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Banking and Finance terms in India
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Banking and Finance terms in India
What is a Repo Rate? A: Repo rate is the rate at which our banks borrow rupees from RBI. Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at a cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases, borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive. What is Reverse Repo Rate? A: This is exact opposite of Repo rate. Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which Reserve Bank of India (RBI) borrows money from banks. RBI uses this tool when it feels there is too much money floating in the banking system. Banks are always happy to lend money to RBI since their money is in safe hands with a good interest. An increase in Reverse repo rate can cause the banks to transfer more funds to RBI due to this attractive interest rates. What is corporate governance? The way in which a company is governed and how it deals with the various interests of its customers, shareholders, employees and society at large. Corporate governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws, and institutions affecting the way a corporation (or company) is directed, administered or controlled.Is defined as the general set of customs, regulations, habits, and laws that determine to what end a firm should be run. Functions of RBI?

The Reserve Bank of India is the central bank of India, was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The Reserve Bank of India was set up on the recommendations of the Hilton Young Commission. The commission submitted its report in the year 1926, though the bank was not set up for nine years.To regulate the issue of Bank Notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage.‖ Banker to the Government: performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments; also acts as their banker.Banker to banks: maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks. What is monetary policy? A Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank, of a country controls (i) the supply of money, (ii) availability of money, and (iii) cost of money or rate of interest, in order to attain a set of objectives oriented towards the growth and stability of the economy. What is Fiscal Policy? Fiscal policy is the use of government spending and revenue collection to influence the economy. These policies affect tax rates, interest rates and government spending, in an effort to control the economy. Fiscal policy is an additional method to determine public revenue and public expenditure. What is Core Banking Solutions? Core banking is a general term used to describe the services provided by a group of networked bank branches. Bank customers may access their funds and other simple transactions from any of the member branch offices. It will cut down time, working simultaneously on different issues and increasing efficiency. The platform where communication technology and information technology are merged to suit core needs of banking is known as Core Banking Solutions. What is bank and its features and types? A bank is a financial organization where people deposit their money to keep it safe.Banks play an important role in the financial system and the economy. As a key component of the financial system, banks allocate funds from savers to borrowers in an efficient manner.

Banking services for individual customers is known as retail banking. I will give to investment banks and they will do the money management and give me higher returns when compared to traditional banks. Here. vi. using the SMS facility. ii. Like. via a mobile device such as a mobile phone. A bank that deals mostly in but international finance. Traditional banking is the normal bank accounts we have. payments etc. If i have more money instead of taking the pain of investing in share market. encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and making government more accountable. agricultural labourers and rural artisans. except the State of Jammu and Kashmir – which is covered under . The RRBs mobilize financial resources from rural / semiurban areas and grant loans and advances mostly to small and marginal farmers. vii. Mobile Banking is a service that allows you to do banking transactions on your mobile phone without making a call . The area of operation of RRBs is limited to the area as notified by GoI covering one or more districts in the State. What is Right to information Act? The Right to Information act is a law enacted by the Parliament of India giving citizens of India access to records of the Central Government and State overnments. iii. Investment banking is entirely different. Merchant banks do not provide regular banking services to the general public iv. put your money in the bank and they act as a security and you will get only the normal interests (decided by RBI in our case.The Act applies to all States and Union Territories of India. FED bank in US). v. people who are having so much money (money in excess which will yield only less interest if in Banks) will invest their money and get higher returns. What is E-Governance? E-Governance is the public sector‘s use of information and communication technologies with the aim of improving information and service delivery. Is a term used for performing balance checks.Regional Rural Banks were established with an objective to ensure sufficient institutional credit for agriculture and other rural sectors. account transactions.transparent and effective. long-term loans for companies and underwriting. For example. Online banking (or Internet banking) allows customers to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their retail or virtual bank. buying properties etc.

acquisition of shares/stock/bonds/debentures/securities issued by government. but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity.a State-level law.) . industrial activity.A bill of exchange drawn on a specified banker and payable on demand. People believe banks more than individuals. ICRA wasformerly referred to the Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Limited.―Written order directing a bank to pay money‖. What is a NBFC? A non-banking financial company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act. A check may be dishonored for lack of funds a DD can not. NBFCs are doing functions akin to that of banks. You can 100% trust a DD. The credit rating agencies in India mainly include ICRA and CRISIL(Credit Rating Information Services of India Limited) What is Cheque? Cheque is a negotiable instrument instructing a Bank to pay a specific amount from a specified account held in the maker/depositor‘s name with that Bank. This law was passed by Parliament on 15 June 2005 and came fully into force on 13 October 2005. however there are a few differences: (i)A NBFC cannot accept demand deposits (demand deposits are funds deposited at a depository institution that are payable on demand — immediately or within a very short period — like your current or savings accounts. What is demand Draft? A demand draft is an instrument used for effecting transfer of money. Cheque is written by an individual and Demand draft is issued by a bank. 1956 and is engaged in the business of loans and advances. Credit Rating Agencies in India? The credit rating agencies in India mainly include ICRA and CRISIL. It is a Negotiable Instrument. sale/purchase/construction of immovable property. Their main function is to grade the different sector and companies in terms of performance and offer solutions for up gradation. Cheque and Demand-Draft both are used for Transfer of money. It is a banker‘s check.

