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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

PREFACE
The National conference on Recent Advances in Design, Applications and
Manufacturing systems (RADAMS `09) conducted by the Department of
Mechanical Engineering provides a forum for presenting the technical Expertise
and share the Knowledge on the recent developments in the field of Mechanical
Engineering. There is an overwhelming response for this conference and
altogether 150 papers were received from various institutions. Out of these 62
papers were selected for presentation. We are extremely thankful to the authors
of the papers, members of the organizing committee and volunteers for their
cooperation and support extended to conduct this conference.
We place on record our sincere thanks and gratitude to
Dr.P.Ramamoorthy, Principal and Dr.T.Christopher, Head and Professor of
Mechanical Engineering for their motivation, encouragement and support in
conducting the conference.
A.Muralidhar
P.Praveen Raj
Organizing Secretaries
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Dr. P. RAMAMOORTHY
PRINCIPAL
THANTHAI PERIYAR GOVERNMENT INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY
VELLORE
MESSAGE
I am indeed very happy to know that the Department of Mechanical
Engineering, of Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology, Vellore is
organizing a National Level Conference, RADAMS `09 on 17
th
April 2009. I
hope this conference will serve as a platform for the student community of
various engineering colleges to present their technical expertise and to share the
recent advancements and applications in their field of interest.
My hearty wishes for the success of the Conference, “RADAMS 09”.

P.RAMAMOORTHY
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Prof. ESTHER ANNLIN KALA JAMES
Professor and Head
Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engg
TPGIT, VELLORE
MESSAGES
I am very much happy to know that the Department of Mechanical Engineering
of Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology, Vellore is conducting a
National Level Conference on Recent advances in Design, Applications
Manufacturing systems “RADAMS `09” on 17
th
April 2009. By organizing such
conferences students will be exposed to the latest technologies and provides a
platform to update their technical Knowledge.
I wish the conference a grant success.
ESTHER ANNLIN KALA JAMES
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
MESSAGES
Radams ‘09 is organized as a technical meet among researchers and
postgraduate scholars to present their performance and share their research
experiences. It is my pleasure to appreciate the efforts taken by the organizers
and participants of the event to making it an effective forum to reach academic
excellence. There is no royal road to learning; it requires always hard work with
intelligence. I wish every one a grant success in all their efforts.
Dr.T.CHRISTOPHER, M.E., Ph.D
Professor (Mechanical Engg)
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Vellore - 632002
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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
ADVISORY COMMITTEE
1. Dr. V. Ganesan ,
Professor, IITM, Chennai.
2. Dr. K. Jayachandran,
Professor (Retd), Anna University, Chennai.
3. Dr. C. Jebaraj,
Professor, Anna University,Chennai.
4. Dr. S. Gowri,
Professor, Anna University,Chennai.
5. Dr. G. Thanigaiarasu,
Professor, Anna University,Chennai.
6. Prof. G. Vedagiri,
Principal, SBC College of Engineering,Arni.
7. Dr. A. Elayaperumal,
Asst.Professor, Anna University,Chennai.
8. Dr. B. Nageswara Rao,
Senior Scientist, VSSC,Thiruvananthapuram.
9. Dr. K. Sankaranarayanasamy,
Professor & Head, NIT, Tiruchirappalli.
10. Dr. P.Vijian
Professor, A.C.College of Engg & Tech.,Karakudi
11. Dr. K.S. Amirthagadeswaran
Professor, Govt.College of Tech.,Coimbatore
12. Prof. K. Rajalingam, Professor, PSN College of Engg.,Dindigul
13. Dr.K. Sridhar,
Asso. Prof.,Thiygaraja College of Engg., Madurai.
14. Dr. T. Alwarsamy,
Asst.Prof.,Govt. College of Tech.,Coimbatore
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ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
PATRON & PRINCIPAL Dr. P. Ramamoorthy,
Principal, TPGIT.
CONVENOR Dr.T. Christopher.
HOD/Mechanical.
ORGANISING SECRETARIES
Mr. A. Muralidhar, Sl.Gr.Lecturer
Mr. P. Praveen Raj, Sr.Lecturer
ORGANISING MEMBERS
Mrs. M. Kantha Shoba, Sr.Lecturer
Mrs. A. Sujatha, Lecturer
Mrs. K. Anbukarasi, Lecturer
Mrs. P. Vijayalakshmi, Lecturer
Mrs. T. Suja, Lecturer
Mrs. R. Sarala, Lecturer
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THANTHAI PERIYAR
GOVERNMENT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,
BAGAYAM, VELLORE – 632 002.
TAMIL NADU.
ABOUT THE COLLEGE
The Government of Tamilnadu established Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of
Technology during the year 1990 keeping in mind the technical development students in and
around Vellore. It is one of the five government engineering colleges in Tamilnadu selected
under Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP) of the Government of
India. The college is affiliated to Anna University. Chennai and is the Zonal coordination
center for Zone5. It is one of the six government engineering Colleges and secured fourth
rank in the state during may 2008 Anna university examinations. The college campus is
situated in the government reserved area at Bagayam which is about 4Km from the heart of
the city. The campus consists of sophisticated class room and well equipped laboratories and
workshop. The college is facilitated with necessary infrastructures. It also had a large library
which had a large number of books on wide range of topics. Its vision is to provide high
quality learning environment through innovative teaching and promote research to produce
globally competitive engineers of excellent quality. At present the college is offering B.E. in
Mechanical Engineering, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Civil Engineering,
M.E. in Manufacturing Engineering, Applied Electronics, and M.C.A. It has extensive links
with the research Institutes and Industries.
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ABOUT THE DEPARTMENT

The Department of Mechanical Engineering was established in the year 1990 since the
college was started. Right from its inception, the department has progressed with a vision and
a strong commitment in developing competent, carrier oriented programs and providing
excellent training to the students. The department of Mechanical Engineering offers the
following courses which are affiliated to Anna University.
 B. E. (Mechanical Engineering)
 B. E. (Mechanical Engineering, Part-time)
 M. E. (Manufacturing Engineering)
The Department has excellent Laboratory facilities for carrying out laboratory
experiments and research activities. The following are the laboratories under the Mechanical
Engineering Department:
 Special Machine Shop
 Thermal Engineering Laboratory and Heat Transfer Laboratory
 Lathe Shop and Basic Workshops
 Dynamics Laboratory & Metrology Laboratory
 CAD, CAM Laboratories
 Robotics Laboratory
 Mechatronics Laboratory

Extension Activities
The department organizes a number of activities like conducting Faculty Development
Programmes, national level workshops and conferences and regular departmental seminars for
the benefit of the staff and students.
Placements
Several leading companies are visiting the campus every year and recruited many of
our students. Some of the prominent companies that have already recruited our students are:
ELGI Equipments, UCAL Systems, Wipro Technologies, TCS, Infosys, Robert Bosch,
Renault-Nissan, CTS, Caparo, Titan and U.S Technologies etc.

Faculty Members

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The department has excellent, experienced and highly qualified faculty members to
impart knowledge and training to the students and they have to their credit a record number of
publications in national and international journals and conference proceedings.
INVITED LECTURE
Dr.N.S.Parthasarathy
Director AU-FRG
Anna University, Chennai.
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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
INVITED LECTURE
Dr.G.Subba Rao,
Dean-Academic,
SCSVMV University
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
DESIGN
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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Design and Fabrication of Low-Velocity Impact Tester
Sundar S
1
, Antony Arul Prakash D
2
, Mohan B
3
ME Manufacturing, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Chrompet,
Chennai-600044, ssd_win@yahoo.co.in
2
Research Scholar, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Chrompet-44
3
Assistant Professor, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Chrompet-44
ABSTRACT
The impact response of sandwich panels
can be investigated. In order to apply an
impact load on sandwich structures, a
specific and Free Falling Weight (FFW)
impact tester was designed and fabricated. A
FFW tester has been fabricated based on the
standard of the ASTM D5628 – 96. It has the
capability to hold four different sizes of
specimens. It has the guide for the FFW. This
vertical FFW tester is simple, compact, and
inexpensive. The tester has been used to
perform low-velocity impact on the
laminated composite plates. The testers can
the holding capability of four types of
specimen size, maximum height obtain was
2000mm, velocity was 1.98 – 6.26 m/s the
energy level of 1.98J – 23.18J.
I. INTRODUCTION
Composite sandwich structures are widely
used in the aerospace, marine and automotive
industries because of their high bending
stiffness, corrosion resistance, tailor ability and
stability. However they are also characterized
by mechanical behavior that is strongly
dependent on the loading rate. In fact, they can
have a ductile behavior in case of static loading,
but may have in a brittle manner and fail
fortunately when subjected to a wide spectrum
of impact loads during in-service use.
An impact needs to be considered like in the
civil transportation. It is of fundamental
importance to protect the impact resistance of
candidate materials. Under low-velocity impact
loading, the composite face sheet damage is
usually invisible to the naked eye and spreads
over a larger region inside the plate. A low-
velocity impact (1 – 10m/s) usually implies that
the impacted velocity is so low that the damage
can be analyzed as a structure under a quasi-
static loading.
Consider the special case of an interaction of
the system with its surroundings which is
carried out so slowly that remains arbitrarily
close to equilibrium at all times. Such a process
is said to be quasi-static for the system. In
practice, a quasi-static process must be carried
out on a time-scale which is much longer than
the relaxation time of the system. Recall that the
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relaxation time is the typical time-scale for the
system to return to equilibrium after being
suddenly disturbed.
In general there are three types of impact
machines used in experiments, namely: drop-
weight impact rig or free falling weight impact
rig, pendulum impactor and gas-gun impactor.
The impactor tester is useful to determine
some important design parameters like energy
to produce incipient damage, peak impact force,
energy perforation threshold and restitution
coefficient and also to study the effect that take
place when varying some testing specifications
as: sample geometry, material properties,
stacking sequence, boundary conditions, nose
impactor dimensions and weight and drop
height, among others.
Low-Velocity
The object which has falling only by gravity
in vertically downward called low-velocity. The
velocity can either increase or decreased by
varying the height of falling.
All other kinds of moving object either by
sudden load or projectile through gun these are
called High-velocity.
II. ASTM STANDARD
The Tester based on the standard of ASTM
D5628 - 96. According to the standard, the
basic requirements are as follows:
Machine
• Tup or dart
• Dead weight
• Self locking
• Guide path
• Rebound stopper
• Specimen holder
• Height adjustment
• Mass adjustment
Specimen
• Size as per recommendation
• Thickness varied 0.5mm with the
actual material going to use in
application.
Number of Trials
• 20 trials are enough to predict the
result for mean failure energy known.
• 30 trials are required predict the result
for mean failure energy unknown.
Tup Details
The Fig 1 shows the standard Tup or
Dart (Intender) recommended by the ASTM
standard.
Style – A

Style – B
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Style – C
Style – D
Style – E
Figure 1 Types of Dart
Table 1
Specimen dimension
Sl.
No.
Geometry
Specimen Dimensions in mm
(in)
Circular Rectangular
1 Style – A 89 (3.5) 89 X 89 (3.5 X 3.5)
2 Style – B 51 (2.0) 51 X 51 (2.0 X 2.0)
3 Style – C
140
(5.5)
140 X 140 (5.5 X
5.5)
4 Style – E 56 (2.3) 56 X 56 (2.3 X 2.3)
Table 2
Tup and Specimen holder Inner dimension
Sl.
No.
Geomet
ry
Dimensions in mm (in)
Tup
Specimen
Holder Inside
Diameter
1
Style –
A
15.86
(0.625)
78.0 (3.00)
2
Style –
B
12.7
(0.500)
38.1 (1.50)
3
Style –
C
38.1 (1.5) 127.0 (5.00)
4
Style –
E
20.0
(.787)
40.0 (1.57)
Terminology for Test Specimen
This test method covers the determination of
the relative ranking of materials according to
the energy required to crack or break flat, rigid
specimen under various specified conditions of
impact of a free falling dart (tup). To apply the
impact load following terminology
recommended by the ASTM standard. They are
Failure, Mean failure energy, Mean failure
Height and Mean failure Mass.
Failure
The presence of any crack or split, created by
the impact of the falling tup that can be seen by
the naked eye under normal laboratory lighting
conditions.
Mean Failure energy
The energy required to produce 50% failure,
equal to the product of the constant drop height
and the mean-failure mass or the product of the
constant mass and mean-failure height.
Mean failure height
The 50% of the failure cause on the test
specimen, the height at which a standard mass,
when dropped on test specimen from a standard
mass.
Mean failure mass
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The mass of the dart that, when dropped on
test specimens from a standard height, will
cause 50% failures on the test specimen.
Selection of Dart
The Style – A causes a moderate level of
stress concentrate and can be used for most
plastics. Style – B causes a greater stress
concentration and results in failure of tough or
thick specimens that do not fail with Style – C.
It is suitable for research and development
because of the smaller test area required. Style –
C the test condition are the same as those of test
method Style – A. They have been used in
specification for extruded sheeting. A limitation
of this geometry is that considerable material is
required.
It is not necessary to stick on the above
selection method, the dart selection somewhat
arbitrary also. While any one of the dart
geometries may be selected, knowledge of the
final or intended end-use application should be
considered.
III. FABRICATION
DETAILS
Need of the Tester
For research and laboratory use the machine
which is available in the market, even though it
will gives the entire data costly tester
incorporated with computer and sensors so that
the required information can retrieve easily.
Cost wise it was very high. The developed
tester was fully manual, no data extraction
provided. After making the impact on the
specimen, using the Scanning Acoustic
Microscopy SAM the damage (crack,
deformation, depth, area etc) were studied.
Specification
1. Overall Dimensions : 0.6 X 0.91 X 3.1 m
2. Velocity Range : 1.98 – 6.26 m/s
3. Energy Level : 2.35 – 39.18 J
Major Components:
1. Free-falling Weight
2. Guide Pipe
3. Pillar
4. Table
5. Specimen Holder
Free Falling Weight (FFW)
The hold the tup in position the dead weight
was used. The dead weight was called as
Weight, falling of weight by gravity force. So
the weight was called as Free Falling Weight
(FFW). The material used was Mild steel. It has
the provision of one end to hold the tup and the
opposite end provided with holding to the slider
bed.
Guide Pipe (GP)
To ensure the free-falling weight hit on the
specimen in the specified place the GP has
provided. No provision provided to avoid the
bouncing of the free-falling weight. To hold
(hanging) the FFW to the SB the FFW was tied
with the metal wire. The metal wire’s other end
tied with the drum. By rotating the drum FFW
was automatically raised to the SB by the
plunger mechanism it was automatically locked
in position. Fig. 2 shows the assembly of FFW
and Plunger. For free-falling the plunger was
pulled suddenly the FFW free fall through the
GP and hit the specimen surface.
Figure 2 Tup FFW and Plunger Assembly
Slider Bed (SB)
To adjust the free-falling weight in different
heights the FFW has attached to the slider bed.
The SB attached to the pillar. To move the SB
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up and down (to the required height) the metal
wire with drum was provided.
Table
The table must with stand the entire load as
well as the weight. That was taken in account
the table was constructed. It has a hollow box.
With door provided to accommodate all the
accessories. The bottoms of the table to leveling
bolts are provided. Top of the table SH, pillar,
GP were mounted. Inside the box all driving
mechanism were incorporated.
Specimen Holder (SH)
Specimen holder assembly shown in Fig 3 As
per standard each tup the specimen dimensions
are varied. The SH which is the large in
dimension permanently mounted on the tester
table. The remaining all the specimen holders
are kept as accessories. Depends upon the
requirement the other specimen holder can
directly attached to the SH.
For easy clamping and unclamping between
the top and bottom specimen holder pen coil
helical spring was attached. It serves two
purposes namely: top plate entire load cannot
transfer to the specimen, while unclamping the
top plate move upward automatically without
any external load.
For ensure the accessories top specimen
holders the locaters are provided.
Figure 3 Specimen Holder
IV. PROCEDURE
1. Specimen preparation
From the raw material, to be use in the
application the standard size of required
number should be make it ready.
2. Calculate the mean failure of the specimen
to decide the no. of specimen to be test.
3. Selection of trials
When the approximate mean failure for a
given sample is known, 20 specimens will
usually yield sufficiently precise results. If
not 30 specimens must be selected.
4. Selection of tup or intender
The intender or tup selection depends upon
the application.
5. Selection of specimen holder.
Depends upon the tup selection the
appropriate specimen holder must be
selected.
6. Calculation of energy level
Energy level = mgh J (Nm)
m=mass of the FFW (kg)
g=9.81m/s
2
h=SB from the specimen top surface (m)
7. The energy level can be adjusted by
changing the mass, to change the velocity
the falling height should be adjusted.
8. Mark the details on the specimen.
9. Insert the specimen into the specimen
holder, tighten by the wing nut.
10. Release the plunger by pulling the wire.
11. Raise the FFW in its position by rotating the
drum until the FFW locked by the plunger.
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12. Remove the specimen from the SH and
insert the next specimen.
13. Repeat the step 6 to 9.
V. CONCLUSION
The present fabricated tester itself by varying
the guide pipe diameter and the free falling
weight the energy level can be increased.
Using the fabricated tester impact load
applied to the specimen, the top surface
damages are absorbed by naked eye.
The internal damages are inspecting by the
Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM).
VI. SCOPE
In present condition of the tester was fully
manual. Do not have any data extraction. By
retrofitting the tester can be modified into the
following ways
• Data extraction.
• Increasing of Velocity.
• Increasing of Energy level
• Etc.
REFERENCES
[1] ASTM D5628-99 ‘Standard Test Method
for Impact Resistance of Flat, Rigid Plastic
Specimens by Means of a Falling Dart (Tup
or Falling Mass)” American society for
testing and materials.
[2] Ramin Hosseinzadeh etal, “Damage
behavior of fiber reinforced composite
plates subjected to drop weight impacts”,
Composites Science and Technology 66
(2006) 61–68
[3] Othman R and Barton D.C. (2007) ‘Failure
initiation and propagation characteristics of
honeycomb sandwich composites’ Journal
of Composite Structures.
[4] Richardson M.O.W. and Wisheart M.J.,
(1996) ‘Review of low-velocity impact
properties of composite materials’, Comp
Part A 27, pp. 1123–1131.
[5] Tomasz Lendze, Rafał Wojtyra, Laurent
Guillaumat, Christine Biateau’ (2006) ‘Low
Velocity Impact Damage In Glass/Polyester
Composite Sandwich Panels’ Advances In
Materials Science, Vol. 6, No. 1 (9).
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Computer Aided Design of Geneva Mechanism for Shoulder Joint Motion
Raghvendra Mohan Bhargava
SRM University/Department of Mechanical, Chennai- 603203, Tamilnadu, India.
raghvendra.bhargava@gmail.com
Abstract
This paper focuses on the design of
an exoskeleton mechanism for the lateral
and frontal abduction. of the human upper
limb. It also gives a side motion of human
arm. Major consideration was placed on
the location of center of rotation of the
humerus with respect to the scapula. Here
the motion of the center of rotation of the
shoulder joint with arm motion is obtained
using a Geneva mechanism. This design
has a two-degree of freedom. In this
mechanism four bar mechanism with
Geneva mechanism is used so this is also
kind of hybrid mechanism. In this project
the main difficulty and time consuming
process is modeling of Geneva mechanism.
So for help in the modeling of this
mechanism a visual basic programming
language is used and creating 3D model
with in solidworks environment. It is
expected that the mechanism under
development will help people suffering
from muscle atrophy or to accelerate
injured people recovery.
Keywords: Geneva mechanism, hybrid
mechanism, glenohumeral joint,
solidworks
I INTRODUCTION
Progress   in   robotics   and 
mechatronics, new lightweight and strong 
materials and more capable and efficient 
actuators   give   a   new   thrust   to   the 
proliferation of exoskeleton. Such devices 
are mechanisms designed to be mount on 
a person's body, capable of following the 
person's  motions  and  of  applying  forces 
or torques on him or her.
In   the   non   technical   area   of 
applications,   exoskeleton   are   becoming 
important   in   assisting   elderly   or 
physically weak people function without 
help,   in  rehabilitating  people  injured  in 
accidents  or   in  war,   and  in  temporarily 
supporting people suffering form muscle 
atrophy.   In  the  cases  of   muscle  atrophy 
especially,   such   a   device   can   be   used 
together with physical therapy in order to 
accelerate the recovery process.
Among   the   human   joint,   the 
shoulder   joint   is   an   important   one,   as 
many human motions require its use .On 
the  other   hand,   this  joint   is  one  of   the 
most   complex,   and  therefore  the  design 
of   exoskeleton   device   for   the   shoulder 
joint   is   quite   involved.Human   arm 
shoulder has 7 degree of freedom. Many 
of the mechanisms are already made but 
they  do  not   include   the   motion  of   the 
center   of   rotation  of   the  humerus   with 
respect to the scapula.
Ref. [1] In the case of lateral and frontal 
abduction of the human  upper limb two 
mechanisms is famous
1.  MB  exoskeleton  mechanism  for   U.S. 
Air Force
  2.  MULOS   (motorized   upper   limb 
orthotic     system)
Ref.   [1]   in   these   mechanisms   they 
preferred the motion of the hand not the 
center   of   rotation   motion   so   only   the 
motion can be painful.
The   design   of   this   exoskeleton 
mechanism  aims   to   follow  the   human 
movement of the humerus with respect to 
the   scapula.   Kazuo­kiguchi   and   his 
associates  provide  some  information  on 
the motion of center of rotation.
In  this  exoskeleton  mechanism  two 
parts   are   important   first   Geneva 
mechanism and Four­bar mechanismSo it 
is   a   combination   of   the   Geneva 
mechanism and four­bar mechanism so it 
is known as a Hybrid mechanism.
A. Center Of Rotation
Ref.   [3][1]   In  Fig.1  a  human  body  at   a 
shoulder   joint   we  get   the  two  center  of 
rotation   of   the   humerus   head   rotation 
with respect to the scapula. The distance 
between these  centers  of  rotation should 
be 3 to 4 mm. The side hand motion up to 
30°  will   move   with   respect   to   CR1 
(center of rotation 1) then till 60°  it will 
shift to CR2 (center of rotation 2). At last 
the side hand motion will go up to 180°.
Figure 1 center of Rotation
B. Geneva Mechanism
Ref. [2] Geneva mechanism is a type of a 
intermittent   motion   mechanism.   When 
holding   of   position   become   necessary 
then we use the Geneva mechanism. The 
name Geneva mechanism originated from 
the country Geneva. This mechanism was 
used   in   mechanical   watch   and   clock 
movement   in  the  days  when  mechanical 
movement   were   dominant,   and 
Switzerland was  the  world center  of the 
industry.   Geneva  mechanism  is   used  in 
this   hybrid   mechanism   due   to   its 
intermittent   motion   nature.   In   Geneva 
mechanism two parts are main important. 
Star   wheel   is   a  wheel   with  number   of 
slots. The numbers of slots generally vary 
three   to   eight.  Crank   wheel   is   simple 
wheel on which a pin becomes project.
II. WORKING OF GENEVA 
MECHANISM
In  Geneva  mechanism  crank  wheel 
and   Geneva   wheel   are   placed   at 
calculated distance. Crank wheel get the 
rotary  motion  and  its  pin  enters   in  the 
Geneva wheel tangentially. The motion of 
Geneva  and  crank  wheel   will   be  in  the 
different direction.
III.PRESENT WORK
It is felt that the time has come for 
the   calculator   to   be   replaced   by   the 
computer.   In  these  days   in  the  field  of 
mechanical   for   modeling   to   simulation 
the   CAD/CAM   tools   do   analysis   and 
other process. In present time in the field 
of   medical   science   there   are   lot   of 
instrument   and  machines,   are   made   by 
the CAM/CAM tools. In this project the 
mechanism   modeling,   cad   tools   do 
assembly   and   simulation   mainly.   The 
present   work  of   modeling  the  parts  for 
project exoskeleton mechanism, assembly 
of  the  part   of  mechanism,   simulation  is 
done   with  programming  tools  Visual 
Basic   6.0  and  modeling  part   of 
mechanism,   simulation   is   done   with 
programming  tools  Visual Basic 6.0 and 
modeling   tool  solidworks   2005  for 
modeling, assembly and simulation.
IV.MODELING OF THE MECHANISM 
PART
In   this   mechanism   three   parts   are 
important   for   the  limb  and  arm  motion 
Geneva   Mechanism  Connecting   Links, 
Hand Cover.
A   Modeling   of   Geneva 
Mechanism
In Fig.2 Geneva mechanism two parts are 
modeled 
Crank wheel
Geneva wheel or Star wheel 
B. Modeling of Crank Wheel 
In  Fig.   3  There  are  four   inputs  for   the 
crank wheel
Crank radius
Crank depth
Pin distance
Pin depth.
C. Modeling of Geneva or Star Wheel 
In Fig. 4 Inputs for the Geneva wheel
Crank wheel radius
Crank wheel depth
Pin radius
Number of slots
Angle between the slots
Figure 2. Geneva Mechanism Parts
Figure 3. Crank wheel Inputs
Figure 4. Star/Geneva Wheel inputs
V.ASSEMBLY AND SIMULATION OF 
MECHANISM
For assembly we have to retract the 
save   models   in   solidworks   modeling 
software  in  assembly  environment.   The 
entire   model   as   Geneva   wheel,   crank 
wheel,   and hand  cover,   connecting  links 
will   be   assembled.   It   got   the   suitable 
constraints to get the desire motion.
Simulation  is  only  possible  in  assembly 
mode. For simulation we have to consider 
the main points
Check   all   the   constraints   if   there 
will  be  an  error  then  simulation  will  be 
fail.
Mechanism   part   should   not   be 
interacted   to   each   other   otherwise 
simulation will not be started.
For   simulation   option   chooses 
clockwise  direction  for   the  crank  wheel 
to  shift the  center of rotation  of  limb in 
upper side for lower motion chooses vice 
versa.
Take   the   short   time   step   in 
simulation to see the small changes at the 
time of motion of mechanism
Choose   only   crank  wheel   rotation 
for simulation because in actual condition 
crank  wheel  is  rotated  by  motor.   To  see 
the  upper  and  down  motion  of  the  limb 
the   reciprocator   option   is   needed   in 
animation controller
To see the simulation replay option 
is needed
There  should  be  no  mates  error   at 
the   time   of   simulation   otherwise   in 
software, simulation will be possible but 
in real it will not be possible
First   complete   the   assembly   then 
only try a simulation.
VI. WEAKNESS IN PRESENT 
EQUIPMENT FOR SHOULDER 
MOTION 
The  main  weakness  of  the  existing 
equipment and mechanism are as
1. They are not considering the center of 
rotation   motion   of   Humerus   with 
respect   to  the   scapula.   If   center   of 
rotation will not be considered then in 
upper   arm  lower   side   of   the   hand 
Muscle pain will occur.
2. In  present   method  they  are  giving  a 
direct   motion  to  hand  some  time  it 
can be shock full so it can be painful.
3. The   complex   part   takes   time   for 
modeling   as   in   this   kind   of 
mechanism. Modeling of the Geneva 
mechanism is time consuming.
VII. FLOWCHART FOR MODELLING
VIII. COMPARISON BETWEEN MECHANISMS
  
IX. ASSEMBLY OF MAIN 
MODEL
Figure 5. Main Model
CONCLUSION
The  developed  mechanism  is  well   suited 
to  help people are  suffering from  muscle 
atrophy  especially,   such  a  device  can  be 
used   together   with   physical   therapy   in 
order   to  accelerate  the  recovery  process. 
In  present  time  many  existing  equipment 
does not have a property to shift the center 
of rotation of limb. They directly give the 
side arm motion. This kind of mechanism 
is very useful for side arm motion without 
pain   because   it   gives   a   step­by­step 
motion.   This   is   a   type   of   hybrid 
mechanism.   In   this   hybrid   mechanism 
Geneva   mechanism  is   the   main  part   to 
give step­by­step motion. The modeling of 
Geneva   mechanism   is   programmed   by 
programming   tool   of   visual   basic   6.0 
interfacing   with   the   modeling   software 
solidworks   2005.The   simulation   this 
mechanism  is   also   done   by   solidworks 
software   in   assembly   mode.   By   this 
interfacing  we  can  save  time  and  reduce 
Existing Mechanism New   Hybrid 
Mechanism
Many   of   the 
mechanism   do   not 
include   the   motion 
of center of rotation.
Evangelos, 
Papadopoulos   and 
Georgios Patsianis 's 
mechanism  they  are 
using   a   pulley   to 
give a arm motion.
Some   time   the 
motion   of   this 
mechanism   can   be 
painful  for  suffering 
people.
This   mechanism 
main   deal   with 
motion   of   center 
of   rotation   and 
step­by­step   arm 
motion.
No  use  of   pulley 
for arm motion
No   chance   for 
pain   because 
there is a step­by­
step   motion.   It 
will   be   slow   in 
motion
the complexity of Geneva mechanism. So 
it   is   a   combination   of   the   Geneva 
mechanism and four bar mechanism so it 
is known as a Hybrid mechanism.
REFERENCES
[1]   Evangelos   Papadopoulos   and 
Georgios   Patsianis   (2007)‘Design   of 
Mechanism   for   the   Shoulder   Joint’ 
Nation   Technical   university,   Athens, 
Greece.
[2]   Varadarajan   Vidya,   Palani 
Kumaresan   (2000),   ‘Design   of   a 
Micromachined  Geneva  Wheel  as  a 
Mechanism  to   Obtain   Intermittent 
Motion   from  a   Contantly   Rotating 
Source’,   University   of   California, 
Berkeley
[3] E.J.McCormick, Ed., ‘Human Factor 
Engineering’,   3rd
  ed
.   New   York: 
McGraw­Hill, 1970.
[4]   Kazuo  Kiguchi   Toshio  Fuduka,   ‘a 
3dof   Exoskeleton   for   Upper   Limb 
Motion Assist – Consideration of the 
Effect   of   Bi­   Articular   Muscles’, 
Proceedings   of   IEEE  International 
Conferenceon   Robotics   and 
Automation,New Orleans.
Computer Aided Design of Spur Gear Train
Babitha Kalla, MTech 2
nd
Yr CAD
School of Mechanical Engineering
SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Email Id: babi.smile@gmail.com
Abstract
This Study presents a new
method of how the Spur Gear Train
can be designed and detailed with
Computer Aided Design. The project
involves automated design of Spur
Gear in Solidworks and Visual Basic.
It creates 3D model of the gear easily
when a designer inputs data such as
power transmission, speeds of driving
and driven shafts, center distance
between two gear shafts, pressure
angle, factor of safety. The design
process is carried out by visual basic.
This work results in effective usage of
computer graphics and provides
substantial saving in time and cost of
production and even a beginner can
use with ease.
Keywords: Spur Gear,Design,
Solidworks, Visual Basic 6.0.
I. INTRODUCTION
Computer Aided Design is the use
of computer systems to assist in the
creation, modification, analysis,
optimization, storing and
communication of design information.
The CAD system allows design
modifications to be performed easily
and sufficiently. The analysis and
optimization phases of the design are
easily and accurately performed by the
computer while the designers find these
tasks consuming and tedious without
the use of computer.
The use of computers and the
development of Computer Aided
Design techniques have resulted in
significant reductions in design project
costs, working hours, inconsistencies
and mistakes. The introduction of CAD
to engineering design has yielded
economic bebefits. CAD system can
increase productivity in the drafting
function by roughly five times over
manual drafting. [Reference 4].
Computer Aided Design is
becoming increasingly important today,
the analysis and design procedure for
quite a number of machine parts are
standardized which make it possible to
use standard computer programs.
Jain (2001) defined the term gear
system as a power transmission element
commonly used to transmit power or
rotary motion from one shaft to
another.Gears are machine elements that
transmit motion by means of successively
engaging teeth. It is toothed wheel or
cylinder used to transmit rotary or
reciprocating motion from one part of a
machine to another. Gears are used in
cutting machine tools, automobiles,
tractors, hoisting and modern power
transmission requirements for greater
loads and higher speeds have demanded
improvements in tooth form, cutting
methods, materials. It is obvious that the
strength of gear teeth has to improve to
meet increased loads, this is a design
problem, which will be dealtwith as
Computer Aided Design software is
introduced to the design process of a gear
system.
The study is aimed at designing
interactive computer graphic system
software which results in the following
advantages:
• Generate data for use in design
process
• Produce accurate and efficient
design model as a result of
interactive computer graphics.
• Provide substantial saving in
time and cost of production.
• User friendly software.
SOLIDWORKS
SolidWorks is a 3D mechanical
CAD program developed by
SolidWorks Corporation. It is currently
one of the most popular products in the
3D mechanical CAD market.
SolidWorks is a parasolid-based
solid modeler, and utilizes a parametric
feature-based approach to create
models and assemblies. Parameters
refer to constraints whose values
determine the shape or geometry of the
model or assembly. Parameters can be
either numeric parameters, such as line
lengths or circle diameters, or
geometric parameters, such as tangent,
parallel, concentric, horizontal or
vertical, etc. Numeric parameters can
be associated with each other through
the use of a relation, which allows them
to capture design intent.
SolidWorks also includes an
Application Programming Interface
(API) for macro and third party
development.

III. VISUAL BASIC
Visual Basic is the third-generation
event-driven programming language and
integrated development environment
from Microsoft for its COM
programming model. Visual Basic is
considerably a relatively easy to learn
and use programming language, because
of its graphical development features and
BASIC heritage.
A programmer can put together an
application using the components
provided with Visual Basic itself.
Programs written in Visual Basic can also
ude the Windows API, but doing so
requires external function declarations.
IV. OVERVIEW OF STUDY
The design calculations are done in
Visual Basic.The database of material,
lewis factor, accuracy grade are stored in
Microsoft Excel.
The gear nomenclature variable is passed
to the SolidWorks for Spur Gear train
model generation.
The Figure1 of Flowchart represents
basic steps involved in designing and
modeling of Spur Gear train in
Solidworks using Visual Basic.
V. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
1. Design of Spur Gear Nomenclature in
VB
The software execution is explained
considering the following example:
a. Center distance between gear
shafts = 1000mm
b. Pinion speed = 250 rpm
c. Gear speed= 1000 rpm
d. Selection of material = C40
e. Power = 7.5KW
f. Service factor = 1.5
g. Selection of Grade = 10
h. Factor of Safety = 2
Enter the data in form 1 as shown in Fig 2.
Fig 2 : Visual Basic Window for Input Parametrs Fig3: Visual Basic form displaying Output
parameters
The set of instruction in Visual
Basic allows you to enter the input data,
process it and then display the data as in
Fig 3.
2. Creation of Geometric Model of Spur
Gear Train in Solidworks
After obtaining the nomenclature,
the output data are interlinked with
solidworks for creation Spur Gear train as
shown in Figure 4. And the model is
created automatically, when the user
clicks on output form. The model is
automatically saved in the default folder
created.
Fig 4: Geometric Model of Spur Gear Train in
Solidworks
VI. CONCLUSION
This system permits proper
communication/interface with users
(user-friendliness) having a common
input and output language familiar to
them. It generates accurate data used in
design process.It generates precise Spur
Gear Train model for visualization. It
also store information which can be used
later.
Conclusively, it was observed that the
system developed will successfully
decrease the designing and modeling
time.
REFERENCES
[1] J. Argyris, M. De Donno, F.L. Litvin
(June 1999) “Computer program in
Visual Baisc language for simulation of
meshing and contact of gear drives and
its application for design of worm gear
drive” The University of Illinois at
Chicago, USA.
[2] V.B.Bhandari “Design of Machine
Elements”, Text Book.
[3] PSG Design Data Book.
[4] Farag, M.M., 987, Materials and
manufacturing Processes for Engineering
Design. Prentice Hall Publishers,
London, pp: 316-319.
[5] R.S.Kurmi, “Theory of Machines”
[6] Jain R.K, 2001, Production
Technology, Khanna Publishers, Nai
Sarak, Delhi, India.
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AIR GAP INSULATED PISTON
First A, S.M.LAKSHMIGANTHAN
1
, Second B, K.RAMANATHAN
2
1
A.C COLLEGE OF ENNG AND TECH/ DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL (Computer Aided Design),
KARAIKUDI, TAMILNADU.
sml.automobile@gmail.com
2
A.C COLLEGE OF ENNG AND TECH/ DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL, KARAIKUDI,
TAMILNADU.
ABSTRACT
The low heat-rejection engines(LHR
engines)has been given considerable
attention recently as engine builders
struggle to find remaining avenues to
improve economy and lower emissions. The
concept of air gap insulated piston has been
explored by using bolted type piston. The
bolted air gap insulated piston provides
complete sealing of air gap necessary for
continued insulation. The design evolved
provides high insulation combining
adequate durability. In order to provide
high insulation and reliability, proper
designing of the air gap piston has to be
ensured. The piston with air gap of various
gap thicknesses are designed with two
different materials. The performance of the
piston is studied through ansys.The
performance study includes thermal stress
analysis and structural analysis on
aluminum and stainless steel piston crown.
Air gap insulated piston designed for
reduced heat loss was evaluated by
examining its influence on the coolant heat
rejection, engine performance and exhaust
emissions of single cylinder direct injection
diesel engine. At 1500 RPM engine speed,
use of the low-heat rejection (LHR) piston
resulted in a reduction in total coolant heat
rejection ranging, reduction in
hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide
emissions in an increase in oxides of
nitrogen and smoke. It was estimated that
lhr piston design reduced the piston crown
surface heat transfer. The insulation
provides betterment in fuel consumption at
normal operating condition than a
conventional piston. This is because of the
reduction in delay period in diesel injection
engine. Shortened delay period tends to
reduce the emission levels of HC and CO.
The combustion rate is increased because
of insulation and hence there is reduced
vibration and noise level.
INTRODUCTION
The subject of low heat-rejection
engines has been given considerable attention
recently as engines builders struggle to find
remaining avenues to improve economy and
lower emission. Cooling an engine is a
“necessary evil” which designer would gladly
forego if it were possible. But local hot spots,
high cost of materials able to survive at
elevated temperatures, and lubrication
problems generally have prevented
elimination of the cooling system. Beyond the
complication of a cooling system, there is the
knowledge that is sizable fraction of the
energy input to the engine is simply being
thrown away. In today fuel economy
conscious setting it is natural that ways are
being sought to affect a double benefit in
which cooling system can be dispensed with
and at the same time more of the input energy
put to work. Of the individual surface areas of
the combustion chamber of an engine, the
piston offers an attractive area for insulation
because a large portion of the total
combustion chamber surface heat transfer
occurs through this area. The study from
earlier research on the engine says about 50%
of heat rejection occurs in the liner cooling
zone to which the largest contributor is the
piston. Air gap insulated piston is generally
used in diesel engines to keep the combustion
chamber at optimum high temperature. The
air gap in between piston crown and piston
body has low thermal conductivity. Due to
this the temperature in the piston crown is
high when compared to conventional piston.
Due to this surface temperature of the
combustion chamber is very high the inducted
into the combustion chamber is rapidly
exposed to high temperature and it is more
than the conventional piston. When the air is
induced to the combustion chamber its
temperature is raised because of the average
temperature of the combustion chamber is
raised. Due to this the fuel which is injected
in to the combustion chamber attains the self
ignition temperature quickly and so the
combustion occurs smoothly. The pressure
rise in the uncontrolled combustion is very
less and the maximum temperature of the
cycle is comparatively less. The complete
burning of fuel occurs smoothly in the
controlled phase. Some of the merits by using
air gap insulated piston are
Reduced Of Delay Period:
Due to the average temperature in
combustion chamber increases the air
temperature which is inducted into the
chamber also increases which helps the fuel
to attain self ignition temperature quickly and
mixes air readily and atomized easily.
Reducing the Emission:
As we know that if the delay period is
lowered the complete combustion occurs
smoothly which results in reduction of
emission. The overall combustion is
dominated by the controlled phases for
combustion. the premixed combustion
resulting from the shorter delay period lower
the CO,HC and smoke emission and even
reduces the particulates emissions.
Reduction In Noise Level:
It is clear that the overall combustion
is dominated by the controlled phases of
combustion. So the abnormal pressure rise
due to uncontrolled combustion is minimized
and the knocking is reduced. This helps
engine to run smoothly without noise.
Fuels With Higher Viscosity Can Be Used:
The air inducted during the suction
stroke is exposed to the walls of the
combustion chamber. This raises the air
temperature that helps the atomization and
mixing fuels. so, the fuels with high viscosity
can also be used.
Increase in Thermal Efficiency:
The conduction through the piston is
desirably reduced. This increases the thermal
efficiency of the cycle. Two materials are
used in the piston crown one is aluminum and
other one is stainless steel. This piston model
which was created using pro/e and it is
exported from pro/e to ansys with the
extensions of iges.then the piston are analyzed
for both structural and thermal analysis.
Based on the result the specified air gap
insulated piston was machined and tested in
the engine. By comparing the performance
and emission result of both conventional and
air gap insulated piston the result was
concluded.
Modeling of piston
The three dimensional piston is to be
modeling by using the software of pro-e
wildfire 3.0.the piston is to be model in both
conventional piston and air gap insulated
piston. The both section of piston using 2D
and 3D modeling .after modeling of the piston
is converting in to IGES format is to be
supported by using analyzing software.
Fig.1 conventional piston
Fig.2 Air gap insulated piston
Introduction to Ansys
The ansys program has many finite
element analysis capabilities, ranging from a
simple, linear, static analysis to a complex,
nonlinear, transient dynamic analysis.
A typical ansys analysis has three distinct
steps:
1. Build the model.
2. Apply loads and obtain the solution.
3. Review the result.
This type of analysis was done by using the
Coupled Field Analysis.
The ansys workbench 10.0 is used to
solve the problem both structural and thermal
analysis are find to compare the various result
on conventional and air gap insulated piston.
Type of processing was given below
1. Element type –solid 70 have been
created.
2. Material properties-structural(linear)
3. Meshing-global mesh
4. Solution-von-misses stress, heat
conduction
5. Post processer-plot the result.
6.
Input data
Aluminum material
a. Density=2.7x10
3
Kg/m
3
b. Modulus of elasticity=90x10
9
Pa
c. Poisson ratio=0.33
d. Thermal conductivity=190W/m K
Stainless steel material
a. Density=7.8x10
3
Kg/m
3
b. Modulus of elasticity=200x10
9
Pa
c. Poisson ratio=0.25
d. Thermal conductivity=55W/m K
Load input
a. Air temperature above the piston
crown=1173⁰K
b. Wall temperature of the piston=673⁰K
c. Pressure on upper part of
piston=88x10
5
Pa
Fig.3 conventional piston

Fig.4 Air gap insulated piston
s.no
rpm
L
oad
kg
Time
taken for
(10 cc)
of fuel
consum
ption sec
Torque
(t)nm
Brake
powe
r (bp)
kw
Total
fuel
consu
mption
(tfc)kg
/hr
Brake
specific
fuel
consump
tion
(bsfc)kg/
kw-hr
Brake
mean
effective
pressure
(bmep)
kpa
Brake
Thermal
efficiency
bte %
Exhaust
temperatu
re c
1
1
550
0 59 0 0 0.5369 0 0 182
2
1
500
3 53 4.44 0.697 0.5977 0.8575 83.34 9.54 226
3
1
500
6 49 8.89 1.396 0.6465 0.4631 166.92 17.66 260
4
1
500
9 45 13.34 2.095 0.7040 0.3360 250.51 24.34 290
5
1
500
12 41 17.80 2.796 0.7720 0.2761 334.33 29.63 315
Table 1 performance reading for conventional piston
s.no
Load(kg
)
Co
emission
%
Hc
emission(ppm)
No
emission(ppm)
Smoke
%
1 0 0.24 2797 77 2
2 3 0.18 2451 170 1
3 6 0.18 2310 236 1
4 9 0.15 2113 282 3
5 12 0.13 1995 322 4
Table 2 emission reading for conventional piston
s.no rpm
L
oad
kg
Time
taken
for (10
cc) of
fuel
consum
ption
sec
Torque
(t)nm
Brake
powe
r (bp)
kw
Total
fuel
consup
tion(tf
c)kg/h
r
Brake
specific
fuel
consupt
ion
(bsfc)k
g/kw-hr
Brake
mean
effective
pressure
(bmep)
kpa
Brake
Thermal
efficiency
bte %
Exhaust
temperat
ure c
1
1
550
0 66 0 0 0.48 0 0 168
2
1
500
3 58 4.44 0.697 0.5462 0.7832 83.34 10.44 207
3
1
500
6 53 8.89 1.396 0.5977 0.4281 166.92 19.10 242
4
1
500
9 49 13.34 2.095 0.6405 0.3057 250.51 26.51 272
5
1
500
12 44 17.80 2.796 0.72 0.2575 334.33 31.77 306
Table 3 performance reading for air gap insulated piston
s.no Load(kg) Co emission % Hc emission(ppm) No emission(ppm) Smoke %
1 0 0.08 1964 153 5
2 3 0.08 1975 227 2
3 6 0.07 1998 279 2
4 9 0.07 1975 305 2
5 12 0.08 1941 321 2
Table 4 emission reading for air gap insulated piston
Conclusion
The thermal analysis on air gap piston
shows, that the temperature is maintained
high above the crown with very less amount
of heat getting transmitted down than a
conventional piston.futher analysis using
ansys software shows that by changing the
material of piston crown will increases the
insulation property of the air gap. The average
temperature of the combustion chamber is
raised by 35.97% for stainless steel 32.09%
for aluminum piston based on the software
result than the conventional piston. the
structural analysis on air gap insulated piston
is compared with the conventional piston and
the result are satisfactory. even though the
deviation is less it increases the rigidity of the
piston structure. An optimum air gap
thickness has been designed for maximum
insulation without sacrificing the structural
rigidity.
Replacing the standard aluminum piston
with an air-gap insulated stainless steel piston
utilizing the following effects relative to the
standard pistons.
1. Lower bSFC
2. Increase in brake thermal efficiency
about 2.86%
3. Reduction in hydrocarbon (HC),
carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke
emissions.
4. Increases in the oxides of nitrogen
(NO) emissions.
5. Increase in work output for same heat
input.
6. Increase in work conversion of 0.7
KW for same heat input.
7. Higher exhaust temperature for same
heat input.
The future work of the project as follows
1. A plasma sprayed coating has to be
carried in cylinder head, valve and on
the top of the air gap insulated piston.
2. Welded and roll bonded air gap piston
has to be achieved for overcoming a
problems of using bolted piston.
3. Providing a piston crown material
having a suitably low coefficient of
expansions, combined with adequate
hot strength to resist the high
temperature created by the air gap
insulation.
4. To reduce the shear stress due to
expansions arising from the inevitable
temperature differences, the deep air
gap was introduced and is progressing
satisfactorily through its development
programme.
5. Different blended fuel has to be used
which will improve the performance
and emission characteristics.
6. References
7. 1.Beg.R.A,P.K.bose,jadavpur
university and
B.B.ghoshi,T.Kr.banerjee and
A.Kr.ghosh,IIT
kharagpur(1997)”EXPERIMENTAL
INVESTIGATION ON SOME
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
OF A DIESEL ENGINE USING
CERAMIC COATING ON THE TOP
OF THE PISTON”SAE-970207
8. 2. R.M.Cole and A.C.akildas
(1985),”EVALUATION OF AIR GAP
INSULATED PISTON IN A
DIVIDED CHAMBER DIESEL
ENGINE”.SAE-850359
9. 3.Dale R.Tree,Daniel C.Oren,Thomas
M.yonushonis and Paul
D.Wiezynski(1996),”Experimental
Measurements On The effects of
insulated pistons on engine
performances and heat transfer”SAE-
960317
10. 4.You Zhang Shanghai Jiao tong
university,Young Zhang and Bin
Gao(1998),”Structural Design And
Fea Of LHR Piston For Vehicle
Engines”.Sae-981488
11. 5. Sastri Y.B. and Kumarasekaran
(1994),”Thermal Stress Analysis of A
Novel Air Gap Insulated Piston”.SAE-
941069
12. 6. Melvin Woods, Paul Glance and
Ernest Schwarz (1990),”Advanced
Insulated Titanium Piston for
Adiabatic Engine”.SAE-900623
13. 7. Michael Winship and William
J.morgan (1993),”piston designs for
the 90’S”.SAE-930273
14. 8. D.A.Parker and G.M.Donnison
(1987),”Development of air gap
insulated piston”.SAE-870652
15. 9. Shoran.R.Frisch, Cummins engine
co (1988)”Analysis of a heavy duty
diesel piston including material, Air
gap and thermal Barrier Coating
Effects”.SAE-880671
16. 10. Venhash.A and C.Chen, university
of Warwick (1995)”stress Analysis
and Design optimization of carbon
piston”.SAE-950935
17. 11. Design Data Book-P.S.G
Technology.
18. 12. Carl.T.F.Ross”Advanced applied
Finite Element Methods”, Horwood
publishing, Chichester in 1998
19. 13. Automotive Hand book, 5
th
edition, MICO BOSCH, SAE -2000
20. 14. K.K.Ramalingam, Internal
Combustion Engines, SCI Tech
Publications (India) PT.Ltd.
AUTOMATED MANUAL TRANSMISSION IN TWO WHEELER
K.R.Rajkumar
Dr.S.Chandrasekaran
Department of Automobile Engineering,
MIT Campus,
Anna University-Chennai.
ABSTRACT
The existing two wheelers use
manual gear shifting in which the shifting
of gears is by means of foot movements. In
this project the manual gear shifting two-
wheeler is used which requires gear
shifting using foot movements. This two
wheeler gear shifting is automated by using
a motor.
In this project, we have used a
motor, which is mechanically linked to the
gear box. The motor is controlled by touch
of a micro switch. Motor rotates in both
clockwise and anticlockwise directions
enabling down stroke of gear shifting lever
or upstroke of gear shifting lever.
The main core idea behind the
automated manual transmission in two
wheelers is to help physically challenged
persons with a better fuel efficient vehicle,
which is achieved by fitting fuel efficient
engine with manual transmission having
automated gear shifting.
For this project, motor is selected by
suitable calculations of torque requirement
for gear shifting lever. The project was
practically made and all gear shifting
operations was checked and total system
succeeded in operation.
INTRODUCTION
The feeling of freedom and being one
with the nature comes only from riding a two
wheeler. Indians prefer the two wheelers
because of their small manageable size, low
maintenance, and pricing. Indians streets are
full of people of all age groups riding a two
wheeler.
The existing two wheelers use manual
gear shifting in which the shifting of gears is
by means of foot movements. in this project
the manual gear shifting two wheeler is used
which requires gear shifting using foot
movements . This two wheeler gear shifting is
automated by using a motor.
In this project we have used a motor
which is mechanically linked to the gear box
the motor is controlled by a touch of a micro
switch .motor rotates in both clockwise and in
anticlockwise directions enabling down
stroke of gear shifting lever or up stroke of
gear shifting lever.
The two micro switches are arranged
one below the other near right hand side of
the bike handle bar. The upper micros switch
turns the gear shifting lever in anticlockwise
direction and the bottom micro switch turns
the gear shifting lever in clockwise direction.
The main core idea behind the
automated manual transmission in two
wheeler is to help physically challenged
persons with a better fuel efficient vehicle,
which is achieved by fitting fuel efficient
engine with manual transmission having
automated gear shifting.
The project uses a 4 a.h battery for the
power requirement. Motor is controlled by the
use of 4 no s of relays used in pairs of two as
a combination.
In this project the motor is selected by
suitable calculations of torque requirement for
gear shifting lever by manual force and the
motor mounting bracket is designed based on
the forces developed during clockwise and
anti clockwise rotation of the motor occurring
during up gearing and down gearing
respectively .
General arrangement
The motor shaft axis is parallel to the
gear box gear shifting shaft. Here the L.H foot
rest is shifted towards rear to accommodate
the motor space. The footrest is bent to an
angle of 28 degrees it is shown in fig. The
motor is mounted in the mounting bracket
which is welded to the footrest. The motor has
got a pinion, which engages with the gear
wheel fitted on the gear shifting shaft. The
bracket is a sheet metal fabricated type of
3mm thickness.
The wires of the motor are routed
through the chassis frame of the bike .the
wires go to the relay box which is fitted below
the bike seat near the oil tank.
The bracket is welded using arc
welding using a mild steel electrode .the
bracket assembly is welded in such a way that
the motor is kept at a lower level than the axis
of the motor. The micro switches are soldered
into a general purpose PCB and mounted in
the right hand side of the handle bar.
The relays four numbers are fixed in a
plastic box and mounted below the seat of the
bike. The relays receive signal from micro
switch through a pair of thin wires running
through the chassis of bike.
GEAR TRAIN AND GEAR SHIFTING
The gear shift is the part of the gear
box which has the shift forks and allows the
contact from the driver to the synchronization
.these are the parts for which it is possible to
make automation .further these parts can be
designed so compact so that it is possible to
build a very modular transmission with less
weight .the benefit of the compact build of the
shifting is not only the gain of modulation and
less weight but also the time during the
production and space in the whole drive train.
Depending on the space around the
whole drive train and the type of vehicle ,for
automation a hydraulic ,pneumatic or electric
actuator can be used .for personal cars , a
hydraulic or electric actuator can be used .for
personal cars , a hydraulic or electric actuator
is most often used . Further, such a system
also needs an electronic application.
The motor cycle gear shift is on the
left hands side of the motor cycle just ahead
of the foot peg .the motor cycle gear shift
controls ratchet mechanisms that shifts the
gears.
Hence it is a tedious process of
shifting gears mechanically. for this purpose
we use a automated manual transmission .the
bigger gear having 48 teeth is fixed on the
gear shifting shaft and the small pinion is
fixed on the motor shaft .the small pinion has
teeth of 22 which rotate the bigger gear and
gives a torque increase of 2.18 times .
WORKING PRINCIPLE
The power from the battery goes to
the relays. Four relays are used for the
purpose of changing the polarity of the motor
.the positive and the negative of battery are
given to the two relays .the output is
connected to the motor.
In switch wiring circuit two relays are
grouped for anticlockwise rotation .amongst
each group, one relay controls the positive
and other controls the negative of the motor
respectively.
The power supply also goes to the
clutch switch which is generally in normally
open condition .when the clutch lever is
pressed ,the clutch switch closes the contact
and gives 12 volts to the two micro switches .
Each micro switch is used to control pair of
relays giving positive and negative output
respectively.
One micro switch is used for down
shifting the gears and other one is used for the
up shifting of the gear. Relays receive the
negative supply from chassis frame of the
vehicle.
Whenever the micro switch is pressed,
the corresponding relay is energized and the
supply is given to the motor .when the other
micro switch is pressed, the polarity changes
and the motor receive supply in reverse
polarity .when one relay pair is working; the
other relay is in OFF condition.
Motor is having a small pinion
coupled with it .this motor pinion drives the
gear wheel fitted in the gear shifting shaft
.when the touch switch is pressed ,the motor
rotates and the gear is shifted .
MOTOR APPLICATION
Application the starter motor is designed
For two wheelers up tp 50 cc engine capacity
System polarity: 12v
Polarity: - earth
Rotation: anticlockwise
Power output: 12 v with 4 ah
Load torque: .014 kg m at 10.6v, 40 amps
Weight: .6 kg
Rating: 30 seconds.
TORQUE CALCULATION
Average force required by leg for gear
shifting in kilograms force when measured by
spring balance in different bikes = 350
grams
Average force in Newton = .350*9.81
Average force = 3.43 N
Torque requirement = force *distance
Torque requirement = 3.43 *.110
Torque requirement = .37 Nm
Torque on gear shift lever = .14 *2.18
The required torque .37 Nm is within the limit
CONCLUSION
The project automated manual transmission in
two wheeler was successfully made and
practical demo is shown in TVS Suzuki max
100 r bikes successfully.
This project is a concept is a concept
modal for aiding the physically challenged
persons for the purpose of getting good
mileage in their two wheeler having manual
gear shifting mechanism converted to a three
wheeler consisting of automated manual gear
shift.
The project was tested for more than a
month by using the touch switch for gear
shifting. The results of project are very
encouraging .the gear shifting is very smooth
and noiseless
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF SLIDER CRANK MECHANISM
D.Sreekala, II M.Tech CAD
S.Karppuddiyan, Sr.Lecturer
Dr.Kingsley Jeba Singh, Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.R.M.University, Kattankulathur-603203
Kancheepuram Dist. TamilNadu.
E-Mail: srkl_dgt@yahoo.co.in
ABSTRACT
Slider crank mechanism is a well
known application in an engine which is
widely used to convert reciprocating to
rotary motion and composed of three
important parts i.e., crank is a rotating
disc, slider which slides inside the tube and
connecting rod which joins the parts
together.The best examples of crank slider
–Mechanism are steam train and cylinder
of an internal combustion engine.
Computer Aided Design software is
developed for generating slider crank –
mechanism by inputting configuration
values using object oriented programming
approach of visual basic and visualizing the
model in 3D modeling software[Solid
Works].
The software graphical features
were used to give a visual interpretation of
the solutions. The software effectiveness
was tested on a no: of numerical examples,
some of them are outlined in this work.
Keywords: Computer Aided design, Crank,
Slider, Connecting Rod, Visual Basic 6.0,
Solid works.
INTRODUCTION
Modern trends in the design of
mechanisms emphasize economical design
analysis
By means of computer aided design
techniques .Computer-aided design (CAD)
is the use of a wide range of computer-based
tools that assist engineers and other design
professionals in their design activities. This
has however over the last 20 years been
overtaken by 3D parametric feature based
modeling. Components are created using
Solid modeling are assembled into a 3D
representation of the final product, this is
called as Bottom-up Design.
Mechanism is the arrangement of
connected parts in a machine in order to
accomplish desired force and motion
transmission, which is considered to be an
assembly of mechanical items designed to
achieve a specific purpose with in a machine.
There are clearly an infinite number of
mechanisms available, but concentrated on
specific one is slider- crank mechanism. The
piston, cylinder, crank and connecting rod
combination is known as a Slider-Crank
Mechanism.The purpose of this is to convert
the linear motion of the piston to rotational
motion of the crankshaft. One common
application of the mechanism is in IC
Engines.
A. MECHANISM DESIGN: The creation of a
scheme for the assembly of a machine. His
involves
1. Conception of an arrangement of
components or elements or parts which will
accomplish the desired purpose.
2. Definition of the geometry of each part.
And
3. Processing
Slider-crank mechanism, (a) Mechanism,
(b) Graph of mechanism. R = pin joint; P =
sliding joint
In this slider crank linkage
mechanism, the crank is in pure rotation and
the piston is In pure translation [which moves
back and forth in a straight line]
Principal parts of slider-crank mechanism
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MECHANISM DESIGN
The components of mechanism Crank,
Connecting rod, Piston, wrist pin and
Cylinders are designed using relevant design
equations.
INPUT PARAMETERS:
[a]. Diameter of the crank shaft Dc
[b]. Radius of the crank Rc
[c]. Diameter of the piston Dp
DESIGN CALCULATIONS:
[a]. length of the connecting rod :
Lc = 4.5* Dc
[b]. Diameter of the crank pin:
Dcp = 0.5* Dc
[c]. Diameter of the large boss:
Dlb = 1.8 *Dc
[d]. Diameter of the small boss:
Dsb = 0.9*Dc
[e].Diameter of the big end of
the connecting rod :
Dbc = 1.5* Dlb
[f]. Diameter of the small end of
The connecting rod :
Dsmc = 0.45* Dbc
[g]. Diameter of the wrist pin:
Dwp = 0.5*Dsmc
[h]. Diameter of the cylinder:
dc = 2*Dp
SLIDER CRANK MODEL
INTRODUCTION TO VISUAL BASIC
Visual basic is the event – driven
programming language and integrated
development environment from
Microsoft for its COM programming model,
which is also considered a relatively easy to
learn and use Programming language.
INTERFACING VB WITH SOLIDWORKS:
Automation via the SolidWorks
Simulation API can greatly enhance
productivity and help designers and
Engineer’s quickly pre-process or post-
process information external to the user-
interface capabilities.
Simple software package can be designed that
allows this type of mechanism design. Such a
package would require a simple user front end
and easy to understand API. Users should be
allowed to fully integrate the
Software package into their own code with
the ability to either choose to specify an input
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I, sreekala.D wish to thank Dr. Kingsley Jeba
Singh, professor and also
Thanks to S. Karppudiayan, Sr. Lecturer.
REFERENCES
THEORY AND PROBLEMS OF MACHINE
DESIGN Hall * Holomenko A.R, Laughtin
HG
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN S
higley Je, Mischke CR, 6th Edu.New York,
McGraw Hill 2001
MICROSOFT DEVELOPER NETWORK,
Help for Visual basic6.0
MACHINARY AND MECHANISM Robert
l. nordon
Design Optimization of Gerotor Oil Pump
T.Saravanakumar
1
, G.Devaradjane
2
1
PG Student,
2
Professor
Department of Automobile Engineering,
MIT Campus, Anna University-Chennai
Email: saravana_kumar_t@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
This paper aims at design
optimization by theoretical study and
mathematical prediction of flow
performance in gerotor type of lubricating
oil pumps that is used in automobiles. The
work was performed at three levels namely
basic geometry of gears, flow simulation and
experimental validation. An extensive study
was carried out in the design of gears.
Geometry of the gears was studied with the
design parameters. Design optimization of a
specific oil pump gears was considered.
Mathematical formulation for the design of
gears was done. Outer gear is designed
initially and inner gear is designed conjugate
to that. With the assumptions of lubricant as
incompressible and maximum volumetric
efficiency, flow calculations were performed
based on the geometry of the gears. In the
flow simulation, two approaches were
carried out for the calculation of chamber
volume namely Integral Derivative and
Derivative Integral. With the volume
variation of the chambers, delivery flow rate
for different speeds of crank shaft were
estimated. Optimum design of rotors, which
best suits the performance requirement was
achieved by varying the number of outer
rotor lobes and distance between these lobes
centers to rotor center. Formulation was
done in MATLAB software for the chamber
area calculation and numerically derived
flow rate values were found matching with
the experimental results of the specific pump.
This formulation provides a platform to
design and optimize the gerotor pumps.
Index Terms—Gerotor, Integral Derivative,
Derivative Integral, Chamber
I. Introduction
In the modern scenario, automobile industries
demand simulation prior to fabrication of all major
systems and ancillary systems for cost reduction and to
improve the performance. In this context the
simulation of lubricating pumps is being carried out.
Gerotor pump consists of two gears made up of
trochoidal curves. Both gears are placed eccentric, and
the outer gear consists of one tooth excess than that of
inner gear. As both the gears are in mesh they are
designed conjugate to each other. Outer gear teeth are
always in sliding contact with the inner gear teeth thus
developing sealed pockets known as chambers in
between the gears. During rotation, this chamber
volume varies. Gears unmesh in the inlet duct
increases the chamber volume in between the gears,
thus creating suction effect from inlet duct to
chambers. Gears mesh in the delivery duct reduces
chamber volume, creating pumping effect from
chambers to delivery duct as delivery flow.
The basic geometry of the gears is as shown in fig.1.
In fig.1 O
1
and O
2
represents the center of outer and
inner gears respectively and placed at a distance of ‘e’
termed as eccentricity. O
3
is the center of outer gear
teeth, which is circular curve of radius ‘S’. N is the
number of outer lobes. K is the distance between outer
gear center and outer gear lobe center. R
1
and R
2
is the
pitch circle radius of outer gear and inner gear
respectively. C is the pitch point i.e intersection of
pitch circles.
Fig.1 Gear Geometry
II. Gear profile design
The design of outer profile of inner gear and
inner profile of outer gear is critical in the
design of oil pump. These profiles dictate the
performance characteristics of the pump.
A. Contact line
Inner and outer gear is always in contact through
contact points (P). The number of contact points equal
to the number of outer lobes.
Law of Gearing: As gear profiles are conjugate they
should satisfy Law of gearing. Gerotor design is based
on law of gearing, which states that, “At any point of
rotation, normal to the profiles of mating teeth must, at
all points of contact, pass through a fixed point located
on the line of centers”.
Figure 2. Contact line
During rotation, contact point (P) traces the contact
line. At any point of rotation, contact points lie in the
contact line. α is the rotational angle of outer gear.
Equation that describes the contact line can be
summarized as follows,
(α) 1
(α)
S
X =Kcosα- (R +Kcosα)
m
S
Y =Ksinα- (Ksinα)
m
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
(1)
where m is distance between the pitch point and
centers of outer gear lobe centers and can be calculated
as,
2 2
1 1
m= R +K +2R Kcosα (2)
Equation (1) & (2) is a function of outer gear
rotational angle.
B. Outer gear profile
Figure 3. Outer gear tooth
Outer gear profile consists of N teeth. Each tooth
consists of three different curves namely ab, bc & cd.
Equations were derived for each curves separately
with specific angle limits. Equations for outer gear can
be summarized as,
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
( ) cos cos( )
0
( ) sin sin( )
( ) cos( )
( ) sin( )
( ) cos cos
0
( ) sin sin
o
o
o
o
o
o
X K S
Y K S
X G
Y G
X K S
Y K S
u r u
u r t
u r u
c c
o c o o
c c
u o o t u
u r t
u o o t u
· · + + · ¹
s (
'
· · + + ·
¹
· · + ¹
s (A
'
· · +
¹
¹ · A+ A + A + A
¹
s (
'
· A+ A + A + A
¹
¹
(3)
where, the basic terminologies can be found as,
2 2 2
0
2
K G S
x
K
+
·
2 2
0 0
y G x ·
-1 0
0
- tan
-
y
K x
t r
]
·
]
]
2
N
r
o A ·
Set
α ∆ · Λ . i
, where i represents the teeth number
(i=0,1,2,3, . . .,N-1)
Equation (3) describes a single tooth. By varying, i
value appropriately complete profile of outer gear can
be arrived.
C. Inner gear profile
Inner gear profile is generated conjugate to the outer
gear profile by using contact line equation. Equation
for the inner gear can be summarized as,
( ) 1
( ) 1
cos cos - cos cos
1 1 1 1
sin sin sin sin
1 1 1 1
i
i
N S N
X K e K R
N N m N N
N S N
Y e K R
N N m N N
o
o
o o o o
o o o o
¹ | ` | ` | ` | ` | `
· + +
¹ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
. , . , . , . , . ,¹
'
| ` | ` | ` | ` | `
¹
· K + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¹
. , . , . , . , . , ¹
But for further calculations it is necessary to have both
the equations with reference to same center. So inner
gear equation is changes with reference to outer gear
center as,
( ) 1
( ) 1
cos cos 1 cos cos
1 1 1 1
sin sin sin sin
1 1 1 1
i
i
N S N
X K e K R
N N m N N
N S N
Y e K R
N N m N N
o
o
o o o o
o o o o
¹ | ` | ` | ` | ` | ` | `
· + +
¹ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
. , . , . , . , . , . ,¹
'
| ` | ` | ` | ` | ` ¹
· K + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¹
. , . , . , . , . , ¹
By substituting
1 N
o
y ·

,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1
( ) 1
cos cos 1 cos cos
sin sin sin sin
i
i
S
X K e N K R N
m
S
Y e N K R N
m
o
o
y y y y
y y y y
¹
· + +
¹
¹
'
¹
· K + +
¹
¹
(4)
A complete rotation of outer gear, traces a single tooth
of inner gear. To generate a complete profile of inner
profile, α value should vary from 0 to
2 ( 1) N r
.
III. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW
A mathematical formulation is developed to predict the
flow performance with the gear design discussed in the
earlier chapters. Numerical simulation of gerotor pump
constitutes of applying rotation formula, identifying
contact points and angles, chamber volume estimation
and chamber volume variation calculation which lead
to delivery flow rate estimation.
A. Contact points
Contact points can be calculated by using equation
(1). Contact point angle can be calculated as,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
0 0, 0
tan * , 1 0
2 0, 0
a if X Y
X
a a if X
Y
a if X Y
o
o
o
v r

¹ · > >
| `
¹
÷ · + · (
'
÷
¹
. ,
· ) (
¹
(5)
Further contact points can be calculated by just adding
Δα to the α value. And it can be denoted as,
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 j j o o o
v v
+ A
·
(6)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
r X Y
o o o
· +
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 j j
r r
o o o + A
·
(7)
Equation (7) represents the radius of contact points.
B. Rotational formula
As gears rotate with respect to its respective centers,
coordinate points of gear profiles will vary with
rotation angle of outer gear (α). It is necessary to find
out these profile coordinates at any point of rotation.
The following equation can be used for finding
coordinate points after rotation for both inner and outer
gears.
( )
( )
( )
( )
cos sin
1 1
sin cos
1 1
cos sin
sin cos
i i i
i i i
e e o
e e o
N N
X X Y
N N
N N
Y X Y
N N
X X Y
Y X Y
o
o
o
o
o o
o o
o o
o o
¹ | ` | `
·
÷ ÷¹

. , . ,¹
'
| ` | `
¹
· +
÷ ÷
¹

. , . , ¹
· ¹
¹
'
· +
¹
¹
(6)
Figure 4. Rotational formula
C. Chamber Area
Chambers are formed between the gear profiles of
inner and outer gear limited by contact points. This
chamber area dictates the delivery flow rate of the
pump. This area can be found out by two methods
namely Integral Derivative method and Derivative
Integral method. But derivative integrative method
needs usage of integral derivative method to find
initial chamber area.
Integral Derivative method: In integral derivative
method, volumes of the chambers are initially
calculated, and then the derivative is used to find the
variation in the chamber volume. Numerical
integration of circular sector volumes leads to the
volume of the chamber.
Figure 5. Integral Derivative Method
The area associated with outer gear and inner gear is
calculated and the difference yields the chamber area.
The area is calculated by considering the coordinate
points as circular sectors as shown in fig. 6.
Figure 6. Chamber area
The chamber area can be calculated by using
circular sector area as given below.
2
1
2
A r d
v
v
v ·
l
The chamber area can be calculated as,
( )
2 2
1 1
2 2
1( )
( ) 1 ( 1)
1 1
2 2
e i
j j
V H r d H r d
V V
v v
o
v v
o o o
v v
+ A
·
·
l l
(7)
The angles ψ1 & ψ2 shown in fig. 6 define the contact
points, and r is the radius of the profile coordinate. dψ
is the included angle of the circular sector in radians. A
program was written in MATLAB for chamber area
calculation by this method.
Derivative Integral method: Derivative Integral
method yields directly the variation in chamber
volume, and then accumulation of these derivatives
along with initial volume yields exact chamber volume
at any angle of rotation. The variation in volume can
be determined through analysis of two control volumes
as shown in figure 4.6.
Figure 7. Control Volumes
• Volume V
i
relative to inner gear and
bounded by polyline AO
2
B and line of
contacts. Two vector rays r
i1
& r
i2
are
associated with inner gear, originated at O
2
and ends at contact points A & B.
• Volume V
e
relative to outer gear and
bounded by arc CD, line of contacts
comprised between contact points A & B,
and two segments AD & BC. Two vector
rays r
e1
& r
ei2
are associated with outer gear,
originated at O
1
and ends at contact points A
& B.
By calculating the volume variation in these control
volumes, chamber volume variation can be found out.
Figure 8. Inner gear Volume variation
Consider a infinitesimal rotation dα
angle of outer gear, for which the inner gear
will rotate for
1
N
d d
N
o o ·

angle. Now, the
contact point A & B rotates to angles dψ1 &
dψ2 as shown in figure. Points A
’’’
& B
’’’
shows
the position of older contact points A & B after
rotation, whereas A
’’
& B
’’
represents the new
contact points after rotation. It can be seen that
in inner gear, gear rotates faster than contact
points (dφ > dψ). As an approximation due to
rotation the change in vector rays length is
neglected considering the rotation angle to be
considered is very less. Now the vector ray r
i1
will seep a volume of
2
1
1
2
i
Hr do
, which leaves the
control volume and has to be considered as
negative. Similarly vector ray r
i2
will seep a
volume of
2
2
1
2
i
Hr do
, which now enters into the
control volume V
i
associated with the inner
gear. So the net volume variation associated
with inner gear will be,
2 2
1 2
1 1
2 2
i i i
dV Hr d Hr d o o · +
( )
2 2
2 1
1
2
i i i
dV H r r do ·
(8)
Figure 9. Outer gear volume variation
Considering again the rotation of dα for the outer
gear, the vector ray r
e1
rotates to an angle dψ
e1.
The
variation in the control volume in one side will be
( )
2 2
1
1
2
e
H G r do
, negative sign indicates the volume
leaving the control volume. Similarly, the vector ray
r
ei2
rotates to an angle dψ
e21
and the control volume
variation is ( )
2 2
2
1
2
e
H G r do
. The total variation in outer
gear control volume dV
e
is calculated as given in
equation (9).
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 1
2 2
e e e
dV H G r d H G r d o o · +
( )
2 2
1 2
1
2
e e e
dV H r r do ·
(9)
The summation of volume variation in both the
gears accounts to the variation in the chamber
volume. So, total chamber volume variation
will be,
c i e
dV dV dV · +
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2
1
2 1
c i i e e
N
dV H r r r r d
N
o
| `
· +
÷

. ,
(10)
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2
1
2 1
c
i i e e
dV N
H r r r r
d N o
| `
· +
÷

. ,
The exact chamber volume for any angle of
rotation can be found out by numerically
integrating the total volume variation and
summing it up with the initial volume V
0
. The
exact chamber volume V
(α)
at angle α can be
calculated as,
( ) ( ) 0
0
c
dV
V V d
d
o
o
o
o
· +
l

(11)
D. Delivery flow estimation
In gerotor assembly, port plates are situated in
such a way that chambers with increasing size
overlaps the inlet port and the chambers
decreasing in size overlaps the outlet port. The
previous section supplies all the geometrical
elements necessary for the calculation of the
instantaneous flow rate produced by the rotors.
Chamber area in between the rotors dictates the
delivery flow rate, when the volume increases it
sucks fluid and make a negative contribution to
the flow rate. When the chamber area increases
it pumps out the fluid and make positive
contribution towards the flow rate. The
assumptions made in the flow calculation are,
• Volumetric efficiency is assumed to be
equal to 100%.
• Lubricant is incompressible fluid.
The instantaneous flow rate of individual
chamber is nothing but the volume variation it
produces during rotation. For dα rotation of
outer rotor it contributes to the flow as,
, 1, 2,...
j
j
dV
Q d j N
d
o
o
· · (12)
The delivery flow rate of pump can be calculated by
the summation of these volume variations contributing
to the delivery flow.
1 1
N N
j j
j
j j
dV dA
Q d H d
d d
o o
o o
· ·
· ·
¿ ¿ (13)
The delivery flow rate per revolution of outer
rotor can be expressed as,
1
0
N
j
j
dV
Q N d
d
o
o
o
A
·
·
¿
l

(14)
E. Design Parameters
Table I
Design Parameters
Description Symbol Unit values
Number of teeth in outer
gear
N - 8
Radial distance of the
centers of outer gear teeth
K mm 37.5105
from O1
Radius of circle to complete
outer gear
G mm 36.5
Radius of circular arc for
outer gear tooth
S mm 9.495
Eccentricity e mm 4
Table I shows the values of the design parameters
that was used in the calculation. A commercially
available oil pump sample was considered for
optimization process. Design parameters were
measured from the actual sample and were tabled as
given in above table.
IV. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
Figure 10. Test rig Layout
The sample was tested in the standard performance
test rig and tested for flow performance at different
speeds. Fig. 10 shows the layout of the test rig.
V. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
Figure 11. Gerotor Assembly
Fig. 11 shows the output of the MATLAB program
for design of gears with inputs as given in table.I.
Figure 12. Chamber area
Figure 13.Derivative of Chamber area
Fig. 12 shows the chamber area for a complete
rotation of outer gear. This was calculated by integral
derivative method. The amount of chamber area is
maximum and minimum when the rotation angle
coincides with the line joining gear centers. Fig 13
shows the variation in chamber area calculated by
Derivative Integral method
Figure 14.Flow pulse of individual chambers
The amount of volume contributed by each
chambers on rotation to the delivery flow is depicted
in fig. 14. Flow ripple produced by the pump is shown
in fig. 15. The number of flow ripples produced is
equal to the number of teeth in outer gear.
Figure 15.Delivery flow ripples
Figure 16.Performance results comparison
Numerically arrived performance results were
compared with results obtained from
experimental validation of actual sample and
the results are matching within 6% as shown in
fig. 16.
VI. CONCLUSION
A mathematical based tool was developed to
predict the flow performance and other flow
performance indexes like flow irregularity and specific
flow rate for any variation in the design parameters
and was validated with a commercially available oil
pump sample. With this as a tool, provided the initial
design parameters were known, then it can be
modified to optimize the performance with the use of
this mathematical tool.
Acknowledgment
Authors acknowledge Mr.S.Govindarajan,
Chief-R&D, UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd-R&D for giving
permission to experimentally validate the sample.
References
[1] Colbourne.J.R, “Gear Shape and Theoretical
Flow rate in Internal Gear pumps” CSME,
Vol. 3, No. 4, pp 215-223, 1975.
[2] Fabiani.M, Manco.S, Nervegna.N,
Rundo.M, Armenio.G, Pachetti.C,
Trichilo.Rl, “Modelling and Simulation of
Gerotor Gearing in Lubricating Oil Pumps”
SAE 99P-464, 1999.
[3] Manco.S, Nervegna.N, Rundo.M,
Armenio.G, Pachetti.C, Trichilo., “Gerotor
Lubricating Oil Pump for IC Engines” SAE
982689, 1998.
[4] Mimmi.G and Pennacchi.P, “Internal Lobe
pump Design” CSME, Vol. 21, No.2, pp
109~121, 1997.
[5] Sang-Yeol Kim, Yun-Joo Nam, Myeong-
Kwan Park, “Design of Port plate in Gerotor
Pump for Reduction of Pressure Pulsation”,
Journal of Mechanical Science and
Technology, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp.
1626~1637, 2006
[6] Gamez-Monteroa.P.J., Castillaa.R,
Khamashtab.M, Codinaa.E, “Contact
problems of a trochoidal-gear pump,”
International Journal of Mechanical
Sciences 48, pp 1471–1480 (2006)
[7] Otto.S.R and Denier.J.P., “An Introduction
to Programming and numerical Methods in
MATLAB”
FEA on Stress Concentration and Crack Propagation
KABILAN.V1, Dr.A.RAJADURAI2
1ME (Manufacturing engineering), Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600044
2Professor & Head, Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600044
Abstract
This paper presents the results of
investigations carriedout to study the stress
concentration and crack propagation in
pressure vessel steel. Finite element method
is used to calculate fracture parameters and
crack propagation. This paper includes,
study on stress distribution during crack
propagation. FEA package
ABAQUS is used to study the crack
propagation.
KEYWARDS: FEA, Fracture mechanics, Stress
Concentration & Crack propagation.
INTRODUCTION
Fracture mechanics is the study of flaws
in engineering materials. This involves
characterizing a material’s ability to resist crack
onset and propagation, as well as understanding
how propagation occurs. The important aspect
of this field is failure analysis, where engineers
attempt to explain why a component has failed
during operation. However, the more important
aspect of studying fracture mechanics is to be
able to accurately predict service life of a part,
so that disastrous failures can be prevented.
Fracture Mechanics is proving to be a powerful
and important tool for both defects assessment
and the fracture-safe design of components and
structures.
This is particularly true for situations
where unscheduled plant breakdown cannot be
tolerated or where the potential hazard of a
failure is such that the highest possible
standards of structural integrity are required.
Such areas include electrical power generation,
by fossil fuel or nuclear means military
projects, where high design stresses are used to
maximize performance
STRESS CONCENTRATION
If there is a geometrical discontinuity in
a body, such as a hole or a crack, results in non-
uniform stress distribution at the vicinity of the
discontinuity. The stress near the discontinuity
will be higher than the average stress and drops
off rapidly with distance away from the
discontinuity (Inglis, 1913).
Stress concentration plays major role in
initiation of crack in many of the structural and
engineeringcomponents. Many methods are
available for experimental and analytical
estimation of stress concentration factor.
Though experimental methods provide actual
Values, they are expensive and time consuming.
Few analytical equations have been evaluated
on the basis of Linear Elastic Fracture
Mechanics (LEFM) and semi empirical
approach. These equations predict the stress
concentration with acceptable accuracy level
(i.e., with a variation of ± 10%) In recent years
Finite Element Method (FEM) has emerged as
one of the accurate and reliable numerical tools
in stress analysis. Hence stress concentrations
could be reliable and accurately estimated using
FEM In this juncture the present study aims at
investigating the stress distribution during crack
Propagation.
2 GEOMETRY OF THE MODEL
The Specimen with crack is shown in
Figs. 1Fig. 1 Specimen with crack
The geometric dimensions considered for plate
containing circular hole is;
Plate width: 10 mm
Plate Height: 10 mm
Crack length (Initial): 2 mm
Since the problem considered in the
present investigation is axi-symmetric and has a
horizontal plane of symmetry the top half
portion is considered for analysis (Fig.1)
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
In crack propagation problems, the
plastic deformation is so large at the crack tip
and there is
Negligible deformation in the remaining areas.
The material considered in the current study is
pressure vessel steel (STE 460) and it is
assumed to be isotropic with elastic plastic
behavior. Chemical Composition are given in
the Table 1
TABLE 1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
C 0.20
Mn 1.70
Si 0.80
P 0.025
S 0.015
Cr 1.50
Ni 2.50
Mo 0.70
Nbc 0.06
Tic 0.05
Vc 0.12
Zrc 0.15
The properties of the material are:
Young’s modulus (E): 2.1 X 105 N/mm2
Poisson’s Ratio (υ): 0.3
Stress-strain data for isotropic plastic behavior
are given in the Table 2
TABLE 2 STRESS – STRAIN DATA
True Stress (MPa) True Strain
461.000 0.0
472.810 0.0187
521.390 0.0280
628.960 0.0590
736.306 0.1245
837.413 0.2970
905.831 0.5756
1208.000 1.9942
NUMERICAL METHOD
Numerical method has been developed
to solve almost all types of practical problems.
The two Common numerical methods used to
solve the governing equations of practical
problems are Numerical integration and finite
element technique.
NUMERICAL INTEGRATION
Numerical method has been developed
to solve almost all types of practical problems.
The two common numerical methods used to
solve the governing equations of practical
problems are numerical integration and finite
element technique. Numerical integration
methods such as Runge-Kutta, Miline’s method
etc adopt averaging of slopes of given function
at the given initial values.
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Finite element method (FEM) has
emerged out to be powerful method for all
kinds of practical problems. In this method the
solution region is considered to be built up of
many small interconnected sub regions, called
finite elements. These elements are applied with
an interpolation model, which is simplified
version of substitute to the governing equation
of the material continuum property. The
stiffness matrices obtained for these elements
are assembled together and the boundary
conditions of the actual problems are satisfied
to obtain the solution all over the body or
region FEM is well suited for computer
programming.
3 ABAQUS PACKAGE
ABAQUS is a general purpose
interactive graphics finite element based
software package. User can use it to simulate
structural, mechanical, thermal, electro
magnetic problems. A complete
ABAQUS/Standard analysis usually consists of
three distinct stages: preprocessing, simulation,
and postprocessing. These three stages are
linked together by files as shown in Fig. 2
Fig.2 Three stages of ABAQUS
Preprocessing (ABAQUS/CAE) In this
stage the model of the physical problem is to be
defined and an ABAQUS input file can be
created. The model is usually created
graphically using ABAQUS/CAE or another
preprocessor, lthough the ABAQUS input file
for a simple analysis can be created directly
using a text editor. Simulation
(ABAQUS/Standard)
The simulation, which normally is run
as a background process, is the stage in which
ABAQUS/Standard solves the numerical
problem defined in the input file.
Postprocessing (ABAQUS/Viewer)
In this stage the results can be evaluated after
the simulation is completed and the
displacements, stresses, or other fundamental
variables have been calculated. The evaluation
is generally done interactively using
ABAQUS/Viewer or another postprocessor.
ELEMENT TYPE USED
Regular, rectangular meshes give the
best results in crack propagation analyses.
Results with nonlinear materials are more
sensitive to meshing than results with small-
strain linear elasticity. First-order elements
(CPE4, CAX4, etc.) Generally work best for
crack propagation analysis. Hence First-order
elements “CPE4” are used in this analysis.
CRITICAL CRACK OPENING
DISPLACEMENT CRITERION
The crack opening displacement
criterion, the crack-tip node debonds when the
crack opening displacement at a specified
distance behind the crack tip reaches a critical
value. This criterion is typically used for crack
propagation in ductile materials. The critical
crack opening displacement criterion is shown
in Fig. 3
Fig.3 The critical crack opening
displacement criterion
The crack opening displacement
criterion is defined as where, is the measured
value of crack opening displacement and is the
critical value of the crack opening displacement
(user-specified). The crack-tip node debonds
when the fracture criterion reaches the value
1.0. The user must supply crack opening
displacement versus cumulative crack length
data (n). In ABAQUS/Standard the cumulative
crack length is defined as the distance between
the initial crack tip and the current crack tip
measured along the slave surface in the current
configuration. The crack opening displacement
is defined as the normal distance separating the
two faces of the crack at the given distance
4. CRACK PROPAGATION
In the symmetry model the top half of a
singleedge notch plate is modeled with a mesh
of CPE4 elements. The lower surface of the
bottom row of elements defines the slave
surface of the partially bonded contact pair, and
the master surface is defined by an analytical
rigid surface. The master surface also lies along
the symmetry plane. Nonzero displacement
boundary conditions are applied at two nodes
remote from the symmetry plane. The crack
opening displacement at a distance behind the
crack tip is used to specify the data for the COD
criterion. The crack propagation capability
allows quasi-static crack growth along
predefined paths
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL:
Fig.4 Finite Element Model
The Meshed Finite Element Model with
boundary, load conditions is shown in Fig.4
Master surface :
Slave surface :
Element type : CPE4 (4 Nodes Quad Element)
Boundary condition : Node at the bottom is
restricted to move in X & Y direction Load :
Non Zero Displacement in Y direction is
applied at two nodes remote from the symmetry
plane Crack path : The virtual crack extension
direction, , can be specified directly by Contour
integrals as shown in Fig.5
Fig.5 Virtual crack extension direction
RESULTS
FEA on stress concentration and crack
propagation are performed by numerical
methods. The
stress distribution at the crack tip, during crack
propagation are shown Figs. 6 to 9.
Fig. 6 Stress at crack tip after Debond the
first node
Fig. 7 Stress at crack tip after Debond the
2nd node
Fig. 8 Stress at crack tip after Debond the
3rd node
Fig. 9 Stress at crack tip after Debond the
4th node
The findings from the FEA predictions of stress
Concentration and crack propagation is as
follows,
• Stress at crack tip after Debond the first node
is 7.911e+03
• Stress at crack tip after Debond the second
node is 9.336e+03
• Stress at crack tip after Debond the third
node is 1.014+04
• Stress at crack tip after Debond the fourth
node is 1.015+04
CONCLUSION
The finite element method is used to
analysie the problem and thereby calculating
the fracture parameter stress concentration has
been developed. Stress distribution during crack
propagation is calculated by numerical method.
Maximum stress is obtained at tip of the crack
and the stress is increases, when the crack
length is increases.
REFERENCES
1. Anderson. T. L (2003) “Fracture Mechanics
Fundamentals and Applications”, CRC Press,
Texas.
2. George E. Dieter (1988), “Mechanical
Metallurgy” SI
metric edition, Mc-Graw-Hill Book Co.
3. Griffith A. A. (1920), “The Phenomena of
Rupture and
Flow in Solids” Philosophical Transactions,
Series
A,Vol.221,pp,163–198
4. Inglis (1913), C. E., Trans. Inst. Nav. Archit.,
pt. 1, pp.
219 -230.
5. Kunecke G, Klingbeil D, and Schicker J,
(1993)
“Rißfortschrittssimulation mit der ABAQUS-
option
DEBOND am Beispiel einer statisch belasteten
Kerbschlagbiegeprobe,” presented at the
ABAQUS
German Fracture Mechanics group meeting in
Stuttgart.
Foldable Frame
N.Venkatesh
1
, K.Arunachalam
2
Madras Institute of Technology /Automobile Engg Department, Chennai, India
Email: ervenkateshn@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
With the increase in number of
vehicles on road, there is shortage of parking
space anticipated in the near future even
inside educational and other organizational
campuses. Changing the vehicle wheel track
according to the vehicle speed increases the
vehicle performance.
I wish to propose a solution to this by
introducing a concept of “foldable vehicle”. In this
vehicle the wheel track and wheel base can be changed
in addition to the vehicle height.
This “Foldable Frame Vehicle” (FFV), is a
three wheeler with electric propulsion through a hub
motor. This product is designed to specifically address
the problems related to parking space requirements.
With this concept, the effective reduction in parking
space (occupying volume) is expected to be around
80% in comparison to a conventional 100 cc to 250 cc
motor bikes in the Indian market. Similarly in
comparison to a human powered bicycle, the expected
reduction is around 86% With this, I wish to introduce
the concept of “stacked parking”
The frame has been designed with optimal
cross section for strength to weight ratio. The material
used selected is standard aluminum alloy used in
design of bicycle frames. The weight of the FFV is
kept in a range such that it can be carried around after
folding.
The vehicle stalking box is designed to use the
parking volume efficiently. The stalk box can be
designed for various number of vehicle requirement.
The vehicle folding factor plays a vital role in using
the stalking board more efficiently.
Other features have also been considered for safe and
“emission free” (on site) operation. The design is as
per the vehicle safety regulation.
i.INTRODUCTION
For the urban transportation and to tackle the
parking problem the foldable frame is used in the
vehicle. The parking space is much reduced by using
these foldable frame vehicles. The wheel base is much
reduced as the parking space needed for each vehicle
is reduced. Thus each vehicle contributes to the lesser
space for parking. The wheel track is also much
reduced for contribution of allotting less problem to
parking. Thus this concept is much suitable for the city
car. The overall size of the vehicle can also be reduced
for stalking more number of cars.
Micro mobility vehicle is designed to use
inside the educational centre, research centre,
hospitals, and production assembly units for easy
mobility. The ground clearance of the vehicle is low
.For this reason the vehicle speed is set to maximum of
30KMPH.The desired maximum speed is sufficient to
use them in the campus. The mentioned speed satisfied
the requirement to use in the industries as the preferred
speed of vehicles inside the industries is less than
30kmph.
For the easy transportation with less movable
parts the electrical drive is preferred. The battery is
used as the power source. The maintenance free
battery is used for this purpose. The vehicle speed
control is by the rheostat control placed in the handle
bar. The power variation is send to the hub motor.
Thus the speed of the motor is controlled and hence
the vehicle speed. Battery is placed in the handle
section so that during folding process the battery falls
on the base plate. Thus the battery finds the better
place in between two folding component .the analysis
is made on the frame considering battery weight.
As the vehicle is run by electric power the
vehicle is eco friendly. This makes the vehicle well
suit to use in the research centre and eligible for
pollution free transportation in the campus.
The various methods of parking are
• Conventional parking in ground
• Stalking the cars by reducing their sizes
while parking
• Multi floor building for parking of
vehicle in corresponding floor
• Parking at any convenient floor(shopping
maal)
There are various possibilities to fold the vehicle
• Reducing the wheel track
• Reducing wheel base
• Reducing the vehicle height
Various possibility of using foldable vehicle
• Use of light weight material can lift
vehicle end to occupy less space
• Using tandem tubular or rectangular
frame so that the length can be reduced
easily
• The stalk box is designed to store the
entire micro mobility vehicle to stalk in
a 5 feet space. The design layout is
proposed for this need
The foldable frame fabrication is carried out as per
the requirement of vehicle norms of commercial
purpose. The TIG welding is used in the vehicle
fabrication .The tubular and oval frames are used in
the vehicle fabrication.
II.TERMS TO CONSIDER FOR DESIGNING
FOLDABLE FRAME
The most important advice based on
researchers experience, is before order a folding
trailer, make sure first try to assemble it to see how
long it takes and how many people are required. Also
then determine how long it takes to load the bike and
the complexities involved. Remember to try and tie
down the bike and determine many people are required
for that operation also. Finally, it's a good idea to tow
the bike on the trailer at a variety of speeds and over
different surfaces to understand how the trailer
handles.
The work is coordinated and supervised by
Professor William J. Mitchell says the foldable vehicle
should be parked in a certain manner, so that if one
vehicle is driven out the next vehicle should fill the
same place. The "City Car" project is collaboration
between the MIT Media Laboratory and the new MIT
Design Lab Massachusetts Institute of Technology had
proposed the same.
III.FOLDABLE FRAME VEHICLE
Micro mobility vehicle is design to use inside
campus. They are designed for less ground clearance.
Design is aimed at easy transportation inside the
organization. Their speed is comparatively low to
conventional vehicle as these are used to travel
betweens each units or blocks. The passenger can take
this small vehicle with easy driving schedule. As these
vehicles are concentrated to use inside campus, vehicle
should not produce more pollution. This should be
eco-friendly as many organization aim at pollution free
environment. If these micro mobility vehicles are
lesser weight it takes be easily carried inside the rooms
and taken out for any tours.
For meeting the above requirement vehicle
should have
• Foldable frame
• Lighter weight materials
• Pollution free driving source
• Smaller size vehicle
• Easy driving control
• Lesser movable parts
• Less maintenance cost
• Electrical power source is preferred
• Lesser ground clearance
IV.COMPONENTS OF MICROMOBILITY
VEHICLE
The components of the vehicle are,
• Foldable base frame
• Front wheel assembly (tandem type)
• Electric rear hub motor (1 HP)
• Front wheel assembly
• Electrical control module
• Lithium battery
• Side stand for parking
IV. LOADS ON FRAMES
• Weight of the vehicle and passengers
• vertical loads when the vehicle comes
across a bump or hollow, which results
in longitudinal torsion due to one lifted
(or lowered) with the other wheels at the
usual road level
• loads due to road camber, side wind,
cornering force while taking a turn,
which results in lateral bending of
side members
V.VARIABLE VEHICLE WHEEL TRACK
The wheel track of the vehicle can be varied as
per the requirement. In additional to the foldable
components the wheel track (distance between the
front wheels) can be changed as per the requirement.
Distance between Wheels can be arranged and placed
in the position. The tandem tubular frame paves the
way for easy variation in the wheel track. These
arrangements are possible only in the vehicle rest
condition. The wheel base (the distance between the
front and rear wheel) can also changed as per the
design. The base frame has the clamp to hold the two
base frame segments of various sizes.
The specification for the vehicle is given in a
commercial vehicle format. The battery details are
taken out from the manufacturer. The hub motor is of
diameter10 inch and 3 inch tyre width. Drum brake
assembly unit is attached to the wheel.

