couple acting on fours wheel and Fig. 2 v Ro v a ± Mg v @ @ a ± Fc v h ± C = 0 2 Mg a 2 Ro a = + Fc v h + C 2 Ro = = Mg Fc v h C + + 2a 2a 4 29430 15 V v 0. Reactions of Ground on Wheels y y Fig.5 or y Ri = 7357.265 V = ± ± 4 2 v 1.5 1. Nm. Ë 2.265 V .Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 152 Gyroscope y Precessional angular velocit y of the wheels is. 1.8 + 5 v 10) 2. N C = (4 Iw s G IE) [w [p y Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle is.92167 V .005 V 2 C = 1. N .
Each wheel is of 450 mm radi us. Õ ond ition fo r Stab ility of Vehicle : y For stability of vehi cl e Ri u 0 7357.92167 50.7.8 : × V e 180. T he hei ght of C.Ans. .5 2.182 v 3600 km/ hr.2 : Loading Diagram of Four Wheels 3.5 7357.92167 V 2 2 u 0 Ö @ @ @ or 2.6558 km/hr.1 : Forces and Couple Acting on Four Wheels of Vehicle Fig.5 ± 2. 1.182 m/s 50. .. 1. 1000 V V V Ö Ö Ö @ E am Øle 1.5 m and wheel base is 2. A four wheel car has a total mass of 3000 kg..7. The center distance between two wheels on an axl e is 1.Dynamics of Ì achinery P Î Í Ï ÐÑ ÒÓ Ô yroscope Fig.92167 V 7357.G.5 m.
Fc = or MV 3000 v (13.61 N . V 13. If the car is taking a left turn of 70 m radius at 50 km/hr. r = 450 mm = 0. kE = 100 mm = 0. mE = 70 kg Radius of gyration of engine parts. h = 0.7 kgm Radius of curvature of path. The engine axis is along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Centrifugal Úorce and Reactive Gyroscopic Couple Û y Weight of the vehicle is.88 = = 30.1 m 2 @ Mass moment of inertia of engine.45 y Angular velocity of the wheels is.88 m/sec 3600 1. from front axle.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 154 Gyroscope is 0. The engine rotates 4 times the speed of wheels in clockwise direction when viewed from front. Each wheel has moment of 2 inertia of 32 kgm .88 = [p = 70 R or [p = 0. G = 4 Mass of engine. IE = mE ( kE ) = 70 v (0. M = 3000 kg Radius of wheel. Mg = 3000 v 9.88) = R 70 2 2 Fc = 8256.5 m Distance of C. V = 50 km / hr = 2 2 2 50 v 1000 = 13. The mass of rotating parts of engine is 70 kg having radius of gyration of 100 mm.5 m above the road surface and located at 1 m from front axle. (PU : May 2007) Solution Ù Given : Total mass of car. IW = 32 kgm Gear ratio. [W = y Precessional angular velocit y of the vehicle is.45 m Wheel track. a = 1.84 rad/s r 0. b = 2. l = 1 m Mass moment of inertia of each wheel.5 m Wheel base.1982 rad/s y Centrifugal force acting on vehicle is. find the ground reaction on each wheel.81 @ Mg = 29430 N V 13.5 m Height of CG above the road surface.1) = 0. R = 70 m Speed of the vehicle.G.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 155 Gyroscope y Reactive gyroscopic couple due to four wheels is.1982 Cw = 782.1. CE = IE [E [p = IE G [E [p = 0.8.7 v 4 v 30.73 Nm y Reactive gyroscopic couple due to engine is. .11 Nm y Since the position of engine axis and wheel axis are perpendicular to each other the reactive gyroscopic couple due to four wheels and reactive gyroscopic couple due to engine act perpendicular to each other. or C w = 4 Iw [w [p = 4 v 32 v 30. 1.1982 or CE = 17. as shown in Fig.84 v 0.84 v 0.
5 ± 782. 2 Ro v 1.5 ± 782.3 shows the loading diagram considering reactive gyroscopic couple due to engine (CE) and weight of vehicle (Mg).5 ± Fc v 0.01 N 3. 1. 1.5 ± Cw = 0 2 Ro v 1.73 = 0 @ Ri = ± 1636. 1.5 ± Fc v 0.61 v 0.8. Reactions of Ground on Wheels Due to Loading Vehicle ß Þ long Longitudinal Plane of Fig.2 shows the loading diagram considering reactive gyroscopic couple due to four wheels (CW) and centrifugal force (Fc) Fig. Reactions of Ground on Wheels Due to Loading Vehicle Ý long Transverse Plane of Fig.5 ± 8256. .61 v 0.8.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 156 Ü Gyroscope 2.73 = 0 @ Ro = 1637.2 : Loading Diagram Considering Reactive Gyroscopic Couple Due to Four Wheels and Centrifugal Force y Taking moments about A and B.99 N y Taking moments about C and D.5 ± 8256.5 ± Cw = 0 @ ± 2 Ri v 1. ± 2 Ri v 1.8.
5 ± 17.Ans .5 + Mg v 1 ± CE = 0 ± RR v 2. é esultan t éeaction s of ê round on ë heels : From F ig 1.. 2 RF v 2. R A = R o + RF = 1637. ..57 N Fig.3 . y Resultant reaction of ground on wheel A is.11 = 0 @ RF = 8832.Dynamics of à achinery P â á ã äå æç è yroscope y Taki ng moments about A and C. 1.8.42 N 4. ± 2 R R v 2.42 or RA = 10469.8.5 ± CE = 0 2 RF v 2.11 = 0 @ RR = 5882.5 ± 29430 v 1.3 : Loading Diagram Considering Reactive Gyroscopic Couple Due to Engine and Weight of Vehicle y Taki ng moments about B and D.01 + 8832.5 ± Mg v 1.5 + 29430 v 1 ± 17.43 N .