It was established in 1920 by promoter chambers. Difference between banking & Finance? Finance is generally related to all types of financial. Mr.(ii) it is not a part of the payment and settlement system and as such cannot issue cheques to its customers. India‘s premier apex chamber covers a membership of over 2 lakh companies and professionals across the country. ASSOCHAM represents the interests of industry and trade. It is one of the premiere agency . These two terms are often used to denote services that a bank and other financial institutions provide to its customers. Chairman-Pramod Bhasin What is ASSOCHAM? The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM). representing all regions of India. Maintaining close interaction with the Government of India in formulating National IT policies with specific focus on IT software and services maintaining a state of the art information database of IT software and services related activities for use of both the software developers as well as interested companies overseas. and (iii) Deposit insurance facility of DICGC is not available for NBFC depositors unlike in case of banks.The term Banking and Finance are two very different terms but are often associated together. the Indian chamber of commerce is a consortium that serves as an interface to the Indian software industry and Indian BPO industry. It replaced the Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) and Rural Planning and Credit Cell (RPCC) of Reserve Bank of India. this could be accounting. interfaces with Government on policy issues and interacts with counterpart international organizations to promote bilateral economic issues. President-Swati Piramal What is NABARD? NABARD was established by an act of Parliament on 12 July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981. and Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC). What is NASSCOM ? The National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM). Whereas banking is everything that happens in a bank only. Som Mittal – President. As an apex industry body. insurances and policies.

BOTH WILL SHOW DAILY TRADING MARKS. What is Asset Management Companies? A company that invests its clients‘ pooled fund into securities that match its declared financial objectives. Sensex and Nifty both are an ―index‖. handicrafts and other rural provide credit in rural areas. Originally set up by the Government of India in 1988. What is SENSEX and NIFTY? SENSEX is the short term for the words ―Sensitive Index‖ and is associated with the Bombay (Mumbai) Stock Exchange (BSE). What is SEBI? SEBI is the regulator for the Securities Market in India. What is SIDBI? The Small Industries Development Bank of India is a state-run bank aimed to aid the growth and development of micro. cottage and village industries. it acquired statutory form in 1992 with SEBI Act 1992 being passed by the Indian Parliament. An index is basically an indicator it indicates whether most of the stocks have gone up or most of the stocks have gone down. What is Mutual funds? Mutual funds are investment companies that pool money from investors at large and offer to sell and buy back its shares on a continuous basis and use the capital thus raised to invest in securities of different companies. AND NIFTY IS THE INDEX OF NSE. NABARD is set up as an apex Development Bank with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture. Chaired by C B Bhave.SENSEX IS THE INDEX OF BSE. Set up in 1990 through an act of parliament. The net proceeds or losses are then typically distributed to the investors annually. Asset management companies provide investors with more diversification and . small and medium scale industries in India. The SENSEX was first formed on 1-1-1986 and used the market capitalization of the 30 most traded stocks of BSE. The mutual fund will have a fund manager that trades the pooled money on a regular basis. small-scale industries. it was incorporated initially as a wholly owned subsidiary of Industrial Development Bank of India. Where as NSE has 50 most traded stocks of NSE.

made by a bank or finance company.However.investing options than they would have by themselves. These companies earn income by charging service fees to their clients.3 What is SLR Rate? A: SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) is the amount a commercial bank needs to maintain in the form of cash. approved securities (Bonds) before providing credit to its customers. A debt obligation where the borrower has not paid any previously agreed upon interest and principal repayments to the designated lender for an extended period of time. or gold or govt. are loans. What are non-performing assets? Non-performing assets. also called non-performing loans. What is CRR Rate? A: Cash reserve Ratio (CRR) is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with RBI. What is foreign exchange reservers? Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits and bonds held by central banks and monetary authorities. the available amount with the banks comes down. on which repayments or interest payments are not being made on time. The nonperforming asset is therefore not yielding any income to the lender in the form of principal and interest payments.SDRs and IMF reserve positions. . RBI is using this method (increase of CRR rate). If RBI decides to increase the percent of this. What is Recession? A true economic recession can only be confirmed if GDP (Gross Domestic Product)growth is negative for a period of two or more consecutive quarters. to drain out the excessive money from the banks. hedge funds and pension plans are all run by asset management companies. Mutual funds. the term in popular usage commonly includes foreign exchange and gold.

since there is more demand and less supply of the goods. What is Bank Rate? A: Bank rate. Inflation happens when there are fewer Goods and more buyers. although. SLR is determined as the percentage of total demand and percentage of time liabilities. The rate is almost always the same amongst major banks. What is Inflation? A: Inflation is as an increase in the price of bunch of Goods and services that projects the Indian economy. Some banks use the name ―Reference Rate‖ or ―Base Lending Rate‖ to refer to their Prime Lending Rate. this will result in increase in the price of Goods. The Prime Rate is usually adjusted at the same time and in correlation to the adjustments of the Fed Funds Rate. An increase in inflation figures occurs when there is an increase in the average level of prices in Goods and services. . What is Deflation? A: Deflation is the continuous decrease in prices of goods and services. also referred to as the discount rate.SLR rate is determined and maintained by the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) in order to control the expansion of bank credit. The rates reported below are based upon the prime rates on the first day of each respective month. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate becomes negative (below zero) and stays there for a longer period. Changes in the bank rate are often used by central banks to control the money supply. What is PLR? A: The Prime Interest Rate is the interest rate charged by banks to their most creditworthy customers (usually the most prominent and stable business customers). is the rate of interest which a central bank charges on the loans and advances that it extends to commercial banks and other financial intermediaries. Time Liabilities are the liabilities a commercial bank liable to pay to the customers on their anytime demand. SLR is used to control inflation and propel growth. Adjustments to the prime rate are made by banks at the same time. Through SLR rate tuning the money supply in the system can be controlled efficiently. the prime rate does not adjust on any regular basis.