Fig 2. Analysis of Vehicle Frames
Fig: 1 3D model of micro mobility vehicle components
The tubular frames are much prefer in the
material selection to with stand the twisting force in
the frame. The length contraction is easier as the larger
diameter tubes houses the smaller diameter tubes
inside it thus the tubular circular frame is much
suitable in folding arrangements.
VI.FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Finite element method is defined as a
numerical method of piecewise approximation in
which the approximating function is formed by
connecting simple functions which are defined over
small regions called elements.
COMPONENTCHOSEN FOR ANALYSIS
Battery, transmission and passenger load
are acting vertically on their mounting points.
Except passenger all other are fixed loads.
VII. STALKING OF VEHICLE
The stalking rack is designed to store the
vehicles in the foldable form. The rack is of
1500mm length and 1900 mm height. This is
split in to 20 racks. The vehicle in unfold
condition is 4 feet x3feet x1feet.the stalk box is
5 feetx6 feetx1 feet. Only 2 vehicles can be
parked in the stalk box with out folding. If the
vehicle is folded 20 vehicles can be parked in
that same place... This can be modified based
on the number of the vehicle to be stalked.
VIII. STALK BOX
This result shows the analysis assuming the
load is uniformly distributed load. The thickness of the
plate is assumed as the constant. The material assumed
is mild steel. The details of analysis are shown in
appendix. The analysis shows the stalk box as the safer
design the vehicles to arrange in the rack. The analysis
is carried out for the various materials and the
displacement can be found out

Fig. 3 Stalk Box

IX. CONCLUSION
The foldable frame for the micro
mobility vehicle is designed as per the
requirement. The electric vehicle gives the free
operation even in case of the fossil fuel
shortage. The static structural analysis is done
for the vehicle for ensuring the safer design.
The light weight material can be used for
handling the vehicle and folding in the stalking
box is proposed for stalking the vehicle if it is
used in large number.
X.SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORKS
In my design the foldable parts are very
less as two third of vehicle side is reduced. This
can be improved by using a different design
concept to further reduced size. The lighter
materials like aluminum, fiber reinforcement
can be preferred. The frame has been
structurally analyzed for static conditions with
sequential loading. This can be done for
dynamic conditions. The suggestion of
modification to reduce resonance can be given.
References
[8] Li-Der Chou, Chun-Cheng Sheu, Home-
Way Chen,“Design and Prototype,
Implementation of A Novel Automatic
Vehicle Parking System”, National Central
University, Taiwan.
[9] Katherine L. Eveleth - EDS Corp,“Parking
Management Systems –The City of
Chicago:a Case Study” Document Number:
941007.
[10] Terry D. Day,J. Travis Garvey,Engineering
Dynamics Corporation ‘Applications and
Limitations of 3-Dimensional Vehicle
Rollover Simulation’
[11] United states patent ‘Foldable Handle Bar
Stem of a Skate Board’
FRACTURE ANALYSIS ON ALUMINIUM BEND SPECIMEN USING
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
ABSTRACT
Failure criteria have been developed
to explain strength failures of load-bearing
structures which can be classified roughly as
ductile at one extreme and brittle at another.
Linear elastic Fracture Mechanics very well
predicts the situation of the crack growth.
But ductile materials exhibit stability while
crack extension. Hence one needs EPFM to
assess the situation.
Crack growth leads to instability that
usually happens at higher load than at which
crack is initiated. So, Fracture Mechanics
based analysis is being done in order to
characterize the stable crack growth.
Here, we have used Aluminum 6061
grade with an angular notch in it. A three
point bend test is carried out on a
rectangular bar numerically using FEA
software packages ANSYS and ABAQUS.
In this investigation the relationship
between load and J- integral and also stress
intensity factor are found out. Also CMOD is
studied considering a Single edge notched
bends Specimen using finite element analysis.
The Magnitude of CTOD is estimated by 90
intercept method and proportionality
constant d
n
found out. The values obtained
in FEA software are documented in order to
establish or to determine further
relationships between the parameters.
Index Terms— CTOD, CMOD, J Integral,
Stress Intensity factor
INTRODUCTION
It is must to introduce a design
philosophy for which fracture mechanics
studies could help us. Catastrophic fracture is
due to unstable propagation of a crack from a
pre existing defect. It is impractical for the
fracture to be prevented by constructing
structure that has no defects. So in order to
develop safe design of structures, we should
proceed along two lines: Either the safe
operating load should be determined for a crack
of a prescribed size assumed to exist in fracture;
Or for the given operating load, the size of the
crack that is created in structure should be
determined.
So efforts have been taken to stabilize the crack
growth that occurs prior to failure. The critical
value of the fracture toughness, expresses the
ability of the material to resist fracture in the
presence of cracks.
Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics
(EPFM) is the domain of fracture analysis,
which considers extensive plastic deformation
ahead of crack tips prior to fracture. It is well
known that J integral and Crack Tip opening
Displacement (CTOD) is the fracture
parameters for analysis of fracture parameters
for analysis of fracture problems under EPFM.
Thus it is essential to examine relation between
J and δ. The general relation between J and δ
[9]
J = m σ
y
δ (1)
Where, σ
y
is the yield stress of the material, m-
constant. Earlier ref [8] indicated that the load
intensity measured in terms of J-integral as a
single parameter alone does not describe the
strain field ahead of the crack-tip uniquely and
accurately. Hence, there is a necessity of
introducing a second parameter with J, which is
required to characterize the crack-tip fields. The
factor m in relation between J and δ given in Eq
(1) is known to be constrain dependent [2] thus
m serve as a parameter to characterize
constraints therefore study of m in relationship
between J and δ is important in EPFM analysis.
Shih [8] has shown that the relationship
between J and δ can be obtained theoretically
by Rice-Rosengren stress field equation [8-7] as
σ
y
= d
n
(J/ σ
y
) (2)
Where d
n
is a constant which depend on
Ramberg-osgood constant N of the material.
From Eq.1 and Eq.2 the relation between m and
d
n
as d
n
= 1/m (3)

Shih has also shown that d
n
usually varies
between0.4 to 0.8 for elastic perfectly plastic
materials (N=∞) d
n
=1, which is obtained by
extrapolation. It is required to examine the
effect of the specimen geometry and a/W ratio
on the factor d
n
, which can address in plain
constrain effects.
We have taken a rectangular bar with
angular notch, since [16]notches in structural
components give rise to localized stress
concentration which decreases the maximum
load the component can sustain and may
generate a crack or lead to early crack initiation.
Hence, a criterion to evaluate the maximum
load that a component with a notch can sustain
is of paramount importance. V-notches are one
of the simplest and most frequent geometries
that appear in testing samples, and the search
for a fracture criterion of V-notched
components has stimulated researchers for
many years.
We are in need of experimental data to
characterize fracture ahead of V notches. So, we
are finding out the fracture parameters through
three point bend test on Aluminum 6061
specimen with various notch angles at different
loading conditions using FEA software
packages ANSYS [13] and ABAQUS.

TEST SPECIMEN
The test specimen is a rectangular bar with an
angular notch at its middle. The dimensions of
the rectangular bar are, 150 mm in length and
20 mm width. Its thickness is 10 mm. Three
different angles are selected for the notch; they
are 30, 45 and 60 degrees. The specimen is of
aluminum material.
TEST CONDITION:
The rectangular specimen is simply
supported and a point load is applied at the
midpoint. This is a basic condition where the
crack starts to initiate and propagate easily. In
this investigation, 6061 Grade aluminum flat
specimens were used. All the specimens were
fabricated from the same plate with dimensions
20 X 10 X 500 mm flat plate. Table 1 provides
the composition for the plate used.
Table 1: Composition of the specimen
Specimens were fabricated with three
different notch angles, viz. 30

, 45

and 60

. The
specimens, shown in Fig. 1, had the design
recommended by ASTM Standard E399-05 for
three-point-bend specimens, except that they
contained a straight-face notch terminated by a
semicircular tip instead of a sharp crack. The
ratio of notch depth to specimen width[15] (a /
W) was more than 0.45 for all specimens. The
other actual dimensions match the nominal ones
to within the accuracy of the measurements
(0.03 mm).
Table 2 Pre Cracking details
Specim
en no
V
angle(degree)
Pre
crack
mm
Total
crack
length
(mm)
1 30 3.24 9.94
2 45 3.06 9.76
3 60 2.7 9.4
This test method involves the
determination of the plane strain fracture
toughness (K
c
)[15] of metals by increasing load
tests of fatigue precracked specimens
CRACK MOUTH OPENING DISPLACEMENT
(CMOD)
Crack mouth opening displacement
under conditions where significant plastic
deformation precedes fracture, the stresses
around the crack tip reach the critical value and
therefore fracture is controlled by the amount of
plastic strain. Crack extension takes place by
void growth and coalescence with the original
crack tip, a mechanism for which the crack-tip
strain is responsible. A measure of the amount
of crack tip plastic strain is the separation of the
crack faces or crack opening displacement
(COD)[4,11], especially very close to the crack
tip. It is thus expected that crack extension will
begin when the crack opening displacement
reaches some critical value which is
characteristic of the material at a given
temperature, plate thickness, strain rate and
environmental conditions. The criterion [12]
δ = δ
c
(4)
takes the form where δ is the crack opening
displacement and δ
c
, is its critical value. It is
assumed that δ
c
, is a material constant
independent of specimen configuration and
crack length.
CMOD is found out for various loads of
30º notch angled specimen and it is given.
Table 3: Force Vs CMOD
Load(
in N)
CMOD ( in
mm)
0 0
500 0.34503
1000 0.71956
1500 1.03507
2000 1.38010
2500 1.79891
3000 4.7282
Graph 1: Load Vs CMOD
The above mentioned values are found
out from ANSYS[13] for a 30º notch angled
specimen and it is being mentioned in table and
as a graph.
The objective of the COD design curve
is to establish a relationship between the crack
opening displacement and the applied load and
crack length.
Knowing the critical crack opening
displacement we can determine the maximum
permissible stress, or the maximum allowable
crack length, in a structure.
All the above found values are for 30
degree angular notched specimen. Similarly, the
same values are found for 45 and 60 degree
specimen. CMOD data estimated by FEA is
Cu Si Mg Mn Fe
0.35 0
.43
0.75 0.22 0.38
used to compute the CTOD values from which J
integral can be found out.
CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT.
The magnitudes of CTOD for various
load steps have been computed by 90 degree
intercept method [6,10]. Now J integral is found
out from this CTOD values. According to this
method an 45◦ line drawn from the crack-tip
with the crank flank displacement plot is
considered as half part of CTOD.
Graph 2: DISTANCE ALONG CRACK FLANK
Vs DISPLACEMENT ALONG Y DIRECTION
The graph 2 shows the distance along
crack flank and displacement along Y direction.
From the above graph CTOD value can be
found out using 90º intercept method. It is to
draw a 45º line in the graph which can be
helpful in finding out CTOD. This is just
another method to find out CTOD and to insist
that only the CTOD value depends and varies
upon the method we are using to finding out.
J-INTEGRAL
We have found out J integral values are
found out from ABAQUS software package. A
number of investigators have proposed the
mathematical formulation of elastostatic
conservation laws as path independent integrals
of some functional of the elastic field over the
bounding surface of a closed region. For notch
problems, [5,3,1]Rice introduced the two-
dimensional version of the conservation law, a
path independent line integral, known as the J-
integral.the magnitude of J-integral is also been
evaluated for a path at a specific loading
condition using the expression suggested
Rice[1]

Where, W= strain energy density, T
i
= traction
vector, u
i
=displacement vectors= element of arc
length along contour. The present section is
devoted to the theoretical foundation of the path
independent J-integral and its use as a fracture
criterion. The critical value of the opening of
the crack faces near the crack tip is also
introduced as a fracture criterion. Here we have
presented the J-integral in two-dimensional
crack problems and its physical interpretation in
terms of the rate of change of potential energy
with respect to an incremental extension of the
crack.
The path independent [1-5] nature of the
integral allows the integration path to be taken
close or far away from the crack tip. Although
the J-integral is based on purely elastic (linear
or nonlinear) analysis, its use for plasticity-type
materials has been supported by
experimentation or numerical analysis. We have
limited our discussion to numeric analysis.
Table 4: J integral various notched specimen
Graph 3: Load Vs J integral for various notched specimen
Various load steps have been applied on
the specimen with a/W=0.5 to study the stress
distribution in the specimen analysis. At each
step magnitude of J-integral is calculated. The
value of CMOD is estimated by FEA are plotted
against J-integral.the difference on CMOD
between both the specimen is found to increase
as loading parameter J-increases.the results
shows that the relationship between J and
CTOD is geometry dependent.
Graph 4: J integral Vs CMOD
SI no
Load
N
J integral (in KN/mm)
30º specimen 45º
specimen
60º
specimen
1. 500 0.00405 0.03 0.00146
2. 1000 0.0165 0.115 0.0058
3. 1500 0.0365 0.3 0.0132
4. 2000 0.065 0.52 0.0235
5. 2500 0.1015 0.8 0.036
6. 3000 0.146 1.2 0.053
The magnitude of CTOD calculated is
plotted against J/ σ
y
.the graph shows variation
of CTOD against J/ σ
y
is linear. The constant
between the J/ σ
y
and CTOD is found by the
slopes of the results shown in graph.
Graph 5: CTOD Vs J-integral
It is found that d
n
value is less than 1.
Further, investigation shows that conversion of
J to CTOD may be associated with some error
depending on the magnitude of d
n
.
STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR
The resistance to fracture may be
characterized by the stress intensity at fracture
Kc, called the fracture toughness. The
relationship between the stress intensity K and
the load P applied on a Centered crack panel
can be defined as follow [14]
Where a is half the crack length, w is half the
width, and B is the thickness. At onset of crack
growth the stress intensity factor, K, equals the
fracture toughness Kc.
Therefore, the linear elastic fracture mechanics
limiting stress is given by[14-15]
Where σ
c
is the stress at crack growth (here
peak stress for the given initial crack length),
and Kc obtained experiment (based on the
reasonable crack length for the purpose).
Table 5: Stress Intensity variations for various specimen
Graph 6: stress intensity various Vs load
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
The finite element analysis is done for
three types of aluminium 6061 T651 specimen.
Various Finite element methods and techniques
were followed while carrying the analysis and
results are recorded. So, these numerical
analysis are very much helpful in future work in
Elasto Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM),
where we will be establishing results in
between the fracture toughness parameters
which will be significant in fracture based
design.
J integral values are found out and they
are plotted in graph against the load applied.
Also CTOD is determined where they are found
out from 90 degree intercept method. Then
CMOD values are also found out and they
plotted against the load applied. Finally Stress
intensity factors are found out. Thus almost all
the needed fracture parameters are found out
which would be helpful in establishing
relationships in future and which can be
significant in fracture based studies.
These were found out the from the
fracture mechanics based analysis of aluminum
bend specimen done numerically
• CMOD and J integral have
almost linear relation where a
new formula can be established
between these parameters
• J integral is found greater at 45º
specimen, where crack can be
developed
• J integral results show that at
30º and 60º notched specimen,
the stress are relatively less
• Linear relationship can be
established in between Load Vs
Stress Intensity factor
• The relation between J and
CMOD strongly depends on the
method of estimation of ,crack
tip opening displacement,
specimen geometry and a/W
ratio of the specimen
Results of ANSYS and ABAQUS needs to be
compared.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to acknowledge
the support of Arunai Engineering College,
Tiruvannamalai, and Anna University Chennai.
REFERENCES
1. Rice, J.R., “A Path Independent Integral
and Approximation Analysis of Strain
Concentration by Notches and Cracks”,
ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics,
June 1968, 379-396.
2. H j schinder, Facta universities,
Mechanics,automatic control and
Robotics,3(2003)613-622
3. Derbalin.G, “J-integral Estimation
Procedures”, Journal of Pressure Vessel
Technology, November 1983, 105: 299-
308.
4. Jacques H. Giovanola, Steven W.
Kirkpatrick, James E. Crocker, Fracture
of Geometrically Scaled, Notched
Three-Point-Bend Bars of High Strength
Steel, Engineering Fracture Mechanics
62 (1999) : 291- 310.
5. Merkle J.G., Corten H.T., J-Integral
Analysis for the Compact Specimen
Considering Axial Force as well as
Bending Effects, Journal of Pressure
Vessel Technology, Trans ASME
1974;96.
6. ASTM 1290-99, 1999. Standard Test
Method for Crack Tip Opening
Displacement (CTOD) fracture
toughness measurement, Philadelphia.
7. Kudari.S.K. and Kodancha. K.G., On
the Relationship between J – Integral
and CTOD for CT and SENB
Specimens, Frattura ed Integrita’
Strutturale, 6(2008), 3-10.
8. Shih CF. Relationship between the J-
integral and the crack tip opening
displacement for stationary and
extending cracks, Journal of Mechanics
and Physics of Solids 1981, 29: 305-26.
9. T.L Aderson,”fracture mechanics
fundamental and application”,CRC
press,USA(1955).
SI no Load(in N)
Stress Intensity Factor KIC, 10
6
Pa√m
1. 500 510 480 470
2. 1000 1000 975 950
3. 1500 1520 1450 1400
4. 2000 2040 1950 1840
5. 2500 2600 2400 2320
6. 3000 3100 2920 2800
10. Barsom J.M.(1994) Fracture Mechanics
analysis of Fatigue Crack Initiation and
Growth. The International Conference
on Fatigue, Toronto,Canada
11. F.Berto, University of Padova, Italy.
,Relationships between J-Integral and
the strain energy evaluated in a finite
volume surrounding the tip of sharp and
blunt V notches
12. Solid mechanics and its application by
E.E. Gdoutos Democritus University of
Thrace, Xanthi, Greece.
13.ANSYS TUTORIAL 2-D Fracture
Analysis ANSYS Release 7.0Dr.
A.-V. Phan, University of South
Alabama.
14.Fracture Toughness Testing of
Non Standard Specimens,
Research Report No
2004:05,School of Engineering
Blekinge Institute of Technology
15.ASTM E399.18900-05Standard
Test Method for Linear-Elastic
Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness
KIc of Metallic Materials1.
16.Fracture of components with V-
shaped notches F.J. Gomez, M.
Elices *Departamento de
Ciencia de Materiales,
Universidad Polit_ecnica de
Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de
Caminos, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Received 25July 2002; received
in revised form 6 January 2003;
accepted 8 January 2003
Frequency Response Analysis of An Automotive Oil Filter Housing
Assembly
R.Gopinathan
1
, ME ( CAD)
Mahendra engineering college, Thiruchengode.
Email: ragopinathan@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
In today’s world the automotive
components are the most sensible and to
stand in the diminishing market it is
required to be updated frequently. The oil
filter housing assembly is the part of the
lubrication system of an automobile and
since it is located near to the engine, the
vibrations are enormous. So it is more
appropriate to do the analysis on the oil
Filter Housing assembly of an automobile
(car).
This project effectively deals with the meshing of
the oil filter housing components. It is meshed with
tetrahedral elements using Hypermesh 8.0. The
meshing is done with the given quality criterias and
is converted into Ansys template file (*.prp file).
Then the analysis is carried out in Ansys10.0. The
analysis part includes modal and Frequency
response analysis. The modal analysis aims in
finding out the natural frequencies of the system
and also to find whether the meshing of the
component is correct i.e. nodal connectivity
between parts exists or not. The Frequency
Response Analysis aims in finding out whether the
system has the chances of undergoing any
resonance due to the forced frequencies.
1. INTRODUCTION TO LUBRICATION
SYSTEM [A]
Nearly all multi cylinder engines used in
automotive, construction, and material-handling
equipment use a liquid-cooled system. Any
liquid used in this type of system is called a
coolant.
A simple lubricating system consists of
a radiator, coolant pump, piping, fan,
thermostat, and a system of water jackets and
passages in the cylinder head and block through
which the coolant circulates. Some vehicles are
equipped with a coolant distribution tube inside
the cooling passages that directs additional
coolant to the points where temperatures are
highest. Cooling of the engine parts is
accomplished by keeping the coolant
circulating and in contact with the metal
surfaces to be cooled. The operation of a liquid-
cooled system is as follows:
Fig. 1.1- Typical Lubrication System [A]
• The pump draws the coolant from the
bottom of the radiator, forcing the
coolant through the water jackets and
passages, and ejects it into the upper
radiator tank.
• The coolant then passes through a set of
tubes to the bottom of the radiator from
which the cooling cycle begins.
• The radiator is situated in front of a fan
that is driven either by the water pump
or an electric motor. The fan ensures
airflow through the radiator at times
when there is no vehicle motion.
• The downward flow of coolant through
the radiator creates what is known as a
thermo siphon action. This simply
means that as the coolant is heated in the
jackets of the engine, it expands. As it
expands, it becomes less dense and
therefore lighter. This causes it to flow
out of the top outlet of the engine and
into the top tank of the radiator.
• As the coolant is cooled in the radiator,
it again becomes more dense and
heavier. This causes the coolant to settle
to the bottom tank of the radiator.
• The heating in the engine and the
cooling in the radiator therefore create a
natural circulation that aids the water
pump.
The amount of engine heat that must be
removed by the cooling system is much greater
than is generally realized. To handle this heat
load, it may be necessary for the cooling system
in some engine to circulate 18,000 to 45,000
LITERS of coolant per hour. The water
passages, the size of the pump and radiator, and
other details are so designed as to maintain the
working parts of the engine at the most efficient
temperature within the limitation imposed by
the coolant.
2. INTRODUCTION TO PRE / POST
PROCESSOR AND SOLVER USED
2.1 THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
2.1.1 Introduction
If the geometry of the given system is
complex, it seems that the domain can be
represented as an assembly of geometrical
simple sub domains for which the construction
of approximate function s become feasible. The
FEM is based on these ideas.
In the FEM, a given domain is discredited
by a collection of geometrical simple sub
domains called Finite Elements and for each
element of the collection, the element equations
are derived using any one of the variational
principles. The approximation of field variables,
now on each element, are systematically
generated. The elements are connected together
by imposing the continuity of field variables not
only at their nodes but also across the inter
element boundaries.
Basic Steps Of Finite Element Analysis
• Discretization of the given domain using
finite element of different types, shapes and
orders.
• Approximation of field variable(s) over
each element domain
• Element matrix generation.
• Assembly of element Matrices.
• Imposition of boundary and constraint
condition.
• Solution of global matrix equations
• Post processing of the results.
2.2 INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS [2]
Ansys is a general purpose FEM Pack
for numerically solving a wide variety of
mechanical problems. These problems include
static/ dynamic structural analysis, Heat
Transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic
and electronic problems. The superior
performance of Ansys is not based on any
single product feature alone. It is a combination
of proven, leading edge tech in all elements of
the software that provides accuracy, reliability,
speed and flexibility that companies trust to
make them successful.
The superior Technology includes
• Advanced coupled multigrid linear
solver technology.
• Unmatched meshing flexibility
• Superb parallel efficiency
• Excellent pre and post processing
capabilities.
Super Technology delivers
• Quick and accurate results
• Intuitive setup
• Wider applicability and fewer required
resources.
2.3 INTRODUCTION TO
HYPERMESH[C]
Altair Hypermesh is a high-performance
finite element pre- and postprocessor for
popular finite element solvers - allowing
engineers to analyze product design
performance in a highly interactive and visual
environment. HyperMesh's user-interface is
easy to learn and supports much CAD geometry
and finite element model files - increasing
interoperability and efficiency. Advanced
functionality within Hypermesh allows users to
efficiently mesh high fidelity models.
This functionality includes user defined
quality criteria and controls, morphing
technology to update existing meshes to new
design proposals, and automatic mid-surface
generation for complex designs with of varying
wall thicknesses. Automated tetra-meshing and
hexa-meshing minimizes meshing time while
batch meshing enables large scale meshing of
parts with no model clean up and minimal user
input.
3.1 PROBLEM
STATEMENT
The problem
statement for this project is stated as
“Frequency Response Analysis of An
Automotive Oil Filter Housing Assembly”.
This project involves in finding out the
natural Frequencies of the system and to find
whether the assembly can successfully
overcome resonance due to the forced
frequencies. The following are the main
objectives of this project.
1. FE modeling with Tetrahedral
Elements.
2. Modal Analysis of the Assembly
3. Frequency Response Analysis.
4. FE MODELING
4.1 MESHING THE MODEL
The IGES file of the oil filter housing is
imported to the Altair Hypermesh 7.0. After
importing, the geometric cleanup of the
component is done. In the geometric cleanup
process, free edges if any found are removed.
This clean up ensured that there is no defects in
geometry, like free-edges, non-manifold edges,
missing surfaces, etc.
Fig. 4.1- Small Fillet
regions and
Suppressed edges
Then some of the edges which where
forming small surfaces are suppressed .Thus the
elements created in these areas don’t fail. The
Global edge length of the element is fixed as 3,
which is set in Global.
4.1.1 2D Mesh
The different parts of the assembly kept
in different collectors, are meshed separately for
each part. First the component is meshed with
2-D tria3 elements. The required quality
criteria’s for the mesh is maintained through
out. After meshing, the element connectivity is
checked. Equivalence, if any present is given
with tolerance 0.01. Then the qualities of the
elements are been checked. The following table
gives the quality criteria’s maintained for tria3
elements.
Total number of tria3 elements created
in the model is 85,409.
Type Limit No. Of
Elements
Failed
% Of
Elements
Failed
Warpage > 5 0 0
Aspect
Ratio
> 5 0 0
Skew > 60 42 0
Jacobian < 0.7 0 0
Minimum
Angle
< 15 0 0
Maximum
Angle
> 135 9 0
Table 4.1 – Quality Criteria’s for 2D elements
The nodal connectivities between the parts are
given in the 2D mesh itself. For giving this
connectivity, the elements of one of the mating
parts are projected on the other. These elements
are then used for the meshing of the mating
component.
4.1.2 3D Mesh
After correcting the failed elements and
free edges of the 2D mesh, the 3D tetrahedral
mesh is created using tetra4 element. Since the
nodal connectivity is given in 2D elements, 3D
elements will also have connectivity. The
elements created are then checked with the
quality criteria’s shown in the below table.
Total number of 3D tetra4 elements created is
1,62,423 & number of nodes found are 48,382
Type Limit
No. Of
Elements
Failed
% Of
Elements
Failed
Skew > 60 371 0
Tet
collapse
<
0.15
0 0
Minimum
Angle
< 15 100 0
Maximum
Angle
> 135 54 0
Table 4.2 – Quality Criteria’s for 3D elements
The meshed components of the
assembly are shown below
Fig.4.2 - Main Housing
Fig. 4.3 - Secondary Filter
Fig. 4.4 - Base Plate
Fig. 4.5 -Primary and secondary oil filter cap
Creation of Rigids
After meshing all the parts with the nodal
connectivity between the parts, the bolted
locations of the assembly are given rigid
elements. First temporary nodes are created at
the center of the hole, both in the top and
bottom surfaces of the hole. Then the Rigids are
created by selecting the center node as the
independent node (master node) and the
remaining nodes as the dependent node (slave
node). The element type for the rigids is given
as CERIG.
Fig. 4.7 Assembled Finite Element Model
Fig. 4.8 – Nodal Connectivity Between Parts
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
5.1 MODAL ANALYSIS
5.1.1 Definition of Modal Analysis
We use modal analysis to determine the
vibration characteristics (natural frequencies
and mode shapes) of a structure or a machine
component while it is being designed. It also
can be a starting point for another, more
detailed, dynamic analysis, such as a transient
Rigid
dynamic analysis, a harmonic response
analysis, or a spectrum analysis.
5.1.2 Uses of Modal Analysis
We use modal analysis to determine the
natural frequencies and mode shapes of a
structure. The natural frequencies and mode
shapes are important parameters in the design
of a structure for dynamic loading conditions.
They are also required if we want to do a
spectrum analysis or a mode superposition
harmonic or transient analysis.
We can do modal analysis on a
prestressed structure, such as a spinning turbine
blade. Another useful feature is modal cyclic
symmetry, which allows us to review the mode
shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure by
modeling just a sector of it.
Modal analysis in the ANSYS family of
products is a linear analysis. Any non-linearity,
such as plasticity and contact (gap) elements,
are ignored even if they are defined. We can
choose from several mode extraction methods:
Block Lanczos (default), subspace, Power
Dynamics, reduced, asymmetric, damped, and
QR damped. The damped and QR damped
methods allow you to include damping in the
structure.
5.1.3 Overview of Steps in a Modal
Analysis
The procedure for a modal analysis consists of
four main steps:
 Build the model. (Or import the
geometry)
 Apply loads and obtain the solution.
 Expand the modes.
 Review the results.
5.2 SOLID45 ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
SOLID45 is used for the 3-D modeling
of solid structures. The element is defined by
three nodes having three degrees of freedom at
each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z
directions.
The element has plasticity, creep,
swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and
large strain capabilities. A reduced integration
option with hourglass control is available. A
similar element with anisotropic properties is
SOLID64. A higher-order version of the
SOLID45 element is SOLID95.
The component is made up of two materials.
One is of Aluminium and the other is plastic.
Material Property 1 – Aluminium
Property Value
Mass
Density (ρ)
2.74e-6
kg/mm
3
Young’s
Modulus (E)
71705
mPa


Poisson’s
Ratio
0.33
Table 5.1 – Aluminium Material Property
Material Property 1 – Plastic
Property Value
Mass Density
(ρ)
1.3
gm/cm
3
Young’s
Modulus (E)
3450
mPa

Poisson’s
Ratio
0.3
Table 5.2 – Plastic Material Property
5.3 MODE EXTRACTION METHOD
USED
Block Lanczos Method
The Block Lanczos method is used for
large symmetric eigen value problems. We can
use this method for the same types of problems
for which we use the subspace method, but we
achieve a faster convergence rate. The Block
Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver,
overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV
command.
5.4 FREE - FREE MODAL ANALYSIS
First modal analysis on the assembly is
made without applying any boundary
conditions. This is done to know whether nodal
connectivity is there between the parts. This is
ensured by seeing the first six set values, which
will be zero. No damping effects included. The
following table gives the natural frequencies of
the assembly with out any boundary condition.
The first 15 modes are been extracted and the
values are given below.
Extracted
Modes
Natural
Frequency (Hz)
1 0
2 0
3 0
4 0
5 0
6 0
7 0.53195E-03
8 0.98903E-03
9 0.25534E-02
10 0.36218E-02
11 37669E-02
12 0.71921E-02
13 83.369
14 85.776
15 439.10
Table 5.3 – Free- Free Modal frequency values
5.5 FIXED MODAL ANALYSIS
After completing the free-free modal
analysis, the forced model analysis is done.
Here the boundary conditions are given. Bolted
holes are arrested in all degree of freedom. And
an acceleration of 10 g is been provided. And
then the modal analysis is done. The following
table gives the different frequencies of the
system. Since the working range is from 40 Hz,
the frequencies are also obtained above 40Hz.
The results and the mode shapes obtained are
given in the following pages.
SET TIME/FRE
Q
LOAD
STEP
SUBSTEP
1 352.34 1 1
2 456.31 1 2
3 1096.4 1 3
4 1222.2 1 4
5 1427.5 1 5
6 1447.5 1 6
7 1892.7 1 7
8 2050.7 1 8
9 2057.9 1 9
10 2065.2 1 10
11 2097.1 1 11
12 2282.3 1 12
13 2438.8 1 13
14 2744.1 1 14
15 2790.4 1 15
Table 5.4 – Natural Frequency Values
The different mode shapes obtained are given
below
Fig. 5.1 – 1
st
Mode shape (Frequency 352.343Hz)
Fig. 5.2 – 6
th
Mode shape (Frequency 1447 Hz)
Fig. 5.3 – 10
th
Mode shape (Frequency 2065 Hz)
Fig. 5.4 – 13
th
Mode shape (Frequency 2439 Hz)
5.6 HARMONIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS
5.6.1 Definition Of Harmonic Response
Analysis
Any sustained cyclic load will produce a
sustained cyclic response (a harmonic response)
in a structural system. Harmonic response
analysis gives us the ability to predict the
sustained dynamic behavior of structures, thus
enabling us to verify whether the designs will
successfully overcome resonance, fatigue, and
other harmful effects of forced vibrations.
5.6.2 Uses of Harmonic Response
Analysis
Harmonic response analysis is a
technique used to determine the steady-state
response of a linear structure to loads that vary
sinusoidally (harmonically) with time. The idea
is to calculate the structure's response at several
frequencies and obtain a graph of some
response quantity (usually displacements)
versus frequency. "Peak" responses are then
identified on the graph and stresses reviewed at
those peak frequencies.
Three harmonic response analysis methods are
available:
• Full method,
• Reduced method, and
• Mode superposition method.
The Full Method is used for this analysis.
5.7 FULL METHOD
The full method is the easiest of the three
methods. It uses the full system matrices to
calculate the harmonic response (no matrix
reduction). The matrices may be symmetric or
unsymmetric. The advantages of the full
method are:
• It is easy to use, because you don't have
to worry about choosing master degrees
of freedom or mode shapes.
• It uses full matrices, so no mass matrix
approximation is involved.
• It allows unsymmetric matrices, which
are typical of such applications as
acoustics and bearing problems.
• It calculates all displacements and
stresses in a single pass.
• It accepts all types of loads: nodal
forces, imposed (nonzero)
displacements, and element loads
(pressures and temperatures).
• It allows effective use of solid-model
loads.
The disadvantage is that this method usually
is more expensive than either of the other
methods when we use the frontal solver.
However, when we use the JCG solver or the
ICCG solver, the full method can be very
efficient.
5.8 PREPROCESSING AND SOLUTION
FOR HARMONIC ANALYSIS
For a harmonic analysis, Both Young's
modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and
density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must
be defined. Material properties may be linear,
isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or
temperature-dependent. Nonlinear material
properties, if any, are ignored.
On the same model with the same material
properties, the harmonic frequency response
analysis is been done with the Full Method. The
boundary conditions are applied with all bolted
holes arrested in all degree of freedom and an
acceleration of 10 g is been provided. In the
load step options the frequency range is given
as 40 – 500 Hz and the number of sub steps is
given as 15.
The following are the results obtained for
the harmonic analysis. The graphs are plotted
between the frequency and amplitude and
another between frequency and Von mises
stress.
Fig. 5.6 – Frequency Vs Amplitude Plot
In the Graph, there are two peaks
obtained. This indicates the coincidence of the
natural and forced frequencies. The Peak
amplitudes obtained are at 348 Hz and at 470
Hz. The maximum amplitude obtained is 0.6
mm.
Fig. 5.7 – Frequency Vs Von Mises Stress Plot
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
In the graphs obtained we are getting
two peak amplitudes at the frequencies 347 and
465 Hz. The maximum displacement obtained
is 0.6 mm. The maximum stress obtained is 3.9
e-2 N/mm
2
. These two maximum frequencies
are approximately matching with that of the
natural frequencies 352 Hz and 456 Hz and this
is the reason for the sudden peak in amplitude.
So when the forced frequency of a system
matches with that of the natural frequency, then
there is a sure chance of resonance in the
system. So if the system works in this given
range then, definitely the system is going to fail
due to resonance.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In any endeavor, more than one person
is responsible for carrying the task to
completion. The efforts resulting in this project
are no exception. Many people have contributed
to the success of this project, either directly or
indirectly.
I wish to express my profuse thanks to
our beloved Principal, who gave us the
necessary support throughout the course of
study.
I am very much indebted to Department
of Mechanical Engineering, for their timely
help and support throughout the course of the
project.
I express my whole hearted thanks to
my project coordinator and Head of the
Department, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, for his valuable guidance, support,
and encouragement, which helped me in
accomplishing this project.
I extend my special thanks to Asst.Prof.
JAIKUMAR, ME, in Department of
Mechanical Engineering, for giving me
valuable suggestions and guidance in bringing
out this project successfully.
Finally, I express my gratitude to
all the faculty members of Mechanical
Engineering Department, my parents and
friends, who have given me their kind
cooperation and help in completing this project
successfully.
REFERENCES
[1] Benson H. Tongue, Principles of Vibration,
2
nd
edn., Oxford university press,NY,2002.
[2] Thomson, W.T.- ‘Theory of Vibration with
Applications’, CBS Publishers and Distributors,
New delhi, 1990.
[3] Rao,S.S., ‘Mechanical Vibrations,’ Addison
Wesley longman,1995.
[4] Srinivasan P.’Mechanical Vibration
Analysis’ Tata McGraw Hill,Publishing
company ltd,New Delhi, 1982.
[5] Cook, R.D., Malkus, D.S., Plesha, M.E.,
"Concepts and Applications of Finite Element
Analysis", 3rd ed, 1989.
[6] The Finite Element Method, Thomas
J.R.Hughes.
[7] Goddard, P.L., (2000), "Software FMEA
techniques", 2000
Improving the Performance of the Active Suspension System using Zero
Power Magnetic Suspension Spring
K.Prabu
1
, D.Easu
2
, and Dr.K.Arunachalam
3
1
M.I.T Anna University Chennai /Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India.
Email:prabusekar@gmail.com
2
M.I.T Anna University Chennai /Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India.
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the
design and implementation of a hybrid
magnet system to reduce the vibration of
suspension system actively. The objective of
the work is to produce excellent spring mass
isolation (i.e. ride quality) and small rattle
space frequency and good road holding
ability. Two degrees of freedom quarter car
model of a passive suspension system with a
cylindrical type hybrid magnet
(electromagnet and permanent magnet) is
considered for the analysis. A laboratory
scale physical test rig of a quarter car model
is developed and interfaced with a suitable
data acquisition card via personal computer
as the main controller. The results obtained
from Matlab /Simulink model are compared
with the experimental results.
I. INTRODUCTION
The primary function of vehicle
suspension is to isolate the vehicle body and the
passenger from the road irregularities and
produce a continuous road wheel contact. At
present three type of vehicle suspensions are
used, passive, semi active and active. All the
systems implemented in automobiles are based
on hydraulic or pneumatic operation. However
it is verified that these solutions cannot solve
the vehicles’ oscillation problems satisfactorily
or they are expensive and contribute to the
increase of energy vehicle consumption.
This analysis is carried out to find the
possibility of implementing the suspension
system using electromagnetic actuators, in order
to improve the performance of the suspension
system without increasing the energy
consumption and the cost.
This study presents a novel approach to
the problem of active suspension using
levitation principle. In this approach zero power
control has been used which enhance the power
saving. Both the permanent magnet and
electromagnet are acting as a magnetic spring
and it is connected in parallel with the passive
suspension system.
II. Suspension System Dynamics
Three types of suspension system are
presently used in vehicle suspensions. They are
passive semi active and active suspension
systems.
A. Passive suspension
The Passive suspension system contains
springs to store the energy and damper to
dissipate the energy. A spring and damper both
fixed between the wheel supporting structure
and the vehicle body. However the compromise
between three conflicting demand has been
fixed and it is not possible to enhance the
overall performance at all loads, roads and
speed condition.
B. Semi active suspension
Semi active suspension is a variable
damper it has the ability to change the damping
characteristics according to the body motion
through mechanically changing orifice or fluid
with adjustable velocity. The control algorithm
is used in the design governs the amount of
damping on the type of the vehicle, a damper
chosen to make the vehicle performance the
best. The damper will be set in the soft damping
characteristics to have the maximum comfort
while traveling in the straight road and it will be
set to be hard while cornering for better stability
however no energy is induced in the system.
C. Active suspension
A reduction of sprung mass vertical
acceleration is achieved with the use of an
active suspension system Additionally actuator
is placed in between the sprung mass and
unsprung mass in the passive suspension
system. The actuator is actuated by hydraulic or
magnetic, and it is controlled by different type
of controllers.
Low bandwidth active suspension
system is known as flow active or band limited
system, in this actuator is placed parallel or in
series with convention system. In high
bandwidth system actuator alone is placed in
between the vehicle body and wheel supporting
structure. The entire weight of the car is acting
on the actuator, so that the actuator required
developing large force to support the car.
III Suspension model
A two degree of freedom quarter car
model is used for the analysis. The frequency
response of the model has been analyzed. The
hybrid magnetic actuator has been developed
and the air gap is maintained between the two
magnets.
Figure 1 Quarter car model
The Figure 1 represents a quarter car model in
which m
s
represents the sprung mass of the
vehicle, m
u
represents the unsprung mass of one
wheel with suspension, k
s
is the spring stiffness,
K
t
is the tire stiffness and C is the damping
coefficient of the damper.
A. Equation of motion
The dynamic behavior of one wheel suspension
system expressed by the following differential
equation:
Where F
a
– is the actuator force produced by the
hybrid magnet. When we change the coil
current in the electromagnet, the actuator force
will vary accordingly. The external force is
obtained by attaching a magnetic actuator to the
system. The equation 3.1 re-written as follows
Where K
x
represents position stiffness and K
i
represents coil stiffness. To maintain 24mm air
gap between permanent magnet and electro
magnet the bias current of the coil current is set
to 0.8A. The characteristics of electro magnetic
system depend on the input current frequency.
B. Theoretical analysis
The parameter of two degree of quarter
car model taken for the analysis are Ms-18.2kg
Mu- 7.25kg, Ks- 1570N/m and Kt- 4850N/m..
The Frequency response curve is obtain from
MATLAB simulation
Figure.2 Comparison of spring mass
acceleration

Figure.3 Theoretical Frequency response curve
C. Experimental setup and analysis
A laboratory type of two degree of
quarter car model has shown in figure has been
developed. In this system the passive
suspension model spring and the damper placed
parallel to each other. The hybrid magnetic
actuator is placed in between the vehicle body
(sprung mass) and wheel supporting structure
(unsprung mass). Linear bearing and stainless
steel rod are used to guide the vertical
movement of the mass plates. Electromagnet is
fixed on the unsprung mass plate. Permanent
magnet is mounted on the sprung mass plate.
The air gap of 24mm is provided to get a
maximum magnetic force of 250N.
Figure 4 Experimental Frequency response
curve
IV. Result and discussions
In this study a theoretical and
experimental analysis of steady state response
of conventional suspension system with and
without magnetic actuator is carried out. From
the theoretical response curve it is shown that
the amplitude of vibration of the sprung mass of
the vehicle is considerably reduced under the
action of magnetic damper.
The proposed hybrid magnet system shows the
effectiveness of suspension and vibration
reduction in various conditions. One of the
remaining problems for application to a real
vehicle is the preparation of enough power. In
future if the vehicle uses electrical power
source such as a fuel cell or condensed battery,
the hybrid magnet system could be considered
as a good vibration reduction system.
V. Conclusion
In this paper, the mathematical
modeling of suspension system, magnetic
actuator, power amplifier and springs are
designed and a laboratory scale model of
quarter car suspension is developed and tested.
The results of theoretical simulations are carried
out using MATLAB/simulink tool. MATLAB
simulation results are compared with the
experimental results. From this result, we have
concluded that the magnetic actuator for active
suspension system gives good sprung mass
isolation, small rattle space frequency and road
holding ability.
REFERENCE
1. Takeshi Mizuno, Masaya Takasaki, Daisuke
Kishita, Keiichiro Hirakawa ‘Vibration
isolation system combining zero power
magnetic suspension with springs’- control
Engineering Practice, 2007 Volume 15, pp
187-196
2. Yahaya Md.Sam, Johari H.S.Osman,
M.Ruddin, Ghani ‘A Class of Proportional-
Integral Sliding Mode Control with
Application to Active Suspension System.
Systems and control letters’, 2006 Volume
51, pp 217-223
3. A.G.Thomson and B.R.Davis ‘Optimal
active suspension design using a frequency
shaping PID filter’, Vehicle system
Dynamics, 1992 Volume 21, pp.19-37
4. Chen-Sheng Ting, Tzuu-HsengS.LI and
Fan- Chu Kung ‘Design of Fuzzy controller
for Active suspension system’ 1995 Volume
5, pp 365-383
5. Haiping Du, Nong Zhang ‘H∞ Control of
active suspensions with actuator time delay’,
Journal of sound and vibration, 2007 Volume
301, pp 236-252
6. D.Hrovat ‘Survey of advanced suspension
developments and related optimal control
applications’Automatica, 1997 Volume.33,
pp 1781-1817
7. D.A.Crolla and A.M.A.Abouel Nour ’Power
losses in active and passive suspensions of
off-road vehicles’, Journal of
Terramechanics, 1992 Volume.29, pp 83-93
8. H.Tobbata, K.Fukuyama, T.Kimura
‘Advanced control methods of active
suspension system’- Vehicle system
Dynamics, 1993 Volume 22, pp.347-358
9. M.B.A.Abdel Hady ,’Active suspension
with preview control ‘Vehicle system
Dynamics-, 2002 Volume 21, pp.21-37
10. Rajesh Rajamani ‘Vehicle dynamics and
control’ Springer, University of Minnesota,
USA, 2006.
11. A.Nagoorkani ’Advance control theory’
Second edition, RBA publication, Chennai
Determination Of Price, Warranty
Period And Product Quantity For
Free Replacement Policy Under
Static Demand
B. Kishore Goud
1
K.Jeyakumar
2
T.Paul Robert
3
1
P.G Scholar, Department of Industrial
Engineering, CEG, Anna University, Chennai -600
025.
2
Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engg.,
Francis Xavier Engineering College, Tirunelveli -
3.
3
Asst. Professor, Department of Industrial
Engineering, CEG, Anna University Chennai- 600
025.
Corresponding Authors: kish.ece@gmail.com ,
jeyakitcha@yahoomail.com
ABSTRACT

Now a days post sale factors like
warranty, parts availability,
maintenance, service and cost plays a
vital role in sale of a product. As better
warranty signals higher product quality
and provides greater assurance to
customers, warranty plays an important
factor in marketing new products.
Literature review on various research
contributions in the area of warranty
models is carried out. This paper
proposes a profit maximization model
based on short run life cycle for the
producer’s works under static demand
market to determine the optimal price,
warranty period and product quantity.
The Free Replacement warranty policy
is considered under which failed
products are replaced before the end of
warranty period at no cost to the
consumers. The expected number of
renewals based on warranty length is
derived for lognormal distributed
products. The decision variables in the
model are the price of the product,
quantity and length of warranty period
throughout which manufacturer is
responsible for service. Results are
presented to describe the solution
procedure for static demand
distribution.
Keywords: Free Replacement warranty,
Profit maximization, static demand.
1. Introduction
Warranty is an important
element of marketing new products, as
better warranty signals higher product
quality and provides greater assurance to
customer. In the purchase decision of a
product, buyers typically compare
characteristics of comparable models of
competing brands. When competing
brands are nearly identical, it is very
difficult in many instances to choose a
particular product solely on the basis of the
product related characteristics such as
product price, special features, perceived
product quality and reliability, financing
offered by the manufacturer and so on. In
such situations, post-sale factors like
warranty, parts availability and cost,
service, maintenance, and so forth take on
added importance in product choice ( Lele
and Karmarkar [1], and Ritchken et al.
[3]). Of these, warranty is one that is
known (or at least potentially known) to
the buyer at the time of purchase.
As a result, product warranty
plays an increasingly important role in
consumer and commercial transactions.
The use of warranties is widespread and
they serve many purposes. These include
protection for manufacturer and buyer,
signaling of product quality, an important
element of marketing strategy, assuring
buyers against items which do not perform
as promised and play an important role in
the dispute resolution between buyer and
manufacturer.
For the same class of products
in the market, lower price usually tends to
enhance sales volume, but leads to a
decrease in the unit profit. Pricing must be
based on cost to create profit; meanwhile,
the price of a product should not be too
high to dissuade consumers from
purchasing. Therefore, producers have to
treat product pricing as a competitive tool
in their marketing strategy.In addition to
price, consumers may predict the quality
of a product based on its warranty, which
is considered as the assurance that the
producer provides after evaluating the
strength of products [2]. For promotion,
warranty can be considered as a marketing
tool to differentiate from competitors [3,4],
since a satisfactory warranty policy will
certainly enhance consumers’ purchase
willingness. If the producer promises to
renew or repair products when failures
occur, the commitment length of warranty
and the reliability of the product, which is
related to its lifetime distribution, play a
key role on determining the total cost of
product. A producer must strive to obtain
maximum profit in the long run which
depends not only on the marketing policy
(i.e. price and warranty length) but also
product quantity.
In the present paper, we deal
with the problem of determining the
optimal price, warranty period and product
quantity with a lognormal distribution in
the static demand market such that the
present value of product profit may be
maximized. We consider the free renewal
Warranty policy under which the failed
products are renewed before the end of
warranty length at no cost to consumers.
Moreover, the demand function of the
static market, and the cost function will be
discussed. A profit optimization model
with price, warranty length and product
quantity is developed, and the solution
approach will be described in detail.
Finally interpretation is done for the
proposed model and some conclusions is
drawn based on the proposed model and
discussions.
2. Concept Of Warranty
Warranty is a contractual
agreement incurred by a manufacturer
(vendor or seller) in connection with the
sale of a product. Warranties are an
integral part of nearly all commercial and
many government transactions that involve
product purchases. The buyer individual,
corporation, or government agency) point
of view of a warranty is different from that
of the manufacturer (or distributor, retailer,
and so forth).
2.1 Buyers point of view:
From the buyer’s point of view,
the main role of a warranty in these
transactions is protectional – it provides a
means of redress if the item, when
properly used, fails to perform as intended
or as specified by the seller. Specifically,
the warranty assures the buyer that a faulty
item will either be repaired or replaced at
no cost or at reduced cost. A second role is
informational. Many buyers infer that a
product with a relatively longer warranty
period is more reliable and long lasting
than one with a shorter warranty period.
2.2 Manufactures Point of view:
One of the main roles of
warranty from the manufacturer’s point of
view is also protectional. The
manufacturer may be provided further
protection by specification of requirements
for care and maintenance of the product. A
second important purpose of warranties for
the manufacturer is promotional. Since
buyers often infer a more reliable product
when a long warranty is offered, this has
been used as an effective advertising tool.
This is often particularly important when
marketing new and innovative products,
which may be viewed with a degree of
uncertainty.
3. Literature Review
There has been an increased
research attention on warranty models.
Glickman and Berger (1976) proposed an
early model for this important research
area. They assumed that the customers
were homogeneous, with their demand
determined by an exponential function of
price and warranty length. The optimal
price and warranty length were obtained
by maximizing the manufacturer’s profit
function. The expected sales volume, or
demand, is represented by a displaced log-
linear function of the form q(p,w) = k
1
p

-a
(w+k
2
)
.
Mesak(1996) presented diffusion
models to derive the optimal pricing policy
and warranty period for a monopolist
selling new products. Based on the
assumption that the demand depends on
the product price, warranty period, and
cumulative number of adopters.
Teng and Thompson (1996)
developed a general framework to
determine the optimal price and quality
policies of new products for a
monopolistic manufacturer during a
planning period. In the proposed
framework, they considered the learning
effects on the supply (manufacturer) side
and the diffusion and saturation effects on
the demand (customers) side. The model
deal with the dynamics between price and
quality on new product. RueySheng-
TsaingTseng(2000)
considers the optimal production length
for deteriating production system in which
the products are sold with free minimal
repair warranty. The deteriating process of
system is characterized by a two state
continuous time markov chain.
Jayaprakash G.Patnakar(1990)The paper
develops a methodology to aid the
manufacturer in selecting the price and
warranty time of its products. The model
considers the case where the products are
assumed to be complements of each other.
A multi-objective model is formulated
where it is assumed that the decision
maker is able to prioritize his goals. A goal
programming approach is used and the
effects of the chosen parameters on the
optimal solution.
Surajith Pal and D.K Manna
(2003) deals with a marketing decision
problem in the classical single period
stochastic inventory model, where the
level of marketing effort decides on the
extent of demand. Specially it is assumed
that demand is an increasing concave
function of the level of marketing effort.
Pei -Chun Lin, Li-Yen Shue (2005)His
study investigates optimal policies for
determining price and warranty length
when free replacement of defective items
is the business policy and the demand is
dependent on price, warranty, and
cumulative sales. We apply optimal
control theory to a profit-maximization
model that takes into consideration the
expected warranty cost per item. Chin-
Chun Wu, Pei-Chun Lin,Chao-Yu Chou
(2009)In this paper, a decision model is
presented for manufacturing firms to
determine the optimal price and warranty
length to maximize profits based on the
pre determined lifecycle. We consider the
free renewal warranty policy under which
failed items are renewed free of charge
until a specified total operating time has
been achieved. A sensitivity analysis is
conducted to evaluate the effect of model
parameters on the optimal solution.
Kwei Tang(2008) In this paper the main
objective is to determine a joint dynamic
pricing and warranty policy for the
lifetime of the product, which maximizes
the manufacturer’s expected profit. It is
assumed that customers are heterogeneous
with respect to risk aversion toward
uncertain repair costs after the warranty
expires.
4.Problem Formulation
The profit maximization model
consider price, warranty length and
product quantity as the decision variables
that are to be determined dynamically to
maximize the overall profit. We referred to
models presented by Glickman and Berger
(1976) and Teng and Thomson (1996) in
investigating the maximum market value
of products. Thus, in particular , utilize the
Log Normal Distribution .Because it is one
of the most widely used lifetime
distribution. Thus demand function as
being related to, not only price and
warranty, but also quantity to be produced.
Total expected Profit , π, as a function of
the unit price( p), quantity (q) ,and the
length of the warranty period( t), may be
expressed by multiplying the expected
profit derived from the sales of each unit
by number of units sold. The expression
for unit profit will be formulated in a
general fashion as an expectation in order
for the model to be applicable to products
requiring random, possibly multiple
repairs under warranty ,where the cost per
repair is constant.
4.1 Notations and Assumptions
P = Unit selling price
T = Warranty length
Q = Quantity produced
Cq = Unit manufacturing
cost
w = Warranty repair
cost/failure
ρ
(t) = Expected no. of
warranty failures
per unit
= ( λt)
β
x = quantity of demand
(sold)
= x (p, t)
fx(.) = Probability density
function of x
υ = Unit salvage price
(<p)
4.2 Assumptions
 Units salvage are also covered by
warranty of length ‘t’.
 Cq = c (independent of q)

ρ
(t) = λt, (β=1)
 Follows Log normal distribution.
Let X ~Log Normal (µ,
σ
2
) ,
Then f
X
(x) = 1/ π σ 2 x exp [-1((lnq-µ)/
σ
x
)
2
/2], 0 ≥ x ----------------(1)
Where
parameters are σ µ,
Such that -∞<µ<∞ and 0 > σ
F
x
=

· − Φ
q
q
0
) 2 / 1 ( )] / [(ln π σ σ µ
exp [-1((lnq-µ)/
σ
x
)
2
/2] dx----------------------------(2)
Where
(.) Φ
= cdf Of N(0,1)
Mean of log normal distribution function is
E[x] = exp(
2
σ µ + /2)
ln(x)=c+a*lnp+b*ln (t+
e + ) δ
----------(3)
Where, µ = c+a*ln p +b* ln(t+
) δ
----(4)
a<-1, 0<b<1 , 0 > δ e~N (
2
,σ µ )
F
x
(x) =
] / ) [(ln σ µ φ − x
=


∞ −
σ µ
π
/ ) (ln
2 / 1
x
e
(-u2/2)
du
Where, u= (lnx-µ)/
σ
5. Proposed Objective Function
Consider a product with an effective lifetime
from 0 to T
Given X=x, total Profit is given by
Π(q,p,t/x)=
¹
'
¹
≥ q x if twq - cq - px
q < x if twq - cq - x) - (q + px
λ
λ ν
---(5)
Then total expected Profit as,
E[Л(q,p,t)] = ∫ ∏

0
) \ , , ( x t p q
f
X
(x) dx
=

− − − +
q
twq cq x q px
0
) ( [ λ ν ] f
x
(x) dx +


− −
q
cq pq [
] twq λ
f
x
(x) dx
=(p-

q
x
0
) ν f
x
(x)dx+
] / ) [(ln ) ( σ µ λ ν − Φ − − q q tw c
+ (p-c- λ tw)q
) [(ln µ − Φ q ] /σ
The objective function wish to maximize
is,
П( p, t, q) =( p – c – λtw ) q + ( p-υ)
[e
μ+σ2/2
Ф[(lnq – μ – σ
2
)/σ] – q Ф [(lnq –
μ)/σ) ]--------------------------------------(6)
6. Interpretation and Discussions
We assumed that demand is static but it in
real case it can be influenced by marketing
effort. It is natural that demand is likely to
grow with an increase in marketing effort
with a diminishing rate. The relation
between the mean demand and marketing
effort is shown in the figure. Here
marketing effort is a function of (p, t) , Say
‘m’. It will be more when value of price
decreases and warranty period increases.
Interpretations may be done with various
cases on p, q and t is to be substituted in
our proposed profit maximization
expression to maximize the manufacture’s
profit.
Figure 1 Relationship between
marketing effort and mean demand
7. Conclusion and Future Scope
When noticing the limitations of previous
research, this study adds to the literature by
identifying the problem of optimal
determination of profit of unique products
fewer than two dimensional FRW policies.
Optimality, in the present context, refers to
maximization of manufacture’s profit that has
been measured by price, warranty length and
quantity. In future work, the objective function
can be optimized by using one of the Meta
heuristic techniques to maximize
manufacture’s profit. In our work we consider
only FRW policy but the future work can be
extended to PRW and combination of FRW/
PRW. The static market is considered in the
present paper. Future work may be on the
discussion of the effect of the market dynamics
to model. This type of model is suitable for
durable products which obey the diffusion
effect. This situation characterizes the case
where word of mouth effect is very important,
In addition, future study can also be extended
to explore the effects of various warranty
policies and market variables.
REFERENCES
[1] Lele M.M, Karmarkar U.S.(1983):
“ Good product support smart marketing”,
Harvard Business Review,Vol. 61,pp124-132
[2] Murthy, D.N.P.,(1990): “Optimal reliability
choice in product design”,Engineering
optimization, Vol. 15,pp.281-294.
[3] Ritchken P.H, Chandramohan.J(1989):
“C.STapiero, Servicing,quality design
andcontrol”,IIE ansactions,Vol.21,pp.213-
220.
[4]Teng,J.T.,&Thomson,L.(1996): “Optimal
Strategies for general Price quality decision
models of new products with learning
production”,European Journal of Operational
Research, 93(3),pp. 476-489.
[5] Murthy, D.N.P., Djamaludin,I.,(2002):
“Product warranty :A review”, International
journal of production Economics, Vol. 79, pp.
231-260
[6] Menezes, M.A.J. and Currim, I.S. (1992):
“An approach for determination warranty ,
length”,International Journal of Research i
Marketing, Vol. 9,pp.177-95.
[7] Glickman, T.S. ,& Berger , P.D.(1976):
“Optimal price and protection Period
decisions for a product under warranty”,
Management science, Vol.22, pp.1381-1389.
[8] Wu.C.C., Lin.P.C,Chou, C.Y(2006):
“Determination price and warranty
length for normal lifetime distributed
product”, International Journal of
Production Economics, Vol.102, pp.95-107.
[9] Pei -Chun Lin, Li-Yen Shue(2005):
“Application Of Optimal Control
Theory to Product Pricing and
Warranty With Free Replacement
under influence Of Basic Life time
Distribution” ,Computers and
Industrial Engineering,Vol 48, pp.69-82.
[10] Kwei Tang and Yanjun Li(2008):
“Dynamic pricing and warranty”,
European Journal Of Operational
Research,Vol.116, pp. 259-273
[11] Chin-Chun Wu, Pei-Chun Lin,Chao-Yu
Chou (2009): “Determination Of Price
and Warranty Length For a Normal
Lifetime distributed Product”,
International Journal Of Production
Economics, Vol. 102, pp. 95-107.
[12] Ruey Huei Yeh,Wen-Tsung Ho,Sheng-
Tsaing Tseng(2000): “Optimal
Production run Length for products
sold with warranty”, European Journal
of Operational Research, Vol 120,
pp.575-582.
[13] Surajith Pal and D.K Manna(2003):
“A Marketing Decision Problem in
Single Period Stochastic Inventory
Model” ,Operational Research Society
of India, Vol 40,No.3.
Emerging Trends -A new generation Tractor Protection Valve: Re-design and
computational simulation of concept
Hariharan.S
1
, Dr.G.Devaradjane
2

1
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: hari_mechizen@yahoo.co.in
2
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: deva@mitindia.edu
Abstract
Tractor Protection Valve is a very
important valve in the braking Circuit of a
“Towing” vehicle. The purpose of it is to
isolate the tractor braking circuit from the
trailer circuit in case of a leak or
disconnection between tractor and trailer,
thereby protecting both Tractor and trailer.
Trailer is protected by spring Brakes which
apply the instant, the air from compressor
(Trailer Supply) falls below a threshold
valve. The tractor retains full braking
functionality with driver’s signals. In this
paper, we focus on re-design of this valve to
include multi-functionality including that
of Double check valves, Quick Release
Valves and a solenoid controlled signal
option to include Anti Lock Braking
( ABS ) and Roll stability.
Detailed design of the structural
functionality carried out based on
customer inputs. All calculations are
carried out based on “Relay” valve
concept. Re- Design is started with basic
thermodynamic modeling of the valve
functionality using fundamental equations.
Structural Analysis is carried out based on
valve requirement in extreme conditions of
operation.
Flow simulation is considered with
all the elements in the form of springs,
dampers, constant pressure reservoir,
source signal and orifice with their
respective physical parameters.
All 3D modeling is carried out in
Pro-Engineer, Structural Analysis in
ANSYS WORKBENCH 10 FEM software
and flow simulation in AMEsim 7.0B
package.
Index terms – Relay Valve, AMEsim
Analysis, Re-design, Response time,
Simulation
I. VALVE DESCRIPTION:
The Tractor Protection Valve is located in
the braking circuit of a Towing type of
vehicle as shown in Fig 2.1.
The inputs to the Tractor Protection Valve is
from the Push pull Valve (PP5 ) which acts as
a Tractor ON signal for the circuit to function.
Another input is from the Foot Brake Valve
( Dual), which gives as Primary and
Secondary Signal. The third input is from the
Hand Brake Valve. The final input is from the
Primary and Secondary Reservoir.
The output of this valve is fed to Spring
Brake Valve SR5 namely the Trailer Service
and another to R12, namely the Trailer
Supply.
Figure I Layout of Braking System
II. THEORETICAL MODELING OF THE
VALVE
A. Terms And Definitions:
Response time for apply
Response time in case of pneumatic valves
can be defined as per International Standards
as the time elapsing between the moment the
valve begins actuated to the moment the
pressure in the least efficiently reaches 75%
of the asymptotic pressure in that valve. (i.e.,
time to take pressure rise from 0 bar to 75%
of signal pressure.)
Response time for release
This is the time elapsing between the
moments the valve begins released to the
moment the pressure in the least efficiently
reaches 0. 5 bar in that valve.(i.e. time taken
to reduce the 75% asymptotic pressure ).
For brake application valves, the response
time for one Relay Apply should be less than
0.23 seconds. The release time should be less
than 0.43 seconds. The valve manufactured
should satisfy this condition for real time
application in heavy vehicles.
B Single orifice Concept:
The valve is made of two relay valve
in series with each other. Each relay valve is
modeled with simplest assumption as single
orifice to flow. It is considered as a flow from
an infinite volume to a constant volume.
Figure II Single orifice Analysis
With this flow process assumption, we arrive
at an equation to estimate the Equivalent flow
area required at the orifice section.
Mass flow rate through orifice = Rate of mass
accumulated in chamber 2.
Using compressible flow relations
Mass flow through orifice =
72 . 1
1
2
42 . 1
1
2
1
1
.
1
2
]
]
]


]
]
]


·
P
P
P
P
RT
p
A C m
orifice D
orifice
γ
γ
--------- (1)
By applying control volume analysis to the
chamber 2
By differentiating the perfect gas equation
2
2 2
2
T
V
R
p
m ·
with respect to time and
converting the dT/dt term into dP/dt, we get
The rate of mass accumulated in chamber 2 is
According to assumption (1) = (2)
Therefore
-----------(3)

Where
Coeff. Discharge =
] [ * 7
1
/ 2
n n
n
C
D


·
γ

When

n ncrit n n
n
C
crit crit
d
− + −

·
] [ * 7
1
/ 1 γ

On simplifying equation 3 with specific
values, we obtain the equation below which
can be directly used for our estimation.
Where,
V2 – Destination Volume to be filled, m3
R – Gas Constant, K / kg/K
T 2 – Temperature of the destination volume,
m
3
dP / dt – rate of pressure change bar/ sec
γ – Gas Constant for medium (1.4 for air)
P1 – Signal Pressure, bar
With pipe friction also considered as standard
friction,
l geometrica
effetive
d
A
A
C ·
The ratio is obtained from standard Pipe
friction
Values.
Using these formulae, the theoretical value of
area required for Application and Release of
valve is estimated. The results are shown in
table 2.1
For our application,
1. The required volume of filling is 4
brake chambers, contributing to 50 x 4
= 200 cc
2. The operating signal pressure is 135
psi gauge for apply
3. The signal pressure is 105 psi for
release
4. The reservoir is first in atmospheric
pressure – 0 bar gauge
5. The atmospheric temperature is taken
as 300K
6. (Operating temperature is 290 to 310
K)
7. The co-efficient of discharge is
calculated from standard pipe friction
charts which correspond to 0.60 for
apply and 0.98 for release.
8. The rate of pressure rise is calculated
as the ratio of increase in pressure from
P2 to P1 within a time interval
specified.
For apply – we take as 0.25 second
For release –we take as 0.60second
TABLE I
TABLE SHOWING THEORETICAL
ESTIMATIONS OF FLOW AREAS

Path
P1 P2
dP/d
t
Cd
F
low
area
Equi-
valent
flow
Dia.
Bar
Ba
r
bar/
sec
<no
unit
>
mm
2
mm
Apply 10.1 1 36 0.65 55.5 8.41
Releas
e
7.5
1.
3
11.6 0.95 94.5 10.95
Our valve is considered as two Relay Valves
in Series for “Apply” path and in “Release”
path, it is just one Valve.
C. CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT FLOW
AREAS:
In dynamic analysis of flow through a
valve, we consider the orifices as equivalent
to Resistors in electrical circuit. To estimate
the resistance to flow path, we create an
equivalent flow diameter to the system which
is calculated as below. By this approach, we
assume the whole flow path as an equivalent
to a circular pipe with diameter equivalent to
equivalent flow diameter.
1/A
eq
3
= 1 / A
1
3
+1 / A
2
3
+1 / A
3
3
+…..
Where
A
1

- Area at the first cross section
A
2

- Area at the second cross section
A
3

- Area at the first cross section
And so on…
III DESIGN OF THE NEW MODEL:
With data from theoretical analysis, the
modeling of whole valve is carried out with
help of Pro Engineer and it is modeled in 6
different layers to suit the customer
requirement.
The various layers are:
• Top Cover
• Top Block
• Middle Block
• Relay block
• Bottom Block
• Bottom Cover
A modular design is adopted here to ensure
that design is robust and low cost.
The calculated Value of the equivalent flow
diameter is compared with the flow diameters
of an existing sample prototype.
TABLE II
TABLE SHOWING RESULTS OBTAINED
ON PHYSICAL TESTING OF THE
SAMPLE
Conditio
n
Observe
d
Timing
Equivalent flow
Diameter
Actu Theoretic
Error
Second mm mm %
Apply
0.89 8.86 8.99
1.44
5
Release .564 6.11 5.60 9.15
The observed Values in actual column
denote values found out by experimental
observations of the model under standard
testing conditions. With this comparison, we
conclude that the formula has concurrence
within 10 % of the experimental value.
Hence, re-design process can be carried out
based on the value calculated by the formula.
By accounting for same amount of errors,
we started re-designing the component for the
new corrected Equivalent flow diameters.
TABLE IV
COMPARISON OF VALUES OF
EQUIVALENT FLOW DIAMETER
Flow
path
Theoretical
diameter
required
Modificatio
n with error
accounted
Actual
Value in
the Model
mm mm mm
Apply 8.41 9.17 9.47
Releas
e
10.95 10.78
11.44
Figure III Cut section of the new model
This cut section shows both the relay valves
in sectional view. The yellow and Green path
denotes a control Signal. The red path shows
the path of travel of high volume air flow.
The mounting bolt holes are shown, which
retain the same distances as that of the
existing model.
The Top Cover is the Top-most block which
has input connections from the tractor.
The second layer is called the Top Block
which contains the air flow circuits forming
the Double check Valves for signals and
another Non Return valve for the flow from
Reservoir.
The third layer is called the Middle Block,
which contains the pneumatic flow paths to
service and supply relay actuation.
The fourth layer is called the Relay block. It
is the region which has both the relays.
The fifth layer is called the Bottom Block. It
contains the provisions for the bonded valves
and also the air route to outlets and exhaust.
The bottom cover is the bottom-most block,
which acts as a common exhaust for both
release phases and also the Output ports to
trailer.
The layers are sealed using gaskets which
employ sealing similar to “O” rings.
All the layers are held together by 2 sets of
bolts with 6 each from the Top Cover and the
Bottom Cover fastening to the Relay Block.
IV FEM ANALYSIS OF THE MODEL:
Two Critical layers of the model are
subjected to FEM analysis for Structural
Strength namely the Bottom block and the
Relay block.
A. BOTTOM BLOCK
Material Properties
TABLE V
TABLE SHOWING MATERIAL
PROPERTIES OF NYLON 6 WITH 30% GF
Material Nylon 6 with 30 % Glass filling
Young’s
Modulus
2800 Mpa
Fatigue Stress 39 Mpa
Poisson’s ratio 0.35
Density 1110 Kg/ m
3
Element Used for Meshing:
Loading Condition:
Figure IV Loading of Bottom Block
Overall Pressure load of 0.9 MPa
All bolt faces are fixed
Estimated Equivalent Stress:
Figure V Stress plot of Bottom Block
Max Equivalent Stress 10.627 Mpa
Fatigue Stress 39 MPa
Min. Factor of Safety 3.67
Estimated Displacement:
Figure VI Displacement plot of Bottom Block
Max Displacement 0.18mm
B. RELAY BLOCK
Material Properties
TABLE VI
TABLE SHOWING MATERIAL
PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM ALLOY
Material Aluminum Alloy – SCMATL
14M
Young’s Modulus 0.71x 105 MPa
Minimum Yield
Strength
152 MPa
Minimum tensile
Strength
190 MPa
Minimum endurance
limit
114 MPa
Poisson’s ratio 0.33
Density 2750 Kg/ m
3
Element Used for Meshing:
Loading Condition:
Figure VII Loading of Relay Block
Bolt Faces Fixed
Mounting Bolt Faces Fixed
Air pressure 0.9 MPa
Estimated Equivalent Stress:
Figure VIII Stress plot of Relay block
Max Equivalent Stress 26.672 MPa
Fatigue Stress 114 MPa
Min. Factor of Safety 4.27
Estimated Displacement:
Figure IX Displacment plot of Relay Block
Max. Displacement 0.010 mm
V FLOW ANALYSIS USING AMESIM
In AMEsim pneumatic package, the whole
working circuit is modeled giving the same
working parameters, the response time is
estimated.
First Simulation circuit is for Trailer Service
with apply mode of operation. We select
Trailer Service because, it is most important
in our application. This circuit involves the
operation of both relays.
Figure X : Simulation circuit for Trailer
Service Apply
Figure XI : Response time Curve for trailer
Service Apply – Existing model
Figure XII : Response time Curve for trailer
Service Apply – New model
Similarly, the circuits are constructed for
Trailer Service with Release configuration,
Tractor Supply with Apply and release
configuration.
VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It has been found from the thermodynamic
equations, that the equivalent flow area plays
a major role in the response time of a relay
valve. Based on these Calculations, an
existing Tractor Valve design is modified.
From Structural analysis using FEM
software ANSYS WORKBENCH 10, we can
find that the design is safe structurally on
application of gas loads and bolt force.
The flow simulation using AMEsim shows
that the constructed model of the relay valve
is almost accurate with errors up to a
maximum of almost 10 %.
TABLE 7.1
TABLE SHOWING COMPARISON OF
RESPONSE TIMES
Condi
tion
Specific
ation
Observ
ed
Respo
nse
time
Respon
se time
from
AMEsi
m
New
model
Respo
nse
time
Second
Secon
d
Second
Secon
d
Apply 0.34 0.564 0.51 0.31
Releas
e
0.82 0.89 0.82 0.74
The model is used to predict the
performance of the new design is based on
same Working circuit with change in values
of the areas at critical sections show that
response time specifications can be met by
incorporating the new design.
Thus the new design will be capable of
operating with the required Specifications.
VII. FUTURE WORK
The model constructed has the co-efficient
of discharge values taken from standard pipe
flow charts. Further work can be done in
resizing the flow areas to reduce the flow
restriction if any on the sections to correct the
minor errors of less than 10 % observed in the
prediction.
REFERENCES
1. S.V.Natarajan, S.C.Subramanian,
S.Darbha, K.R.Rajagopal, “A Model of
Relay Valve Used in an Air Brake
System,” Nonlinear analysis: Hybrid
systems 1 (2007) 430-442.
2. Acarman T. and Ozguner U. (2000)
‘Pneumatic brake system modeling for
systems analysis,’ SAE Paper 2000-01-
3414.
3. W.B. Browner, Jr., E. Eisler,” On the
compressible flow through an orifice”,
Journal of Fluid Engineering, Vol
115,December 1993 pp 660 -664.
4. Khan Y., Kulkarni P. and Youcef-Toumi
K. (1994) ‘Modeling, experimentation and
simulation of a brake apply system,
Journal of Dynamic Systems,
Measurement and Control, vol. 116, pp.
111–122.
5. Yahya S.M. (2004) ‘Fundamentals of
Compressible Flow’, New Age
International Publishers
6. Krishna Chaitanaya. S, “Theoretical and
Experimental Analysis for prediction of
response time in Air Brake Valves”, Anna
Univerity M.E. Thesis , 2007.
7. Kumaravel.B, “Modeling and Simulation
of a Relay Valve in Air Brake Circuit”,
Anna Univerity M.E. Thesis, 2008.
8. Various Design Guidelines of Wabco Tvs
India Limited, Chennai
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Experimental studies on the vibration control of a cantilever beam using
Active Piezoelectric Damping Treatment (APDT) with comparison of
different setups
M.Arun Kumar
1
, G.Balasubramanian
2
and S.Dinesh Kumar
3
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engg College, Perundurai, Erode- 638052, India.
E-Mail: tamilpriyanarun@gmail.com
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engg College, Perundurai, Erode- 638052, India.
E-Mail: balagb@yahoo.co.in

3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engg College, Perundurai, Erode- 638052, India.
E-Mail:dineshkumarkec@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
A new type of structural damping
treatments is introduced. This is a type
of Active piezoelectric damping
treatment (APDT) which relies its
operation on the viscoelastic damping
layer sandwiched between the two
piezoelectric layers. In this study a
viscoelastic damping layer is
sandwiched between two piezoelectric
damping layers and two set of these
patches are placed on either side of the
beam. Experimental analysis has been
carried out using aluminum beams
with APDT patches. The test beam is
subjected to sinusoidal excitations and
its response is analyzed when the
piezoelectric layers are activated or
not. The performance of the
uncontrolled and controlled system is
analyzed at various operating
conditions using sensitivity analysis.
During the vibration of the beam,
while top layer is contracted bottom
will be expanded and vice versa. Here
an attempt has been made to constrain
both top and bottom layers using
APDT. Based on the time sensitivity
analysis of these systems, It is shown
that best performance is obtained
using hybrid configuration wherein
two patches of the APDT are placed on
both sides of the beam.
Keyword: Constrained layer damping,
piezoelectric materials, and active vibration
control.
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The active control of structural vibration using
induced strain actuators has been the subject of
many studies in the last decade. It has been
shown that significant reductions in the vibration
levels of beams and plates can be achieved in this
way. Recently the emphasis has been placed on
combining the attractive attributes of the active
and passive damping approaches to develop a
wide variety of light-weight and high-damping
hybrid treatments. Examples of these hybrid
treatments include: shunted piezoelectric
networks (SPN) [1], active constrained layer
damping (ACLD) [2–4], and hybrid damping [5].
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
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91
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Therefore, in the three hybrid damping
treatments described, three distinct damping
augmentation mechanisms were analyzed. In the
SPN, the augmentation results from the energy
dissipation in the shunted electric circuitry
whereas in the ACLD treatments, the
augmentation is attributed to the enhanced shear
and Compressional deformations of the visco-
elastic layers, respectively.
In this paper, we introduce a new class of
hybrid damping treatments which is the Active
piezoelectric damping treatment (APDT). The
APDT is a modified active version of the
magnetic constrained layer damping (MCLD)
treatment [6]. In the APDT, the compression
damping of the visco-elastic layer is controlled
using piezoelectric actuators which have high
control authority as compared to that of the
piezoelectric fibers used in the APDC treatment.
Therefore, the APDT could present a viable and
practical means for controlling high amplitudes of
vibration of massive structures. The proposed
APDT is also an active version of the passive
Compressional damping treatment that has been
successfully employed and analyzed by Douglas
and Yang [7], In the passive Compressional
damping treatment, the viscoelastic layer is
sandwiched between the base structure and an
elastic layer. Damping is generated by virtue of
the relative transverse deflection between the
base structure and the elastic layer. Liu and Wang
[8] proposed the use of a hybrid constraining
layer viz., partly active _PZT_ and partly passive
(Al2O3). It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper
is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the APDT
by analyzing the layer thickness variation and
optimum placement position of APDT patch as an
active Compressional damping treatment in
controlling the vibration of beams experimentally.
2.0 CONCEPT OF APDT
The concept of the APDT can best be
understood by considering the configuration
shown in Fig. 1. In this configuration, a
viscoelastic damping layer is sandwiched
between two piezoelectric patches. Activation of
these patches in response to the structural
vibration deforms the viscoelastic damping layer
across its thickness and dissipates the vibration
energy in the form of heat. Here two varities of
APDT has been shown.APDT-1 consists of a
viscoelastic layer and piezoelectric layer.APDT-2
consists of two piezoelectric layer and one
viscoelastic layer.