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 158 Gyroscope y Resultant reaction of ground on wheel B is.99 + 8832.. rad/s R G = gear ratio = [E [w U = banking angle of the track . m/s [w = angular velocity of the rotating parts of the engine. Let. RC = Ri + R F = ± 1636. 1.57 or RB = 7519..Ans.Ans.58 N F F K ö ÷øø .26 shows a fourwheel vehicle moving along a curved path with banking and taking a leftturn. RB = Ro + R R = 1637. y Resultant reaction of ground on wheel D is.42 or RC = 7195. M = total mass of the vehicle.. kgm V = linear velocity of the vehicle.99 + 5882.. y Resultant reaction of ground on wheel C is. m h = height of C. or 1 ì10 îï îò í ðñ ñ ó óôõ ïî ö î ï ÿ ÷ ñ ÷ ð ü ñüý RD = 4245. Lø ù ûó ñüý ñü ù úôõ øþ L L ù ø÷ñú Fig..Ans. m Iw = mass moment of inertia of each wheel. rad/s V [p = precessional angular velocity of the wheel axis = . m a = width of track.57 ..G.01 + 5882. kg R = radius of curvature of curved path or track. m r = radius of the wheels.43 N R D = Ri + R R = ± 1636. kgm 2 2 IE = mass moment of inertia of rotating parts of the engine. of the vehicle above the road surface.58 N .
1.26(a) : Forces and Couple Acting on Four Wheels of Vehicle Moving in Curved Path With Banking .Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 159 Gyroscope Fig.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 160 Gyroscope 1. C = I [ cos [p = (4 Iw [w s IE [E) cos U [p y .G. The centrifugal force acting through the C. 2. Weight of the vehicle (Mg) Centrifugal force ( Fc ) Reactive gyroscopic couple (C) Weight of the Vehicle ¡g) ¢ The weight of vehicle µMg¶ which acts vertically downwards through the C. the centrifugal force acts radially outward though the C. Mg cos U : In the plane parallel to the planes of rotation of wheels. as shown in Fig. The effect of the centrifugal force is to overturn the vehicle.1 Reactions of Ground on Wheels of Vehicle When the vehicle is taking the turn. of the vehicle. Centrifugal £orce ¤ £c ) ¥ y Since the vehicle moves along a curved path having radius µR¶ while taking a turn.26. of the vehicle is.G. of the vehicle is resolved into two components : (i) (ii) 2. 3.. Mg sin U : In the plane perpendicular to the planes of rotation of wheels. Reactive gyroscopic couple is. Fc sin U : In the plane parallel to the planes rotation of wheels.12) y (i) (ii) 3. only the component of angular momentum vector perpendicular to the precession axis (vector I[ cos U) is responsible for producing the reactive gyroscopic couple. the following loads (forces and couple) are acting on vehicle. Fc cos U : In the plane perpendicular to the planes of rotation of wheels. However.. the angular momentum vector µOX1¶is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of wheels. Hence.10. 1. 1.(1. 2 MV Fc = M [ p R = 2 R R 2 MV or Fc = R This centrifugal force is also resolved into two components : y . 1.G. Reactive Gyroscopic Couple ¦C) § y The precession of the spin axis is about the vertical axis µOY¶.
y Taki ng moments about C and D. N R i = reacti on of ground on each inner wheel. eaction s C = ( 4 Iw s G IE ) [w [p cos U on .. 2 Ro a ± (Mg cos U + Fc sin U) a ± Fc cos U h + Mg sin U h ± C = 0 2 2 Ro a = Fc a Mg a cos U + sin U + Fc h cos U ± M g h sin U + (4 Iw s G IE) [w [p cos U 2 2 2 2 (4 Iw s G IE) V V MV a MV h Mg h Mg a cos U + s in U + cos U ± s in U + cos U R 4a 2a R 2a 2a r R 4a 2 2 2 @ Ro = Mg h M V » «Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¼ cos U ± « ¬ ¼ or Ro = ¬ ½ 2 R ra 4 + 2 Ra + 2a ± 4R ½ sin U y Taki ng moments about A and B... 1.13) of round heels ( i an d o) : Let..26 (b) : Components of Forces Parallel and Perpendicular to Axis From F ig.(1. ± 2 Ri a + (Mg Cos U + Fc sin U) 2 Ria = a ± F c cos U h + Mg sin U h ± C = 0 2 . Ro = reacti on of ground on each outer wheel.14) Fc a Mg a cos U + sin U ± Fc cos U + Mg h sin U ± (4 Iw s G IE) [w [p cos U 2 2 .Dynamics of ¨ achinery P © yroscope = (4 Iw [w s IE G [E) cos U [p or 4.26 (b) . 1.(1. N Fig.