Insurance Companies. where the net amount received (by taxes & other forms) fails to meet the predicted net amount to be received by the government.What is Deposit Rate? A: Interest Rates paid by a depository institution on the cash on deposit. What is Disinvestment? A: The Selling of the government stake in public sector undertakings. What is Fiscal Deficit? A: It is the difference between the government‘s total receipts (excluding borrowings) and total expenditure.7%. What is FDI? A: FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) occurs with the purchase of the ―physical assets or a significant amount of ownership (stock) of a company in another country in order to gain a measure of management control‖ (Or) A foreign company having a stake in a Indian Company. mutual funds. Revenue deficit in 2009-10 is proposed at 4. . What is IPO? A: IPO is Initial Public Offering. classically a year. in other words buying Indian stocks. GDP during 2008-09 is 6. FII‘s generally buy in large volumes which has an impact on the stock markets.8% of GDP. An institution established outside India. Fiscal deficit in 2009-10 is proposed at 6.8% of GDP. Institutional Investors includes pension funds. etc. This is the first offering of shares to the general public from a company wishes to list on the stock exchanges. What is Revenue deficit? A: It defines that. Banks. mostly in the form of an institution. What is FII? A: FII (Foreign Institutional Investor) used to denote an investor. which proposes to invest in Indian market. What is GDP? A: The Gross Domestic Product or GDP is a measure of all of the services and goods produced in a country over a specific period. 13.

yen and pound sterling). or region.Per capita income during 2008 -09 estimated by CSO: Rs.25.S. SDRs are allocated to member countries and can be fully converted into international currencies so they serve as a supplement to the official foreign reserves of member countries. Per capita income is often used to measure a country‘s standard of living. Difference between Vote on Account and Interim Budget? A: Vote-on-account deals only with the expenditure side of the government‘s budget. The basic motto behind this is to increase foreign .What is GNP? A: Gross National Product is measured as GDP plus income of residents from investments made abroad minus income earned by foreigners in domestic market. What is National Income? A: National Income is the money value of all goods and services produced in a country during the year. A special Economic zone is a geographical region that economic laws which are more liberal than the usual economic laws in the country. including both expenditure and receipts. What is Per Capita Income? A: The national income of a country. Its value is based on a basket of key international currencies (U. an interim Budget is a complete set of accounts. euro. What is Vote on Account? A: A vote-on account is basically a statement . dollar. to keep the machinery running. divided by its population. 494. What is SDR? A: The SDR (Special Drawing Rights) is an artificial currency created by the IMF in 1969.where the government presents an estimate of a sum required to meet the expenditure that it incurs during the first three to four months of an election financial year until a new government is in place. What is SEZ? A: SEZ means Special Economic Zone is the one of the part of government‘s policies in India.

allowing them to care for themselves and their families. What is Micro Credit? It is a term used to extend small loans to very poor people for self-employment projects that generate income. What is RTGS System? The acronym ‗RTGS‘ stands for Real Time Gross Settlement. The transactions are settled as soon as they are processed. job opportunities and increase the income level of the people. What is Bancassurance? It is the term used to describe the partnership or relationship between a bank and an insurance company whereby the insurance company uses the bank sales channel in order to sell insurance products. development of infrastructure. Open market operations are the principal tools of monetary policy. RTGS system is a funds transfer mechanism where transfer of money takes place from one bank to another on a ‗real time‘ and on ‗gross‘ basis. Settlement in ‗real time‘ means payment transaction is not subjected to any waiting period. What is Open Market operations(OMO)? The buying and selling of government securities in the open market in order to expand or contract the amount of money in the banking system by RBI. This arrangement allows banks to respond to liquidity pressures and is used by governments to assure basic stability in the financial markets.investment. This is the fastest possible money transfer system through the banking channel. ‗Gross settlement‘ means the transaction is settled on one to one basis without bunching with any other transaction. . What is Liquidity Adjustment Facility(LAF)? A tool used in monetary policy that allows banks to borrow money through repurchase agreements.

The venture capitalist provides the funding knowing that there‘s a significant risk associated with the company‘s future profits and cash flow. What is Banking Ombudsmen Scheme? The Banking Ombudsman Scheme enables an expeditious and inexpensive forum to bank customers for resolution of complaints relating to certain services rendered by banks.What is Wholesale Price Index(WPI)? The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) is the index used to measure the changes in the average price level of goods traded in wholesale market. What is a Treasury Bills? Treasury Bills (T-Bills) are short term. It is generally taken as an indicator of the inflation rate in the Indian economy. 182-day and 364-day. Capital is invested in exchange for an equity stake in the business rather than given as a loan. What is Consumer price Index(CPI)? It is a measure estimating the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households. A total of 435 commodity prices make up the index. They are thus useful in managing short-term liquidity. The Indian Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was first published in 1902. Rupee denominated obligations issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on behalf of the Government of India. and was used by policy makers until it was replaced by the Producer Price Index (PPI) in 1978. the Government of India issues three types of treasury bills through auctions. or troubled business. It is available on a weekly basis. . There are no treasury bills issued by State Governments. At present. growing. What is Venture Capital? Venture capital is money provided by an outside investor to finance a new. namely. 91-day. and the investor hopes the investment will yield a better-than-average return.