Fig 1 APDT-1
Fig 1a APDT-2
3.0 PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVE
PIEZOELECTRIC DAMPING TREATMENT
In this section, the experimental
performance of the APDT has been determined.
The performance of the APDT configurations are
determined at different control gains. The
obtained characteristics are compared with those
of conventional passive constrained layer
damping (PCLD) treatments which are APDT
with zero control gain or APDT operating in their
open-loop mode.
Five systems have been studied (Fig. 2) viz.
System 1: Beam
System 2a: Beam-single APDT-1
System 2b: Beam-double APDT-1
System 3: Beam-single APDT-2
System 4: Beam-double APDT-2
4.0 BEAM PROPERTIES
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
92
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Four aluminum beams are used as test articles in
this study same as used by A Baz [2]. The first
beam is tested as bare beam. The second beam is
provided with a piezoelectric+VEM patch at the
top of the beam. The third beam is provided with
single APDT at the top .The fourth beam is
provided with two APDT.The properties of the
beam, VEM damping polymer, and piezoelectric
actuator are listed in Table 1.Both of the APDT
patches are placed near the fixed end of the beam
with an offset of 0.0047 m (3/16 in).
TABLE 1 .PROPERTIES OF BEAM SPECIMEN, VEM DAMPING POLYMER AND PIEZOELECTRIC
ACTUATOR
Property Beam Vicoelastic Constraining
layer
Piezoelectric
actuators
Material Aluminum 3M ISD 112* Aluminium SP-5H***
Cross section(mm) 25x3 25x2 25x0.5 25x0.4
Density(kg/m
3
) 2700 1230 2700 7500
Modulus of elasticity(N/m
2
) 70x10
9
0.01x10
9
70x10
9
62x10
9

*ISD 112 is visco elastic manufactured by
Cephas Medical Private Ltd Company, Chennai
(http://www.tradeindia.com)
**SP-5H is manufactured by sparkler ceramics
PvtLtd.India(http://www.sparklerceramics.com
). The viscoelastic damping layer sheet has
density=1230 kg/m
3
. The elastic modulus of the
viscoelastic material is represented by a
complex number: E=E’ (1+iη) where E’ is the
storage modulus, η is the loss factor of the
material and i= .
4.1 EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP
The experimental set-up to be used for
monitoring the dynamics of the beam/APDT
system is shown in Fig. 3. The test beam is
excited by an electromechanical shaker driven
by the function generator and a power
amplifier. The amplitude of vibration of the
free end of the beam is monitored by a laser
sensor. The output signal of the sensor is
sampled by a spectrum analyzer to determine
the amplitude and frequency content of the
vibrations. The sensor signal is utilized also to
generate the necessary control action using a
derivative controller. The resulting output
signal is sent to activate the piezoelectric layer
of the APDT patch. Figure 3a shows p the
experimental set up.
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
93
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

Fig 2 Layout of different system investigated
Fig 3 Experimental set up
Figure 3a.experimental set up
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
94
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
TABLE: 2
Gain 10 20 30
System 2a 2b 3 4 2a 2b 3 4 2a 2b 3 4
Tip
displacement
at resonance
(mm)
Before
control
1.7 1.
6
1.
8
1.4 1.6 1.6 1.
4
1.
2
2 1.4 1.
2
1.1
After
Control
1.1 0.
8
0.
6
0.4 1.0 0.9 0.
7
0.
3
1.
4
0.8 0.
6
0.7
%
Reduction
35.2
9
50 66 7
1.4
3
7.5
43.7
5
50 75 30 42.8
5
50 36.36
4.3EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND
DISCUSSIONS.
Active Control of Forced Vibration
amplitude.
Here the parameters used for
comparative study of various systems with the
system1 are the amplitude of vibration before
the Active Piezo electric Damping
Treatment (APDT) is switched on and the
controlled amplitude of vibration APDT is
turned on. Typical responses are compared in
the following figures. Time t=0 on the x axis
indicates the instant when APDT is switched
on.
It is observed from Table 2 that the
lowest resonant amplitude occurs for system
4.System 4C is observed to exhibit
significantly low resonant amplitudes with
marginal change in the system fundamental
frequency. The effectiveness of control, as
reflected in the percentage reduction of
resonant amplitude, is the best for system 4.
Where two APDT are directly mounted on the
beam. The following figures show the
reduction of amplitudes in the various systems
experimented.
Fig-4(a).Comparison of system-2a
with system-1
Fig-4(b).Comparison of system-2b
with system-1
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
95
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Fig-4(c).Comparison of system-3
with system-1
Fig-4(a).Comparison of system-4
with system-1
5.0 CONCLUSION
Adding the APDT on the both sides of
the beam greatly reduces the amplitude of the
vibration of the beam. Through a systematic
experimental investigation on five systems
(viz., bare beam, two variants of single APDT-
1, and two variants of APDT-2), it has been
attempted to identify the best configuration.
Overall, a hybrid damping treatment wherein
system with two APDT-2 gives the best
performance characterized by significant
passive damping, very good active damping.
6.0 REFERENCES
[1] Orsagh, R., and Ghoneim, H., 1999,
‘‘Experimental Investigation of
Electromechanical Surface Damping,’’ Smart
Mater. Struct. Conf. Pass. Damp. 3672, pp.
234–241.
[2] J. Oh S. Poh M. Ruzzene A. Baz July
2000“Vibration Control of Beams Using
Electro-Magnetic Compressional Damping
Treatment”, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics,
122, pp 235-243
[3] Baz, A., and Ro, J., March 1994, ‘‘the
Concept and Performance of Active
Constrained Layer Damping Treatments,’’
Sound Vib. Mag., 28, No. 3, pp. 18–21.
[4] Baz, A., 1996, ‘‘Active Constrained Layer
Damping,’’ U.S. Patent #5,485,053, Jan.
[5] Shen, I. Y., 1994, “Hybrid Damping
through Intelligent Constrained Layer
Treatments,” ASME J. Vibr. Acoust.,
116_3_, pp. 341–349.
[6] Ruzzene, M., Oh, J., and Baz, A., 2000,
‘‘Finite Element Modeling of Magnetic
Constrained Layer Damping,’’ J. Sound Vib.
[7] Douglas, B., and Yang, J., 1978,
‘‘Transverse Compressional Damping in the
vibratory esponse of Elastic-Viscoelastic-
Elastic Beams,’’ AIAA J., 20, No. 9, pp. 1284–
1290.
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
96
Reduction of Dazzling Effect in Four Wheelers
S.Prabhakar
Dr.s.Chandrasekaran
Department of Automobile Engineering, MIT Campus, Anna University-Chennai

A vehicle driving on highway is
always enjoyable during day time and till
dusk. As darkness approaches problem
starts, because of dazzling head light,
blinding the eyes leading to accidents,
pedestrian and collision of vehicle to
prevent such accidents and save the loss of
life it is became necessary to provide some
means of overcome dazzling head light.
This report provides some following
methods to control dazzling effect.
1) Reducing the intensity of the dazzling
source
2) Reducing the illumination reaching the
driver's eyes
3) Increasing the dazzling angle; and
4) Indirectly minimizing the effects of
dazzling
And recent developments.
Automatic sensor are fitted so has to dim
to head light automatically on approaching
a high intensity, high beam head light
head of it.
By incorporating this automatic
head light dimmer we can reduce the
accident rate of zero, and this can be
proposed to be automobile manufactures to
incorporate as an original equipment (O.E)
and can be recommended to the
government to make it mandatory to the
vehicle.
This project designed suitable for any
vehicle without major modification and
also can be operated without any
hindrance.
So I have come out with innovative
method of curbing these dangers
permanently by using this project.
.INTRODUCTION
Driving an automobile is primarily
a visual task. By one estimate, as much as
90% of the information that drivers gather
is received visually and whatever the
actual percentage may be, the importance
of the visual percentage may be, the
importance of the visual system to driving
cannot be doubted. However, in order for
the visual system to detect, attend o, and
recognize information, there must be
adequate lighting. Drivers require enought
lighting at night to see a variety of objects
on the highway, including traffic control
devices, lane lines, vehicles, pedestrians,
animals, and other potentially hazardous
objects. However, too much light or
improper lighting can result in dazzling,
which can be a major problem both in
terms of the ability to see and visual
comfort.
There are only two practical
methods of lighting the highway system at
night; fixed overhead, lighting and vehicle
head lighting. While the fraction of roads
with fixed overhead lighting increases
significantly each year, this form of
lighting is expensive and cannot be relied
upon as the only means of providing for
night visibility. Head lighting, from its
inception, has involved a compromise
between providing sufficient lighting for
drivers to see and avoiding excessive light
that might produce dazzling. These two
goals have been translated into standards
in the form of minimum requirements to
provide visibility and maximum
limitations to control dazzling.
Progressive improvements in head
lighting and new technologies have
increased night visibility and reduced the
impact of dazzling, but any changes should
be carefully considered before
implementation. Changes in headlamp
designs that affect light intensity, beam
pattern and aiming have significantly
improved night vision on the highway.
AUTOMATIC HEAD LIGHT
DIMMER
COMPARISON
1. MANUAL SWITCHING
2. AUTOMATIC SWITCHING
1. Manual Switching
The driver may or may not switch
to low beam because of negligence, this
may create trouble to the on coming
vehicle and blinding the oncoming vehicle
driver, and that may lead to an accident.
2. Automatic Switching
This method over comes the above
mentioned problems totally.
DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS
1. Regulator
Regulator is used to provide a
stable voltage to the control circuit for
proper function of component we have
used 7812 a commonly used three terminal
fixed voltage regulator.
2. Control Section
Control provides various supply
voltage using resistors, capacitor we have
used OWE 47 kQ / ½ watt fixed resistor
and one 27kQ/ ½ watt fixed resistor in
Parallel and one 5kQ preset variable
resistor 0 in series with fixed resistor to
achieve fine tuning for controlling the
sensitiveness of the circuit.
3. Sensor
A sensor (LDR) is a device which
conducts when lights falls on it. This
phenomenon is used in this circuit to
provide a conductive path to the signal
switch through control section.
4. Signal Switch
Single switch consists of transistor
“SL100” transistor is a device which
works as a Switch, this switch control with
high current with the help of low current.
A transistor is a three terminal device
consisting of collector, base and emitter.
5. Power Switch
A 10 Amps / 12 VDC 2 change
over relay consisting a pole, normally
close and open contacts, to drive the head
light cut out which in turn control the high
and low filaments of the head light bulb.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
This is the Simple Automatic
Headlamp Circuit built with most famous
NE 5551C. This circuit constructed with
commonly available components in the
market like NE 555, S1100, 7812 and
LDR.
555 IC can be used as stable
multivibrator, monostable multivibrator
and bystable multivibrator. It can be used
for other applications also like pulse
generator. Smoke detector, rain alarm,
clock pulse generator and etc.
This circuit will help drivers at
vehicles from high beam disturbances of
opposite vehicles their circuit should be in
the two vehicles. When the high beam of
opposite vehicles, reaches the sensor,
automatically, our vehicle headlight
becomes dip. If the circuit in the opposite
vehicle, effect will be the same.
This circuit built with monostable
multivibrator. When triggering input pin
No.2 of IC 555 triggered the o/p pin 3 will
be high. This will drive the transistor TI
(SL 100) via R4.
When the vehicle is running, the
battery voltage will be 13-13. 8V.IC 7812
Regulator IC regulates the supply voltage.
It gives 12V constantly.
OPERA
TION
Switch on S1 Switch, IC 7812 regulates
the power supply and gives 12V regulated.
When the sensor is in dark resistance of
LDR will be high. IC 555 will no be t
triggered output of IC 555 will be low.
Relay RL, Remains in off. Head lamp
will be bright.When the sensor gets light,
resistance of LDR will be low IC 555 will
be triggered at pin 2. Output of IC 555 will
be high. Relay will be energized by TI
S1100. Head lamp will be Capacitor C3
will give some delay between dim to dip.
The delay time can be extended S7
increasing the value of C3.

CONTROL BOX
LED 1
O
LED 2
0
DIM
LED
3
0
DIP
POWER
O
ON
S1
MANUAL
O OFF
AUTO
S2
DIM
O
DIP
S3
LED – 1 Power on led to control panel
LED – 2 DIM dim/dip
LED – 3 DIP dim/dip
This control box should be kept in
front of the driver. This panel has all
options.
1. Main power on switch will help to
switch on the entire head lamp circuit.
2. (S2) Manual and Auto selector switch :
When the switch in Auto, our modified
circuit will take care of everything.
When S2 in manual, the driver should
operate dim/dip switch (S3).
3. When the opposite vehicle upreaching
driving vehicle at a distance of 40
meter automatic Buzzer on a driving
vehicle will alert the driving vehicle
driver that the head light lower beam is
brought in to activation.
REFERENCES
1. AASHTO (1994). A policy on
geometric design of highways and
steets, American Assocition of
State Highway and Transportation
Officials, Washington, DC pp.136-
137.
2. Adler, B. and Lunenfeld, H.
(1973). “Three-beam headlight
evaluation”. Report No.HS-238-
411-1, Airborne Instruments
Laboratory, Deer Park, NY.
3. Adrian, W.K. (1975). “Grundlagen
der physiologischen und
psychologischen Blendung und
ihre numerische Darstellung”
(Fundamentals of disability and
discomfort dazzling and their
numerical representation).
Lichttechnik 27,312-319.
4. Adrian, W.K.(1979). “Ueber eine
neuartige Blendschutzbrille” (On a
new anti-dazzling spectacle). 30.
Sonderderuck der WVAO, Mainz.
die Fachvortrage des WVAO –
Jajres Kongresser 1979 in
Karlsruhe (ISSN 0171-6417),
pp.243-251.
5. Adrian, W.K.(1991a). “Transient
adaptation process: A model to
predict its effects on vision”. CIE
22
nd
Session, 2,121,-133. CIE
transactions of the International
commission on Illumination, 22
nd
session. Melbourne 1991,
Vol.2.pp.121-133.
6. Adrian, W.K.(1991b) “Comparison
between the CBE and the CIE
dazzling mark formula and earlier
discomfort dazzling descriptions”.
Orlando, Florida, pp.155-164.
7. Adrian, W. (1997). “A method to
predict visual function and visual
performance in mesopic lighting
levels”. University of Waterloo,
Ontario, Canada.
8. Adrian, W. and Bhanji, A.(1991).
“Fundamentals of disability
dazzling. A formula to describe
stray light in the eye as a function
of the dazzling angle and age”.
Proceedings of the First
International symposium on
dazzling. Orlando, Florida,
pp.185-194.
9. Alexander, G.J. and Lunenfeld, H.
(1990). “A users’ guide positive
guidance, third ed”. Report
No.FHWA-SA-90-017, U.S.
Department of Transportation,
Federal Highway Administration,
Washington, DC pp.1-39.
10. Allen, M.J.(1985). “Vision of the
older driver: implications for
vehicle and highway design and for
driver testing”. 55+,1-7
11. Anderson, R.M.(1983). “Visual
perceptions and observations of an
aphakic surgeon”. Perceptual and
Motor Skills, 57, 1211-1218.
12. Applegate, R.A.(1991). “Acuities
through annular and central pupils
after radial keratotomy (RK)”.
Optometry and Vision Science, 68,
584-590


Three-Dimensional Analyses By Finite Element Method Of A Spur
Gear: Effect Of Cracks In The Teeth Foot While Meshing
R.Somraj M.E., CAD/CAM
Thiruvalluvar College of Engineering & Technology, Vandavasi
Email: somraj7@rediffmail.com
Abstract
In this paper, a finite element
method with a three-dimensional survey
is taken.
The effect of crack dimension and
the direction of crack propagation, in
the teeth foot, while meshing are
studied.
For spur gears, the mesh stiffness is
affected in a meaningful manner by the
presence of a foot crack of one or more
teeth.
This study is an attempt to estimate
the effect of crack size, position, and
direction on the spectrum of the gear
mesh stiffness.
INTRODUCTION
Gears are often used in mechanical
construction and serve to transmit a
rotational motion from the driving shaft to
the driven shaft.
Gears are generally designed according
to standards [1–3] that define the two
typical types of damage that occur in these
components: pitting and fatigue fracture.
The gears must support, in addition to
the imperfections from fabrication and
installation, defects that are generated
during working such as spalling and
pitting [4].
Cracks and fissures that may occur and
cause rupture of the tooth by propagation
are of special concern.
The phenomenon of crack propagation
in foot of gear teeth was the center of
interest for much research concerning the
mechanical and dynamic behavior of
gears.
Some two-directional (2D) analytical
and experimental studies have determined
the vibratory behavior resulting from gear
tooth crack propagation.
This analysis uses fracture mechanics
with linear elasticity. A triangular finite
element is used in the crack tip to
represent the singularity of the constraint.
The stress intensity factor is estimated
and used to predict the crack propagation
direction. More recently, analyzed the
effect of gear rotation speed on the crack
propagation direction.
The embedded model integrated a
physical based model of the gearbox and a
parametric representation, in the form of
truncated Fourier series, of meshing
stiffness.
Finite element method used in three
dimensional analysis and it gives accurate
results.
3-D models are very easy to
understanding when compare to 2-D
models, Bending stress analysis 3-D model
are used for simulation
A large number of degree of freedom in
this 3-D model takes a long time and larger
computer memory space is necessary but
its gives a perfect results
The most common 3 Dimensional
elements tetrahedral, and hexahedral
element these elements are used for 3
dimensional stress analysis problem.
If your paper is intended for a
conference, please contact your conference
editor concerning acceptable word
processor formats for your particular
conference.
Figure 1. Illustration Of One
Complete Tooth Meshing Cycle
II. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Finite element method is numerical
method for solving problems of
engineering and mathematical physics.
In finite element method instead of
solving the problem for the entire body for
one operation, we formulate the equation
for each finite element and combine them
to obtain the solution of whole body.
Discretization is the basis of finite
element method. The art of sub dividing a
structural into a convenient number of
smaller components is known as
discretization.
A small unit have definite shape of
geometry and node is called finite element.
Each kind of finite element has a specific
structural shape and is inter connected
with adjacent element by nodal point or
node. At each node degree of freedom is
located. The force will act only at node not
at any other place in the element.
Figure 2 Fem Model of The Gear Tooth
Pair In Contact
III. TOOL PROFILE DEFINITION
The gear manufacturing process drives
the tool design first of all.
The most common gear manufacturing
processes are gear machining and gear
forming.
The gear machining process uses the
copying or generating methods.
The copying gear machining method is
used for milling, fly-cutting, shear-speed
cutting, broaching, and form grinding.
The tool profile is identical or very
close to the space profile between
neighboring teeth (for milling and fly-
cutting) or the space around all gear teeth
(for shear-speed cutting and broaching).
IV. PROBLEM DEFINITION
The tensile and compressive stresses
due to bending of the tooth.
The bending stress is cyclic as it occurs
once per revolution of the gear and will,
thus, lead to a potential fatigue failure.
We have a contact stress situation as the
two gears meshes approximately
cylindrical to surfaces roll and slide on
each other during tooth contact. This stress
may lead to a surface fatigue of the tooth.
Pitting surface fatigue failure due to many
repetition of high contact stress which
occurred gear tooth surface when a pair of
teeth is transmitting power.
Pitting is phenomena in which small
particles are removed from the surface of
the tooth due to high contact stress that
are present between mating teeth.
Figure 3. Tooth Profile
Figure 4.Fatigue Failure Of The Tooth
Surface
V. PROBLEM SOLUTION
The tool pressure angle is selected to
provide desirable machining conditions.
The tensile and compressive stresses due
to bending of the tooth is reduced by
reducing the load time. In order to avoid
bending failure the module and face with
of the gear is adjusted so that beam
strength is greater then the dynamic load.
Reducing the bending stress per revolution
of the gear In order to avoid pitting the
dynamic load betwee the gear tooth should
be less than the wear strength of the gear
tooth. We have to reduce the contact stress
when the two gears meshes approximately
cylindrical to surfaces roll and slide on
each other during tooth contact. Hardness
is the primary property of the gear tooth
that provide resistance to pitting.
REFERENCES
[1] Townsend, D.P. Dudley’s Gear
Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1991.
[2] Kapelevich, A.L., and R.E. Kleiss.
“Direct Gear
Design for Spur and Helical Gears,”
Gear Technology, September/October
2002, pp. 29–35.
[3] ANSI/AGMA 1006-A97—Tooth
Proportions for Plastic Gears,
Appendix F: “Generating Gear
Geometry without Racks,” AGMA,
Alexandria, VA, 1997.
[4] Pulley, F.T., M.W. Kipling, G.A.
Matson, D.L.
Thurman and B.W. Avery. “Method
for producing and controlling a fillet
on a gear,” US Patent #6164880, 2000.
[5] Kapelevich, A.L. “Geometry and
design of involute spur gears with
asymmetric teeth,” Mechanism and
Machine Theory, 2000, Issue 35, pp.
117–130.
[6] Litvin, F.L., Q. Lian and A.L.
Kapelevich.
“Asymmetric modified gear drives:
reduction of noise, localization of
contact, simulation of meshing and
stress analysis,” Computer Methods in
Applied Mechanics and Engineering,
2000, Issue 188, pp. 363–390.
Cost Effective Design of Front Axle through
Value Engineering
R.Anbuchelvan1, A.Jhothilingam2
1ME (Manufacturing engineering), Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai.
Email: anbucha99@yahoo.co.in
2Asst Professor, Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai.
I. ABSTRACT
Value engineering (VE) is “A
systematic approach to analysing
functional requirements of products or
services for the purposes of achieving
the essential functions at the lowest total
cost.” Value engineering can be applied
during any stage of a project’s
development cycle, although the greatest
benefit and resource savings are
typically achieved early in development
during the conceptual stages. It may be
applied as a quick response study to
address a problem or as an integral part
of an overall organizational effort to
stimulate innovation and improve
performance characteristics. This also
enhances an organization’s quality
programs, new product development
activities, manufacturing processes, and
architectural and engineering design.
This paper deals how to reduce the cost
of the front axle without affecting its
functional requirements and to attain a
customer friendly, trouble free front
axle for the end user and service, by
applying the systematic process of value
engineering on front axle
KEYWORDS: Value engineering, Value
Methodology, Function Analysis, FAST,
Job Plan.
II. INTRODUCTION
A.VALUE ENGINEERING
Value engineering (VE) is “A systematic
approach to
analysing functional requirements of
products or services for the purposes of
achieving the essential functions at the
lowest total cost.”
i.e:-The “value” of goods and services by
using an examination of function.
- Value, as defined, is the ratio of function
to cost.
- Value can therefore be increased by
either improving the function or reducing
the cost. It is a primary tenet of value
engineering that basic functions be
preserved and not be reduced as a
consequence of pursuing value
improvements. Value engineering is
sometimes taught within the project
management or industrial engineering
body of knowledge as a technique in
which the value of a system’s outputs is
optimized by crafting a mix of
performance (function) and costs. In most
cases this practice identifies and removes
unnecessary expenditures, thereby
increasing the value for the manufacturer
and/or their customers. Value engineering
is also referred to as "value management"
or "value methodology" (VM), and "value
analysis"(VA). VE is above all a structured
problem solving process based on function
analysis understanding something with
such clarity that it can be described in two
words, the active verb and measurable
noun abridgement.
B. BRIEF HISTORY OF VALUE
ENGINEERING
C.WHAT IS VALUE ENGINEERING?
Value engineering may be described as a
structured, analytical process for
developing innovative, holistic solutions to
complex problems. Value engineering has
the following key characteristics:
• A specific methodology
• Based upon a creative problem solving
approach
• Involves key stakeholders in a managed
team approach
• Focus on function ie. What it must do,
not what it is
• Focus on achieving value-added
solutions
• Based upon on integration
• Focus on project learning
The greatest gains of Value engineering
have been shown when it is directed
towards obtaining maximum value from a
total system. The examination of function
remains fundamental, however this occurs
within the system. It is the systematic
analysis of functions, which sets Value
engineering apart from other approaches to
improving value.
II.OVERVIEW
The value engineering is a systematic
process used to improve the value of a
project through the analysis of its
functions. Value is defined as a fair return
or equivalent in goods, services, or money
for something exchanged. Value is
commonly represented by the relationship:
Value ≈ Function/Resources , where
function is measured by the performance
requirements of the customer and
resources are measured in materials,
labour, price, time, etc. required to
accomplish that function. Value
engineering focuses on improving value by
identifying alternate ways to reliably
accomplishing a function that meets the
performance expectations of the customer.
Function Analysis is the foundation of
value engineering and is the key activity
that differentiates this from other problem-
solving or improvement practices.
During the Function Analysis, Phase of the
Job Plan function is identified that
describes the work being performed within
the scope of the project under study.
These functions are described using two
words, active verb/measurable noun
pairings, for example one function of a
hammer is to apply force. Function
analysis can be enhanced through the use
of a graphical mapping tool known as the
Function Analysis System Technique
(FAST) The value engineering is applied
using a process known as the “Job Plan.”
The purpose of the Job Plan is to guide us
through the process of identifying and
focusing on key project functions in order
to create new ideas that will result in value
improvements
A.STAGES INVOLVED
A value study generally encompasses three
stages shown in Figure 1.1
1. Pre – Study activity
2. Execution Job Plan Technique
3. Documentation and Implementation
Figure 1.1 Value Engineering Process
Flow Diagram
Job Plan process flow illustrated in Figure
1.1.Each of the Job Plan phases must be
performed in sequence because each phase
provides information and understanding
necessary for the successful execution of
the next phase. As the team gains
additional knowledge about the project, a
previous phase may be revisited.
III. OBJECTIVES
The Objective of this project is to reduce
the cost of the front axle without affecting
its functional requirements and to attain a
customer friendly, trouble free front axle
for the end user and service, by applying
the systematic process of value
engineering on front axle.
IV. METHODOLOGY
The following steps are involved in
the implementation of Value Engineering
shown in Figure 3.1
Figure 3.1 Steps involved in
Implementation of VE
V. CHOOSING A PRODUCT (OR)
PRODUCT FAMILY
Engineering components with
optimum use of material, easy
manufacturability and customer
satisfaction is a direction where Value
Engineering is found to be very useful. It
would be highly creditable to implement
the concept of value engineering in the
front axle Front axle of the vehicle is one
of the major and very important
component and needs good robust design
as this part experiences the worst loading
conditions of the whole vehicle. The
current design of the front axle which has
no failures at the field has been decided to
take up through value engineering
methodology for achieving cost effective
robust front axle without affecting its
function and aesthetics.
VI. INFORMATION PHASE
As a first step it is necessary to obtain all
available information regarding the
existing front axle. Get all pertinent
information on costs, quantities, technical
drawings, specification, operation sheets,
marketing surveys, reliability and warranty
information, manufacturing methods and a
set of parts (or) pre assembly.
A.Study of Current Design
The study of current design to be done on
the following characteristics, Type of the
front axle, Volue, Wheel track, Wheel
base, Front axle weight, Total vehicle
weight, Kingpin inclination, castor and
camber angle, Turning circle radius and
steering type used
B.Bench Marking
Bench marketing is usually called
competitive analysis. This should be a way
to measure our standing Vs competition
and to identify short comings. Every
designer should be familiar with
competitive products, design, operation
and cost. The Table 3.2 explains the
comparison between existing design and
other leading manufacturers front axle
assembly. From the comparison chart we
found that existing design is superior to all
other manufacturer when compared in
weight and section modulus (ie: based on
front axle section type). It also gives the
comparative inputs from customer and
service aspects of the front axle. From the
study advantages and disadvantages of the
existing design of front axle given below.
Advantages:
- Better front end stability
- Suitable for heavier haulage loading
- Increased ground clearance
- Lesser turning circle which leads to fuel
saving & time saving
- Easy serviceability
Disadvantages:
- Less gap between tyre and front axle
leads to
stone struck or mud struck
C.Function Identification
The next phase is to define the functions of
the product. This is quite difficult because
it requires an indepth analysis of what the
product does rather than what it is. For
successful product improvement a
“function” must be carefully defined from
the aspect of total life cycle cost, so that
associated costs can be properly assigned.
The first step is to begin to develop the
two word technique, which is difficult
enough. For this Figure 3.2 shows the
Details of front axle its function, cost Part
Name: Front Axle Present cost: Rs. 2500/
Unit
Operation and Performance:
Front axle supports the front end of
the vehicle along with front tyres and the
steering in connection which can steer and
gives stability to the entire vehicle. The
Front axle consists of 12 types of
components (22) Figure 3.2 Details of
Front axle Start the function definition
process by looking at the functions of the
entire assembly and then define the
functions of each piece in the assembly.
The functions of the front axle assembly
are screened in Table 3.4 to eliminate the
duplication Table 3.4 Function
Identification of front axle
DETERMINE SCOPE – IDENTIFY
FUNCTIONS
Assembly / Components name: FRONT
AXLE
What does the product do? What is the
level of the function?
Support the front end & to steer the
vehicle
SL.NO. FUNCTIONS ORDER REF.
REMARKS
1. Maintain stability BASIC
2. Allow articulation SECONDARY
3. mount front tyres SECONDARY
4. maintain balance (on uneven surface)
SECONDARY
5. Ensure manuverability BASIC
6. Adequate track width SECONDARY
7. Guide spindles SECONDARY
8. control toe - out SECONDARY
9.controlcamber/caster/KPI
SECONDARY
10.Support front weight platform
SECONDARY
11. Resist corrosion SECONDARY
12. protect center pin SECONDARY
13. support FES SECONDARY
14. Control wheel base SECONDARY
15. Maintain high ground clearance
SECONDARY
16. lesser turning SECONDARY
17. Reduce tyre ware SECONDARY
18.Support steering geometry
SECONDARY
19. Aesthetics Good BASIC
20. control rigidity ( vehicle )
SECONDARY
21. visibility Good SECONDARY
22. Absorb thrust SECONDARY
23. Easy steering SECONDARY
24.sealing avoid mud entry SECONDARY
25. ensure steering stopper SECONDARY
26. Prevent lifting SECONDARY
27.Maintain center of gravity
SECONDARY
28.Support front end loader
SECONDARY
29 Support front dozer SECONDARY
30 Support front reaper SECONDARY
31 support toe hook SECONDARY
32 Support front transfer box
SECONDARY
After the function screening, find the basic
function, the basic function is the one upon
which all other functions depend. Read
down the list and put “Basic” in the order
reference column. In the case of front axle
three are basic functions and rests of them
are secondary functions. All the secondary
functions are subject to modification or
elimination depending on their cost and
value. Secondary function makes the basic
function work better.
D.Construction of Function Analysis
System Technique
Model
The FAST model has a horizontal
directional orientation described as the
HOW – WHY dimension. This dimension
is described in this manner because HOW
and WHY questions are asked to structure
the logic of the systems function. Starting
with a function, we ask HOW that function
is performed to develop a more specific
approach. This line of questioning and
thinking is read from left to right. To
abstract the problem to a higher level, we
ask WHY that function is performed. This
line of logic is read from right to left. A
FAST model, reading
from left to right, starts with the goal, and
ends at the beginning of the “system” that
will achieve that goal. model “which
gives process of creating model. The
customer sensitivity functions can be
identified as well as opportunities for
significant cost improvements in design
and manufacturing process
E.Cost Function Worth Analysis
From cost details provided for the
individual components, for arriving the
cost function worthiness the educated
opinion must be used. In some cases data
may be available to help in the decision or
team members may analyze the cost
function worthiness of each item for
arriving the value gap. For example In the
front axle, - the cup spindle can be
integrated with spindle housing (Intricacy
forging ) - Stopper can be integrated with
cup spindle (Simple forging) In option I ie
the integration of parts cup spindle and
spindle housing the cost may go up in
view of forging cost. When we go for
option II integration of cup spindle with
stopper the cost will come down in view of
the savings through forging. (minor
component) Likewise the team analyzed
the each component assembly. After
identifying the desired functions of each
item, the team established the worth
components, depending on its essential
function. While establishing the
worthiness, the definition of value ie., the
lowest price one has to pay for reliable
function was used as the basis.
VII. CREATIVE PHASE
One outcome of a value study is a
“shopping list” of alternative ideas to
achieve value improvement. Lateral
thinking is encouraged during this phase to
produce as many ideas as possible, even
those ideas that may seem unworkable or
unreasonable. Generating ideas and
options is encouraged by Asking the
following questions while doing the brain
storming:
- How else may the required function be
performed?
- What else will perform the required
function?
- What will the alternatives cost?
There are several ways to structure the
study to facilitate idea generation. The
method depends upon the study and the
nature of the project. In project terms
various parts of the project will need to be
specifically targeted for idea generation.
Front axle assembly is a single product
that is being considered, then the front axle
will need to be analysed component-by-
comonent or aspect-by-aspect. During this
phase , the hidden cost areas, identified
earlier ,were subjected to brainstorming, to
find but alternative ways of accomplishing
the functions. Criticisms and evaluation
are avoided and even wild ideas were
noted down in line with basic VE
principles. During this session, a large
number of ideas were generated for each
item to perform the same function. Help
was taken from the experts in the similar
design and vendors were contacted to
contribute alternative ideas. In all 42 ideas
were generated for items of front axle
assembly, further evaluation of ideas.
VIII. CONCLUSION
Value engineering study on front axle
assembly done after studying the existing
design in detail. From the characteristics of
existing two design the value engineering
done on the more volume and widely
accepted robust look design and this has
been bench marked against some
manufacturers for its characteristics
customer and service inputs which gives a
clear cut picture of where the existing
design of front axle stands . During the
function identification & analysis phase
provides a more comprehensive
understanding of the front axle by
focussing on what the front axle does or
must do rather than what it is, also
analysed functions for its worthiness on
the basic of function and cost wise. The
creative phase generated a broad array of
ideas that provide a wide variety of
possible alternative ways to perform the
function to improve the value of the front
axle assembly. Further FEA analysis to be
done on the alternate ideas in comparison
with existing design, a focused list of
concepts that warrant quality, time to
develop into value based solutions that can
be implemented in to the front axle design
for its enhanced performance in the field.
REFERENCES
[1] Bharat .R (1994) “Value engineering
-A new concept in reducing cost of burn
care.” Department of burns and plastic
survey.
[2] Jim Dimsey (2002) “QFD to Direct
Value Engineering in the Design of a
Brake System” Hayes Brake, LLC
[3] Jun Matsuo (1968) “Value engineering
for manufacture of
large products,” for forgings and castings
engineering
section. Japan steel works, Muroran plant.
[4] Kimio Ogawa (1965) “An approach to
product planning through value
engineering-Value engineering that creates
the worthwhile product” Victor Company
of Japan.
[5] Richard Park (1999) “Value
engineering – a plan for invention”,
R.J.Park and associates Inc, Birmingham,
Michigan
[6] Ross Edward Bates & Catherine
Simpson (2001) “Value Engineering of
Car Park Ventilation Systems” Building
Simulation Ltd
[7] Theodore C. Fowler, CVS (1976) “24
Principles that guarantee an effective value
program- Function analysis system
technique for product and services.”
A Study on Failure Analysis of Knee Replacement
D.Balaji
M.E (CAD/CAM), Department of Mechanical Engineering.,
Arunai Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai -606603.
Abstract
In this paper it has been
investigated the influence of
malalignment and overweight on total
knee replacements using an finite
element method. Finite element (FE)
models of fixed implants have been
created and analyzed; stress analysis
has been performed on the fixed
implants for contact pressure
distribution in the tibio-femoral contact
surfaces. An FE model of an implanted
knee joint has been developed using
FEA software (ANSYS). Serious stress
shielding and more bone loss appear in
case of overweight. The increase of bone
loss rate and stress in the distal femur
with increase of body weight will result
in a higher risk of migration of femoral
component after total knee replacement.
Keywords: Total Knee Replacement
(TKR), Malalignment, FEA
1.0 Introduction
It has been reported that the total
knee replacement failures are due to
loosening, tibial femoral instability and
fatigue failure of tibial tray. It is also
influenced by contact loads and surface
kinematics. The contact pressure and areas
depend on the degree of conformity and
operative techniques including mechanical
alignment and fixation of the components.
Wear can also lead to malalignment or
instability of the knee joint. In surgical
knee replacement, the knee is replaced
with artificial prosthesis. An accurate
clinical evaluation must be carried out
before applying knee prosthesis to ensure
optimal outcomes from surgical operations
and to reduce the probability of having
long-term problems. Useful information
can be inferred from estimation of the
stress acting on the bone-prosthesis system
of the knee joint.
2.0 The Knee
2.1 Anatomy of the knee
Knee is the largest joint in the body
and it is also one of the most complex
joints. The knee joint is made up of four
bones: femur, tibia, fibula and patella. The
articulation of these bones forms the knee
joint, and is shown in
Fig.1. The two major articulations within
the knee are the tibio-femoral and patello-
femoral joints.
2.1.1 Tibio-femoral joint
In the knee, the distal end of the
femur has a curved articular surface that is
shaped like a ‘horseshoe’ with the bend of
the ‘horseshoe’ in the front of the femur.
The two ends of the femur extend
backward, and are called the medial and
lateral condyles. These surfaces articulate
with the medial and lateral tibial condyles,
forming the tibio-femoral joint, which
flexes and extends the knee. Two fibro-
cartilaginous discs (meniscus) lie between
the tibial and femoral condyles to
compensate for the incongruence of the
articulating bones.
Fig.1 Knee Anatomy
2.1.2 Patello-femoral joint
The patella, or what we call the
kneecap, glides up and down on the front
surface of the femur bone as the knee
flexes and extends. Articulations of patella
and femur form the patello-femoral joint.
The patella is held in the front of patella-
femoral joint. The quadriceps muscle
which is located in the front of the thigh is
used to extend (straighten) the leg.
2.1.3 Ligament
The stability of the knee joint is
achieved by a clever system of ligaments,
strong muscles, and by a strong but elastic
joint capsule. There are four ligaments
connecting the femur and tibia as shown in
Fig.2. On the sides of the joint lie the
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and
the Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL),
which serve as stabilizers for the side-to-
side stability of the joint. The MCL is a
broader ligament that is actually made up
of two ligament structures, the deep and
superficial components. The LCL, on the
other hand, is a distinct cord-like structure.
In the front part of the centre of the joint is
the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL).
This ligament is a very important stabilizer
of the femur on the tibia and serves to
prevent the tibia from rotating and sliding
forward during agility, jumping, and
deceleration activities. Directly behind the
ACL is its opposite, the Posterior Cruciate
Ligament (PCL). The PCL prevents the
tibia from sliding to the rear.
Fig.2 Ligament
2.1.4 Mechanical axis
The mechanical axis is a static
weight bearing axis which can be drawn
on a radiographic image of the limb. The
mechanical axis is defined in the frontal
plane and the sagittal plane. The
anatomical planes of the human body are
defined in Fig.3. The mid-sagittal plane
divides the body into right and left halves.
Frontal (coronal) planes are drawn
perpendicular to the sagittal lines and
divide the body into anterior and posterior
sections. Horizontal (transverse) planes
divide the body into upper (superior) and
lower (inferior) sections. The mechanical
axis of the lower limb in the frontal plane
is defined as a line drawn from the centre
of the femoral head to the centre of the
ankle joint. In the sagittal plane, the
normal mechanical axis runs from the
centre of gravity to the centre of the ankle
joint. This line is practically perpendicular
to the ground. It therefore runs just behind
the femoral head and just in front of the
knee as shown in Fig.4.
Fig.3 Anatomical Planes of Human Body
Fig.4 Mechanical Axis of Knee Joint
2.1.5 Malalignment of knee joint
Deformity in the limb may occur in
any plane, not just the anatomical sagittal
or frontal planes. The common situation is
for deformity to occur among these
anatomical planes. In other words, angular
deformity or malalignment may occur in
any direction; medial or lateral, anterior
and posterior or anywhere in between. In a
healthy, well-aligned knee joint, the
mechanical axis passes through the middle
of the knee in the frontal plane. In
condition of abnormal alignment, the
mechanical axis does not pass through the
centre of the knee joint. The tibia abducted
with respect to the femur is defined as
varus malalignment; the tibia abducted
with respect to the femur is defined as
valgus malalignment in Fig. 5.
In many knee joint diseases, the
mechanical axis is disturbed and does not
pass through the centre of the joint. This
disturbance results in overload of distinct
areas of the knee joint leading to damage.
The patella does not lie symmetrically in
its groove. The surgeon must restore the
mechanical axis of the knee joint during
the total knee replacement surgery, i.e. the
new knee joint must be put in such a
position that the mechanical axis passes
through the middle of the new knee joint.
It is called ‘realigning of the total knee
joint’. In this ‘realigned’ position, the
patella once again glides symmetrically in
its groove. A total knee prosthesis put in a
badly aligned knee joint will be
overloaded; the patella (or its prosthesis)
will dislocate and eventually the whole
total knee joint will loosen or break down.
Fig.5 Malalignment
3.0 Components of total knee prostheses
There are three primary
components in total knee implants. These
include the femoral, tibial and patellar
components as shown in Fig.6. The
femoral component is typically made of a
metal called Cobalt-Chrome alloy (CoCr).
CoCr is a very hard and durable material,
allowing it to withstand the massive loads
and cycles a knee endures on a daily basis.
The other advantage of this metal is its
ability to wear a highly polished surface
that is durable. The tibial component is
usually made up of two main pieces, the
tibial tray and the tibial bearing
component. The tibial tray is typically
made of Titanium or Cobalt-Chrome. The
tibial bearing component is the bearing
between the femoral and tibial
components. The bearing is made of a
plastic called ultra high molecular weight
polyethylene (UHMWPE) and is fixed to
or allowed to rotate in the tibial tray.
Fig.6 Components of Total Knee Prosthesis
4.0 Geometry of total knee prosthesis
The geometry of knee prosthesis
will influence the kinematics of the knee
joint after TKR operation. The location of
the knee joint contact point, which is
decided by the geometry of the knee
prostheses, directly affects the lever arm of
the quadriceps, which determines the force
that needs to be generated for a given
external moment. To explain the geometry
and function of condylar TKR, a
parametric description of geometry of
conventional condylar replacement was
defined in Fig 7.
Fig.7 Definition of the geometry of condylar
replacements in (a) the frontal plane and (b)
the sagittal plane
In Fig.7 ROF, represents outer
radius, femoral; RIF, inner radius, femoral;
ROT, outer radius, tibial; RIT, inner radius,
tibial; BS, bearing spacing; RDF, radius at
the distal part of the femur; RPF, radius in
the posterior part of the femur; RPSF,
radius at the posterior-superior part of the
femur; PDTA, posterior-distal transition
angle, where the large distal anterior radius
RDF meets the smaller distal-posterior
radius RPF; RPT, posterior radius, tibial;
RAT, anterior radius, tibial. The two
frontal geometries shown have very
different mechanical functions. In Fregly’s
model, the tibiofemoral surface geometry
was described by five radii: RFF, frontal
radius, femoral; RFT, frontal radius, tibial;
RSDF, sagittal distal radius, femoral;
RSPF, sagittal posterior radius, femoral;
RST, sagittal radius, tibia as shown in
Fig.8.
Fig.8 Schematic of geometry of knee
implant
5.0 Normal gait cycle
Gait is the way locomotion
achieved using human limbs. Determining
the accurate motions of the knee
throughout one walking cycle has been the
difficult goal. The gait cycle is defined as
the period from heel contact of one foot to
the next heel contact of the same foot. This
cycle is broken into two parts, stance and
swing phase. On average, the gait cycle is
about one second in duration with 60% in
stance and 40% in swing. The stance phase
is further divided into an initial double
stance, followed by a period of single
stance and then a final period of double
stance. Double stance indicates that both
feet are in contact with the ground; single
stance is the period when only one foot is
in contact with the ground. The walking
gait cycle is illustrated in Fig.9 & 10.
Fig.9 Normal Gait Cycle
Fig.10 Variation of angle as percentage of
gait cycle
6.0 Description of dynamic model
Dynamic model of fixed-bearing
implants were developed in Ansys. The
boundary conditions were applied to the
model. The dynamic models have six
degrees of freedom, three translations and
three rotations of the knee joint. The
femoral component was allowed to move
vertically in the inferior-superior direction,
to rotate about a frontal axis to simulate
valgus and varus rotation and to rotate
about a transverse axis to simulate flexion
and extension. The tibial components were
allowed to translate in the AP and ML
direction and rotate about a fixed vertical
axis located in the middle of the tibial
condyles to simulate internal and external
rotation.
A complete gait cycle was
simulated for 1 second. The gait cycle
loads are shown in Fig.15. The vertical
axial load and the flexion-extension angle
were applied to the femoral component.
The vertical load was offset by 5 mm from
the centre towards the medial side to
simulate varus in the normal intact knee.
The anterior-posterior force and the
internal-external rotational torque were
applied on the tibial tray.

Fig.11 Dynamic model of fixed-bearing
implant
In the model of the fixed-bearing
implant, contact was defined between the
femoral component and the tibial bearing
component. The tibial bearing component
and tibial tray were fixed together. In the
model, the contact friction coefficient was
0.04. Four linear elastic springs and a
torsion spring were used in both models to
restrain the AP motion and IE rotation of
the tibial tray.
The four AP restraint springs were
applied through a dummy part connected
with the tibial tray to ensure no torsion
was applied through these springs. The
dummy part has only translational freedom
and the tibial tray can rotate relative to the
dummy part. The rotation between the
tibial tray and the dummy part was
restrained by the torsion spring. The total
AP translation restraint spring stiffness
was 30 N/mm and the IE rotation restraint
was 0.6 Nm per degree.
Finite element models of fixed-
bearing implants were developed in Ansys.
In these models, the femoral component
and the tibial tray were modelled as rigid
bodies. The tibial bearing component was
modelled as a deformable body. The
material of the tibial bearing component
was defined. Fig shows the finite element
models of the tibial bearing component of
fixed- and mobile-bearing implants.
Fig.12 Axial Force and Flexion Angle as
percentage of gait cycle
Table.1 Mechanical Properties of
femoral bone
A gait cycle was simulated in the
finite element models. The motion of the
tibial tray obtained from dynamic model
was applied to the tibial tray in the finite
element model; the axial force and flexion
angle in Fig.15 were applied on the
femoral component.
7.0 Results
Based on the dynamic models, the
motion of the tibial components during the
gait cycle was predicted. Using finite
element models, the contact pressures in
the tibial bearing components were then
sequentially generated with the gait cycle
load and corresponding knee positions.
These results were plotted
Fig.13 Contact Trace on tibial bearing of
fixed-bearing during gait cycle
7.1 Contact traces on tibial components
Fig.13 shows the distribution of the
contact points on the tibial components
during a simulated gait cycle. From the
figure, the contact points on the surface of
the fixed-bearing implant are distributed
over a smaller area.
Fig.14 Finite element model of tibial
bearing component of fixed-bearing implant
7.2 Contact stress distribution in tibial
bearing component
The contact pressure distributions
during the gait cycle were obtained after
solving the finite element models. The
maximum contact pressures on the
superior surface of the fixed-bearing
implant was found to be around 16.2 MPa
(Fig.15).
Fig.15 Maximum tibio-femoral contact
pressure in fixed-bearing implant during
gait cycle
Young’s Modulus (MPa) 17,500
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 133
Ultimate Compressive Strength
(MPa)
193
Fig.16 Contact pressure distribution in
fixed-bearing implant at: (a) 0.03 s, (b) 0.15
s and (c) 0.41 s
8.0 Conclusion
This paper compared the dynamic
structural performance of fixed-bearing
implant at various time. In the dynamic
analysis of total knee replacement, the
tibio-femoral contact points were more
scattered on the superior contact surface of
the mobile-bearing implant compared to
those of the fixed-bearing implant. The
more scattered contact points in the
mobile-bearing implant are the result of
higher conformity in the contact area of
tibio-femoral joint. More conforming tibial
components increase contact area and thus
reduce contact stress.
9.0 References
ABERNETHY, P. J., ROBINSON, C. M.
and FOWLER, R. M. (1996) Fracture of
the metal tibial tray after kinematic total
knee replacement. A common cause of
early aseptic failure. Journal of Bone and
Joint Surgery (British), 78, pp. 220-225.
GODEST, A. C., BEAUGONIN, M.,
HAUG, E., TAYLOR, M. and GREGSON,
P. J. (2002) Simulation of a knee joint
replacement during a
gait cycle using explicit finite element
analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 35(2),
pp. 267-275.
JONES, V. C., BARTON, D. C.,
FITZPATRICK, D. P., AUGER, D. D.,
STONE, M. H. and FISHER, J. (1999) An
experimental model of tibial counter face
polyethylene wear in mobile bearing
knees: The influence of design and
kinematics. Bio-Medical Materials and
Engineering, 9(3), pp. 189-196.
MORRISON, J. B. (1970) The mechanics
of the knee joint in relation to normal
walking,. Journal of Biomechanics, 3, pp.
51-61
TECHNICAL PAPERS
THERMAL
Design and Development of Wireless Engine Data Management System
S. Robert Rajkumar
1
, C. Jegadheesan
2
, Dr. P. Somasundaram
3
1
PG Scholar, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode.
2
Lecturer, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode.
3
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KSR College of Technology, Thiruchengode.
Email: robertrks10@yahoo.com
Abstract
In the modern automotive
world, research in motor vehicle is an
ongoing process. The trend in general
seems to be incremental improvements
of existing technology. However
electronic control is being introduced in
more areas of the vehicle. Since
automobiles are getting several design
changes in time to time manner, by this
enormous development proper and
continuous monitoring of engine
parameter is necessary nowadays. For
efficient monitoring of engine
parameter several methods are being
followed, in which the remote engine
parameter monitoring is carried out by
using wireless technologies. In this
paper various wireless communications
used in automobile are discussed and
the system used for wireless engine data
management system are described. In
this system, the parameters are
continuously measured from the engine
with the help of sensors. The transmitter
transmits the signals from various
sensors to the remote receiver unit with
the help of GSM. At the receiver end the
graphical user interface (GUI) is to be
developed by using VB programming to
monitor the vehicle parameters. In this
paper described about the wireless
engine data management system of
vehicle.
Index Terms— wireless communication,
GSM, engine
I. Introduction
Nowadays the automobile field is
emerged and developed with the help of
electronics control. Automobile manufacturers
continue to incorporate more and more
technological features into their automobiles. One
such emerging feature is wireless access. The
wireless communication used in automobile for
various applications is referred by the name
“Auto Telematics” [1]. Telematics is a
combination of telecommunication and
informatics. It often describes vehicle systems
that combine GPS and cellular technologies with
onboard electronics. They can include safety,
communication, vehicle diagnostic and
entertainment features. Telematics is typically not
an onboard autonomous navigation system and
AM/FM radio.
The parts of the Telematics are,
• Vehicle (cell phone, GPS, vehicle
data),Wireless interface,Back-office
systems
Some of the services offered in Telematics are,
• Automatic Notification of Air Bag
Deployment.
• Stolen Vehicle Location Assistance -
If your car is stolen, an advisor can
use the on-board GPS to track the
car.
• Vehicle Diagnostics – It can receive
information about the status of
systems like the engine, air bag and
anti-lock brakes.
• The module checks these systems
on a daily / weekly / monthly
basis,and then automatically sends a
message to Telematics System.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Today’s motor vehicles contain an
increasing number of microcontrollers
providing electronic control of a range of
systems, including engine management,
breaking, steering and airbag safety
systems. There are lots of research is going
on in automotive electronics.
A. Automotive Diagnostic System
The automotive diagnostics system is
build by utilizing a collection of wireless
sensor nodes collecting data from the car.
All persons who interact with a vehicle
require a unique set of data about its
operations [5]. For example, drivers are
interested to know healthy of the car. On
the other hand mechanics are interested to
know about current operational state of
numerous components.
B. Automobiles and wireless
communication
The display of engine parameters and
their control has been implemented using a
bidirectional wireless system. Some of the
systems use wireless communication such
as Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) [2], ZigBee
(IEEE 802.15.4), Ultra Wide Band
(UWB/IEEE 802.15.3a) and Wi-Fi (IEEE
802.11a/b/g) [2]. All these technologies are
used for wireless real-time control systems
found in automotive systems. The
comparison chart shown in Table 1 [2].
Range Mobility
Wi-Fi
802.11p
Up to 1000
feet
<100 mph
Wi MAX
802.16e
Up to 30
miles
<75-93 mph
MBWA
802.20
Up to 9
miles
<155 mph
3G Typically 1-
5 miles
310 mph at
144 Kbps
75 mph at 384
Kbps
6 mph at 2
Mbps
There are several automotive
applications uses wireless
communications, that may be inter -
vehicle communication or vehicle to road
side communication. Looking to in vehicle
communication the application system
uses GSM devices and computers. Based
on this previous literature collections, in
this paper described the problem and its
solution methodology.
III. problem description
In this paper gives a solution methodology to
develop a wireless system that to be transmitting
various engine parameters from vehicle to remote
station and remotely monitor the performance of
the vehicle.
IV. solution methodology
The Solution methodology has various stages to
develop a system. This is represented by the
block diagram at fig. 1.
• Creating a data base having collection
of sensor signals.
• The measured quantity of engine
parameters to be transmitted through
GSM.
• Develop the graphical user interface
(GUI) to monitor the vehicle
parameters for received signal.
A. Parameters to be monitored:
• Engine Temperature
• Engine Speed
• Fuel Level
Fig. 1 Methodology
Table 1 Comparison between wireless
communications
Engine Temperature:
The engine coolant temperature will give the
engine temperature. Coolant temperature
measurement is carries out by a simple thermistor
- in many cases the same sensor may be used for
the operation of the temperature gauge and to
provide information to the fuel control system.
The temperature sensor is shown in fig. 2.
The engine coolant temperature sensor is a
negative temperature coefficient (NTC)
thermistor. It is fitted in to the water jacket close
to the thermostat or bypass coolant circuit
passages. The sensor measures the engine coolant
temperature and provides a signal voltage to the
ECU. The normal running engine coolant
temperature is maintained at about 90 c, which
gives an engine temperature where clean
combustion is possible.
Engine Speed:
Crank shaft sensor is used to get information on
engine speed. This will often be the same sensor
that is used for the speedometer. The inductive
speed sensor used in automobile is shown in fig.
3.
If not several types are available, the most
common producing a pulsed signal the frequency
of which is proportional to the vehicle speed. The
signal from the sensing unit is counted by number
of pulses. And it is divided by four to get the
speed in revolution per minute (RPM).
Fuel Level:
Fuel level is measured by using a variable resistor
that is moved by a float. The position of the float
is determined by how much fuel is in the tank.
The resistance value is varied by a contact sliding
over a resistor.
B. Data Acquisition Unit:
The signals from all sensors are
collected through data acquisition circuit.
The data acquisition unit consists of an
analog to digital converter (ADC) and
microcontroller (8051). The output from
the data acquisition unit is connected to the
GSM MODULE.
The connection between data
acquisition unit and GSM module is
established by a small interfacing circuit,
which is shown in fig. 4.
C. Data Transmission Through GSM:
The communication establishment
between Personal Computer and server
side is carried out by GSM/GPRS module.
The GPRS services reflect the GSM
services with an exception that the GPRS
have a tremendous transmission rate.
Services such as the internet,
videoconferencing and on –line chatting is
smoothly possible. GPRS is a packet-
based data bearer service for GSM and
TDMA networks, which provides both
standards with a way to handle higher-data
speeds and transition to 3G. At the receiver
end, the GSM module has a RS 232 port
through which, the module can be
connected to the personal computer.
D. Graphical User Interface:
In the receiver end, the user interface is
to be developed through VB programming.
It gives a representation of vehicle front
panel, showing vehicle parameters like
sensor values. The fig 5 shows the main
Fig. 4. Interfacing Circuit with
Fig. 2 Temperature Sensor
Fig. 3 Inductive speed
sensor
page of vehicle information system. This
page contains current sensor values.
The main page has a button for trend
window. The trend window gives data
value based on daily report and also
weekly report.
V. conclusion
This paper describes some wireless
technologies used in automobile and also
describes the system used for wireless
engine data management. From the system
described in this paper, we can monitor the
entire vehicle and engine parameters in
remote location. Also, taking the system to
its logical conclusion by allowing
customization at run-time would be a
valuable exercise. The system has more
scopes in automobile field. Some of the
features and scopes are,
• The automobile engine
performance to be monitored,
when the vehicle is moving
condition.
• To prevent the accident.
• It helps the motor vehicle crash
investigation.
• Easy to trace the vehicle position in
the globe.
• Mal practices in the vehicle can be
avoided. Such as fuel theft, etc..,
References
Connie Riberio, “Bringing wireless
access to the automobile”
Cottle. J. A, Edmunds R. A, Morris
T. D, Robson. S, Ross. K. W and
Benedikt. J, “Exploiting the Synergetic
Relationship between Automobiles and
Wireless Communications”.
Erik Olin Peterson, 2007 university
of California, “An integrated
automotive diagnostics system that is
customizable, low-cost, and non-
intrusive built on a wireless sensor
network”
.
Jeffrey. C, Cutajar. R and
Richardson. A, Centre for
Microsystems Research Engineering
Department, Lancaster University, UK,
Prosser. S and Lickess. M, TRW
Automotive, Technical Centre, UK,
Micro Circuit Engineering, Exning
Road, Newmarket, Suffolk,
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINE
V.Nagakarthik
Kongu Engineering college, erode, Tamilnadu.
ero.naga@gmail.com Contact No: 9994189874
ABSTRACT
The transport is the main important
sector for our mankind. This tends us to
depend upon the fissile fuels. This in
turn increases the global warming. The
mining and other illegal activities
against nature also plays a major role in
every increase of global warming. This
can be avoided by using our renewable
energy completely which is available.
Renewable energy like solar, wind, etc.
are well versed to us, we also know that
there vehicles available which works on
the electric and this power can also be
get by using solar radiation.
But in that vehicles we use A.C series
motor run the vehicle. This paper
delivers you an innovation idea of
engine which works completely on
electromagnetic radiation. Here we
discuss about the construction and
working of the electromagnetic engine
which is done as project in our college.
Since this paper also revels the problems
that are faced during this project work.
We will also discuss about the areas
which are to be concentrated during the
project work. Here the analytical
salvation is also done which is also be
discussed in this paper in further…
CONTENTS:
1) Introduction
2) Construction
3) Explanation of the components
4) Working of Electromagnetic
engine
5) Analytical salvation
6) Our project details
7) Areas to be concentrated
8) Ways to increase the efficiency
9) Problems to be solved
10) Conclusion
11) Reference
INTRODUCTION:
Today the rate of increase of fossile
fuels is so high. This makes increases a
dangerous monster called Global
warming.. This lets us to search for an
another way for the transport. This can be
avoided by using the electric vehicles. But
in that vehicles we use electric motors to
run it. But this paper is an innovation idea
of running the engine completely with the
help of Electric power but not with the
fuel.
CONSTRUCTION:

EXPLANATION:
Sensing Unit:
Sensint unit senses the weight and
sends the data to control unit. This may
consist of sensors, weighting machine.
Control Unit:
This plays a major role in the working
of the car. This controls the working of
the engine. This selects and sends the
required initial current and voltage so that
there is high torque initially. The voltage
and ampere can be changed by nob but the
initial voltage and ampere cannot be
changed/lowered if same load is placed.
The required initial (V&A) can be selected
from a microprocessor.
Battery:
The battery is the heart of the setup.
This supplies current to the whole setup.
This must be charged frequently by putting
anything like flywheel,etc.
Electromagnatic engine:
This is the working part in our project
which is the reason for moving of the car.
 When the supply is given to the
electromagnet-A side, then the
piston gets attracted towards it.
 When the supply is given to the
electromagnet-B side, then the
piston gets attracted towards it.
 But when one electromagnet is
working other is operated in off
condition.
 This gives a to and fro motion and
this can be used for any work.
ANALYTICAL SOLVATION:
Since


By this equation we can tell that by increasing the frequency of changing the poles we
can increase speed
Where
B- magnetic flux
n- constant
µo- Permittivity – Constant

Therefore:
Thus we also know that

Force= B * I * L
Where
L- Length of piston – constant
I – Current passing through the electromagnet
Force α B * I * L
Torque α B * I
Ns= 120*(f/p)
B α I

Since,
B α I

Therefore,


We know that
Torque = B * I * A

Where
A- Area of piston – constant
Since,
B α I

Finally,

Torque α I^2
Thus by increasing the current the torque can be increased and the graph will be as shown.
Force α I^2
B α (µo * n * I)

OUR PROJECT DETILS:
 In our project we have constructed
a relay circuit to give the supply
manually.
 Then in a our engine we gave the
load as spring and piston weight.
 We constructed like that the piston
has to move against the spring and
the piston initially. So we are only
able to move with a very few
length.
 For this we need a battery or an
autotransformer and rectifier
 Since we faced many problems
during this project and all that is
needed to this project is the proper
discussion and the way of doing.
AREAS TO BE CONCENTRATED:
Electro Magnet:
Here the magnet is very important
so the windings must be very
sophisticated. The wire which are winded
must be coated with so insulin so that we
can avoid some loss. Since the thickness
of the wire plays a major role in the copper
loss so by using the conductor of less
thickness must be used.
Control Unit:
This unit is so complicated because
the designing is not so simple. This is so
as the storage of data i.e the storage of
voltage and ampere for the initial moving.
This can be done successfully by
undertaking a testing based on weight for
the electromagnetic engine for which the
circuit is to be designed. One must also be
careful in determining the maximum load
which is to be applied for that particular
electromagnetic engine.
Piston:
The piston determines the speed of
the vehicle however the power is supplied.
The piston should be made of Mild steel
and it should be of light weight. We can
also use any magnetic material having less
magnetic loss.

WAYS TO INCREASE THE MAGNETIC
FLUX:
If you see the capacitor it will have an
oil paper. This arrangement is so used to
increase the storage. This can also be used
in the magnetic materials or
electromagnets to increase the magnetic
flux. So by implementing this oil paper or
any oil material we can surely increase the
flux of the electromagnet.
PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED:
Friction:
While in operation the piston must
move along the cylinder. However the
piston and cylinder is so polished there
will exist a friction which will affect the
force of piston to their motion
Sound:
The another problem to be solved is
the sound which is produced during the
operation and this can be solved using any
soft material at the end of the stroke of the
engine.

Size:
The size plays a major problem in this
project. This problem can be solved by
using the technology application in the
production of electromagnetic engine.
Losses:
The major role in this project is the
concentration of losses during the
working. This can be minimized by
adding some of the materials which
decreases the losses in the magnetic usage.

CONCLUSION:
Thus I conclude that this engine will
surely play a major role in reducing the
global warming and it will increase the
technology of using the renewable energy.
This may also be implemented in our cars
and any type of vehicles but depending
upon the load the engine configuration
will vary. This can also be implemented
by replacing the motors in the areas like
water pumping, etc.
REFRENCE:
Since this is my won idea I only
developed this and I referred so of the
webs and information in the internet
And I asked about the information
about this work.

I also referred the 12
th
books for the
analytical solvation of this project.
Development of a Hybrid Electric Three wheeler
P.Karthikeyan
1
, J.Jancirani
2
1
PG student, Department of Automobile Engineering,
Madras Institute of Technology - Anna University, Chennai- India.
Email: karthizone@gmail.com
2
Sr.Lecturer, Faculty of Automobile Engineering,
Madras Institute of Technology - Anna University, Chennai- India.
ABSTRACT
This paper describes the
development of a hybrid electric vehicle
especially hybrid auto rickshaw .It
consists of an Internal Combustion (IC)
engine, Permanent magnet DC electric
motor, Micro controller and batteries.
Modernization and Globalization have
increased the population of vehicles on
the road. The fuels to feed their needs
are rapidly depleting and highly
polluting. A better alternative is hybrid
electric vehicle, a three wheeler which is
constructed by parallel hybrid
structure. This vehicle operates in three
modes, namely battery mode, engine
mode and battery charging mode.
Initially the vehicle operates in battery
mode upto 20 kmph and then the
vehicle automatically turns to IC engine
mode with the help of Micro controller.
The vehicle performance test,
acceleration test, brake test and speed
test are conducted in chassis
dynamometer.
Index Terms—PMDC motor, DC motor
controller, Pb acid batteries, 2S gasoline
Engine, three wheeler, and Micro
Controller.
I. Introduction
The three wheeler auto-rickshaw is
commonly used in Indian cities as taxi
and for commercial transportation. It is an
old technology, very easy to repair and
very robust, but contributes largely to the
known pollution problems in larger Indian
cities. Previous study shows that over
72% of the pollution in New Delhi was
caused by transportation, a large part of it
by the auto rickshaws and two wheelers,
before the current anti-pollution
regulations came into force.
The shortcomings of the batteries
make the pure electric vehicle yet not ready
to overcome the market of conventional
vehicles. There is simply not enough
energy supply for longer trips. The HEV
(Hybrid Electric Vehicles), however,
combines the extended range of a
conventional vehicle with the
environmental benefits of an electrical
vehicle due to its possibilities to adjust its
working point of the engine. i.e. its torque
and speed combination. The control law of
the HEV forces the vehicle traction system
to choose an operation point that yields the
highest efficiency possible and/or the
lowest emissions. The results are a vehicle
with improved fuel economy and lowered,
but not zero emissions.
The current paper is an overview of the
Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Which could
bridge the traditional power systems with
the future systems. In the current paper,
design and fabricated which could be used
for parallel hybrid vehicle. The vehicle
chassis is a 3-wheeler with drive to rear
wheels and steered by the single front
wheel. The vehicle is powered by an
electric motor coupled to an IC engine or
battery pack up. The motor is coupled to
differential, through which the power goes
to rear wheels.
II. OBJECTIVE AND OUT LINE OF THE
PAPER
1. When the vehicle reaches a
maximum speed of the battery
mode, the engine gets
automatically started with help of
micro controller by starter motor
and speed sensor.
2. Reduce emission and fuel
consumption.
3. The selection of electric motor, the
vehicle model and power drives are
discussed, design options are
discussed, result and discussion,
conclusion and feature work.
III. SELECTION OF ELECTRIC MOTOR
The following assumptions are to be
considering for the selection of DC
Electric motor.
Vehicle speed : 20 kmph
(or) 334 m/min
Vehicle weight and passenger : 375 kg
Diameter of wheel : 0.381 m
For one revolution vehicle move: 1.197 m
To move 20 Kmph : 279 rpm
Speed required by road wheel:
279rpm*fina
l drive
reduction
Speed required by road wheel: 279*1.737
= 485 rpm
Reduction ratio required :
1500 / 485
= 3.09
The input of the final drive should be run
at 485 rpm for vehicle to run at 20 Kmph.
The selection of sprocket teeth deepens
on reduction ratio (1:3.099) 20 teeth on
motor sprocket and 62 teeth on big end
transmission side.
Resistance offered by the vehicle is R =
K
a
*A
f
*V
2
+ K
r
*W + W*sin α, Equating
force and Resistance and to calculate the
minimum torque require to move the
vehicle.
Torque = F*effective wheel Radius =
45.96Nm, power required is 1.3 kW, the
motor 1.3kW used for minimum
requirement to drive the vehicle.
IV. VEHICLE MODEL AND POWER
DRIVES
The design concept for three wheeled
vehicles is completely battery driven auto-
rickshaw, which is called as Electric three
wheeler. The electric vehicle is a zero
emission range of 30–35 km (60%–80%
depth-of-discharge). The maximum speed
is 20 Kmph. The electric dc motor size is
3hp and the battery pack consists of a 4
lead-acid batteries with a total capacity of
75 Ah with a package mass of 59.2kg and
3hp, PWM drive of 60A capacity with
over current and over voltage protection
assisted by regenerative compensation
electric motor controller is used.
Figure 1 Layout of Hybrid Electric Vehicle
M-PMDC motor, M.C-Motor Controller,
E-Engine, G-Gearbox, FT-Fuel Tank, and
A-Alternator.
In the fig 1 the vehicle is fitted with a two
stroke 145.45 CC single cylinder SI engine
with a maximum power of 7hp. The
transmission consists of a four speed
manual gearbox with a reverse gear and a
wet clutch. The kerb mass of vehicle is
285 kg and maximum payload is 375 kg.
In table1 vehicle specification is listed.
TABLE 1 SPECIFICATION OF HYBRID THREE
WHEELER AUTO-RICKSHAW.
Engine Type Single cylinder,
2-stroke forced air cooler
Engine
Displacement
145.45CC
Max. Power, P
e,max
7.00HP, 5.15 kW at 5000 rpm
Max. Torque,
T
e,max
12.1 Nm at 3500 rpm
Transmission 4 forward and 1 reverse
(0.88.54, 0.34, 0.20 & 0.89)
Final drive ratio,
r
d
1:1.737
Clutch type Wet multi-disc type
DC motor 3hp, 48V PMDC motor
Battery 12V, 75AH, 4nos.
Alternator 13.5V, 75 Amps at 3500rpm
Turning radius 0.197 m
Roll resistance, k
r
0.015
Air drag
coefficient, k
a
0.031
Frontal surface
area, A
f
2.0 m
2
Fuel economy
Mileage within a
city
18 to 20 Km/liter (45mpg)
Mileage on the
highway
25 Km/liter (60mpg)
Average traveled
distance
40 to 60Km/day
Maximum speed 56 to 80 Km/h (35-50 mph)
V. OPERATING MODES
A. Electric motor mode
When starting, by using a control device
keeps the gasoline engine stopped. The
electric motor alone transmits power via
the final drive reduction drive for moving
auto-rickshaw. The vehicle operates in
“Battery” mode up to 20 kmph to help in
fuel savings, during the initial period is
high torque required.
B. Engine mode
When the electric motor drives auto-
rickshaw at maximum speeds, a control
device starts the gasoline engine. The
engine is accelerated to high speed by
accelerating cable. Engine is start after few
minutes. It’s changed to engine mode for it
connected 35 to 40 kmph. Engine normal
operating time CO
2
emission is less
compare to starting, stopping and idling
time.
C. Engine/charging mode
While auto-rickshaw is running at cruises
speed 35 to 45 kmph alternator is engaged
in engine and the electric power is stored
in the battery controlled by a control
device. The vehicle runs at low speed the
electric motor is turn to generator function
by regenerative braking. At the same time,
the control device regulates the load of the
electric motor/generator according to the
state of the engine.
VI. DRIVE CYCLE
In auto-rickshaws in the traffic
conditions in inner-city areas run at only
15–20 kmph. This cause severe emission
pollution, since the conventional
powertrains are designed to run efficiently
at 40–45kmph. Furthermore, the pollution
is increased more by frequently starting
and stopping of the rickshaw in the dense
traffic. Clearly, the drive cycle plays an
important role in the design of the hybrid
drive train, since it determines the
operations points of the power source.
Furthermore, on an average the auto-
rickshaws travel about 50–60 Km per day.
Using this drive cycle and the vehicle
parameters as listed in Table1, the vehicle
wheel torque can be calculated by
following equation.
T
v
(t) = m
v
*g*c
r
*r
w
+ 1/2 ρ*c
d
*A
f

v
(t)
2
*
r
w
3
--------- (1)
With the wheel speed
ω
v
(t) = v (t)/r
w
--------- (2)
The drive power demand becomes,
P
v
(t) = T
v
(t) ω
v
(t) --------- (3)
VII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND
DISCUSSIONS:
The hybrid electric auto rickshaw is
tested in chassis dynamometer, it is drive
by two mode namely battery mode and
engine mode. The vehicle performance
tests are conducted and plots Maximum
speed, acceleration test by distance mode
and speed mode.
Figure 2 Experimental test of maximum
speed test in engine and battery mode
The engine mode maximum speed is 41
kmph at elapsed time is 28sec and battery
mode maximum speed is 20kmph and
elapsed time is 23.88sec.
Figure 3 Experimental test of acc. Test by
distance mode maximum in engine and
battery mode
The battery mode reach 50m at 15.21sec
and the engine mode 50m reach at 20.2sec
the gear change take time.
Figure 4 Experimental test of maximum
speed test in engine and battery mode
The battery mode 19.2kmph reach at
17.71sec and engine mode reach 37kmph
at 35.8 sec, when engine is start after
30sec its change to engine mode CO2
emission is reduce at speed of 30kmph.
Figure 5 Vehicle speed Vs voltage supply
to the motor
In Electric mode voltage supply to the
motor is directly propositional vehicle
speed. The variable potential meter is used
change resistance Pulse with Modulator is
supply voltage to the Permanent Magnet
electric motor.
VII. CONCLUSION AND FEATURE
WORK
In this paper the design problem of a
three wheel auto-rickshaw and impact of
hybridization of CO
2
reduction for this
vehicle is discussed. The final drive is
modified operate on both modes IC engine
as well as motor mode operation. Using
chassis dynamometer the following tests
are conducted maximum speed test,
acceleration test, and brake test. From the
above result the optimal control strategy,
technology choice and fuel economy and
vehicle performance (acceleration,
maximum speed and brake test) are
investigated. In future the vehicle
Performance test, Acceleration test, Brake
test and Speed test will conducted in
“Chassis Dynamometer” by simulating the
actual road conditions and Indian Driving
Cycles.
REFERENCES
[1] M.Antonelli and L.Martorano,
“Optimization of an Internal
Combustion Engine for an Hybrid
Scooter”, SAE transaction, 2006
[2] T.Hofman, “Development of a
hybrid system for a three- wheeled
motor taxi”, PhD-degree in
mechanical engineering. 2007,
Eindhoven University of
Technology, Eindhoven.
[3] Mohammad Saad Alam, Thomas
Moeller and Aziz Maly,
“Conversion of an Indian Three
Wheeler Scooter into Hybrid fuel
cell Ni-MH Battery Vehicle and
Validation of the Vehicle Model for
the Bajaj Three Wheeler”, 2006
IEEE 0-7803-9794-0/06.
[4] Rahman.Z, Ehsani.M and
Butler.K.L, “An investigation of
Electric Motor drive characteristics
for EV and HEV propulsion
systems”, SAE technical paper
series 2001-01-3062
[5] Rajvanshi.A, “Cycle rickshaws as a
sustainable transport system for
developing countries” Human
Power, Technical journal of the
IHPVA no.49pp. 15-18, 2000.
[6] Xiolan AL Terry Mohr and Scott
Anderson, “An Electric
Mechanical infinitely Variable
speed transmission “, SAE
transaction, 2001-01-0354
[7] W.K.Yap and V.Karri, “Modeling
and Simulation of a Hybrid
Scooter”, PWASET volume 30 July
2008 ISSN 1307-6684.
STATIC AND THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF BRAKE
DRUMMADE IN ALUMINIUM METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE
M.DAYALAN
M.E. (CAD/CAM), II Year
Thiruvalluvar college of Engineering and Technology
rmdhayas@gmail.com
AIM:
This project aims at
analyzing following composite metals as
alternate material for brake drum and
to reveal that which is more feasible when
compared to cast iron brake drum
using ANSYS.
1. Aluminium metal matrix composite
with silicon carbide (SiC) as
reinforcement.
2. Aluminium metal matrix composite
with fly ash as reinforcement.

ABSTRACT

Brakes are the most important
component of an automobile vehicle.
Brakes are mechanical device which is
used to stop the vehicle within the
minimum possible distance. When the
brakes are applied on a moving vehicle
the kinetic energy of the vehicle is
transformed into heat generated by the
friction between the brake lining and
brake drum.
An automobile brake drum is a
part of the braking system that makes
contact with brake lining whenever
brake is applied. Brake drum is mostly
made up of cast iron which requires
more attention because of its large
weight and heavy wear in nature and
poor heat distribution. Due to this
poor heat distribution, performance
of the brake is affected.

To overcome the above problem
an attempt has been made in this
project to select an alternative material
for brake drum.

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES
Metal matrix composites (MMCs)
are found to be one such material capable
of meeting this requirement for automobile
applications.
MMCs are materials formed by the
incorporation of ceramic inclusions in
metal alloy. The development of metal
matrix composite material brake drums
favoured primarily over cast iron for
their high wear resistance , high friction
coefficient , more thermal conductivity
and low density.
After modeling the brake drum
using Pro-E software,
Static and temperature stress
distribution in aluminum metal matrix
composite material and currently used
material (C.I.) are to be analyzed
using ANSYS. The results obtained are to
be compared and to be revealed that which
of the following aluminum metal matrix
composite is more feasible for brake drum
when to compare to cast iron.
1. Aluminum metal matrix composite with
silicon carbide as reinforcement.
2. Aluminium metal matrix composite
with fly ash as reinforcement.
INTRODUCTION
Automobile industry has been
facing substantial technical challenges as it
seeks to improve fuel economy, reduce
vehicle emission, increase styling options
and enhance performance.
Advanced materials with improved
technology will be required to meet these
challenges. The increased use of
composite materials is being given serious
considerations for the use in high
production and high volume application.
Metal matrix composites are found
to be one such material capable of meeting
these requirements for automotive
application. MMCs are engineered
materials formed by the incorporation of
ceramic inclusions in metal alloy.
These inclusion s may be
continuous, discontinuous particulate or
whiskers. The development of MMC brake
drums favoured primarily over cast iron
for their high wear resistance, high friction
coefficient, more thermal conductivity and
low density.
The application of MMCs to brake
components as new drum material has
been receiving worldwide attention
because of their light weight, superior
mechanical properties, high thermal
conductivity and specific heat and superior
wear resistance.
The higher thermal conductivity
and specific heat of MMCs provide
additional advantages for the thermal
management in brake systems.
PROBLEM SPECIFICATION
During braking the kinetic energy
of the moving vehicle is converted into
thermal energy through friction in the
brakes which results in increase of
temperature in brake components.
High temperature that generate
inside the drum induces thermal stresses
and brake fade and reduces the strength of
the drum. Hence thermal analysis of brake
drum becomes essential to study the
feasibility of using MMC brake drum
applications.
BRAKE LINING:
It is friction material fitted on the
surface of the brake shoe. At the time of
braking the kinetic energy is transformed
into heat energy. Brake liner absorbs the
heat making it to wear.