.16) (ii) Second Condition [ Ro u 0] 2 Mg h M V » «Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¬ ¼ cos U ± « ¼ sin U u 0 + + ¬ ± 4R ½ 2 Ra 2 R ra 4 2a ½ Mg h M V » «Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¬ ¼ cos U u « + + ¬ 2a ± 4R ¼ sin U 2 Ra 2 R ra ½ 4 ½ 2 2 «Mg M V h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¬ ¼ + + 4 ½ 2Ra 2 R ra tan U e 2 Mgh M V » « ¼ ¬ ± 2a 4R½ 2 2 2 2 2 or «(1.10.(1.15) 1...16) and (1..2 Condition for Stability of our Wheel Vehicle With anking y Conditions for the stability of vehicle are : Ri u 0 and Ro u 0 .17) y Hence for avoiding the toppling of the vehicle.(b) (i ) irst Condition [ Ri u 0] @ Mg h M V «Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¬ ¼ cos U ± « ¼ sin U u 0 ± ± ¬ 2a + 4R » 2 Ra 2 R ra ½ 4 ½ Mg h M V «M V h (4 Iw s G IE)V Mg» « ¼ cos U ¼ sin U u ¬ 2Ra + ¬ 2a + 4R » ± 4 ½ 2 R ra ½ 2 «M V h (4 Iw s G IE)V Mg» ¬ ¼ + ± 4 ½ 2 R ra 2Ra tan U u 2 «Mgh MV » ¼ ¬ + 4R ½ 2a ! 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 or «(1.(a) . tan U should be within the limits given by Equation (1.17)..Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 162 Gyroscope @ Ri = 2 2 (4 Iw s G IE) V V MV a MV h Mg h Mg a cos U + sin U ± cos U + sin U ± cos U R 4a R 2a 2a 2a r R 4a 2 2 2 Mg h M V » «Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¼ cos U + « ¬ ¼ sin U ± ± + 4R ½ 2 Ra 2 R ra ½ 4 2a or Ri = ¬ . ..
The rotating parts of the engine have a mass 2 moment of inertia of 1.9 " A four wheel automobile of mass 1500 Kg is traveling along a track of 100 m mean radius. 2007) Solution # Given : Total mass of automobile. Each of the four wheels has a mass moment of 2 inertia of 2 kgm and effective diameter of 0. (PU : Dec.81 = 14715 N Angular velocity of wheels is. rad/s R 100 Centrifugal force acting on the vehicle is.6 m. The width of the track of the vehicle is 1. The gear ratio of engine to back axle is 3. Iw = 2 Kgm 2 Radius of wheel. h = 0. which is banked at 15r.3 y Precessional angular velocit y of the vehicle is.5 m Width of track. G = [E / [w = 3 y y Weight of the automobile is. a = 1. 2 2 MV 1500 V = Fc = 100 R or y Fc = 15 V .G.5 m above the road level. Determine the maximum and minimum limiting speeds of the automobile around the curve for all four wheels to maintain contact with the road surface.25 kgm . IE = 1. The engine axis is parallel to the rear axle and the crank shaft rotates in the same direction as the wheels. R = 100 m Banking angle of track.5 m. Centrifugal $orce and Reactive Gyroscopic Couple % 2 Gear ratio. U = 15r Height of C.25 kgm 1.5 m Mass moment of inertia of each wheel. V V [p = = = 0.6/2 = 0.33 V rad/s r 0. The center of gravity of automobile is 0. N 2 . Mg = 1500 v 9. M = 1500 Kg Mean radius of track.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 163 Gyroscope Example 1.01 V. above road level. [w = V V = = 3.3 m Mass moment of inertia of engine rotating parts. r = 0.
33 V v 0.9.Dynamics of & achinery P ( ' ) 01 23 4 yroscope Reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e acti ng on the vehi cl e is. Nm 2 Fig. 1.01 V v cos 15r or C = 0. C = I [ cos U [p = (4 Iw [w + IE [E ) cos U [p = (4 Iw [w + GIE [w ) cos U [p = (4 Iw + GIE ) [w [p cos U = ( 4 v 2 + 3 v 1.2 : Components of Forces and Couple .9.25) v 3. 1.1 : Loading Diagram Fig.378 V .
15 1.97 V + 2.571 .378 V ± ± 4 2 v 1.415 V ± 634.571 V 2 u 0 e 4188.126 V or Ri = (4188.15 1.511 V ).5 = 14213.2 shows the components of forces Taking moments about C and B. 1. a 2 Ro v a ± (Mg cos U + Fc sin U) ± Fc cos U v h + Mg sin U v h ± C = 0 2 @ Ro = (Mg cos U + Fc sin U) (Fc cos U ± Mg sin U) h C + + 2a 2a 4 2 2 2 (14715 cos 15r + 15 V sin 15r) (15 V cos 15r ± 14715 sin 15r) v 0.6 + 3. Reactions of Ground on Wheels y y Fig.5 2 v 1.126 V or Ro = (2918.571 V ).1 shows the loading diagram of wheels and Fig.97 V ± 2.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 165 5 Gyroscope 2.5 0.571 V 2 @ V e 4188.489 V ± 3808. N y Taking moments about A and B.378 V ± ± 4 6 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 3553.15 ± 1.5 0. Conditions for Stability of Vehicle 6 2 y First condition : Ri u 0 @ 4188.9.5 2 v 1.378 V + + 3 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 3553.378 V = + + 4 2 v 1.88V ) (14.52) 0.415 V + 634. N 3.9.489 V ± 3808.5 = = (14213.6 + 3. 1.75 + 0. a ± 2 Ri v a + (Mg cos U + F c sin U) v ± Fc cos U v h + Mg sin U v h ± C = 0 2 @ Ri = Mg cos U + Fc sin U (Fc cos U ± Mg sin U) h C ± ± 4 2a 2a 2 2 2 (14715 cos 15r + 15 V sin 15r) (15 V cos 15r ± 14715 sin 15r) v 0.65 + 3.52) 0.88V (14.15 ± 1.4 + 0.75 ± 0.4 + 0.