A type of debt instrument that is not secured by physical asset. as opposed to Convertible debentures. It is important to note that hedging is actually the practice of attempting to reduce risk. and was revised in 2002. but the goal of most hedge funds is to maximize return on investment. i)Convertible Debentures: Any type of debenture that can be converted into some other security or it can be converted into stock. Non-convertible debentures normally earn a higher interest rate than convertible debentures do. ii)Non-Convertibility Debentures(NCB): Non Convertible Debentures are those that cannot be converted into equity shares of the issuing company. Debentures are backed only by the general creditworthiness and reputation of the issuer. What is Subsidy? A subsidy is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector. A hedge fund is an investment fund open to a limited range of investors and requires a very large initial minimum investment. What is a Debenture? How many types of debentures are there? What are they? A debenture is basically an unsecured loan to a corporation. . What is a hedge fund? ‗Hedge‘ means to reduce financial risk. Most subsidies are made by the government to producers or distributors in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry or an increase in the prices of its products or to encourage it to hire more labor. The current scheme became operative from the 1 January 2006.The Banking Ombudsman is a senior official appointed by the Reserve Bank of India to redress customer complaints against deficiency in certain banking services. The Banking Ombudsman Scheme was first introduced in India in 1995. and replaced and superseded the banking Ombudsman Scheme 2002..

What is FCCB? A Foreign Currency Convertible Bond (FCCB) is a type of convertible bond issued in a currency different than the issuer‘s domestic currency. . the money being raised by the issuing company is in the form of a foreign currency. What is Current Account Convertibility? It defines at one can import and export goods or receive or make payments for services rendered. A company may issue an FCCB if it intends to make a large investment in a country using that foreign currency. Capital account convertibility is considered to be one of the major features of a developed economy. What is Arbitrage? The opportunity to buy an asset at a low price then immediately selling it on a different market for a higher price. However. It helps attract foreign investment. capital account convertibility makes it easier for domestic companies to tap foreign markets. In other words. What is Capital Account Convertibility(CAC)? It is the freedom to convert local financial assets into foreign financial assets and vice versa at market determined rates of exchange. The Reserve Bank of India has appointed a committee to set out the framework for fuller Capital Account Convertibility. investments and borrowings are restricted. This means that capital account convertibility allows anyone to freely move from local currency into foreign currency and back.

EOQ – Economic Order quality. distribution. CRM – Customer Relationship Management. where businesses are privately owned and operated for profit. IDRA – Industries Development and Regulation Act. and the prices of goods. and labor. CNP – Cardholder Not Present. Search Results | Jobs | Admit Card | Hall Ticket | Exam Papers | Inform Vacancy Download Study Material Marketing Concept for Bank Tuesday. What is Socialism? Socialism as an economy is based on a collectivist type of political ideology and involves the running of businesses to benefit the common good of a vast majority of people rather than of a small upper class segment of society. 2012 Abbreviations Related to Marketing Aptitude: HNI – High Networth Individual. September 25.What is Capitalism? Capitalism as an economy is based on a democratic political ideology and produces a free market economy. SEO – Search Engine Optimization. services. BPO – Business Process Outsourcing. PIN – Personal Identification Number. BEP – Break Even Point. all of the capital investments and decisions about production. MR – Marginal Revenue. in capitalism. . PAN – Permanent Account Number. VAT – Value Added Tax. FDR – Fixed Deposit Receipts. are determined in the free market and affected by the forces of supply and demand.

GDP – Gross Domestic Product. having a high pass-rate from person to person is called Viral marketing.NPA – Non Performing Assets. Types of Direct marketing: . social networks. Newspapers. SEBI – Securities Exchange Board of India. What is Bench Marketing? A comparison of the business processes with competitors and improving prevailing ones is called bench marketing. What is Direct Marketing? Direct Marketing is a form of advertising that directly reaches to the customers on a personal basis (like phone calls. etc). What is Viral Marketing? Marketing by the word of the mouth. etc) rather than traditional channel of advertising (like TV. What is Social Media Marketing? Social media marketing is marketing using online communities. blog marketing and more. Creating a ‗buzz‘ in the industry is an example of viral marketing. What is Guerilla Marketing? Unconventional marketing intended to get maximum results from minimal resources is nothing but Guerilla Marketing. IPO – Initial Public Offering. M & A – Mergers & Acquisitions. ATM – Automated Teller Machine. What is Drip Marketing? The method of sending promotional items to clients is called Drip marketing. ROA – Return on Assets. private mailings.