PROE MODEL OF BRAKE DRUM
DIMENSIONS OF THE BRAKE DRUM
Outer diameter - 0.47 m
Inner diameter - 0.395 m
Depth - 0.187 m
Depth of rib - 0.048 m
Rib diameter - 0.486 m
Hole diameter - 0.022 m
Hub diameter - 0.223 m
Outer edge champher - 45 x 0.005 m
Inner edge champher - 45 x 0.01 m
Eight holes with centre
Distance - 0.115 m
PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM COMPOSITES
Input parameters Cast Iron
MMC with SiC
as reinforcement
MMC with fly
ash as
reinforcement
Density (kg/m3) 7228 2785 2300
Young s modulus 100 90 75
Specific heat
(J/Kg K)
419 970 1170
Thermal
conductivity
(W/mk)
48 104 140
LITERATURE SURVEY

Over the past three decades the
composite industry has undergone many
developments in the processes and
applications. Some of the papers which
deal with composite materials and their
applications in automobile field are
reviewed below:

N.NATARAJAN, S.VIJAYARANJAN
AND I.RAJENDRAN Manufactured and
tested a metal matrix composite brake
drum and the thermal analysis under
single, continuous and repeated braking
conditions were carried out.
G.WITHERS, P.MURIE,
R.ZHENG Developed low cost aluminium
matrix composite using fly ash micro
spheres by solidification processing. The
materials were successfully squeeze cast
into automotive brake drums that were
defect free and heat treatable.
J.BIENIAS , M.WALCZAK ,
B.SUROWSKA Studied the
microstructure and corrosion behavior of
aluminium fly ash composites.
K.SUGANUMA,
T.FUJITA,N.SUZUKI AND K.NIHARA
developed a metal matrix composite
reinforced with a new aluminium borate
whisker. This aluminium borate whisker
has been established by a Japanese
chemical company.
P.ROHATGI studied the various
automotive applications of cast aluminium
matrix composites. The various
applications include drive shafts , disc
brake rotors, brake drums, brake calipers,
connecting rods, piston and engine block
cylinder line for automotive and rail
vehicle applications.
D.R.HERLING , G.J. GRANT AND
W.HUNT developed low cost aluminium
metal matrix composites. The stiffness,
wear resistance and temperature
capabilities of the matrix alloys can be
considerably increased by introducing
ceramic particles and this makes light
alloys such as aluminium and magnesium
most suitable candidates as metal matrices.
COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
 Cast iron has been utilized in brake
drum and rotors throughout the
history of automobile
manufacturing.
 High density , rigorous machining
and due to imprecise casting and
substantial production cycle times
are few of the drawbacks in
utilizing cast iron in brake drum.
 Hence composite materials are
invaluable in eliminating such
shortcomings.
 Aluminium alloy composites are
becoming potential engineering
materials offering excellent
combination of properties such as
 High specific strength, High
specific stiffness, Low coefficient
of thermal expansion and wear
resistance.
COMPOSITE FABRICATION
Composites are fabricated by adding
ceramic particles to a molten aluminium
alloy and then casting that liquid metal
ceramic mixture into near-net-shape
components.
After the ceramic was well distributed the
composite alloy was poured into ingot
moulds and solidified.The ingots were
shipped to a casting plant.There they were
remelted and squeezed cast to net shape
component such as brake drum.
MATERIALS CONSIDERED IN THIS
PROJECT
Two composite materials are
considered in this project.
1. ALUMINIUM METAL MATRIX
COMPOSITE WITH SILICON
CARBIDE(SiC) AS
REINFORCEMENT
2. ALUMINIUM METAL MATRIX
COMPOSITE WITH FLY ASH AS
REINFORCEMENT.
In the first composite SiC
acts are ceramic inclusions which are
incorporated in the aluminium metal
alloy.
In the second composite
fly ash acts as inclusions in aluminium
metal matrix.This composite has
higher stiffness , strength and wear
resistance.
The fly ash particles are
obtained as by product of burning of
black coal in power stations and
therefore very low in cost. Fly ash is
made up of tiny spheres and consists of
silicon, aluminium, iron and calcium
oxides. The fly ash particles are
collected by electrostatic precipitator
from the exhaust gases in power
stations.
The fly ash particles were incorporated
into AL alloys by mechanical mixing
and casting.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE
MATERIALS
1. Composite materials have density
compared to other ferrous
materials.
2. Composite materials have high
wear resistance and high thermal
conductivity.
3. Composite materials have high
frictional coefficient .
4. Along the length of fiber the
composite have high strength and
stiffness.
5. FEA AND BRAKE DRUM
MODELING
5.1 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Finite element method is a technique
in which a given domain is represented as
a collection of simple domains, called
finite elements. The finite element method
differs from the traditional variational
methods in the manner in which the
approximation functions are constructed.
In the finite element method, the
actual continuum of body of matter like
solid, liquid or gas is represented as an
assemblage of sub-divisions called finite
elements of domains. These elements are
considered to be interconnected at
specified joints or nodal points. The nodes
usually lie on the element boundaries
where adjacent elements are considered to
be connected. Since the actual variation of
the field variables (like displacement,
temperature, pressure or velocity) inside
the continuum is not known, let as assume
that the variation of field variable inside
the finite element can be approximated by
a simple function.
These approximating functions (also
called interpolation models) are defined in
terms of the field variables at the nodes.
When field equations for the whole
continuum are written, the new unknowns
will be the nodal values of the fixed
variables. By solving the field equations,
which are generally in the form of matrix
equations, the approximating functions
define the field variable throughout the
assemblage of elements.
5.2 ANSYS PACKAGE
ANSYS is a general purpose
finite element modeling package for
numerically solving a wide variety of
mechanical problems. ANSYS – Finite
MATERIA
L
ULTIMATE
TENSILE
STRENGTH(MPa))
YIELD
STRENGTH(
MPa)
ELONGATION(
%)
BRINELL
HARDNES
S
Aluminiu
m MMC
with SiC
as
reinforce
ment
278 207 6 80
Aluminiu
m MMM
with
fly ash as
reinforce
ment
327 318 2.5 135
element analysis software enables
engineers to perform the following tasks:
 Build compute models or
transfer CAD models of
structures, products,
components or system
 Apply operating loads or
other design performance
conditions.
 Study physical responses,
such as stress levels,
temperature distribution or
the impact of
electromagnetic
fields.Optimize a design
early in the design stage 5.3
TYPES OF ANALYSIS
The analysis types used in
ANSYS, whether the problem is linear or
nonlinear are:
 Static/dynamic structural
analysis
 Thermal analysis
 Fluid analysis
 Acoustic and Electro-
Magnetic analysis
5.4 THERMAL ANALYSIS
A thermal analysis calculates the
temperature distribution and related
thermal quantities in a system or
component. Typical thermal quantities of
interest are:
 The temperature
distribution
 The amount of heat lost or
gained
 Thermal gradients
 Thermal fluxes
The ANSYS program handles all
the three primary modes of heat transfer:
conduction, convection and radiation. The
convection effect can be incorporated as a
surface load on conducting solid elements
or shell elements. The convection film
coefficient and the bulk fluid temperature
at a surface are to be specified; ANSYS
then calculates the appropriate heat
transfer across the surface. If the film
coefficient depends upon temperature, you
specify a table of temperatures along with
the corresponding values of film
coefficient at each temperature.
5.4.1 TYPES OF THERMAL
ANALYSIS
ANSYS supports two types of
thermal analysis:
1. A steady-state thermal analysis
determines the temperature
distribution and other thermal
quantities under steady-state
loading conditions. A steady-
state loading condition is a
situation where heat storage
effect varying over a period of
time can be ignored.
2. A transient thermal analysis
determines the temperature
distribution and other thermal
quantities under conditions that
vary over a period of time.
5.4.2 TYPES OF THERMAL LOADS
1. Constant Temperature (TEMP)
These are DOF constraints usually
specified at model boundaries to
impose a known, fixed
temperature.
2. Heat flow rate
These are concentrated nodal loads,
used mainly in line-elements
models where we can not specify
convections and heat fluxes. A
positive value of heat flow rate
indicates heat flowing into the
node. If both TEMP and HEAT are
specified at a node, the temperature
constraint prevails.
3. Convection (CONV)
Convections are surface loads
applied on exterior surfaces of the
model to account for the heat lost
to (or gained from) a surrounding
medium. They are available only
for solids and shells.
4. Heat Fluxes
Heat fluxes are also surface load.
Used when the amount heat
transfer across a surface is known,
or is calculated through a
FLOTRAN CFD analysis. A
positive value of heat flux indicates
heat flowing into the element. Heat
flux is used only with solids and
shells. An element face may have
either CONV or HFLUX (but not
both) specified as a surface load. If
both are specified on the same
element face, ANSYS uses what
was specified last.
5. Heat Generation Rates (HGEN)
Heat generation rates are applied as
“body loads” to represent heat
generation within an element, for
example by a chemical reaction or
an electric current. Heat generation
rates have units of heat flow rate
per unit volume.
5.5 FIELDS OF APPLICATION
 Aerospace
 Automotive industries
 Biomedical
 Bridges and buildings
 Heavy Equipments &
Machinery
 MEMS – Micro
Electromechanical Systems
 Sporting goods.
5.6 DRUM BRAKE CONSTRUCTION
The drum brake has a
metal brake drum that encloses the brake
assembly at each wheel. Two brake shoes
expand outward to slow or stop the drum
which rotates with the wheel. The brake
assembly attaches to a steering knuckle,
axle housing, or strut-spindle assembly.
Older cars and trucks have drum brakes at
all four wheels. Newer vehicles using
drum brakes have them only in the rear.
5.7 DIMENSIONS OF THE BRAKE
DRUM
Outer diameter - 0.47 m
Inner diameter - 0.395 m
Depth - 0.187 m
Depth of rib - 0.048 m
Rib diameter - 0.486 m
Hole diameter - 0.022 m
Hub diameter - 0.223 m
Outer edge champher - 45 x 0.005 m
Inner edge champher - 45 x 0.01 m
Eight holes with center distance- 0.115m
5.8 MODELING OF THE BRAKE
DRUM
Using the above dimensions,
modeling of the brake drum is done. PRO-
E Wild fire.2 software is used in modeling
of the brake drum. The modeling can also
be done using ANSYS.10 package, but its
little difficult when compared to PRO-E.
The modeling of the brake drum is done as
a single unit i.e. there is no need for any
assembly of components.
Figure.5.1 Solid Model of the Brake Drum
Figure.5.1 shows the three
dimensional model of the brake drum
modeled using PRO-E Wildfire.2. After
modeling, the model is imported in
ANSYS. For importing, the model is first
saved in IGES file format. Then in
ANSYS the IGES file is imported as a
solid feature without any distortion. After
importing, the analysis work is carried out.
Figure.5.2 Model imported in ansys
6. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE
BRAKE DRUMS
6.1 HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
PRODUCED.
The primary components of a
hydraulic brake system are the master
cylinder, limit valve and wheel cylinders.
When the brake pedal is actuated, the
pressure from the master cylinder is
transmitted to the wheel cylinders through
the limiter valve. The diameters of the
master cylinders and the wheel cylinders
are designed in such a way that the force is
multiplied. The wheel pistons force the
friction lining against the rotating brake
drum. There exist a definite ratio between
the applied brake force and the frictional
force developed in the brake drum and is
known as Brake Factor (BF).
The hydraulic pressure produced by the
pedal actuation is obtain as follows
P = F r
L

L
/ A
mcp
Where F, r
L
,
L
and A
mcp
are pedal force,
pedal lever ratio, pedal lever efficiency,
and area of the master cylinder,
respectively. This pressure value is applied
as load in structural analysis of the brake
drum.
Two pedal forces are considered. One is
40N and another one is 80 N. The 40 N
pedal force corresponds to a brake line
pressure of 4 bar and the 80 N pedal force
corresponds to a brake line pressure of 8
bar. For each of this pedal force, the
hydraulic pressure produced at the brake
drum is determined. The other parameters
considered are
Pedal lever ratio = 5
Pedal lever efficiency = 0.95
Area of the master cylinder= 500 mm
2
So for a pedal force of 40 N, the hydraulic
pressure is given as
P = F r
L

L
/ A
mcp
P = 40 * 5 * 0.95 / 500 * 10
-6
P = 3.8 * 10
5
N/m
2
Similarly for a pedal force of 80 N we
have the hydraulic pressure as
P = 80 * 5 * 0.95 / 500 * 10
-6
P = 7.6 * 10
5
N/m
2
6.2 SOLUTION THROUGH ANSYS
The steps involved in ANSYS can be
given as,
Preprocessing
 Element type definition
 Material properties
definition
 Building model
 Meshing the model
Solution
 Defining initial
condition
 Applying load
 Solving for results
Post processing
 reading result file
 viewing results
6.2.1 PREPROCESSING
Preprocessing involves the selection of
type of element type and material
properties and building up of model.
6.2.2 ELEMENT TYPE
For conducting structural analysis
the element type considered is SOLID
92.It has quadratic displacement behavior
and is well suited to model irregular
mashes (such as produced from various
CAD/CAM systems).
The element is defined by ten
nodes having three degrees of freedom at
each node: translation in the nodal x, y and
z directions. The element also has
plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening,
large deflection, and large strain
capabilities. See SOLID92 in the
ANSYS. Inc. Theory Reference for more
details about this element.
Figure.6.1 SOLID 92 Element
6.2.3 SOLID92 INPUT DATA
Element loads are
described in Node and Element Loads.
Pressures may be input as surface loads on
the element faces as shown by the circled
numbers on Figure92.1: “SOLID92
Geometry”. Positive pressures act into the
element. Temperatures and fluences may
be input as element body loads at the
nodes. The node I temperature T (I)
defaults to TUNIF. If all other
temperatures are unspecified they default
to T (I). If all corner node temperatures are
specified, each midside node temperature
defaults to the average temperature of its
adjacent corner nodes. For any other input
temperature pattern, unspecified
temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar
defaults occur to fluence except that zero
is used instead of TUNIF.
6.2.4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Table 6.1 Material Properties
Input Parameters Cast iron MMC with SiC as
reinforcement
MMC with Fly ash as
reinforcement
Density ( kg/m^3) 7228 2785 2300
Youngs
modulus(GPa)
100 90 75
Specific heat ( J/kg
K)
419 970 1170
Thermal
conductivity (W/m
K)
48 104 140
6.2.5 MODEL BUILDING AND
MESHING
The model is build in PRO-E and
is imported in ANSYS for carrying out the
analysis work. SOLID 92 element is used
in meshing.
Figure.6.2 Meshed model of the brake drum
6.3 SOLUTION
The results are obtained after the
initial and boundary are applied and load is
applied as pressure along the inner surface
of the brake drum. The solve command is
executed and the results are stored in files
for post processing.
6.4 POST PROCESSING
Post processing is done after
the solve command is executed. Through
post processing the results can be
reviewed. In post processing we go in for
plot results option. In plot results we go for
nodal solutions and find the von misse
stresses so as to find the deflection static
stress induced in the brake drum.
FIG-6.1: STATIC STRESS INDUCED
N CAST IRON BRAKE
DRUM FOR
HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE OF 3.8*10
5
N/M
2

FIG: 6.2: STATIC STRESS INDUCED IN
MMC BRAKE DRUM WITH
SILICAN CARBIDE
AS REINFORCEMENT FOR
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE OF
3.8*10
5
N/M
2
FIG: 6.3: STATIC STRESS INDUCED IN
MMC BRAKE DRUM WITH
FLY ASH AS
REINFORCEMENT FOR
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE OF
3.8*10
5
N/M
2
FIG-6.4: STATIC STRESS INDUCED IN
CAST IRON BRAKE DRUM
FOR A HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE OF 7.6*10
5
N/M
2
FIG-6.5: STATIC STRESS INDUCED
IN MMC BRAKE
DRUM WITH SILICON
CARBIDE AS
REINFORCEMENT
FOR HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE OF 7.6*10
5
N/M
2
FIG-6.6: STATIC STRESS INDUCED IN MMC
WITH FLY ASH AS
REINFORCEMENT FOR A
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE OF
7.6*10
5
N/M
2
7. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF THE
BRAKE DRUMS
7.1 BRAKE POWER DEVELOPED IN
A BRAKE DRUM
The brake drum is a structural
component that converts the kinetic energy
of a moving vehicle into thermal energy in
the process of slowing down or stopping
of a vehicle. Cast iron is the dominant
material normally found for this
application. In vehicles, the drum is used
in rear brakes and disc in front brakes. The
researchers around the world are taking
constant effort towards the development of
a new brake system, brake design and
brake material. When the pedal is actuated,
the wheel cylinder piston forces the lining
against the rotating drum. Due to the
friction between the stationary lining and
the rotating drum, a drag force is
developed in a direction opposite to the
direction of rotation. Therefore, the brake
power developed in brake drum can be
expressed as follows.
BP = (p - p
o
) A
wc

c
BF (r
d
/ R
T
) V
o
Where
P = hydraulic pressure produced by pedal actuation
p
o
= push out pressure
A
wc
= wheel cylinder area
c
` wheel cylinder efficiency
BF = brake factor
r
d
= brake drum effective radius
RT = radius of tyre
V
o
= initial velocity of the vehicle
The brake power is calculated as 1000 KW for a hydraulic pressure value of 3.8 * 10
5
N /
m
2
and 2000 KW for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 10
5
N / m
2
.
7.2 THERMAL ANALYSIS OF BRAKE
DRUM
During braking, the kinetic energy
of the moving vehicle is converted into
thermal energy through friction in the
brakes. When rapid deceleration produces
high heat generation in a single stop, the
braking time may be less than the time
required for the heat to penetrate through
the drum and the shoe which will lead to
temperature rise at the interface. The
increase in temperature in the brake drum
without ambient cooling is expressed
asTemperature difference = BP t
b
/
d
c
d
d
Where t
b
,
d
, c
d
and
d
are
braking time, density, specific heat and
volume of brake drum, respectively. While
applying brakes, about 90% of the thermal
energy is absorbed by the drum and the
rest is dissipated into the brake shoe based
on the thermal resistance of brake drum
and shoe materials. This thermal energy
diffuses through conduction inside the
brake drum and dissipates by convection
and radiation from the outer surface of the
drum. The heat transfer from inside the
drum to outside by conduction is
expressed as
q
cond
= K A (T
d
– T
o
)
Where K, A, T
d
and T
o
are thermal
conductivity, surface area, inside
temperature and outside temperature of
brake drum respectively.
7.3 TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
CALCULATION
Using the temperature difference
relation, the increase in temperature value
for cast iron brake drum and metal matrix
composite brake drums are found out
respectively. A braking time value of 5 sec
is considered for calculation purpose. This
value is substituted in the relation and the
increase in temperature is found out
In the case of cast iron brake drum, for a
hydraulic pressure value of 3.8 * 10
5
N /
m
2
and a braking time of 5 sec, we have
T = BP t
b
/
d
c
d d
BP = 1000 KW
d
= 7228 Kg / m
3
c
d
= 419 J / Kg K
d
= 11137 cm
3
So
T = 1000000 * 5 / 7228 * 419 * 0.011137=148.24 K= 150 K
Similarly for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 10
5
N / m
2
(BP= 2000KW). We have
T = 2000000 * 5 / 7228 * 419 * 0.011137= 298 K
In the case of MMC brake drum with silicon carbide as reinforcement, for a hydraulic
pressure value of 3.8 * 10
5
N / m
2
and a braking time of 5 sec, we have
T = BP t
b
/
d
c
d d
BP = 1000 KW
d
= 2785 Kg / m
3
c
d
= 970 J / Kg K
d
= 11137 cm
3
So
T = 1000000 * 5 / 2785 * 970 * 0.011137= 165 K
Similarly for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 10
5
N / m
2
(BP= 2000KW), we have
T = 2000000 * 5 / 2785 * 970 * 0.011137= 330 K
In the case of MMC brake drum with fly ash as reinforcement, for a hydraulic pressure
value of 3.8 * 10
5
N / m
2
and a braking time of 5 sec, we have
T = BP t
b
/
d
c
d d
BP = 1000 KW
d
= 2300 Kg / m
3
c
d
= 1170 J / Kg K
d
= 11137 cm
3
So
T = 1000000 * 5 / 2300 * 1170 * 0.011137= 168 K
Similarly for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 10
5
N / m
2
(BP= 2000KW), we have
T = 2000000 * 5 / 2300 * 1170 * 0.011137= 337 K
Using the above temperature values, coupled field thermal analysis is carried out and
the thermal stresses induced in each of the three materials is found out. The reference
temperature is this case is taken as 273 K.
FIG-7.1: THERMAL STRESS INDUCED IN CAST IRON BRAKE DRUMFOR TEMPERATURE
DIFFERENCE OF 150 K

FIG-7.2: THERMAL STRESS INDUCED IN MMC BRAKE DRUM WITH SIC AS
REINFORCEMENT FOR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF 165 K

FIG-7.3: THERMAL STRESS INDUCED IN MMC BRAKE DRUM WITH FLY ASH AS
REINFORCEMENT FOR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF 168 K
FIG-7.4: THERMAL STRESS INDUCED IN CAST IRON BRAKE DRUMFOR TEMPERATURE
DIFFERENCE OF 298 K
FIG-7.5: THERMAL STRESS INDUCED IN MMC BRAKE DRUM WITH SIC AS REINFOR
CEMENT FOR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF 330 K
FIG-7.6: THERMAL STRESS INDUCED IN MMC BRAKE DRUM WITH FLY ASH AS
REINFORCEMENT FOR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF 337 K
8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
RESULTS FROM STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
From structural analysis, the static stresses induced in the three brake drums namely
cast iron, silicon carbide and fly ash composite brake drums are found out.
Table.8.1 Deflection and static stress values for three materials for a hydraulic pressure
of 3.8 * 10
5
N/m
2
Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide
as reinforcement
MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement
Deflection(m)
0.473 * 10
-5
0.338 *10
-5
0.29 * 10
-5
Stress
minimum(N/m
2
) 13391 13391 12334
Stress
maximum(N/m
2
) 0.259 * 10
7
0.259 * 10
7
0.239 10
7
Table.8.2 Deflection and static stress values for three materials for a hydraulic pressure
of 7.6 * 10
5
N/m
2
Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide
as reinforcement
MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement
Deflection(m)
105 *10
-4
0.676 * 10
-5
0.622 * 10
-5
Stress
minimum(N/m
2
) 26782 26782 26430
Stress
maximum(N/m
2
) 0.519 * 10
7
0.519 * 10
7
0.512 * 10
7
8.2 RESULTS FROM THERMAL ANALYSIS
Coupled field analysis is carried out to determine the thermal stresses induced in the
three brake drums.
Table.8.3 Deflection and Thermal stress values for three materials for a hydraulic
pressure of 3.8 * 10
5
N/m
2
Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide
as reinforcement
MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement
Deflection(m)
0.001121 0.001134 0.000462
Thermal stress
minimum(N/m
2
) 0.714 * 10
7
0.603 * 10
7
0.327 * 10
7
Thermal stress
Maximum(N/m
2
) 1.05 * 10
9
0.885 * 10
9
0.481 * 10
9
Table.8.4 Deflection and Thermal stress values for three materials for a hydraulic
pressure of 7.6 * 10
5
N/m
2
Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide
as reinforcement
MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement
Deflection(m)
0.002241 0.002262 0.000918
Thermal stress
minimum(N/m
2
) 0.143 * 10
8
0.12 * 10
8
0.0651 * 10
8
Thermal stress
Maximum(N/m
2
) 0.210 10
10
0.176 * 10
10
0.0955 * 10
10

8.3 DISCUSSION
From Table 8.1 it is found that that
the deflection of Fly ash composite
material is less compared to the other two
materials. Also the stress values are
smaller for Fly ash composite material
when compared to, other two materials.
From Table 8.2 it is inferred that MMC
with Fly ash as reinforcement has superior
qualities such as smaller deflection and
smaller stress values when compared to
other two materials for the same hydraulic
pressure value.
In case of Thermal analysis, from
Table 8.3 it is found that the thermal stress
values and the deflection due to the
thermal stresses are minimum for the Fly
ash composite material when compared to
other two materials for a hydraulic
pressure of 3.8 * 10
5
N/m
2
. Similarly from
Table 8.4 we find that the deflection and
thermal stress values are minimum for Fly
ash composite materials for a hydraulic
pressure value of 7.6 * 10
5
N/m
2
.
9. CONCLUSION
Based on the discussion we
conclude that the Metal Matrix Composite
with Fly ash as reinforcement is much
suitable material for the manufacturing of
brake drums as this material has less static
and thermal deflections when compared to
cast iron and silicon carbide composite
material and also less static stress and
thermal stress induced in it, compared to
the other two materials.
Fly ash composite material is also
of light weight and has high thermal
conductivity and specific heat compared to
the other two materials. So the suitable
material for the brake drum manufacturing
is Metal Matrix Composite with fly ash as
reinforcement.
Heat transfer enhancement in cross flow heat exchanges using oval
tubes and multiple delta winglets
D.Mahendra
1
and S.Rhanganath
2
1
Email: mahendradumpa@gmail.com
2
Email: rhanganath@gmail.com
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Sri Nandhanam College of Engineering and Technology, Tirupattur, Vellore (Dt)
Abstract
A three-dimensional study of
laminar flow and heat transfer in a
channel with built-in oval tube and delta
winglets is carried out through the
solution of the complete Navier–Stokes
and energy equations using a finite-
volume method. The geometrical
configuration represents an element of a
gas–liquid fin–tube cross-flow heat
exchanger. The size of such heat
exchangers can be reduced through
enhancement of transport coefficients
on the air (gas) side, which are usually
small compared to the liquid side. In a
suggested strategy, oval tubes are used
in place of circular tubes, and delta-
winglet type vortex generators in
various configurations are mounted on
the fin-surface. The analysis is carried
out for different angles of attack of the
winglets to the incoming flow for the
case of two winglet pairs. The structures
of the velocity field and the heat transfer
characteristics have been presented. The
results indicate that vortex generators in
conjunction with the oval tube show the
improvement of fin–tube heat
exchangers.
1. Introduction
Fin–tubes are commonly used in
many gas–liquid cross-flow heat
exchangers. The fins are a series of thin
parallel plates through which the tubes
pass perpendicularly. In such an
arrangement, the gas stream generally
flows between the plates and across the
tubes and the liquid flows inside the tubes.
The fins act as extended surfaces providing
the bulk of the heat transfer surface area
for the gas side. Even with the extended
surfaces, the dominant thermal resistance
is on the side of the gas. In order to
achieve significant heat transfer
enhancement on the gas side, strategies
must be developed to increase heat transfer
coefficients on the fins and the tube outer
surfaces without a large increase in
pressure drop in the flow passage. The
numerical investigations of Biswas et al.
[1] and the experimental findings of
Valencia et al. [2] reveal that effective
utilization of vortex generators results in
an enhancement of heat transfer without a
significant additional penalty in the
pressure drop.
In the above investigations, the
enhancement of heat transfer from the fin
surfaces is achieved by placing delta-
winglet type vortex generators on the flat
fin surfaces in the neighbourhood of the
tubes. Longitudinal vortices develop along
the side-edge of the delta-winglets due to
the pressure difference between the front
surface (facing the flow) and the back
surface. The longitudinal vortices (also
called streamwise vortices) have axes
aligned in the direction of the main flow.
These vortices interact with an otherwise
two-dimensional boundary layer and
produce a three-dimensional swirling flow
that mixes near-wall fluid with the mid-
stream. This enhances the mixing of fluid
from the periphery and the core regions of
the flow field. Thus the thermal boundary
layer is disrupted and heat transfer is
enhanced. The additional pressure losses
are modest because the form drag for such
winglet-type slender bodies is low.
In order to study the improvement of the
heat exchanger surfaces, the present
numerical study investigates the use of
oval tubes in place of circular tubes, with
delta-winglets mounted in front of the oval
tubes [3]. Vortex generators can be
mounted in the fin–tube heat exchangers
using following two common
configurations, (i) common-flow-down
and (ii) common-flow-up, as proposed by
Pauley and Eaton [4]. Fig. 2 presents a
sectional view of the suggested
arrangement with the delta-winglets placed
in a common-flow-down configuration in
front of the oval tube. It may be mentioned
that the study of low Reynolds number
simulations in the present work is not for
computational simplification. Usually, the
fin spacing is so small and the mean
velocity range is such that the flows are
often laminar and the Reynolds numbers in
the passages are in the range of low and
moderate [5].
The complete Navier–Stokes equations
together with the energy equation have
been solved to obtain a detailed analysis of
the flow structure together with heat
transfer characteristics of the proposed
configuration for the finned oval tube heat
exchangers.
2. Problem Description: Numerical
simulation was carried out on an elliptical
tube with winglets to understand the flow
and the heat transfer characteristics.
Numerical simulation is carried out by
varying the angle β. Since heat transfer
rates mainly depend up on the flow, the
flow is disturbed by altering the winglet
angles.
The three angles that are considered for the
analysis are 30
0
, 35
0
and 40
0
. The
simulation was carried out using validated
commercial code FLUENT 6.3 version.
The plan view representation of the
computational domain is shown below.

Fig.3
Dimensional representation of the computational domain
The dimensions used are those of a
proposed design. The other winglet of the
first winglet pair is placed symmetrically
about the centreline.
3.Boundary Condition:
 Working fluid is air which enters the
domain with a velocity of 1m/sec. The
temperature of the air is 300K.
 No slip and no penetration boundary
conditions are implemented on the wall
of the channel and winglets.
 The top, bottom and the winglets are
maintained isothermally at a
temperature of 350K.
 The side walls of the channel are
insulated.
The outlet pressure is assumed to
be atmospheric with the gauge pressure set
to zero.
Simulations were carried out and the heat
transfer rates, pressure drop and the flow
behavior were analyzed for each and every
case varying the orientation of the winglet.
4. Numerical Analysis: The flow and the
heat transfer analysis were carried out by
solving the basic governing equation of
fluid flow and heat transfer. Finite volume
discretization technique was used to
reduce the partial differential equations
into discretized linear equations. The
basic governing equations are
 Continuity Equation
Microsoft Equation
3.0

-4.1
Where the velocity vector
∧ ∧ ∧ →
+ + · k w j v i u V
 Navier Stokes Equation
Momentum Equation along X- direction
( )
x
f
z
u
y
u
x
u
x
P
z
u
w
y
u
v
x
u
u ρ µ ρ +

,
`

.
|


+


+


+


− ·


+


+


2
2
2
2
2
2
-4.2
Momentum Equation along Y-direction
( )
y
f
z
v
y
v
x
v
y
P
z
v
w
y
v
v
x
v
u ρ µ ρ +

,
`

.
|


+


+


+


− ·


+


+


2
2
2
2
2
2
-4.3
Momentum Equation along Z-direction
( )
z
f
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
P
z
w
w
y
w
v
x
w
u ρ µ ρ +

,
`

.
|


+


+


+


− ·


+


+


2
2
2
2
2
2
-4.4
 Energy Equation:
( )
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
φ ρ +

,
`

.
|


+


+


·


+


+


z
T
y
T
x
T
k
z
T
w
y
T
v
x
T
u C
p
-4.5
Body force term is neglected as the flow comes under forced convection. So f
x
, f
y
,
and f
z
are zero.
5. Results and Discussions: A three-dimensional grid-mesh is used for the
numerical study of flow and heat transfer in a channel with built-in oval tube and
delta-winglet type vortex generators. The present computations are carried out for
various configurations of the winglet pairs. In the configuration of Fig.3 different
axial positions of one delta winglet pair are considered for an angle of attack of
40∞. The investigations are carried out for three different angles of attack of 30∞,
35∞ and 40∞. The blockage ratio (of the minor diameter of oval tube to the width
of channel) is 0.26. The Reynolds number in the present study is 1000, based on
the incoming average fluid velocity and the channel height. The Nusselt number
based on the bulk-mean temperature has been used for comparing the heat transfer
performance. The flow past an oval tube gives rise to a steady state solution unlike
the time-periodic dynamic steady state response shown by a circular tube. This
lack of vortex shedding lowers the inlet–exit pressure drop for the oval tube case,
adding to its advantages.
Fig .4 Contours of velocity and temperatures for the one,two and three pair
winglets
The pressure drop and the average nusselts number for various configurations are
tabulated below.
From the above results it’s clear that the
averaged Nusselts number on the surface of the
tube increases when the number of delta
winglets are increased. Comparing 1pair in
CFD with 2 pair in CFD, there is 7.2% increase
for 30
0
and for 35
0
orientations, and 8%
increase for 40
0
orientation. But there
is also considerable drop in the
pressure. The pressure drops are
12.33% for 30
0
orientation, 15.2% for
35
0
orientation and 18.18% for 40
0
orientations.
1 pair in CFD Pressure drop(Static) Nusselts Number
30
0
0.6855 348.67
35
0
0.6988 361.84
40
0
0.72214 363.65
2 pairs in CFD
30
0
0.74546 364.82
35
0
0.78958 366.75
40
0
0.83601 368.51
3 pairs in CFD
30
0
0.8503 371.65
35
0
0.9239 374.77
40
0
1.0067 379.451
6. References:
1. G. Biswas, N.K. Mitra and M. Fiebig,
Heat transfer enhancement in fin–tube heat
exchangers by winglet-type vortex generators.
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37 (1994), pp. 283–
291.
2. A. Valencia, M. Fiebig and N.K. Mitra,
Heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal
vortices in fin–tube heat exchanger element
with flat tubes. J. Heat Transfer (ASME) 118
(1996), pp. 209–211.
3. J.E. O’Brien, M.S. Sohal, Local heat
transfer for finned-tube heat exchangers using
oval tubes, Proceedings of NHTC’00,
34th National Heat Transfer
Conference Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
2000
4. W.R. Pauley and J.K. Eaton,
Experimental study of the development
of longitudinal vortex pairs embedded
in a turbulent boundary layer. AIAA J.
26 (1988), pp. 816–823.
5. S. Kakac, R.K. Shah and A.E.
Bergles, Low Reynolds number flow
heat exchangers. , Hemisphere,
Washington DC, USA (1981).
NON-CONVENTIONAL REFRIGERATION
(MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION)
1. S.VIJAY 2. S.VENKATRAMAN
KONGU ENGINNERING COLLEGE , MECHATRONICS , PERUNDURAI ,
ERODE
EMAIL ID: vijayspn12@gmail.com
KONGU ENGINNERING COLLEGE , MECHATRONICS , PERUNDURAI
,ERODE
EMAIL ID: raman.kongu@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The objective of this effort is to
determine the feasibility of designing,
fabricating and testing a sensor cooler,
which uses solid materials as the
refrigerant. These materials demonstrate
the unique property known as the
magneto caloric effect, which means that
they increase and decrease in temperature
when magnetized/demagnetized. This
effect has been observed for many years
and was used for cooling near absolute
zero. Recently, materials are being
developed which have sufficient
temperature and entropy change to make
them useful for a wide range of
temperature applications. The proposed
effort includes magneto caloric effect
material selection, analyses, design and
integration of components into a
preliminary design. Benefits of this design
are lower cost, longer life, lower weight
and higher efficiency because it only
requires one moving part - the rotating
disk on which the magneto caloric
material is mounted. The unit uses no gas
compressor, no pumps, no working fluid,
no valves, and no ozone-destroying
chlorofluorocarbons/hydro
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's/HCFC's).
Potential commercial applications include
cooling of electronics, super conducting
components used in telecommunications
equipment (cell phone base stations),
home and commercial refrigerators, heat
pumps, air conditioning for homes, offices
and automobiles, and virtually any place
that refrigeration is needed.
1.0 INTRODUCTION:
1.1 Refrigeration:
Definition: Refrigeration is the
process of reducing the temperature of
any substance below that of the
surrounding temperature using some
working medium called refrigerants.
Initially refrigeration was used
in the preservation of foodstuff by
preventing bacterial action and this
technology was further developed and
extended its use in industrial
applications. For example cool cutting
oil helps in machining operations by
lowering the temperature of work piece
to prevent overheating, Quenching
baths for heat treating operations,
pharmaceutical field, etc are some of
the industrial applications.
1.2 Conventional Refrigeration Vs
Non-conventional (Magnetic)
Refrigeration :
In conventional refrigeration
system we need a medium for the
removal of heat from the refrigerator to
the surrounding atmosphere. This
medium may be a solid, liquid or a gas.
Some of the refrigerants which were
used initially are ammonia (NH
3
),
carbon dioxide (CO
2
), sulphur dioxide
(SO
2
), etc. There are some drawbacks
in the use of these refrigerants so
refrigerants like F-11, F-12, F-22, F-
113, etc are being used which are both
economical as well as efficient.
Minimum temperature that can
be obtained by these refrigerants is
0.71
o
K by boiling liquid helium under
the smallest pressure obtainable.
Temperatures below this range can be
obtained only by the use of Non-
Conventional refrigeration system.
Magnetic refrigeration is the method of
refrigeration based on
MAGNETOCALORIC EFFECT,
which is defined as the response of a
solid to an applied magnetic field,
which is apparent as a change in its
temperature.
Instead of ozone-depleting
refrigerants and energy-consuming
compressors found in conventional
vapor-cycle refrigerators, this new style
of refrigerator uses iron ammonium
alum that heats up when exposed to a
magnetic field, then cools down when
the magnetic field is removed.
2.0NON-CONVENTIONAL
REFRIGERATION :
2.1 TYPES INCLUDE :
1. Thermo Electric Refrigeration.
2. Acoustic Refrigeration.
3. Magnetic Refrigeration.
3.0MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION
3.1 PRINCIPLE:
Magnetic refrigerants heat up
when they are subjected to a magnetic
field because the second law of
thermodynamics states that the entropy
- or disorder - of a closed system must
increase with time. This is because the
electron spins in the atoms of the
material are aligned by the magnetic
field, which reduces entropy. To
compensate for this, the motion of the
atoms becomes more random, and the
material heats up. In a magnetic
refrigerator, this heat would be carried
away by water or by air. When the
magnetic field is turned off, the
electron spins become random again
and the temperature of the material falls
below that of its surroundings. This
allows it to absorb more unwanted heat,
and the cycle begins again.

Producing very low temperature
through the process of adiabatic
demagnetization can do refrigeration. The
paramagnetic salt is suspended by a
thread in a tube containing a low pressure
of gaseous helium to provide thermal
communication with the surrounding bath
of pumped helium. In operation the liquid
helium bath is cooled by pumping to the
lowest practical pressure, usually
achieving a temperature in the
neighborhood of 1
o
K. The temperature of
the paramagnetic salt approaches that of
the helium bath by conduction through
the exchange gas.
Next the magnetic field is turned
on, causing heating of the salt and a
decrease in entropy of the magnetic ions
by virtue of their partial alignment in the
direction of the applied field. The heat
produced is conducted to the surrounding
bath of liquid helium so that the
temperature again approaches 1
o
K. If the
magnetic field is increased slowly the
heat can flow out, as it is generated-the
magnetization being almost isothermal.
Next the exchange gas surrounding the
sample is removed by pumping, and now,
with the salt thermally isolated, the
magnetic field is turned off. The
temperature of the sample decreases
markedly as a consequence of the
adiabatic demagnetization, which allows
the magnetic ions to regain some of their
entropy at the expense of the lattice
energy of the salt.
The iron ammonium alum
salt, originally in zero field (H=0,S=S
1
), is
magnetized isothermally at the
temperature T
1
, by increasing the
magnetic field to H=H
1
.This
magnetization, by orienting the magnetic
ions of the salt and thus decreasing their
disorder, causes a reduction in entropy
from S
1
to S
2
. Now the salt is isothermally
isolated from its surroundings and thus
when the magnetic field is reduced to zero
the process follows the horizontal
isentropic line and the temperature falls
to 1
0
K.The great decrease in temperature
and the close approach zero is a
consequence of the peculiar shape of the
entropy-temperature relation
3.2 WORKING
The process flow diagram for
the Magnetic Refrigeration system is
show in the figure below. The
mixture of water and ethanol serves
as the heat transfer fluid for the
system. The fluid first passes
through the hot heat exchanger,
which uses air to transfer heat to
the atmosphere. The fluid then
passes through the copper plates
attached to the non-magnetized
cooler Magneto caloric beds and
loses heat.
CYCLE FOR MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION IN POSITION 1:
Driving Shaft
Magneto
caloric Bed
Copper
Plates
Electro
magnets
Vessel
Pump
To
Fa
n
To
Atmosph
ere
Cold
Heat
Exchan
ger
Hot
Heat
Exchan
ger

A fan blows air past this cold fluid into
the freezer to keep the freezer
temperature at approximately 0°
The heat transfer fluid then gets
heated up to 80°F as it passes
through the copper plates adjoined by
the magnetized warmer Magneto
caloric Beds, where it continues to
cycle around the loop. However, the
Magneto caloric beds simultaneously
move up and down, into and out of
the magnetic field.
CYCLE FOR MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION IN POSITION 2 :
Driving Shaft
Magnetocalori
c Bed
Copper
Plates
Electro
Magnets
Vessel
Pump
To
Fa
n
To
Atmosph
ere
Cold
Heat
Exchan
ger
Hot
Heat
Exchan
ger
Figure below, shows how the
cold air from the freezer is
blown into the refrigerator by
the freezer fan. The temperature of
the refrigerator section is kept around
39°F.
The typical household
refrigerator has an internal volume of
21 cu.ft, where the freezer represents
approximately 30% of this volume.
Freezers are designed to maintain a
temperature of 0
o
F. Refrigerators
maintain a temperature of 39
o
F. The
refrigerator will be insulated with
polyurethane foam, one of the most
common forms of insulation
available. The refrigerator is kept
cool by forcing cold air from the
freezer into the refrigerator by using
a small fan. The control system for
machining the desired internal
temperatures consists of two
thermostats with on/off switches.


FIG : REFRIGERATOR WITH A FREEZER FAN
The freezer thermostat regulates the temperature by turning the
compressor off when the temperature gets below 0
o
F. A second thermostat
regulates the fan that cools the refrigerator to 39
o
4.0 RESULTS OBTAINED FOR VARIOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS :

FIG : ENTROPY-TEMPERATURE DIAGRAM FOR IRON AMMONIUM
ALUM

The above figure is an entropy-
temperature diagram for iron ammonium
alum for various magnetic fields; on it is
super imposed the refrigeration cycle
ABCDA. From A to B the
working salt is magnetized
isothermally and heat is absorbed
by the liquid alcohol-water bath.
From B to C the salt is demagnetized
isentropically, causing a substantial
decrease of temperature. From C to D the
salt is demagnetized isothermally,
extracting heat from the experimental
region. From D to A the salt is
remagnetized to starting condition.
5.0 ADVANTAGES :
1. Very low temperatures of the order of
001K can be obtained.
2. Required pressures are obtained
without the aid of a compressor.
3. Does not produce toxic gases and
chloro-fluoro carbons, thus reducing
ozone
layer depletion.
4. Efficiency and compactness
are increased where as power
consumption is reduced.
5. Larger temperature swings
that will allow the technology
to provide the Cooling power
required for specific markets,
such as home refrigerators,
air conditioning, electronics
cooling, and fluid chilling can
be obtained.
6. The unit runs virtually silent
and is vibration free.
7. The magnetic material in the
regenerator bed will ever need to be
replaced when changing refrigerant to
achieve a different temperature range.
8. When a better magnetic
material is developed, the
refrigerator will not need to
be redesigned.
6.0 APPLICATIONS:
1. It is used in large-scale refrigeration,
food processing, heating& air-
conditioning, liquor distilling, grain
drying, waste separation and treatment
systems.
2. Magnetic refrigerator can be
utilized in actual engineering
applications, such
as cooling sensitive
electronics and optical devices on
board spacecraft.
REFERENCES:
1. A textbook on “CRYOGENIC ENGIMEERING” by V.J. Johnson.
2. “Refrigeration and Air-conditioning” by Arora & Domkundwar.
Optimization of Compression Rings to Reduce Oil Carry Over in
Automotive Air Brake Compressor
K.Mahendran
1
and S.Arul Selvan.
2
1
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: kkdiran@yahoo.co.in
2
Lecturer, Dept.of Automobile Engineering,Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai,India

Abstract
The Lubrication of piston ring is directly
related to blow by and oil carry over in reciprocating
compressor. Compression ring is an open-ended ring
that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of the
piston. Piston ring seals the compression chamber and
regulates motor oil consumption. Piston ring is the
area of concern in any reciprocating system
construction. The aim of the project is to reduce blow-
by and oil carry over past the ring-pack. The Project
focuses on the development of a new profile for
compression rings.
The parameters affecting the performance of piston
rings i.e. blow-by and oil carry over are studied in
detail. These factors are: operation ring seal (pressure
balancing), Ring geometry, tangential tension of ring.
To reduce oil carry over and blow-by, a change in the
cross-section of the compression ring was
recommended. The concepts of reverse torsion ring,
torsion ring and micro-Napier were implemented in
this project. The proposed cross-sections were
analyzed for ring-twist during installation and at
operating conditions using Ansys. The cross-sections
with minimum ring twist are taken up for
performance testing in lab.The proposed cross-sections
were tested in lab and a Design of Experiments was
performed to assess the effect of certain parameters on
ring performance. The ring-pack combination that
provides optimized low oil carry and blow-by over is
considered for endurance testing and field testing.
I. Introduction
The ring-pack plays an important role in a
reciprocating compressor. Its primary function
is to provide a moving seal between the piston
and liner, which prevents the air leakage form
compression chamber to the crankcase, and at
the same time minimizes the oil transport in the
opposite direction .The lubrication occurring in
the interface between the ring running –face
and cylinder liner surface greatly influences the
ring sealing performance. In a single-acting
reciprocating compressor, lubrication of the
cylinder is usually carried out by oil splash. Oil
consumption through the clearance between
rings and liner is not easily controlled. As a
result, a large amount of oil is carried into the
compressed air. This not only gives rise to an
excessive waste of lubricating oil, but also
causes carbon deposits in the discharge system
of the compressor and increase maintenances.
Developing capabilities to understand the ring-
pack lubrication has always been an active
subject in reciprocating compressor research.
The main attributes for oil carry over are bore
distortion, Rings instability along the liner,
evaporation of oil, surface roughness of liner,
honing process, tangential tension of ring, ring
geometry. For the purpose of reducing
compressor oil carry over, this project is
initially focused on the mechanism of oil carry
over through ring pack and finite element
analysis is used to analyze the stability of ring
and its salability along the liner.
A. Causes for oil carry over
The causes for oil carry over for the
reciprocating compressor are as follows
1. Reduction of Ring sealing ability
• Inertia force & Air load
• Different kinds of loads changing over
time
• Thermal stress of the ring
• Geometrical condition of upper and
lower surface of ring groove
• Frictional force of ring against liner.
2. Bore distortion
• Clamping torque applied during
assembly of cylinder head with block
• Air Pressure developed inside the
block
non-Uniform temperature distribution on
Cylinder wall
3. Ring Running edges wear.
• Tangential tension of ring
• Running Face angle of ring
4. Evaporation of oil from the liner wall
5. Suction Pressure
P
L1
, P
L2
: Land Pressure
Po: Oil Pressure
Pe: Surface Pressure
Pb: Back Pressure
Piston
Oil film
Pb
Pe
P
L1
Po
Ring
P
L2
Fig.1 Schematic of pressure in radial direction
acting on the taper faced ring
B.Phenomena of Ring Collapse
The ring pushed into its groove and the loss of
sealing function on the circumference, caused
by the difference in pressure between
inner/outer circumferences of ring is called
RING COLLAPSE [1].It is shown in
Fig.1.When the piston is moving from BDC to
TDC, ring in such state is subjected to a force
pushing the ring against the liner due the
pressure (Pb) applied to the back of the ring and
the surface pressure (Pe) of the ring caused by
the tangential force of ring itself. While piston
is near to top dead center, at the same time
second land pressure and third land pressure
pull off the ring from liner. If the P
L1
,P
L2
exceeds than Pb,Pe,the second ring –liner
contact force is liable to be reduced and the
second ring oil film thickness becomes thicker
by that amount, resulting in a smaller oil
scrapping effect of the second ring and greater
oil consumption. The second ring oil film
thickness suddenly become very thick for a
short period of time starting from a point
immediately before CTDC due to large
clearance between the second ring and liner
detected. The lower edge of top ring becomes
flooded, down ward scraping of oil occurs
during suction stoke. Some of oil enters the top
ring groove, it move further up to crown land
and easily contribute oil carry over.
C.Theoretical analysis of Ring collapse for
compression ring
Balance of force in radial direction
When the force (F
o
) to push the ring into the
groove becomes greater than the force (F
l
) to
push the ring against the cylinder wall, the ring
collapse may occur and the blow by may blow
through the clearance between the ring sliding
surface and the liner. The values F
o
and F
l
are
calculated in relation to the pressure distribution
in the radial direction, using the model as
shown in figure.2.The values of l, m and n here
are obtained by measuring the ring sliding
surface with a surface roughness gauge after the
completion of experiments. Around the CTDC
where the oil film thickness of second ring
starts increasing, values of Fo and Fi become
closest to each other and face load of ring
becomes lowest. The value of F
o
may become
greater locally according to the circumferential

F
l
= P
2
x l,F
m
= (P
L1
+P
L2
)x m/2, F
n
= P
L2
x n
F
o
= F
l
+F
m
+ F
n
, F
l
=h (Pe+Pb)
Fig.2 Modal of pressure
distribution in radial direction
direction of ring. Hence oil film thickness
increases around such a portion. Calculated
values of F
o
and F
i
is shown in the fig.3
Balance of forces in axial direction
For determination of state of contact between
the ring upper surface and the ring ring groove
near CTDC, the forces applied to the ring in the
axial direction are calculated where the ring is
touching the upper surface as shown in fig.. The
force to push down the ring is calculated on the
assumption that a pressure that varies linearly
from p
L1
to P
b
is applied to the ring upper
surface. The force to push the ring up is
calculated from the force applied to the ring
lower surface caused by P
l2
is equal to the value
of P
b
.The frictional force between the ring and
cylinder is ignored.
Fig. Shows the calculated values of F
up
and F
down
at 3000 rpm.The calculation is done within the
crank angle in which the second ring is
touching the groove upper surface. It is found
that the F
down
becomes greater than Fup around
Compression top dead center, and the ring may
go away from the groove upper surface at that
time. It is showed the second ring oil film
suddenly becomes very thick for a short period
F
e
F
n
l
m
F
l
F
m
F
b
n
of time starting from a point immediately
before the compression top dead center.
Calculation of upward & Downward Force of First Ring
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
-180 -160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Crank angle (degree)
F
o
r
c
e
(

N
)
Fig.3 F
up
and F
down





F
Down
= π. d.a. (P2+Pb)/2
F
Up
= π.d. a. Pb +F
i
Fig.4 Modal of pressure distribution in
radial direction
II. ANALYSIS OF RING DEFORMATION
BEHAVIOR USING FEA
Different compression ring cross-
sections were analyzed for ring-twist during
installation and at operating conditions and the
cross-sections with twist less than the existing
cross-section were considered for Prototype
development and experimentation. Fig shows
the twisting behavior under installation
condition. Napier ring experiences both positive
as well as negative twist along the ring cross-
section
Plain ring does not exhibit any twist pattern
except for some points. Proposed shape 1 has a
positive twist, which is desirable. Proposed
shape 2 experiences positive twist that can be
efficient in sealing the compression chamber.
Proposed shape 3 conforms to the twist pattern
of plain ring. However, it has higher twist
values than plain ring.
Fig.5 Ring deformation
Analysis of compression ring under operating
conditions was carried out to find out the twist
of the ring at operating conditions i.e. at
pressure conditions, compression ring shapes
were analyzed individually as well as in
assembled condition. The results of Assembly
analysis indicate that displacement of ring also
occurs due to piston load acting on it. All types
of compression rings were modeled with an
allowable initial twist of 0.65º within the
groove and were subjected to the pressure load.
The results obtained are as follows: All
compression rings exhibit positive twist during
compression and negative twist during suction
stroke. Napier ring exhibits maximum twist
value than any other cross-section during
compression stroke. The twist values of
proposed cross-sections is below the twist value
of Napier ring but greater than that of plain
ring.
III. DOE FOR COMPRESSION RING
R
i
n
g

T
w
i
s
t

(
D
e
g
r
e
e
)
P 2
P 2
P 1
Plain ring
Napier ring
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0 50 100 150 200
Angle along the ring (Degrees)
R
in
g

t
w
is
t

(
D
e
g
r
e
e
s
)
Napier Plain Proposed shape1
Proposed shape 2 Proposed shape 3
Force Down
Up Force
P
b
P
L1
P
L2
P
b
D
d
a
Oil Film
Ring
Angle along the ring (Degree)
Piston
The Taguchi method of experimental design
is used during initial design and prototype
testing to determine optimal settings for the
product and process parameters. Considering
the results of the experimental design the
products are then designed to minimize any
detrimental effect. The proper choice in the
design phase of parameter settings for both the
product and process can reduce costs and
improve quality. There are several advantages
to experimental design, they are as follows:
1. Identifying the key decision variables
that control the process
2. Development of a new process for
which historical data is unavailable.
3. Identifying important factors and their
associated levels that maximize yield
and reduce overall cost.
4. Reduces lead time between design and
manufacturing.
To assess the effect of piston ring parameters
such as Running face taper angle, tangential
tension, bevel angle and bevel height on blow-
by. Thereby a DOE is performed to assess the
significance of these factors on blow-by of the
compressor. Designs of Experiments were
formulated such that Process would be simpler
and contain correlating factors. Therefore two
DOE were performed using L4 orthogonal
array.
A. DOE on Running face taper angle and
Tangential tension to assess the effect on oil
carry and blowby Variation

Response: Oil carry over and Blow-by
Factors and levels
Table 1 Factors and levels
Factors/
Levels
Level I Level II
Taper
Angle
1º 3º
Tangential
tension
Existing
specification
Top ring : 20 ± 2
Reduced
Tension
Top ring :15
N
2
nd
Ring :17.35 ±
2.3 N
± 2 N
2
nd
ring : 13
± 2 N
Interactions to be estimated
Taper Angle Tangential tension
Table 2 Control Factors
Factors Value Factors Value
Compressor
Assembly
Manual
throughout
the
experiment
Compressor
speed
1500 rpm
Compressor
body
Same Loading
cycle
780sloading
/30s
unloading
Linear Graph
Orthogonal Array (No: of replications
planned: 2)
Table.3 Mean response plot
Two replications were done with the four
combinations and the Results, Mean
Response plot and Annova table are as
follows.
B A
AXB
Treatment
No.
Factor A
Factor
B
Interaction
AxB
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2
3 2 1 2
4 2 2 1
Table 4.Mean Response plot
Table 5. Annova Results

From the mean response plot and Annova
results the following can be inferred:
Factor A i.e. Running face taper angle is the
most significant factor affecting blow-by
variation. Factor B i.e. Tangential tension has
significant influence on blow-by variation. No
interaction exists between Running face taper
angle and tangential tension. The running face
taper angle value for a ring-pack should be
optimized such that it yields low blow-by. The
optimized value is found to be 1º for first ring
and 3º for second ring, this configuration is
used for the proposed ring-pack.
IV. ENDURANCE TESTING RESULTS
Considering the results obtained from
validation tests on different cross-sections and
Design of Experiments a ring-pack with low
blow-by and optimum configuration of running
face taper angle and tangential tension was
selected for endurance testing.

0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000
Duration (h)
O
i
l

c
a
r
r
y

o
v
e
r

(
g
/
h
)


Q table Target
Fig.6 Oil Carry Over
The oil carry over trend is well within the Q-
Table limit. Average Oil carry over 0.02 g/h

6
5.3 5.3
5.26 5.26
4.8
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6
6.2
1 2 3 4 5
B
l
o
w
-
b
y

l
i
t
r
e
s
/
m
i
n
u
t
e
50 h 4 h 285 h 645 h 836 h
Fig 7. Blowby
Observed blow-by is within the project limit of
6 litres/ minute
V. CONCLUSION
According to the Analysis, Experimental
and Field results, the proposed ring pack
as mentioned gives low blow-by and oil
carry over. The proposed ring pack was
evaluated for blow-by and oil carry over in
compression ring bedding-in (worn out)
condition and the results are observed to
be within the project limit. The effect of
ring parameters like running face taper
angle, Tangential tension, on oil carry over
Factor
A
Factor
B
Interaction
AXB 1 2
1 1 1 6.8 7
1 2 2 5.9 5.4
2 1 2 9.6 10.2
2 2 1 9 9.4
Duration (hours)
O
i
l

c
a
r
r
y

o
v
e
r

(
g
/
h
)
Table 3 Annova Results
Duration (hours) B
l
o
w

b
y

(
l
i
t
e
r
s
/
m
i
n
)
variation were confirmed using Design of
Experiments
REFERENCES
[1] Piston ring Manual by Geotze India
Ltd.
[2] SAE Paper “Contact Pressure
Distribution of Piston Rings” by
Michio Okamoto and Itsuro Sakai,
Teikoku Piston Ring Co., Ltd.
SAE Paper “Effect of Contact pressure on
Piston ring Twist” by V.Dunaevsky and
S.Alexan
STRESS ANALYSIS OF CONNECTING ROD FOR WEIGHT
REDUCTION
1
Christy V Vazhappilly and
2
P.Sathiamurthi
1
PG Scholor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai,
Erode-638052.
2
Professor in Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode-638052.
Tamilnadu, India.
Email: Christy.xty@gmail.com
Abstract
The main objective of this study is
to explore weight and cost reduction
opportunities in the design and production
of a connecting rod. This can be achieved
by performing a detailed load analysis. A
study is performed on a steel connecting
rod. Reduction in machining operations,
achieved by change in material, is a
significant factor in manufacturing cost
reduction. This paper
deals with the study of weight reduction
performed under two cyclic loads
comprising dynamic tensile and static
compressive as the two extreme loads. The
fatigue strength is the most significant
factor in the process. The study analysis
includes the determination of loads acting
on the connecting rod as a function of time
for finding out the minimum stress area to
remove the material. The connecting rod
can be designed and analysis under a load
ranging from tensile load, corresponding to
various degree crank angle at the
maximum engine speed as one extreme
load, and compressive load corresponding
to the peak gas pressure as the other
extreme load. Furthermore, the existing
connecting rod material can be replaced
with a new composite material, the fracture
crack ability feature, facilitates separation
of cap from rod without additional
machining of the mating surfaces. Also the
same performance can be expected in
terms of component durability.
Index Terms - Connecting rod, Weight
reduction, Fatigue strength, Better
machinability.
i. Introduction
The connecting rod is the connection
between the piston and the crankshaft. It joins
the piston pin with the crankpin; small end of
the connecting rod is connected to the piston
and big end to the crank pin. The function of
the connecting rod is to convert linear motion
of the piston into rotary motion of the
crankshaft.
The lighter connecting rod and the
piston greater than resulting power and less
the vibration because of the reciprocating
weight is less. The connecting rod carries the
power thrust from piston to the crank pin and
hence it must be very strong, rigid and also as
light as possible. There are two types of small
end and big end bearings. Connecting rods are
subjected to fatigue due to alternating loads.
In the case of four stroke engines,
during compression and power strokes the
connecting rod is subjected to compressive
loads and during the last part of the exhaust
and the beginning of the suction strokes, to
tensile loads. In double acting steam engines,
during the forward stroke the connecting rod
is subjected to compressive load and during
the return stroke, to tensile load. Connecting
rod materials must have good fatigue and
shock resistances.
Connecting rods for automotive
applications are typically manufactured by
forging from either wrought steel or
powdered metal. They could also be cast.
However, castings could have blow-holes
which are detrimental from durability and
fatigue points of view. The fact that forgings
produce blow-hole-free and better rods gives
them an advantage over cast rods. Between
the forging processes, powder forged or drop
forged, each process has its own pros and
cons. Powder metal manufactured blanks
have the advantage of being near net shape,
reducing material waste. However, the cost of
the blank is high due to the high material cost
and sophisticated manufacturing techniques.
With steel forging, the material is inexpensive
and the rough part manufacturing process is
cost effective. Bringing the part to final
dimensions under the tight tolerance results in
high expenditure for machining, as the blank
usually contains more excess material.
Due to its large volume production, it is
only logical that optimization of the
connecting rod for its weight or volume will
result in large-scale savings. It can also
achieve the objective of reducing the weight
of the engine component, thus reducing
inertia loads, reducing engine weight and
improving engine performance and fuel
economy.

Fig.1 Connecting rod nomenclature
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
The connecting rod is subjected to a
complex state of loading. It undergoes high
cyclic loads, which range from high
compressive loads due to combustion, to high
tensile loads due to inertia. Therefore,
durability of this component is of critical
importance. Due to these factors, the
connecting rod has been the topic of research
on various aspects such as production
technology, materials, performance
simulation, fatigue, etc. For the current study,
it is necessary to investigate finite element
modelling techniques, optimization
techniques, developments in production
technology, new materials, fatigue modelling,
and manufacturing cost analysis. This brief
literature survey reviews some of these
aspects.
For their optimization study, Serag et
al. (1989) developed approximate
mathematical formulae to define connecting
rod weight and cost as objective functions and
also the constraints. The optimization was
achieved using a Geometric Programming
technique. Constraints were imposed on the
compression stress, the bearing pressure at the
crank and the piston pin ends. Fatigue was not
addressed. The cost function was expressed in
some exponential form with the geometric
parameters.
Webster et al. (1983) performed three
dimensional finite element analysis of a high-
speed diesel engine connecting rod. For this
analysis they used the maximum compressive
load which was measured experimentally, and
the maximum tensile load which is essentially
the inertia load of the piston assembly mass.
The load distributions on the piston pin end
and crank end were determined
experimentally. They modelled the connecting
rod cap separately, and also modelled the bolt
pretension using beam elements and multi
point constraint equations.
While investigating a connecting rod
failure that led to a disastrous failure of an
engine, Rabb (1996) performed a detailed
FEA of the connecting rod. He modelled the
threads of the connecting rod, the threads of
connecting rod screws, the prestress in the
screws, the diametric interference between the
bearing sleeve and the crank end of the
connecting rod, the diametric clearance
between the crank and the crank bearing, the
inertia load acting on the connecting rod, and
the combustion pressure. The analysis clearly
indicated the failure location at the thread root
of the connecting rod, caused by improper
screw thread profile. The connecting rod
failed at the location indicated by the FEA.
An axis symmetric model was initially used
to obtain the stress concentration factors at
the thread root. These were used to obtain
nominal mean and alternating stresses in the
screw. A detailed FEA including all the
factors mentioned above performed, also
including a plasticity model and strain
hardening. Based on the comparison of the
mean stress and stress amplitude at the
threads obtained from this analysis with the
endurance limits obtained from specimen
fatigue tests, the adequacy of a new design
was checked. Load cycling was also used in
inelastic FEA to obtain steady state situation.
Hippoliti (1993) reported design
methodology in use at Piaggio for connecting
rod design, which incorporates an
optimization session. However, neither the
details of optimization nor the load under
which optimization was performed were
discussed. Two parametric FE procedures
using 2D plane stress and 3D approach
developed by the author were compared with
experimental results and shown to have good
agreements. The optimization procedure they
developed was based on the 2D approach.
Park et al. (2003) investigated micro
structural behavior at various forging
conditions and recommend fast cooling for
finer grain size and lower network ferrite
content. From their research they concluded
that laser notching exhibited best fracture
splitting results, when compared with
broached and wire cut notches. They
optimized the fracture splitting parameters
such as, applied hydraulic pressure, jig set up
and geometry of cracking cylinder based on
delay time, difference in cracking forces and
roundness. They compared fracture splitting
high carbon micro-alloyed steel (0.7% C)
with carbon steel (0.48% C) using rotary
bending fatigue test and concluded that the
former has the same or better fatigue strength
than the later. From a comparison of the
fracture splitting high carbon micro-alloyed
steel and powder metal, based on tension-
compression fatigue test they noticed that
fatigue strength of the former was 18% higher
than the later.
Sarihan and Song (1990), for the
optimization of the wrist pin end, used a
fatigue load cycle consisting of compressive
gas load corresponding to maximum torque
and tensile load corresponding to maximum
inertia load. Evidently, they used the
maximum loads in the whole operating range
of the engine. To design for fatigue, modified
Goodman equation with alternating
octahedral shear stress and mean octahedral
shear stress was used. For optimization, they
generated an approximate design surface, and
performed optimization of this design surface.
The objective and constraint functions were
updated to obtain precise values. This process
was repeated till convergence was achieved.
They also included constraints to avoid
fretting fatigue. The mean and the alternating
components of the stress were calculated
using maximum and minimum values of
octahedral shear stress. Their exercise
reduced the connecting rod weight by nearly
27%.
Athavale and Sajanpawar (1991)
modeled the inertia load in their finite
element model. An interface software was
developed to apply the acceleration load to
elements on the connecting rod depending
upon their location, since acceleration varies
in magnitude and direction with location on
the connecting rod. They fixed the ends of the
connecting rod, to determine the deflection
and stresses. This, however, may not be
representative of the pin joints that exist in the
connecting rod. The results of the detailed
analysis were not discussed, rather, only the
modeling technique was discussed. The
connecting rod was separately analyzed for
the tensile load due to the piston assembly
mass (piston inertia), and for the compressive
load due to the gas pressure. The effect of
inertia load due to the connecting rod,
mentioned above, was analyzed separately.
Pai (1996) presented an approach to
optimize shape of connecting rod subjected to
a load cycle, consisting of the inertia load
deducted from gas load as one extreme and
peak inertia load exerted by the piston
assembly mass as the other extreme, with
fatigue life constraint. Fatigue life defined as
the sum of the crack initiation and crack
growth lives, was obtained using fracture
mechanics principles. The approach used
finite element routine to first calculate the
displacements and stresses in the rod; these
were then used in a separate routine to
calculate the total life. The stresses and the
life were used in an optimization routine to
evaluate the objective function and
constraints. The new search direction was
determined using finite difference
approximation with design sensitivity
analysis. The author was able to reduce the
weight by 28%, when compared with the
original component.
Yoo et al. (1984) used variational
equations of elasticity, material derivative
idea of continuum mechanics and an adjoint
variable technique to calculate shape design
sensitivities of stress. The results were used in
an iterative optimization algorithm, steepest
descent algorithm, to numerically solve an
optimal design problem. The focus was on
shape design sensitivity analysis with
application to the example of a connecting
rod. The stress constraints were imposed on
principal stresses of inertia and firing loads.
But fatigue strength was not addressed. The
other constraint was the one on thickness to
bound it away from zero. They could obtain
20% weight reduction in the neck region of
the connecting rod.
In a published SAE case study (1997), a
replacement connecting rod with 14% weight
savings was designed by removing material
from areas that showed high factor of safety.
Factor of safety with respect to fatigue
strength was obtained by performing FEA
with applied loads including bolt tightening
load, piston pin interference load,
compressive gas load and tensile inertia load.
The study lays down certain guidelines
regarding the use of the fatigue limit of the
material and its reduction by a certain factor
to account for the as-forged surface. The
study also indicates that buckling and bending
stiffness are important design factors that
must be taken into account during the design
process. On the basis of the stress and strain
measurements performed on the connecting
rod, close agreement was found with loads
predicted by inertia theory. The study also
concludes that stresses due to bending loads
are substantial and should always be taken
into account during any design exercise.
As today’s engines, required to have
higher speed and power, their connecting rods
have higher strength and stiffness, but must
be lighter in weight and size. In developing
power output engine, importance is placed on
the weight of the reciprocating and oscillating
parts such as piston, connecting rod, valve
trains etc. The overall performance of the
internal combustion engine is affected by
higher inertia forces, generated by the moving
parts of the engine. Therefore, it should
always be investigated to avoid any failure of
the engine in the long run.
As the speed increases, the maximum
tensile load (at 360∞ of crank revolution)
increases where as the maximum compressive
load decreases at the crank end. Quasi-
dynamic finite element analysis rather than
static finite element analysis is used in this
process, which can capture the actual
structural behaviour of a connecting rod.
During quasi-dynamic finite element analysis
process, external calculated loads were also
taken into interest to perform the elemental
calculations. The inertia and dynamic loads
were calculated and applied internally based
on these inputs.
Of the 15 locations as shown in the Fig.,
at point 9, the maximum stress occurs at
360∞ crank angle, but the maximum stress
(i.e. Due to influence of bending stress)
occurs at 348∞ crank angle at location 13
respectively.

MODEL OF CONNECTING ROD:
Solid modelling tool is available to develop
the concepts and initial design of any
mechanical components and systems that can
be analysed by using Finite Element
Technique is discussed in literatures.
Occurring of unnoticed mistakes can be
avoided till the phase of prototype stage by
the use of above citied technique.
Since the connecting rod involves
several merging radii and surfaces, a classical
study into this complicated problem has
limitations and hence a finite element analysis
is more appropriate to study the effect of
combined loads due to gas pressure and
inertia of reciprocating and oscillating parts of
an engine.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF THE
CONNECTING ROD - MESHED VIEW:
OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE:

III.Conclusions
A connecting rod forms a basic element of
an internal combustion (IC) engine, which
performs the function of converting the
reciprocating motion of the piston into angular
effort of the crank. The objective of this study
is to optimize connecting rod for its weight and
manufacturing costs, taking into account the
recent developments.
An optimized solution is the minimum
or the maximum value that an objective
function can take under a given set of
constraints. The optimization carried out here
is not true in mathematical sense, since while
reducing the mass, manufacturing feasibility
and cost reduction forms an integral part of
markets.
The load cycle that is used here
consists of compressive gas load
corresponding to maximum torque and
dynamic tensile load corresponding to
maximum inertia load. A finite element
routine is first used to calculate the
displacements and the stresses in the
connecting rod, which is further used in
another routine to calculate the total life. For
this optimization problem, high priority is
given to the weight of the connecting rod.
Change in the material, there by resulting in
significant reduction in the machining cost is
the key factor in the optimization process.
During optimization, weight and cost are
dealt separately.
References
1. Adila Afzal and Ali Fatemi, 2003, “A
Comparative Study of Fatigue Behavior
and Life Predictions of Forged Steel and
PM Connecting Rods”, SAE International.
2. Adila Afzal and Pravardhan Shenoy,
2003, “Dynamic Load Analysis and
Fatigue Behavior of Forged Steel v
s
Powder Metal Connecting Rods”,
American Iron and Steel Institute, October
Edition.
3. Athavale, S. and Sajanpawar, P. R., 1991,
“Studies on Some Modelling Aspects in
the Finite Element Analysis of Small
Gasoline Engine Components,” Small
Engine Technology Conference
Proceedings, Society of Automotive
Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, PP. 379-389.
4. Augugliaro G. and Biancolini M.E.,
“Optimisation of Fatigue Performance of
a Titanium Connecting Rod”, ISPESL,
Italy.
5. Farzin H. Montazersadgh and Ali Fatemi,
2008, “Optimization of a Forged Steel
Crankshaft Subject to Dynamic Loading”,
SAE International.
6. Farzin h. Montazersadgh and Ali Fatemi,
2007, “Dynamic Load and Stress Analysis
of a Crankshaft”, SAE International.
7. Giuseppe Sala, 2002, “Tecnology-Driven
Design of MMC Squeeze Cast
Connecting Rods”, Science and
Technology of Advanced Materials, No. 3,
PP. 45-57.
8. Hippoliti, R., 1993, “FEM Method For
Design and Optimization of Connecting
Rods for Small Two-Stroke Engines,”
Small Engine Technology Conference, PP.
217-231.
9. James R. Dale, 2005, “Connecting Rod
Evaluation”, Metal Powder Industries
Federation, January Edition.
10.Pai, C. L., 1996, “The Shape Optimization
of a Connecting Rod with Fatigue Life
Constraint”, Int. J. of Materials and
Product Technology, Vol. 11, No. 5-6, PP.
357-370.
11.Park, H., Ko, Y. S., Jung, S. C., Song, B.
T., Jun, Y. H., Lee, B. C., and Lim, J. D.,
2003, “Development of Fracture Split
Steel Connecting Rods,” SAE Technical
Paper Series, Paper No. 2003-01-1309.
12.R.J. Yang, D.L. Dewhirst, J.E. Allison and
A. Lee, 1992, “Shape optimization of
connecting rod pin end using a generic
model”, Finite Elements in Analysis and
Design, No. 11, PP. 257-264.
13.Rabb, R., 1996, “Fatigue Failure of a
Connecting Rod”, Engineering Failure
Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 1, PP. 13-28
14.Repgen, B., 1998, “Optimized Connecting
Rods to Enable Higher Engine
Performance and Cost Reduction”, SAE
Technical Paper Series, Paper No. 980882
.
15.Rice, R. C., ed., 1997, “SAE Fatigue
Design Handbook”, Society of
Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, 3
rd
Edition.
16.Sarihan, V. and Song, J., 1990,
“Optimization of the Wrist Pin End of an
Automobile Engine Connecting Rod With
an Interference Fit”, Journal of
Mechanical Design, Transactions of the
ASME, Vol. 112, PP. 406-412.
17.Serag, S., Sevien, L., Sheha, G., and El-
Beshtawi, I., 1989, “Optimal Design of
the Connecting Rod”, Modelling,
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF AIRPREHEATER
COLD END
K.Sivakumar
1
, S. P. Babu Saravanan
2
1,2
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of
Engineering,Vadamavandal,Near kanchipuram,Tamilnadu.India.
E-mail: sivakss25@yahoo.co.in, spbsme@gmail.com
Abstract
Generally in the sugar mills, they
are using bagasse as the fuel, to burn the
bagasse primary and secondary air is
supplied. Forced draught fan supply
primary air and sail air fan supply
secondary air. Primary air is sucked by
forced draught fan and passed through the
airpreheater to furnace. In airpreheater
the flue gases coming out of economizer are
further utilized for preheating the
atmosphere air before supplying to the
furnace. Atmosphere wet air enters into the
airpreheater, reacts with the metal tubes
causes corrosion. The main aim of this
project is to avoid the corrosion of cold end
in airpreheater and increase temperature
of the supply air to furnace. To resist the
corrosion, the atmosphere air temperature
is increases up to above dew point
temperature (65°C). Air flow analysis takes
place from FD fan to furnace using
computational fluid dynamics.
Keywords: Airpreheater, corrosion,
dewpoint temperature, Computational
fluid dynamics.
I. INTRODUCTION
Wet air enter into the air preheater, reacts
with the metal tube causes corrosion. The
main aim of the
Project is to avoid the corrosion of cold end in
air preheater and increase the temperature of
the supply air to furnace.
The principal reaction is
2Fe + O
2
→ 2FeO
Due to corrosion forming cold end airpreheater
tubes are damaged with in few years. To avoid
corrosion, the atmosphere air is preheated by
the steam preheater from the exhaust steam.
By increasing the temperature of the
atmosphere air prevents the corrosion in air
preheater tubes, which is supplied to furnace.
Installing the steam preheater in between FD
fan and APH for increasing the temperature of
air at the same time pressure drop will occur
due to the number of tubes available in the
steam preheater. To minimize the pressure
drop in the steam preheater should increase the
area of flow between the tubes. Calculate the
velocity of the atm air and mass flow rate of
air supplied by the forced draught fan. Design
should be effective for above dew point
temperature (65∞) to avoid corrosion. The
forced draught fan supply air heated by
exhaust steam.To maintain the pressure of the
supply air to furnace, air duct modify depends
upon flow velocity.. In air preheater analysis
calculate the temperature of supply air before
installating steam preheater. Boiler efficiency
increases by increase the temperature of the
supply air. The air flow should be analysis
from forced draught to furnace using
computational fluid dynamics.
II.FORCED DRAUGHT FAN
Fan is to move a mass of gas or
vapour at the desired velocity by the action
of rotor. For achieving this objective there
is a slight increase in the gas pressure
across the fan rotor. However the main
purpose of fan is to move a gas without an
appreciable increase in its pressure.
Axial fan have higher capital cost.
Axial fan handles the small volume of
air. In the centrifugal fan, gases are
accelerated radially through curved or
flat impeller blades from rotor to a
spiral or volute casing. FD fans are
installed at inlet to the air-preheater.
They handle cold air, so they have less
maintenance problem, consume less
power capital and operating cost are
lower is the highest for backward
curved and lowest for the forward
curved blades
.
A. SPECIFICATION
Type : Centrifugal fan with backward curved blade
Diameter : 935 mm
Speed : 1475 rpm
Discharge : 13.4 m³/s
Pressure : 210 mm of WG
Temperature : 40∞C
III.DESIGN OF STEAM PREHEATER

Steam preheater is nothing but like a
heat exchanger. The purpose of
steam preheater in this work is
transfer the steam temperature to the
atmosphere air and increase the air
temperature. The steam temperature
available at the sugar mill is 400∞C
and 42 kg/cm² pressure. This steam
is utilized for the power production
by rotates the turbine. After the
turbine steam leaving with
200∞C temperature and 1.5 kg/cm²
pressure. This superheated steam is
further used for the boiling house,
from this some amount of steam
will be utilized for heat the atm air
in the steam preheater. When the heat
exchanger is to be designed for a
particular application, the following
consideration almost always taken
into account. Here air temperature is
increased above dew point
temperature for reducing corrosion.