876 km/hr «Ans. The total mass of a fourwheel trolley car is 1800 kg. Iw = mw kw = 180 v (0.24) Height of C.10 7 Vmin = 0 km/hr «Ans. The track is banked at 10r.95 m 2 2 = 10.6 m Mean radius of path. above road surface. Second condition : Ro u 0 @ 2918.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 166 Gyroscope V e 51.6/2 = 0. R = 24 m Linear speed of car.6 m gauge and round a curve of 24 m mean radius at 36 km/hr.63 v 3600 km / hr 1000 V e 185.3 m Mass moment of inertia of pair of wheels.876 km/hr or y Vmin = 185. Each pair of wheels with axle has a mass of 180 kg and radius of gyration of 240 mm. The diameter of the wheels is 600 mm. M = 1800 kg Track width.63 m/s V e 51.65 + 3.368 kgm 2 .G. Solution 8 Given : Mass of car. a = 1. U = 10r Radius of wheel r = 0.G of car above the wheel base is 950 mm. The car runs on rails of 1. h = 0. V = 36 km/hr = 36 v 1000 = 10 m/s 3600 Banking angle of track.511 V 2 u 0 or Example 1. Determine the pressure on each rail. The height of the C.
1 : Loading Diagram Fig. . Hen trifug al Fo rce an d P ou Rle Ieacti e Qyro sco Ric H : y y Weight of the car is.10.81 = 17658 N Angular vel ocity of the wheels is.2 : Components of Forces and Couple 1.10. 1.33 rad/s r 0.Dynamics of 9 achinery P A @ B CD EF G yroscope Fig. 1. M g = 1800 v 9.3 Precessional angular vel ocity of the vehi cl e is. V 10 [w = = = 33.4166 rad/s R 24 Centri fugal force acti ng on the vehi cl e is. Fc = or MV 1800 v 10 = 24 R 2 2 y y Fc = 7500 N y Reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e acti ng on the vehi cl e is. V 10 [p = = = 0.
1 shows the loading diagram of wheels and Fig.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 168 Gyroscope C @ @ = = = I [ cos U [p 2 Iw [ w [p cos U [··· mass of each pair of wheels is given] 2 v 10.02 + 1282.62 + + 4 2 v 1.62 ± ± 4 2 v 1. Taking moments about C and D. 1.43 ± 88.10.10.6 = = 4673.63 or Ri = 3301.6 2 v 1. 1.08 N y «Ans.43 + 88.4166 cos 10 «(c) C C or 2.02 ± 1282.62 Nm S Reactions of Ground on Wheels y y Fig.95 283.6 2 v 1. Taking moments about A and B.63 or Ro = 6044.6 = = 4673.2 shows the components of forces and couple. . C = 283.368 v 33. a 2 Ro a ± (Mg cos U + Fc sin U) ± Fc cos U h + Mg sin U h ± C = 0 2 @ Ro = (Mg cos U + Fc sin U) (Fc cos U ± Mg sin U) h C + + 2a 2a 4 (17658 cos 10r + 7500 sin 10r) (7500 cos 10r ± 17658 sin 10r) v 0.96 N «Ans. ± 2 Ri a + (Mg cos U + Fc sin U) a ± Fc cos U h + Mg sin U h ± C = 0 2 @ Ri = Mg cos U + Fc sin U (Fc cos U ± Mg sin U h) C ± ± 2a 2a 4 (17658 cos 10r + 7500 sin 10r) (7500 cos 10r ± 17658 sin 10r) v 0.95 283.33 v 0.
the vehicle will tilt inward and is inclined at an angle µU¶ with the vertical plane. motor cycle or scooter) taking a left turn. IE = mass moment of inertia of rotating parts of the engine. y y When the vehicle is taking a turn over the curved path it is observed that. the following loads (forces and couple) are acting on the vehicle : 1. 3. rad/s [p = precessional angular velocity of vehicle = V . is known as angle of heel or angle of tilt. as shown in Fig. 1. (Mg) Centrifugal force (Fc) Reactive gyroscopic couple (C) Weight of Vehicle (Mg) t The weight of vehicle with rider µMg¶ acts vertically downwards through the C. 1. orces and Couple Path cting on Tw o Wheel Vehicle oving in Curved 1. .1 y When the vehicle is moving along the curved path. of the vehicle. m V = linear velocity of the vehicle. 2. M = mass of the vehicle and rider. rad/s r [E = angular velocity of engine. while moving along the curved path. Weight of vehicle. rad/s R G = gear ratio = [E [w U = angle of inclination of vehicle with vertical in equilibrium condition. kg Iw = mass moment of inertia of each wheel.g. kgm 2 2 Let. 1. m/s V [w = angular velocity of the wheels = .27. kgm r = radius of the wheels.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 169 Gyroscope e dcYf 1 T11 VW U XY WV s c LY V` a F Vb a b cdd L Ld e ga Yhi Yh e fpq dr y Consider a two wheel vehicle (e. as shown in Fig.11.G.27. m R = radius of curvature of curved path or track. This angle made by the plane of vehicle with the vertical plane.
y Fc = 3. Gyroscopic Couple (C) w MV R 2 . However. Reactive gyroscopic couple due to two wheels is.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 170 Gyroscope Fig. C w = 2 Iw [w cos U [p y y Reactive gyroscopic couple due to engine is.. 1.18) y The precession of the spin axis is about the vertical axis µOY¶. The centrifugal force tends to overturn the vehicle The centrifugal force acting on vehicle is.27 : Stability of Two Wheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path 2.. Centrifugal uorce (F c) v y Since the vehicle moves along a curved path having radius µR¶ while taking a turn.(1. the angular momentum vector µOX1¶ is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of wheels. Hence. the centrifugal force will act radially outward through the C. only the component of angular momentum vector µOX¶ perpendicular to the precession axis (vector I[ cos U) is responsible for producing the reactives gyroscopic couple. CE = IE [E cos U [p .G of the vehicle.