It includes Television. Internet. web-marketing. is an increasingly popular way of doing business. Internet Marketing is also known as i-marketing. Promotion. ii)Telemarketing: It is the second most common form of direct marketing. Jerome McCarthy introduced the 4 P‘s of Marketing as a way to describe the mix of factors required to successfully market a product. What is Digital Marketing? Digital Marketing is the practice of promoting products and services using all forms of digital advertising. Marketing Mix: The Marketing Mix model (also known as the 4 P‘s) can be used by marketers as a tool to assist in defining the marketing strategy. Difference b/w Direct and Indirect Marketing: Direct marketing is basically advertising your own products or services. The 4 P’s are: Product . Search Engine Marketing (SEM) or e-Marketing. in which marketers contact consumers by phone. mobile and any other form of digital media. E.There are many types of direct marketing. ii)Email Marketing: This type of marketing targets customers through their email accounts. What is Internet Marketing? Internet marketing is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. i)Direct Mail Marketing: Advertising material sent directly to home and business addresses. only some important types are listed below and these are the most form of direct marketing. This is the most common form of direct marketing. Place (distribution) . Radio. Price. your marketing would succeed. The idea was that if you could identify the right combination of these elements. online-marketing. In the same way you might advertise for someone else is called Indirect marketing. What is Indirect Marketing? Indirect Marketing is the distribution of a particular product through a channel that includes one or more resellers.

and Threats. The first 4 P‘s are considered the basis of any marketing process. Opportunities and threats are external factors. Process. The 7 P‘s of marketing consists of: Product. What is Market Segmentation? . Once that research is completed. Weaknesses. Place. Promotion. SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization and its environment. Price. as well as the supply and demand situation. it can be used to determine how to market your product. What is SWOT Analysis? SWOT stands for Strengths. The last 3 P‘s are a recent addition to the entire marketing process. It is a process or methodology used to learn more about customers‘ needs and behaviors in order to develop stronger relationships with them. What is Market Information? To know the prices of the different commodities in the market. It can also involve discovering how they act. or believe. What are the Three Levels of a Product? Core Product Actual Product Augmented Product What is Market Research? Market research is any organized effort to gather information about markets or customers. need. People.The 5 P‘s of marketing is 4 P‘s + People/Packaging/Process/etc. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors. What is Customer Relationship Management (CRM)? Customer Relationship Management concerns the relationship between the organization and its customers. Opportunities. Market research is for discovering what people want. Physical evidence. It is the first stage of planning and helps marketers to focus on key issues.

its quality and competitiveness displayed in the form of letters. What is Marketing? The process of planning and executing the concepts. o Laptop in the Lap cause skin Syndrome – People who work with a laptop computer resulting on their legs have been warned that they could be permanently damage their skin. pricing. o One Million newborn die a year – According to UNICEF. It is a college for the study of Art history. The purpose for segmenting a market is to allow your marketing program to focus on the subset of prospects that are ―most likely‖ to purchase your offering. 2010. Toasted skin syndrome is a skin condition that could result from long-term heat exposure.The division of a market into different homogeneous groups of consumers is known as market segmentation. promotion and distribution of ideas/goods/services to satisfy individual‘s/organizational goals is called marketing. o Woman PM for Australia – Julia Gillard has become the first ever female elected prime minister of Australia. symbols and colours is known as branding. Indian mortality rate fell from 117 per 1000 live birth in 1990 to 72 in 2007. o College for Art History – Courtauld institute of Art in London gets its name from the art collector and manufacturer Samuel Courtauld who donated his home with his collection of impressionist paitings to London University in 1931. o UID rolls out from Tembhli – prime Minister Manmohan Singh handed over the first set of 12-Digit identification number called Adhaar to 10 tribals at Tembhli village in Nandurbar District of Maharastra on 29th September . 2010. One million newborns die each year in their first month itself. What is Branding? The essence of a product. o National Legal Services Authority – The constitution of India provides for free legal aid to the poor and weaker section of the society and ensures justice for all. The Legal services Authorities Act was aimed at establishing a uniform network for free legal . If done properly this will help to insure the highest return for your marketing expenditures. o Education is now right – The right of children to Free and compulsory Education Act has come into from April 1.

also incorporates positioning technology.30%. It detect nerve message . geology. fluoride of calcium 2. The enzymatic blood conversion system enables the precise and permanent conversions of groups to enzyme converted group O. oceanography and law enforcement. It is used to variety of industries. web services and devices. browsers ad authoring tools. English and French scientist has found a way to convert types A. o Molecules in jeans as solar Cells – Molecules. XML technology. forestry.00%. soda/chloride of sodium 1. o Universal Blood Type – A team of Danish. Australia in 2007 with about two million participants. web architecture. . known as ECO red cells and is safe. Women constitute 50% of all new HIV cases to the weaker section of the society. Every state has a legal services Authority. phosphate of magnesia 1. similar to RADAR. The National Legal Services Authorities (NALSA) monitors and evaluates implementation of legal Services. o World wide web consortium(W3C) – W3C is an international community that works towards developing world wide web standards in the areas like web design. utilizes lasers to determine the distance to an object or surface. flexible and versatile solar cell.30%.04%. o Earth Hour – Earth Hour began in Sydeny. carbonate of lime 11. nearly 40% of which are women. decode the signal and turn thoughts into action. like atmospheric physics. typically used in blue jeans and ink dyes. web application.00% o Brain chip – scientist have developed a brain chip that lets paralyzed patients operate their bionic limbs. NACO records fresh cases every year. phosphate 51.B and AB blood into Type O – the universal donor blood group that can be given to anybody. have been used for building an organic frameworks that could lead to economical. The voluntary one-hour blackout has since grown an international event as a sign of action against global warming. o AIDS Report – India has 27 lakh HIV patient per national Aids Control Organization (NACO) estimates.16%. o LIDAR – Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). LiDAR used in mobile environment like aircraft and satellites. o Composition of Bones – Organic Matter 33.