A. STEAM SPECIFICATION
Steam inlet temp = 200∞C
Steam pressure = 1.5kgf/cm²
Mass flow rate = 0.833 kg/s
Specific heat capacity Cp = 4.4895 kJ/kg-K
B AIR SPECIFICATION
Air inlet temp = 40∞C
Mass flow rate = 15.11 kg/s
Volume of air = 13.4 m³/s
Specific heat capacity Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg-K
Table I shows comparison between air and steam mass flow rate
C. AREA OF THE STEAM PREHEATER
Height of the exchanger = 2150mm
Width of the exchanger = 1390 mm
Diameter of the tubes = 21.3 mm
Breath of the exchanger = 1005 mm
Length of the exchanger = 1.255 mm
Number of tubes = 168
In steam preheater 3 tones per hour of mass of steam utilized for attain the dew
point temperature. Table II shows temperature difference with number of tons.
IV.AIR DUCT
The design of duct is a
compromise between first cost and
cost of energy loss friction. This
means compromise between cross
sectional area and velocity.
Combustion requires oxygen and
their air, to move this air through the
fuel bed and to produce a flow of the
gaseous products of combustion out
of the furnace, then through the
boiler, economizer etc., requires a
difference of pressure equal to that
necessary to accelerate the gasses to
their final velocities, plus friction
head losses. This difference of
pressure is called draft. Air ducts
generally extend from the outlet of a
forced draught fan to the combustion
chamber. Where air heaters are used
the air duct is necessarily in two
sections, the cool selection, fan and
hot section. Normally all sugar mill
air duct is bend section with long
radius. Due to bend and long radius
of air duct pressure drop occurs in
the boiler. So to reduce the pressure
drop have to change the air duct in to
inclined position. In this position
pressure drop is reduced and increase
velocity of the flow. Air duct
modification before and after is
shown in figure I.
The loss may be computed with the
following equation
D
4
= d fv2H cm water
2gR
V. ANALYSIS OF AIRPREHEATER
The heat carried with the flue
gas coming out of economizer is
further utilized for preheating the air
before supplying to the combustion
chamber. It has been found that an
increase of 20ºC in the air
temperature increases the boiler
efficiency by 1%. At such a high
temperature of exit gases the losses
of energy with stack exhaust is high
and efficiency of the boiler will be
low. While flue gases enters the
airpreheater at temperature varying
between 325 ºC to 450ºC and are
cooled to 135ºC to 180ºC, air is
heated from FD fan outlet
temperature 60ºC to 400ºC and
some times still higher. The air
heater not only considered in terms
of boiler efficiency in modern power
plants, but also necessary equipment
for supply hot air for drying the coal
in pulverized fuel system to facilitate
grinding and satisfactory combustion
of fuel in furnace. In sugar mill, they
are using tubular type air preheater,
because of it gives the more contact
of time between air and flue gases.
Dew point of the air lies in the region
of 60 -65ºC, hence it may be
supposed that the danger of
condensation on the walls of the
heater. Atmosphere air is supply to
air preheater by the FD fan with
40ºC temperature. In this
temperature limit tubes reacts with
air causes corrosion, that’s why
temperature increased above dew
point temperature (65ºC). Table III
comparison of air duct before and
after modification
A.BOILER EFFICIENCY
The present working pressure of the
steam in sugar mills is 42 kg/cm
3
at
420ºC. If we increase the pressure of
the steam, then the power production
increases mean while the efficiency
of boiler is also increases. the present
water tube boiler has the capable of
producing 64 tones of steam/hr. if we
increase the steam production by
changing the design, then also
increase boiler efficiency increase. In
most of the sugar mills bagasse is
used as a main fuel. Bagasse in India
almost have the moisture content of
about 50% (ie) if we take 1 kg of
bagasse then it contains 0.5 kg of
water in it. If we decrease the
moisture content in the bagasse by
simply increase the boiler
efficiency.use of heat recovery
apparatus such as air
preheater,economizer,superheater
etc.will also increase the boiler
efficiency. In the airpreheater the air
to the boiler is heated by the flue gas.
So the efficiency of the boiler
increases with the usage of the air
preheater. The efficiency of the
boiler is dependent upon the
efficiency of combustion and the
heat transfer within the boiler. Boiler
efficiency is calculated by heat loss
method as
Boiler efficiency = 100 -- various
losses
B.VARIOUS LOSSES
Dry flue gas loss = 5.27%
Fuel moisture = 14.47%
Hydrogen moisture loss = 8.33%
Air moisture loss = 0.27%
Unburnt carbon loss = 2.00%
Ash sensible heat loss = 0.01%
Radiation & convection loss = 0.55%
Total losses = 30.90%
Present boiler efficiency = 100 – total various loss
= 100 – 30.90
Boiler efficiency = 69.10%
Boiler efficiency after modification of air duct with increasing combustion
temperature
1.Dry flue gas loss
= 100 x [C% + S% - C in ash] x 30.6 (T
1
- T
2
) / 12 (CO
2
+ CO)
Where
T
1
is temperature of the flue gases before air preheater

T
2
is temperature of the flue gases after air preheater

Dry flue gas loss = 1.94%
2. Hydrogen moisture loss
= 9 x h {1.2(T1 – 25) + 2.442 + 2.99(25-T2)}
= 15.10%
3. Fuel moisture loss
= {1.2(T1 – 25) + 2.442 + 2.99(25-T2)}
= 9.43%
4. Moisture loss in air
= weight of the flue gas x moisture in air x 2 (T1- T2)
= 1.02%
5. Heat loss in fly ash = 0.983%
6. Ash sensible heat loss = 0.01%
7. Radiation & convection loss = 0.55%

Total losses = 27.03%
Boiler efficiency = 100 – 27.03
= 72.97%
If increase the combustion temperature, losses are reduced in the furnace and
increase the boiler efficiency.
VI ANALYSIS OF AIR DUCT
Computational fluid
dynamics analysis takes place from
forced draught fan to furnace by
using fluent with Air duct is
modeled by gambit which is an
integral division of Fluent. After
modeling the air duct using the
given co-ordinates the model is
meshed using Gambit Mapped
mesh. Quadrilateral cells were
used for this simple geometry
because they can be stretched
easily to account for different size gradients in different
directions. The coupled solver is
recommended when dealing with
applications involving high speed
flow.
A. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID
DYNAMICS
Computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) is one of the
branches of fluid mechanics that uses
numerical methods and algorithms to
solve and analyze problems that
involve fluid flows. The fundamental
bases of any CFD problem are the
Navier-Stokes equations, which
define any single-phase fluid flow.
These equations can be simplified by
removing terms describing viscosity
to yield the Euler equations. These
equations can be simplified by
removing terms describing viscosity
to yield the Euler equations. Further
simplification, by removing terms
describing vorticity yields the full
potential equations. Finally, these
equations can be linearized to yield
the linearized potential equations.
The stability of the chosen
discretization is generally established
numerically rather than analytically
as with simple linear problems. The
Euler equations and Navier-Stokes
equations both admit shocks, and
contact surfaces. The governing
equations are solved on discrete
control volumes. FVM recasts the
PDE's of the N-S equation in the
conservative form and then discretize
this equation. Moreover this method
is sensitive to distorted elements
which can prevent convergence if
such elements are in critical flow
regions. This integration approach
yields a method that is inherently
conservative (i.e. quantities such as
density remain physically
meaningful)
Where Q is the vector of
conserved variables, F is the vector
of fluxes V is the cell volume, and
is the cell surface area. After
modeling the air duct given co-
ordinates the model is meshed using
Gambit Mapped mesh. Quadrilateral
cells were used for this simple
geometry because they can be
stretched easily to account for
different size gradients in different
directions. The coupled solver is
recommended when dealing with
applications involving high speed
flows. The Spalart-Allmaras model
was designed specially for aerospace
applications involving wall-bounded
has been shown to give good results
for boundary layers subjected to
adverse pressure gradients.
FIGURE I AIR DUCT MODIFICATION
FIGURE II VIEW OF AIRPREHEATER WITH INLET AND OUTLET FLOW VARIATION
FIGURE III VELOCITY VARIATION FOR BEFORE MODIFICATION OF AIR DUCT
FIGURE IV VELOCITY
VARIATION FOR
BEFORE MODIFICATION
OF AIR DUCT
FIGURE V VELOCITY AT THE EXIT OF AIRPREHEATER BEFORE MODIFICATION OF AIR DUCT
Content
Before
modification
of air duct
After
modification
of air duct
Pressure
drop
94 mm of
Hg
72 mm of
Hg
Mass flow
rate of air
15.35 kg/sec 24 kg/sec
Outlet
temperatur
e of APH
115.3 ºC 147.7 ºC
Efficiency
of boiler
69.10 % 72.97 %
FIGURE VI VELOCITY AT THE EXIT OF AIRPREHEATER AFTER MODIFICATION OF AIR DUCT
Gases Mass flow
rate(ms)
Kg /s
Specific
heat(Cp)
KJ / kg- k
Air
15.11
1.005
Steam
0.833
4.4895
TABLE I COMPARISION BETWEEN AIR AND STEAM MASS FLOW RATE
TABLE II COMPARISION OF AIR DUCT BEFORE AND AFTER MODIFICATION
No. No of tons
Tons/hr
Mass flow rate
Kg / s
Temperature increased
∞c
1 1.5 0.416 41.5
2 2.0 0.555 46.3
3 2.5 0.694 52.8
4 3.0 0.833 68.2
TABLE III TEMPERTAURE DIFFERENCE WITH NUMBER OF TONES
VII. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Normally all the power plant
FD fan air duct will always kept
bend, but we have modified the air
duct in to inclined position. In this
position pressure drop is reduced and
heat transfer is increased in air
preheater. Table I shows the
comparison between air and steam
mass flow rate and Table II shows
comparison of air duct before and
after modification, efficiency of
boiler is increased from 69.10% to
72.29% and outlet temperature is
147ºC, pressure drop is reduced upto
72mm HG. Table III shows
temperature difference with number
of tones with mass flow rate of steam
0.833 and temperature is 68.2ºC. In
this temperature tubes are protected
from corrosion forming. Figure III
and IV shows the velocity variation
before and after modification of air
duct. Before modification of air duct
velocity is gradually increased with
distance of air preheater, but in the
after modification of air duct, with in
the small distance velocity is
increased. Figure V and VI shows the
exit velocity of air preheater, before
modification velocity is increase and
suddenly decreased but in the after
modification velocity increase at the
end of whole distance of air
prehaeter.
VIII. CONCLUSION
By analyzing the air duct
modification of inclined position
gives the more performance than the
straight bend air duct. Steam
preheater increase the temperature
from 40∞C to 68∞C and supply air
temperature is increased by 20∞C at
the same time combustion
temperature is increased by 1% and
efficiency also increased by 3%.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors grateful to the
Management, Principal and Head of
the Department of Mechanical
Engineering of A.M.A. College of
Engineering, Vadamavandal,
Kanchipuram, for granting
permission.
REFERENCES
[1]. John D. Anderson.,
”Fundamental Of Aero
Dynamics”, McGraw Hill
International., 1991
[2.] Hand book of sugarcane
Engineering by E.Hugot third
edition.
[3.] Kiang,yen hsiung ‘predicting
dewpoints of acid gases, Chemical
Engineering feb 1989 p 127.
[4.] Perry R.H and Gilton G.H,
chemical Engineering Hand book
NON-CONVENTIONAL REFRIGERATION
(MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION)
1. S.VIJAY 2. S.VENKATRAMAN
KONGU ENGINNERING COLLEGE , MECHATRONICS , PERUNDURAI
,ERODE
EMAIL ID: vijayspn12@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The objective of this effort is to
determine the feasibility of designing,
fabricating and testing a sensor cooler,
which uses solid materials as the
refrigerant. These materials
demonstrate the unique property
known as the magneto caloric effect,
which means that they increase and
decrease in temperature when
magnetized/demagnetized. This effect
has been observed for many years and
was used for cooling near absolute
zero. Recently, materials are being
developed which have sufficient
temperature and entropy change to
make them useful for a wide range of
temperature applications. The
proposed effort includes magneto
caloric effect material selection,
analyses, design and integration of
components into a preliminary design.
Benefits of this design are lower cost,
longer life, lower weight and higher
efficiency because it only requires one
moving part - the rotating disk on
which the magneto caloric material is
mounted. The unit uses no gas
compressor, no pumps, no working
fluid, no valves, and no ozone-
destroying chlorofluorocarbons/hydro
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's/HCFC's).
Potential commercial applications
include cooling of electronics, super
conducting components used in
telecommunications equipment (cell
phone base stations), home and
commercial refrigerators, heat pumps,
air conditioning for homes, offices and
automobiles, and virtually any place
that refrigeration is needed.
1.0 INTRODUCTION:
1.1 Refrigeration:
Definition: Refrigeration is the
process of reducing the temperature
of any substance below that of the
surrounding temperature using some
working medium called refrigerants.
Initially refrigeration was
used in the preservation of foodstuff
by preventing bacterial action and
this technology was further
developed and extended its use in
industrial applications. For example
cool cutting oil helps in machining
operations by lowering the
temperature of work piece to
prevent overheating, Quenching
baths for heat treating operations,
pharmaceutical field, etc are some
of the industrial applications.
1.2 Conventional Refrigeration
Vs Non-conventional (Magnetic)
Refrigeration:
In conventional refrigeration
system we need a medium for the
removal of heat from the
refrigerator to the surrounding
atmosphere. This medium may be a
solid, liquid or a gas. Some of the
refrigerants which were used
initially are ammonia (NH
3
), carbon
dioxide (CO
2
), sulphur dioxide
(SO
2
), etc. There are some
drawbacks in the use of these
refrigerants so refrigerants like F-
11, F-12, F-22, F-113, etc are being
used which are both economical as
well as efficient.
Minimum temperature that
can be obtained by these
refrigerants is 0.71
o
K by boiling
liquid helium under the smallest
pressure obtainable. Temperatures
below this range can be obtained
only by the use of Non-
Conventional refrigeration
system.
Magnetic refrigeration is the method of
refrigeration based on
MAGNETOCALORIC EFFECT,
which is defined as the response of a
solid to an applied magnetic field,
which is apparent as a change in its
temperature.
Instead of ozone-depleting
refrigerants and energy-consuming
compressors found in conventional
vapor-cycle refrigerators, this new style
of refrigerator uses iron ammonium
alum that heats up when exposed to a
magnetic field, then cools down when
the magnetic field is removed.
2.0NON-CONVENTIONAL
REFRIGERATION:
2.1 TYPES INCLUDE:
4. Thermo Electric Refrigeration.
5. Acoustic Refrigeration.
6. Magnetic Refrigeration.
3.0MAGNETIC EFRIGERATION:
3.1 PRINCIPLE:
Magnetic refrigerants heat up
when they are subjected to a magnetic
field because the second law of
thermodynamics states that
the entropy - or disorder - of a closed
system must increase with time. This is
because the electron spins in the atoms
of the material are aligned by the
magnetic field, which reduces entropy.
To compensate for this, the motion of
the atoms becomes more random, and
the material heats up. In a magnetic
refrigerator, this heat would be carried
away by water or by air. When the
magnetic field is turned off, the electron
spins become random again and the
temperature of the material falls below
that of its surroundings. This allows it
to absorb more unwanted heat, and the
cycle begins again.


Producing very low temperature
through the process of adiabatic
demagnetization can do refrigeration. The
paramagnetic salt is suspended by a thread
in a tube containing a low pressure of
gaseous helium to provide thermal
communication with the surrounding bath
of pumped helium. In operation the liquid
helium bath is cooled by pumping to the
lowest practical pressure, usually achieving
a temperature in the neighborhood of 1oK.
The temperature of the paramagnetic salt
approaches that of the helium bath by
conduction through the exchange gas.
Next the magnetic field is
turned on, causing heating of the salt and a
decrease in entropy of the magnetic ions by
virtue of their partial alignment in the
direction of the applied field. The heat
produced is conducted to the surrounding
bath of liquid helium so that the
temperature again approaches 1oK. If the
magnetic field is increased slowly the heat
can flow out, as it is generated-the
magnetization being almost isothermal.
Next the exchange gas surrounding the
sample is removed by pumping, and now,
with the salt thermally isolated, the
magnetic field is turned off. The
temperature of the sample decreases
markedly as a consequence of the adiabatic
demagnetization, which allows the magnetic
ions to regain some of their entropy at the
expense of the lattice energy of the salt.
The iron ammonium alum salt,
originally in zero field (H=0,S=S1), is
magnetized isothermally at the temperature
T1, by increasing the magnetic field to
H=H1.This magnetization, by orienting the
magnetic ions of the salt and thus
decreasing their disorder, causes a reduction
in entropy from S1 to S2. Now the salt is
isothermally isolated from its surroundings
and thus when the magnetic field is reduced
to zero the process follows the horizontal
isentropic line and the temperature falls to
10K.The great decrease in temperature and
the close approach zero is a consequence of
the peculiar shape of the entropy-
temperature relation
3.2 WORKING
The process flow diagram for the
Magnetic Refrigeration system is show in
the figure below. The mixture of water and
ethanol serves as the heat transfer fluid for
the system. The fluid first passes through
the hot heat exchanger, which uses air to
transfer heat to the atmosphere. The fluid
then passes through the copper plates
attached to the non-magnetized cooler
Magneto caloric beds and loses heat.
CYCLE FOR MAGNETIC
REFRIGERATION IN POSITION 1:

A fan blows air past this cold fluid into the
freezer to keep the freezer temperature at
approximately 0∞F. The heat transfer fluid
then gets heated up to 80∞F as it passes
through the copper plates adjoined by the
magnetized warmer Magneto caloric Beds,
where it continues to cycle around the loop.
However, the Magneto caloric beds
simultaneously move up and down, into and
out of the magnetic field.
CYCLE FOR MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION IN POSITION 2 :
Figure below, shows how the cold air
from the freezer is blown into the
refrigerator by the freezer fan. The
temperature of the refrigerator
section is kept around 39∞F. The
typical household refrigerator has an
internal volume of 21 cu.ft, where
the freezer represents approximately
30% of this volume. Freezers are
designed to maintain a temperature
of 0
o
F. Refrigerators maintain a
temperature of 39
o
F. The refrigerator
will be insulated with polyurethane
foam, one of the most common
forms of insulation available. The
refrigerator is kept cool by forcing
cold air from the freezer into the
refrigerator by using a small fan. The
control system for machining the
desired internal temperatures consists
of two thermostats with on/off
switches.

Driving Shaft
Magnetocalori
c Bed
Copper
Plates
Electro
Magnets
Vessel
Pump
To
Fa
n
To
Atmosph
ere
Cold
Heat
Exchan
ger
Hot
Heat
Exchan
ger

FIG : REFRIGERATOR WITH A FREEZER FAN
The freezer thermostat regulates the temperature by turning the
compressor off when the temperature gets below 0
o
F. A second thermostat
regulates the fan that cools the refrigerator to 39
o
F.
4.0 RESULTS OBTAINED FOR VARIOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS :
FIG : ENTROPY-TEMPERATURE DIAGRAM FOR IRON AMMONIUM
ALUM
The above figure is an entropy-temperature diagram for iron
ammonium alum for various magnetic fields; on it is super imposed the
refrigeration cycle ABCDA. From A to B the working salt is magnetized
isothermally and heat is absorbed by the liquid alcohol-water bath. From B to
C the salt is demagnetized isentropically, causing a substantial decrease of
temperature. From C to D the salt is demagnetized isothermally, extracting
heat from the experimental region. From D to A the salt is remagnetized to
starting condition.
5.0 ADVANTAGES :
9. Very low temperatures of the order of reduced
10. 001K can be obtained.
11. Required pressures are obtained without the aid of a compressor.
12. Does not produce toxic gases and chloro-fluoro carbons, thus reducing
ozone layer depletion.
13. Efficiency and compactness are increased where as power consumption is
reduced.
14. Larger temperature swings that will allow the technology to provide the
Cooling power required for specific markets, such as home refrigerators,
air conditioning, electronics cooling, and fluid chilling can be obtained.
15. The unit runs virtually silent and is vibration free.
16. The magnetic material in the regenerator bed will ever need to be replaced
when changing refrigerant to achieve a different temperature range.
17. When a better magnetic material is developed, the refrigerator will not
need to be redesigned.
6.0 APPLICATIONS:

1. It is used in large-scale refrigeration, food processing, heating& air-
conditioning, liquor distilling, grain drying, waste separation and treatment
systems.
2. Magnetic refrigerator can be utilized in actual engineering applications,
such as cooling sensitive electronics and optical devices on board spacecraft.
7.0 REFERENCES:
A textbook on “CRYOGENIC ENGIMEERING” by V.J. Johnson.
Refrigeration and Air-conditioning” by Arora & Domkundwar.
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINE
V.Nagakarthik
Kongu Engineering college, erode, Tamilnadu.
ero.naga@gmail.com
Contact No: 9994189874
ABSTRACT:
The transport is the main
important sector for our mankind.
This tends us to depend upon the
fissile fuels. This in turn increases
the global warming. The mining and
other illegal activities against nature
also plays a major role in every
increase of global warming. This
can be avoided by using our
renewable energy completely which
is available. Renewable energy like
solar, wind, etc. are well versed to us,
we also know that there vehicles
available which works on the electric
and this power can also be get by
using solar radiation.
But in that vehicles we use A.C
series motor run the vehicle. This
paper delivers you an innovation
idea of engine which works
completely on electromagnetic
radiation. Here we discuss about the
construction and working of the
electromagnetic engine which is
done as project in our college. Since
this paper also revels the problems
that are faced during this project
work. We will also discuss about the
areas which are to be concentrated
during the project work. Here the
analytical salvation is also done
which is also be discussed in this
paper in further….
CONTENTS:
10) Introduction
11) Construction
12) Explanation of the components
13) Working of Electromagnetic
engine
14) Analytical salvation
15) Our project details
16) Areas to be concentrated
17) Ways to increase the efficiency
18) Problems to be solved
10) Conclusion
11) Reference
INTRODUCTION:
Today the rate of increase of fossile
fuels is so high. This makes increases
a dangerous monster called Global
warming.. This lets us to search for an
another way for the transport. This can
be avoided by using the electric
vehicles. But in that vehicles we use
electric motors to run it. But this paper
is an innovation idea of running the
engine completely with the help of
Electric power but not with the fuel.
CONSTRUCTION:

EXPLANATION:
Sensing Unit:
Sensint unit senses the weight and
sends the data to control unit. This
may consist of sensors, weighting
machine.
Control Unit:
This plays a major role in the
working of the car. This controls the
working of the engine. This selects
and sends the required initial current
and voltage so that there is high torque
initially. The voltage and ampere can
be changed by nob but the initial
voltage and ampere cannot be
changed/lowered if same load is
placed. The required initial (V&A)
can be selected from a microprocessor.
Battery:
The battery is the heart of the
setup. This supplies current to the
whole setup. This must be charged
frequently by putting anything like
flywheel,etc.
Electromagnatic engine:
This is the working part in our
project which is the reason for moving
of the car.
 When the supply is given to the
electromagnet-A side, then the
piston gets attracted towards it.
 When the supply is given to the
electromagnet-B side, then the
piston gets attracted towards it.
 But when one electromagnet is
working other is operated in off
condition.
 This gives a to and fro motion
and this can be used for any
work.
ANALYTICAL SOLVATION:
Since


By this equation we can tell that by increasing the frequency of changing the poles
we can increase speed
Where
B- magnetic flux
n- constant
µo- Permittivity – Constant

Therefore:
B α (µo * n *
I)
Ns=
120*(f/p)
B α I
Thus we also know that

Force= B * I * L
Where
L- Length of piston – constant
I – Current passing through the electromagnet
Force α B * I * L

Since,
B α I

Therefore,


We know that
Torque = B * I * A

Where
B- Area of piston – constant
Since,
B α I

Finally,

Torque α I^2
Thus by increasing the current the torque can be increased and the graph will be as
shown.

Torque α B *
I
Force α I^2
OUR PROJECT DETILS:
 In our project we have constructed a relay circuit to give the supply manually.
 Then in a our engine we gave the load as spring and piston weight.
 We constructed like that the piston has to move against the spring and the
piston initially. So we are only able to move with a very few length.
 For this we need a battery or an autotransformer and rectifier
 Since we faced many problems during this project and all that is needed to this
project is the proper discussion and the way of doing.
AREAS TO BE CONCENTRATED:
Electro Magnet:
Here the magnet is very
important so the windings must be
very sophisticated. The wire which are
winded must be coated with so insulin
so that we can avoid some loss. Since
the thickness of the wire plays a major
role in the copper loss so by using the
conductor of less thickness must be
used.
Control Unit:
This unit is so complicated
because the designing is not so simple.
This is so as the storage of data i.e the
storage of voltage and ampere for the
initial moving. This can be done
successfully by undertaking a testing
based on weight for the
electromagnetic engine for which the
circuit is to be designed. One must
also be careful in determining the
maximum load which is to be applied
for that particular electromagnetic
engine.
Piston:
The piston determines the speed
of the vehicle however the power is
supplied.
The piston should be made of Mild
steel and it should be of light weight.
We can also use any magnetic material
having less magnetic loss.

WAYS TO INCREASE THE
MAGNETIC FLUX:
If you see the capacitor it will have
an oil paper. This arrangement is so
used to increase the storage. This can
also be used in the magnetic materials
or electromagnets to increase the
magnetic flux. So by implementing
this oil paper or any oil material we
can surely increase the flux of the
electromagnet.
PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED:
Friction:
While in operation the piston
must move along the cylinder.
However the piston and cylinder is so
polished there will exist a friction
which will affect the force of piston to
their motion
Sound:
The another problem to be
solved is the sound which is produced
during the operation and this can be
solved using any soft material at the
end of the stroke of the engine.

Size:
The size plays a major problem
in this project. This problem can be
solved by using the technology
application in the production of
electromagnetic engine.
Losses:
The major role in this project is
the concentration of losses during the
working. This can be minimized by
adding some of the materials which
decreases the losses in the magnetic
usage.

CONCLUSION:
Thus I conclude that this engine
will surely play a major role in
reducing the global warming and it
will increase the technology of using
the renewable energy. This may also
be implemented in our cars and any
type of vehicles but depending upon
the load the engine configuration will
vary. This can also be implemented by
replacing the motors in the areas like
water pumping, etc.
REFRENCE:
Since this is my won idea I only developed this and I referred so of the webs and
information in the internet
And I asked about the information about this work.

I also referred the 12
th
books for the analytical solvation of this project.
ENHANCING POWER CO-EFFICIENTS OF SAVONIUS WIND
TURBINE BY INCORPORATING ECCENTRICALLY
MOUNTED “S” SCOOPS
A.RAJ GIRI.N.A.
ERODE SENGUNTHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE
III-B.E.MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ERODE, INDIA
EMAIL:rgiri89@gmail.com
B.JOTHI MURUGAN.R.M.E.(ENGINEERING DESIGN)
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
ERODE SENGUNTHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE, ERODE, INDIA
EMAIL:jothimurugan_erode@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Savonius wind turbine is a type of
vertical axis wind turbine is being used
for converting power of wind into
torque on a rotating shaft. It is a drag
type device consist of two or three
scoops. For a two scoop machine,
cross section would look like “S” in
shape. The differential drag causes the
Savonius turbine to spin. For this type
of “S” shape cross sectioned Savonius
wind turbine having the power
coefficient of 25 to 30% which is
comparatively less when compare to
other types of turbine.
This paper is aimed to enhance the
power coefficient of the turbine by
modifying the design of the existing
Savonius turbine. An eccentricity is
provided in the modified design that is
gap between the two blades which
causes our turbine as dual impact
turbine. Instead of “S” shape cross
section the wind flows in “S” shape
path causes a dual impact force on the
turbine blades.
From the modified design of
Savonius wind turbine cross-section
the power coefficient of the turbine get
enhances up to 30-34% which might
help to harvest more amount of wind
power using this modified Savonius
wind turbine.
INTRODUCTION:
Wind energy is rightfully and
indirect form of solar energy since
wind is induced chiefly by the uneven
heating of the earth crust by the sun.
today, wind energy is mainly used to
generate electricity. Wind is called a
renewable energy source because the
wind will blow as long as the sun
shines. Wind energy offers a viable and
economical alternative to conventional
power plants in many areas of the
country. It is a clean fuel, wind farms
produced no air or water pollution
because no fuel is burnt.
There are two types of wind
machines available to convert wind
energy to mechanical energy. One is
horizontal axis and another is vertical
axis wind machine. One wind machine
can produce 1.5 to 4.0 million kilowatt
– hours (Kwh) of electricity which is
considered to be adequate for a year to
cater 150-400 homes. Out of the total
contribution of renewable sources to
the power generation capacity, wind
alone accounts for a major chunk of
4434 Mw. India stands fourth in the
world after Germany, USA and Spain
in wind power generation. India’s
potential for wind power has been
assessed at 45,000 Mw assuming 3%
of land available.
The eccentric vertical axis wind
mill which is a modified design of
Savonius wind machine. This eccentric
vertical axis wind mill consists of two
semi- cylindrical blades which are
eccentrically mounted in between the
two end plates, placing a hollow shaft
in the center of the rotor. The cross
section of the eccentric vertical axis
wind mill provide an “S” shape path
for the wind flow which help to cause
dual impact force on the turbine
blades. This dual impact force
primarily caused due to perpendicular
entry of the wind over the first blade
and latterly caused due to tangential
flow over the second blade.
Wind power
Airflows can be used to run wind
turbines. This rotation of turbine
results in the production of power.
Modern wind turbines range from
around 600KW to upto 5MW of rated
power, although turbines, with rated
output of 1.5-3MW, have become the
most common for commercial use.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Vertical axis panemones have
been developed in the past that use
drag force to turn rotors of different
shapes. These include those
panemones that use plates, cups, or
turbines as the drag devices, as well as
which actually provide some lift force,
bur are still predominantly drag
devices. Such devices have relatively
high starting torques compared to lift
devices because of their higher
solidity, but have relatively low tip-to-
wind speeds and lower power output
per given rotor size, weight and cost.
Vertical axis rotor has the great
advantages of not having to be turned
in to the wind stream has the wind
direction changes, because their
operation is independent of wind
direction, vertical axis machines are
called panemones.
Until recent times, these
devices received title attention for the
generation of electrical power, partly
because vertical axis rotor has lower
power coefficient at high tip speed
ratio. In addition vertical axis turbine
are said to be more difficult to control
in strong winds. It is not related
however, that the lower efficiency of
panemones may be more than offset by
the simpler design and consequent
lower condition cost. Elimination of
the need for yawing into the wind, for
example, results in decreased tress on
blades, bearing and other components.
Moreover, the transmition and
generator or on the ground rather than
at the top a tall tower.
The overall efficiency of the
horizontal axis machines is better than
the vertical axis machines. Problems
with efficiency and maintenance of
earnings have meant that VAWT have
not been as commercially successful as
HAWT.
Types
There are few types of vertical
axis wind turbine
 Darrieus Wind Turbine
 Savonius Wind Turbine
Advantages
 Easier to maintain because
most of their moving parts are
located near the ground. This is
due to the vertical wind
turbine's shape. The airfoils or
rotor blades are connected by
arms to a shaft that sits on a
bearing and drives a generator
below, usually by first
connecting to a gearbox.
 As the rotor blades are vertical,
a yaw device is not needed,
reducing the need for this
bearing and its cost.
Existing Savonius Wind Turbine
The Savonius rotor was formed
by cutting a cylinder into two semi
cylindrical surfaces, moving these
surfaces sideways along the cutting
plane to form a rotor with cross-section
in the form of the letter S, placing a
shaft in the center of the rotor and
closing the end surfaces with circular
end plates.
This design was able to
produce an efficiency up to 30 percent
which was significantly higher than
was obtainable with other types of
vertical axis windmills in
operation at that time. The
disadvantage of the Savonius rotor is
that it is inefficient er unit weight. To
produce 1000 kw in a 30 mph wind a
Savonius rotor requires about 30 times
as much metal as a two-bladed turbine.
The existing Savonius wind
turbine will having the power
coefficient of only 25-30%. This is the
prime factor to harvest maximum
amount of wind energy from windmill.
This is the reason for the modification
of the existing Savonius wind turbine
even though these machines are called
as the Persian windmills as considering
the history of these wind turbines. Still,
these machines are being investigated.
The table will help as to compare
power coefficient of the various wind
turbine.
The ratio of the highest to the
overall diameter of the machine can be
varied, but it is generally less than 3 to
1. The power co efficient of the S rotor
is low, but it might possibly be
improved by changes in the design,
number, and arrangements of the
vanes. These matters need to be
investigated.
Modified Savonius Wind Turbine
In our modified Savonius wind
turbine we provide some eccentricity
in between the two blades which
causes our turbine to harvest more
wind energy by means of circulating
the part of the wind into the
eccentricity or region forming
convergent and divergent portion of
the turbine. Due to presence of
convergent and divergent section the
velocity of the wind after hitting the
first blade will decrease and it is
entered into other blade tangentially
with increased velocity.
It consists of two half cylinders
facing opposite directions in such a
way has to aye almost an S shaped to
cross section path for wind flow. These
semi cylinder rums are
mounted on a vertical axis
perpendicular with a gap at the axis
between two drums. Irrespective of the
wind direction the rotor rotates such as
to make the convex sites of the buckets
head into the wind. From the rotor
shaft we can tape power. However,
instead of having a wine space together
to make an S-shaped they overlap to
leave a wide space between the two
inner edges, so that each of these edges
is near the central axis of the opposite
half cylinder.
The main action of the wind is
very simple: the force of the wind is
greater on the cupped face than on the
rounded face. In detail it is a bit more
complicated. The wind curving around
the back side of the cupped face exerts
a reduced pressure much as the wind
does over the top of an air-foil and this
helps to drive the rotation. The wide
slot between the two inner edges of the
half cylinders lets the air whip around
inside the forward- moving cupped
face, thus pushing both in the direction
of the rotation.
IMPACT FORCE
A fluid jet is a stream of fluid
issuing from a nozzle with a high
velocity and Hence a high kinetic
energy. When a jet impinges on a plate
or vane, it exerts a force it (due to
change in momentum). This force
(hydrodynamic) can be evaluated by
mg. 'Impulse-momentum principle'.
This deals with the application of the
impulse-momentum equation for
evaluating the hydrodynamic force on
the stationary and moving vanes.
In the modified Savonius
turbine instead of fluid issuing from
nozzle, the fluid atmosphere condition
enters into the turbine. This
atmospheric fluid cause dual pact force
on the turbine blades. The following
cases of impact of jet will be
considered;
A) Force exerted by the jet on the
stationary vane;
 When flat plate is held
normal to the jet;
 When flat plate is held
inclined to the jet;
 When plate is curved;
B) Force exerted by the jet on the
moving vane;
 When flat plate is held
normal to the jet;
 When flat plate is held
inclined to the jet;
 When plate is curved;
3.1.3.1 BEARINGS

A bearing is a device used to
permit constrained relative motion
between two parts, typically rotation or
linear movement. Bearings may be
classified broadly according to the
motions they allow and according to
their principle of operation. Savonius
rotor required bearing carrying more
axial load and less radial load.
Two bearings are required, one
at the top and another at the bottom of
the rotor. Top bearing helps to keep the
rotor at its centre position and the
bottom one serve for two purpose
namely, to carry the net load of the
rotor as well as to carry the part of
centrifugal force of the shaft along
with the top bearing both the bearing
are placed inside the tightly fitted ring
in order to arrest the lateral movement
of the bearing.
FABRICATION
The fabrication of eccentric
Savonius windmill was· done by
assembling the various components
like rotor, generator and structural
support components. The rotor blades
are made up of alloy steel sheet metal
having 2mm thickness. Sheet metal
was rolled on the rolling machine for
15 inch diameters. Rolled sheet metal
was sheared on the shearing machine
as per the requirement of two semi-
cylindrical sheets.
Then the edges of the blades
are rolled 3600 to stiffen the blades.
The blades are guided by the stainless
steel sheet metal riveted to the top and
bottom of the blades. The blades are
then welded with the three small L
shaped plate on the guide sheet metal
both at the top and bottom of the blade
surfaces.
The end plates are made up of
plywood of I0mm thickness of 25 inch
diameter. The 26 inch square plywood
was sized to 25 inch diameter end
plates by sawing the plywood on the
wood sawing machine. Hole of 12mm
diameter was drilled on the end plates
center in order to insert the hollow
shaft.
The blades having L plates are
then screwed with the end plates by
providing the eccentricity in-between
the blades. The hollow shaft was
inselied through the end plates. The
end plates are then screwed with the
rectangular rod welded with the hollow
shaft. Bushes are provided at the top
and bottom of the end plates in order to
place the whole setup over the bearing.
The whole setup was mounted
on the structure carrying the bearings
at the top and bottom of the structure.
The timing belt drives larger pulley
was placed at the bottom of the rotor
shaft. For the equal distance the
alternator carrying smaller pulley was
bolted to the bottom of the structure.
Both the pulleys are then connected by
means of timing belt.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE.
Checking For Turbine Placement
First step in the experimental
procedure is to check whether the
turbine is placed at the suitable
distance of 3.5m from the exit of the
blower and suitable height of 2.5m
from the floor. After checking those
phenomenon then start the 3phase
induction motor by closing the flow
control valve of the blower and allow
it to run at its specified revolution.
Set the wind speed
Once the motor reached its
specified revolution open the flow
control valve slowly and check the
wind velocity at the inlet of the
turbine. Adjust the flow control valve
by opening and throttling by means of
rotating the flow control valve in
clockwise and anticlockwise direction.
Set the wind flow at a particular
velocity by checking the wind flow
velocity
With the help of the anemometer on
the basis of trail and error method.
Testing
After setting the wind speed at
certain velocity, say 5m/s allow the
turbine to rotate at the no-load speed
by disconnecting the belt drive from
the turbine. Once the turbine reached a
stable revolution note the revolution
per minute (RPM) value with the help
measuring instrument .namely
tachometer. Repeat the experiment for
different wind speed value and note the
no-load speed of the turbine. Similarly,
note the loaded RPM of the turbine by
connecting the belt drive with the
alternator and note the volt generated
with the help voltmeter by connecting
it parallel with the circuit. The rated
20V of the alternator is obtained at the
wind velocity of 3m/s.
Likewise, for a set wind speed note
the exit velocity of the wind at the exit
section of the turbine. Its value is
comparatively less than that of the inlet
wind velocity. Since some of the wind
velocity is harvested. Similarly, note
the velocity at the convergent and
divergent section of the turbine under
static condition of the turbine with the
help of the anemometer. Repeat the
experiment for the different wind
speed and tabulate the results.
EXPERIMENTAION RESULTS
VELOCITY OF THE WIND AT VARIOUS SECTION OF THE TURBINE
S. No Inlet Velocity
V
1
m/s
Exit Velocity
V
2
m/s
Velocity at
convergent
Section a m/s
Velocity at convergent
Section b m/s
1 2 1 1.3 1.6
2 3 1.4 1.8 2.1
3 4 1.6 2.4 2.8
4 5 2 2.8 3.1
5 6 2.8 3.3 3.7
SPEED OF THE TURBINE FOR VARIOUS WIND VELOCITIES
S. No Inlet Velocity
V
1
m/s
Loaded Speed rpm No Load Speed rpm
1 2 68 84
2 3 74 106
3 4 116 141
4 5 135 162
5 6 156 185
POWER COEFFICIENTS OF ECCENTRIC SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE
S. No Power available in the
wind L
a

= (p AV
1
3
)/2
Watt
Outlet to inlet
velocity ratio
a= V
2
/V
1
Power of the rotor
L=(P A V
1
3
) /4
(1+a)
2
(1-a) Watt
Power
Coefficient
C
1
=(L/L
a
)
0.593
1 2.747 0.5 1.54 0.333
2 9.2715 0.4666 5.31 0.396
3 21.976 0.4 12.922 0.3486
4 42.9238 0.4 25.239 0.3486
5 74.172 0.4666 42.561 0.3402
TORQUE COEFFICIENTS OF ECCENTRIC SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE
S. No Tip to wind speed
ratio λ
0
= (π R n)/
(30 V
1
)
Torque
coefficient
C
d
=C
1
λ
0
Torque
T= (C
d
R A V
1
2
p) /2
Axial thrust
S= C
w
A V
1
2
p/2 N
1 1.34 0.246 0.1028 0.1244
2 1.1285 0.3009 0.2836 0.2800
3 1.1258 0.3096 0.5188 0.4777
4 1.0348 0.3368 0.8818 0.7778
5 0.9848 0.3454 1.302 1.120
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
PERFORMANCE OF EXISTING SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE
TYPE OF TURBINE POWER COEFFICIENT% TIP TO WIND SPEED
RATIO
SAVONIUS WIND
TURBINE 25-30 0.7-1.7
PERFORMANCE OF ECCENTRIC SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE
TYPE OF TURBINE POWER COEFFICIENT% TIP TO WIND SPEED
RATIO
ECCENTRIC SAVONIUS 30-34

0.98-1.34
CONCLUSION:
It has been concluded that the power
coefficient of existing Savonius wind turbine
can be improved by 4% providing gap
between the inner edges of the rotor blade
with respect to center shaft.
It has been found that the tip-to-wind
speed ratio is improved from 0.7 to 0.98 by
appropriate eccentric vane arrangement.
Commercialization of existing Savonius
wind turbine has been enhanced by eccentric
vane arrangement which will lead to
compact turbine due to reduction in the rotor
swept area per unit power generation.
Scope for future:
1. Power coefficient of the
eccentric Savonius wind turbine
can be maximized by means of
adjusting the eccentricity
between inner edges of the
rotor blades
2. The profile of the blade can be
varied to maximize the power
harvestation by varying the
convergent and divergent cross
section path.
3. Power harvestation of the wind
energy can be maximized by
providing changes in the design,
numbers and arrangements of
the vanes.
4. The use of augmentation
devices such as concentrators
or diffusers or combination of
the two results in increased
power coefficients.
REFERENCES:
council.smallwarsjournal.com
www.angelfire.com
www.windstuffnow.com
www.treehugger.com
www.flipkart.com
www.gepower.com
AKNOWLEDGEMENT
We wish to express our deep
gratitude and sincere thanks to our honorable
correspondent Udyoga Rattan Thiru. J.
sudhanandhen who has always encouraged
us.
We wish to express our sincere and
heartily thanks to our beloved Principal
DR.G.Ramadoss.ME., Ph.D., for his kind
permission and encouragement for
completing our paper.
Our sincere thanks to proffessor
Thiru.R.Kumaravelan M.E, Ph.D., Head
of the department mechanical engineering
for assigning this paper.
We express our heartful thanks to
our co-coordinator Mr.R.Jothimurugan
M.E. Asst.Professor of Mechanical
Engineering Department, for his guidance in
all matters relating to the paper and for
having provided us with various facilities
needed for carrying out the paper.
We also express our sincere thanks to
all lecturers, non-teaching staff and
supporting staff of Mechanical Engineering
department for their advice, encouragement
and help in making this project a successful
one.
Optimization of Compression Rings to Reduce Oil Carry Over in
Automotive Air Brake Compressor
K.Mahendran
1
and S.Arul Selvan.
2
1
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: kkdiran@yahoo.co.in
2

Lecturer, Dept.of Automobile Engineering,Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai,India

Abstract
The Lubrication of piston ring is
directly related to blow by and oil carry
over in reciprocating compressor.
Compression ring is an open-ended ring
that fits into a groove on the outer
diameter of the piston. Piston ring seals
the compression chamber and regulates
motor oil consumption. Piston ring is the
area of concern in any reciprocating
system construction. The aim of the
project is to reduce blow-by and oil carry
over past the ring-pack. The Project
focuses on the development of a new
profile for compression rings.
The parameters affecting the
performance of piston rings i.e. blow-by
and oil carry over are studied in detail.
These factors are: operation ring seal
(pressure balancing), Ring geometry,
tangential tension of ring. To reduce oil
carry over and blow-by, a change in the
cross-section of the compression ring was
recommended. The concepts of reverse
torsion ring, torsion ring and micro-
Napier were implemented in this project.
The proposed cross-sections were
analyzed for ring-twist during installation
and at operating conditions using Ansys.
The cross-sections with minimum ring
twist are taken up for performance testing
in lab.
The proposed cross-sections were
tested in lab and a Design of Experiments
was performed to assess the effect of
certain parameters on ring performance.
The ring-pack combination that provides
optimized low oil carry and blow-by over
is considered for endurance testing and
field testing.
I. Introduction
The ring-pack plays an important
role in a reciprocating compressor. Its
primary function is to provide a moving seal
between the piston and liner, which prevents
the air leakage form compression chamber to
the crankcase, and at the same time
minimizes the oil transport in the opposite
direction .The lubrication occurring in the
interface between the ring running –face and
cylinder liner surface greatly influences the
ring sealing performance. In a single-
acting reciprocating compressor, lubrication
of the cylinder is usually carried out by oil
splash. Oil consumption through the
clearance between rings and liner is not
easily controlled. As a result, a large amount
of oil is carried into the compressed air. This
not only gives rise to an excessive waste of
lubricating oil, but also causes carbon
deposits in the discharge system of the
compressor and increase maintenances.
Developing capabilities to understand the
ring-pack lubrication has always been an
active subject in reciprocating compressor
research. The main attributes for oil carry
over are bore distortion, Rings instability
along the liner, evaporation of oil, surface
roughness of liner, honing process,
tangential tension of ring, ring geometry. For
the purpose of reducing compressor oil carry
over, this project is initially focused on the
mechanism of oil carry over through ring
pack and finite element analysis is used to
analyze the stability of ring and its salability
along the liner.
A. Causes for oil carry over
The causes for oil carry over for the
reciprocating compressor are as follows
1. Reduction of Ring sealing ability
• Inertia force & Air load
• Different kinds of loads changing
over time
• Thermal stress of the ring
• Geometrical condition of upper and
lower surface of ring groove
• Frictional force of ring against
liner.
2. Bore distortion
• Clamping torque applied during
assembly of cylinder head with block
• Air Pressure developed inside the
block
• non-Uniform temperature
distribution on
• Cylinder wall
3. Ring Running edges wear.
• Tangential tension of ring
• Running Face angle of ring
4. Evaporation of oil from the liner wall
5. Suction Pressure
P
L1
, P
L2
: Land Pressure Po: Oil
Pressure
Pe: Surface Pressure Pb: Back
Pressure
Fig.1 Schematic of pressure in radial
direction acting on the taper faced ring
B.Phenomena of Ring Collapse
The ring pushed into its groove and the loss
of sealing function on the circumference,
caused by the difference in pressure between
inner/outer circumferences of ring is called
RING COLLAPSE [1].It is shown in
Fig.1.When the piston is moving from BDC
to TDC, ring in such state is subjected to a
force pushing the ring against the liner due
the pressure (Pb) applied to the back of the
ring and the surface pressure (Pe) of the ring
caused by the tangential force of ring itself.
While piston is near to top dead center, at
the same time second land pressure and third
land pressure pull off the ring from liner. If
the P
L1
,P
L2
exceeds than Pb,Pe,the second
ring –liner contact force is liable to be
reduced and the second ring oil film
thickness becomes thicker by that amount,
resulting in a smaller oil scrapping effect of
the second ring and greater oil consumption.
The second ring oil film thickness suddenly
become very thick for a short period of time
starting from a point immediately before
CTDC due to large clearance between the
second ring and liner detected. The lower
Piston
Oil film
Pb
Pe
P
L1
Po
Ring
P
L2
edge of top ring becomes flooded, down
ward scraping of oil occurs during suction
stoke. Some of oil enters the top ring
groove, it move further up to crown land and
easily contribute oil carry over.
C.Theoretical analysis of Ring collapse
for compression ring
Balance of force in radial direction
When the force (F
o
) to push the ring into the
groove becomes greater than the force (F
l
) to
push the ring against the cylinder wall, the
ring collapse may occur and the blow by
may blow through the clearance between the
ring sliding surface and the liner. The values
F
o
and F
l
are calculated in relation to the
pressure distribution in the radial direction,
using the model as shown in figure.2.The
values of l, m and n here are obtained by
measuring the ring sliding surface with a
surface roughness gauge after the
completion of experiments. Around the
CTDC where the oil film thickness of
second ring starts increasing, values of Fo
and Fi become closest to each other and face
load of ring becomes lowest. The value of F
o
may become greater locally according to the
circumferential

F
l
= P
2
x l,F
m
= (P
L1
+P
L2
)x m/2, F
n
= P
L2
x n
F
o
= F
l
+F
m
+ F
n
, F
l
=h (Pe+Pb)
Fig.2 Modal of pressure
distribution in radial direction
direction of ring. Hence oil film thickness
increases around such a portion. Calculated
values of F
o
and F
i
is shown in the fig.3
Balance of forces in axial direction
For determination of state of contact
between the ring upper surface and the ring
ring groove near CTDC, the forces applied
to the ring in the axial direction are
calculated where the ring is touching the
upper surface as shown in fig.. The force to
push down the ring is calculated on the
assumption that a pressure that varies
linearly from p
L1
to P
b
is applied to the ring
upper surface. The force to push the ring up
is calculated from the force applied to the
ring lower surface caused by P
l2
is equal to
the value of P
b
.The frictional force between
the ring and cylinder is ignored.
Fig. Shows the calculated values of F
up
and
F
down
at 3000 rpm.The calculation is done
within the crank angle in which the second
ring is touching the groove upper surface. It
is found that the F
down
becomes greater than
Fup around Compression top dead center,
and the ring may go away from the groove
upper surface at that time. It is showed the
second ring oil film suddenly becomes very
thick for a short period of time starting from
a point immediately before the compression
top dead center.
Calculation of upward & Downward Force of First Ring
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
-180 -160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Crank angle (degree)
F
o
r
c
e
(

N
)
Fig.3 F
up
and F
down

F
e
F
n
l
m
F
l
F
m
F
b
n




F
Down
= π. d.a. (P2+Pb)/2
F
Up
= π.d. a. Pb +F
i
Fig.4 Modal of pressure distribution in
radial direction
II. ANALYSIS OF RING
DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR USING
FEA
Different compression ring cross-sections
were analyzed for ring-twist during
installation and at operating conditions and
the cross-sections with twist less than the
existing cross-section were considered for
Prototype development and experimentation.
Fig shows the twisting behavior under
installation condition. Napier ring
experiences both positive as well as negative
twist along the ring cross-section
Plain ring does not exhibit any twist pattern
except for some points. Proposed shape 1
has a positive twist, which is desirable.
Proposed shape 2 experiences positive twist
that can be efficient in sealing the
compression chamber. Proposed shape 3
conforms to the twist pattern of plain ring.
However, it has higher twist values than
plain ring.
Fig.5 Ring deformation
Analysis of compression ring under
operating conditions was carried out to find
out the twist of the ring at operating
conditions i.e. at pressure conditions,
compression ring shapes were analyzed
individually as well as in assembled
condition. The results of Assembly analysis
indicate that displacement of ring also
occurs due to piston load acting on it. All
types of compression rings were modeled
with an allowable initial twist of 0.65º
within the groove and were subjected to the
pressure load. The results obtained are as
follows: All compression rings exhibit
positive twist during compression and
negative twist during suction stroke. Napier
ring exhibits maximum twist value than any
other cross-section during compression
stroke. The twist values of proposed cross-
sections is below the twist value of Napier
ring but greater than that of plain ring.
III. DOE FOR COMPRESSION RING
The Taguchi method of experimental design
is used during initial design and prototype
testing to determine optimal settings for the
product and process parameters. Considering
the results of the experimental design the
products are then designed to minimize any
detrimental effect. The proper choice in the
design phase of parameter settings for both
the product and process can reduce costs and
R
i
n
g

T
w
i
s
t

(
D
e
g
r
e
e
)
P 2
P 2
P 1
Plain ring
Napier ring
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0 50 100 150 200
Angle along the ring (Degrees)
R
in
g

t
w
is
t

(
D
e
g
r
e
e
s
)
Napier Plain Proposed shape1
Proposed shape 2 Proposed shape 3
Force Down
Up Force
P
b
P
L1
P
L2
P
b
D
d
a
Oil Film
Ring
Angle along the ring (Degree)
Piston
improve quality. There are several
advantages to experimental design, they are
as follows:
5. Identifying the key decision
variables that control the process
6. Development of a new process for
which historical data is unavailable.
7. Identifying important factors and
their associated levels that maximize
yield and reduce overall cost.
8. Reduces lead time between design
and manufacturing.
To assess the effect of piston ring parameters
such as Running face taper angle, tangential
tension, bevel angle and bevel height on
blow-by. Thereby a DOE is performed to
assess the significance of these factors on
blow-by of the compressor. Designs of
Experiments were formulated such that
Process would be simpler and contain
correlating factors. Therefore two DOE were
performed using L4 orthogonal array.
A. DOE on Running face taper angle and
Tangential tension to assess the effect on oil
carry and blowby Variation

Response: Oil carry over and Blow-by
Factors and levels
Table 1 Factors and levels
Factors/
Levels
Level I Level II
Taper
Angle
1º 3º
Tangential
tension
Existing
specification
Top ring : 20 ± 2
Reduced
Tension
Top ring :15
N
2
nd
Ring :17.35
± 2.3 N
± 2 N
2
nd
ring : 13
± 2 N
Interactions to be estimated
Taper Angle Tangential tension
Table 2 Control Factors
Factors Value Factors Value
Compresso
r Assembly
Manual
throughout the
experiment
Compressor
speed
1500 rpm
Compresso
r body
Same Loading
cycle
780sloading
/30s
unloading
Linear Graph
Orthogonal Array (No: of replications
planned: 2)
Table.3 Mean response plot
Two replications were done with the four
combinations and the Results, Mean
Response plot and Annova table are as
follows.
Table 4.Mean Response plot
Table 5. Annova Results
From the mean response plot and Annova
results the following can be inferred:
Factor A i.e. Running face taper
angle is the most significant factor affecting
blow-by variation. Factor B i.e. Tangential
B A
AXB
Factor
A
Factor
B
Interaction
AXB 1 2
1 1 1 6.8 7
1 2 2 5.9 5.4
2 1 2 9.6 10.2
2 2 1 9 9.4
Treatment
No.
Factor A
Factor
B
Interaction
AxB
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2
3 2 1 2
4 2 2 1
tension has significant influence on blow-by
variation. No interaction exists between
Running face taper angle and tangential
tension. The running face taper angle value
for a ring-pack should be optimized such
that it yields low blow-by. The optimized
value is found to be 1º for first ring and 3º
for second ring, this configuration is used
for the proposed ring-pack.
IV. ENDURANCE TESTING RESULTS
Considering the results obtained from
validation tests on different cross-sections
and Design of Experiments a ring-pack with
low blow-by and optimum configuration of
running face taper angle and tangential
tension was selected for endurance testing.

0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000
Duration (h)
O
i
l

c
a
r
r
y

o
v
e
r

(
g
/
h
)


Q table Target
Fig.6 Oil Carry Over
The oil carry over trend is well within the
Q-Table limit. Average Oil carry over 0.02
g/h

6
5.3 5.3
5.26 5.26
4.8
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6
6.2
1 2 3 4 5
B
l
o
w
-
b
y

l
i
t
r
e
s
/
m
i
n
u
t
e
50 h 4 h 285 h 645 h 836 h
V. CONCLUSION
According to the Analysis, Experimental and
Field results, the proposed ring pack as
mentioned gives low blow-by and oil carry
over. The proposed ring pack was evaluated
for blow-by and oil carry over in
compression ring bedding-in (worn out)
condition and the results are observed to be
within the project limit. The effect of ring
parameters like running face taper angle,
Tangential tension, on oil carry over
variation were confirmed using Design of
Experiments
REFERENCES
[1] Piston ring Manual by Geotze India Ltd.
[2] SAE Paper “Contact Pressure Distribution of Piston Rings” by Michio Okamoto and
Itsuro Sakai, Teikoku Piston Ring Co., Ltd.
[3] SAE Paper “Effect of Contact pressure on Piston ring Twist” by V.Dunaevsky and
S.Alexandrov.
[4] SAE Paper “Analysis of Elastic Distortions of a piston ring in the reciprocating Air
Compressor due to Installation Stresses” by V. Dunaevsky, J.T.Sawicki, J.Frater and
H.Chen.
[5] Technical Paper on “Exact Theory of Self-Expanding Piston rings” by C.Trusdell.
[6] Piston ring Tribology by Peter Anderson, Janna Tamminen and Carl-Erik Sandstrom.
[7] Technical Paper on “Computer simulation of piston–piston ring–cylinder
[8] liner coactions in combustion engines” by Institute of Machine Design and Operation,
Poland.
Duration (hours)
O
i
l

c
a
r
r
y

o
v
e
r

(
g
/
h
)
B
l
o
w

b
y

(
l
i
t
e
r
s
/
m
i
n
)
Table 3 Annova Results
Duration (hours)
[9] A Technical Paper on “Distortion inside a Cylinder bore” by Teimuraz Bardzimashvili,
James F. Kelly and Elene Romelashvili.
[10]“Study of Piston ring” by Teikoku Piston ring Co., Ltd.
[11]A Technical report on “Predicted and Measured ring-pack performance on Diesel
Engines” by Federal-Mogul Corporation.
OPTIMIZATION OF COMPRESSED RATIO USING CNG
SHUNMUGA SUNDAR C. PARTHIBAN K.
     ·
· ï · ï l´± ´f  
email id:sundar.mtrs@yahoomail.com
     ·
· ï · ï l´± ´f  
ABSTRACT
In S.I. engine use of higher
compression ratio is limited to (8-12) by
the knocking tendency of the fuel. On the
other hand use of higher compression ratio
results in higher power output. Producer
gas derived from bio-mass has about 60%
of inert gas, which acts as a knock
suppressing agent hence producer gas can
be used at high compression ratios. So
there is a need for optimization of
compression ratio of SI engines. Moreover,
ignition parameters also have a significant
bearing on the efficiency and power
output. This paper consist of detailed
investigation of effect of compression ratio
and the spark advance on the performance
in terms of power output, brake thermal
efficiency and exhaust emissions for a SI
producer gas engine. This also compares
the producer gas engine performance with
compressed natural gas engine.
Derating of converted diesel engine
while operating was found to be 14.72%.
Engine is developing best power output
with better efficiency at compression ratio
of 15 and spark advance of 35˚ before the
TDC. CO content of the SI producer gas
engine was found to be more comparing to
the operation with CNG. Where as HC
emission was found to be very low.
SYNOPSIS
1.NEED OF THE PROJECT
2.PRODUCER GAS GENERATION
3.PROPERTIES OF PRODUCER GAS
4.COMMON DESIGN OF GASIFIER
5.ENGINE PERFORMANCE UNDER
PRODUCER GAS GENERATION
6.EMISSIONS
7.EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
8.OBSERVATION &PERFORMANCE
USING CNG
9.CONCLUIONS
Need of the project
Usual approach of producer gas
utilization in IC engine is mainly operation of
CI engine on producer gas cum diesel dual
fuel mode. Duel fueling involves the burning
of liquid and gaseous fuels simultaneously in
CI Engine. One of the disadvantages of using
producer gas in dual fuel mode of operation
is that we need at least 15-20% diesel for
ignition of Gas-Air mixture, thus there is
some dependency on the conventional fuel.
Therefore with the advance of the gasifier
technology 100% self-reliant producer gas
engine on SI mode is highly attractive,
especially at remote places where the
transportation of conventional fuel is
cumbersome and expensive. Also at these
places biomass is readily available in plenty.
SI engines are basically high specific
power engines provided with lower specific
stroke volume, therefore factors such as
lower calorific value, lower flame speeds of
producer gas-air mixture will dominate and
we can’t decrease the power loss. In case of
SI engines retrofitted for producer gas
operation, the De-rating reported is 40-50%
at full load condition. To take care of power
losses here we can’t increase the compression
ratio (c.r.)., because increase of c.r. in SI
engine is limited by design consideration of
engine due to increased mechanical stresses
through increased combustion pressure. Thus
conversion of SI engine on producer gas
operation is simple but not popular. Use of
existing CI engines with lean burn mixtures
needs very less modification, but the power
output is lower due to lower flame speed,
lower mixtures calorific value and chances of
miss firing. On the other hand use of
stoichiometric and rich mixtures is limited by
knocking tendency. Therefore there is a need
to optimize the c.r. for stoichiometric
mixtures for less Derating and more
efficiency.
Producer Gas generation
Combustion of biomass is needed in
oxygen deficient atmosphere for IC engine,
for this process of gasification is carried out
by supplying biomass to reactor, fire is
ignited in the gasifier and air was supplied at
regulated levels. Hot combustion gases are
allowed to pass through the fuel bed where
chemical reactions take place and lead to
generation of producer gas . Producer gas
derived from biomass contains combustible
components i.e. Carbon monoxide, hydrogen
and small amount of methane, non-
combustible components like co
2,
nitrogen,
dust and condensable tars. Dust particles will
lead to increase wear and increase
maintenance. Tar content causes coking in
cylinders, sticks in valves, cases can occur
that require dismantling of engine for
cleaning or complete engine replacement.
Dust particles from the hot gases coming out
of gasifier can be removed by passing
through cyclone. Sprinkling of water from
top of the cyclone causes the condensation of
tar.
Three common design of gasifier.
• Up Draught System (UDS)
In UDS gasifier the volatile products like
tar are carried out along with producer
gas from gasifier. Tar contained in the gas
can be depositedon
valves ands it will affect
the pressure at the end of
compression stroke
• Down Draught
System
Calorific value of ags
obtained from theUDS is
high, even then it is not used in engine
applications. In DDS the tar have to pass
through the oxidation and reduction
zones, hence cracking of tars take place
to make acceptable gas for IC engine.
Cross draught system:
Here the flow of gas is across the gasifier
and it holds a position in STAGES
DRYING
PRYOLISIS
OXIDATION
REDUCTION
OF CONVERSION between UDS and
DDS for its merits and demerits.
PROPERTIES OF PRODUCER GAS
Composition of the producer gas coming
out of the gasifier is not constant with
time and always changes with type of
biomass used. The gas contains 40 to 50
percentages of combustibles (15 to 25 %
Hydrogen, 15 to 25 % Carbon and 1to 3
% Methane) and the rest is non-
combustible and inert gases. (10 to 15 %
of Carbon di oxide, 40 to 50 % Nitrogen
1to 2 % water vapor.


Gas
Density
(kg/Nm
3
)

Calorific
value
(kcal/ Nm
3
)
Stoichometric
air gas ratio
(vol basis)
Stoichometric mixture
heating value (kcal/ Nm
3
)
CO 1.25 3020 2.38 695
H2 0.0899 25702.38 2.38 760
CH4 0.717 8550 9.52 812
Mixture Calorific Value
Mixture calorific value is the amount of
heat release when unit volume of
Stoichometric air fuel mixture burns.
Mixture calorific value (MCV) =
If we know the volume fractions of
combustible gases in the producer gas by
using the formula we can determine
mixture-heating value of producer gas.

H
g
=

Flame speed
Various gases depending on their
concentration have various flame speeds.
The graph shown shows clearly that the
hydrogen is about 10 times that of CH4
or CO. This graph also indicates the
flame speed of producer gas mixture.
Comparing with this it shows that flame
speed of gasoline as a function of mass
ratio, it is obvious that gasoline engine
and in particular high-speed engines
cannot perform as well as on producer
gas. Thus in high speed SI engine power
loss occurs due to the appropriate de-
rating of the speed of engine when it runs
on producer gas. Although flame speeds
of various gases are based on laboratory
tests and actual; flame speed in engine is
probably a higher magnitude, there exists
a larger difference between gasoline - air
mixture and producer gas - air mixture.
12680V
CO
+10800V
H2
+35900VC
H4
1+Stoichometric (air /gas)
Lower heating value of fuel
1+Stoichometric (air /gas)
Consequently, ignition must be advanced
to allow the flame to cross the
combustion zone before the piston
reaches TDC. This means loss in
indicator diagram and efficiency. The
combustion process is divided into
four parts 1. Initial Phase. 2.
Transition Phase, 3 turbulent phases, and 4.
Termination. It is possible to reduce burn
duration through turbulence in phase 2 and 3.
The turbulent burning velocity varies directly
with initial temperature and decreases with
increase in pressure with higher c.r., the
burning velocity would reduce by pressure
alone, but the increase in temperature and
reduction in exhaust gas dilution would be
expected more than compensate for such an
effect. Burning velocity thus would likely
increase.
Octane number and critical
compression ratio.
Use of higher c.r. is limited fir S.I.
engine by the knock tendency of the
fuels. Compression ratio of engine can be
increased considerably when the engine
is operating on producer gas as fuel due
to higher knock resistance because of
considerable inert gas presence in the
producer gas.
It can be seen that highest c.r. that can be
used is limited by hydrogen in producer
gas. On average, octane number of
producer gas can be 105.the critical c.r.
and octane number requirement of
producer gas and gasoline operated SI
engine is presented in graph.
Producer gas stoichiometric mixture is
not comparable with the mixture of all
combustible gases because of higher
amount of nitrogen. Nitrogen presence in
the producer gas increases the ignition
delay and therefore leads to knock
suppression.
Engine performance under producer
gas operation.
Power output, efficiency, exhaust
emissions and specific energy
consumptions are important performance
parameters of interest for spark ignition
producer gas engine.
Power output
As we se mixture calorific value of
producer gas stoichiometric mixture is
70% of that of petrol air mixture. It
indicates that amount of heat that can be
supplied for a given stroke volume will
be 30% lesser. Thus even though the
engine is running at same speed as that of
petrol, it will be derated in proportion to
the reduction of heat input value i.e.
about 30%. However increase of diesel
engine due to the engine is operated in
lean mixtures, some portion of power loss
can be regained.
Carbon Monoxide 105
Hydrogen 60
Methane 105
Producer gas having CO
as its main combustible constituents has
comparatively much lower flame
velocities in turn would require larger
amount of time to ensure complete
combustion. Therefore engine can’t be
operated at the same speed when operated
in diesel mode, which in turn reduces the
power output. Because of lower flame
velocities combustion curve will deviate
from the theoretical in the PV diagram.
Ploytropic index of compressed
stroke will be higher for producer than
liquid fuel operation, due to altered
molecular weight and heat capacities thus
the working surface of the indicator
diagram will be few percent smaller.
Another reason of power decrease is that
during combustion of producer in the
engine, a decrease of volume of the liquid
fuels. The decrease is about 10% in the
case of stoichiometric air fuel ratio and
largely independent of the composition of
the producer gas.
The excessive moisture content in
the producer gas also causes power
decrease. The effect of the moisture
content of the wood on thermal value and
power is shown. Water vapour slows
down the combustion, decreases the
flame temperature and increases the time
losses unless ignition is properly
advanced as humidity increases.
Efficiency
In general one can assume a better
indicated thermal efficiency under
producer gas operation. Since the
combustion of gas is more complete and
the flame temperature is considerably
lower. The mechanical efficiency under
producer gas operation will be lower due
to induction of gas air charge. The
mechanical loses are in general causes the
friction of the bearings, piston and other
mechanical components. In addition, the
engine is providing all the suction that is
necessary to overcome the total pressure
drop across the gasifier, purification
system and piping. This later fraction
causes reduced power output.
Exhaust emissions.
The temperature at the end of the
combustion process iv a SI engine can
vary from first to last burned mixture by
as much as 600 K. The first burned is
hottest. Correspondingly to the variation
in temperature there can be variation in
nitric oxide formation from first to last
part of the mixture to be burned. A flame
temperature of producer gas is low and
therefore the No
x
formation will be less.
Spark retard reduces the NO
formation by reducing the maximum
operating temperature of the engine. This
will also cause in poor efficiency and
higher exhaust gas temperature because
of more late burning. Higher exhaust gas
temperature will reduce hydrocarbon
emissions.
Carbon monoxide emissions
Carbon monoxide emissions from the
spark ignited producer gas engines is low
because amount of carbon in the supplied
gas is less and gaseous fuels from more
homogeneous mixtures compare to liquid
fuels which results in better combustion
and less carbon monoxide in the exhaust.
The effect of spark timing on the
concentration of CO exhaust gas is
relatively small and CO level will depend
upon the mixture strength.
Hydrocarbon emissions.
Piston cylindering crevice gas
constitutes a major source of hydrocarbon
emissions as well as significant losses in
power and efficiency. With the increase in
c.r. crevice induced hydrocarbon
emissions increase because more charge
enters the crevice at higher pressure. With
increase in power output in SI engine
maximum pressure of the engine will
increase which will lead to increase in
hydrocarbon emissions. Ignition advance
had a great influence for near
stoichiometric mixtures and had quite
small effect for lean mixtures. This was
partially due to the faster oxidation of
lean mixtures with the presence of excess
of air.
Dedicated Spark Ignition gas producer
gas engine
SI engines are basically high
specific power provided with lower
specific stroke volume. Therefore factors
such as lower calorific value, lower flame
speeds of producer gas air mixture will
dominate and we can’t decrease the
power loss, in case of SI engine under
producer gas operation, the derating is
reported 40-50% at full throttle condition.
To take care of power losses here we
can’t increase the c.r., because increase of
c.r. in SI engine is limited due to
increased mechanical stresses in engine
components. Thus directly SI gasoline
engine cannot be directly converted for
producer gas operation consequently,
existing C.I. engine can be converted to
SI engine.
Conversion of CI engine to SI producer
gas engine
The main changes to be carried out are.
Removal of injection pump and nozzle
and mounting of ignition system with
distributor, ignition coil, spark plug
and electric supply
Transition type of ignition system is
used, here one magnet is attached on
the engine and pick up is mounted on
the casing so that magnet on the
flywheel passes close to the pickup. A
transistor and ignition coil initiates
the spark for every revolution.
Re-designing of combustion chamber and
reduction of c.r. to 10-12 bar and varying
up to engine designed
Enlarging the volume of combustion
chamber effects a change of c.r., it
can be performed by 1.Exchanging
the pistons 2. Machining of material
from piston top 3. Machining of
material from the combustion
chamber 4. Exchanging the standard
cylinder head for a special low
compression head. 5. using thicker
gasket.
Intake velocity
The principal effect of higher port
velocity is to increase the turbulence
during intake process. Shrouding the
intake wall creates higher charge
velocity. The shrouding results in
increased power and drop in
volumetric efficiency.
Squish
Squish in engines is effective in increasing
combustion rates during main portions of
combustion events i.e. when the piston is at
TDC. Chamber geometry promoting squish
generally results in a large surface area to
volume ratio in the end gas, which is highly
desirable from knock inhibiting new point
with the addition of squish in engine cylinder,
there will be reduction in burn times except
in the cases of the high velocity port without
swell and reduction in burning duration will
be around 11%. In most cases, however much
of turbulence generated during the in take
stroke decays before combustion process is
started.
Swirl
Increase in squish area results in
increase of swirl and therefore decreases
burn duration . effect of swirl level and
spark location on burn duration in a
homogeneous charge engine showed that
without swirl, burning duration is direct
function of flame travel distance such that
central ignition is optimum. However
only for higher swirl level, burnt rate
increased by moving the ignition towqrds
cylinder wall.

Provision of a producer gas air mixing
device for the supply of an air fuel
mixture with constant air-fuel ratio.
A typical carburetor designed along
with the design calculation was
prepared. T joint has been designed
toensure maximum charge efficiency
by reducing pressure loss across the
mixture as to have homogenous
mixture of air and gas at a specified
air to fuel ratio
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The experimental stage has been carried out
in three stages.
Preparation of the setup including
calibration of airflow, producer gas flow
and CNG flow
9. Second stages consist of base data generation with
CNG. This involves running the selected machine
from no load condition to full load condition at
constant rated speed on CNG with compression ratio
of 11 and ignition timing of 30° BTDC. The
performance of the engine in terms of power
capacity and energy efficiency were the main
parameters. Exhaust gas temperature and fuel
consumption was also measured along with
load.
3. Producer gas and air was adjusted such
that engine will be operated with
stoichometric mixture. Experiments were
conducted from full load to no load
condition. If the speed of the engine is
more producer gas flow rate was
decreased such that engine will be
operated bellow the rated speed and after
that air flow was regulated such that
engine will got to maximum possible
speed. Once again producer gas was
decreased to bring the speed to rated one.
Similar procedure was adopted for all the
compression ratio to ensure the engine is
operating with best efficiency.
Performance of CNG operation.(BASE
DATA)
For obtaining the base line data engine was first
run on CNG fuel and the load test was
performed at the rated speed of the engine.
Compression ratio of11 and spark advance of 30°
was selected for the operation of the engine with
the CNG. Results are reported bellow.
O bser
vati on
and results using CNG at compression ratio of 11 and
spark advance of 30°
CNG CR-11
0
10
20
30
0 2 4
BRAKE POWER
Brake
Thermal
Ef f icienc
y
Air Fuel
Ratio
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 2 4
e
x
h
a
u
s
t
t
e
m
p
.
brake power
variation of exhaust temp.
Exhaust
temp.

From the above results it is reported that the
maximum efficiency of the engine is found to be
3.375%kW. Exhaust temperature at that temperature
was 22.8% and 571°c. Graphical representation is also
reported here with the given data.
Engine test on producer gas
As proposed earlier the engine was made to
run at various ignition timings at each
compression ratio with producer gas as the
fuel. First engine test was performed with the
compression ratio of 11 at three ignition
timings and corresponding reading are
presented bellow in graphical format.
Similarly pistons were changed with the
designed one for the compression ratio of 13
and 15 and the experimentation was carried
out.
Compression ratio of 11
With producer gas as fuel and c.r. of 11
experiment was done at various spark
advance (40,35,30) and the graph for
maximum brake thermal efficiency and
power output of the engine has been done .
Maximum power obtained 3.3 kw that is de-
rating of the engine is 11.4%. Maximum
brake thermal efficiency of the engine is
25.69%, which is 2.9% more than CNG
operation.
Compression ratio of 13
By the operation of the engine with the
producer gas, tar accumulated and blocked
the piston rings. Before operating the engine
with the new piston i.e. piston designed for
the c.r.0f 13, valves were grinded such that
there will be no more leakage through the
valve. Similar procedure for the above
c.r.was repeated for this c.r. also. Maximum
power obtained 3.181 kw and maximum
brake thermal efficiency of the engine is
25.64% at brake torque timing of 35° BTDC.
With the spark advancement beyond that load
following capability of the engine is
decreasing. Maximum exhaust temperature at
the best efficiency was 400°c.
360
370
380
390
400
410
0 2 4
Brake power
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
S.A=30
SA=35
SA=40
C.R.-11
0
10
20
30
0 2 4
Brake power(kw)
B
r
a
k
e

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
(
%
)
SA=40
SA=35
SA=30
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 1 2 3 4
Brake power
S .A 30
S A 35
S.A 40
Compression ratio of 15
With completion of experiment with at c.r. of
13, valves were grinded and the piston was
replaced with designed one for this c.r.of 15.
Experiments were done at various spark
advance (32,35) and the graph for maximum
brake thermal efficiency and power output of
the engine has been done . Maximum power
obtained 3.181 kW. Maximum brake thermal
efficiency of the engine is 28.50%.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 2 4
B
r
a
k
e
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Brake power
S.A=32
S.A=35
330
335
340
345
350
355
360
365
370
375
380
0 2 4
Brake thermal efficieancy
E
x
h
a
u
s
t

G
a
s

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
S.A 32
S A 35
Compression ratio of 16.5
Experiments were carried with piston of
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 2 4
Brake power
E
x
h
a
u
s
t

t
e
m
p
.
S.A=30
S.A=35
S.A=40
320
340
360
380
0 1 2 3
Brake power
E
x
h
a
u
s
t

G
a
s

t
e
m
p
.
S.A=25
S.A=30
S.A=35
original c.r. of 16.5, brake thermal efficiency with the load and spark advance where reported.
Variation of exhaust gas with load and spark advance is also presented.
OPTIMUM COMPRESSION RATIO
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 20 40 60
Spark advance
B
r
a
k
e

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
CR 11
CR 13
CR 15
CR16.5
The figure shows variation in brake thermal efficiency withn the ignition timing at various
compression ratios.the best performance has been obtained with c.r. of 15 although the power
capacity of the engines with combinations (CR=11 SA=40; CR=13 SA =35
AND CR =15 SA=35) is almost the same efficiency is maximum at the c.r of 15 with the ignition
timing of 35° BTDC.
● Maximum power output
■ Exhaust gas temperature
◊ Brake thermal efficiency
Conclusion
Performance of converted engine under CNG was carried out at c.r of 11 and spark advance of 30
° BTDC. Producer gas operation has been carried out at 11,13 and 15. At each c.r. park advance
has been optimized for best performance of the engine. Results have been analysed to find the
best compression ratio and spark advance for SI producer gas engine.
Following features were foundS
9. Engine could be successfully operated at all the c.r with comparable power capacities
10. Spark advance reduce with c.r.(35° BTDC for c.r.of 13 and 15 , 40° BTDC for c.r. of 11)
11. Best performance in terms of efficiency has been obtained with c.r. of 15. efficiency I at
this c.r is more than CNG operation with comparable power.
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 2 4
Brake power
B
r
a
k
e

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
S.A25
S.A=30
S.A=35
References
 BREAG,G.R , PARKER.A.P,PEADR “producer gas from biomass for low output
power system
 KAUPP.A “Myth and facts about producer gas engine system”
 HARKER, PEARCE, BREG “ Spark igntn. Engine fuelled by producer gas”
 “Producer gas : another fuel for motor transport”
 “Feasibility of producer gas in electricity generation”
Investigation on PID parameters for Uniform
Temperature Distribution in the oven by Forced
Convection using Lab VIEW 8.2
1
Selvaraj .G,
2
Sivakumar .M and
3
C. Jegadheesan
1
PG Scholar, Department of Mechatronics
Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai
2
Senior Lecturer, Department of Mechatronics
Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai
3
Lecturer, Department of Mechatronics Engineering,
Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai
Abstract— In this modern manufacturing era, the
complexity of design procedure is
exponentially increasing. This will lead to
bring the design challenges in moulding.
The quality of the castings produced in the
foundry depends on the size and strength
of core patterns placed inside the mould
cavity. For getting uniform quality and
repeatability, all the cores should have
uniform strength. Temperature is
considered as one of the main parameter
for the strength of the cores. For getting
uniform strength, the temperature
distribution should be uniform inside the
oven. The distribution can be controlled by
making a control over the temperature
and air flow. In this paper, the
temperature is controlled by means of a
virtual PID controller available in the
LabVIEW software. The virtual PID
controller will give better control and
precision over an
Introduction
The oven is a heating system which is used
to heat the components to the required
temperature. In the foundry industry, the cores
are extensively used for making parts with
holes. The cores will be prepared from core
sand by mixing some quantity of water. Then
it will be baked in the oven for removing the
moisture. The strength of the core depends on
the effective heating. In the oven it is found
that the cores are heated in a non-uniform
manner.i.e temperature distribution is
decreased from bottom position to the top
position. It results in the rejections of the
components. In this discussion importance
towards the uniform temperature distribution
is attained by using forced convection is
explained. In addition to that an attempt is
made for setting up of a blower with air flow
sensor setup is made for forced convection.
literature review
The oven is an interesting system to do research.
The PID controller is one of the best controllers
for controlling the oven temperature. From the
literature Collections the following results are
concluded.
The temperature is controlled by means of a
virtual PID controller available in the Lab VIEW
software [2]. Forced convection is usually having
uniformity in heating than the natural
convection [3]. The PID Controller has to be
tuned based on the model/sample inside the oven
[15].
The temperature distribution is affected by
number of parameters of which coil diameter
and coil location is important [13]. In the
conventional programmed heating controller, the
accuracy and regulation of temperature are
<0.50C [12]. In case of PI fuzzy controllers the
system gain increases and the offset from the
actual value decreases [16].The sample shape has
a great influence on heating Rate and
temperature distribution within the sample [19].
Temperature distribution is varying by 0.12 to
2.430C in front panel to 0.23-4.460C in the rear
panel of the heating zone [16]. The heat transfer
functions Vary with the location of the sample,
with respect to the Heating coil, if natural
convective heat transfer is considered [20]. Real-
coded genetic algorithm is used to tune the
parameters of the DAC-PID controller such That
the temperature can be maintained constant
[9].From the previous Literatures it is concluded
that Uniform temperature distribution is affected
by the following parameters.
1. Heating time
2. Sample size
3. Heating coil diameter
4. Heating coil position
5. Air flow
The main objective of this project is to maintain
uniform temperature distribution in the oven.
For various PID values the temperature
distribution is going to be analyzed and
optimized for uniform temperature distribution
in the oven by using forced convection.
problem identification
The 2-D diagram of the oven is depicted in
the following figure.1.The temperature of the
object (Core) is decided by capacity of heat
source, level of heat source, distance from the
heat source, and velocity of air and heat loss
to the environment. In case of foundry the
cores are placed inside the oven to remove
the moisture content. The heating coil is
placed at the bottom of the oven. The higher
temperature is identified at the bottom cores
and lower temperature is felt at the top. Due
to the varying temperature distribution, the
stability of cores which are away from the
heating source is affected. This leads to more
rejections in the components to be moulded.
The aim of this project is to maintain the
uniform temperature distribution inside the
oven by forced convection through PID
controllers interlinked with Lab VIEW 8.2.
Figure.1: The schematic view of the electric oven
forced convection
In forced heat convection, transfer of heat
is due to movement in the body which results
from many other forces, such as a fan, blower,
and pump.
The general equation for convection is,
q
c
= h
c
A ∆T
(1)
Typically the convective Heat Transfer
coefficient is greater with forced convection
than with natural convection, which results in
improved heating of the product.
In this paper, fan with blower setup is used
for forced convection. Blower along with air
flow sensor is added inside the oven, air flow
sensor is used to find out the flow velocity
inside the oven. With forced convection, the
most important variable is the velocity V and,
(2)
Where v is the flow velocity, k is the
permeability which depends on distance
between dendritic arms and volume fraction,
η here is the kinematic viscosity, P is
pressure, ρL is the liquid density and g is the
acceleration due to gravity.
The relevant dimensionless groups are the
Nusselt and Prandtl Numbers and the
Reynolds number (Re). In using the Nusselt
number to calculate the heat transfer
coefficient c h the characteristic length L is
replaced by the hydraulic diameter H D
equation. If Re > 2000 the flow is turbulent.
Programming PID Algorithm in LabVIEW 8.2
LabVIEW VIs contain three main components
• Font Panel
• Block Diagram
• Icon/Connector Pane
(1) Virtual Instrumentation is a user
interface. It can
build the front panel with controls (inputs) and
indicators (outputs)
(2) Block diagram contains the graphical
source code. Front panel object
appears as terminals on the block
diagram.
(3) Icon/Connector pane
• Icon: graphical
representation of a VI
• Connector Pane: map of the
inputs and outputs of a VI
• Icons and connector
panes are necessary to
use a VI as sub VI
1. A sub VI that is
inside of another VI
2. Similar to a
function in a text-
Core
model
Blower
with air
flow
sensor
based programming
language
The PID controller VI consists of four
Sub VIs: Proportional, integral,
derivative and Sub VIs. The
mathematical algorithm of PID
controller is as follows
V
OUT
(t) = Kp e (t) + KI ∫ e(t) dt + Kd[de
(t)/dt]
Where e (t) is the error. Kp, ki, kd are
coefficients of proportional, integral
and derivative actions
respectively.
SOLUTION METHODOLOGY
The PID controller in the LabVIEW
software is going to be used for
controlling the heating coil and blower set
up. The block diagram of this controller is
shown in figure.2.
COMPUTER
CONTROLS
PID
CONTROLL
ER
AMPLI
FIER
HOT AIR
OVEN
AMPLI
FIER
Blower
with FAN
SETUP
Lab VIEW
SOFTWARE DAQ
CARD CUM CHASSIS
Thermocouple
Thermocouple
Air flow sensor
PID
CONTROLL
ER
Figure.2: Block diagram of the experimental
setup
1. The ampere rating of the coil, air flow rate
of the blower are taken as parameters which
control the uniform temperature distribution.
The cores are prepared and placed in trays
inside the oven from the bottom to top whose
temperatures are monitored using the
thermocouples placed nearer to them. Blower
along with air flow sensor is added inside the
oven. The temperature distribution will be
analyzed by observing the temperatures of the
cores placed inside.
2. The temperature terminals and the air flow
equipments of the oven considered will be
interfaced with the Lab VIEW 8.2 and system
model is generated in the software to monitor
the experimental setup (temperature, air flow
rate).
3. A TRIAC controller is used to control the
ampere rating of the heating coil, fan with
blower setup. It controls the ampere rating by
controlling the phase angle of the input pulse.
The control over the phase angle will change
the voltage input and accordingly the ampere
rating will vary.
4. The PID controller in RS Logic PLC
software is used for controlling the TRIAC
controller. Whenever the temperature at the
bottom portion increases, the current input to
the coil is reduced. Since the heat transfer is
through forced convection, higher heat energy
distributes to the middle and top trays at that
time the bottom tray will also reach the same
temperature.
5. Whenever the temperature reaches below
the set value, the current input is increased
accordingly. In the similar fashion, the
uniformity will be maintained throughout the
oven space.
CONCLUSION
Experiments are conducted by placing
eight samples inside the oven to ensure the
non uniform temperature distribution. The
following graphs showed the top plate and
bottom plate having very noticeable
temperature difference. By the above
investigation it is found that there is some
contradiction arises between LabVIEW and
PID controller while working. In order to
overcome this limitations it is preferred to use
LabVIEW alone for the above investigation.
BR – Bottom Right core
MR – Middle Right Core
BL - Bottom left core
ML – Middle Left core
TR – Top right core
M2R – Second Middle Right Core
TL – Top left core
M2L – Second Middle Left Core
Figure.3: Temperature analysis with 8 cores
after 10 minutes
Figure.3: Temperature analysis with 8 cores
after 30 minutes
References
[12] Andrew Lee (2004)’Numerical
Investigation of the Temperature
Distribution in an Industrial Oven’4111-
4112 Research Project numerical.
[13] Boopathi M., Somasundaram P. and
Jegadheesan C. (2008) ‘Study of PID
parameters for uniform temperature
distribution inside the oven using Lab
VIEW 8.2’, (RTIME ’08).
[14] Bsebsu F.M. and bede G. (2000)
‘Theoretical study in single-phase forced-
convection heat transfer characteristics
for narrow annuli fuel coolant channels’.
PP. 15-27 (2002)
[15] Chih Peng Huang, Yun Tien Chang and
Yau Tarng Juang (2008) ‘Design of fuzzy
PID controllers using modified triangular
membership functions’, Information
Sciences, Vol.178, pp.1325-1333.
[16] Datta A.K. and Arpita Mondal (2008)
‘Bread baking – A review’, Journal of
Food Engineering , Vol. 86, pp.465 - 474.
[17] Hung Ching Lu, Jui Chi Chang and Ming
Feng Yeh (2007) ‘Design and Analysis of
direct action CMAC PID controller’,
Neurocomputing, Vol.70, pp.2615-2625.
[18] Kenneth Unklesbay, Alejandro Boza
Chacon and Nan Unklesbay (1997) ‘Air
temperature transfer function of a
convection oven’, Food Control,
Vol.8.No.1., pp.39 - 43.
[19] Mohammad A.K.Alia and Mohammad
K.Abu Zalata (2008) ‘A closed loop
temperature control system by utilizing a
LabVIEW custome-design PID
controller’.
[20] Navaneetha Krishnan P., Srinivasan
P.S.S. and Dhandapani S. (2006) ‘Effect
of heating coil in commercial shop
display cabinet’, Journal of Indian
Institute of Science, Sept.-Oct., Vol.86,
pp.457-467.
[21] Radu Emil Precup and Stefan Preitl
(2007) ‘PI Fuzzy controllers for integral
plants to ensure robust stability’,
Information Sciences, Vol.177, pp.4410-
4429.
[22] Rajani K.Mudi, Chanchal Dey and Tsu-
Tian Lee (2008) ‘An improved auto
tuning scheme for PI controllers’, ISA
Transactions, Vol.47, pp. 45-52.
[23] Rachel Martin, Timothy Bond, John
Erickson and Morgan Rog, Design of
Solar Ovens for Use in the Developing
World, International Journal for Service
Learning in Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1,
pp. 78-91. (2006).
[24] Sundaram Gunasekaran and Huai-
WenYang, Effect of experimental
parameters on temperature distribution
during continuous and pulsed microwave
heating, Journal of Food
Engineering,Vol.78, pp.1452-1456.
(2007).
[25] Van der Wal A.J. (1995) ‘Application of
fuzzy logic control in industry’, Fuzzy
Sets and Systems, Vol.74, pp.33-41.
[26] Van Impe J.F., Ryckaert V.G. and Claes
J.E. (1999) ‘Model based temperature
control in ovens’, Journal of Food
Engineering , Vol.39, pp.47 - 58.
[27] Vittorio Romano and Francesco Marra, A
numerical analysis of radio frequency
heating of regular shaped regular shaped
foodstuff, Journal of Food Engineering,
Vol 84, pp.449- 457. (2008).
[28] Weibiao Zhou, Shin-Yee Wong and
Jinsong Hua (2007) ‘Designing process
controller for a continuous bread baking
process based on CFD modelling’,
Journal of food engineering , Vol.81, pp.
523-524.
[29] Weibiao Zhou, Shin Yee Wong and
Jinsong Hua (2007) ‘CFD modeling of an
industrial continuous bread baking
process involving U - movement’,
Journal of Food Engineering , Vol.78,
pp.888 - 896.
[30] Xiancheng Zhan, Gongkuan Yin and
Baozhong Ma (1995) ‘New heating
controller and computation for linear
heating stability experiment’,
International Journal of Pharmaceutics ,
Vol.115, pp. 161-166.
[31] Xiancheng Zhan, Jinyou Jiang, Shicheng
Liu and Gongkuan Yin (1995) ‘Computer
controlled heating system and new
computation for reciprocal heating
stability experiment’, International
Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol.115, pp.
167-173.
[32] Yau-Tarng Juang,Yun-tien Charg and
Chih-Peng Huang,Design of fuzzy PID
controllers using modified triangular
membership functions, Information
sciences Vol.178, pp.1325-1333. (2008).
TECHNICAL PAPERS
MANUFACTURING
Design, Fabrication and Analysis of Vision
Assisted Inspection Robot
R.Sivaramakrishnan
1
, V.G.Umasekar
2
1
Madras Institute of Technology/Production Technology, Chennai, India
2
Madras Institute of Technology/Production Technology, Chennai, India
vgu432@yahoo.co.in
Abstract— Inspection is an important
area of factory operations in which there is a
significant interest in automation. Today in
most of the industries inspection is
performed manually as per the sampling
procedure. Even with sampling, the human
work involved in most inspection tasks is
tedious and boring. Especially for integrated
chips (ICs) manual inspection is tedious
because of smaller in size. Robotics and
machine vision technology play an important
role for automating this inspection task.
In this work, the inspection task
related to the physical defect of integrated
chip is automated. The defect of the IC that
will inspect is “lead pitch or lead bend”. In
order to achieve the automatic inspection, a
model of the vision assisted inspection robot
will be designed and fabricated. In this
paper, a simple machine vision system is
developed. Defective ICs with different
defect values collected and their images
acquired. And these images processed
through MATLAB image processing tool
box. Preprocessing and segmentation steps
carried out. Then distance between the
adjacent leads was measured in terms of no
of pixels using distance measure tool of the
MATLAB. These measured lead pitch value
found closer to the input value. The
difference between the input lead pitch value
and measured lead pitch value found 10% of
the input value.
The robot that sorts the inspected part
and mechanical structure that handles the ICs
were designed and fabricated. Necessary
control circuits are being fabricated. The image
processing steps are being programmed to do
the inspection task automatically. Finally robot
and machine vision system will be integrated to
get the automated inspection task.
Keywords- Robotic Inspection, Machine
vision, Lead defect, Integrated chips (IC)
I. Introduction
Robotics can be used to accomplish
inspection operations for mechanical
dimensions and other physical characteristics of
the product. Generally the robot must work with
other pieces of equipment in order to perform
the operations. Examples include machine
vision systems, robot manipulated inspection
and/or testing equipment and robot loading and
unloading operation with automatic test
equipment.
A. Work Methodology
The activities of the paper are grouped into
the following activities.
1. Literature survey of the similar works
2. Simple machine vision system
development
3. Robot and inspection system design &
fabrication
4. Image processing program development
5. Integration of the robot and machine
vision system
1. Simple Machine Vision System
Development
To do automatic inspection task a simple machine
vision system is essential with appropriate vision
software. It is being developed in this paper. And
this system is built using the following components.
1. Digital web camera
2. Camera software.
3. Personal computer
4. MATLAB image processing tool box
5. Image acquisition toolbox.
Figure 1 illustrates the block diagram of the
simple vision system. And using this system
Image sensing, digitizing and Image processing
functions of the machine vision is performed
for the IC lead inspection. The acquired raw
images of the 8SIP ICs are presented in the
below given figures. Figure 2 illustrates the
image of the 8SIP IC with correct pitch values
i.e. leads are in good condition. Figure 3
illustrate the image of the 8SIP IC with one lead
found in bend condition. The pitch value of one
of the pin disturbed. And this is the defect,
which has to be measured through the vision
system.
Figure 1. Block diagram of the Simple machine
vision system
Figure 2. Good IC image
Figure 3. Defective IC image
A. Image Processing and Analysis
Image processing and analysis is carried
out using the MATLAB image processing
toolbox (IPT version 6.1). An algorithm is
developed to accomplish the task of the vision
system. Steps involved in the algorithm are
1. Bringing the image to MATLAB
environment.
2. Image enhancement or preprocessing.
3. Segmentation or Edge detection using
canny edge detection algorithm.
4. Measuring the distance between the
alternative edges of IC leads
5. Comparing the actual pitch value
against the standard pitch value.
6. The inspection result to be
communicated for further sorting
actions.
Edge detection for different values of the input
lead bend defect performed and its result
updated. The Figure 4 illustrates the image
obtained in the above steps.