(1. Condition for Stability of Tw o Wheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path 1. the value of angle of heel µU¶ may be determined so that the vehicle do not skid while taking the turn. Example 1.. C = Cw s CE = 2 Iw [w cos U [p s IE [E cos U [p = (2 Iw [w s IE [E ) [p cos U = (2 Iw s IE [E ) [p cos U or C = (2 Iw s G IE ) [w [p cos U .. Determine the angle of inclination of the motor cycle or the .19) y Positives sign is used when wheels and rotates in same direction and engine and negative sign is used when wheels and engine rotates in opposite direction.11 x A motor cycle with rider has a mass of 250 kg.11. The engine rotates 6 times faster than the wheel in the same direction and the rotating parts of the engine have a mass 2 moment of inertia of 0. The centre of gravity of the motor cycle and the rider falls 60 cm above the ground when running straight in vertical position.20).Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 171 Gyroscope y Total reactive gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle is.. 7 Moments about Od @ @ @ @ @ @ = 0 Mg h sin U ± Fc h cos U ± C = 0 Mg h sin U = Fc h cos U + C Mg h sin U = Mg h sin U = MV h cos U + (2 Iw s G IE ) [E [p cos U R MV h V V cos U + (2 Iw s G IE ) cos U R r R 2 2 2 2 V MV h cos U + (2 Iw s G IE ) cos U Mg h sin U = Rr R Mg h sin U = ¬Mh + « (2 Iw s G IE)» V2 ¼ cos U r ½ R .(1. Each road 2 wheel diameter is 60 cm with mass moment of inertia of 1 kgm .2 For stability of vehicle ..20) (2 Iw s G IE)» V2 « ¼ tan U = ¬Mh + r ½ Mgh R From Equation (1.175 kgm .
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 172 Gyroscope angle of heel required.6 = = 0. G = [E [w =6 2 Mass moment of inertia of engine. IE = 0. h = 60 cm = 0. D = 60 cm = 0. V = 80 km / hr = 80 v 1000 22. Iw = 1 kgm Gear ratio. of motor cycle and rider above ground.G.175 kgm Speed of motor cycle.6 m Diameter of wheel.3 m 2 2 2 Mass moment of inertia of wheel. Solution y Given : Mass of motor cycle with rider. R = 50 m . if it is speeding at 80 km/hr and rounding a curve of radius 50 m. Height of C. M = 250 kg.6 m Radius of wheel. r = D 0.22 m / s 3600 Radius of curvature. Also find the magnitude of gyroscopic couple.
13 v 0.89 cos U .3 y Angular velocity of engine is.6 sin U ± 2469.22 = = 0.22) = 50 R 2 2 Fc = 2469. C = (2 Iw + GIE ) [w [p cos U « [+ ve is taken since engine rotates in same direction as wheels] = (2 v 1 + 6 v 0. Centrifugal Force and Reactive Gyroscope Couple y Angular velocity of wheel is.444 cos U C = 100. 1. Nm or 2.81 or Mg = 2452.13 N y Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on the vehicle is. Mg = 250 v 9.41 cos U = 0 1471.4444 rad / s.5 sin U = 1581.6 cos U ± 100.44 rad / s Precessional angular velocit y is. Fc = or MV (250 v 22.11.22 = = 74.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 173 Gyroscope Fig.1 1. [E = G [w = 6 v 74. R 50 y Weight of vehicle is. [w = V 22.074 v 0.074 or y [E = 444.41 cos U.074 rad / s r 0. ngle of Heel y Taking moments about Od Mgh sin U ± Fc h cos U ± C = 0 2452. [p = V 22.5 N y Centrifugal force acting on vehicle is.5 v 0.175) v 74.
of 0. C = 100.2 kgm about its axis of rotation.. of motor cycle and rider above ground. Centrifugal Force and Reactive Gyroscope Couple y Angular velocity of wheel is.I.. The engine rotates at 5 times the speed of the road wheels and in the same sense.41 cos (47. M = 130 kg. Example 1. V = 60 km / hr = 60 v 1000 16.07)r or C = 68. IE = 0. Height of C.07r ±1 .4 kgm Speed of motor cycle. r = = = 0. (ii) Angle of banking so that there will be no tendency of side slip. of 1. G = [E =5 [w 2 2 Mass moment of inertia of engine.Ans.75 m Diameter of wheel.3 m 2 2 Mass moment of inertia of wheel..Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 174 Gyroscope tan U = 1.4 kgm .075] U = 47.I.2 kgm Gear ratio. U = tan [1. D = 600 mm = 0.41 cos U = 100. When the vehicle is rounding the curve of 130 m radius at a speed if 60 km/hr.G.6 m D 0. Each road wheel is 600 mm 2 diameter and has M. Magnitude of Reactive Gyroscopic Couple y Magnitude of reactive gyroscopic couple is. R = 130 m 1. Determine : (i) Magnitude of total gyroscopic couple acting on vehicle..39 Nm .12 A two wheeler motor vehicle and its rider weigh 130 kg and their combined centre of gravit y is 750 mm above the ground level when the vehicle is upright. The rotating parts of the engine 2 have M. h = 750 mm = 0.075 or 3.66 m / s 3600 Radius of curvature. . (PU: May 2005) Solution Given : Mass of motor cycle with rider.Ans.6 Radius of wheel. Iw = 1.