which is celebrating 20 years of its establishment.has approved the domain type . o National Law schools – every state in India is to have a world class law school. essential to the realization of values enshrined in the constitution. London Business School.000 professionals.o Naming on the internet – The internet corporation for Assigned Names and numbers – the organization tasked with assigning domain names and IP addresses. o The Largest Technopark - india's first technopark at Thiruvananthapuram. MIT Sloan. is supposed to be the world's first university. o Longest natural beach – Cox's Bazar Beach. Ceibs(China). Chicago. It formed the nucleus of Banaras Hindu University. These are institution of excellence in the field of legal education and research. It launched its own diamond trading company. designed by Estonian developers. offers free calls over the internet to millions of people. file transfer and video conferencing. o The First University – Takshashila. Sq. o Top Business School in the World – Harvard. o Largest producer of Diamonds – Botswana is the world's largest producer of Kellogg.C. IE(spain).xxx for porn sites. Wharton. Annie Besant. Insead(France). o The Hindu College of Varanasi – Central Hindu college was established at Varanasi in 1898 by Mrs. employing about 28. Stanford. New York University stern(all in US). is considered the longest natural beach in the world. build up area with 180 companies operating in the premises. Columbia. Skype has also become popular for its additional features which include instant messaging. Students from foreign countries also registered for studies in more than 60 streams of knowledge here.Afghanistan is the world's second poorest contry. IMD(Switzerland) and Indian School of Business are the top business school in the world. is the second largest IT park in the country with 4. Sierra leone is the poorer than Afghanistan.5 mn. .Diamond Trading Company of Bostwana – in joint venture with diamond giant De Beers. o Free calls on internet – Skype. the unbroken 125 Km sandy beach in Bangladesh. according to the UN Human Development Index for 2009. established in 700 B. o Second poorest country . The site that doesn't want to use it still be able to register under the classic .ft. The trade has transformed it into a middle-income nation.

writing and arithmetic and the ability to apply them to one's day to day life. Delhi was completed in 1929.5(children) in 1970. 1922 by the order of viceroy Lord Reading. o Gandhiji switches to Lion Cloth – in 1921. o What is Literacy ? – Literacy is not just identifying the letters of the alphabets. Gandhiji told a meeting of students in Madurai if they found wearing 'Khadi' too expensive. . o Rashtrapati Bhawan – Rashtrapati Bhawan.1930. says a new survey. It was formely the Viceroy's house. near Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmadabad. at midnight on Dec. a Growing Wine Market – India is one of the growing wine markets. o In 1930. on April 5 and broke the salt law. but acquiring the skill of reading . 31 Gandhiji led congress members in Lahore to take a Vow for 'Swaraj'. In 1929. based in paris. 2010. they must wear less clothes. It is to become the first Asian countries to join international organization of Vine and wine (OIV).5 Kg nanosatellite.6.7 by 2008(india) o Gandhiji's First Arrest – Gandhiji was arrested for the first time in India on March 10. accounting for over seven percent of global junk mails sent during the first quarter of the year. o India and Junk Mails – India has been ranked second in the list of spam. a 3. In India. o Gandhiji's Dandi March or 'Salt Satyagaraha' began on March 12. o India.o Fertility Rate – the rate at which women expect to have children in their lifetime – was 5. o Dependency Ratio – the number of dependents to working people is called dependency ratio.nothing less than full independence. January 26 was observed as 'Swaraj Day' for the first time.relaying countries. Now it is the official residence of the president of India. 388 Km from Sabarmati Asharam of Ahmedabad. It was designed by Lutyens. the ratio is 0.Jugnu was handed over to the ISRO in March. He was arrested on April 6. which is very low compared with the developed countries. He and his 78 followers reached Dandi. It felt to 4 in 1990 and to 2. o Jugnu – Kanpur IIT's mechanical and nuclear engineering and technology departments were instrumented in designing Jugnu. He set an example by discarding the dhoti and kurta and switches over to the lion cloth.