Figure 4. Input image and segmented image
From the segmented image, the pitch
value of the defective units measured by using
“distance measure tool” of the MATLAB IPT.
Figure 5 illustrates the same. And the actual
pitch values against the known input values of
the samples are listed in the Table 1 given
below. Error in the measured value also listed.
Table 1. Actual pitch value measurement for the
segmented images
Sampl
e
Input
pitch
value
in mils
Measured
pitch value
in mils
Error
in
mils
Error
in %
1 3 2.99 -0.10 3.33
2 4 4.15 +0.15 3.75
3 5 5.3 +0.3 6
4 8 8.74 +0.74 9.25
Figure 5 Measuring the pitch distance using the
distance measure tool
3. Robot and Inspection Robot Design and
Fabrication
Figure 6. Solid model of the pick and
place robot
Figure 7. Solid model of the pick and place
robot
Figure 8. Fabricated model of the vision
assisted inspection robot
Figure 9. Fabricated model of the pick and
place robot
Distance
measure
tool
The Figure 6 and 7 illustrates solid model of the
designed inspection system. The fabricated parts of
the inspection robot system are illustrated in the
figure 8 and 9. The inspection robot system
comprises
1. Guide track assembly
2. Unloader unit
3. Timing belt assembly
4. Camera assembly
5. Base plate assembly
6. Vacuum pick up unit
7. Robot mounting assembly
8. Link 1
9. Link 2
10. Link 3
Conclusion
In this work, a simple machine vision
system for IC lead inspection was partly
developed. ICs with lead bend defect of
known defect values were collected and
their Images acquired. An algorithm was
developed for the image processing. And
the acquired images were subjected to the
developed algorithm.
The pitch value of the defective units measured
from the segmented images by using distance
measure tool of the MATLAB. These measured
value against the known input values and error of
the measured value tabulated. Measured pitch
value found close to the input pitch value.
Maximum error of 9.25% observed.
The structural arrangement of the inspection robot
fabricated and assembled. Necessary control
circuits were fabricated. Presently control circuit
programming is being carried. And MATLAB
image processing program is being developed using
m-file.
References
[33] Andreadis.I, Automated visual inspection
system, department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering, Decocritus
University of Thrace, GR-671 00 Xanthi,
Greece.
[34] Asadpour. A and Golnabia.H, (2007)
“Design and application of industrial
machine vision systems”, Robotics and
Computer Integrated Manufacturing volume
23, PP 630-637.
[35] Chin,R.T. and Harlow,C.A.(1982)
Automated visual inspection, A survey.IEEE
Trans.Pattern Anal Mach.Intell volume 4,PP
557-573.
[36] Chin,R.T. Survey(1988),”Automated visual
inspection”/ Computer Vision Graphics
Image Process, volume 41,PP 346-381
[37] Immanuel Edinbarough, Roberto Balderas
and Subhash Bose(2005) “A vision and
robot based on-line inspection monitoring
system for electronic manufacturing.
Computers in industry volume 56, PP 986-
996.
[38] Jose Santos-Victor,(1998) “Vision-based
remote control of cellular robots” Robotics
and Autonomous Systems, volume 23.PP
221-234.
[39] Mikel Groover.P, Mitchell Weiss, Nicholas
Odrey .G, and Roger Nagel.N(1986)
“Industrial Robotics” Technology,
Programming, Applications.
[40] Mital, D.P. and Teoh Eam Khwang (1989)
“An intelligent vision system for inspection
of packaged ICs”. TENCON apos;89,Fourth
IEEE Region 10 International Conference,
Volume, Issue, 22-24 Page(s):1003-1006
DETERMINATION WITH JUSTIFICATION OF BEST
MANUFACTURING SYSTEM [CELLULAR] SUITABLE FOR
AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY
PROCESS [AHP]
S. Muthukumar
1
, L. Karunamoorthy
2
and N. Arunkumar
3

1
PG Student,
2
Professor, CEG/Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai,
India.
1
Email: muthu_ifet@yahoo.co.in
3
Professor, St.Joseph’s College of Engineering/Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai,
India.
2
Email: karun@annauiv.edu
3
Email: n.arunkumar@rediffmail.com
Abstract
The objective of any organization
is to earn profit, now the market fixes
the selling price of the manufactured
components, unless we focus on our
manufacturing strategy of reducing
manufacturing cost it is very difficult to
sustain in this ever competitive world,
having a suitable manufacturing system
will help us to minimize the cost of
production. The suitable manufacturing
system should focus on customer
satisfaction by finding out the
customer’s requirement in terms of
quantity, quality, and schedule. A survey
of existing literature on evaluation of
advanced manufacturing systems
indicates that the traditional
manufacturing approaches are
inadequate for the purpose. Typically
new technologies require very high
investments, so it is important to
identify and justify the manufacturing
system suitable for the particular
manufacturing industry. In this paper
an attempt has been made to overcome
the deficiencies of traditional
manufacturing system by presenting an
approach to determine and account for
the justification of the cellular
manufacturing system using analytical
hierarchy process (AHP).
Index Terms— Cellular Manufacturing,
AHP, Justification, Manufacturing
System.
I. Introduction
The manufacturing industry has gone
through successive periods of great
changes, new materials; new technologies
and advanced technology have always
been at the root of these changes.
Manufacturing has thus become highly
competitive, and companies have had to
focus their resources, capabilities, and
energies on building a sustainable
competitive advantage. Such an advantage
may be derived for example from lower
cost, from higher product performance
from more innovative products or from
superior service. This requires the
application of some profoundly new
concepts related to production process
organization of work and technology.
Manufacturing is a transformation
process by which raw material, labor,
energy and equipment are brought together
to produce high quality goods. The goods
produced naturally should have an
economic value greater than that of the
inputs used and should be salable in the
presence of competition. The
transformation process generally involves
a sequence of steps called production
operations. Each production operation is a
process of changing the inputs into outputs
while adding value to the entry. A
Manufacturing system can be manual or
fully automated; highly dedicated or fully
flexible; a collection of isolated machine
tools or a fully integrated production
system. It is the level of technology that
determines whether a given system is a
mass production system, Job shop, batch
production system or a fully flexible
manufacturing system. Selecting the
suitable manufacturing system is a multi-
criteria decision making situation where
many factors are to be considered. With
the help of AHP the suitable
manufacturing system can be identified
(Section III gives the methodology and
section IV identifies the manufacturing
system). The justification of identified
manufacturing system is dealt in section
VI.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. CELLULAR MANUFACTURING [CM]
Eric Molleman (2002) analyzed the
arguments on the design of cellular
manufacturing system in a medium sized
company and he indicated that interrelated
things like market and manufacturing
technology places a key role in decision to
change the system and the arguments were
made on market development, new
manufacturing technology, and production
control system as a constraint in the
application area of cellular manufacturing.
Charlene Yauch and Harold Steudel (2002)
exploits the eight key cultural factors that
impact CM conversion for an organization
converting to cellular manufacturing.
B. JUSTIFICATION OF CM
The deficiencies of the traditional
manufacturing system are account for the
justification of manufacturing system
based on AHP by tacking account into
intangible factors; the proposed approach
is demonstrated through the case situation
by Vinay Datta and Sambasivarao (1992).
The potential benefits derived from
Flexible Manufacturing system
implementation and a method to quantify
these benefits for use in engineering
economy studies with the help of AHP to
determine the best manufacturing system
is given by Wabalickis (1987).The
Japanese manufacturing methods and
production management are introduced
including flexible automation, group
technology and Toyota production system
with the financial aspects of Japanese
companies by Katsundo Hitomi (1985).
III. ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS [AHP]
Analytical Hierarchy Process is a
methodology developed by Saaty (1980)
to analyze rational and irrational values
comprehensively according to the level of
importance to the decision – making
process. AHP facilitates formulating and
simulating the human decision making
mechanism in multi criteria evaluation
procedures. In addition, it is an effective
mechanism to analyze the strategic
concepts of a company by the
representation of a complex problem into a
disintegrated hierarchical problem. This
disintegrated representation of multiple
level hierarchy helps the decision-makers
identify the problem and deal with it in a
clear manner .The complexity of the
problem determines the number of levels
of hierarchy. The top level of hierarchy
consists of a single element, which is the
main focus of the overall objective. The
remaining levels may consist of few
elements. AHP compares each element in
each level with each other element by a
pairwise comparison process, with respect
to the objective. The pairwise comparison
is done through the subjective evaluation
of the decision-maker depending on the
nature of the importance of the attribute to
the company.
A matrix is constructed by listing the
attributes to be compared to the left of the
row and to the top of the column. The
attribute are compared along each row
with the attribute on the column. When an
attribute is compared with itself the value
on the cell is assigned to one. When an
attribute is compared with other attribute,
the value is assigned depending on the
importance of that attribute to the
S.Muthukumar,
M.E – Manufacturing Systems and Management,
CEG, Anna University - Chennai
TABLE I.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SAATY’S 1-9 SCALE
Intensity Definition Explanation
1
A and B are
equally important
A and B contribute equally to
the objective
3
Weak importance
of A over B
Experience and judgment
slightly favours attribute A over
B
5
Essential or strong
importance of A
over B
Experience and judgment
strongly favour attribute A over
B
7
Very strong or
demonstrated
importance of A
over B
Attribute A is strongly favoured
over B , and the dominance of A
has been demonstrated in
practice
9
Absolute
importance of A
over B
The evidence of favouring A
over B has the highest possible
order of affirmation
2,4,6,8
Intermediate
values
When compromise is needed
compared one to meet the objective. If that
attribute is more important an integer
value is assigned if the attribute is less
important, the reciprocal value is assigned.
The reciprocal value is entered in the
transpose position of the matrix.
The AHP procedure recommends a 1 to 9
scale proposed by Saaty which is given in
Table I. Once the matrix has been
completed, the priority weights for the
matrix are computed. In mathematical
terms it is called principle eigenvector. The
estimate for that vector can be computed in
the following for ways (Saaty, 1980):
1. The values in each row are summed
together and that summation is
normalized by dividing each sum by
the total of all the sums, resulting in a
summation of the vectors to unity. The
first resulting vector is the priority
weight of the first attribute , the second
value for the second attribute and so
on;
2. The reciprocal of the sum of the value
in each column is computed. Then
each reciprocal is divided by the
summation of all reciprocal values,
resulting in summation of all vectors to
unity, thus obtaining normalized
values. Then the priority weight is
determined as in the first method;
3. Normalization of the column is carried
out by dividing the values in each
column by the sum of the column.
Then the elements in each resulting
row is added and that value is divided
by the number of elements in the row,
thus achieving the process of averaging
over the normalized columns; and
4. The n number of elements in a row is
multiplied and the nth root is
calculated. Finally the resulting
numbers are normalized, to get the
priority weight f each attribute.
After all matrices are developed and
all pairwise comparisons are obtained.
Eigenvectors or relative weights and
maximum eigenvalue (λ
max)
for each matrix
are then calculated. The λ
max
value is an
important validating parameter in AHP.
The consistency ratio is calculated as per the
following steps.
1. Calculate the eigenvector or the relative weights
and λmax for each matrix of order n.
2. Compute the consistency index for each matrix of
order n by the formulae: CI = (λmax – n)/(n-1)
3. The consistency ratio is then calculated using the
formulae: CR = CI / RI.
Where RI is known as random consistency
index obtained from the Table II. The
acceptable CR range is 0.1. If the value of CR
is equal to or less than 0.1 implies that the
evaluation within the matrix is acceptable or
indicates a good level of consistency in the
comparative judgments represented in that
matrix. In contrast if CR is more than the
acceptable value, inconsistency of judgments
within that matrix has occurred and the
evaluation process should therefore be
reviewed, reconsidered and improved. An
acceptable consistency property helps to
ensure decision-makers reliability in
determining the priorities of a set of criteria.
As the matrix is consistent, the weight of
each element is calculated as explained
above. Finally, the weighted evaluation for
each alternative is obtained by multiplying
the matrix of evaluation ratings (criteria
relative weights) with the matrix of priority
weights of the alternatives (relative weights
of alternative) the multiplied value is known
to be global weights of the alternatives,
moving upwards through the hierarchy and
summing overall the vector values for the
alternative will give overall priority of the
alternatives. The alternative with the highest
global weigh evaluation is considered to be
fulfilling the objective of the problem with
maximum satisfaction and chosen for further
consideration.
IV. MODEL DEVELOPEMENT - DETERMINATION
The analytical hierarchy process has
been a widely used method to solve multi-
criteria decision making problem.
Application of this method is widely used
in many fields. The main advantage of
AHP is it decomposes the problem and to
make pairwise comparisons of all elements
in the level just above. The schematic of
the manufacturing system selection model
is given in Fig 1which is mainly focused
on manufacturing system selection for a
Brake lining manufacturing company in
Chennai to find out the suitable
manufacturing system.
A. GOAL
Develop the focus or overall goal of the
analysis in this case selecting /
determining the best manufacturing
system. It is given in Level 1 of Fig 1.
B. CRITERIA
Develop factors or criteria which
contribute to the focus or goal in the Level
1. The criteria are the main components
defined by a company when it has to take
decision on which manufacturing system
to use. The selection of criteria is through
literature survey, discussion and
consultation with the industry personnel.
The criteria details are given in Level 2.
The definitions of criteria are given in
Table III.
C. ALTERNATIVES
The alternatives are the manufacturing
system chosen to be compared and
evaluated from the given set of
alternatives, i.e. the options which are to
be evaluated in terms of the criteria are
given in Level 3. The model evaluates the
best manufacturing system for the
application. The alternative manufacturing
systems are
1. Transfer Line [T.L]
2. Job shop [J.S]
3. Cellular / Lean Manufacturing [CM]
4. Flexible Manufacturing System [FMS]
D. RELATIVE WEIGHTS [RW]
CALCULATION
CRITERIA:
The criteria are compared with each other
on a pairwise comparison. Table V gives
the pairwise comparison and relative
weights for level 2 criteria. The weights or
TABLE II.
RANDOM CONSISTENCY INDEX
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
R.
I 0 0
0
.58
0.
9
1
.12
1
.24
1
.32
1
.41 1.45
TABLE III
CRITERIA DEFINITION
S.No Criteria Definition
1 Flexibility [F]
It covers the design, volume, routing,
machine, process & operation. Can the
system handle variations in part size &
geometry, batch size and product
types.
2 Inventory [IO]
Inventory of raw materials, WIP, FG.
To what extent does the system help in
reducing inventory cost?
3 Throughput [T]
Indicator of the lead-time, cycle time
& delivery time of the system.
4 Investment [IM]
Is the company in a position to make
the required investment? Does this
investment fit in with the company's
overall corporate strategy?
5
Operating Cost
[OP]
In includes the tooling and scrap and
running cost.
6
Employee
Relation [E]
In terms of safety, communication,
ergonomics in terms of efficiency and
convenience.
TABLE IV
CRITERIA DEFINITION
S.No ALTERNATIVES DEFINITION
1 Transfer Line
Machines dedicated to manufacture of
one or two product types, system
permits limited flexibility.
2 Job Shop
Machines are grouped together based
on the operation (function); there is
no control on the sequence of
production.
3
Cellular
Manufacturing
A cell thus consists of a group of
machines and a family of related
components being produced on these
machines. Since the manufacturing
plant would now consist of several
cells, manufacturing using such group
technology is also called cellular
manufacturing. Group technology
exploits the similarities and
relationships between large
populations of components.
4
Flexible
Manufacturing
NC machines, material handling
equipments are linked, controlled and
monitored by a central computer.
Figure 3. Criteria RW Distribution in Percentage

Level - 1 Selectio n of Manufacturing System
Level - 2 Throughput Flexibility Inventory Investment Operat ing cost Employee
Level - 3 TL FMS JS CM
Figure 1. Manufacturing system selection hierarchy
priorities are obtained. A questionnaire
was developed with respect to the case
situation used as an input to the AHP
model. From the pairwise comparison
matrix [PCM] the respective weights are
calculated. The distributions of the relative
weights [RW] are given in Fig 2 & 3.
ALTERNATIVES:
With respect to each criteria the
alternative performance are evaluated
using satty’s 9 point scale to construct a
pairwise comparison matrix [PCM]. From
the PCM the relative importance of
alternatives are calculated. The PCM and
relative weights for throughput and
flexibility criteria are given in Table VI &
VII.
Figure 2. Criteria RW Distribution
Figure 4. CM Performance
Figure 5. CM Performance
The same approach of pairwise comparison matrix formation from the data collected through
questioner for the remaining criteria used in decision making process level 2 (Inventory,
Investment, Operating cost, Employee) are used to calculate the relative weights with respect
to the alternatives. The relative weights calculated are listed in the Table 8 for global weight
calculation; the global weight is obtained by multiplying the relative weights of criteria with
respect to alternative performance as explained in the AHP methodology to find out the
suitable manufacturing system.
TABLE VIII
ALTERNATIVE PCM & RW FOR THROUGHPUT CRITERIA
MANUFACTURING SYSTEM RATING
CRITERIA
RELATIVE
WEIGHT
LOCAL WEIGHTS GLOBAL WEIGHT
TL FMS JS CM TL FMS JS
Throughput 0.3733 0.4079 0.2373 0.0692 0.2857 0.1523 0.0886 0.0258
Flexibility 0.2331 0.0556 0.2787 0.1427 0.5231 0.0129 0.0649 0.0332
Inventory 0.1764 0.3269 0.1527 0.0629 0.4575 0.0576 0.0269 0.0111
Investment 0.1059 0.1698 0.3423 0.0545 0.4335 0.0180 0.0363 0.0058
Operating Cost 0.0722 0.2257 0.3890 0.1283 0.2570 0.0163 0.0281 0.0093
Employee 0.0391 0.2356 0.1979 0.0651 0.5014 0.0092 0.0077 0.0025
OVERALL PRIORITY 0.2664 0.2525 0.0877
RANK 2 3 4
TABLE VII
ALTERNATIVE PCM & RW FOR FLEXIBILITY CRITERIA
FLEXIBILITY TL FMS JS CM RELATIVE
WEIGHT
TL 1.00 0.17 0.25 0.17 0.0556
FMS 6.00 1.00 2.00 0.50 0.2787
JS 4.00 0.50 1.00 0.17
0.1427

CM 6.00 2.00 6.00 1.00
0.5231
λmax 4.17 R.I 0.9
C.I 0.06 C.R 0.06 < 0.1 O.K
TABLE V
ALTERNATIVE PCM & RW FOR THROUGHPUT CRITERIA
CRITERIA T F IO IM O E RELATIVE
WEIGHT
T 1
.00
3
.00
3
.00
3
.00
4
.00
6
.00
0.3733
F 0
.33
1
.00
2
.00
3
.00
4
.00
5
.00
0.2331
IO 0
.33
0
.50
1
.00
2
.00
4
.00
5
.00
0.1764
IM 0
.33
0
.33
0
.50
1
.00
2
.00
3
.00
0.1059
O 0
.25
0
.25
0
.25
0
.50
1
.00
3
.00
0.0722
E 0
.17
0
.20
0
.20
0
.33
0
.33
1
.00
0.0391

Justification Methodologies
Strategic
Approaches
Technicla Benefits Value Analysis Mathematical Analysis Risk Analysis
Business Advantages
Integer
Programming
Stocastic
Models
Competitive Factors
Utility Models Goal
Programming
Future Expansion
AHP Models Linear
Programming
Non DCF methods
Sensitivity Analysis
Analytic Approaches
Weighted Evaluation
Methods
Monte Carlo
Simulation
Economic Approaches
Payback
Net Present Vales
Internal Rate of Return
Other DCF methods
Figure 6. Justification Methodologies
RESULT
The global weights of the
alternatives are plotted in a spider chart
Figure 4 and 5 gives the cellular
manufacturing performance likewise all
the alternative performance are plotted to
compare with each other to take a strategic
decision on selection of suitable
manufacturing process. Manufacturing
system performances are analysed with
respect to the criteria. The suitable
manufacturing system for the brake lining
manufacturing (auto component) company
is identified as cellular manufacturing
[CM] system based on the global weight
score which is decided based on the data
collection or quality of input through
pairwise comparison. One of the
advantage is the group decision making is
also possible with AHP. However,
improving the approach for selecting a
best manufacturing system suitable for any
manufacturing industry can be solved
more efficiently in fuzzy environment by
taking care of the uncertainties involved
in the decision making process can be
consider as topic for future research.
VI. CM JUSTIFICATION
Any investments or changes
require justification; unless the managers
justify the CM in terms of economic the
management may not be committed /
interested in the change proposed.
Economic justifications require knowledge
of costs and benefits attributable to the
manufacturing system. Benefits and costs
of many investments can be quantified in
terms of tangible values, never the less ,
the cellular manufacturing technology
provide benefits which are tangible,
intangible and difficult to quantify.
Following are the some of the justification
methodologies, AHP comes under
analytical approach, so we can use the
same AHP methodology with suitable
economic criteria to justify the investment
with respect to the benefits with the
alternatives of existing traditional
manufacturing system the company has
and the CM. The available justification
methodologies are given in Fig 6.
VII. CONCLUSION
Analytical hierarchy process
provides an excellent method to evaluate
the many tangible and intangible benefits
in multi attribute decision making model.
In this paper an attempt is made to
determine and justify the suitable
manufacturing system for an auto
component manufacturing company. The
model developed is able to solve the
problem reasonably well, just giving the
inputs to the model helps clarify goals of
the organization as it requires deep thought
and constructive decisions. AHP basically
address the strategic issue of justification,
In case this decision is to be evolved by a
panel of experts, say consisting of the
managing director, chairman, financial
director, etc, then each person’s opinion
can be consolidated by appropriate weights
and then final decisions can be evolved.
AHP’s ease of use makes it’s a viable
method for everyone involved in the
decision analysis. The respective nature of
pairwise comparison and the structure of
AHP make computerization of the
technique attractive and easy.
Selecting a suitable manufacturing
system from the alternatives is a multi-
criteria decision making problem. In which
the objectives are not equally important.
This paper presented AHP as a decision
making method that allows the
consideration of multi-criteria. This study
shows that cellular manufacturing is the
suitable manufacturing system for the
particular auto component manufacturing
company and the process is more complex
in justifying the selection process. The
AHP can also be used for other multi-
criteria decision making problems such as
machine tool selection, site selection,
personnel selection, etc.
REFERENCES
[41] Roger N. Wabalickis, “Justification of FMS with the
Analytic Hierarchy Process”, Journal of
Manufacturing Systems, 1987, Vol 3, No 3, p.p.
175-182.
[42] Vinay Datta, Sambasivarao, K.V., Rambabu Kodali
and Deshmukh, S.G., “Multi-attribute decision
model using the analytic hierarchy process for the
justification of manufacturing systems”, Int. Journal
of Prod Eco, 1992, Vol 28, p.p. 227 – 234.
[43] Katsundo HItomi, “The Japanese way of
manufacturing and production management”,
Technovation, 1985, Vol 3, p.p. 49 – 55.
[44] Eric Molleman, Jannes Slomp and Samantha
Rolefes., “The evolution of a cellular manufacturing
system – a longitudinal case study”, Int. Journal of
Prod. Eco, 2002, Vol 75, p.p. 305 – 322.
[45] Charlene A. Yauch, Harold J. Steudel, “Cellular
manufacturing for small businesses: key cultural
factors that impact the conversion process”, Journal
of Operations Management, 2002, Vol 20, p.p. 593 –
617.
EDM Parameters Optimization
a
Vasantha Prasath N,
b
Kalayarasan M,
c
Jagadeesan M and
d
Satheesh C

a
Lecturer, Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
b
Final Year ,Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
c
Final Year , Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
d
Final Year ,Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
e-mail: vasanthanil@yahoo.co.in
1. INTRODUCTION
Electrical discharge machining
(spark erosion machining) is one of the
nontraditional machining. Within all the
nontraditional machining methods,
electrical discharge machining (EDM) is
the one with highest potential because it
is not affected by mechanical properties
of the work piece such as material
hardness or material strength.EDM
works on any conductive materials and
has advantages like easy to operate and
requires only simple equipments. Since
there is no contact between the electrode
and the work piece for EDM process,
the force generated during the process is
far less than traditional machining
methods. The EDM technique has been
widely used in the aerospace industry,
micro electrical mechanical system, and
the manufacturing of molding dies and
bio medical equipment. EDM oil is
preferred as a dielectric fluid.
Experiments have been carried out to
analyze the influence of the ascendant
process parameters such as gap voltage,
gap current, machining time and pulse
on time on material removal rate, tool
wear rate and over cut.
To perform parametric study on
Electrical Discharge Machining of D2
tool steel.
To conduct study on the effect of
process parameters in EDM (Electrical
Discharge Machining) on machining of
tool steel.
To optimize the machining parameters
of EDM with respect to performance
characteristics such as MRR (material
removal rate), over cut, and tool wear.
Comparing copper, brass and tungsten
to find out the best tool
1.1. INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS
PARAMETERS ON ELECTRICAL
DISCHARGE MACHINING
The process parameters like gap
voltage, gap current, machining time and
pulse on time greatly influence the EDM
performance. In EDM, polarity – work
piece (+), tool (-). So, that the tool wear
will be low. Different machining was set
for machining the work piece. The
working medium of the EDM is dielectric
(EDM oil). The inter electrode gap control
plays a major role. If the inter electrode
gap is controlled in the range of 15-20 µm.
The gap is very small; contamination can
cause a deposition to be formed on the
tool, so that the work piece no longer
dissolved uniformly. This problem can be
largely avoided by applying a pulsed DC
voltage instead of a continuous one.
EXPERIMENTAL EDM SET-UP
The influence of the ascendant
process characteristics, a well planned
programme was considered for the
indigenous development of EDM set-up.
Figure 1 Electrical discharge Machine
The EDM set-up consists of various sub-
components, e.g. power supply unit,
machining chamber, tool post and holding
device, tool feed system etc. As shown in
Figure 1 Presents a schematic view of the
Electrical discharge Machine. The
Electrical discharge machining process is
influenced by the number of parameters
such as Voltage, current, pulse on time and
so on. The experimental setup provides all
the facilities to control the process
parameters to study their effect on
machining. The whole experimental setup
of Electrical discharge machining setup is
divided in to various sub units.
PLANNING FOR EXPERIMENTAL
ANALYSIS
Selection of Parameters and Their
Levels
Gap voltage = 20, 30, 40, 50
Gap current = 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5 A
Pulse on time = 20, 30, 40, 50 µs
Machining time = 13, 15, 17, 19min
Control
Parameters
Levels
1 2 3 4
Voltage 20 30 40 50
Gap current 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5
Pulse on time 20 30 40 50
Mach. Time 13 15 17 19
MACHINING PARAMETERS
Work piece - AISI D2 tool steel.
Tool - Copper (3.8mm)
Polarity - Tool (-), work piece
(+)
Working fluid - EDM oil
Chemical composition of AISI D2 tool
steel (% wt)

2. EXPERIMENTATION METHOD
2.1. Taguchi method
The Taguchi method is very effective
to deal with the response function
influenced by multi -variables
2.2. Significance of Taguchi Method
 Reduction in number of
Experiments
 Identification of optimal
combinations of factors for the
given response function
2.3. STEPS INVOLVED IN TAGUCHI
METHOD
 Identify the response functions and
the process parameters to be
evaluated
 Determine the number of levels for
the process parameters
 Select the appropriate orthogonal
array and assign the process
parameters to the orthogonal array
and conduct the experiments
accordingly
 Analyze the experimental results
and select the optimum level of
process parameters
 Verify the optimal process
parameters through a confirmation
experiment
2.4. SELECTION OF ORTHOGONAL
ARRAY
2.4.1. Degrees Of Freedom
The number of comparisons that
needs to be made to determine which level
is better. For example, a four level
parameter has three degree of freedom.
C Cr Fe Mn Si V Mo
1.5 12 84 o.5 0.3 0.9 0.8
The Orthogonal array is selected
based on the degrees of freedom.
2.4.2. CALCULATION OF DEGREES
OF FREEDOM
 Four process Parameters
 The four parameters are varied in
four levels.
 Degrees of freedom = Number of
levels – 1
 Degrees of freedom for the
parameters = 4(4 -1) = 12
 The total degrees of freedom = 12
L16 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY
 Calculated degrees of freedom =
12 < 16 and which is closer to 16
 So, for the present analysis, an L16
orthogonal array with four columns
and sixteen rows is used
 Only sixteen experiments are
required to study the entire
machining parameters using the
L16 orthogonal array.
Full Factorial Representation of L16 orthogonal array

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Experiments have been carried out on the EDM set-up to predict the influence of
some of the ascendant process parameters on MRR, Tool wear and over cut.
Formulas used
S.NO Gap
voltage
Gap
current
Pulse
on time
Machining
Time
1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2
3 1 3 3 3
4 1 4 4 4
5 2 1 2 3
6 2 2 1 4
7 2 3 4 1
8 2 4 3 2
9 3 1 3 4
10 3 2 4 3
11 3 3 1 2
12 3 4 2 1
13 4 1 4 2
14 4 2 3 1
15 4 3 2 4
16 4 4 1 3
MRR = (initial weight – final weight of work piece)/ (density * time)
Tool wear = (initial weight – final weight of tool) / (density * time)
3.1Machined work piece at different parametric settings


FIG .2. 20V, 5.5A, 50µsec, 19min FIG.3. 40V, 5.5A, 20µsec, 13min


The table shows that experimental results for copper
4. OPTIMIZATION
4.1. ANOVA OPTIMIZATION
 Response function is MRR
Tool wear and Over Cut
 Determines the optimal setting value of each machining parameter

CALCULATION OF S/N RATIO
For MRR
S/N ratio = -10log (1/y
2
) (larger the better)


For overcut and tool wear
S/N ratio = -10log (y
2
) (smaller the better)
The table shows that S/N ratio for MRR, Tool wear and over cut
S.NO Voltage Current Pulse
On time
Mach.
Time
MRR
(mm
3
/min)
Tool wear
(mm
3
/min)
Over cut(mm)
1
1 1 1 1
3.023 0.17 4.032
2
1 2 2 2
3.315 0.29 4.080
3
1 3 3 3
3.980 0.36 4.135
4
1 4 4 4
4.571 0.57 4.218
5
2 1 2 3
5.030 0.36 4.274
6
2 2 1 4
5.896 0.52 4.312
7
2 3 4 1
6.423 0.42 4.326
8
2 4 3 2
6.731 0.68 4.382
9
3 1 3 4
6.981 0.52 4.454
10
3 2 4 3
7.329 0.62 4.478
11
3 3 1 2
7.520 0.74 4.498
12
3 4 2 1
8.152 0.72 4.513
13
4 1 4 2
8.426 0.64 4.542
14
4 2 3 1
8.742 0.72 4.621
15
4 3 2 4
9.213 0.84 4.683
16
4 4 1 3
9.432 0.92 4.652
S.NO
Voltage Current
Pulse on
time
Machining
Time
For
MRR
For tool
wear
For over
cut
1
1 1 1 1
9.6088
15.3910
-12.1104
2
1 2 2 2 10.4097 10.7520
-12.2132
3
1 3 3 3 11.997 8.8739
-12.3295
4
1 4 4 4 13.2002 4.8825
-12.5021
5
2 1 2 3 14.0314 8.8739
-12.6167
6
2 2 1 4 15.4038 5.6799
-12.6936
7
2 3 4 1 16.1548 7.5350
-12.7217
8
2 4 3 2 16.5616 3.3498
-12.8334
9
3 1 3 4 16.8784 5.6799
-12.9750
10
3 2 4 3 17.3009 4.1521
-13.0217
11
3 3 1 2 17.5244 2.61536
-13.0604
12
3 4 2 1 18.2253 2.85335
-13.0893
13
4 1 4 2 18.5124 3.876401
-13.1449
14
4 2 3 1 18.8344 2.85335
-13.2947
15
4 3 2 4 1 9.288 1.514414
-13.4105
16
4 4 1 3 19.4921 0.724243
-13.3528
S/N RATIO GRAPH FOR MRR
4 3 2 1
20
18
16
14
12
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
20
18
16
14
12
4 3 2 1
GAP VOLTAGE A
S
/
N


i
n

(
d
B
)
GAP CURRENT B
PULSE ON TIME C MACHINING TIME D
S/ N ratio for MRR
Signal-to-noise: Larger is better
ANOVA table for MRR
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Variance F
Voltage 3 197.64
2
197.64
2
65.8805 170.02
Current 3 15.610 15.610 5.2034 13.43
Pulse on time 3 3.266 3.266 1.0886 2.81
Machining Time 3 0.947 0.947 0.3158 0.82
Residual Error 3 1.162 1.162 0.3875
Total 15 218.62
7
From the F-test,
 Comparing the tabulated values
and calculated values
 Machining voltage is the most
significant at 99% confidence level
 Machining current is significant at
95% confidence level
 Pulse on time is insignificant one
TO FIND OUT BEST MACHINING
CONDITION:
For the above test to find out the best
machining condition,
A4 B4 C4 D4
Machining voltage - 50
Gap current - 6.5
Pulse on time - 50
Machining time - 17
S/N RATIO GRAPH FOR TOOL WEAR
4 3 2 1
10
8
6
4
2
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
10
8
6
4
2
4 3 2 1
GAP VOLTAGE A

S
/
N

i
n

(
d
B
)
GAP CURRENT B
PULSE ON TIME C MACHINING TIME D
S/ N ratio for Tool wear
Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better
ANOVA table for tool wear
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Variance F
Machining Voltage 3 0.4224 0.4224 0.1408 54.03
Gap current 3 0.1858 0.1858 0.0619 23.77
Pulse on time 3 0.0026 0.0026 0.0008 0.33
Machining Time 3 0.0241 0.0241 0.0080 3.08
Residual Error 3 0.0078 0.0078 0.0026
Total 15 0.6428
From the F-test,
 Comparing the tabulated values
and calculated values
 Machining voltage is the most
significant at 99% confidence level
 Machining current is significant at
95% confidence level
 Machining time is insignificant one
TO FIND OUT BEST MACHINING
CONDITION
For the above test to find out the best
machining condition,
A1 B1 D1 C2
Machining voltage - 20
Gap current - 3.5
Pulse on time - 30
Machining time - 13
S/N RATIO GRAPH FOR OVER CUT
4 3 2 1
-12.4
-12.6
-12.8
-13.0
-13.2
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
-12.4
-12.6
-12.8
-13.0
-13.2
4 3 2 1
GAP VOLTAGE A

S
/
N

i
n

(
d
B
)
GAP CURRENT B
PULSE ON TIME C MACHINING TIME D
S/ N ratio for over cut
Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better
ANOVA TABLE FOR OVER CUT
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Variance F
Machining Voltage 3 2.279 2.279 0.759 284.85
Gap current 3 0.1203 0.1203 0.040 15.04
Pulse on time 3 0.0065 0.0065 0.0021 0.82
Machining Time 3 0.0204 0.0204 0.006 2.55
Residual Error 3 0.0080 0.0080 0.002
Total 15 2.435
From the F-test,
 Comparing the tabulated values
and calculated values
 Voltage is the most significant at
99% confidence level
 Machining current is significant at
95% confidence level
 Machining time is insignificant one
TO FIND OUT BEST MACHINING
CONDITION
For the above test to find
out the best machining
condition,
A1 B1 D1
C1
Machining voltage - 20
Gap current -
3.5
Machining time - 13
Pulse on time - 20

5. Conclusion
In this work different
techniques are employed to obtain the
following goals:
1. Evaluating the effects of
machining parameters on material
tool wear, and over cut.
2. Presenting the optimal
machining condition.

Machining voltage and current found
to be most significant. Pulse on time
found to be least significant.
Optimal machining condition
parameters Gap
voltage
(V)
Gap
Current
(A)
Pulse on
time
(µsec)
Machining
time
(min)
Optimal
value
MRR
(mm
3
/min)
50 6.5 50 19 10.503
Wear rate
(mm
3
/min)
20 3.5 20 13 0.1723
Overcut(mm) 20 3.5 20 13 4.032

REFERENCES
[1] Sang Won Lee and Young Seok Oh,
“A Study on Dry Electrical Discharge
Machining Process”, International
Conference on Smart Manufacturing
Application April. 9-11, 2008
[2] Aminollah Mohammad et al.,
“Statistical analysis of wire electrical
discharge turning on material removal
rate”, J. materials processing
technology Vol 205 (2008) 283–289
[3] S.L. Chen et al., “The
characteristics of cutting pipe
mechanism with multi-electrodes in
EDM”, J. Materials processing
technology Vol 203 (2008) 461–464
[4] Ming Zhou, Fuzhu Han, Isago
Soichiro, “A time-varied predictive
model for EDM process”, International
Journal of Machine Tools &
Manufacture Vol 48 (2008) 1668–1677
[5] Shinya Hayakawa et al., “Study on
EDM phenomena with in-process
measurement of gap distance”, J.
Materials Processing Technology Vol
149 (2004) 250–255
[6] Mingrang Cao et al., “Experimental
Research on Small Holes by Electrical
Discharge Machining Combined with
Ultrasonic Vibration”, 2007 Second
IEEE Conference on Industr
FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS OF CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP
V. Senthil kumaran
1
and Prof .G. Somasundaram
2
1. M.E. (CAD/CAM), RajaRajeswari engg college, Chennai.
E-mail : varadan.senthil@gmail.com
2. HOD / Mech, RajaRajeswari Engg College, Chennai
ABSTRACT

Today the technological growth is
unimaginable. Quality is an essential factor
to be considered in every product or service.
For the survival of any industry, quality is an
essential requirement. Without adequate
quality, it is not possible by any industry to
complete in the present day market.
Centrifugal pumps find a wide application,
because of their capabilities to adapt to
variable operating conditions, and their
ability to discharge different kinds of fluids.
Due to these reasons, it is vital to assure
quality in the development of centrifugal
pumps. One of the important areas of quality
assurance is the, "assurance for failure free
service".
Failure mode and effects analysis
(FMEA) is a very powerful and effective
methodology for listing all the possible
contributing factors of a quality problem. It
is a method available for evolving good
designs and processes taking inputs from
various functions like design, assembly,
services etc., It is an essential ingredient of
Reliability Engineering. Also it is a
mandatory requirement when the company
goes for QS 9000. In this project as attempt is
made to use FMEA for a centrifugal pump.
In this investigation, failures in the
centrifugal pump components are accounted,
i.e., casing, shaft, impeller, bearing and
stuffing box. The failure mode, causes, effects
and current controls are studied by taking
inputs from various pump-manufacturing
industries, historical data’s, customers and
experts in this field. The rankings,
occurrence, severity and detection are
calculated to know the risk priority number
of the failure mode. For each failure mode,
the recommended action is given to reduce
the effect of failure.
The results show that the failure
modes, shaft deflection and bearing wear has
the higher risk priority numbers. To reduce
the risk priority number, the finite element
analysis is conducted on the shaft. The
results will help the designers to develop the
new product in the pump family.
INTRODUCTION
The concern for reliability and quality
assurance is of increasing in mechanical
industries in recent years. Product development
teams need to build-in reliability at the early
stages of design. Design engineers are under
increasing pressure to produce correct, safe
designs in shorter time frames. As complexity
of mechanical systems has increased, it has
become more difficult for designers to
comprehend all the possible implications of
component failures on a design.
Concurrent Engineering is a
Management and Engineering philosophy for
improving quality. This approach utilizes
Failure mode and effects analysis to act as a
Failure Consultant during the product design
activities. FMEA is an Engineering technique
used to define, identify and eliminate known
and potential failures, problems and errors from
the system, design, or process before they reach
the customer.

1. FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS
ANALYSIS (FMEA) - OVERVIEW
1.1 Failure mode and effects analysis
(FMEA)
A procedure by which each potential
failure mode in a system is analyzed to
determine the results or effects thereof on the
system and to classify each potential failure
mode according to its severity.
1.2 Failure mode
The manner by which a failure is
observed. Generally describes the way the
failure occurs and its impact on equipment
operation.
1.3 Failure effect
The consequence(s) of a failure mode
has on the operation, function, or status of an
item. Failure effects are classified as local
effect, next higher level, and end effect.
1.4 Failure Mode and Effects
Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
A procedure by which each potential
failure is analyzed to determine how the failure
is detected and the actions to be taken, to repair
the failure.
1.5 Analysis approach
Variations in design complexity and
available data will generally dictate the analysis
approach to be used. There are two primary
approaches for the FMECA. One is the
hardware approach that lists individual
hardware items and analyzes their possible
failure modes. The other is the functional
approach that recognizes that every item is
designed to perform a number of outputs. The
outputs are listed and their failures analyzed.
For more complex systems, a combination of
the functional and hardware approaches may be
considered.
1.6 Hardware approach
The hardware approach is normally used
when hardware items can be uniquely identified
from schematics, drawings, and other
Engineering and design data. This approach is
recommended for use in a part level up
approach often referred to as the bottom-up
approach.
1.7 Functional approach
The functional approach is normally
used when hardware items cannot be uniquely
identified or when system complexity requires
analysis from the top down.
1.8 Risk Priority Number (RPN)
The risk priority number is usually
calculated as the product of the severity,
occurrence, and detection.
1.9 Severity
The consequences of a failure as a result
of a particular failure mode. Severity considers
the worst potential consequence of a failure,
determined by the degree of injury, property
damage, or system damage that could ultimately
occur.
2.FMEA PROCESS
FMEA is an inductive process that
examines the effect of a single point failure on
the overall performance of a system through a
"bottom-up approach" as shown in
Figure1Since the FMEA concentrates on
identifying possible failure modes and their
effects on the equipment, design deficiencies
can be identified and improvements can be
made. Identification of potential failure modes
leads to recommendation for an effective
reliability program. Priorities on the failure
modes can be set according to the FMEA's risk
priority number (RPN) system.
Figure 1 FMEA Process
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECTS
In this project, the parts and failure
areas, which are considered to be worthwhile
for development of FMEA, are casing, shaft,
impeller, bearing and stuffing box. Various
failure modes for the above mentioned
component failures are accounted. The effects
and causes for each failure mode are reviewed.
The objective of this project is to
conduct the FMEA in centrifugal pump and
from the results, to review the design of the
component which has high-risk priority number.
The designers can use the results as guidelines
while developing new product in the pump
family.
4. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
4.1 Problem Formulation
The survey of literature presented in the
previous chapter shows that the reliability and
quality assurance is of increasing concern in
mechanical industries in recent years. The
centrifugal pumps find a wide application
because of their capabilities to adapt to variable
operating conditions, and their ability to
discharge different kinds of fluids. Due to the
above and many other obvious reasons, it is
vital to assure quality in the
development of centrifugal pumps. One of the
important areas of quality assurance is the,
"assurance for failure free service" of the
centrifugal pump. Hence it is important to
account for the various modes of failures of the
centrifugal pump, at the product development
stage itself.
4.2 Need for FMEA in Centrifugal
pump
The advertisement of any centrifugal
pump often starts with a general statement, “our
centrifugal pump will give you completely
trouble free and satisfactory service". Engineers
often face the statement “the pump has failed
i.e. it can no longer be kept in service”. Inability
to deliver the desired flow and head is just one
of the most common conditions for taking a
pump out of service.
There is other many conditions in which
a pump, despite suffering no loss in flow or
head, is considered to have failed and has to be
pulled out of service as soon as possible. These
include seal related problems (leakage's, loss of
flushing, cooling, quenching systems, etc.),
pump and motor bearings related problems (loss
of lubrication, cooling, contamination of oil,
abnormal noise, etc.), leakage's from pump
casing, very high noise and vibration levels, or
driver (motor or turbine) related problems.
The list of pump failure conditions
mentioned above is neither exhaustive nor are
the conditions mutually exclusive. Often the
root causes of failure are the same but the
symptoms are different. A little care while
designing a pump can save the pumps from
permanent failures. Thus the most important
task in such situations is to find out whether the
pump has failed mechanically or if there is
some design deficiency, or both.
Thus the decision to pull a pump out of
service for maintenance/repair should be made
after a detailed analysis of the symptoms and
root causes of the pump failure. Also, in case of
any mechanical failure or physical damage of
pump internals, the operating engineer should
be able to relate the failure to the process unit’s
operating problems. Effective troubleshooting
requires an ability to observe changes in
performance over time, and in the event of a
failure, the capacity to thoroughly investigate
the cause of the failure and take measures to
prevent the problem from reoccurring. The fact
of the matter is that there are three types of
problems mostly encountered with centrifugal
pumps,
• Design errors
• Poor operation
• Poor maintenance practices
Hence it is important, the designers to know the
different failure modes of the components,
which are occurring most frequently and which
will affect the system performance. The FMEA
is an effective tool for this purpose.
5. METHOD OF SOLUTION
5.1 Identification of parts and failure
areas
From the literature survey and customer
survey, it is clear that, in centrifugal pumps the
following parts are frequently failed,
(i) Impeller
(ii) Shaft
(iii) Bearing
(iv) Stuffing Box
(v) Wearing ring
5.2 Potential Effects of Failure
A potential effect of the failure is the
consequence of its failure on the next higher
design, system, and product. The consequences
may be to the design itself, the product and the
customer. Often, the failure effect is evaluated
from a customer's perspective or experiences.
The customer may be an internal
customer as well as the ultimate end user. The
effects should be in terms of the specific
system, subsystem or component being
analyzed.
The following are, reviewed to identify the
potential effects.
• Customer complaints
• Field service data
• Warranty documents
• Similar current or past FMEA s
Some of the potential effects of failures are
given below for centrifugal pump,
• Heat generated
• Fluid Leakage
• Noise and Vibration
• Not enough water flow
• Pump will not start
Examining Risk Priority Numbers in FMEA
The Risk Priority Number (RPN) methodology
is a technique for analyzing the risk associated
with potential problems identified during a
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).
This article presents a brief overview of the
basic RPN method and then examines some
additional and alternative ways to use RPN
ratings to evaluate the risk associated with a
product or process design and to prioritize
problems for corrective action. Note that this
article discusses RPNs calculated at the level of
the potential causes of failure (Severity x
Occurrence x Detection). However, there is a
great deal of variation among FMEA
practitioners as to the specific analysis
procedure and some analyses may include
alternative calculation methods.
Overview of Risk Priority Numbers
An FMEA can be performed to identify the
potential failure modes for a product or process.
The RPN method then requires the analysis
team to use past experience and engineering
judgment to rate each potential problem
according to three rating scales:
• Severity, which rates the severity of the
potential effect of the failure.
• Occurrence, which rates the likelihood that
the failure will occur.
• Detection, which rates the likelihood that
the problem will be detected before it
reaches the end-user/customer.
Rating scales usually range from 1 to 5 or from
1 to 10, with the higher number representing the
higher seriousness or risk. For example, on a
ten point Occurrence scale, 10 indicates that the
failure is very likely to occur and is worse than
1, which indicates that the failure is very
unlikely to occur. The specific rating
descriptions and criteria are defined by the
organization or the analysis team to fit the
products or processes that are being analyzed.
As an example, Figure 1 shows a generic five
point scale for Severity [Stamatis, 445].
Table 1 : Generic five point Severity scale
After the ratings have been assigned, the RPN
for each issue is calculated by multiplying
Severity x Occurrence x Detection.
The RPN value for each potential problem can
then be used to compare the issues identified
within the analysis. Typically, if the RPN falls
within a pre-determined range, corrective action
may be recommended or required to reduce the
risk (i.e. to reduce the likelihood of occurrence,
increase the likelihood of prior detection or, if
possible, reduce the severity of the failure
effect). When using this risk assessment
technique, it is important to remember that RPN
ratings are relative to a particular analysis
(performed with a common set of rating scales
and an analysis team that strives to make
consistent rating assignments for all issues
identified within the analysis). Therefore, an
RPN in one analysis is comparable to other
RPNs in the same analysis but it may not be
comparable to RPNs in another analysis.
The rest of this article discusses related
techniques that can be used in addition to or
instead of the basic RPN method described
here.
SUGGESTED OCCURRENCE
EVALUATION CRITERIA
SUGGESTED OCCURRENCE
EVALUATION CRITERIA
CONCLUSION
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is a
specific methodology to evaluate the designs,
and to identify failure mode, causes and effects
of all failure modes in order to improve the
Quality and Reliability of the Centrifugal
pumps.
The technique of FMEA has been
applied to centrifugal pump for the purpose of
improving the quality and reliability of the
centrifugal pump. During the process of
application of FMEA technique, the following
observations are made,
1) Occurrence, Detection, Severity and Risk
Priority Number for all failure mode of
Centrifugal pump is calculated. It has been
found Risk Priority Number for Shaft
and Bearings are very high, which is
not recommendable and hence design
review
has been performed.
2) Productivity and Quality of the
centrifugal pump is improved.
3) Percentage of rejection during the
process is reduced by anticipating the
failures,
effects and causes during the design
stage itself.
4) The possibilities of failure is reduced
at the manufacturing stage as well as at
the
customer end.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In any endeavor, more than one person
is responsible for carrying the task to
completion. The efforts resulting in this project
are no exception. Many people have contributed
to the success of this project, either directly or
indirectly.
First and foremost, I sincerely thank our
beloved Correspondent
Mr.A.C.SHANMUGAM Ex. M.P. and all the
Members of, for providing all the necessary
facilities to complete the course successfully.
I wish to express my profuse thanks to
our beloved Principal, who gave us the
necessary support throughout the course of
study.
PROBABILITY
OF FAILURE
LIKELY FAILURE
RATES OVER
DESIGN LIFE
RANKING
Very
High:Persistent
failures
>10 per hundred items
10
5 per hundred items
9
High:Frequent
failures
2 per hundred items
8
1 per hundred items
7
Moderate:Occasion
al failures
0.5 per hundred
items 6
0.2 per hundred
items 5
Low:Relatively few
failures
0.1 per hundred
items 4
0.005 per hundred
items 3
Remote:Failure is
unlikely
0.001 per hundred
items 2
< 0.001 per hundred
items 1
I am very much indebted to Department
of Mechanical Engineering, , for their timely
help and support throughout the course of the
project.
No word would be either superlative or
hyperbolic to praise Department of Mechanical
Engineering, whose efficacious advice and
perpetual inspiration kept my backbone straight
in times of difficulty. I am much indebted for
his creative suggestion, technical advice given
during the course of the project. I sincerely owe
my deepest sense of gratitude to him.
I express my whole hearted thanks to
my project coordinator, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, for his valuable
guidance, support, and encouragement, which
helped me in accomplishing this project.
I extend my special thanks to Prof.
K.BALASUBRMANIAN Ph.D, Vice –
Principal and Prof.G.SOMASUNDARAM
M.E. HOD in Department of Mechanical
Engineering, for giving me valuable
suggestions and guidance in bringing out this
project successfully.
Finally, I express my gratitude to
all the faculty members of Mechanical
Engineering Department, my parents and
friends, who have given me their kind
cooperation and help in completing this project
successfully.
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effect analysis: FMEA from theory to
execution", Milwau-kee, WI: ASQC Quality
Press.
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(1992), "Using Causal Reasoning for
Automated Failure Modes & Effects
Analysis (FMEA)", IEEE Proceedings
Annual Reliability and Maintainability
Symposium, pp. 343–353.
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revised failure mode and effects analysis
model",International Journal of Quality &
Reliability Management, 13(1),
pp. 43– 47.
4. Bluvband, Z. & Zilberberg, E., (1998),
"Knowledge based approach to integrated
FMEA", ASQ’s 52 nd Annual Quality
Congress Proceedings, pp. 535– 545.
5. Bowles, J.B., (1998), "The new SAE
FMECA standard", 1998 Proceedings Annual
Reliability and Maintainability Symposium,
pp. 48–53.
6. Burns D.J. & Pitblado R.M., (1993), "A
modified HAZOP methodology for Safety
Critical System Assessment", 7th meeting of
the UK Safety Critical Club, Bristol,
February 1993.
7. Gilchrist, W., (1993), "Modelling failure
modes and effects analysis", International
Journal of Quality and Reliability
Management, 10(5), pp. 16–23.
8. Goble, W.M. & Brombacher, A.C., (1999),
"Using a failure mode, effects and
diagnostic analysis (FMEDA) to measure
diagnostic coverage in programmable
electronic systems", Reliability Engineering
& System Safety. 66(2), pp. 145–148,
1999.
9. Goddard, P.L., (2000), "Software FMEA
techniques", 2000
New Machinability Study of GFRP Using Coated Ceramic Cutting Tool
of AB2010 Grade
R.Soundararajan
1
A. Naveen Sait
2
C.Balaji
1
G. Vijay Krishna
1
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Engg and Tech, Coimbatore, TN, India
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chendhuran College of Engg and Tech, Pudukkottai, TN, India
Author e-mail:- soundar_win@rediffmail.com, naveensait@yahoo.co.in,balajimechskcet@gmail.com
Mobile: 9894534879, 9790331766
ABSTRACT
Glass fiber reinforced polymer
composite materials are finding

increased
applications in many different
engineering

fields. Accordingly, the need
for accurate machining of composites has
not been eliminated fully. This paper
mainly focuses on the evaluation of the
tool wear reduction which is considered to
be an important aspect during machining.
Hand lay up GFRP pipes were used for
the study and the machining was carried
out using AB2010 coated ceramic cutting
tool insert. Experiments were conducted
through the established Taguchi’s design
method. In this work, the machining
characteristics are investigated based on
tool wear. The machining parameters are
also optimized by employing statistical
techniques, using the technique of
analysis of variance (ANOVA) obtained
from regression analysis. Both simple
regression and cross product regression
methods were employed and their
suitability was also studied. The results
indicated that cutting speed is a factor,
which has greater influence on tool flank
wear, followed by feed rate. Also the
determined optimal conditions really
reduce the tool flank wear on the
machining of GFRP composites within
the ranges of parameters selected.
Keywords: GFRP - AB2010 Coated
Ceramic Cutting Tool Insert
-Machining - Tool Wear - ANOVA.
I) INTRODUCTION
Fiberglass composites have become
an economic alternative to stainless steel and
other materials in highly corrosive industrial
applications. In recent years, glass fiber-
reinforced polymers (GFRP) are being
extensively used in variety of engineering
applications in many different fields such as
aerospace, oil, gas and process industries. As
the application fields of FRP expand, it
increases the challenges faced in cutting off,
drilling, milling, turning, etc. for its
fabrication. The users of FRP have faced
difficulties to machine it, because
knowledge and experiences acquired for
conventional materials cannot be applied to
such a new material, of which machinability
is completely different from that of
conventional materials. The machining of
FRP is different from that of metal working
in many aspects because, the metal behavior
is not only inhomogeneous, but also
dependent on fiber and matrix properties,
fiber orientation and the type of weave.
The first theoretical work on FRP
was presented by Everstine and Rogers.
They did the theoretical analysis of plane
deformation of incompressible composites
reinforced by strong parallel fibers. Sakuma
et al. and Bhatnagar et al. studied how the
fiber orientation influenced both the quality
of the machined surfaces and tool wear.
Takeyama and Lijima studied the surface
roughness on machining of GFRP
composites. According to them, higher the
cutting speed, the rougher and the more
damaged the machined surface is. This is
due to the reason that higher cutting
temperature will result into local softening
of work material. They also studied the
machinability of FRP composites using
ultrasonic machining technique.
Surface finish is an important
parameter in machining process. Surface
roughness has received serious attentions for
many years. It has formulated an important
design feature in many situations such as
parts subject to fatigue loads, precision fits,
fastener holes and aesthetic requirements. In
addition to tolerances, surface roughness
imposes one of the most critical constraints
for selection of machines and cutting
parameters in process planning.
When GFRP composites are
machined, it is clearly seen that the fibers
are cut across and along their lay direction,
leaving deformed projecting and partially
disclosed fibers on the machined surface.
According to Konig, measurement of
surface roughness in FRP is less dependable
than in metals, because protruding fiber tips
may lead to incorrect results.
Additional errors may result from
hooking of the fibers to the stylus.
Conventional machining of fiber-reinforced
composites is difficult due to diverse fiber
and matrix properties, fiber orientation,
inhomogeneous nature of the material, and
the presence of high-volume fraction
(volume of fiber over total volume) of hard
abrasive fiber in the matrix. Most of the
studies on GFRP composite machining
shows that minimizing and controlling of the
surface roughness and tool wear were very
difficult.
In the present work, a mathematical
model has been developed to predict the
surface roughness of machined GFRP work
piece and tool wear in machining of GFRP
composites within the range of parameters
using regression method. Analysis of
variance (ANOVA) is used to check the
validity of the model. The percentage
deviations of experimental values from the
predicted values through mathematical
model are calculated.
II) SCHEME OF INVESTIGATION
In order to achieve the desired aim,
the investigations were planned in the
following sequence:
1. Identifying the predominant factors
(machining parameters), which influence
tool wear in machining the component and
finding the upper and lower limits of chosen
factors.
2. Developing the experimental design
matrix.
3. Conducting the experiments as per the
design matrix.
4. Developing the mathematical model.
5. Calculating the coefficients of the model.
6. Calculating the taguchi’s total loss
function for the experimental values and
predicted values through mathematical
model.
7. Finding the best combination of
TCN X1 X2 X3 V(m/min) F(mm/rev) D(mm)
1 1 1 1 100 0.1 1
2 1 2 2 100 0.15 1.5
3 1 3 3 100 0.2 2
4 2 1 2 150 0.1 1.5
5 2 2 3 150 0.15 2
6 2 3 1 150 0.2 1
7 3 1 3 200 0.1 2
8 3 2 1 200 0.15 1
9 3 3 2 200 0.2 1.5
8. Analyzing the effect of different
parameters on tool wear and drawing
conclusions about the same.
III) IDENTIFICATION OF
PREDOMINANT FACTORS AND
FINDING THE UPPER AND LOWER
LIMITS OF CHOSEN FACTORS:
Surface finish of the work piece with
minimal tool wear is the important attribute
of quality in any machining operation.
During machining many factor affects the
surface finish and tool wear. Feed rate is an
important factor, which affects the quality of
machining GFRP. Many theoretical models
have concluded that the effect of cutting
speed on surface roughness and tool wear is
minimal. In practice, however cutting speed
has been found to be an important factor.
Depth of cut is also another important factor
affecting the finish of machined surfaces.
The independently controllable predominant
machining parameters that are having
greater influences on the surface finish and
tool wear in the machining of GFRP
composite work piece have been identified
as:
(i) cutting speed (V)
(ii) depth of cut (d)
(iii) feed rate (f)
A detailed analysis has been carried
out to fix the lower and upper limits of the
factors. Previous studies indicated that, the
surface roughness almost decreases with
increase of cutting speed. But very high
cutting speed was found to cause a large
deformation rate of glass fiber and it
produces imperfection in surface and hence
the cutting speed has been fixed between 50
and 200 m/min.
The depth of cut plays only a small
role in composite machining process
compared to cutting speed and feed rate, but
it affects the machining process in a
significant way. The depth of cut is fixed
between 0.25 and 2.75 mm.
Feed rate is the main parameter,
which affect the machining process. The
increase in feed rate increases the chatter
and it produces incomplete
machining at a faster traverse, which
led to higher surface roughness and hence
low limit of feed rates are advisable in
machining GFRP composites. In the present
study, the feed rate is selected between 0.05
and 0.75 mm/rev.
Based on the analysis, the upper and lower
limits of the factors are identified and are
given in the table below.
IV) MATERIALS &
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
S. No
Parameters Notation Unit Levels
Low Mid High
1. Cutting Speed V m/min 100 150 200
2. Feed Rate F mm/rev 0.1 0.15 0.2
3. Depth of Cut D Mm 1 1.5 2
The composite pipes used in this
experimental study have been produced by
Hand Lay Up process. The pipes produced
by this method are experimentally proved to
have a better surface finish than those
prepared by other techniques (Palanikumar
et al, 2008). The constituent materials of the
composite are presented in the table below.
The experiments are conducted for turning
operation in a CNC (FANUC) lathe with
7.5kw spindle power and maximum speed of
4500 rpm. The designation of the tool insert
used for turning is TNGA 160404 of
TaeguTec make. It’s of AB 2010 grade with
a nose radius of 0.4mm.The composition of
the ceramic tool insert used is Al
2
O
3
+ TiC
and a TiN coating over it.
The best way to effectively study the
behavior of the material, tool wear under the
required levels of the parameters was
researched. Finally the Taguchi’s Orthogonal
Array was chosen. The L9 array was chosen
as being sufficient for our experiment. The
array with the values assigned to them is
shown in the table below.
The first step in the Taguchi method
is to determine the quality characteristic
which is to be optimized. The output or
response variable which influences
effectively on the quality of product is
known as Quality Characteristic.
CNC Lathe Used for Machining the GFRP
Material

In this study, the tool wear is the quality
characteristics. In the second step, the
control parameters or the test parameters
which have significant effects on the quality
characteristics are identified with the
required number of levels. In the next step,
the appropriate orthogonal array for
the control parameters is selected after
calculating the minimum number of
experiments required to be conducted by
considering the interactive effects.
In the Taguchi method of optimization, the
signal
to noise ratio is used as a quality
characteristic of choice. The different S/N
ratio characteristic are given as
Nominal the Best Characteristic :
Smaller the Better Characteristic :
Larger the Better Characteristic :
Where,
= average of observed values
= variance of y
n = Number of Observations
RESULT TABULATION
V) EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS
The machining tests are carried out
as per the design matrix at random to avoid
systematic errors. The design matrix and the
corresponding responses are tabulated. The
responses studied are tool flank wear. The
tool flank wear (FW) has been measured
with respect to the volume of GFRP material
removed using radical toolmakers’
microscope of least count 10 microns. The
volume of material removed was fixed as
50cm
3
. The experiments are conducted once
for each combination of control factors.
The Taguchi’s Design of
Experiments and regression analysis are
applied in this work to identify the best
levels of the cutting parameters and their
significance. Also, these techniques are
effectively used for optimization of
parameters and for modeling as well. By
considering the cutting velocity, feed rate
and depth of cut and their interaction, the
number of experimental trials required was
determined as 9 and the experiments were
conducted with different cutting inserts of
the same specification to obtain more data.
Machining of GFRP is cont
inued with the same insert upto a maximum
material removal of 50 cm
3
. For
such constant volume of material removal,
the tool wear is measured under different
machining conditions.
VI) RESPONSE TABLES AND GRAPHS
The influence of machining
parameters on surface roughness and tool
wear has been determined using response
tables and graphs. Normally in engineering
problems, higher order interactions do not
reveal any significant effect and hence three
and four factor interactions are not
considered. Only main factors
and two factor interactions are considered.
For analysis the average of three readings
are taken. Response tables are used to
simplify the calculations needed to analyze
the experimental data. In response table, the
effect of factor on a response variable is the
change in the response when the factor goes
from its low level to its high level.
Material after Machining
TCN V(m/min)
F(mm/rev
)
D(mm) VF VD FD
FW(mm
)
S/N
RATIO(FW)
1 100 0.1 1 10 100 0.1 0.04 27.95880017
2 100 0.15 1.5 15 150 0.225 0.02 33.97940009
3 100 0.2 2 20 200 0.4 0.08 21.93820026
4 150 0.1 1.5 15 225 0.15 0.04 27.95880017
5 150 0.15 2 22.5 300 0.3 0.01 40.00000000
6 150 0.2 1 30 150 0.2 0.05 26.02059991
7 200 0.1 2 20 400 0.2 0.04 27.95880017
8 200 0.15 1 30 200 0.15 0.14 17.07743929
9 200 0.2 1.5 40 300 0.3 0.12 18.41637508
RESPONSE GRAPH
AVERAGE RESPONSE VALUE
FOR FLANK WEAR

VII) IDENTIFICATION OF BEST LEVELS OF
CONTROL VARIABLES
The response tables for average S/N
ratio of flank wear is formed. From this
study, it is generally understood that, the V, f
& d are more significant for both tool wear
and surface roughness. The other
combinations such as Vf, Vd, fd, Vfd, V
2
, f
2
,
d
2
are comparatively less significant.
Optimal combination of parameters is
determined based on assumed weightage of
100% for flank wear. The optimal
combination of parameters for the combined
objective is identified as V
2
f
2
d
3
within the
range tested and the response data obtained
for the tool wear.
The combined objective was
analyzed by providing weightages to the
individual objectives. The calculated S/N
ratio values at different test conditions based
on the combined objective are compared
with the S/N ratio values obtained from
simple Regression and cross product
Regression methods. The percentage
deviations of the S/N ratios of simple
regression methods with the S/N ratios of
experimentally collected data are presented.
It is observed that the test condition number
5 shows a good correlation with the
experimental data among the S/N ratio
values obtained from simple regression and
cross product regression.
VIII) MATHEMATICAL MODEL
By using the statistical regression
analysis, the empirical models are developed
to locally approximate the relationship
between outputs an input based on collected
data.
The empirical formula for
regression analysis is given by the following
regression equation.
S/N = I + C
1
P
1
+ C
2
P
2
+ . . . + C
n
P
n
Where,
I = Intercept
C = coefficient of parameters obtained from
regression
P = Parameters
N = Number of parameters
The above equation reduces as shown below
for the model required.
S/N = I + C
1
x V + C
2
x f + C
3
x d.
CUTTING
PARAMETE
R
AVERAGE RESPONSE
VALUE
LEVEL
1
LEVEL
2
LEVEL
3

V(m/min)

0.07

0.05
0.19

F(mm/rev)

0.0667

0.0566
7
0.14

D(mm)

0.13

0.1267
0.06
Using ANOVA obtained from the
regression analysis, the above equation for
the combined objective under simple
regression becomes
S/N
SR
for the CO = 31.3458-0.07426 xV-
52.243xf+
6.39 x d
With reference to the test condition
number 5, the values for the flank wear
when V = 150 m/min , f = 0.15 mm/rev , d =
2 mm , based on simple regression is
predicted as
S/N
SR
for the FW = 31.3458-0.07426
x150-
52.243x0.15+ 6.39 x 2
= 29.95197
Similarly S/N ratio for the combined
objective by cross product regression is
predicted by the equation
S/N
CPR
for the CO= -3.6528 – 0.3403 x V
+ 153.208 x f +
63.78502 x d +1.6795 x Vf
-0.0426 x Vd –
312.02 x fd.
With reference to the test condition
number 5, the values for the combined
objective when V = 150 m/min , f = 0.15
mm/rev , d = 2 mm , based on cross product
regression is predicted as
S/N
CPR
for the CO = -3.6528 – 0.3403 x
150 + 153.208 x
0.15 + 63.78502 x 2
+1.6795 x 22.5 -0.0426
x 300 – 312.02 x 0.3.
= 34.23423
The percentage deviations between
experimental and empirical values of the
S/N ratio of flank wear for the test condition
number 5 is calculated and presented as,
% deviation = [ Predicted value ~
Experimental value] x 100 / [ Predicted
value ]
% deviation of S/N ratio of FW
SR
= [ 40~
29.95 ]
x 100 / [ 29.95 ] = 33.54715 %

% deviation of S/N ratio of FW
CPR
= [40 ~
34.23423 ] x 100/ [ 34.23423] = 16.84213 %
The deviations are calculated in a similar
manner for each of the other test conditions
using the above equations. The graphs
depicting the % deviation results obtained
are shown.
IX) CONCLUSION
Thus a study was conducted for the
glass fibre reinforced plastic material,
manufactured by hand lay-up process, using
a coated ceramic cutting tool by applying
Design of Experiments concepts. The
experiments were conducted as per the
developed Taguchi array. Flank wear was
measured as the response variables for the
change in the machining parameters (V, f,
d). The experimental results were then
compared with those obtained from the
mathematical regression model developed.
• The analysis of flank wear
parameters with respect to
experiments is carried out using line
graphs based on the S/N ratios.
• Based on the literature review, it was
seen that the tool wear of the
previous tools and inserts used were
high. This difficulty is overcome by
using the insert used for this study,
AB2010 as the minimum tool wear
of only 10 microns was achieved for
the volume of material removed, 50
cm
3
. This also ensures a finer surface
finish.
• The optimum combination of the
machining parameters for minimal
tool wear, based on the experimental
values was found to be V=
150 m/min, f = 0.15 mm/rev & d =
2mm.
• Empirical models are developed to
correlate the flank wear parameters
with cutting parameters, feed, depth
of cut and cutting speed.
• A mathematical model based on
regression was developed for the
above experiment.
• The simple regression deviates the
combined objective by 33.54715
% and the cross product regression
model deviates the combined
objective by 16.84213 %.
• As a result, the cross product
regression model is suggested as
well suited for this particular model.
X) REFERENCES
1. Naveen Sait .A , Nooral Haq .A ,
Aravindan .S , 2008 – Experimental
investigation on machining of
filament wound GFRP pipe by
cemented carbide (K
20
) cutting tool.
Int. J. Machining and Machinability
of Material, Vol.3, Pg: 364 – 381.
2. Davim, J.P., Mata, F., 2004 -
Influence of cutting parameters on
surface roughness in turning glass-
fiber-reinforced-plastics using
statistical analysis. Ind. Lubr. Tribol.
56/5, 270–274.
3. Palanikumar, K., 2004 - Studies on
machining characteristics of glass
fiber reinforced polymer composites.
Ph.D. Thesis. Anna University,
Chennai, India.
4. Palanikumar, K., Davim Paulo, J.,
2007 - Mathematical model to
predict tool wear on the machining
of glass fibre reinforced plastic
composites. Mater. Des. 28, 2008–
2014.
VALUE STREAM MAPPING - A TOOL FOR IMPLEMENTING
LEAN MANUFACTURING FOR OPTIMIZING ASSEMBLY SYSTEM
1. B.Vijaya Ramnath, 2. R.Senthil Kumar, 3. S.Gajendran, 4. Dr.R.Kesavan
1. Research Scholar,

2.Lecturer, 3.Lecturer (Sel.Grade) 4.Asst.Professor,

1,3,4 Department of Production Technology, Anna University, MIT Campus, Chennai-44, Tamilnadu
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, G.K.M. College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai
E-Mail
1
: vijayaramnathb@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Many manufacturers are now critically evaluating their processes to determine their
effectiveness in bringing maximum value to customers. Factory management techniques of
yesterday are being replaced by more efficient methods that greatly minimize delays,
reduce costs, and improve quality. Lean manufacturing is a whole-systems approach that
creates a culture in which everyone in the organization continuously improves processes
and production. It is a system focused on and driven by customers, both internal and
external.
The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on lean manufacturing,
present an overview of manufacturing wastes and introduce the tools and techniques that
are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. One of the
important tools of Lean Manufacturing Value stream mapping is used to identify the
wastes in the assembly processes. Time study of all the processes and non-value added
activities in the rack and pinion housing assembly line of a leading automotive component
manufacturing Industry in a South India is taken as case. The data of cycle time of all
processes were taken; the bottleneck operations have been identified. A current state value
stream map has been developed. From this map, the wastes present in the system were
identified and the necessary kaizens were implemented in the process. Finally the future
state map was developed for the system with lean tools for improvement in the existing
process.
Keywords: Lean manufacturing, manufacturing wastes, Value stream mapping .
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Lean manufacturing is one of the initiatives that many major businesses are trying to
adopt in order to remain competitive in an increasingly global market. The focus of the
approach is on cost reduction by eliminating non-value added activities. Many of the tools and
techniques of lean manufacturing have been widely used in discrete manufacturing. The main
objective of this paper is to provide background on lean manufacturing, present an overview of
seven manufacturing wastes and introduce tools and techniques used to transform a company
into a high performing lean enterprise. The key to lean manufacturing is to compress time by
eliminating waste. In this paper, lean principles were applied for the process sector for
application in rack and housing assembly in an automotive industry to ensure shorter lead time,
increased productivity, reduced production cost, improved quality and increased customer
satisfaction.
2.0 LITERATURE SURVEY
Fawaz A. Abdulmalek and Jayant Rajagopal (2007) describe a case where lean
principles were adapted for the process sector for application at a large integrated steel mill.
Value stream mapping was the main tool used to identify the opportunities for various lean
techniques. They also describe a simulation model that was developed to contrast the “before”
and “after” scenarios in detail, in order to illustrate to managers potential benefits such as
reduced production lead-time and lower work-in-process inventory.
Sanchez and Nagi, 2001 Agile manufacturing systems are born as a solution to a
society with an unpredictable and dynamic demand, and with a high degree of mass
customization in its products. It is the strategy that many enterprises are adopting as a solution to
the new market opportunities. ()
Ram Narasimhan et al (2006) have sought clarification and empirical validation of
lean manufacturing and agile manufacturing paradigms in manufacturing plants. Through
analysis they have identified plant groups whose characteristics accord well with the
descriptions found in the lean and agile manufacturing, literatures. The results of this study
provide a foundation on which the strategic roles and impacts of lean and agile plant types can
be assessed.
Par Ahlstrom (1998) examines whether any sequence of manufacturing
improvement initiatives exists and what these sequences are. He groups the principles of lean
production into four different categories, depending on when management devoted effort and
resources to the principles. Based on the experiences of the Office Machines, the answer to
this question is that there is a need to implement principles both in parallel and sequentially.
William G. Sullivan et al (2002) have illustrated an equipment replacement
decision problem within the context of lean manufacturing implementation. In addition, this
approach and analysis can be extended to other types of capital investments, beyond traditional
processing equipment, such as conveyors and other material handling systems.
Van Aken et al (2002) describes the application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to
analyze and redesign a project-based engineering process in the technical studies and installation
department in the Belgian armed forces.They have demonstrated how Value Stream Mapping
(VSM) can be applied to knowledge-based project work – in this case, to an engineering design
process. Future research on Value Stream Mapping should explore key factors in applying this
tool such as increased variety of contexts in the underlying process targeted, approaches to
applying Value Stream Mapping, and results achieved
Yang-Hua Lian, and Hendrik Van Landeghem (2002) use’s a simulation tool to
prove the above said effects of lean manufacturing. They have developed two simulation
models for two scenarios, push and pull (kanban) systems. Model templates are explained and
the key measurements such as lead times, throughput rates, and value-added ratios are
compared as well as evaluated. They have proposed an extended Value Stream Maping
implementation method based on simulation.
David Jacobs and Semyon M. Meerkov (1993) analyzed the Due-Time
Performance measure for large volume production systems have been introduced . This
performance index is analyzed for both lean and mass manufacturing environments. Both
quantitative and qualitative properties have been investigated. It has been shown that no perfect
Due-Time Performance can be provided by an unreliable system.
John Bicheno et al (2001) pinpoints wasteful activities in the supply chain and in
later stages and have developed solutions for this. Preliminary work involved mapping the
dynamics of the supply chain focusing on how the demand information is passed from the
customer back to the material supplier. The model has been developed to minimize inventory
levels under constrained total capacity, whilst considering product-individual changeover
times. The advantages of a total target changeover time were identified.
John 1998 describes by Implementing Lean manufacturing systems has become a
driving force for achieving low cost production in today’s manufacturing environments. The
simulation modeling and analysis are valuable in determining the effects of applying lean
manufacturing concepts. Converting processes from “mass” to “lean” systems can reduce
excessive WIP and increase process flexibility.
Rachna Shah and Peter T. Ward (2007) addresses the confusion and inconsistency
associated with ‘‘lean production.’’ They have attempted to clarify the semantic confusion
surrounding lean production by conducting an extensive literature review using a historical
evolutionary perspective in tracing its main components. This research takes an initial step
toward clarifying the concept of lean production and develops and validates a multi-dimensional
measure of lean production.
Rachna Shah and Peter T. Ward (2007) examines the effects of three contextual
factors, plant size, plant age and unionization status, on the likelihood of implementing 22
manufacturing practices that are key facets of lean production systems. Further, they postulate
four “bundles” of inter-related and internally consistent practices; these are just-in-time (JIT),
total quality management (TQM), total preventive maintenance (TPM), and human resource
management (HRM).
Sergio Rubio and Albert Corominas (2008) analyses a production-management
model that considers the possibility of implementing a reverse-logistics system for
remanufacturing end-of-life products in a lean production environment (as opposed to models
that use EOQ approaches).
3.0 PROBLEMS WITH EXISTING SYSTEM:
The current method of assembly has the following problems:
1) More cycle time
2) It occupies more space for assembly
3) It have more operator movement
4.0 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY - LEAN MANUFACTURING
Many manufacturers are now critically evaluating their processes to determine their
effectiveness in bringing maximum value to customers. Factory management techniques of
yesterday are being replaced by more efficient methods that greatly minimize delays, reduce
costs, and improve quality.
Lean manufacturing is a whole-systems approach that creates a culture in which
everyone in the organization continuously improves processes and production. It is a system
focused on and driven by customers, both internal and external.
Lean manufacturing isn't just the latest industry buzzword or quick-fix alternative.
Increasing competition demands a continuous focus on minimal costs, maximum customer
options, fast delivery, and high-quality products and services. Today's manufacturers must be
innovative while focusing on waste reduction, improved lead-time, maximized flexibility, and
upgraded quality. Lean manufacturing concepts are proven strategies to help manufacturers
obtain these attributes. Converting to a lean production system is a process that requires every
level of an organization to develop a complete understanding to the basic tents of the concept and
its execution. Companies that have fully implemented lean systems are rare, but the list of
manufacturers trying to become lean is growing fast.
5.0 TYPES OF WASTES
5.1 Overproduction
Over production is unnecessarily producing more than demand or producing it too
earlier before it is needed. This increases the risk of obsolescence, increasing the risk of
producing the wrong thing and increase the possibility of having to sell those extra items at
discount or discard them as scrap.
5.2 Waiting
Waiting is the idle time for workers or machines due to bottlenecks or inefficient
production flow on the factory floor. Waiting also includes small delays between processing of
units. Waiting results in a significant cost insofar as it increases labor costs and depreciation
costs per unit of output.
5.3 Inventory
Inventory waste means having unnecessarily high levels of raw materials, work-in-
process and finished products. Extra inventory leads to higher inventory financing costs, higher
storage costs and higher defect rates.
5.4 Transportation
Transportation includes any movement of material that does not add any value to the
product, such as moving materials between workstations. Transportation between processing
stages results in prolonging production cycle times, the inefficient use of labor and space and can
also be a source of minor production stoppages.
5.5 Motion
Motion includes any unnecessary physical motions or walking by workers which
diverts them from actual processing work. For example, this might include walking around the
factory floor to look for tool, or even unnecessary or difficult physical movement, due to poorly
designed ergonomics, which slow down the workers.
5.6 Defects
In addition to physical defects which directly add to the cost of goods sold, this may
include error in paperwork, provision of incorrect information about the product, late delivery,
production to incorrect specifications, use of too much raw materials or generation of
unnecessary scrap.
5.7 Over-processing
Over-processing is unintentionally doing more processing work than the customer
requires in terms of product quality or features- such as polishing or applying finishing on some
areas of a product that won’t be seen by the customer
6.0 DATA COLLECTION
6.1 CURRENT CYCLE TIME OF ALL THE PROCESSES
6.2 Cycle Time for LINE II
6.3 TAKT
TIME FOR
LINE II

“Takt time”
refers to the
rate at which
customers
are buying
products
from the
production
line; that is
the unit
production
rate required to match customer requirements.

