# A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based

on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. In essence, a mechanical gyroscope is a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation.  Gyroscopes are installed in ships in order to minimize the rolling and pitching effects of waves. They are also used in aeroplanes, monorail cars, gyrocompasses etc.

the journals of the rotor being mounted in an inner gimbal or ring.CONSTRUCTION  Gyroscope is a mechanism comprising a rotor journaled to spin about one axis. .  The inner gimbal is mounted in the gyroscope frame (outer gimbal) so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane that is always perpendicular to the pivotal axis of the gyroscope frame (outer gimbal). This inner gimbal has two degrees of rotational freedom.  Outer gimbal possesses one degree of rotational freedom and its axis possesses none. the inner gimbal is journaled for oscillation in an outer gimbal for a total of two gimbals. is mounted so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane determined by the support. which is the gyroscope frame.  The outer gimbal or ring.

gyroscopes are also used to maintain direction in tunnel mining. .  Due to their high precision.APPLICATIONS  Applications of gyroscopes include navigation for the stabilization of flying vehicles like radio-controlled helicopters.

e. about which the axis of spin is to turn. is known as axis of precession.Precessional Angular Motion  The angular velocity of the axis of spin (i.  The axis.  The angular motion of the axis of spin about the axis of precession is known as precessional angular motion.dθ/dt) is known as angular velocity of precession and is denoted by ωP. .

Gyroscopic Couple  Consider a disc spinning with an angular velocity ω rad/s about the axis of spin OX.  Since the plane in which the disc is rotating is parallel to the plane YOZ. therefore it is called plane of spinning.  The horizontal plane XOZ is called plane of precession and OY is the axis of precession. in anticlockwise direction when seen from the front. .

The axis of spin OX is also rotating anticlockwise when seen from the top about the axis OY.Gyroscopic Couple  Since the angular momentum is a vector quantity. in time δt seconds. the angular momentum will now be represented by vector ox′. . Assuming the angular velocity ω to be constant.  Let the axis OX is turned in the plane XOZ through a small angle δθ radians to the position OX ′ . therefore it may be represented by the vector ox.

the disc is subjected to reactive couple whose magnitude is same but opposite in direction to that of active couple.ωp.ω.  When the axis of spin itself moves with angular velocity ωP. which has to be applied over the disc when the axis of spin is made to rotate with angular velocity ωP about the axis of precession.Gyroscopic Couple  The couple I. This reactive couple to which the disc is subjected when the axis of spin rotates about the axis of precession is known as reactive gyroscopic couple. in the direction of the vector xx′ is the active gyroscopic couple.  The gyroscopic couple is usually applied through the bearings which support the shaft. .  The bearings will resist equal and opposite couple.

 The left hand and right hand sides of the ship. .Terms Used in a Naval Ship  The fore end of the ship is called bow and the rear end is known as stern or aft. when viewed from the stern are called port and star-board respectively.

 Consider the ship taking a left turn. . while it moves forward. and rotor rotates in the clockwise direction when viewed from the stern.GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON SHIP DURING STEERING  Steering is the turning of a complete ship in a curve towards left or right.

The vector xx′ now represents the active gyroscopic couple and is perpendicular to ox. . it will have its angular momentum vector in the direction ox as shown below. the active gyroscopic couple will change the angular momentum vector from ox to ox′.  As the ship steers to the left.GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON SHIP DURING STEERING  When the rotor of the ship rotates in the clockwise direction when viewed from the stern.

 When the ship steers to the right under similar conditions as discussed. in anticlockwise direction).  The reactive gyroscopic couple of the same magnitude will act in the opposite direction (i. the effect of the reactive gyroscopic couple will be to raise the stern and lower the bow.e. .GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON SHIP DURING STEERING  Thus the plane of active gyroscopic couple is perpendicular to xx′ and its direction in the axis OZ for left hand turn is clockwise.  The effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to raise the bow and lower the stern.

 The pitching of the ship is assumed to take place with simple harmonic motion i. the effect of the reactive gyroscopic couple. as shown in Fig. the transverse axis is the axis of precession. . the motion of the axis of spin about transverse axis is simple harmonic. is to turn the ship towards port side.e.GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON A NAVAL SHIP DURING PITCHING  Pitching is the movement of a complete ship up and down in a vertical plane about transverse axis.  When the pitching is upward. as shown in Fig. In this case.  On the other hand. the effect of the reactive gyroscopic couple.(b) will try to move the ship toward star-board.(c). if the pitching is downward.

Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on a Naval Ship during Pitching .

 In case of rolling of a ship. . there is no effect of the gyroscopic couple acting on the body of a ship.Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on Ship during Rolling  For the effect of gyroscopic couple to occur. the axis of precession (i. longitudinal axis) is always parallel to the axis of spin for all positions.e. the axis of precession should always be perpendicular to the axis of spin. Hence.