Fc = or Fc = 277. or 2.55 N C = (2 Iw + GIE ) [w [p cos U « [+ ve is taken since engine rotates in same direction as wheels] y Reactive gyroscopic couple acting on the vehicle is.Ans.29 cos U.1281 cos U C = 31.66 rad / s Precessional angular velocit y is.3 N MV (130 v 16.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 175 Gyroscope [w = y V 16. [E = G [w = 5 v 55.29 cos (14.53 or y [E = 277.4) v 55.53 rad / s 0.47 sin U = 239. 3.53 v 0.25 or U = tan [0.. Magnitude of Reactive Gyroscopic Couple y Magnitude of reactive gyroscopic couple is. R 130 y Weight of vehicle is.29 cos U = 0 956.41 cos U tan U = 0. Mg = 130 v 9.3 v 0.05)r .1281 rad / s.3 r Angular velocity of engine is.25] U = 14.66 = = 55. = (2 v 1.05r ±1 .29 cos U = 31. [p = V 16.66) = R 130 2 2 y Centrifugal force acting on vehicle is.. C = 31.75 sin U ± 277.55 v 0.81 or Mg = 1275. Nm ngle of an king y Taking moments about Od Mg h sin U ± Fc h cos U ± C = 0 1275.2 + 5 v 0.66 = = 0.75 cos U ± 31.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 176 Gyroscope or C = 30..Ans.35 Nm .. .
these el ements may be inclined to the axis of the shaft as shown i n F ig. are mounted on the shaft. as shown in F ig. m Ip = mass moment of inertia of the disc about the polar axis OP. m b = wi dth of the disc. kg r = radius of disc. pull eys.25. y y Fig. 1. 1.28. While mounti ng. OX = shaft axis or axis of rotation OP = polar axis of the disc OD = diametral or equatorial axis of the disc U = angl e of incli nation of the polar axis of disc with shaft axis [ = angular vel ocity of the shaft about axis OX. kgm = mr /2 2 2 . This produces gyroscopi c effect and rotating disc appli es reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e on the supporti ng frame. coupli ngs. Consi der a disc of uni form thi ckness ri gi dl y fi xed to a rotati ng shaft such that the polar axis of the disc makes an angl e µU¶ with the shaft axis. fl ywheels.28 : Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on Disc Fixed at Certain Angle to Rotating Shaft Let. rad/s m = mass of the disc.12 GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON INCLINED ROTATING DISC y y In many appli cations rotating el ements like : gears. etc. due to manufacturi ng and assembl y errors.Dynamics of achinery P yroscope 1. The disc rotates in an anticl ockwise directi on when vi ewed form the l eft side. 1.
12 4 ½ 2 2 The angular velocity µ[ ¶ of the disc is resolved into two components : [ cos U [ sin U [ cos U : This is the component of the angular velocit y vector along the polar axis of the disc. Component of spin velocity µ[ cos U¶ about polar axis. 2. 1.29. Cp = Ip [ cos U [ sin U = Ip [ sin U [ cos U 2 Ip [ sin 2 U or y y 2 Cp = 2 . 1. 2. this is the spin velocity of the disc about the diametral axis (axis OD).Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 178 Gyroscope ID = mass moment of inertia of the disc about the diametral or equatorial axis OD. . y The gyroscopic effect is determined separately due to 1. this is the spin velocit y of the disc about the polar axis (axis OP) [ sin U : This is the component of the angular velocit y vector along the diametral or equatorial axis of the disc. Hence... Gyroscopic Effect due to Component of Spin Velocity µ [ cos U¶ y y y y The rotation of the shaft about axis µOX¶ causes the polar axis µOP¶ to rotate with point µP¶ moving in such a way that µOP¶ generates a cone with µO¶ as vertex. about perpendicular axis passing though O. and Component of spin velocity µ[ sin U¶ about diametral axis. Angular velocity of spin of disc about OP = [ cos U. and Angular velocit y of precession of disc about diametral axis OD = [ sin U Hence reactive gyroscopic couple is. The reactive gyroscopic couple µCp¶ acts in an anticlockwise direction when viewed from the top.(1. 1. kgm = m¬ y 2 «b r » + ¼. Hence the precession motion is produced about the diametral axis µOD¶ and vector µOD¶ indicates the precerssion velocit y vector.21) The direction of reactive gyroscopic couple µCp¶ is determined as shown in Fig. 2. 1. Hence.
Dynamics of d achinery P f e g hi jk l yroscope Fig. about perpendi cular axis passing through O. CD = ID [ sin U [ cos U = ID [ sin U cos U or 2 CD ID [ sin 2 U = 2 2 . 1. myro sco nic Effect du e to oom non en t of S nin Velocity [ sin U : y y y y The rotati on of the shaft about axis µOX¶ causes the diametral axis µOD¶ to rotate with point µD¶ movi ng in such a way that µOD¶ generates a cone with µO¶ as vortex.22) y y The directi on of reactive gyroscopi c coupl e is determi ned as shown in F ig.29 : Gyroscopic Effect Due to Component of Spin Velocity µ[ cos U¶ 2. Angular vel ocity of spin of disc about diametral axis OD = [ sin U.(1.30. Hence the precessi on moti on is produced about the polar axis µOP¶ and vector µOP¶ indi cates the precession vel ocity vector. and Angular vel ocity of precession of disc about polar axis OP = [ cos U Hence reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e is. 1. The reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e µCD ¶ acts i n cl ockwise directi on when vi ewed from the top... .