The project will save the government more than 20. o Burma as part of india – Burma was separated from india only in 1937. 1899.000 cr. Combs. six o Durand Cup – The football Association (FA) Cup began in Englad in 1897.The Unique Identification Authority of India(UIDAI) is to give UID numbers to 1.76 percent of which are in rural areas. o Beginning of Film Industry – Harishchandra S.P. Mohammedan Sporting came in 1891.o Unique Identification . His two short films – The Wrestlers and Man and Monkey – were released in Nov. which started in 1888 at shimla. is the second oldest in the world. o Mohan Began – India's oldest football club is Mohan Bagan.21 sq km. The Lumiere Brothers cinematographe had unveiled soundless short movie in Mumbai on July. and the last Burmese King Thibaw Min to Ratnagiri in 1887. the studsat and cartsat was build by 35 students of seven engineering colleges. It was the first in the world. o V.In 1937 Federal Court of India was created as the highest judicial authority in the country. . in india. two were indigenous ones. o The Federal Court.55 lakh post offices. o Broadcasting – Regular broadcasting in India first started in Bombay in July 23. This was brought out by Mahatma Gandhi. 1950. The Durand cup tournament. 89.P. o Largest Postal Network – The world's Largest postal network is india post.2 billion people.Menon – It was a civil servant named V. When the last Mughal emperor bahadur Shah Zafar was sent ot Rangoon in 1858. soap boxes and ashtrays were among the first plastic items made in india. A post office serves 7. 1896. o Plastic Industry – Indian Plastic industry had its beginning in 1926. o Harijan Replaces Young India – Young India was replaced in 1933 by the new English journal Harijan. o A satellite build by Engineering Students – Of the five PSL-V-C15 launched satellites in August. A year by eliminating duplication under various schemes.menon who helped sardar patel in persuading many princely states to accede to india. formed in 1889.175 people on an average and cover an area of 21. It became the supreme court of India on January 26. they were being exiled within the same country.Bhatvadekar is often considered the first Indian filmmaker. It has over 1. 1927 and later in Calcutta by india broadcasting company.

o First Air Mail – J. 743 MNCs over 500. the snake boat (Chundan Vallom) race is held during the festival of Onam. 2184 IT companies. the savings rate also rises. o The Jallianwala Bagh Gathering – The Gathering on jallianwala bagh at Amritsar on April 13. Ranjit Movietone. is ranked among the top technology cluster of the worlds. In there years till May 2010. British Dominion Film Studio. 15. o Poona Act – the poona act was an agreement signed by Dr. .D. The state accounts for nearly 35% of india's software exports. As india's population will remain young for a couple of decades. o Early Film Studios – Important studios emerged in india around 1929. the silicon valley and biotech capital of India. o Accident on the rise – the National Crime Record Bureau reports that accidents and injuries that snuff out or damage lives are rising three percent a year in India. o Saving Rate – India has a saving rate of over 30 percent.Baloo with the congress on Sept. was assassinated by Udham singh in 1940. Saifudding Kichlew and Dr. Crores of rupees are being spent on suide prevention programmes. D. 368 soldier ended their lives. 1919 had collected to protest against the arrest of Dr. Rajati and Bombay Cricketer P. 24. 1932. o Michael O'Dwyer Assassinated – Sir Michael O'Dwyer the governor of Punjab during the jalianwala Bagh massacre of 1919. As the rate of income earners to dependents rises. there will be an increase in the number of breadwinners. This is the highest in the world. Tata embarked upon an epochal journey from Karachi to Bombay on Oct. Satyapal. There are 33 approved SEZs for IT Zone. Ambedkar. These include the prabhat Film company.o Boat Races – Hiyang Tannaba is a seasonal boat race held during the Lai haraoba festival in Manipur. In kerela. o A top technology cluster – Bangalore . o Mental Health of Indian Soldier – one Indian soldier killed himself every third day. o Religious Festivals – Many religious festival in India depend on the phases of the moon . the General Pictures. 1932 carrying India's first Airmail. full moon days are particularly significant. There is crowding and merrymaking in temple across towns throughout India on festivals.R.000 IT professionals.

o First same sex marriage fails – India's first –ever public same-sex marriage took place in Manipur in April. Two separate corporations. T is in Andhra pradesh near Kakinada.c. Western(Mumbai[Church Gate]). 28. 1953. Easter(Kolkata). as against an average of 7 p. toll bridge. South- . o Delhi – Mumbai Air traffic – it is estimated that about 40 percent of air traffic is between the two cities Delhi and Mumbai.V. Northen(New Delhi). On Jan 27. 1982. o Teacher's Day – President S. speaks Telgu. He became the second president of india in May. Radhakrishnan's birthday Spetember 5 was declared as Teacher's Day in 1962. telchar in Orissa witnessed the foundation stone lying of india's first and world's largest coal based fertilizer plant. 1961. o Nationalization of Airlines – All airlines of india were nationalized on August 1. 2010 between sandeep soiban. 1968 with the assistance of all the states of India.Giri dedicated it to nation. 25 and bride Nikhil Sharma. o Tribal Population – According to the 1981 census.o Nehru Memorial Museum – The teen murti house in New Delhi was converted into the Nehru Memorial Museum in 1974. Soils form the respective land were poured into a lotus-shaped urn. o Public private initiative – India's first public. o Yanam Speaks Telgu – Yanam which belongs to the union territory of Pondicherry. o The First ISD – International Subscriber Dialing was introduced in 1976. o Electronic Voting Machines – the electronic voting machines produced by Electronics corporation of india were used for the first time in the Kerela Assembly by – election in April. were formed for domestic and international services respectively. tribal population formed 79 pc. but ended in divorce after two days. It is the Delhi Noida toll bridge. o The 17th Indian Railway Zone – Southern(Chennai). Indian airlines and Air lines . Pf Arunachal Pradesh . o The first coal-based fertilizer plant – in 1970. Jawaharlal Nehru lived in the teen murti house as the first prime minister of India. o Auroville. for the whole country.private initiative is a $100m. UNESCO and 121 countries of the world. 1962. The first call was made from Bombay to London. the international township of sri Aurobindo Ashram was innaugrated in Feb. o The first financial daily – India's first financial daily the Economics Times was launched by the Times of India Group in Bombay on March 6. president V. Central(Mumbai CST).