LINE II = (0.85x 22.5x 60x 60)/640 = 107.5 Sec/Gear
PROCESS
CYCLE TIME (SECONDS)
MOVEMENT TIME
MAN
TIME
MACHINE
TIME TOTAL
First Stage 0 4 56 60
Rack insertion 8 40 8 56
Valve Flushing 0 2 12 14
Valve Insertion 10 25 70 105
Pre-conditioning 8 32 30 70
Yoke Setting 10 35 0 45
Feed pipe assembly 6 110 0 116
Air leak test 10 15 135 160
Functional test 4 35 130 169
Etching 0 78 0 78
IBJ assembly 10 50 0 60
Mounting bush pressing 8 20 0 28
OBJ &Bellow assembly 10 70 0 80
Exit Inspection 4 40 0 44
0
50
100
150
200
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314
MACHINE
C
Y
C
L
E
T
I
M
E

(
S
e
c
)
From the above figures it is evident that bottleneck occurs in each line at various operations. It is
necessary that this bottleneck should be reduced to balance the line. Some of the modifications in the
layout have been proposed and the layout changes for LINE II.
6.4 LAYOUT CHANGES FOR REDUCEING OPERATOR MOVEMENT
Current Layout
Figure: Layout Modifications LINE II
7.0 VALUE STREAM MAPPING
7.1 INTRODUCTION
Value stream mapping is a tool
commonly used in lean continuous improvement
programmes to help understand and improve the
material and information flow within organizations.
Value Stream Mapping borne out of lean ideology
captures and presents the whole process from end to
end in a method that is easy to understand by those
working the process - it captures the current issues
and presents a realistic picture.
Through a simple to understand
graphical format, future state (a diagram showing an
improved and altered process) can be formulated and
defined. The method encourages a team approach.
Participants in the activity are encouraged to suggest
improvements and implement an action plan.
As with any lean management toolset the principle
aim of Value Stream Mapping is to improve
processes. This is achieved by highlighting areas of
waste within a process and therefore enables
businesses to eliminate these activities.
.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Upon completion of the project the following
benefits were realized in the assembly of rack and
housing for steering system. By making modification in
LINE BEFORE AFTER % IMPROVEMENT
LINE II 105.3 78.8 25.17
L
INE
BEFORE AFTER
%
IMPIMPROVEMENT
L
INE II
36.5 26.5 27.4
the layout, implementing total preventive maintenance and giving training to the workers wastes due to
Transportation, motion, WIP Inventory, defects and waiting were reduced. Set up time was also
reduced. The reduction in cycle time, reduction in floor space and reduction in operator movement is
shown below.
8.1 The cycle time (sec) required to assemble one gear,
LINE EXISTING PROPOSED
LINE II 1085 917
Proposed Layout
8.2 Floor Space Occupied (Sqm):
8.3 Operator Movement (m):
9.0 CONCLUSION
In this paper, lean principles were applied for the
process sector for application in rack and housing
assembly in an automotive industry to ensure
shorter lead time, increased productivity, reduced
production cost, improved quality and increased
customer satisfaction. Work was carried out to
find out the takt time of the processes, and non-
value added activities in the rack and housing
assembly line. Secondly, the data of cycle time
of all processes were taken; the bottleneck
operations were identified. A current state vale
stream map was developed. From the current
state map it was identified that wastes due to
waiting, inventory, transportation, motion and
defects were present in the system. Further,
various suggestions for improvement were
identified from the current state value stream map
and the necessary kaizens were implemented in
the process. Also, a future state value stream
map, which is essentially a snapshot of how the
system should look with lean tools applied to it,
was developed.
REFERENCES
1. Brett W. Braiden and Kenneth G.
Morrison (2003)’ Lean
Manufacturing Optimization of
Automotive Motor Compartment
System’ Journal of Operations
Management, vol 21, pp 129–
149.
2. Colin Herrona and Christian
Hicksb (2008) ‘The transfer of
selected lean manufacturing
techniques from Japanese
automotive manufacturing into
general manufacturing (UK)
through change agents’ Robotics
and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, vol 24 pp 524–
531.
3. David Jacobs and Semyon M.
Meerkov (1993) ‘Due-Time
Performance in Lean and Mass
Manufacturing Environments’
Proceedings of the 32
nd
Conference on Decision and
Control, San Antonio, Texas.
4. Eric S. Grajo (1995) ‘Strategic
Layout Planning and Simulation
for Lean Manufacturing: A
LAYOPT Tutorial’ Proceedings of the
Winter Simulation Conference.
5. Rachna Shah and Peter T. Ward (2007)
‘Defining and developing measures of
lean production’ Journal of Operations
Management vol 25, pp 785–805.
6. Luis M. Sanchez and Rakesh Nagi
(2001) ‘A review of agile
manufacturing systems’ Int. J. prod.
res., vol. 39, no. 16, pp 3561-3600.
7. Thomas I. Seidman and Lawarance E.
Holloway (2002) ‘Stability of Pull
Production Control Methods for
systems With Significant Setups’ IEEE
Transaction on Automatic Control,
Vol.47, No.10, pp 1637-1646.
8. Wagner C. and Abduelmula A. (2001)
‘Design and Evaluation of Lean
Manufacturing Cells: A Simulation
Model’ IIE Annual Conference.
9. Yang-Hua Lian and Hendrik Van
Landeghem (2002) ‘An Application of
Simulation and Value Stream Mapping
In Lean Manufacturing’. Proceedings
14th European Simulation Symposium
(c) SCS Europe BVBA.
10.Wagner C. and Abduelmula A. (2001)
‘Design and Evaluation of Lean
Manufacturing Cells: A Simulation
Model’ IIE Annual Conference.
11.William G. Sullivan et al. (2002)
‘Equipment replacement decisions and
lean manufacturing’ Robotics and
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Vol 18 pp 255-265.
12. Thomas I. Seidman and Lawarance E.
Holloway (2002) ‘Stability of Pull
Production Control Methods for
systems With Significant Setups’ IEEE
Transaction on Automatic Control,
Vol.47, No.10, pp 1637-1646.
13. Tyson R. Browning and Ralph D.
Heath (2008) ‘Reconceptualizing the
effects of lean on production costs with
evidence from the F-22 program‘
Journal of Operations
Management.
14. Ulises Martinez and William S.
Duff (2004) ‘Heuristic
Approaches to Solve the U-
Shaped Line Balancing Problem
Augmented By Genetic
Algorithm’ Proceedings of the
Systems and Information
Engineering Design Symposium,
pp 287-294.
Multi Objective Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process on Carbon
Epoxy Composite Material by Genetic Algorithm
M.R.Pratheesh Kumar
1
, G.Gunasekaran
2
, Dr.R.Sivaramakrishnan
3
1
PG Student,
2
Research Scholar,
3
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Production Technology, M.I.T. Campus, Anna University Chennai-44,Tamilnadu
1
mrpratheesh@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
The objective of this project is to
conduct a parametric study and find the
optimal cutting conditions of Wire
Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM)
process on Carbon Epoxy composite
material as it has many applications in
aerospace, automotive, marine and
structural engineering etc. due to its high
strength to weight ratio. Conventional
method of cutting this composite material
presents problems such as de-lamination,
splintering, and short tool life caused by
abrasive nature of the composite material
and low thermal conductivity.
Among the many unconventional
methods LBM and EDM have been proved
effective. Interest on EDM machining of
composites has been growing up with
regard to cutting rate, edge quality and the
low extend of damage incurred in the
composite material. Since WEDM is the
improved form of EDM process and gaining
importance in machining, this method was
used for the cutting process and the effect of
machining parameters on the Material
Removal Rate (MRR) and surface
roughness is studied. To find the optimal
cutting conditions Genetic Algorithm is
used.
Nomenclature - WEDM (Wire Electrical
Discharge Machining), LBM(Laser Beam
Machining), MRR(Material Removal Rate),
GA(Genetic Algorithm),IP(Input power),
T
on
(Spark on time), T
off
(Spark off time), W
s
(Wire Speed), W
t
(Wire Tension), W
p
(Flushing rate).
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Carbon fiber composite material
Composite materials are produced by
combining two dissimilar materials into a new
material that may be better suited for a
particular application than either of the
original materials alone. Many of the modern
technologies require materials with unusual
combinations of properties that cannot be met
by the conventional metal alloys, ceramics and
polymeric materials. Many composite
materials are composed of just two phases; one
is termed the matrix, which is continuous and
surrounds the other phase, often called the
dispersed phase.
Technologically, the most important
composites are those in which the dispersed
phase is in the form of a fiber. Fiber reinforced
composites with exceptionally high specific
strengths and moduli have been produced that
utilize low-density fiber and matrix materials.
The arrangement and orientation of the fibers
relative to one another, the fiber concentration
and the distribution all have a significant
influence on the strength and other properties
of fiber reinforced composites. Fibrous
materials are generally either polymers or
ceramics. The matrix phase binds the fibers
together and acts as the medium by which
externally applied stress is transmitted and
distributed to the fibers. The matrix materials
should be ductile.
Carbon fiber reinforced composites are
remarkably successful commercially with
examples such as rocket nozzles and aircraft
and race car brake linings. The carbon fibers
are very thin fibers having diameter of 6-10
microns, which consists up to 99.9% of
chemically pure carbon. Expansion coefficient
is low (2x10
-6
/ K) and high toughness. The
layers of carbon fibers will be alternatively
stacked by using thermoset resin. Non
conventional machining techniques like
Electrical Discharge machining (EDM) is the
most successfully applied technique for the
difficult to machine materials. Lau et al
analysed the EDM machining of carbon fiber
composite materials. Guu et al. studied the
effect of EDM machining on the
characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced
carbon composites considering gap voltage
and pulse current as process variables while
the response functions taken are material
removal rate (MRR) and Surface finish (R
a
).
These literatures identify the feasibility of
electrical discharge machining (EDM) of
carbon fiber reinforced composite material.
1.2 WireEDM
The wire-cut EDM is a electrical
discharge machine which uses NC movement
to produce the desired contour or shape on a
part. The electrode or cutting wire can be
made of brass, copper, or any other electrically
conductive material ranging in dia from 0.05
to 0.30 mm. The path that the wire followed is
controlled along a two-axis (XY) contour. This
controlled movement is continuous and
simultaneous. Any contour may be cut to a
high degree of accuracy and is repeatable for
any number of successive parts. A dielectric
fluid, usually deionized water which is
constantly being circulated, carries away the
eroded particles of metal. It also helps to
maintain the proper conductivity between the
wire and the workpiece and assists in reducing
the heat caused by the spark. Wire EDM
process involves many machining parameters
like applied voltage, pulse current, pulse on
time, pulse off time, flushing pressure, table
feed rate, wire speed, wire tension, material of
wire and the dielectric fluid etc. The following
Figure 1.1 shows a Kinematic Diagram of
Wire EDM.
Figure 1.1
1.3 Genetic Algorithm
Genetic algorithms are good at
taking larger, potentially huge, search spaces
and navigating them looking for optimal
combinations of things and solutions. Genetic
algorithms work with a coding of variables.
The advantage of working with a coding of
variable space is that coding discretizes the
search space even though the function may be
continuous. The main difference between GA
and other traditional optimization methods is
that GA uses a population of points at one time
in contrast to the single point approach by
traditional optimization methods. This means
that GA processes a number of designs at the
same time. Generally to solve a problem it is
worked out towards some solution which is the
best among others. The space for all possible
feasible solutions is called search space. The
solution may be either maxima or minima in
search space. There are three most important
aspects of using GA are:
A typical genetic algorithm consists of the
following steps
1. Create the initial population.
2. Evaluate the fitness of each individual.
3. Select the best individuals and perform
recombination.
4. Mutate the new generation.
5. If termination condition is not reached, go
back to step2.
2. EXPERIMENTAL WORK
2.1Materials
The Material used for this
investigation is a composite plate of size 300
mm x 300 mm x 3mm developed from PAN
based carbon fabric (65% by volume)
laminated using thermosetting epoxy resin and
cured under application of pressure and
temperature. The resistivity of the specimen is
0.05 Ωcm. The electrode used was Nickel-
Brass alloy coated with Zinc wire having a
nominal diameter of 0.25mm.
2.2WEDM Machine
The WEDM machine used is Electronica –
Ultracut F1 series (Fig 2.1) with high precision
5 axes CNC control and incorporated with
Antielectrolysis Equienergy pulse technology.
The dielectric medium used is de-ionised
water. Polarity of the electrode is negative and
that of the composite is positive.
Fig 2.1 WEDM Machine
2.3Steps in planning of the experiment
1. Identify the input parameters
(independent variables)
2. Identify the output parameters to be
measured (dependent variables).
3. Determine the various levels of the
input parameters
4. Select the appropriate orthogonal array
and assign the process parameters to
the orthogonal array and conduct the
experiment.
5. Construct the regression equations
connecting the dependent and
independent variables.
6. Find the optimal cutting conditions
using GA.
7. Verify the optimal process parameter
through a confirmation experiment.
2.4Parameter Design
A total of six input parameters
(independent variables) with three levels for
each input parameter. Input parameters are X1
(Input Current), X2 (Pulse on Time), X3
(Pulse off Time), X4 (Wire speed), X5 (Wire
tension), X6 (Flushing rate) considered while
the output parameters (dependent variables)
are Metal Removal Rate (Y1) (MRR,
mm
3
/min) and Surface Roughness (Y2) (Ra).
According to the capability of commercial
WEDM machine available and general
recommendation of machining conditions for
carbon composites, the range and the number
of levels of the input parameters are selected
as given in the Table 2.1.
Sl.
No.
Parameter
Level
I II III
1
Input
Power
(amp)
10 11 12
2 Ton (sec) 102 105 108
3 Toff (sec) 58 60 63
4
Wire
Speed
(Ws)
(m/min)
5 7 9
5 Wire
Tension
1000 1100 1200
(Wt)
(gms)
6 Flushing
Rate (Wp)
(lpm)
4 5 6
Table2.1 Machining parameters and their levels
2.5Experimental layout
E
x
.

N
o
I
n
p
u
t

P
o
w
e
r
(
A
m
p
s
)
T
o
n
(
μ
s
)
T
o
f
f
(
μ
s
)
W
i
r
e

S
p
e
e
d
(
W
s
)
m
/
m
i
n W
i
r
e

T
e
n
s
i
o
n
(
W
t
)
g
m
s F
l
u
s
h
i
n
g

R
a
t
e
(
W
p
)
l
p
m
F
act
ors
X
1
X
2
X
3
X
4
X
5
X
6
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 2 2 2
3 1 1 3 3 3 3
4 1 2 1 2 2 2
5 1 2 2 3 3 3
6 1 2 3 1 1 1
7 1 3 1 3 3 3
8 1 3 2 1 1 1
9 1 3 3 2 2 2
10 2 1 1 1 2 3
11 2 1 2 2 3 1
12 2 1 3 3 1 2
13 2 2 1 2 3 1
14 2 2 2 3 1 2
15 2 2 3 1 2 3
16 2 3 1 3 1 2
17 2 3 2 1 2 3
18 2 3 3 2 3 1
19 3 1 1 1 3 2
20 3 1 2 2 1 3
21 3 1 3 3 2 1
22 3 2 1 2 1 3
23 3 2 2 3 2 1
24 3 2 3 1 3 2
25 3 3 1 3 2 1
26 3 3 2 1 3 2
27 3 3 3 2 1 3
3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Experiments were performed according to the experimental layout as shown in table 2.6,
on a carbon fabric reinforced / epoxy composite plate of size 300mm x 300mm x 3 mm. A straight
cut of 7 mm length was made for all the experiments. The time taken for the 7 mm cut was noted
down for each experiment using a stopwatch and the mean cutting speed was calculated as below.
Vc = {7 / time taken for 7mm cut}mm/min
Metal removal rate can be found using the formula
MRR = Vc x b x h mm
3
/min
Where, V
C
= Mean cutting speed in mm/min, b = Width of cut in mm,
h = Thickness of the work piece in mm.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
ExNo MRR
1 0.585
2 0.520
3 0.481
4 0.701
5 0.685
6 0.632
7 0.864
8 0.750
9 0.849
10 1.050
11 0.513
12 0.875
13 1.406
14 1.500
15 0.868
16 2.126
17 1.969
18 1.348
19 0.760
20 0.680
21 0.728
22 1.200
23 1.059
24 1.440
25 2.572
26 2.022
27 1.757
4.1Regression Equation:
Regression equations were formed using MTab software. The Equation relating
the Material removal rate (MRR) and the input variables and the normal plot (fig4.1) is given
below.
C12 =-18.6 - 9.41 X1 + 0.148 X2 + 1.64 X3 + 0.75 X4 +
0.00708 X5 - 0.08 X6+ 0.0918X1.X2 - 0.01668X2.X3 +
0.0076X3.X4 - 0.00111 X4.x5 + 0.00007 X5.X6
0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5
99
95
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
5
1
Residual
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Normal Probability Plot
(response is C7)
Fig 4.1
The equation relating the Surface roughness to the input variables and the normal plot(fig4.2) is
given below.
C7 = -197 + 15.5X1 + 1.70 X2 + 0.15 X3 + 0.38 X4 + 0.00664 X5
+ 1.40 X6-0.130 X1.X2 - 0.0017 X2.X3 + 0.0029 X3.X4 -
0.000512 X4.x5 - 0.00125 X5.X6
0.50 0.25 0.00 -0.25 -0.50
99
95
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
5
1
Residual
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Normal Probability Plot
(response is C7)
Fig 4.2
The regression analysis predicts that the input power (amps), T
on
and T
off
are the major
influential factors on MRR and Ra. The equations shows that, R
2
= 89.1% and Ra
2
= 81.2%
etc. for MRR equation and for the surface roughness equation R
2
= 98.3% and Ra
2
= 97.1% etc.
4.2 Optimization Result by Genetic Algorithm:
For the maximum material removal rate,
Input Power = 11.9997Amps
Ton = 108micro-sec
Toff = 58.0008micro-sec
Wire Speed = 8.99896m/min
Wire Tension = 1000.01Kg
Flow Rate = 4.01247lpm
Material Removal Rate = 2.3411cu.mm/min
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
Generations
F
it
n
e
s
s
 
 
Best
Average
Fig 4.3
Fig 4.3 shows the fitness graph obtained for the maximum MRR by GA.
5. CONCLUSION
The parametric combination for the optimal
machining condition (maximum MRR)
obtained by the genetic algorithm is to be
verified and similarly a combination is to be
obtained for minimum surface roughness value
using GA based on the regression equations.
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(1995), ‘Determination of optimal cutting
parameters in wire electrical discharge
machining’, International Journal of
Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 35,
pp. 1693-1701.
[18]Rajasekaran and Pai, ‘Fuzzy logic, neural
network and genetic algorithm’
Experimental Analysis Of Superplastic Forming Process On Aluminium Alloy
6063
K.Venkatachala1am
1
,

P.Ganesh
2
,and K.Kalaichelvan
3
1
Dept. of Production Technology, MIT, Anna University, Chennai.
venkatmit_07@yahoo.com
2
Dept. of Production Technology, MIT, Anna University, Chennai.
3
Dept. of Production Technology, MIT, Anna University, Chennai.
ganesh_cim@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
Aluminium Alloy 6063 is used in a
wide variety of structural applications which
include automotive, industrial, materials-
handling, commercial and aerospace
equipment. Aluminium Alloy 6063
developments have traditionally been driven
by manufacturing industry requirements for
its lightweight, Low density, high
temperature mechanical properties and
excellent corrosion resistance properties.
Superplastic forming (SPF) is a
manufacturing process whereby sheet metal
is blow formed into a die to produce very
light and strong automotive components
The crucial importance in superplastic
forming is to predict the final sheet thickness
distribution, avoid cavitation and the strain-
rate necessary to maintain superplasticity.
This research work is made to explore the
superplastic deformation behavior of the
Aluminium Alloy 6063 during blow forming
into a circular die by a numerical simulation
using standard finite element code ABAQUS.
The numerical simulation of the sheet
thickness distribution, strain-rate and time
taken to form the required bulge are
analysed.
Keywords: Superplastic forming; Strain-
rate; Aluminium alloy 6063; ABAQUS
I.INTRODUCTION
Superplastic materials are a unique class of
polycrystalline solids that have the ability to
undergo very large, uniform tensile elongations
prior to failure. Elongations in excess of
200%usually indicate superplasticity. In
superplastic forming components are formed by
applying gas pressure between one or more
sheets and a die surface, causing the sheets to
stretch and fill the die cavity. The low flow
stresses and high sensitivity of flow stress to
strain rate are the main aspects of superplastic
deformation. Fine and equiaxed grain size,
forming temperature greater than half the
absolute melting temperature of the material,
and controlled strain rate, are the main
requirements for superplasticity. The optimum
value of strain rate varies with the type of
material, but is usually very low. Superplastic
forming (SPF) is a near net-shape forming
process which offers many advantages over
conventional forming operations including low
forming pressure due to low flow stress, lower
die cost, greater design flexibility, and the
ability to shape hard metals and form complex
shapes. However, low production rate due to
slow forming process and limited predictive
capabilities due to lack of accurate constitutive
models for superplastic deformation, are the
main obstacles to the widespread use of SPF.
This factor has restricted the growth of
applications of Superplastic alloy to low
volume production industries like the aerospace
industry.
SPF has been developed in late 19
th
century
in

specifically within the aerospace industry,
and its industrial importance is such that it
should be considered separately here. The
process is used commercially for titanium and
its alloys, this material being one that exhibits
superplastic properties at elevated temperatures
within defined strain rate conditions. These
conditions of temperature and pressure coincide
with the conditions required for bonding, and
therefore the two processes have been
combined into one manufacturing operation
either in sequence or together. The process is
used to produce stiff sandwich structures for
airframe parts, or the wide chord, hollow fan
blades for aero engines. Both these involve
skins with internally bonded structures as
reinforcing elements.
Superplastic flow may be described by an
equation
σ=Kє
.m
, (1.1)
where,
‘σ’ is effective flow stress (N/m
2
)
‘Є’ is strain rate, (S
-1
)
‘K’ is constant depends upon temperature
and grain size.
‘m” is strain rate sensitivity index
The value of ‘m’ has a controlling influence
on the stability of superplastic flow. The value
of ‘m’ lies in 0.3 to 0.9 for most of the
superplastic materials. The high value of ‘m’
imports to the material resistance to localized
deformation such as necking and thinning so
that the specimen can undergo large
deformation without failure. A high value of ‘m’
causes the flow stress to be highly sensitive to
the strain rate. An ideal value of m=1 would
correspond to Newtonian viscous flow which
leads to complete neck-free tensile deformation.
II. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AL
ALLOY 6063
Si Mg Mn Al
0.73
0
.37
0.54 98.36
III. PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM
ALLOY 6063
Property Value
Density 2.71 g/cm
3
Melting Point 600∞C
Modulus of
Elasticity
67 GPa
Electrical
Resistivity
0.035x10
-6
Ω.m
Thermal
Conductivity
180 W/m.K
Thermal
Expansion
23x10
-6
/K
IV. PROCESS FLOW
The steps to be followed in the preparation of
Aluminium alloy 6063 specimen are as follow.
1. Melting of Aluminium alloy 6063 metal
2. Addition of coverall powder
3. Addition of degasser powder
4. Addition of nucleant tablets
5. Pouring the molten metal in die.
V. ROLLING OF SHEET
The size of specimen obtained from casting is
5mm. The required size of sheet for blow
forming is 1mm. This can be obtained by
rolling the specimen using power rolling
machine. The steps of rolling process are as
follow.
1. Initially the specimen is heated above the
recrystalising temperature.
2. The gap between the rollers is maintained
as smaller than the size of specimen.
3. The heated specimen is fed between the
rollers to reduce the size.
4. For the next pass, the specimen is tilted to
90 degree.
5. The above steps are repeated until to get
the specimen size 1 mm.
VI. STUDY OF GRAIN STRUCTURE
The microstructure of the specimen is studied
after rolling. The micro structure of the
specimen was obtained using Optical
Microscope. The surface was polished in Bench
Polishing machine. The Sodium Hydroxide
(NaOH) and Nital are used as etching solutions.
The Grain size of the sheet was measured using
in BIOVIS MATERIAL PLUS software.
The grain size of the specimen is further
decreased by thermo cycling process. This
process is carried out by keeping the specimen
at various temperatures for the particular time
period. The decrease in grain size will increase
the elongation property of the specimen.
VII. DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL
SETUP
Superplastic forming (SPF) die was
constructed with circular shape using SS 304
material. The experimental setup consists of top
and bottom die. The top die is designed to get
attached in the hydraulic press. The bottom die
is fixed in the hydraulic press table using a
fixture.
SPF’s top die consists of connecting tube for
Argon gas inlet. The bottom die consists of
square shape with one exhaust to the
atmosphere. The exhaust is provided in the
bottom die for removing the atmospheric air to
avoid oxidation. Both top and bottom die are
engaged together by hydraulic pressure. Teflon
coating will be made in the connecting ends to
avoid leakage of air.
Grain size= 4.306734 microns
Grain size= 3.906905 microns

Fig. 1 Micro structure (Before thermo
cycling process)

Fig. 2 Micro structure (After thermo cycling
process)
VIII. UNIAXIAL TENSILE TEST
Early in this work it was determined that the
tensile specimen design had a significant effect
on the accuracy of the predicted stress as a
function of strain and strain rate (khraisheh et
2006). Specifically, inaccuracies arise from the
use of short tension specimen (2:1gage length-
to width ratio ); where end effects and material
flow from the grips result in strain rates that
begin considerably below the target value and
increase to surpass the target strain rate later in
the test. This trend was experimentally
confirmed by performing a series of interrupted
tensile tests and measuring the change in area
strain over a small time period to estimate the
uniaxial strain rate. This variation in strain rate
is significant because it results in two sources of
error when estimating the true stress from the
force displacement data of the tensile tests.
First, because the strain rate is initially below
the target value, the stress at the target strain
rate would be higher than that measured.
Second, as the test progresses, the actual strain
in the center of the specimen lags behind the
expected strain. This results in a larger cross-
sectional area than would be expected assuming
a constant strain rate throughout the test.
Testing of various specimen geometries, an
improved specimen design established with a
length-to width ratio in the gage. The specimen
gage (Fig.3) is 10mm , wide 6mm, thickness
1mm. use of specimens with even larger –to-
width ratios further improves testing accuracy,
however, requiring longer furnace capacity to
achieve the same strain.
Fig. 3 Test specimen
Fig. 4 Specimen after test
IX. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The Aluminium alloy 6063 was casted using
the muffle furnace. Microscopic study was done
for the small portion of Aluminium alloy. The
grain size was examined using optical
microscope the study was made on creep test to
determine the strain rate sensitivity index.
Cavity is of the major defects in superplastic
forming. In case of SPF it is difficult to
maintain uniform forming and bonding because
of non uniform pressure distribution,
temperature, bonding materials metallurgy etc.
In second phase experimental setup will be
designed, thermo mechanical treatment will be
carried out for the prepared Aluminium alloy
material using the blow forming method along
with SPF. The formed component can be
validated for the sheet thickness distribution,
and the strain-rate necessary to maintain
superplasticity. This research work is made to
explore the superplastic deformation behavior
All dimensions are in mm
of the magnesium alloy during blow forming
into a circular die by a numerical simulation
using standard finite element code ABAQUS.
X. CONCLUSION
To find the grain size of the Aluminium alloy
6063 before thermocycling and after
thermocycling process. Reduce the grain size
during thermocycling process. The decrease in
grain size will increase the ductility property of
the specimen.
REFERENCES
[1] Banabic D and Vulcan M, ‘Bulge testing
under constant and variable strain rates of
superplastic Aluminium alloys’ Technical
University of Cluj-Naooca, Romania
Stuttgart University, Germany.
[2] Cam G, Clemens H, Gerling R and Kocak
M (1999) ‘Diffusion bonding of γ-Ti Al
sheets’ Intermetallics, vol. 5, pp. 1025-1031.
[3] Chan K.C and Tong G.Q (2004) ‘High-
strain-rate superplastic gas pressure forming
of an Al-4.4Cu-1.5Mg/21SiC
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composite
under variable strain rate paths’ Materials
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‘Superplastic gas pressure forming of fine-
grained AZ61magnesium alloy sheet’
Materials Science and Engineering, Vol.
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Guofeng (2007) ‘Superplastic forming and
diffusion bonding for honeycomb structure
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454.
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Park, Young Gun Ko, Dong Hyuk Shin,
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bonding of Ti-6AL-4V ELI grade’ Journal
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of super plastic forming processes using the
finite element method’ Materials Science
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K.J (2007) ‘Investigation of post-
superplastic forming properties of
AZ31Magnesium Alloy’ CIRP Journal, vol.
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[9] Kalaichelvan K, Sivaramakrishnan R,
Dinakaran D, Joseph Stanly A (2005)
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on superplastic forming of thin eutectic pb-
sn sheet by optimum loading and
preforming’ Journal of Materials Processing
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[10] Mimaroglu A and Yenihayat 0.F (2003)
‘Modelling the superplastic deformation
process of 2024 Aluminium alloys under
constant strain rate use of finite element
technique’ Materials and Design, Vol 24, pp.
189-195.
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O.D (2001) ‘An Analysis of gas pressure
forming of superplastic AL 5083 Alloy’
Materials Science and Engineering.
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and grain growth during superplastic
forming’ Achievements in Materials and
Manufacturing Engineering, vol 24, pp 307-
313.
[13] Yenihayat, Mimaroglu A and Unal H (2005)
‘Modelling and tracing the super plastic
deformation process of 7075 Aluminium alloy
sheet use of finite element technique’ Vol 26 pp 73-7
Advances Materials
for
The Next Two Decades
First A.S.Pradeep Kumar, Second B. S.Rajasekar, and Third C.S.Sunderlal Singh.
C.Abdul Hakeem College of Engg & Tech, Melvisharam, Vellore Dt, Tamil Nadu.
Email: {pradeeproyalcahcet, vinoraj4u,
Sunderlal203}@gmail.com
ABSTRACT:-
This paper highlights new
developments in functionally gradient
materials, shape memory alloys,
hydrogen occlusion alloys, amorphous
materials, nitrogen alloyed, extremely
high heat resistant alloys, fiber
reinforced structural materials and
materials made through powder
metallurgy techniques. In the field of
new polymer materials and ceramic
material, examples of global
competition in the development and
application of new materials are
provided. Wrought alloys are also
briefly discussed. A forecast of
materials available for commercial
exploitation of various materials also
provided.
I. INTRODUCTION:
Advanced materials outperform
conventionalmaterials with superior
properties such as toughness, hardness,
durability and elasticity. They can have
novel properties including the ability to
memorise shape or sense changes in the
environment and respond. The
development of advanced materials can
even lead to the design of completely
new products, including medical
implants and computers. Advanced
materials are also amazingly versatile.
The product that is used to make
windscreen wipers travel smoothly and
quietly over the wind screen is also the
main ingredient in stain-resistant carpet
and upholstery and the non stick surface
on fry pans - Teflon. The area of
advanced materials research is very
broad in scope and potential
applications. While some
advanced materials are already well
known, it will take a few more years for
others to appear in products. Here, we
describe some advanced materials and
future technologies they will make
possible. In the next two decades the
materials menu will be greatly expanded
in a variety of man –made structural
materials based on polymers, metals and
ceramics and synthetic fibers, whiskers
and particulates of these three types of
materials. The threat of competition and
market share loss to nonmetallic
materials has spurred the development of
improved lightweight Aluminium-
lithium alloys and new tempers to reduce
corrosion. Smart materials and devices at
micrometer size scale and nonmaterial
are also the materials which will
critically affect all major industries.
II. ADVANCED MATERIALS:
a) metallic m aterials and their targeted
applications
1) functional gradient materials:
spacecraft, nuclear reactor walls
2) shape memory alloys: biomaterials,
sensors
3) hydrogen occlusion alloys: hydrogen
automobiles, heat pumps
4) amorphous materials: electronic
materials, transformers
5) extremely high heat resistance alloys:
gas turbines, jet engines
6) powder metallurgy: machine parts
7) fiber reinforced metals: structural
materials
b) New polymer materials and their
intended
applications
1) high performance plastics or
engineered plastics : machine
parts(gears, bearings)
, cameras, electric products, automobile
bodies,
construction materials, pipes
2) carbon fiber reinforced plastics ,
tanks,
reaction vats, pipes, sporting goods, auto
parts
3) electrical conducting plastics : office
equipment, piezoelectric elements, audio
equipments
4) separation membranes: medical uses,
biotechnology, water-treatment,
chemical
industry
5) water absorbing polymers: diapers,
agriculture, civil engineering
6) liquid crystal polymers: optical fibers
c) New ceramic materials for specific
applications
1) alumina: medical materials, integrated
circuits(IC)
packages
2) non-oxide ceramics: turbochargers,
fireproof
materials
3) zirconium: tools, crucibles
4) superconductors: computer elements,
medical
appliances, linear motor cars
III. FUNCTIONALLY GRADIENT
MATERIALS:
Functionally graded materials (FGMs)
are composite materials where the
composition or the microstructure is
locally varied so that a certain variation
of the local material properties is
achieved. Nitrided steel, for instance,
could be also regarded as a FGM.
Modern FGMs are constructed for
complex requirements, such as the heat
shield of a rocket or implants for
humans. The gradual transition between
the heat or corrosion resistant outer layer
(often made of a ceramic material) and
the tough metallic base material
increases in most cases the life time of
the component. These materials are
specifically being developed for
applications such as fuselage of space
shuttle like aircraft, walls of nuclear
fusion reactor, optical fiber and for the
roots of artificial teeth. A functionally
gradient material is a substance in which
its chemical composition and structure
varies continually on a macroscopic
level and is sandwiched between
ceramic, carbon and metallic materials
having different properties. FGM are
manufactured using the concept of
artificially providing gradient functions
of two or threedifferent materials
without developing interface boundaries
between the materials. FGMs are highly
resistant to heat, thermal stress, chemical
attack, and possess excellent mechanical
strength. Thin film
layer technology is most often used for
the manufacture FGMs based zirconium
oxide (ZrO2) and nickel, zirconium,
nickel and titanium carbide, silicon
carbide and carbon in its various forms.
Functionally graded materials (FGM's)
are a new generation of engineered
materials wherein the micro structural
details are spatially varied through no
uniform distribution of the reinforcement
phase(s), see the top figure. Engineers
accomplish this by using reinforcements
with different properties, sizes, and
shapes, as well as by interchanging the
roles of the reinforcement and matrix
phases in a continuous manner (ref. 1).
The result is a microstructure that
produces continuously or discretely
changing thermal and mechanical
properties at the macroscopic or
continuum scale. This new concept of
engineering the material's microstructure
marks the beginning of a revolution both
in the materials science
IV. HYDROGEN STORAGE ALLOYS:
Hydrogen storage alloys are metallic
materials that have a unique aility to
reversibly absorb and release significant
amounts of hydrogen from the gas phase
or electrochemically (see Figure below).
Gas Phase Hydrogenization
Electrochemical Hydrogenization/
Electrochemical Charging This unique
property of hydrogen storage alloys is
used in numerous applications1 such as:
1) Rechargeable batteries 2) cooling
devices 3) hydrogen storage systems for
fuel cells Among the broad variety of
hydrogen storage alloys that have been
studied to date, 1,2 two groups of
materials, AB5 and AB2 type alloys,
have the most advantageous combination
of high hydrogen storage
capacities and operations parameters.
AB5 alloys combine a hydride forming
metal A, usually a rare earth metal (La,
Ce, Nd, Pr, Y or their mixture known as
Mischmetal), with a non-hydride
forming element – nickel. The latter can
be doped with other metals, such as Co,
Sn or Al, to improve material’s stability
or to djust equilibrium hydrogen
pressure and temperature required for its
charging discharging with hydrogen.2
AB2 alloys, also known as Laves phases,
represent a large group of alloys
containing titanium, zirconium or
hafnium at the A-site and a transition
metal(s) at a B-site (Mn, Ni, Cr, V and
others). Reversible hydrogen storage
capacities of this group of materials are
comparable with those of AB5-type
alloys. However, AB2 alloys are capable
of storing additional amounts of
hydrogen at high hydrogen pressures and
have higher capacities at high discharge
rates when used as negative electrodes in
batteries2. Due to reasonably high
hydrogen storage capacities (1.4-1.6 wt
%) and consistent performance, AB5 and
AB2 – type alloys can serve as excellent
reference materials in hydrogen
absorption and desorption experiments
using gassorption systems. Hydrogen
storage alloys normally changes its
volume while storing or releasing
hydrogen. A lanthanum-nickel base
alloy in amorphous form has recently
been developed in japan for hydrogen
storage. An amorphous alloy does not
change its volume which therefore
functions for longer time period. Such
alloys are used for nickel hydrogen
batteries, heat pumps, hydrogen storage
and Freon free air conditioning systems
applications
V. FIBRE REINFORCED
COMPOSITES IN STRUCTURAL
MATERIALS:
A composite material is a
microscopic or mmacroscopic
combination of two or more distinct
materials with a recognizable interface
between them. For structural
applications, the definition can be
restricted to include those materials that
consist of a reinforcing phase such as
fibers or particles supported by a binder
or matrix phase. Other features of
composites include the following:
(1) The distribution of materials in the
composite is controlled by mechanical
means;
(2) The term composite is usually
reserved for materials in which distinct
phases are separated on a scale larger
than atomic, and in which the
composite's mechanical properties are
significantly altered from those of the
constituent components;
(3) The composite can be regarded as a
combination of two or more materials
that are used in combination to rectify a
weakness in one material by a strength in
another.
(4) A recently developed concept of
composites is that the composite should
not only be a combination of two
materials, but the combination should
have its own distinctive properties. In
terms of strength, heat resistance, or
some other desired characteristic, the
composite must be better than either
component alone. Composites were
developed because no single,
homogeneous structural material could
be found that had all of the desired
characteristics for a given application.
Fiberreinforced composites were first
developed to replace aluminum alloys,
which provide high strength and fairly
high stiffness at low weight but are
subject to corrosion and fatigue. In a
high-performance, continuous fiber-
reinforced composite, fibers provide
virtually all of the loadcarrying
characteristics of the composite,
i.e.,strength and stiffness. The fibers in
such a composite form bundles, or
filaments. Consequently, even if several
fibers break, the load is redistributed to
other fibers, which avoids a catastrophic
failure. Glass fibers are used for
nonstructural, low-performance
applications such as panels in aircraft
and appliances to high-performance
applications such as rocket-motor cases
and pressure vessels. But the
sensitivity of the glass fiber to attack by
moisture poses problems for other
applications. The most commonly used
glass fiber is a calcium
aluminoborosilicate glass (E-glass).
High silica and quartz fibers are also
used for specialized applications. Fiber
reinforced composites are widely used in
many structural applications where their
mechanical performances are of primary
importance. The stiffness and the
strength of composites are dependent
upon the mechanical properties of the
constituents, but also upon the stress
transfer processes occurring at the
fiber/matrix interface.
VI. POWDER METALLURGY:
Powder metallurgy is a forming
and fabrication technique consisting of
three major processing stages. First, the
primary material is physically powdered,
divided into many small individual
particles. Next, the powder is injected
into a mold or passed through a die to
produce a weakly cohesive structure (via
cold welding) very near the dimensions
of the object ultimately to be
manufactured. Pressures of 10-50 tons
per square inch are commonly used.
Also, to attain the same compression
ratio across more complex pieces, it is
often necessary to use lower punches as
well as an upper punch. Finally, the end
part is formed by applying pressure,
high temperature, long setting times
(during which self-welding occurs), or
any combination thereof. Powder
metallurgy parts can be broadly
separated into three categories: those in
which the P/M approach allows a lower-
cost component to be produced, an
intermediate category of cost-
effective/high-performance parts, and
those in which the P/M approach leads to
a part with enhanced mechanical
property characteristics (Ref, , ). The
first approach generally results in a
product with lower mechanical
properties than wrought product; the
third is normally a higher-cost approach.
The low-cost P/M product is the more
traditional commercial approach, the
second has been more recently
established commercially, and high-
performance parts represent a
developing facet of P/M technology.
Many P/M parts are now used in a
variety of industries, including
automobiles, household appliances, yard
and garden equipment, computers, fabric
industry equipment, and orthodontic
devices (Ref). The growth in North
American metal powder shipments up to
1996 is shown in Table (Ref). In 1995,
North American powder metal shipments
totaled 437,774 tons, a 2%
increase from the previous year. Iron and
steel powder shipments amounted to
347,172 tons, up 2.7% from 1994. Parts
applications for iron/steel powders
accounted for a record-high 312,974
tons, an increase of 3.1%. However, it
was the first time in four years that the
parts market improved by a percentage
of less than double digits. In the 1992 to
1994 period, the parts market for North
American iron and steel powder
producers, the biggest market of its kind
in the world, grew at an average annual
rate of 18.6%. Automotive parts continue
to be the leading application of P/M
parts. The typical U.S. automobile
contains about 14 kg (30 lb) of P/M parts
with an increase expected in the next
several years (Fig.). A slightly lower
amount is used in Japanese automobiles
(Table) ( Ref), but automotive
application of P/M parts is still the
dominant use in Japan as well (Fig.). The
growth of P/M parts in automobiles is
due to increased use of P/M components
in engines, transmissions, brakes,
airbags, and other complex parts.
Emerging automotive applications are
also described at the end of this article.
. Conventionally processed powder
metallurgy materials often exhibit open
micro porosity at the surface. While it is
a natural part of the process, this micro
porosity can affect the measurement of
surface finishes. To cover this and other
issues that arise from measuring the
surface finish of powder metallurgy,
ASTM International Committee B09 on
Metal Powders and Metal Powder
Products has developed a new standard,
B 946, Test Method for Surface Finish of
Powder Metallurgy (P/M) Products. The
new standard, which will be useful to
end users and parts makers who are
interested in the surface finish of a
powder metallurgy component, is under
the jurisdiction of
Subcommittee B09.05 on Structural
Parts. Test Method B 946 covers
measuring the surface finish of powder
metallurgy products at all stages of
manufacturing from green compact to
fully hardened finished component. It
also provides definitions and schematics
for common surface.
VII. AMORPHOUS METALS
Generally speaking the terms
amorphous and metal seem to be
contradictory in nature .In the previous
chapters when the concepts of crystal
structure and solidification of metals
were introduced. It was often started that
metals have a high affinity to form
crystal structure with long range order.
However, as discussed briefly .under
certain condition, even metals can form
noncrystaline, highly disordered
amorphous or
glassy structures in which at ms are
arranged in a random in a random
manner. shows the schematic of a
crystalline solid. One can easily note the
amorphous nature of the glassy alloy
when compared to the crystalline.
Amorphous metals were first introduced
by applying molten metal to the surface
of a rapidly moving and cooled surface
.This results in the rapid quenching of
the metal at a rate of 10^5 K/S THE
RAPID QUENCHING MATERIAL
process allows a very short time for the
molten metal to solidify. In these short
periods of time there is no opportunity
for the diffusion of atoms and the
formation of crystals; as a result; a solid
with a glassy state is formed. Because of
the random arrangement of atoms in
amorphous metals, dislocation activities
are minimal, and a result metals that are
formed in this manner are very hard.
Additionally this metals do not strain
harden but behave in a elastic plastic
deformation In metallic glasses is highly
in homogenous and localizes into bands
of intense shear. Thus the structure
mechanism deformation and roperties of
such metals are completely different than
crystalline metals. One commercial
example of metallic glass is the cast
alloy vit 001 that has a high modulus of
elasticity, high yield strength
(1900MPA) and is corrosion resistant .Its
density is higher than that of aluminum
and titanium but lower than steel. It can
undergo a recoverable strain of about 2
percent significantly higher than
conventional metals.
VIII. WROUGHT ALLOYS:
Wrought alloys, which are
initially cast as ingots or billets and
subsequently hot and/or cold, worked
mechanically into the desired form. i.e.
rolling to produce sheet, foil or plate
extrusion to produce profiles, tubes or
rods forming to produce more complex
shapes fromrolled or extruded stock
forging to produce complex shapes with
superior mechanical properties A four-
digit number that corresponds to a
specific alloying element combination
usually designates wrought aluminum
alloys. This number is followed by a
temper designation that identifies
thermal and mechanical treatments. To
develop strength, heat-treatable wrought
alloys are solution heat treated, then
quenched and precipitation hardened.
Solution heat treatment consists of
heating the metal, holding at temperature
to bring the hardening constituents into
solution, then cooling to retain those
constituents in solution. Precipitation
hardening after solution heat treatment
increases strength and hardness of these
alloys. While some alloys age at room
temperature, others require precipitation
heat treatment at an elevated
temperature (artificial aging) for
optimum properties. However, distortion
and dimensional changes during natural
or artificial aging can be significant. In
addition, distortion and residual stresses
can be introduced during quenching
from the solution heat-treatment cycle.
These induced changes can be removed
by deforming the metal (for example,
stretching). Wrought aluminum alloys
are also strengthened by cold working.
The high-strength alloys -- either heat
treatable or not -- work harden more
rapidly than the lower-strength, softer
alloys and so may require annealing after
cold working. Because hot forming does
not always work harden aluminum
alloys, this method is used to avoid
annealing and straightening operations;
however, hot forming fully heat-treated
materials is difficult. Generally,
aluminum formability increases with
temperature. Recently developed
aluminum alloys can provide nearly
custom-engineered strength, fracture
toughness, fatigue resistance, and
corrosion resistance for aircraft forgings
and other critical components. The
rapid-solidification process is the basis
for these new alloy systems, called
wrought P/M alloys. The ter wrought
P/M is used to distinguish this
technology from conventional pressand-
sinter P/M technology. Grades 7090 and
7091 are the first commercially available
wrought P/M aluminum alloys. These
alloys can be handled like conventional
aluminum alloys on existing aluminum-
fabrication facilities. Other significant
new materials are the aluminumlithium
alloys. These lightweight metals are as
strong as alloys no in use and can be
fabricated on existing metalworking
equipment. Although impressive
structural weight reductions (from 7 to
10%) are possible through direct
substitution, even greater reduction (up
to 15%) can be realized by developing
fully optimized alloys for new designs.
Such alloys would be specifically
tailored to provide property
combinations not presently available.
Producing an alloy that will provide
these combinations is the object of
second and thirdgeneration low-density
alloy development efforts. Operating
economy is still an important
consideration in vehicle design des ite
fluctuatingfuel prices. Downsizing to
save fuel has reached its practical limits;
now, reducing the weight of individual
components is taking over. One
significant change being implemented by
designers of automobiles and military
vehicles today is converting driveshafts,
radiators, cylinder heads, suspension
members, and other structural
components to aluminum.
IX.CERAMIC MATERIALS
Long-term durability,
biocompatibility and electrical
properties make ceramic an ideal
material for a range of application.
Driven by the industry's need for ever
smaller, yet more complex components,
the use of processing techniques such as
injection moulding, engineered coatings
and ceramic-metal assemblies are
leading to new applications for the
material. Ceramic material, with its
biocompatibility and resistance to wear,
is ideally suited for a wide variety of
medical implant applications, from
artificial joints to implantable electronic
sensors, stimulators and drug delivery
devices. For well over a decade,
alumina, zirconia and other ceramics
have successfully proven their ability to
withstand the harsh environment of the
human body. Now, driven by the
industry’s need for longerlasting and
ever smaller – yet more complex —
components, materials scientists are
extending the benefits of ceramics for
new medical implant applications with
innovative techniques, including
injection molding, engineered coatings
and ceramicmetal assemblies.
Ceramics for Artificial Joints
Advances in the use of ceramics
for artificial joints have received a great
deal of attention. Ceramic materials have
been used for artificial joints since the
1970s when the first generation of
alumina products demonstrated superior
resistance to wear, compared to the
traditional metal and polyethylene
materials. Advances in material quality
and processing techniques and a better
understanding of ceramic design led to
the introduction of second generation
alumina components in the 1980s that
offered even better wear performance.
Traditional metal – polyethylene hip
system wear generates polyethylene
particulate debris, inducing osteolysis,
weakening of surrounding bone and
results in loosening of the implant, a
primary cause of costly revision
operations. Ceramic materials generate
significantly less polyethylene debris
when used in conjunction with
polyethylene acetabular components in
bearing couples. Indeed, state-of-the-art
ceramic-on-ceramic technology, where
an alumina femoral head is mated with
an alumina acetabular cup, totally
eliminates polyethylene debris and
reduces wear significantly. A study of
MAC’s HIP Vitox® ceramic-on-ceramic
hip joints demonstrated a wear rate of
just 0.032mm3/million cycles. In
addition to resolving the problems
caused by polyethylene debris, the use of
ceramic-on -ceramic hip systems
alleviates any concerns over metal ion
release into the body if a metal on metal
hip system were used. An additional area
of ceramic technical development
important to medical implant
applications is ceramicbased coatings,
such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), that
provide a biocompatible, sterilization-
compatible, non-leaching, and wear
resistant surface for key pivot points and
wear surfaces. Such coatings are used to
reduce friction, increase surface hardness
and prevent ion transfer from metal
implant components. Driven by the
rapidly expanding and evolving market
for medical implants, material scientists
and ceramic component manufacturers
will continue to develop new materials
and new processes for the smaller, more
sophisticated, and longer-lasting implant
applications of the future.
CONCLUSION
The advanced materials science
is concerned mainly to search for more
light, tough, heat resistant, materials
which will serve for modern engineering
technology. Shape memory alloys had
been found for years but are finding
more applications. They have ability to
sense external environment. Materials
compete with each other for existing and
new markets. Over a period of time
many factors arise that make it possible
for one material to replace another for
certain applications. Certainly cost is a
factor. If a breakthrough is made in the
processing of a certain type of material
so that its cost is decreased substantially,
this material may replace another for
some applications. Another factor that
causes material replacements changes is
the development of a new material with
special properties for some applications.
As a results, over a period , the usage of
different materials changes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors’ wishes to thank Prof..M.
Santhosham, M.Tech (IIT MADRAS).,
working at C.Abdul Hakeem College of
Engg & Tech, Melvisharam and
elsewhere, without whose efforts and
contributions much of the work referred
in this paper would not have been
accompolished.
REFERENCES
[1] William F Smith, Javad Hashemi,
Ravi Prakesh On Materials science and
engineering, 4rd ed. .
[2] P.Rama Rao Advances in Materials
andTtheirAapplication.
[3] F.H.Froes, Industrial Heating
(April,1990)39.
[4] Advanced materials and process,
9JULY, 1989),9.
[5] Advanced materials – G.K Bhat.
[6] Science and Technology Report,
Japan, JPRS Report-JST-
88-014.
[7] Dieter Stoeckel, Shape Memory
Alloys: Advanced
Materials & Progress 138 (oct1990)
[8] Functionally graded material :
Design, processing, and applications by
Voshinari Miyamoto, W.A.Kaysser,
B.H.Rabin-1999-technology and engg
Multi-response optimization of EDM Parameters for Titanium using
Modified Taguchi Technique
R.Soundararajan
1
, A. Palanisamy
2
, R.Srinivasan
3
, N.B.Ramachandran
3
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Engg and Tech, coimbatore-
2
Department of Production Engineering, Mookambigai College of Engineering, kalamavur-
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, VLB Janakiammal College of Engg & Tech,
Coimbatore-641042
Email: vlbsrini@rediffmail.com,soundar_win@rediffmail.com, palasamy1@rediffmail.com,
n.b.ramachandran@gmail.com
Mobile: 9444201734, 9894534879, 9994561450, 9940154234
Abstract
In this paper an optimization of
Electrical Discharge machining (EDM)
process with multiple performance
characteristics based on the L18 Orthogonal
Array with Modified Taguchi Method has
been studied. An orthogonal array, the
Signal-to-Noise(S/N) ratio, and the Analysis
Of Variance (ANOVA) are employed to
study the performance characteristics in
machining of Titanium material using
Graphite electrode as tool. The machining
parameters, namely, peak Current, Pulse
ON-Time, Pulse OFF-Time were optimized
with considerations of multiple performance
characteristics Electrode Wear Ratio
(EWR), and Material Removal Rate (MRR).
Experimental results have shown that
machining performance in the EDM process
can improved effectively through this
approach.
Keywords: Electrical Discharge machining
(EDM), OA, Taguchi method, Optimization,
Electrode Wear Ratio (EWR) and Material
Removal Rate (MRR).
I. INTRODUCTION
The selection of appropriate machining
conditions for the optimum MRR, EWR, during
electric discharge machining (EDM) process is
based on the analysis relating the various
process parameters to above mentioned
parameters. Traditionally this is carried out by
relying heavily on the operator’s experience or
conservative technological data provided by the
EDM equipment manufacturers, which
produced inconsistent machining performance.
In this paper, Taguchi method is used to
optimize the multiple performance
characteristic using the weighted factor. The
optimization of the multiple performance
characteristics is concerned with optimizing a
vector of objectives. The purpose of the present
work is to introduce the use of utility concept
has been employed for the multi-performance
characteristics optimization using Taguchi
design in selecting optimum EDM conditions
on multiple performance characteristics,
namely, the material removal rate and surface
roughness.
II. OVERVIEW
Taguchi method uses an orthogonal array to
study the entire process parameter with a
minimum number of experiments. A loss
function is then defined to calculate the
deviation between the experimental value and
the expected value. Taguchi uses the loss
function to measure the performance
characteristic deviating from the required value.
Then the all value is transformed to S/N ratio.
Larger the value of S/N ratio better the
performance. A statistical analysis of variance
(ANOVA) is performed to see which process
parameter is statistically noteworthy. With
statistical analysis of variance, optimal
combination of the process parameters can be
predicted. Finally, a confirmation experiment is
conducted to verify the optimal process
parameters obtained from the process
parameter design.
III. EDM PROCESS EXPERIMENTS
In an Electrical discharge machining (EDM)
process; the removal of material from work
piece is by an electrical spark erosion process.
Common methods of evaluating machining
performance in the EDM process are based on
the material removal rate, surface roughness,
and electrode wear ratio. Basically, these
performances are correlated with the machining
parameters such as, Peak current, Pulse on
time, and Pulse off time.
A. Selection of Machining Parameters and
their Levels
The experiments are carried out on a
ELECTRONICA – Electric Discharge machine,
having a maximum of 12 A current, using
graphite electrodes for the machining of
Titanium in the form of rectangular slot as
shown in Table I.
B. Machining Performance Measure
Material removal rate, Electrode Wear Ratio
and Surface Roughness are used to evaluate
machining performance. The Material Removal
Rate (MRR) is expressed as the work piece
removal weight (WRW) under a period of
machining time in minute (T), that is:
T
WRW
g MRR · min) / (
(1)
The electrode wear ratio (EWR) is defined by
the ratio of the electrode removal weight
(ERW) to the work piece removal weight
(WRW) and usually expressed as a percentage,
that is:
100 (%) X
MRW
ERW
EWR ·
Therefore, the MRR is the higher-the-better
performance characteristic and surface
roughness is the lower-the-better performance
characteristic and Electrode wear ratio is the
lower the better performance.
IV. DETERMINATION OF EDM PROCESS
PARAMETERS
A. Orthogonal Array Experiment
Before selecting a suitable orthogonal array
for the experiments, the total degrees of
freedom have to be computed. The degrees of
freedom is defined as the number of
comparisons between design parameters that
need to be made to determine which level is
better and specifically how much better it is. In
the present study, the relation between the
machining parameters is neglected. Basically,
the degrees of freedom for the orthogonal array
should be greater than or at least equal to those
for the design parameters. In this study, an L18
orthogonal array with 4 columns and 18 rows
has been used. This array has eight degrees of
freedom and it can handle three-level design
parameters. The experimental layout and
response values for the three machining
parameters using the L18 orthogonal array is
shown in Table II.
B. Analysis of the S/N ratio
The Taguchi method uses S/N ratio instead of
the average value to infer the trial results data
into a value for the evaluation characteristics in
the optimum setting analysis. This is because
S/N ratio can reflect both average and variation
of the quality characteristics. In the present
work, the optimization of EDM process
parameters using Taguchi’s robust design
methodology with multiple characteristics is
proposed. In order to optimize the multi
performance characteristics, namely Material
Removal Rate (MRR), Electrode Wear Ratio
(EWR) while machining in EDM of Titanium
material with utility concept has been
introduced. Here performances namely EWR
are to be minimized and the MRR is to be
maximized. The S/N ratio associated with all
the responses, are given below

,
`

.
|
− ·
2
10 1
1
log 10
MMR
η
(3)
( )
2
10 1
log 10 EWR − · η (4)
C. Utility concept
The utility concept employs the weighing
factors to each of the signal-to-noise ratio of the
responses to obtain a multi response signal-to-
noise ratio for each trial of the orthogonal array.
The multi-response signal to noise ratio is
calculated by the given equation.
2 2 1 1
η η η w w + · (5)
Where w1, w2 and w3 are the weighting
factors associated with the S/N ratio of each of
the responses MRR, EWR, Ra respectively.
These weighting factors are decided based on
the priorities among the various responses to be
simultaneously optimized. In the present study,
weighting factors of 0.5 for MRR and .25 for
EWR and Surface roughness assumed. This
gives priorities to all responses for
simultaneous minimization and Maximization.
The effect of a factor level is the deviation it
causes from the overall mean response. The
over all mean of η associated with 18 trials is
computed as


·
·
·
18
1
18
1
k
k
k
m η
(6)
The effect of a factor level i for parameter j is
( )

·
·
L
i
j i
L
m
1
1
η
(7)
The optimum level of a factor is the level that
gives the highest S/N ratio for the optimal level
associated with each process parameter is
ji, Opt = max {(m)i , j } for i = 1,2,3; j =
A, B, C (8)
Where A is Peak current, B is Pulse ON time
and C is Pulse off time.
Once the optimal level of the design parameters
has been selected, the final step is to predict
and verify the quality characteristic using the
optimal level of the design parameters. The
predicted optimum value of signal to noise ratio
(ηopt) can be determined as
( ) [ ]

·
− + ·
P
j
j i opt
m m m
1
max
,
η
(9)
Where m is the total mean of the multi
response S/N ratio, (mi,j)max is the signal to noise
ratio of optimum level i of factor j and P is the
number of main design parameter that affect
the response. As noted from Table V, it is
clearly shown that the multiple performance
characteristics in the EDM process are together
improved by using this method.
D. Data Analysis, Results and Discussion
Based on L18 orthogonal array experimental
design and outputs were measured and
presented in Table II. Here the data’s are
analyzed by Taguchi based utility concept. The
computed values of S/N ratio for each response
and the multi response S/N ratio (η) for each
trial in the orthogonal array are presented
below in Table II.
Total mean multi-response S/N ratio m = -31.18
db
V. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
The statistical procedure used most often to
analyze data is known as the analysis of
variance (ANOVA). This technique determines
the effects of the treatments, as reflected by
their means, through an analysis of their
variability. The ANOVA establishes the relative
significance of factors in terms of their
percentage contribution to the response and
also needed for estimating the variance of error
for the effects and confidence interval of the
prediction error.
1. The total sum of squares (SST) is
determined as

·
− ·
18
1
2
) (
k
k T
m SS η
(10)
SST is used to measure the relative
influence of the process parameters on the
response.
2. The sum of squares due to factor j is
computed as
[ ]
2
3
1
) ) ( 3
i i
i
j
m mj SS − ·

·

(11)
A factor j with largest SS value will
have significant role in controlling the
response.
3. The sum of the squares due to error
(SSe) is given by

·
− ·
3
1 j
j T e
SS SS SS
(12)
4. The variance of each factor j is
1 −
·
L
SS
MS
j
j
(13)
5. The percentage contribution of
each factor j is given as
T
j
j
SS
SS
Q ·
(14)
From Table IV, we can observe that Pulse
current (P = 9.97 %), Pulse ON time (P =
68.77%) and Pulse OFF time (P = 1.39%) have
great influence on the multi performance
characteristics.
VI. CONCLUSION
The factor that affecting the performance has
been determined using this analysis. In this
process peak current and Pulse off time are the
more significant EDM parameter in terms of
affecting the multiple performance
characteristics. In the confirmation test
improvements are calculated based on the
optimal machining parameter, which was
obtained using modified Taguchi method using
utility concept. It is clearly shown that the
multiple performance characteristics in EDM of
Titanium are greatly improved. The optimal
EDM parameters for multiple performance
characteristics are: Peak current 4A. Pulse on
time 7μs, and Pulse off time 1μs.
TABLE I
MACHINING PARAMETERS AND THEIR LEVELS
TABLE II
EXPERIMENTAL LAYOUT WITH RESPONSES AND ITS S/N RATIOS
Symbo
l
Machining
Parameters
Level -1 Level – 2 Level - 3 Max. – Min.
A Peak current -29.87 -31.61 -32.08 2.21
B Pulse ON time -34.05 -31.58 --27.68 6.40
C Pulse OFF time -30.39 -31.32 -31.69 1.57
TABLE III
MEAN EFFECT RESPONSE TABLE FOR MULTI-RESPONSE S/N RATIO
symbol parameter unit Level I Level II Level III
A Peak current amps 4 6 8
B Pulse on time µs 500 700 900
C Pulse off time µs 10 20 30
Ex. No
Process parameters Responses
S/N Ratio of each
Responses
Multi –
S/N Ratio
A B C MRR EWR MRR EWR η(dB)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
4
4
4
6
6
6
8
8
8
4
4
4
6
6
6
8
8
8
5
6
7
5
6
7
5
6
7
5
6
7
5
6
7
5
6
7
1
3
4
1
3
4
3
4
1
4
1
3
3
4
1
4
1
3
.0059
.0055
.0191
.0041
.0043
.0096
.0041
.0055
.0129
.0027
.0095
.023
.0023
.0042
.0095
.0019
.0035
.0023
0.88
0.5
0.63
0.38
0.70
0.88
0.50
0.76
0.63
0.88
0.88
0.50
0.88
0.38
0.25
0.88
0.63
0.88
-44.47
-45.04
-34.35
-47.72
-47.28
-40.33
-47.72
-45.16
-37.78
-51.13
-40.44
-32.45
-52.7
-47.40
-40.44
-54.12
-48.99
-40.37
-1.03
-5.89
-3.96
-8.39
-2.37
-1.03
-5.89
-2.37
-3.96
-1.03
-1.03
-5.89
-1.03
-8.39
-11.9
-1.03
-3.96
-1.03
-31.97
-31.04
-26.18
-31.76
-33.04
-29.9
-32.38
-31.98
-27.89
-35.30
-29.96
-24.75
-36.1
-31.60
-37.24
-36.81
-33.5
-29.90
Source of
variance
Sum of
squares
df
Variance
Test f
F,5%
P(%)
Peak current
7.91
2
3.95
0.260
3.98
4.33
Pulse on
time
140.96
2
70.36
4.63
3.98
77.26
Pulse off
time
3.15
2
1.57
0.103
3.98
1.72
Error
30.4
11
2.76
16.67
TABLE IV
RESULTS OF ANOVA FOR MULTIPLE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
TABLE V
RESULTS OF INITIAL AND OPTIMAL MACHINING PERFORMANCE OF EDM
REFERENCES
[1]R.Ramakrishnan,L.karunamoorthy,”mod
eling and multi-response optimization of
inconel 718 on machining of
CNC WEDM process”, Journal of material
processing technology,2008
[2]R.Ramakrishnan,L.karunamoorthy2006,
” multi-response optimization of wire EDM
operatio using robust design of
experiments.international journal of
advanced manufacturing technology
29,105-112
[3]Scott,D,
bovina,s.,rajurkar,T.K.P,1991.analysis and
optimization of parameter combination in
wire electriecal discharge machining.
International journal of production research
29,2189-2207.
[4]Spedding, t.a., wang, z.g.,1997
parametric optimization and surface
characteristic of wire electrical discharge
machining process .precision of engineering
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[5]Spedding, T.A.,Wang,Z,Q.,1977. Study
on modeling of wire EDM process. Journal
of Material Processing Technology 69, 18-
28.
[6]Tarng, Y.S., Ma, S.C.,Chung,L.K.,1995.
Determination of
Factors
Initial machining
parameters
Optimal machining parameters
Prediction Experiment
Levels A1B1C1 A1B3C2 A1B3C1
Material Removal Rate (MRR) in g/min 0.005977 - .0075
Multi-response S/N ratio -31.97 -22.488511 -29.5
optimal cutting parameters in wire electrical discharge machining. International journal
of machine tools and manufacture Vol.35, 1693-1701.
[7]Yan Cherng Lin, Biing Hwa Yan and Yong Song Chang, “Machining characteristics
of Titanium (Ti±6Al±4V) using a combination process of EDM with USM,”
Journal of material processing technology,
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[9] P. Narender Singh, K. Raghukandan K and B.C. Pai, “Optimization by Grey
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Mechanical and Erosion Behavior of Polymer Based Hybrid
Composites
Kumar Kanishka1, Neha Verma2, Nikhilesh Kumar Jha3 and Mr Z. Edward Kenedy4
Email: kanishkasrm@gmail.com SRM University, Mechanical Department, Chennai, India
Email: nehaverma.mech@gmail.com,
nikhilesh_rajpur@yahoo.com
Abstract
Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Matrix composites are widely used as
structural materials now days. These
materials replace conventional materials
for competitive reasons. In addition
these materials are preferred for their
light weight and strength. They also find
wide spread application as pipe line
materials for fuel pipe lines and slurry
carrying medium in industrial
application. This research addresses the
manufacturing of glass fiber and
natural fiber blend composites. FRP
materials which are prepared using
hand lay up technique. The fibers used
fall under E-glass category. Natural
fiber (jute) which is available in the
form of mats were chosen. The
materials are tested for Mechanical
properties like hardness, tensile, Impact
and flexural. Test results revealed the
ability of these materials as a substitute
for materials used in structural
application. Also these materials were
tested for tribological properties like
erosion. By varying the surface velocity,
particle size of the erodent,
concentration of slurry, erosion studies
were carried out on these FRP
materials. The erosion wear rate (EWR)
was estimated..Erosion tested samples
were subjected for SEM examination.
SEM micrographs on the FRP showed
the deformation occurred was mainly
due to cutting wear and the mode of
failure was due to brittle fracture.
11. INTRODUCTION
Environmental awareness among
all over the world focused the attention
towards the use of cellulose fiber as
reinforcement in polymer matrix. The
natural fiber reinforced composites are
reasonably strong, lightweight, and free
from health hazards, biodegradable and
hence they have the potential to be used as
building materials and underground
pipelines. Despite the advantages they
suffer from some limitations such as lower
modulus, poor moisture resistance to
absorption and low strength when
compared with synthetic fibers such as
glass and carbon.
The properties of the natural fiber
reinforced composites can be improved by
hybridizing with high strength synthetic
fibers. Interspersing the two or more kinds
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
of fiber in a common matrix forms the
hybrid composites. The concept of
hybridization gives flexibility to the design
engineer to tailor the material properties
according to the requirements.
Hybridization of natural fiber with
stronger and more corrosion-resistance
synthetic fiber, for example, glass fiber or
carbon fiber can improve the stiffness,
strength, as well as moisture resistant
behavior of the composites and hence a
balance between environmental impact
and performance could be achieved.
Among all the natural fiber reinforcing
materials jute appears to be a promising
material because it is relatively
inexpensive and commercially available in
the required form. The fiber has a high
aspect ratio, high strength to weight ratio,
is low in energy conversion, and has good
insulation properties. The long jute fiber
bundles can be used to make fiber mats
which can be used for geo-textiles and can
be formed into complex structural and
non-structural products. The use of jute
fiber alone in polymer matrix is inadequate
in satisfactorily tackling all thechnical
needs of a fiber reinforced composite. In
an effort to develop a superior, but
economical composite, a jute fiber can be
combined with a synthetic fiber, glass
fiber, in the same matrix material so as to
take the best advantage of the properties of
both the fibers. Glass fibers have high
tensile strength, dimensional stability, low
weight, excellent insulation properties and
have high corrosion and chemical
resistant.
Polyester is used as resin because of its
adequate resistance to water and variety of
chemicals, weathering, and aging and is
very cheap and easily available. This
results in a jute-glass hybrid composite. In
this paper the effect of hybridization on the
tensile strength, impact strength and
flexural strength is studied on the hybrid
laminate.
2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCE DURES
2.1 MATERIALS: Untreated jute mats of
density 0.315 g/m3 and dimensions 304 x
254 x 1.6 mm is used. Woven roving glass
fibers of E-type having dimensions 304 x
254 x 0.5 mm and density 610g/m3 along
with jute forms the fiber part of the
composite laminate. The resin system
consists of polyester of density 1.4g/cm3,
MEKP catalyst and Cobalt naphthenate
accelerator.
2.2 LAMINATE FABRICATION
Hybrid laminates of woven jute
and glass mat has been prepared by simple
hand lay-up technique at room
temperature. PVA release agent is applied
to the table surface. First a layer of
polyester mixed with 1.5% each of
accelerator and catalyst is applied
uniformly on the table. Alternate layers of
jute and glass has been stacked with the
matrix layer between them. Thus 6 layers
each of jute and glass fibers, 1000gm of
polyester, 15g each of accelerator and
catalyst forms the hybrid panel of
dimension 304 x 254 x 170 mm. The fiber
volume fraction is has been found to be
58.05% which qualifies the laminate in the
category of thin laminates (high fiber
content and low matrix content).
2.3 MECHANICAL TESTING
2.3.1 Tensile Testing
Specimens for tensile test were
carefully cut from the laminate to a width
of 25mm and length 30mm. were gripped
on the Universal Testing Machine with the
pyrometer attached to the specimen. The
machine being attached to a software
system gives the respective graphs
between various parameters and also the
stress strain curve. The test was conducted
for two specimens. . Fig 2.3.1: Tensile Test
setup 2.3.2 Hardness Testing This is an
important mechanical test used for
evaluating the hardness of the laminates.
Here hardness being calculated with
equipment called Bar coal impresser. In
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
this process the indentor of the equipment
is pressed against the glass laminate
surface and the respective value got from
the dial gauge present on it. The hardness
is measuring unit is BAIU. Important thing
to be kept in mind is that the indentor
should be pressed against the surface
where resin is present.
Fig 2.3.2:- Hardness testing machine
2.3.3 Impact Testing
The Izod test is conducted for
getting the impact value in Joules. Here
the specimens are cut to a width 12.3 mm
length 65mm and being fixed on the
apparatus. Fig 2.3.3: - Impact test set up
2.3.4 Flexural Testing
The flexural test is initiated by
applying the load perpendicular to the
fiber direction. For composite specimens a
three-point bend test and for resin
specimens a four-point bend test are
adopted. The relations for flexural
strengths is; =3FL/2bd2 MPa, where F=
load, N; L= span length, mm; the distance
between inner and outer loading point is
L/3 and the load span is also equal to L/3
as per ASTM-D 790 standard
2.3.3 Erosion wear Studies
The pot erosion tester, H.M. Clark
and W. Tsai et al, has been used for
carrying out the Erosion Test. Specimens
were rotated in a slurry pot tester
containing solid-liquid mixture and
average mass or thickness loss of the
specimen have been measured to evaluate
wear. Hence, a pot erosion tester consists
of a slurry container, in which the
proportionate amount of sand and water is
fed. The samples of dimension 76.2 x 25.4
x 12.7 mm were cut.
1
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Tensile Testing
The Hybrid samples under a
maximum tensile force of 20kN showed
elongation of 16.7%. The tensile strength
and young’s modulus have been found as
0.384 kN/mm2 and 5.67 kN/mm2
respectively. Jute laminates show a
modulus of elasticity of 3.75 kN/mm2.
Observation of failed specimens revealed
that failure in hybrid laminates is governed
by extensive fiber pull out and breakage.
One reason for this may be due to greater
extensibility of glass fibers than jute fibers.
3.2 Hardness testing The glass fiber
forms one extreme layer of the laminate
while the jute fiber is the other extreme.
The hardness value of the laminate with
glass top is 40.124 BAIU while for the jute
top it is 5.875 BAIU. Thus the glass top
shows more hardness than the jute top 3.3
Impact Testing The energy absorbed
during impact was 10.6J thereby showing
impact strength of 47.30N/mm.
0
3.4 Flexural Testing
For a span of 60mm the specimen
was able to withstand a peak load of
833.35N thereby showing an elongation of
8.747%. The flexural stress for the
maximum force was calculated as 42
N/mm2.
0
3.5 Erosion Wear Test
After conducting the slurry erosion
test, the eroded pieces were weighted
again to determine mass loss. The ratio of
the distance traversed (km) gives erosion
rate (mg/km). The procedure was repeated
for various samples using 30/80 sand. The
test was carried out for different
concentrations and different time period at
a constant speed of 500rpm. The results
are depicted in the tabular form.
Concentratio
n
Test
parameters
Surface
impact
velocity
Erosion
wear
rate
% hrs m/s mg/km
20 4 2.59 15.36
20 7 2.59 12.44
20 12 2.59 8.62
30 4 2.59 41.2
30 7 2.59 26.94
30 12 2.59 18.87
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Thus we see that as the time and
concentration of slurry increases the
erosion wear rate increases.
1
4 . CONCLUSION
It is concluded that although the
mechanical properties of jute/polyester
composites do not possess strengths and
moduli as high as those of conventional
composites, they do have better strengths
than wood composites [19] and some
plastics. However their performance can
be enhanced by the concept of
hybridization. Therefore, these composites
could be considered for future materials
use. Since the reinforcing material is eco-
friendly, non-toxic, non-health hazardous,
low in cost and easily available as
compared to conventional fibers like glass,
Kevlar, asbestos etc., the composites are a
good substitute for wood in indoor
applications such as shelves, partitions,
wash basins and table tops, and may also
be suitable for outdoor uses such as
roofing, drainage pipes, automobile
components, electrical fittings as well as
larger items such as lightweight fishing
boats. However based on the various
mechanical and erosion tests and results
obtained it can be concluded that:
1a. The value of tensile strength of jute
composite can be enhanced by
incorporating glass fibers in it by 51.2%.
Thus the area of application of these
hybrids widens.
2b. The glass top shows better hardness
than the jute top. Hence the hardness can
be increased by having two extreme layers
of the hybrid as glass.
3c. At higher slurry concentration, the
amount of wear and wear rate are high.
REFRENCES
[1] Md. Rezaur Rahman, Md. Monimul
Huque, Md. Nazrul Islam and Mahbub
Hasan on jute fiber reinforced PP
composites were manufactured using
single extruder and injection molding
method
[2] T. Munikenche Gowdaa, A.C.B.
Naidua, Rajput Chhaya on some
mechanical properties of untreated jute
fabric-reinforced polyester composites.
[3] N. Sgriccia, M.C. Hawley and M.
Misra on the development of natural fiber
reinforced composites as a replacement for
glass fiber composites from Department of
Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science, Michigan State University in
2008.
[4] K. Sabeel Ahmed and S.
Vijayarangan “on effect of stacking
sequence on tensile, flexural and
interlaminar shear properties of untreated
woven jute and glass fabric reinforced
polyester hybrid composites,” from
Department of Production Engineering,
PSG College of Technology,
Coimbatoreepartment of Production
Engineering, PSG College of Technology,
Coimbatore, 2008
[5] Ha Na Yua, Seong Su Kima, In Uk
Hwanga and Dai Gil Lee from
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology, ME3221, Guseong-dong,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon “On the permeability
and structural strength of the composite
reinforcements composed of inner jute mat
and outer glass fabric for the trenchless
rehabilitation of underground pipes were
measured and compared to those of
conventional glass fabric reinforcements”
in 2008.
[6] Erosive wear studies of epoxy-based
composites at normal incidence by A.P.
Harsha and Sanjeev Kumar Jha from
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi in 2008
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
[7] Flexural behaviour of hybrid laminated
composites by P.N.B. Reis, J.A.M.
Ferreira, F.V. Antunes and J.D.M. Costa
from University of Beira Interior in 2007.