.. Hence. µb ¶can be negl ected. Hence or 2 C = mr [ sin 2 U 8 2 2 .23) «mr ¨ b r ¸» [ sin 2 U = ¬ ± m © + ¹¼ 2 2 ª12 4 º½ or m [ «r b » ¬ ± ¼ sin 2 U C = 2 4 12½ 2 2 2 .. The mass of disc is 30 kg and it has a diameter of 0...13 : ~ A thi n disc is fitted to a shaft in such a way that it makes an angl e of one degree with a plane at right angl es to the axis of the shaft.(1.p. 1. I f the shaft rotates at 1200 r.. z yesultan t yeacti e {yro sco ic }ou le ( }) : y The reacti ve gyroscopi c coupl e µCD¶ due to component of sp i n vel ocity µ[ sin U¶ is in opposite directi on to that of reacti ve gyroscopi c couple µCp¶ due to component of sp i n vel ocity µ[ cos U¶.(1.25) E am le 1. Solu tion : Given : Angl e of disc with axis of shaft.30 : Gyroscopic Effect Due to Component of Spin Velocity µ[ sin U¶ 3. C = Cp ± C D = or Ip [ sin 2 U ID [ sin 2 U ± 2 2 2 2 y C = [Ip ± ID] 2 [ sin 2 U 2 2 2 2 2 . F ind the gyroscopi c couple acting on the beari ngs. U = 1r Mass of disc.(1.m.6 m. the resultant reactive gyroscopi c coupl e is.24) y If µb¶ is small.Dynamics of p achinery P r q s tu vw x yroscope Fig. m = 30 kg .
35 ± 0. N = 1200 r. Angular velocity of disc.3) 2 = = 1.66 rad/sec. ID = 4 since it is not given] 2 30 v (0. . r = D 0.6 m @ Radius of disc.p.. 60 Mass Moment of Inertia y Mass moment of inertia of disc about polar axis is.[Neglecting thickness of disc. Ip = mr 30 v (0. D = 0.675) (125.m.675 kgm @ ID = 4 Reactive Gyroscopic Couple 2..Ans. y The reactive gyroscopic couple is.3 m 2 2 Speed of shaft or disc.35 kgm 2 2 2 2 y Mass moment of inertia of disc about diametral axis is..Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 181 Gyroscope Diameter of disc.6 = = 0. 2 mr ..98 Nm . [ = 2 T v 1200 = 125. @ 1.3) 2 = 0.66) or sin (2 v 1) 2 C = 185. C = Cp ± CD = (Ip ± ID) [ sin 2 U 2 2 2 = (1.
r = D 0.8 m Diameter of disc. b = 30 mm = 0. D = 800 mm = 0..49) or 2 [ sin 2 U 2 2 sin (2 v 1.4 m 2 2 Speed of shaft or disc. . Solution Given : Thickness of disc.m.13 Nm . Ip mr 25 v (0.8 = = 0.m.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 182 Gyroscope Example 1.49 rad/sec.03m Angle of disc with axis of shaft U = 1.p.03) (0.4) 2 = = 2 kgm = 2 2 2 2 y Mass moment of inertia of disc about diametral axis is.5r Mass of disc. m = 25 kg Diameter of disc. ID = m ¬ @ «b r » + ¼ 12 4 ½ 2 2 2 [Considering thickness of disc] 2 ID = 25 ¬ «(0. The mass of disc is 25 kg and it has a diameter of 800 mm. 60 Mass Moment of Interia y Mass moment of inertia of disc about polar axis is.Ans. Reactive Gyroscopic Couple Reactive gyroscopic couple is C = Cp ± CD = (Ip ± ID) = (2 ± 1) (77. [ = 2 T v 740 = 77.p.. @ 1.14 A disc having thickness 30 mm is fitted to a shaft in such a way that it makes an angle of 1.5 degree with a plane at right angles to the axis of the shaft. Angular velocity of disc.4) » 2 ¼ = 1 kgm + 4 ½ 12 2. If the shaft rotates at 740 r. Determine the magnitude gyroscopic couple acting on the bearings. N = 740 r.5) 2 C = 157.
N [p (max) = J [o. rad/s [o = N 2T . Nm Where. rad/s [o = N 2T . Pitching of Ship (i) Reactive gyroscopic couple : C = I [ [p.N R V . N [p = [p = dU . rad/s R 2 2 N Where. N Fc = mV . Nm Where N [p = J [o cos [o t. rad/s R 2 2 N N I = m k . rad / s 3. rad/s TP (iii) Maximum angular acceleration of precession : Ep (max) = ± J[o . [P = .Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 183 Gyroscope 1 13 L 1. F F L Gyroscopic Couple C = I [ [p Nm Where. rad/s dt V . kgm 2. 2 2 Four Wheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path (i) Centrifugal force : N Fc = m [ p R . rad/s Tp (ii) Maximum reactive gyroscopic couple : Cmax = I [ [p (max).