Usha – P. each for his two books Dreams from My Father and Audacity of Hope in 2009. The first Tour de France. Calcutta and madras were established in 1862. only one-hundredth of a second more.42 seconds. Meghalaya was cut out of Assam as separate state and Mizoram become a Union territory in 1987. . o A tourism ministry project on satyajit rai films locations is to give fans on opportunity to visit the sites of the Oscar winning film maker's movie as tourist attraction under the stayajit Ray trail project. North Central(Hajipur).Eastern(Gorakhpur). a six-day race was held in 1891.T. to come forth in 400 meter hurdle race in Los Angeles. She took 54. Maligaon(Guwahati). were murdered after a Khap panchayat edict. o Calorific value of the Indian diet – according to writer Robert Fogel. South-Central(Secundrabad). Bank of Rajasthan merged with ICICI in 2010. In 1963. In 1948 the north east frontier agency was separated from assam. o State Bank of Indore merged with SBI in 2010. Her full name is Pilavullakandi Thekeparambil Usha. South-East Central(Bilaspur).Usha is the first woman to enter an Olympic final. who has eloped. Manoj and babli. The first US cycling competition. the calorific value of the typical English diet in 1850 was roughly equivalent to the average Indian diet today. West-Central(Jabalpur). since 1896. Coast(Bhubaneswar).1950s east Asian countries had dominated the sport. assam was united to the eastern districts of Bengal. o Honor Killing – A haryana court give five prople the death penality on a 2007 honor killing case. table tennis became an olymic sport for men and women. Nagaland was carved out of assam as a full-fledged state in 1972. o Cycling – the first classical professional cycling race was held in paris in 1868. North- North-East Western(Jaipur). o Obama the Author – President obama earned between $1 m and $5 m. Konkan Railway(Navi Mumbai). the premier race was held in 1903. o High Courts – The High court of Bombay.T. cycling has been part of the Olympics. Mizorom was granted statehood. In 1988. which was invented in England in the early 20th century. o New States – on the partition of Bengal in 1905. o P. o Ping Pong – It is another name for table tennis. Since the mid. Frontier East- South-Western(Hubli).

He took the lead to form the congress socialist party in 1934.1902 in sitabdiara village of Bihar. o Homophones – These are the word that sound like or nearly alike but have different meaning and different spellings.Lutyens and Hebert Baker. . vein and vane.L. o Herbert Murrill's Orchestra tune of the National Anthem Jana Gana Mana was accepted after an international competition in 1950. The city was designed by E. The first steam locomotive came out of the assembly line on Nov. Marathi and Gujrati film produced in Bombay. o Diamonds are forever – Diamonds are a form of carbon that has been centralized under great pressure and very high temperatures. the locomotive town and a model industrial colony was inaugurated on January 26. the hardest substance in nature. The film was melody of love. valentine Tereshkova. The first talkie film was shown in india at Elphinstone in 1929. 1950. o Chittranajan. The formal inauguration was in Feb 10. She was also the youngest woman in space. Diamond the hardest and the most lustrous gem. o The youngest woman in Space – the first woman in space. o Jaiprakash Narain – Indian Freedom fighter and political leader jai prakash narain was born on oct. plain and plane. Example : council and counsel. o Graphite and Diamond – The soft gray graphite used in pencil lead and sometimes as a lubricant consists of the same substances as diamond. It is an advisory body comprising distinguished professional drawn from diverse fields of development activity who serve their individual capacities. Calcutta in 1907. 2004 by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to implement the common minimum programme of the first UPA government.Madan opened the first cinema hall in india. the ninth city in 1931. o First cinema Hall – J. was only 26 years when she became the world famous in 1963. forward and foreword. o Lollywood – just as it is Bollywood for Hindi. vain. Elphinstone Picture palace.F. 1. It is lollywood for the pak film industry which is based in Lahore.o National Advisory Council – National Advisory Council (NAC) was set up on 4 June. He died in 1979. 11. retains its brilliance and polish for generations. o New Delhi is the capital – The capital of India shifted from Old Delhi to New Delhi.

o Gini Index – Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income among individuals households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. Pal' .the 26th Indian state chhatisgarh was born on Nov.9. The value of a Gini index that is close to zero denotes closeness to perfect equality in income distribution while value that close to 100 denotes closeness to perfect inequality. Jaipur – Jantar Mantar. Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal are known in the history of Indian freedom movement as 'Lal. a mausoleum of pure white marble at Agra beside the Yamuna River for her. Jaipur the world's largest stone structure has been included in the UNESCO world heritage list. o Bi-Modal Strategy – An Agriculture strategy in which both large and small sized landholdings coexist for natural growth and development.1. The Emperor build Taj Mahal.15 that year. o Lal. o Jantar Mantar . She died in childbirth at the age of 39. : . Jharkhand is the 28th state which came into being on Nov. o Mumtaz Mahal – Mumtaz Mahal bore Moghul Emperor shah Jahan 14 children.2000 and the 27th state uttarakhand(Uttaranchal) on Nov.2000.o Three new state of 2000 .its latest addition from India. Bal. Pal – The three Indian leaders Lala Lajpat Rai. In 1630. Bal.

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