[8] Improvement of physico-mechanical
properties of jute fiber reinforced
polypropylene composites by post-
treatment by P.N.B. Reis, J.A.M. Ferreira,
F.V. Antunes and J.D.M. Costa from
University of Beira Interior in 2007
[9] Properties and performances of various
hybrid glass/natural fiber composites for
curved pipes by G. Cicala, G. Cristaldi, G.
Recca, G. Ziegmann, A. El-Sabbagh and
M. Dickert Dipartimento di Metodologie
Fisiche e Chimiche per l’Ingegneria
(DMFCI), Università di Catania, Viale A.
Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy in 2008
[10] Some mechanical properties of
untreated jute fabric-reinforced polyester
Composites by T. Munikenche Gowda,
A.C.B. Naid, Rajput Chhaya from B.M.S.
College of Engineering, Bangalore-
560019, India in 1998
.
IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING FOR BATCH
PRODUCTION SYSTEM
M.Sriramulu
1
, S. Sundar
2
, Dr. S. Gajendran
3
1
ME (Manufacturing engineering)
Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600044
ramulusri@yahoo.com
21
ME (Manufacturing engineering)
Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600044
3
Asst Professor,
Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600044
ABSTRACT
Industries need to compete
globally and hence quality of goods and
services are to be maintained at low
cost. Lean manufacturing is one of the
means to achieve this goal.
This Project aims at application
of Lean Manufacturing Concepts to the
batch production process sector with a
focus on Automotive forging industry.
The goal of this project is to investigate
how the tools of lean manufacturing can
be adopted from the discrete to the
batch production environment and to
evaluate the benefits at a specific
industrial concern. The focus of the
approach is on cost reduction, lead time
reduction by eliminating Non-Value
adding activities. Lean manufacturing
methodologies focus on producing a
product as close to its actual Work
content times as possible greatly
reducing or eliminating as much non-
value adding time as possible.
The Application of lean manufacturing
in the continuous process sector have
been predominant because such
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
industries are inherently more efficient
and relatively urgent need for major
improvement in order to beat the
competition. On the other hand batch
production industries have given little
importance to Lean manufacturing
concept.
This project is being carried out
at one of the leading automotive
component manufacturers located in
Chennai, Tamilnadu. One of the
manufacturing lines namely Ball stud
has been selected to carry out this
project.
HISTORY OF LEAN
MANUFACTURING
After world war II Japnese
manufacturer were faced lot of problem of
shortage of material, financial and human
resources. The problems that Japnese
manufacturer were faced differed from
western countries. These conditions
resulted in Birth of Lean manufacturing
concept. Toyota Motor company Led by its
president Toyoda recognized that
American Automakers of that era were
out-producing their counterparts in Japan.
Early Japanese leaders such as the
Toyota Motor Company’s Eiji Toyoda,
Taiichi Ohno, and Shingeo Shingo
developed a disciplined, process-focused
production system now known as the
“Toyota production system”, or “lean
production”.
The Toyota Production System
(TPS) was developed to become
competitive on world markets, particularly
competing with Henry Ford, while
addressing the particular circumstances
Toyota faced in Japan. Through years of
trial and error on the shop floor. Toyota
discovered that they could simultaneously
achieve high quality, low cost, and just-in
time delivery by “shortening the
production flow by eliminating waste.”
This simple concept is at the heart of the
TPS and what distinguishes it from the
older mass production paradigm it
supplants.
The focus is always on shortening
the production flow and waste is anything
that gets in the way of a smooth flow.
TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH LEAN
MANUFACTURING
The following is a brief glossary of
other term and concepts that are associated
with lean manufacturing.
Cellular Manufacturing
It is a manufacturing approach, in
which the equipments and workstation are
arranged to facilitate continuous flow
production. In a manufacturing ‘cell’, all
operation necessary to produce a
component or subassembly are in close
proximity, thus allowing for quick
feedback between operations when quality
problems and other issues arise. Workers
in a manufacturing cell are typically cross-
trained and hence able to perform multiple
tasks as needed.
WIP Inventory
It is the amount of value of all
materials, components and subassemblies
representing partially completed. It is
anything between raw material/purchase
components and finished goods stage.
Value should be calculated at plant cost
including material, direct labor and
overheads.
Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
FMS is typically a group of more
than two computer based machine tools
with integrated material handling, able to
produce a family of similar parts.
Lean Manufacturing or Lean
Production
It is the philosophy of continually
reducing the waste in all areas and in all
forms.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
It is a comprehensive program to
maximize equipment availability in which
production operators are trained to perform
routine maintenance tasks on a regular
basis, while technicians and engineers
handle more specialized tasks
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
(determining when to replace components
before they fail).
Total Quality Management (TQM)
It is a multiplied companywide
approach to improving all aspects of
quality and customer satisfaction including
fast response and service as well as
product quality. It begins with top
management and diffuses responsibility to
all employers and managers who can have
an impact on quality and customer
satisfaction. QFD, Taguchi methods,
corrective action response teams, cause
and effect diagram, fail safety etc., are the
tools of TQM
Throughput Time
It is the time required for a product
to proceed from concept to launch, order
to delivery or raw material to hands of the
customer. This includes both processing
and queue time.
Manufacturing Resources planning
A computerized method for
planning the use of a company’s resources,
such as scheduling raw materials, vendors,
production equipment and processes.
Push System
It is a system in which material is
processed, and then pushed to the next
stage whether or not it is really required.
Pull System
It is a system of cascading
production and delivery instruction from
downstream activities in which nothing is
produced by the upstream supplier until
the downstream signals a need.
OBJECTIVE
The goal of this project is to
investigate how the tools of lean
manufacturing can be adopted from the
discrete to the batch production
environment and to evaluate the benefits at
a specific industrial concern. The focus of
the approach is on cost reduction, lead
time reduction by eliminating Non-Value
adding activities. Lean manufacturing
methodologies focus on producing a
product as close to its actual work content
times as possible greatly reducing or
eliminating as much non-value adding
time as possible.
Table 1.1 – Comparison of Lean Organization with Traditional organization.
Concept Traditional Organization Lean Organization
Inventory
An asset, as defined by
accounting terminology
A waste – ties up capital and increases
processing lead-time
Ideal Economic
Order Quantity &
Batch Size
Very large – run large batch
sizes to make up for process
downtime
ONE – continuous efforts are made to
reduce downtime to zero
People Utilization
All people must be busy at all
times
Because work is performed based
directly upon customer demand, people
might not be busy
Process Utilization
Use high-speed processes and
run them all the time
Processes need to only be designed to
keep up with demand
Work Scheduling Build products to forecast Build products to demand
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Labor Costs Variable Fixed
Work Groups
Traditional (functional)
departments
Cross-functional teams
Accounting
By traditional FASB*
guidelines
“Through-put” Accounting
Quality
Inspect/sort work at end of
process to make sure we find all
errors
Processes, products, and services are
designed to eliminate errors
AREA OF SELECTION
Super Auto Forge Ltd, (SAFL)
established in 1974 is a pioneer and
manufacturing of the Cold & Warm
forging and extruded steel and aluminum
components and supply them to leading
automotive OEMs (Original Equipments
Manufacturer) through Tier I & Tier II
suppliers.
SAFL is one of the fast growing
companies in the market. The company
has its quality and reputation in the market
hence it has a continuous customer like
Bosch, TRW, ZF lemforder, Visteon etc.,
SELECTION OF PRODUCT OR
FAMILY
Area Selected for implementation
on Lean practice: Ball stud Line (Fig.3.2)
Reason For Selection :
1. Large No of Variants involved in
this Line ( 19 Types of Ball stud
made in this line )
2. Complexity of Operations :
a) CNC turning, b)
SPM Turning, c) Conventional Drilling
d) Induction
Hardening ,e) Tempering, f) Vibro
Barreling
e) Thread Rolling,
h) Magnatic Particle Crack detector
3. Complexity of Material Handling.
CURRENT STATE AND FUTURE
STATE MAPPING FOR BALL STUD
MANUFACTURING LINE
Measurable metrics such as cycle
time, change over time for each and every
operations at all work stations, inventory at
each machine, number of operators in the
line, efficiency of the each operation and
first time through percentage., for the
current state map were collected. Data
collection for the material flow started at
shipping department, and worked
backward all the work station up to the
Shank turning operation.
The current state map that was
constructed. The Icons used for
construction of the Value stream mapping
are as per standard. The charts also include
information flow from customer to
supplier and material flow from supplier to
customer. The data box consists of process
cycle time, C/O time, efficiency of the
operation and Rejection percentage. All
the data collected are in scientific manner.
It was observed from the Current
state map, the Non value added time for
Ball stud manufacturing takes 12.3 days
which is equivalent to 18000 minutes. If
we look at the actual value added time, it
is only 3.3 minutes. The ratio between
NVA to VA found to be 5454.55.
Future state map also drawn
considering the Kaizen burst. The target
for NVA time has been set to 9 days
( 12960 minutes) and VA time to be about
3 minute. Hence the set target for NVA to
VA ratio is 4320.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Conclusion
The Value Stream Mapping of
current state for Ball stud line has been
drawn. On analyzing the value stream
mapping the following observations were
made.
1. The requirement of Takt time is met
in all operations. Except in cross hole
drilling operation, rest of all stations
is sufficient to run only two shifts.
Drilling operation alone need to run
third shift because of longer cycle
time and drill change time. In order to
reduce one shift on the drilling
operation it was decided to reduce
cycle time and setup time.
2. Inventory of work in progress found to
be 6 days stock between first operation
and the last stage. Therefore it is one of
the wastes, to reduce this inventory
level if chute is provided between
CNC turning to cross drilling
operation, the same can be reduced to
1 day stock.
3. There is an opportunity to reduce
setting change over time in thread
rolling operation with use of SMED
technique.
4. At final inspection stage there is a
100% check for presence of cross hole
on the Ball studs, this is because of
complaint from customer stating hole
missing. It is considered as one of the
wastes of operation. Hence there is a
need for poka-yoke to detect the hole
presence in following work stations
after drilling.
5. There is an operation called Induction
hardening wherein high level of skill is
required to position the component
during each cycle. This results
variations in case depth to below the
lower limit or above the upper limit, it
requires rework of low case depth
components and rejections on high
case depth components. This is
considered as one of the wastes. Hence
instead of manual stopping by the
operator if there is pneumatic / stopper
the above can be eliminated.
Future state mapping also
constructed after considering
the above improvements.
CASE STUDY1: BOTTLE NECK OPERATION – CP HOLE DRILLING
Day's production requirement : 2000 nos.
Current Level : Drill change takes place once in 40 nos. which takes 4 min to complete.
Total Machining time : (2200 X 45 ) / 3600 = 27.5 hrs. (Value adding time)
With 2 m/cs. = 13.75 hrs.
No. of parts to be produced = 2200 parts. / day
Cycle time (FTF) = 45 Sec. / Part
Total tool change time : 55 X 240 = 13200 / 3600 = 3.7 hrs. (Non Value adding time)

No. of tool change = 55 Times / day
Time req. for drill change = 240 sec
Possible solutions to reduce Non-value added time :
1. Increase tool life there by reducing no. of drill change
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
2. Minimising drill change over time
1. Increase Tool life by Validating Spindle speed :
Optimized Tool life conducting various trials

Result :
Total tool change time : 30 X 240 = 7200 / 3600 = 2 hrs. (Non Value adding time)
change = 240 sec
DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF DRAW BEADS USED IN PRESS TOOLS
N. Vaishnavi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Priyadarshini Engineering College, Vaniyambadi-635751
ABSTRACT
The project deals with analysis
of effect of Drawbead geometry in Sheet
metal drawing process. Finite element
analysis of drawing circular blanks into
hemi-spherical cup is carried out. The
effect of Drawbeads are analysed by
considering the single circular, double
circular and rectangular Drawbeads.
The Drawbeads with tooling are
modeled by using DYNAFORM
package and the analysis is carried out
in LS- DYNA package. From the
analysis, influence of Drawbead on
binder surface is studied. The wrinkled
perimeter of cup has been reduced by
providing the Drawbead. By placing the
bead at different position on the binder
surface with respect to center of die
cavity optimises the location of
Drawbead. It is observed that the
Drawbead influences in distribution of
stress, strain and thickness distribution.
The reduction in thickness of wall
indicates that the presence of Drawbead
offer high restraining force to the flow
of blank.
An experimental study is
described in which active drawbead
technology is used to attempt to
optimize the sheet metal forming
process. Oval AA 6111-T4 panels were
drawn in a series of tests using various
drawbead trajectories to establish the
feasibility of the approach. The selection
of drawbead trajectory was shown to
have a dramatic effect on maximum
attainable draw depth at fracture.
Increasing drawbead penetration from
79%
21%
Production time :
Drill change time :
10%
90%
Production time :
Drill change time :
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
zero to 5 mm in the early stages of the
drawing process and retracting midway
through the draw resulted in a 40%
increase in draw depth compared to
using a fixed 5 mm penetration. In the
second part of the investigation, active
drawbead technology was used to study
its effect on highly nonsymmetric panel
forming. Drawing limit curves in terms
of drawbead depth versus blankholder
forces (BHF) were plotted, and different
drawbead trajectories were tested to
determine an optimal drawbead
trajectory scheme. A corresponding
finite element model was also created.
The results of strain path analysis
successfully support the experiments.
Keywords: Sheet Formability,
Drawbeads, Deep Drawing, Drawing
Forces
INTRODUCTION
SHEET METAL FORMING
Sheet metal forming process involves
work pieces with high ratio of surfaces to
thickness. Typical examples of application
that use sheets include metal desks,
appliance bodies, hubcaps, Aircraft
fuselages, beverage cans, car bodies and
kitchen utensils. Thus sheet forming also
called press working or stamping.
Metal forming includes a large
group of manufacturing process in which
plastic deformation is used to change the
shape of metal work pieces. Deformation
results from the use of tool usually called a
die in metal forming, which applies
stresses that exceed the yield strength of
the metal. The metal therefore deforms to
take a shape determined by the geometry
of the die.
Sheet metal parts offer the advantages of
light weight and versatile shape. Because
of low cost, Yield strength and formability
characteristics, low carbon steel is the
most commonly used sheet metal. For
aircraft and aerospace applications, the
common sheet materials are aluminium
and titanium
The Sheet metal forming process is
a long established practice for mass
production of Sheet metal parts. In the
forming operation, the Sheet metal is first
clamped by the binders around the
periphery of the die cavity. It is
subsequently drawn into the die cavity by
a moving punch. During the draw, the
binder exerts a restraining force by friction
generated between binder and the sheet
metal. The sheet metal forming technology
is then mainly focused on the design of die
surfaces including the Draw bead which
depends mostly on the experience and
know how of engineers.
FLOW STRESS
The flow curve describes the Stress-
Strain relationship in the region in
which metal forming takes place. It
indicates the flow stress of metal, i.e
the strength property that determines
forces and power required to
accomplish a particular forming
operation.
Flow stress
For most of the metal at room
temperature, the Stress- Strain plot
indicates that as the metal is deformed, its
strength increases due to strain hardening.
The stress required to continue
deformation must be increased to match
this increase in strength. Flow stress is
defined as the instantaneous value of stress
required to continue deformation of metal.
i.e. To keep the strength of metal as
function of strain, which can be expressed
by
Y
f
= K
n
FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAM (FLD)
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure 1.3. Forming limit diagram
Comparisons of various materials
are possible with a aid of Forming Limit
Diagram (FLD). Gridded Sheet metal
strips of different widths are tested with
very good lubricant. (e.g. oiled
polyethylene film) on the punch. As the
strip width diminishes, the minor strain
decreases too until, some characteristic
strip width becomes zero. By definition
this is a condition of plane strain. The FLD
is usually constructed for localized
necking. The FLD moves higher for
thicker sheet and is, obviously lower for
material of lower ductility (lower n value)
The FLD was introduced in the 1960’s and
quickly become an important tool in
diagnosing production problems. When
parts are
found
to fail in
production of gridded sheets are placed
into the production die and are stretched.
Distortion of circle is measured. The circle
nearest to the fracture line gives the strain
ratio at the critical point and defines (point
A.) several remedies. Some of them not
intuitively evident may be explored to
bring strain within allowable limits.
1. Increase the minor strain by
clamping more firmly in that
direction
2. If fracture occurred away from the
apex, improve lubrication to
redistribute strains.
3. If all else fails the part will have to
be redesigned to reduce the major
strain or some material must be
allowed to flow into the die,
changing the process into
combined stretch forming.
DRAWING PROCESS
Drawing without blank holder
Wrinkling can be avoided when the
sheet is sufficiently stiff. This is always the
case for very shallow draws, when the
drawing ratio d
o
/D
p
< 1.2. Blanks that are
relative to the blank diameter allow higher
drawing ratios; wrinkling depends also on
the die profile, which determines the rate
of circumferential compression.
Drawing with blank holder
Drawing with blank holder
The blank holder must exert
sufficient pressure to prevent wrinkling,
but excessive blank holder pressure would
restrict free movement of the material and
cause fracture in the wall surface. To
produce a sound cup, the blank holder
pressure may be taken as 1.5% of the yield
strength of the material.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
RAW FORCE
When the optimum blank holder
pressure is applied, draw force rises as the
flange diameter is decreased. And it will
drops until the thickened edge of blank is
ironed. Excessive draw force causes
fracture and too low pressure allows
wrinkling. A very approximate estimate of
the drawing force may be obtained from
the formula.
P
d
= π*d*t*S*((D/d)-c)----------------- (1)
LIMITING DRAW RATIO (LDR)
The Limiting Draw Ratio (LDR) is
defined as the maximum diameter of the
blank that can be drawn under ideal
conditions. It is expressed as reduction
ratio (d
o
- D
p
)/d
o
and more commonly as
drawing ratio d
o
/D
p
[7].
Average flow stress (mean flow
stress) is the average value of stress taken
out from the stress – strain curve (i.e. from
the beginning of strain to the final value
during deformation). The average flow
stress is determined by integrating the flow
curve equation, between zero and the final
strain value defining the range of interest.
This yields the equation.
Y
f
= K
n
/
(1+n) ------------------- (2)
DEFECTS IN DRAWING
Drawing is the more complex form
of Sheet metal working than cutting and
bending. A number of defects can occur in
a cup shaped product. Some of the defects
are listed below.
(a) Wrinkling in the flange – Wrinkling
in a drawn part consists of a series of
ridges that form radially in the undrawn
flange of the work part due to
compressive buckling.
(b) Wrinkling in the wall – If and the
flange is drawn into the cup, these
ridges appear in the vertical wall.
(c) Tearing - Tearing is an open crack in
the vertical wall, usually near the base of
drawn cup, due to high tensile stresses that
cause thinning and failure of metal at this
location. This type of failure can also
occur as the metal is pulled over a sharp
die corner.
(d) Earing - This is the formation of
irregularities in the upper edge of a deep
drawn cup, caused by anisotropy in the
sheet metal. If the material is perfectly
isotropic, earing failure do not form.
SHEET METAL CHARACTERISTICS
After a blank is cut from a larger sheet, it
is formed with various shapes. Basically
all sheet-forming processes employ
various dies and tooling to stretch and
bend the sheet. Certain characteristics of
sheet metal are given in the Table.1.9. This
is because of their important effects on the
overall operation.
Table No.1.9. Sheet metal characteristics
Sl.No. Characteristics Importance
1 Elongation 1.Determines the capability of sheet metal to stretch
without necking and failure
2.High strain hardening exponent (n) and strain rate
sensitivity exponent (m) desirable
2 Yield point Elongation
1.Observed with mild steel sheets
2.Cause flame like depressions on the sheet surfaces
3.Can be eliminated by temper rolling, but the sheet
must be formed within a certain time after rolling.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
3 Anisotrophy(Planar)
1.Exhibits different behavior in different planar
directions
2.Present in cold rolled sheets because of preferred
orientations or mechanical fibering
3.Can be reduced or eliminated by annealing but at
lowered strength.
4 Anisotrophy(Normal)
1.Determines thinning behavior of sheet metals
during stretching
2.Important in deep drawing operations.
5 Grain size
1.Determines surface roughness in the stretched
sheet metal
2.The coarser the grain, rougher the appearance
6 Residual stress
1.Caused by non uniform deformation during
forming
2.Causes part distortion when sectioned and can lead
to stress corrosion cracking
3.Reduced or eliminated by stress relieving.
7 Spring back
1.Caused by elastic recovery of the plastically
deformed sheet after unloading
2.Causes distortion of part and loss of dimensional
accuracy; can be controlled by techniques such as
over bending and bottoming of punch.
8 Wrinkling
1.Caused by compressive stresses in the plane of the
sheet
2.Can be objectionable or useful in imparting
stiffness to parts
3. Can be controlled by proper tool and die design.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
EQUIPMENT
Previous work has resulted
in the development of a multi-point deep
draw system, featuring active drawbeads
and a four-cylinder hydraulic blankholding
system.10 The system consists of a 1100
kN hydromechanical press, a drawbead
drive system built into the press bed, a die
with an integral blankholding stage, and a
comprehensive process monitoring and
control system.
The investigated panel is oval in
outline with straight, parallel sides and
semicircular ends. Its sidewall is vertical,
i.e., perpendicular to the blankholder, and
the bottom is flat (Figure 2). Drawbeads
have been installed for the straight sides
only and act through the lower die binder,
as shown in the schematic diagram of the
tooling (Figure 3). The length of the die
cavity is 304 mm and its width is 152 mm.
The punch nose radius and die shoulder
radius are 10 mm each. The drawbeads
selected are cylindrical with a 5 mm
radius, and their ends have spherical
curvature.
A set of trajectories T1 through T5
was chosen as shown in Figure 4. The
maximum penetration of 5 mm was
selected to allow use of different drawbead
end design without extreme buckling of
the end regions. The set is spaced over the
duration of the draw so that the peak
penetration occurs at 7.6 mm intervals.
The drawbead is not permitted to retract to
zero penetration because this can result in
excessive buckling of the unsupported
material over the recess in the die
accommodating the drawbead. Simulation
of trajectories similar to T1 to T4 predicted
that trajectories with early penetration
would enhance the drawbead depth of a
box-shaped panel.9 Trajectory T5 was
added to investigate the effect of even
earlier penetration on the outcome.
Performance was benchmarked against a
standard 5 mm constant drawbead
penetration (designated as T50).
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Based on initial tryouts with
aluminum, a high BHF was selected to
minimize wrinkling and force operation in
a realistic window. Cylinder pressures of
9.65 N/mm2 were selected as standard for
these tests, resulting in an effective
pressure of 1.28 N/mm2 on the blank
surface. A mineral oil-based commercial
lubricant was chosen for the entire study.
This lubricant was designed for drawing of
aluminum and contains extreme pressure
additives as well as additives designed to
bond to the reactive aluminum surface.
The lubricant was applied to the flange
regions of the blank only, leaving the area
that contacts the punch dry. This generally
allows the fracture region of the part (at
the onset of the punch nose radius) to be
slightly unloaded, affording some
additional drawability. Application density
was set at 5 g/m2 assuming an average of
45 drops/g.
Although the mechanical press has
been converted to hydraulic drive,11 it
remains stroke-restricted. As a result, its
stroke permits the drawing of parts with a
maximum depth of 55 mm only. The blank
size was chosen so that the part would fail
midway into the available range of draw
depth under adverse drawing conditions.
Using the lubrication method described
above, this resulted in a blank size of 343
X 419 mm. The average drawing velocity
was set at 0.25 in./sec. (6.35 mm/sec.).
This is defined as the average speed
between 0 and 2 in. (50.8 mm) draw depth.
Blanks were debarred before
gridding. The experimental conditions are
summarized in Table 1. The blanks were
cut with the rolling direction parallel to the
drawbeads. The blankholder pressure is
calculated using the initial tool-blank
contact area. It increases during the draw.
One blank was run per trajectory. This was
deemed reasonable based on the good
repeatability seen in initial strip and blank
tests.
RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT
The punch load curves for these tests
are noted. The associated drawbead
trajectories are shown as well for
clarification. The punch load curve for T50
(5 mm constant penetration that represents
the baseline) is consistently the highest,
peaking out at 85.2 kN, and fractures the
earliest at 38.5 mm. The punch load for
trajectory T1 increases at a lower rate than
the baseline until the penetration nears 5
mm. From this point on the curve runs
parallel to but about 2 kN below the
baseline response. This continues until
bead penetration has fallen off about 1
mm, at which point the curve flattens out.
The peak is at 73.6 kN, 13.6% lower than
the baseline.
The punch load curves for trajectories
T2, T3, and T4 are nearly coincident until
8 mm draw depth, at which point the
response to trajectory T2 begins to
increase. The punch load curves for
trajectories T3 and T4 continue on together
until 16 mm draw depth when drawbead
action begins for trajectory T3. The
responses to trajectories T2, T3, and T4
peak at 75.5 kN, 79.7 kN, and 77.5 kN,
respectively. Note the typical increase in
punch load at fracture. This is likely
caused by interference between the
thickened material jamming in the
punch/die gap and resulting in excessive
friction forces just prior to fracture.
Because the results show in Figure 5
indicate a positive effect for early action, a
fifth trajectory, T5, with nonzero initial
penetration of 5 mm was investigated. In
addition, the baseline data was expanded
by performing tests for constant drawbead
penetrations of 2 and 8 mm (T20 and T80).
Penetrations greater than 8 mm with the
spherical end bead design result in
potential tearing at the bead ends and were
therefore omitted. Penetrations less that 2
mm resulted in excessive buckling (and
hence considerable restraining force) at the
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
bead ends. The results of these additional
tests are shown in Figure 6. A higher
constant drawbead penetration results in a
higher punch load curve as well as earlier
fracture. The curve for trajectory T5 peaks
at 68.8 kN, which is 19.2% less than the
baseline curve for a constant 5 mm
penetration. Although neither part
fractured (both were drawn to the
maximum available depth of 54.5 mm),
trajectory TS results in a 6.5% drop in
peak punch force compared to trajectory
T1.
Plotting depth at fracture as a
function of maximum punch force for all
of the above cases results in the inverse
relationship shown in Figure 7. This
relationship indicates the need to minimize
punch force to maximize part depth for a
given set of operating conditions (for
example, blank size, binder force,
lubrication). The experimental data
indicate that the product of the draw depth,
d, and the fracture force, F, is a constant,
as follows:
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
The knowledge gained during the
investigation described in the first part of
this paper is applied to the drawing of a
typical nonsymmetric panel resembling an
automotive front fender using the material
Al 6111-T4. The formed panel is shown in
Figure 9.(12) The four corners of the panel
have different combinations of punch and
lower die radii, and the four unsupported
walls have different slopes. The isometric
view of the tooling used for the present
tests is shown in Figure 10.
DRAWBEAD TRAJECTORIES AND
CONDITIONS
Because the preceding study has
suggested that early drawbead penetration
would enhance the draw depth, only
trajectories with early penetration are
explored in this phase. The formability of
material is primarily affected by two
parameters in active drawbead die, namely
BHF and drawbead trajectory. The first
family of tests is conducted to study the
formability improvement using active
drawbeads versus flat tooling forming and
fixed drawbead forming. Trajectories for
this study are shown in Figure 11. A
trajectory without drawbead penetration is
selected to mimic flat tooling forming. The
5 mm constant drawbead penetration is
chosen as the benchmark to be compared
with the active drawbead case at the same
maximum penetration. For each of these
cases, curves are plotted in terms of draw
depth versus BHF to determine an optimal
BHF for maximum drawability. For a
given BHF setup, different drawbead
trajectories can cause changes in drawing
performance. Therefore, the set of active
drawbead trajectories shown in Figure 12
was investigated at a chosen BHF to
eventually determine the optimal
drawbead trajectory. For these trajectories,
only the maximum penetration is varied.
Blankholder forces were varied between
9.15 kN and 195.8 kN and held constant
during each test. Lubricant was applied on
the flange region of the blank. The average
draw velocity was set at 12 mm/sec. The
experimental conditions are summarized in
Table 2. Note that the blanks were cut with
the rolling direction oriented along the
sides containing the active drawbeads.
RESULTS "OPTIMAL"BHF
Traditionally, curves showing draw
depth versus blankholder force (BHF) are
used to determine a safe region for
forming a good part employing flat
tooling." When involving drawbeads in the
process, the deep drawing operation is not
only influenced by BHF but also by the
drawbead trajectory. However, there is no
such limit curve window for drawbead
application in existence so far. Therefore,
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
limit curves are experimentally established
and studied in this work, using the
drawbead trajectories of Figure 11.
The results are shown in Figure 13. It
is obvious that use of active drawbeads
with early penetration indeed results in
better formability than either flat tooling
forming or fixed drawbead forming.
Quantitatively, the active drawbead case
produces a successful part 7.69% deeper
than that obtained with flat tooling and
16.7% deeper than with the fixed
drawbeads. Furthermore, a relative
maximal draw depth is achieved by active
drawbeads employing a BHF in the range
of 20 to 40 kN.
"OPTIMAL" DRAWBEAD
TRAJECTORY
The above results clearly prove that
using active drawbeads can be an effective
method to improve the formability of Al
6111-T4. However, the optimal penetration
for the drawbead trajectory had yet to be
determined. Five different maximum
drawbead penetrations, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7
mm, were selected for this purpose, as
shown in Figure 12. All panels were
formed with a BHF of 36.65 kN. The
results are presented in Figure 14. Every
single trajectory produced a part with a
maximum draw depth as marked by each
column in the figure. It turns out that the 5
mm trajectory provides the best
formability among the five trajectories at
the prescribed BHR
This experimental investigation
clearly demonstrates that first, the active
drawbead is an effective way to improve
formability of Al 6111-T4 in the deep
drawing process and may, in fact, be better
than either flat tooling or a fixed
drawbead. Second, an optimal choice of
the drawbead trajectory has to be based on
a comprehensive consideration of BHF In
other words, the choice of drawbead
trajectory depends on the selection of the
BHE
STRAIN ON PUNCH FACE
Strain on the punch face is one of
the critical factors that determine how
severely the final geometry will be
affected by springback. According to the
information about industrial practice at
General Motors, for example, the amount
of strains in this region is generally
expected to be at least 2% to hold an ideal
punch face dimension and minimize
springback.14
Because customary grid pattern
measurement systems with their small
elements (circles) would tend to produce a
measurement error of about 2%, which is
in the realm of the expected strains, three
big circles were precisely scribed onto the
punch face area of blanks, as shown in
Figure 15. Blanks were drawn with the
four drawbead trajectories of Figure 12 to
a depth of 30 mm, which was chosen
because it produced safe draws and made
possible comparisons between the
different trajectories.
The circles were measured along the
W (width) and L (length) directions, as
indicated in Figure 15. Each circle was
measured 5 or 6 times, and the average
reading in each direction was obtained to
calculate the corresponding true strain.
Figures 16 through 18 display the
measurement results for all circles. It is
seen that all strains are very small in
magnitude, and the values in the two
perpendicular directions are both positive
in each case, which indicates a biaxial
tension state in the punch face area. In all
cases, the strains in the length direction
exceed those in the width direction.
Comparing the data without
drawbeads to the other three with active
drawbeads, shows that active drawbead
trajectories always generate higher strains
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
in this region. The drawbead trajectory
with 5 mm maximum penetration results in
the highest strains of all three circles. The
larger deformation over the punch face
indicates that a small amount of extra
material in this area has been stretched
outward toward the punch corner area so
that the lack of metal along the punch
corner is somehow compensated to some
degree, and thinning or necking in this
region is slightly delayed. Active
drawbeads are thus proving advantageous
not only to improving the formability of
A1 6111-T4 from yet another standpoint,
but also to benefit shape control in the
punch bottom
PROBLEM FORMULATION
PROBLEM SPECIFICATION
In Sheet metal drawing process,
the unsupported flange surface and wall
surface subjected to defects like wrinkling,
tearing and galling. In most of the cases
wrinkling defect is dominant. To avoid
such defect rate of blank flow must be
controlled and thereby increasing the
restraining forces. The resistant force to
the flow of blank depends upon the
location of Draw bead on the binder
surface. Hence this project is concentrated
on the analysis of effect of Draw bead on
wrinkling tendency, investigation of
thickness distribution, stress distribution,
Effective plastic strain. The simulation is
carried out to optimise the Draw bead
position with respect to center of die
cavity. Drawing of hemispherical cup with
circular, double circular, rectangular Draw
bead are considered for the purpose.
METHODOLOGY
Modeling of tool, blank and
preprocessing is carried out by
DYNAFORM package which is
specifically used to model for Sheet metal
forming process. The input information is
material type, blank thickness, friction
coefficient, and travel speed of punch.
Shell elements are selected, because the
bending deformation is dominant during
most of the sheet forming process.
The FEA solver, LS-DYNA is used
as processor. It is being an explicit solver
employs the direct integration technique,
which is capable of providing accurate
solution for the dynamic equation of
equilibrium that describes the behavior of
the Sheet in sheet metal forming problem.
Post –Processing of the result is
carried out using LS-POST processor. The
main features of the result that are interest
include distribution of strain and thickness
of deformed sheet.
MATHEMATICAL CALCULATION
PUNCH FORCE
The force required to draw the blank into the die cavity is termed as punch force. It is
denoted as F
p
. It is expressed in Newton (N). It is calculated as follows
The punch force depends on the thickness of blank, Yield strength of blank, Diameter of
Shell, Diameter of blank
For circular blank, punch force = F= π*d*t*S*((D/d)-c)
F= π* 0.1*0.00102*260*10
6
*((0.174/0.1)- 0.65)
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
F= 90.849*10
3
N.
BINDER FORCE
The force required to hold the blank along with the die surface and allow the blank to
restricted flow into die cavity. Normally, binder force will be 1/3 of the punch force. It is
expressed as F
b

Binder force ≈ 1/3 of Punch force
≈ 1/3( 90.849*10
3
)
≈ 30.283*10
3
N
DIAMETER OF BLANK
For drawing hemispherical cup, the blank diameter is calculated as follows. It is the
maximum diameter of the sheet required to form the cup.
Diameter of blank D = Sqrt ( d
2
+ 4dh)
D = Sqrt( (0.1)
2

+ (4*0.1*0.05) )
D = 0.174m
D = 0.174m
MODELING AND ANALYSIS
CREATING PUNCH AND DIE
The Line command is activated and the centerline is drawn in the graphic window by
specifying the coordinate points. Then arc with radius of 50mm is drawn by leaving some
space in vertical coordinates. The die hole is drawn with the dimensions shown in figure.7.1.
fig
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure.7.1. Creation of punch and die hole
The entire line and arc segments are revolved for 360
0
by specifying centerline as the
axis.
MODELING SHEET METAL
The Sheet metal is modeled in between the punch and die hole. Because of inappropriate
element at the boundary, the sheet metal with square shape is modeled. Then required diameter is cut
according to the blank diameter.
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
1. Tool
Material : Rigid material
Density : 7850 Kg/m
3
Young’s modulus : 2.1E11 N/m
2
Poisson’s ratio : 0.3
2. Sheet metal
Material : FLD Hardening model
Density : 7580 Kg/m
3
Young’s modulus : 2.06E11 N/m
2
Poisson’s ratio : 0.29
Yield stress : 260E6 N/m
2
Tangent modulus : 34.34E6 N/m
2
Hardening Exponent : 0.2
MESHING
Element Selection
Shell elements were selected because of bending deformation is dominant during most of the
sheet forming process.
Element Description
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Shell element is a 4 node element with both bending and membrane capabilities. Both in
plane and normal loads are permitted. The element has 12 DOF at each node. i.e. Translation,
Acceleration, Velocity in x,y,z and Rotation in x,y,z
Shell Element input Data
Number of integration points (NIP) ranges from 1 to 100. The node thickness is given
by indicating the NIP value. If NIP is 0 or blank, the default value as 2. If the thickness is
uniform at all nodes, the NIP value at only one node is enough.
Complete Model
Figure.7.4.4.Complete Model

Centre
of die
cavity
Section of
die
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Contact Description
The contact is made as
surface-to-surface type with forming
options. The friction coefficient is assumed
as 0.14. Two contacts are established to
have the proper simulation. one with punch
to blank and another with die to blank. For
establishing contact between blank and
draw bead, the draw bead contact is used.
Loading Condition
The loads are given in the form of
array defined in the array parameter. The
velocity of 5m/sec is given to punch with
time data values. Depend on the movement
necessary for operation; the stroke of
50mm is defined. Several research works
have proved that, the optimum velocity is
5m/sec in order to reduce the computation
time.
Solution Time
The final data required for the analysis
is solution time. It must be within the limit to
have a proper simulation result. Normally the
solution time is based on the dynamics.
Basically, it depends on the punch travel speed
and the acceleration of the tool. Because of the
problem belongs to non-linear dynamics, the
solution time plays an important role.
Solving the problem
The problem is solved by giving various
parameters like Element input data, contact
description, loading condition, solution time
etc. For solving, the model is transferred from
DYNAFORM to LS- DYNA environment.
Then the problem is solved by giving the
appropriate command. After solving, we can
evaluate the different results in the LS – POST
processor available in the software itself. The
results are given in the chapter 8.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
OPTIMIZATION OF DRAW BEAD LOCATION
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure. 8.1. Draw bead location on die surface
The draw bead is positioned at various
locations over the binder surface from the
center of the die cavity. The Draw bead
location is varied in the die surface with
respect to center of the die cavity. From
the Table 1, it is clear that as the location is
varied the resistance offered to the blank
flow is increased. This increase in
resistance causes crack on the cup. The
location where minimum Von-mises stress
noted is considered as optimal position.
EFFECT OF DRAW BEAD ON REDUCTION OF WRINKLING TENDENCY
Fig. (a) Fig. (b)
Figure 8.2(a )& (b) Effect of Draw bead on reduction of wrinkling tendency
The fig. 8.2.a and 8.2.b indicates that the draw bead offers resistance to the material
flow. Thus the wrinkled perimeter of cup is reduced when compared to the cup drawn without
draw bead. The image gives the clarity of where cup tends to crack. The different changes are
indicated in the fringe levels.
EFFECT OF DRAW BEAD ON THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Fig.8.3.a Fig.8.3.b
Figure. 8.3 .(a) & (b) Effect of draw bead on thickness distribution

The fig.8.3. Shows the distribution of thickness
along the cup profile when the blank is passed
through the single circular draw bead. It is
observed that the thickness at the center of the
blank is very minimum. At the location 1 the
predicted value is 0.771mm. The maximum value
of thickness is 1.025mm at location 16. i.e. at
flange portion. Thinning is more in the middle
region where stretching takes place. Gradually
thickness increases towards the bottom portion.
Due to compressive strain the flange portion has
the maximum thickness, which is even thicker
than original sheet thickness.
Graphical comparison of thickness along
the component with and without Draw
bead condition is given in the Table.8.3.
Table 8.3.
Fig. 8.3(c) Thickness
distribution curve

EFFECT OF DRAW BEAD ON PLASTIC STRAIN
Figure.8.4.(a) &(b) Effect of draw bead on plastic strain distribution

Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Table 8.4.
Figure.8.4(c) Effective plastic strain distribution
8.5. EFFECT OF DRAW BEAD ON VON – MISES STRESS DISTRUBUTION


Fig. 8.5(a) Fig. 8.5(b)
Figure. 8.5. (a) &(b)Effect of draw bead on Von-mises stress
The fig. 8.5.(a) &(b) shows the Von-mises distribution in the drawn cup. It is seen that
the Draw bead offers more resistance with low blank holder pressure. The stress estimated
without Draw bead at location 1 is 550Mpa. and with Draw bead at the same location is
estimated as 750Mpa. There is no considerable difference from location 1 to 10. The
maximum change occurs at the flange area only. (i.e. 550- 800Mpa.)
COMPARISON OF DRAW BEADS EFFECTIVENESS
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
The Fig.8.6, 8.7 and 8.8 shows the comparison of effectiveness of the draw beads by
considering Von-mises stresses, Plastic strain and Percentage of thickness reduction. It is
clearly observed that the thickness reduction is more incase of double Draw bead.
EFFECT OF DOUBLE (COMBINED) DRAW BEAD
Fig. 8.9. (a) Effective stress Fig. 8.9(b) Effective plastic strain
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure.8.9 (a) and (b) Effect of combined Draw beads
The Fig.8.9. (a) Shows the variation of effective stress values at each location. The
maximum value at location 12 with a value of 840Mpa.and minimum value at location 1 with a
value of 760Mpa. In the flange portion the stress value is reduced and at the extreme location stress
value is 460Mpa.Fig.8.9(b) shows the changes in the Effective plastic strain. The maximum value
observed is 0.375 at location 10 and minimum value is 0.125 (i.e. at the flange portion).

Fig.8.9(c) Shell thickness Fig.8.9(d) Percent thickness reduction
Figure.8.9(c) and (d) Effect of Double Draw beads
The fig.8.9(c) Shows the changes in the shell thickness along the cup profile. It is
clear that the minimum value observed is 0.76mm and the maximum value at the flange area
is 1.067mm.Fig.8.9(d) shows the variation of percentage thickness reduction along the cup
profile. The maximum percentage thickness reduction is 17% at location 7 and minimum
value 1% at location 16. At the center of the cup, percentage reduction is 15%.
EFFECT OF RECTANGULAR DRAW BEAD
Comparison of Plastic strain with
rectangular Drawbead
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Location along the cup profile
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

P
l
a
s
t
i
c

s
t
r
a
i
n
Without bead
Wth bead
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Location along cup profile
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

i
n

m
m
With bead
without bead
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Table
8.10(a)
Figure. 8.10(a) Thickness distribution
Table 8.10(b)

Figure. 8.10(b) Effective strain distribution
From the Fig.8.10. The thickness of cup at location 1 is estimated as 0.88 mm without Draw
bead and with Draw bead 0.761 mm. At the flange portion estimated thickness is 1.017 mm
(without Draw bead) and 1.01 mm (withdraw bead). The thickness reduction caused by
rectangular draw bead is more compared to circular draw bead due to the reason that blank is
bent and unbent four times over rectangular bead instead of three times over circular bead.
CONCLUSION
A numerical model has been
introduced to simulate the hemispherical
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
cup forming process. The model is
formulated to fit the Finite Element
package DYNAFORM and LS- DYNA.
The Draw bead is introduced to offer the
restraining forces to the blank flow. The
simulation is carried out to investigate the
effect of Draw bead geometries. It is found
that Sheet thinning taken place while
introducing Draw bead. The optimisation is
carried out by varying the Draw bead
position on the die surface. Effective
stresses, Effective Plastic strain and
distribution of thickness along the cup
profile have been found. The following
conclusion has been drawn.
1. Due to the influence of draw bead
geometry, the wrinkling tendency is
reduced in the perimeter of hemi-spherical
cup. It is seen from the fig.8.2 (a) and8.2
(b). Wrinkled area has been reduced.
2. The Draw bead locations are crucial to
their effectiveness. The simulation allows
to tryout different locations for
optimisation. As the location of bead
moves away or towards the center of die
cavity on the die surface, the Effective
stress is increased that causes crack on the
cup.
3. The reduction in thickness of wall
indicates that the presence of Draw bead
offer high restraining force or resistance to
the flow of blank.
4. Influence of rectangular and double (or)
combined Draw bead offering resistance to
the material flow is more than that of
single circular Draw bead. In the center
portion of the cup, the thickness reduction
is almost 15% .The maximum thickness
reduction is 17.5% at location 7.
5. There is no considerable change in the
effective plastic strain and stress with the
use of single circular and double circular
draw bead. Only at the flange portion, the
stresses are varied from 750Mpa. to
850Mpa.
The initial phase of the study
revealed that draw depth in aluminum
sheet metal stamping can be influenced
considerably by the introduction of active
drawbeads. Fixed drawbeads, which are
immovable components of the binder, are
shown to perform poorly when compared
with active drawbeads. An up to 57%
increase in draw depth can be realized
when fixed drawbeads are replaced by
active drawbeads. The draw depth that can
be achieved with active drawbeads
depends on the duration of drawbead
penetration and the stage of the draw at
which the drawbeads become active. It
appears that a brief extension of the
drawbeads during the earliest stage of the
draw results in the deepest panels. Early
drawbead penetration trajectories produced
22% deeper panels when compared with
the latest drawbead trajectories tested in
this investigation. An added benefit to
early drawbead action is a reduction in
maximum drawing forces.
In the second part of the study, a
complex nonsymmetric panel was formed
of A1 6111-T4 sheet using active
drawbeads. Flat binder forming, fixed
drawbead forming, and active drawbead
forming were carried out, and different
active drawbead trajectories were tested
and analyzed by modifying the maximum
drawbead penetration. Both results indicate
that active drawbeads, when compared
with traditional flat binder forming and
fixed drawbead forming, provide improved
formability of A1 6111 T4. The analysis of
the strain on the punch face represents
another approach to prove that active
drawbeads produce parts with greater draw
depth. Furthermore, comparatively higher
strains in this region indicate the beneficial
usage of active drawbeads on shape
control. Strain paths near the punch nose
usually show a near plane strain
deformation mode, which indicates that
this region is the area most susceptible to
fracture defect initiation in a deep drawing
operation
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
REFERENCES
1. Bohn.M.L,(2000) “ A study of the optimisation of sheet metal drawing with
active draw beads” Journal of manufacturing process.,Vol.20,No.4,pp67-75.
2. Cao.J,(1978) “ Draw bead penetration as a control element of material flow”
sheet metal and stamping symposium, Detroit. pp 145-153.
3. Carleer.B.D, (1994) “ Modeling drawbeads with finite elements and verification”
Journal of Material processing Technology, Vol.45, No.3, 63-68.
4. Chanman Kim, (1997) “ Finite element analysis and experimental verification for
draw bead drawing process” Journal of Material processing Technology, Vol.72,
pp188-194.
5. Fuh-Kuo-chen, (1997) “ Analysis of an equivalent draw bead model for the finite
element simulation of stamping process” International Journal of Mechanical Tools
Manufacturing, Vol.3, No.4, pp409-423.
6. Gang Liu, (2002) “ Optimization of draw bead in drawing tools of auto body cover panel”
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol.124, pp 278-285.
7. Groover Mikell P,(2001) “ Fundamentals for modern manufacturing”, Tata Mc.Graw
Hill Publication, New Delhi, 2
nd
edition.
8. Joshi Prakash.H, (1994) “ Press Tools” S.Chand Company, 2nd

edition.
9. Keum Y.T, (2001) “ Application of expert draw bead model to the finite element
simulation of sheet forming process” Division of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyong
University, South Korea.
10. Lin zhongqin, (2000) “ Study on the draw bead setting of the large deformation area
in trunk lid., Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol.38, pp 234-242.
11. Meinders T, (1998) “ The implementation of equivalent draw bead model in a finite
element code for sheet metal forming”, Journal of Material processing Technology,
Vol.83, pp 234- 244.
12. Murali G, (2005) “ Finite element analysis and experimental validation of effect of
draw bead geometry in sheet metal drawing process” 21
st
AIMTDR conference,
Vellore, India.
13. Nine H.D, (1982) “ New draw bead concepts for sheet metal forming” Journal of
applied Metalworking, Vol.2, No.3, pp 185-192.
14. Nine H.D, (1982) “ The applicability of coulomb’s friction law to draw beads in
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Sheet metal forming” Journal of applied Metalworking, Vol.2, No.3, pp 58-65.
15. Nine H.D,(1978) “ Draw bead forces in sheet metal forming” Journal of Material
Processing and Technology, Vol.40, pp179-201.
16. Pollack H.W,(1996) “ Tool design” Tata Mc Graw Hill Publication, New Delhi,
2
nd
edition.
Cold And Hot Upsetting Characteristics Studies On Ti And Cu
Based Low Alloy P/M Steels.
M.Ravichandran
1
, Mr.S.Anbalagan
1
, Mr.S.Sukumar
1
& Mr.B.Narayanan
2

1. Lecturer, 2. Student, PRIST University, Thanjavur-613402.
Email: ravichandran3681@gmail.com,s.anbu2007@gmail.com, narone.auro@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The present investigation has been
undertaken to study the cold and hot
upsetting behavior of titanium based
low alloy sintered P/M steels. Elemental
powders of atomized iron, graphite,
copper, molybdenum and titanium
were mixed in suitable proportions
using a ball mill, compacted and
sintered in order to yield the following
alloy compositions: Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu,
Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu-1%Mo-1%Ti, Fe-
0.5%C-2%Cu-2%Mo-2%Ti and Fe-
0.5C%-2%Cu-2%Mo-4%Ti. The
compaction was performed in a 100
tones hydraulic press using suitable
punch and die combination.
Indigenously developed ceramic coating
was done on the surface of the
compacted specimens in order to
prevent them from oxidation. Sintering
was done in a 3.5 kW muffle furnace at
the temperature of 1000 ± 10ºC for a
period of 3 hours. Cold and hot
upsetting studies on the sintered
preforms were undertaken in order to
study the densification and plastic
deformation behavior of the sintered
low alloy P/M preforms under various
applied loads. From the experimental
analysis, it was observed that adding of
Cu, Mo & Ti with the Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu
reduces the deformation and
densification properties.
Key Words:- P/M Steels,
Densification, Deformation, Sintering,
Cold upsetting, Hot upsetting,
Preforms.
1. INTRODUCTION
Powder metallurgy is a production
technique that makes metal products by
compacting metal powders to a desirable
shape and then sintering at an adequate
temperature. The greatest merit of P/M is
to be able to greatly decrease mechanical
processing because of having the net-
shape of the final product by powder
compaction within die. Researchers made
lot of attempts in C, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mg, Al
and Cu powders.. In the present
investigation sintered plain carbon steel
with 0.5% graphite has been chosen in
view of its potential application in areas
requiring high strength, high hardness and
wear resistance such as tools, cutters,
fasteners, bearing rollers etc. Other
alloying elements such as copper,
molybdenum and titanium are also added
to Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu to study the
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
densification and deformation behavior
during the cold and hot upsetting.
2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
2.1 Powder preparation
Atomized iron (Fe) powders of particle
size 150 µm supplied by Hoganas
India Ltd., Pune and Graphite (C)
Powder of 5 µm supplied by M/s
Ausbury Graphite Mills, USA, Copper
(Cu) powder of 100 µm, Molybdenum
(Mo) powder of 100 µm and Titanium
(Ti) powder of 100 µm were used for
the present research work.
2.2 Blending
Required mass of Fe and other
elemental powders such as C, Cu, Mo and
Ti were accurately weighed to the suitable
proportion. Mixing is done in an
indigenously developed ball mill for 10
hours in order to have the homogeneous
mixture. The balls and powders are
selected in 1:1 weight ratio. The rotational
speed is selected as per the standard
formula
(i.e. 32 / √d, d - diameter of the drum in
meters) [8].

2.3 Powder Characterizations
All powder processing starts with
an elemental powder, therefore one must
understand nature of elemental powder to
understand the process. The basic
characteristics of elemental Fe, Cu, Mo
and Ti powders such as flow rate,
apparent density, flow rate and sieve size
analysis have been carried out using
standard methods of testing. Flow rate is
affected by particle size, size distribution
and shape.
2.4 Powder Compaction
The blended powder mass was
then compacted into cylindrical billets of
aspect ratio (Height / Diameter) 0.5 using
a hydraulic press of 100 tones (1000kN)
capacity, applying the required pressure.
Graphite was used as a lubricant to reduce
the friction while compaction.
2.5 Ceramic Coating
Immediately after the compaction,
an indigenously developed ceramic
coating was applied on the compacts to
avoid atmospheric oxidation during
sintering. The coated specimens are dried
for 24 hours in natural atmosphere.
2.6 Sintering
Sintering of the coated samples
was carried out in a muffle furnace of 3.5
kW capacity at a temperature of 1000 ± 10
0
C for a period of 120 minutes.
2.7 Hot Upsetting
Hot upsetting of the sintered preforms
was carried out immediately after the
sintering process, using a 200 tones
(2000 kN) mechanical press.
Specimens are heated to the red hot
condition to carryout the hot upsetting
process [8]. Cooling is done in oil
bath.
2.8 Cold Upsetting
Cold upsetting of the sintered
preforms was carried out in a 100 tones
Universal Testing Machine (UTM) using a
set of flat dies and graphite as a lubricant.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
To study and analyze the deformation
and densification behavior of Fe-0.5%C-
1%Cu, Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu-1%Mo-1%Ti,
Fe-0.5%C-2%Cu-2%Mo-2%Ti and Fe-
0.5C%-2%Cu-2%Mo-4%Ti. The cold and
hot upsetting were carried out on sintered
P/M preforms with aspect ratio (A.R) 0.5.
The specimens were prepared after
sintering, by removing the oxide film over
the preforms. The correct dimensions of
preforms were taken by using a digital
vernier caliper. The initial density of
preforms was also measured by
Archimede’s principle. The deformation
and densification behavior of preforms
were studied under step by step increment
axial stress applied by 100 T hydraulic
press (Universal Testing Machine).
3.1 Stress Versus True Height Strain
Figure.1 shows the plots of
deformation of plain carbon steel and
alloys after axial increment of stress
during cold upsetting. From the plots, it is
clearly evident that the plain carbon steel,
copper, molybdenum and titanium based
alloys are deforming in two distinct stages.
During the first stage, the rate of
increasing the axial stress is more with
lower rate of true height strain, this is due
to the geometrical hardening of sintered
preforms during cold upsetting. In the
second stage the deformation of preforms
is gradual with corresponding values of
the axial stress. The cold upsetting
processes are carried out till the crack
appears on the lateral deformed surface.
Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steel deforming much
better than other alloys, it attains the
maximum deformation 0.853 for the stress
value of 628.6 MPa. Addition of other
alloying elements such as copper,
molybdenum and titanium reduces the
deformation behavior of P/M steels.
Addition of 1%Mo, 1%Cu and 1%Ti to the
base material gives better yielding
property nearly 0.7 next to the plain
carbon steel. Addition of any more
quantity of 2%Cu, 2%Mo, 2%Ti and 4%Ti
to the base material still reduces the plastic
deformation characteristics. The axial
stress required to any value of axial
deformation is maximum for Fe-0.5%C-
2%Cu-2%Mo-4%Ti and minimum for Fe-
0.5%C-1%Cu
steel.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure.1
Figure.2
Stress vs. True height Strain Stress vs. Percentage Theoretical Density
3.2 Stress Versus Percentage Theoretical
Density
The densification behavior of all P/M
steels under varying axial stress is shown in
Figure 2. It is clearly shown in the graph
that the densification of sintered P/M
preforms of all materials are taking place in
three distinct stages during cold upsetting.
During the densification initially the
sintered P/M steels are densified at lower
rate with corresponding rapid rate of axial
stress. This is due to the geometrical
hardening of the preforms. Next stage,
there is a gradual increase in both axial
stress and corresponding values of relative
density. Once again in the third stage the
rate of densification is lowered, as the
preforms already densified to the maximum
level. Sintered preforms of P/M Fe-0.5%C-
1%Cu steel are densifying to the maximum
level nearly 98% of theoretical density
during densification. Addition of alloying
elements reduces the densification behavior
of sintered P/M preforms. The axial stress
required for any particular densification of
P/M steels is more for Fe-0.5%C-2%Cu-
2%Mo-4%Ti (785 MPa) and minimum for
Plain carbon steel (628 MPa).
3.3 Percentage Theoretical Density
Versus True Height Strain
The densification and deformation
behavior of sintered P/M preforms are
shown in figure.3. During cold upsetting
the Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steels are subjected to
more deformation and densification
behavior. Fe-0.5%C-2%Cu-2%Mo-4%Ti
alloys are subjected to less deformation and
densification behavior. From the above it is
concluded that adding more quantity of
Cu, Mo and Ti to the Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steel
reduces the densification and deformation
properties.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure.3 Figure.4
Percentage theoretical density Vs. True height strain Stress Vs. Lateral Strain
3.4 Stress versus Lateral Strain
Figure. 4 shows the lateral
deformation of sintered P/M low alloy
steels under varying axial stress. From the
plots, it is obvious that the P/M preforms
laterally deformed in two distinct stages
during deformation process. During the
first stage the lateral strain is at lower rate
with corresponding rapid rate of axial stress
values. This is due to the geometrical
hardening of the P/M preforms. Second
stage of deformation exhibited with higher
rate of lateral deformation with
corresponding values of axial stress. This
behavior is exhibited by all alloys including
Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steels. During the cold
upsetting for a axial stress value of 628
MPa the maximum lateral deformation
(0.8538) is observed in Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu
steel and minimum(0.03012) is observed
in Fe-0.5C-2%Cu-2%Mo-4%Ti alloy P/M
steels.
3.5 Percentage Theoretical Density
versus Lateral Strain
The lateral deformation and densification
behaviors of all P/M sintered preforms are
shown in figure 5. During cold upsetting
the uniformity in deformation trend is
observed in all P/M preforms. Fe-0.5%C-
1%Cu steel exhibits more lateral
deformation under varying axial stress and
minimum lateral deformation is observed in
Fe-0.5%C-2%Cu-2%Mo-4%Ti P/M alloy
steels. Addition of any alloying element to
Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steel reduces the lateral
deformation also during cold upsetting.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure.5 Percentage theoretical density Vs. Lateral strain
3.6 Percentage Theoretical Density
versus True Height Strain
The axial deformation and densification
behavior of P/M sintered Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu
steels during hot upsetting are shown in
figure 6. The densification and deformation
behavior of sintered P/M preforms
exhibited in two stages, it is clearly shown
in this plot. During the first stage, the
gradual increase in deformation as well as
densification is observed and during the
next stage the rate of deformation is rapid
with the lower rate of densification. More
densification and deformation is observed
for Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steel comparing with
other alloys. Less densification and more
deformation is observed for Fe-0.5%C-
2%Cu-2%Mo-4%Ti P/M steel and
moderate for 1%Ti and 2%Ti P/M low
alloy steels. However similar trend of
deformation and densification is exhibited
by P/M alloy steels containing titanium.

3.7 Percentage Theoretical Density
versus Lateral Strain
The lateral deformation and
densification behavior of P/M sintered Fe-
0.5%C-1%Cu steel and alloy steels during
hot upsetting are shown in figure 7. The
densification and lateral deformation
behavior of sintered P/M preforms
exhibited in two stages, it is clearly shown
in this plot. During the first stage the
gradual increase in deformation as well as
densification is observed and during the
next stage the rate of deformation is rapid
with lower rate of densification. Fe-0.5%C-
1%Cu steel exhibits more densification
during hot upsetting and more lateral
deformation is observed for Fe-0.5%C-
2%Mo-2%Cu-4%Ti sintered P/M steels.
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09
Figure.6 Figure.7
% Theoretical density Vs. True height strain % Theoretical density Vs. Lateral strain
4. CONCLUSION
The Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu exhibits
better densification and deformation
behavior during cold and hot upsetting.
Addition of alloying elements like Cu, Mo
and Ti to the Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steel reduces
the densification and deformation
characteristics of alloy steels. During cold
and hot upsetting adding of 1%Mo and
1%Ti to Fe-0.5%C-1%Cu steel exhibits
better densification and deformation
behavior. Adding any more quantity of
Mo, and Ti (above 1%) to the Fe-0.5%C-
1%Cu steel deteriorates the densification
and deformation properties during cold and
hot upsetting.
5. REFERENCES

1)N.Candela, F.Velasco, M.A. Martinez, J.M.Torralba 1)N.Candela, F.Velasco, M.A. Martinez, J.M.Torralba Journal of Material Processing Technology Journal of Material Processing Technology
168 (2005) 505-510 168 (2005) 505-510
2)Z.Zhang, K.frisk , A.Salwen and R.Sandstrom 2)Z.Zhang, K.frisk , A.Salwen and R.Sandstrom, Journal of Material Processing Technology 239 , Journal of Material Processing Technology 239
(2004) Vol. 47 No.3. (2004) Vol. 47 No.3.
3)M.Campos, D. Sanchez, J.M. Torralba 3)M.Campos, D. Sanchez, J.M. Torralba ,Journal of Material Processing Technology 143-144 (2003 ,Journal of Material Processing Technology 143-144 (2003
) 505-510. ) 505-510.
4)D.R.Amador, J.M.Torralba 4)D.R.Amador, J.M.Torralba, Journal of Material processing Technology 143-144 ,(2003 ) 781-785. , Journal of Material processing Technology 143-144 ,(2003 ) 781-785.
5)M.Youseffi, C.S.Wright and F.M.Jeyacheya 5)M.Youseffi, C.S.Wright and F.M.Jeyacheya, Journal of Powder Metallurgy (2002) Vol. 45, No.1 , Journal of Powder Metallurgy (2002) Vol. 45, No.1
6)K.S.Hwang, C.H.Hsieh, and G.J.Shu 6)K.S.Hwang, C.H.Hsieh, and G.J.Shu, Journal of Powder Metallurgy (2002) Vol. 45, No.2 , Journal of Powder Metallurgy (2002) Vol. 45, No.2
7)M.Youseffi, S.C.Mitchell, A.S. Wronski and A.Cias, 7)M.Youseffi, S.C.Mitchell, A.S. Wronski and A.Cias, Journal of Powder Metallurgy (2000) Vol. Journal of Powder Metallurgy (2000) Vol.
43, No.4 43, No.4
8) Carol, Eric and Garth 8) Carol, Eric and Garth, Poder Metallurgy Science(1994) second edition. , Poder Metallurgy Science(1994) second edition.
JOB SHOP SCHEDULING USING SIMULATED ANNEALING
Guided by A.MURALIDHAR, M.s.,
R.LOGANATHAN
1
, U.P.SASI KUMAR
2
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, THANTHAI PERIYAR GOVERNTMENT
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ABSTRACT- job shop scheduling is used
minimize the makes span of the jobs in the
corresponding machines. Its major
application is in aircraft, automobile,
semiconductor manufacturing Industry. In
this paper we have solved the job shop
scheduling problem using simulated
annealing optimization technique. It is an
eminent approach to select the optimum
schedule for the operation.
Certain neighbour hood selection
methods are also discussed. We had solved
an n×m job shop scheduling problem and
executed it using the C language program
and presented the results in an tabulation.
We had selected the best optimum schedule
for the selected problem.

1. INTRODUCTION
Job shop scheduling (JSS) belongs to the
class of NP hard optimization problem. Even in
the N P hard class of problems,JSS appears to
belong to the more difficult ones .The JSS
problem can be described as follows. A set of
jobs whose operations are to be processed on
set of machines is given. Each job consists of a
sequence of operations have to be processed
uninterrupted on a given machine for a
specified length of time. There is an additional
constraint that each machine can process at
most one operation at a time. A schedule is an
allocation of the operations to time intervals on
the machines. The problem is to find the
schedule of minimum time. Solving the JSS
problem requires a high computational effort
and considerable sophistication much simpler
task is to find an optimum schedule. JSSP
consists of a set m of machines and a set n of
jobs, where each machine carries out an
operation of each job. This problem attempts to
find the optimum sequence of operations in
each machine that allows for the minimization
of the maximum completion time of the jobs
(make span). The models that have been applied
to JSSP are the disjunctive graph model , the
disjunctive formulation model and the
satisfiability model . The disjunctive graph
model is used most frequently due to the fact
that it is possible to easily manipulate the meta-
heuristics applied to JSSP in which minimizing
the make span is desired.
Simulated annealing (SA) is a generic
probabilistic metaheuristic for the global
optimization problem of applied mathematics,
namely good approximation to the global
minimum of a given function in a large search
space. It is often used when the search space is
discrete (e.g., all tours that visit a given set of
cities). For certain problems, simulated
annealing may be more effective than
exhaustive enumeration — provided that the
goal is merely to find an acceptably good
solution in a fixed amount of time, rather than
the best possible solution.
The name and inspiration come from annealing
in metallurgy, a technique involving heating
and controlled cooling of a material to increase
the size of its crystals and reduce their defects.
Simulated annealing (SA) is a random-search
technique and one of the optimization
technique which exploits an analogy between
the way in which a metal cools and freezes into
a minimum energy crystalline structure (the
annealing process) and the search for a
minimum in a more general system; it forms the
basis of an optimization technique for
combinatorial and other problems.
Local search based scheduling of job
shop plays an important role to solve our
problem and become very popular in recent
years. The applicable approximation procedures
in the local search process include tabu search,
simulated annealing and genetic algorithm.
These methods can be viewed as tools for
searching a space of legal alternatives in order
to find a best solution within reasonable time
limitation.
Simulated annealing is based on the
analogy to the physical process of cooling and
recrystalization of metals. According to Jones
and Rabelo , the current state of the
thermodynamic system is equivalent to the
current scheduling solution, the energy function
for the thermodynamic system is analogous to
the objective function and the ground state is
similar to the global optimum
2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Most papers in the literature dealt with
the minimization of makespan. In view of the
NP hardness of problem O||Cmax, branch and
bound as well as heuristic algorithms have been
developed for this problem. Among the exact
algorithms, we only mention those given by
Laborie and Tamura et al. which were able to
solve open benchmark instances from the recent
literature. A complete search for cumulative
scheduling based on the detection and
resolution of minimal critical sets was
performed.
The heuristic for selecting such sets
relied on an estimation of the related reduction
of the search space, where additionally an
extension of the search procedure using a self
adapted shaving was proposed. This approach
was implemented on the top of classical
constraint propagation algorithms. The
algorithm was able to solve the remaining 34
open instances out of the 80 instances with up
to 10 jobs and 10 machines given by Gueret and
Prins. A method to encode constraint
satisfaction problems with integer linear
constraints into
The effectiveness of this approach
was tested on several benchmark instances for
the open shop problem. In particular, this
algorithm was able to solve all the 192
benchmark instances of three sets from the
literature. Among metaheuristic algorithms, we
only discuss two papers presenting simulated
annealing algorithms. The first algorithm by
Liaw used particular neighborhoods based on
up to three pairwise interchanges of two
adjacent operations belonging to the same job
or being processed on the same machine such
that the resulting neighbor satisfies a necessary
condition for an improvement of the objective
function value. The cooling scheme was of the
geometric type and used an initial temperature
of 15. The recommended variant had a low
temperature reduction scheme (it used a
reduction factor of 0.995 for the temperature).
The number of iterations with a constant
temperature was set to be equal to 30 · n · m.
Taking into account that at least 100 epochs
with constant temperatures have been
considered per run in [15] (usually even
substantially more epochs), this means that e.g.
for problems with 20 jobs and 20 machines, at
least 30 · 20 · 20 · 100 = 1, 200, 000 iterations
had to be performed. Moreover, since five runs
were made for each instance and in one
iteration of the algorithm, up to four neighbors
were checked (see neighborhood NH1 in )
and the best neighbor among them was then
taken, much more than 6, 000, 000 feasible
solutions
had to be evaluated per instance to get the
results presented in [15]. Thus, extremely long
runs of simulated annealing were considered in
that paper (up to 3.5 hours per single run of an
instance with n = m = 30). On the other side,
the quality of the solutions obtained was
comparable to the results obtained by the
insertion algorithm combined with beam search
given in [6].
In particular, comparing the best results
of some beam-insert variant from [6] with the
best of the five runs of the simulated annealing
algorithm from [15] on the 30 benchmark
instances with n = m 2 {10, 20, 30} given by
Taillard [24], the results were equal for 18
instances, 8 times the simulated annealing
algorithm was better and four times the beam-
insert algorithm was better. A particle swarm
algorithm combined with simulated annealing
has been given by Yang et al. [28]. For the
simulated annealing routine, a very small initial
temperature of 2 was used. Computational
results have been presented for some
benchmark instances with up to 20 jobs and
machines given by Taillard [24] (however, the
values stated as best known solutions in [28] are
rather far away from the real best known
solutions so that
also the results presented in that paper are not
competitive).
3. GENERAL ALGORITHM
(i) Select a large starting value for the
temperature T = T0.
(ii) Select a suitable value for the reducing
parameter α, 0 < α < 1.
(iii) Set the initial net ordering at random.
(iv) Evaluate the initial energy (make span),
E(i).
(v) While T is in the cooling range,
(a) Select a net at random and change its
position.
(b) Evaluate the new energy, E (j) from this
configuration and the resulting change
in the energy ∆E.
(vi) If ∆E < 0, accept the new state.
If ∆E > 0, accept the new state if Pr(accepted) =
EXP(−∆E/T) > ε.
(vii) Update T according to T `= αT.
(viii) Repeat steps from (v) to (vii) until ∆E is
not significant for small changes in T.
3. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
A five jobs and four machine problem is
taken .the following problem is taken for
finding the best optimum sequence.
M1 M2 M3 M4
J1 4 3 7 8
J2 3 7 2 5
J3 1 2 4 7
J4 3 4 3 2
J5 4 3 5 3

In this problem processing time of the job in the
corresponding machine is given. We have to
solve this problem using simulated annealing
approach.
5. PARAMETERS
The following are the parameters used in
solving the problem.
J1, J2, J3……..Jn = job numbers

M1, M2, M3…Mm= machine number
T= temperature.
α = cooling rate
E(n)= total make span in the ‘n
th
` stage
∆E= current solution-best solution
ε = probability of acceptance= EXP (−∆E/T)
6. NEIGHBOURHOODSELECTION
For a JSSP, a neighborhood N(S) of a
schedule S can be defined as the set of feasible
schedules that can be reached from S by exactly
one transition (a single perturbation of S). For
example, a transition operator that exchanges a
pair of consecutive operations in a critical block
and forms a neighborhood has been used in
Laarhoven, Aarts and Lenstra (1992) and in
Taillard (1994). The transition operator was
originally defined by Balas (1969) in his branch
and bound approach. Another very powerful
transition operator was used in Brucker, Jurisch
and Sievers (1994) and in Dell’Amico and
Trubian (1993). The transition operator
permutes the order of operations in a critical
block by moving an operation to the beginning
or end of the critical block, thus forming a CB
neighborhood. A schedule obtained from S by
moving an operation within a block to the front
of the block is called a before candidate, and a
schedule moving an operation to the rear of the
block is called an after candidate. A set of all
before and after candidates N’
C
(S) may contain
infeasible schedules. The CB neighborhood is
given as:
N
c
(S) = {S′ N’ ∈
c
(S) | S′ is a feasible
schedule}.
It has been experimentally shown byYamada,
Rosen andNakano (1994) that the CB
neighborhood is more powerful than the former
one.
7. ANNEALING SCHEDULES
Three annealing schedules have been used in
our experiments to update the temperature of
the SA algorithm geometric cooling, adaptive
cooling, and adaptive reheating as a function of
cost.
The first schedule we have used is geometric
cooling, where the new temperature (T’) of the
SA algorithm is computed using
T’=α T
where α (0 < α < 1) denotes the cooling factor.
Typically the value of α is chosen in the range
0:90 to 0:99. This cooling schedule has the
advantage of being well understood, having a
solid theoretical foundation, and being the most
widely used annealing schedule. Our results
obtained from using this standard cooling
schedule will be used as a baseline for
comparison with those using the other two
schedules, which allow the rate of cooling to be
varied.
The physical analogy that is used to
justify SA assumes that the cooling rate is low
enough for the probability distribution of the
current state to be near thermodynamic
equilibrium at all times. Unfortunately, the
relaxation time—the time one must wait for the
equilibrium to be restored after a change in
temperature—strongly depends on the
"topography" of the energy function and on the
current temperature. In the SA algorithm, the
relaxation time also depends on the candidate
generator, in a very complicated way. Note that
all these parameters are usually provided as
black box functions to the SA algorithm.
Therefore, in practice the ideal cooling
rate cannot be determined beforehand, and
should be empirically adjusted for each
problem. The variant of SA known as
thermodynamic simulated annealing tries to
avoid this problem by dispensing with the
cooling schedule, and instead automatically
adjusting the temperature at each step based on
the energy difference between the two states,
according to the laws of thermodynamics.
8. STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED FOR
SOLVING THE PROBLEM
I. Initially select an random sequence
of jobs
II. Then we have to calculate the total
completion time for all the five jobs
in the four machines.
III. From the above calculated
completion time select the
maximum completion time as the
total makes span
IV. Total makes span=
max(tM1,tM2,tM3,tM4).where
tMn= total completion time of jobs
in the corresponding machine. keep
this makes span as the best solution.
V. Initialize the temperature
VI. Initialize the ending temperature to
stop searching.
VII. Initialize the cooling rate and
probability of acceptance.
VIII. Select the next neighborhood by
following the above discussed and
conditions and form next random
sequence of job order.
IX. For the selected random sequence of
jobs find the total makes span. This
is the current solution. Calculate the
∆E= current solution-best solution
and temperature T `= αT. Assume
cooling rate=0.90
X. If ∆E> 0. Calculate probability of
acceptance.
XI. If ∆E<0. Change the best solution.
Best solution= current solution.
Accept the corresponding schedule.
XII. If probability of acceptance lies
with in the given range accept them
as probably accepted schedules.
XIII. Repeat all these steps until the
decreasing temperature reaches the
given ending temperature.
8. EXAMPLE CALCULATION FOR
SELECTED RANDOM SCHEDULE
For example select this random sequence
J1J2 J3 J4 J5
For this calculate the total makes span when it
comes out of the fourth machine finally.
Total makes span E(0)= 39
T=100ºc
Best solution = 39
Next for the second random sequence
In the second stage
J1 J5 J3 J4 J2
E(1)=39
∆E=0
Corresponding temperature T’=0.9(100)=90ºc
Same value therefore no change in the best
solution
In the 12
th
stage
∆E=-1<0 E(11)=38
Change best solution = 38 and corresponding
temperature is 31.38ºc. for full schedules see
table 1.
9. ABOUT PROGRAM IN C LANGUAGE
A C program had been written to
calculate the best schedule from the given
problem. That coding will require the following
inputs
1) The number of jobs and number of
machines. The input of the processing
time of jobs in the corresponding
machines.
2) The cooling rate value , probability of
acceptance value
3) The starting and ending temperature
value
Then it will calculate the make span ,
temperature, probability of acceptance.

From this it will generate an output in
the notepad format containing all the details.
Finally it will show the best and probably
accepted the schedules from the given data.
10. BARRIER AVOIDANCE
When choosing the candidate generator
neighbor one must also try to reduce the
number of "deep" local minima — states (or
sets of connected states) that have much lower
energy than all its neighboring states. Such
"closed catchment basins" of the energy
function may trap the SA algorithm with high
probability (roughly proportional to the number
of states in the basin) and for a very long time
(roughly exponential on the energy difference
between the surrounding state and the bottom of
the basin).
As a rule, it is impossible to design a
candidate generator that will satisfy this goal
and also prioritize candidates with similar
energy. On the other hand, one can often vastly
improve the efficiency of SA by relatively
simple changes to the generator. In the traveling
salesman problem, for instance, it is not hard to
exhibit two tours A, B, with nearly equal
lengths, such that (0) A is optimal, (1) every
sequence of city-pair swaps that converts A to B
goes through tours that are much longer than
both, and (2) A can be transformed into B by
flipping (reversing the order of) a set of
consecutive cities. In this example, A and B lie
in different "deep basins" if the generator
performs only random pair-swaps; but they will
be in the same basin if the generator performs
random segment-flips.
TABLE 1: OUTPUT FOR THE GIVEN PROBLEM
OUTPUT FOR JOB SHOP SCHEDULING USING SIMULATED ANNEALING
Stage Job Order E Del E Temp Probability
1 J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 E(0) = 39 0 100.00 ----
2 J1 J5 J3 J4 J2 E(1) = 39 0 90.00 ----
3 J4 J5 J3 J1 J2 E(2) = 39 0 81.00 ----
4 J4 J5 J1 J3 J2 E(3) = 42 3 72.90 0.9597
5 J2 J5 J1 J3 J4 E(4) = 42 3 65.61 0.9553
6 J5 J2 J1 J3 J4 E(5) = 41 2 59.05 0.9667
7 J5 J1 J2 J3 J4 E(6) = 41 2 53.14 0.9631
8 J4 J1 J2 J3 J5 E(7) = 40 1 47.83 0.9793
9 J1 J4 J2 J3 J5 E(8) = 39 0 43.05 ----
10 J1 J4 J2 J5 J3 E(9) = 39 0 38.74 ----
11 J1 J2 J4 J5 J3 E(10) = 39 0 34.87 ----
12 J3 J2 J4 J5 J1 E(11) = 38 -1 31.38 ----
13 J5 J2 J4 J3 J1 E(12) = 40 2 28.24 0.9316
14 J5 J4 J2 J3 J1 E(13) = 40 2 25.42 0.9243
15 J5 J4 J1 J3 J2 E(14) = 42 4 22.88 0.8396
16 J5 J4 J2 J3 J1 E(15) = 40 2 20.59 0.9074
17 J4 J5 J2 J3 J1 E(16) = 39 1 18.53 0.9475
18 J4 J2 J5 J3 J1 E(17) = 41 3 16.68 0.8354
19 J4 J5 J2 J3 J1 E(18) = 39 1 15.01 0.9355
20 J4 J3 J2 J5 J1 E(19) = 39 1 13.51 0.9286
21 J4 J3 J1 J5 J2 E(20) = 37 -1 12.16 ----
22 J4 J2 J1 J5 J3 E(21) = 42 5 10.94 0.6332
23 J4 J3 J1 J5 J2 E(22) = 37 0 9.85 ----
24 J2 J3 J1 J5 J4 E(23) = 37 0 8.86 ----
25 J5 J3 J1 J2 J4 E(24) = 38 1 7.98 0.8822
26 J5 J4 J1 J2 J3 E(25) = 42 5 7.18 0.4983
27 J3 J4 J1 J2 J5 E(26) = 34 -3 6.46 ----
28 J1 J4 J3 J2 J5 E(27) = 39 5 5.81 0.4232
29 J1 J3 J4 J2 J5 E(28) = 39 5 5.23 0.3847
30 J1 J3 J5 J2 J4 E(29) = 39 5 4.71 0.3459
31 J1 J3 J5 J2 J4 E(30) = 39 5 4.24 0.3074
32 J1 J2 J5 J3 J4 E(31) = 39 5 3.82 0.2697
33 J2 J1 J5 J3 J4 E(32) = 40 6 3.43 0.1742
34 J4 J1 J5 J3 J2 E(33) = 40 6 3.09 0.1435
35 J4 J1 J5 J2 J3 E(34) = 40 6 2.78 0.1156
36 J4 J1 J5 J3 J2 E(35) = 40 6 2.50 0.0910
37 J1 J4 J5 J3 J2 E(36) = 39 5 2.25 0.1087
38 J1 J4 J2 J3 J5 E(37) = 39 5 2.03 0.0849
39 J5 J4 J2 J3 J1 E(38) = 40 6 1.82 0.0373
40 J5 J4 J2 J3 J1 E(39) = 40 6 1.64 0.0259
41 J5 J4 J1 J3 J2 E(40) = 42 8 1.48 0.0045
42 J5 J4 J1 J2 J3 E(41) = 42 8 1.33 0.0024
43 J5 J4 J1 J2 J3 E(42) = 42 8 1.20 0.0013
44 J5 J4 J1 J2 J3 E(43) = 42 8 1.08 0.0006
45 J5 J3 J1 J2 J4 E(44) = 38 4 0.97 0.0162
46 J5 J3 J4 J2 J1 E(45) = 38 4 0.87 0.0102
47 J5 J2 J4 J3 J1 E(46) = 40 6 0.79 0.0005
48 J5 J2 J4 J3 J1 E(47) = 40 6 0.71 0.0002
49 J5 J1 J4 J3 J2 E(48) = 41 7 0.64 0.0000
50 J5 J1 J4 J2 J3 E(49) = 41 7 0.57 0.0000
51 J1 J5 J4 J2 J3 E(50) = 39 5 0.52 0.0001
52 J1 J5 J4 J2 J3 E(51) = 39 5 0.46 0.0000
53 J1 J5 J4 J2 J3 E(52) = 39 5 0.42 0.0000
54 J3 J5 J4 J2 J1 E(53) = 37 3 0.38 0.0003
55 J3 J4 J5 J2 J1 E(54) = 36 2 0.34 0.0027
56 J2 J4 J5 J3 J1 E(55) = 41 7 0.30 0.0000
57 J2 J4 J5 J3 J1 E(56) = 41 7 0.27 0.0000
58 J2 J4 J1 J3 J5 E(57) = 42 8 0.25 0.0000
59 J2 J4 J5 J3 J1 E(58) = 41 7 0.22 0.0000
60 J2 J4 J1 J3 J5 E(59) = 42 8 0.20 0.0000
61 J2 J5 J1 J3 J4 E(60) = 42 8 0.18 0.0000
62 J2 J5 J1 J4 J3 E(61) = 42 8 0.16 0.0000
63 J2 J5 J1 J4 J3 E(62) = 42 8 0.15 0.0000
64 J2 J5 J1 J4 J3 E(63) = 42 8 0.13 0.0000
65 J2 J3 J1 J4 J5 E(64) = 37 3 0.12 0.0000
66 J5 J3 J1 J4 J2 E(65) = 38 4 0.11 0.0000
67 J5 J3 J4 J1 J2 E(66) = 39 5 0.10 0.0000
68 J3 J5 J4 J1 J2 E(67) = 36 2 0.09 0.0000
69 J3 J5 J2 J1 J4 E(68) = 35 1 0.08 0.0000
70 J4 J5 J2 J1 J3 E(69) = 42 8 0.07 0.0000
71 J4 J5 J2 J1 J3 E(70) = 42 8 0.06 0.0000
72 J1 J5 J2 J4 J3 E(71) = 39 5 0.06 0.0000
73 J1 J5 J3 J4 J2 E(72) = 39 5 0.05 0.0000
74 J4 J5 J3 J1 J2 E(73) = 39 5 0.05 0.0000
75 J4 J5 J3 J1 J2 E(74) = 39 5 0.04 0.0000
76 J4 J5 J3 J1 J2 E(75) = 39 5 0.04 0.0000
77 J4 J5 J1 J3 J2 E(76) = 42 8 0.03 0.0000
78 J4 J3 J1 J5 J2 E(77) = 37 3 0.03 0.0000
79 J4 J5 J1 J3 J2 E(78) = 42 8 0.03 0.0000
80 J5 J4 J1 J3 J2 E(79) = 42 8 0.02 0.0000
81 J3 J4 J1 J5 J2 E(80) = 34 0 0.02 ----
82 J3 J5 J1 J4 J2 E(81) = 35 1 0.02 0.0000
83 J5 J3 J1 J4 J2 E(82) = 38 4 0.02 0.0000
84 J5 J3 J2 J4 J1 E(83) = 38 4 0.02 0.0000
85 J5 J3 J1 J4 J2 E(84) = 38 4 0.01 0.0000
86 J5 J1 J3 J4 J2 E(85) = 41 7 0.01 0.0000
87 J1 J5 J3 J4 J2 E(86) = 39 5 0.01 0.0000
88 J1 J5 J3 J4 J2 E(87) = 39 5 0.01 0.0000
BEST SCHEDULE
Best Schedule is J3 J4 J1 J2 J5
and the corresponding temperature is 6.46
PROBABLY ACCEPTED SCHEDULE WITHIN GIVEN RANGE OF PROBABILITY OF
ACCEPTANCE
Stage Job Order E Del E Temp Probability
0 J4 J5 J1 J3 J2 E(3) = 42 3 72.90 0.9597
1 J2 J5 J1 J3 J4 E(4) = 42 3 65.61 0.9553
2 J5 J2 J1 J3 J4 E(5) = 41 2 59.05 0.9667
3 J5 J1 J2 J3 J4 E(6) = 41 2 53.14 0.9631
4 J4 J1 J2 J3 J5 E(7) = 40 1 47.83 0.9793
5 J5 J2 J4 J3 J1 E(12) = 40 2 28.24 0.9316
6 J5 J4 J2 J3 J1 E(13) = 40 2 25.42 0.9243
7 J5 J4 J2 J3 J1 E(15) = 40 2 20.59 0.9074
8 J4 J5 J2 J3 J1 E(16) = 39 1 18.53 0.9475
9 J4 J5 J2 J3 J1 E(18) = 39 1 15.01 0.9355
10 J4 J3 J2 J5 J1 E(19) = 39 1 13.51 0.9286
11. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
Thus the given problem is solved using the
simulated annealing approach and the optimum
schedule is selected from the set of solutions
which takes the minimum makes span. It has
been solved by carefully controlling the rate of
cooling of the temperature. SA can find the
global optimum. However, this requires infinite
time. Fast annealing and very fast simulated
reannealing
(VFSR) or adaptive simulated annealing (ASA)
are each in turn exponentially faster and
overcome this problem.
12. REFERENCES
[1] K. R. Barker, Introduction to Sequencing and Scheduling, John Wiley & Sons, New
York, 1974.
[2] J. Blazewicz, W. Domschke, E. Pesch, The Job Shop Scheduling Problem: Conventional
And New Solution Techniques, European Journal of Operational Research 93
(1996), 1–33.
[3] J. Blazewicz, K. H. Ecker, E. Pesch, G. Schmidt, J. Weglarz, Scheduling Computer
and Manufacturing Processes, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2001.
[4] S. French, Sequencing and Scheduling, An Introduction to the Mathematics of Job-
Shop, Ellis Horwood, New York, 1982.
[5] A Branch and Bound and Simulated Annealing Approach for Job Shop Scheduling Tan Hui
Woon & Sutinah Salim Department of Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM,
Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
[6] S. Kirkpatrick, C.D. Gelatt, and M.P. Vecchi, Optimization by Simulated Annealing,
Science, Vol. 220. No. 4598.(1983), 671–680.
[7] K. Krishna, K. Ganeshan, and D. Janaki Ram, Distributed Simulated Annealing Algorithms
for Job Shop Scheduling, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man. And Cybernetics.
Vol. 25. No. 7.(1995), 1102–1109.
[8] M. Pinedo, Scheduling Theory, Algorithms and Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jercey ll, 1995.
[9] Shaharuddin Salleh and A. Y. Zomaya, Scheduling in Parallel Computing Systems,
Fuzzy and Annealing Techniques, Kluwer Academic Publishers, United States, 1999.


Semi Automated Millet Drying and Threshing Machine
Mathiyazhagan.R1, Sampathkumar.S2
1 MIT/Production Technology (Mechatronics), Anna University Chennai, India
Email: mathi.raj06@gmail.com
2 CEG Campus / (HOD) Mechanical Department, Anna University Chennai, India
Abstract
Pearl millet is one of the major
crops in Africa and sixth major crop
in India. Pearl millet should undergo
series of processes such as drying,
threshing and winnowing process to
obtain the grain as the final product.
Still conventional methods such as
natural drying and threshing the
millet by allowing the heavy vehicles
to roll over the millet are widely
followed in India especially in Tamil
Nadu. Here, farmers spread the millet
panicle in the road side so that the
vehicle can roll over it and thresh the
millet and the winnowing process also
done on the sides of the road. Even
though these methods are economical
it creates many problems to travellers
and farmers. The conventional
methods are time consuming,
requires more labours and it is an
unhygienic method. Mostly millet is
cultivated by small farmers in India.
They cannot hire cotlier machines for
threshing. The aim of the paper is to
propose the model of “Semi
Automated Millet Drying and
Threshing Machine”, to overcome the
difficulties faced by the farmers as
well as the public and also to
introduce a hygienic method of drying
and threshing. In drying
system the sensor, microcontroller and
actuator are used to sense the air
condition and control the temperature
inside the dryer box. After drying, the
millet is threshed by the roller
arrangement and finally the grains
mixed with chaff have to be separated
by blowing air. Thus obtained grain is
collected in a sack.
Index Terms— Millet, Threshing,
Winnowing,
Chaff, Panicle
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The millets are a group of small seeded
species
cereal crops or grains, widely grown
around the world for food and fodder.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the
most widely grown type of millet.
Grown in Africa and the Indian
subcontinent since prehistoric times, it is
generally accepted that pearl millet
originated in Africa and was
subsequently introduced into India.
Today pearl millet is grown on over
260,000 km² worldwide. It accounts for
approximately 50% of the total world
production of millets. Pearl Millet is
today the world’s sixth most important
cereal grain. Pearl millet is well adapted
to production systems characterized by
drought, low soil fertility and high
Temperature. It performs well in soils
with high salinity or low PH. Because of
its tolerance to difficult growing
conditions, it can be grown in areas
conditions, it can be grown in areas
where other cereal crops, such as maize
or wheat, would not survive. To get end
product of millet we have three steps
cultivation, harvesting and separating
grain from the florets (chaffs). Millet
harvesting is by taking millet from the
field by removing the long grainy head
from the rest of the stalk. Before it can
be used for food it must be processed to
remove the uneatable portion. The millet
is first dried and threshed to remove the
usable grain from the florets. To separate
the grain from the floret millet must be
dried for three to four days under natural
light and it is threshed by beating the
millet in ground or by rolling heavy load
on the millet. According to the literature
survey we came to know that millet
threshing machine is available in Africa
“Ref.
[2]” (Carlos Gomez and Danilo Mejia
(2002)) and Central Institute of
Agricultural Engineering (CIAE),
Bhopal (India). Even thoug the machine
is there people still going for the
conventional methods such as al