N = 2Ra 2Rra 4 (iv) Condition for stability : N Ri u 0 V e mg R a (4 Iw s G IE)» « ¼ 2 ¬mh + r ½ .N R V . Nm Where. rad/s R (iii) Wheel reactions : N Ri = Ro 2 Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V + + . N Fc = [p = 2 N mV . N G = [P = [E [P N V .N 2Ra 2Rra 4 2 2 2 N Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V + + . Nm Where. rad/s R . rad/s R 2 Where N (ii) Reactive gyroscopic couple : C = (4 Iw s 4 IE) [w [p cos U. N G = [P = [E [W N V .Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 184 Gyroscope (ii) Reactive gyroscopic couple : C = (4 Iw s G IE) [w [p. m/s N 4. Four Wheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path with anking (i) Centrifugal force : N F c = m [ p R.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 185 Gyroscope (iii) Wheel reactions : N Mgh MV » «Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¼ cos U + « ¬ 2a + 4R ¼ sin U. N 2 Fc = MV .N R 2 (ii) Reactive gyroscopic couple : C = (2 Iw s G IE) [w [p cos U. N C = [p = [E [w N V . Two Wheel Vehicle Moving in Curved Path (i) Centrifugal force : F c = M [p R . rad/s R (iii) Condition for stability : tan U = ¬Mh + « (2 Iw s G IE)» V2 ¼ r ½ Mg h R . N Ro = ¬ + + ¬ + 4R ½ 2Ra 2 R ra 4 2a ½ 2 2 2 2 N (iv) Conditions for stability : N Ri u 0 or N « Mg M V h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¬± ¼ + + 2 Ra 2 R ra 4 ½ tan U u 2 «Mgh MV » ¬ 2a + 4 R ¼ ½ R o u 0 or 2 2 N N «Mg M V h (4 Iw s G IE)» ¬ ¼ + + 2 R ra ½ 2 Ra 4 tan U e 2 «Mgh MV » ¬ 2a ± 4 R ¼ ½ 2 5. N ± ± Ri = ¬ 2 Ra 2Rra ½ ½ 4 2 2 Mgh MV » «Mg MV h (4 Iw s G IE)V » ¼ cos U ± « ¼ sin U. Nm Where.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 186 Gyroscope 6. Discuss the gyroscopic effect an aeroplanes. Nm Where. kgm 2 2 2 2 2 2 N N N «b r » 2 ID = m ¬ + ¼ kgm 12 4 ½ ID } mr 2 . . State the various couples acting on the two wheeler. 7. Explain gyroscopic acceleration and gyroscopic couple. Nm 2 mr 2 . What is stabilisation of ship ? Why is it necessary ? How it is achieved ? Derive an expression for angle of heel of a two wheeler taking turn. Discuss the gyroscopic effect on a ship. What is gyroscopic effect ? Define the terms : (i) Spin axis. Inclined Rotating Disc C = (C p ± CD). The mass of engine and propeller is 400 kg with radius of gyration of 30 cm. Derive an expression for gyroscopic couple. . and (iii) Precession axis 3. 4. N Cp = CD = Ip = Ip [ sin 2 U . 2. An aeroplane makes a complete half circle of 50 meters towards right when flying at a speed of 200 km/hr. Explain gyroscopic couple and establish the relation : C = I [ [p 6. The engine runs at 2400 rpm clockwise when viewed from 9. 5. kgm 4 EXERCISE 2 N 1. (ii) Gyroscopic couple axis. Nm 2 ID [ sin 2 U . 10.
Each road wheel of motor cycle has a moment of inertia of 1.p.6N ] 12.g. U = 48.g.m. engine flywheel and transmission are rotating at 4 times the speed of road wheel. If the car is taking a right turn of 60m radius at 60km/hr. if the motor cycle is travelling at a speed of 50 kmph and taking a turn of 35 m radius. The drive shaft. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces exerted by the bearing on the shaft due to the gyroscopic effect alone. Find the angle of heel. find load on each wheel. The ship is making a left turn at 6 rad/s. The C.2 N (3) = 2374. The rotor has a mass of 300 kg. Each wheel has effective diameter of 0. [ Ans. is 60 cm above the ground level when the cycle is standing upright and the rider is sitting on it. in clockwise direction when viewed from front and is equivalent to a mass of 75 kg having a radius of gyration of 100mm. (1) = 4322. [ Ans. [Ans.25 kgm . The engine axis is at right angles to the wheel axes. A four wheeled motor car of mass 2000 kg has a wheel base 2. The mass of the motor cycle together with its rider is 240 kg and its c.m ] 11. if the motor cycle is travelling at 60 kilometers per hour and taking a turn of 30 m radius.Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 187 Gyroscope tail end. Find the magnitude of gyroscopic couple on aeroplane and its effect on it.8 kgm . radius of gyration of 60 cm and rotates at 1000 r. The speed of engine is 6 times the speed of wheels and is in the same sense. Wheel diameter is 60 cm. in the clockwise sense when viewed from front. The weight of motor cycle together with rider is 250 kg and its c. lies at 1m from the front axis.5 kgm . The rotating 2 parts of engine of a motor cycle have a moment of inertia of 0.5 kgm .14 N] 2 Each road wheel of a motor cycle has a moment of inertia of 2 kgm . Wheel diameter is 60 cm. C = 10 kN.079r ] 14. The rotor of a turbine on a ship has its axis of rotation parallel to the propeller shaft and is supported in bearings 4m apart. track width 1.5 m. Find the angle of heel. RA = RB = F = 16964. The rotating 2 parts of engine of motor cycle have moment of inertia of 0. is 55cm above the ground level when standing upright.8 m and moment of inertia 2 of 0.5 m and height of centre of gravity 500 mm above the ground level. load on front wheel load on front wheel load on rear wheel load rear wheel 13. [ Ans.8 N (2) = 7435. G. What will be the effect if aeroplanes takes a left turn instead of right turn.069r ] .74 N (4) = 5487. 2 U = 46. The speed of the engine is 5 times the speed of the wheels and is in the same sense. [ Ans.
Dynamics of Machinery (PU) 188 2 Gyroscope 15. The rotating parts of the engine of the motor cycle have moment of inertia of 2 0.5 kgm . Find the angle of heel of the motor cycle if it is travelling at 65 kmph and taking a turn of 40 m radius. [ Ans.G.8 kgm and a diameter of 60 cm.2r ] . The mass of the motor cycle along with the rider is 260 kg and its C. is 60 cm above the ground level when it is standing upright with the rider. U = 43. Each road wheel of motor cycle has a moment of inertia of 1.The speed of the engine is 5 times the speed of the wheels and in the same sense.