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ljLorh gkml izkfy


9] nfj;kxat] lehi VsyhiQksu dk;kZy;] ubZ fnYyh&110002
iksLV ckWDl % 7063
nwjHkk"k % 43556600 (100 ykbal)] 23281022
iSQDl % 43556688
bZ&esy % delhi@saraswatihouse.com
osclkbV % www.saraswatihouse.com
vk;kr&fu;kZr ykbZlsal ua% 0507052021

'kk[kk, %
1- 48] V esu jksM] pkejkkisV] ca xyw:&560018
nwjHkk"k % (080) 26619880] 26672813 l iSQDl % 26619880
2- ,llhvks 31] lsDVj 31&Mh] pa Mhx<+&160030
nwjHkk"k % (0172) 2624882 l iSQDl % 5086882
3- 10@34] egky{eh LVhV] Vh uxj] psUubZ&600017
nwjHkk"k % (044) 24343740] 24346531] 24333508 l iSQDl % 24333508
y. $ 0 zz, , U SU, , U, U-xwwv
U ~{|w~}|w}w
5- 39@741] lqn'kZue~] dfjDdkeqjh kWl jksM] ,jukoqQye lkmFk] dksfp&682011
nwjHkk"k % (0484) 3925288] 3062576
{. v{, UU, UU, -ww{v
U (zww) y{wzv|
|. xw UUU , wU, U , U UU,
U U , U (SU), -y~x
U (ww) w}xyxww
8- 4] lhrk;u vikVZesaV~l] foosdkuan ekxZ] ukWFkZ ,losQ iqjh] iVuk&800013
nwjHkk"k % (0612) 2570403

uohu laLdj.k
eqnd
z % 'kkjnk izsl izkfy] xzsVj uks,Mk (miz)

vkeq[k
jk"Vh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk (2005) bl ckr ij cy nsrh gS fd f'k{kk dk
mn~n's ; cPpksa dks flIk+ QZ fdrkch Kku nsuk vkSj ijh{kk ysuk ugha gSA f'k{kk dk mn~n's ;
rks cPpksa dk lokxh.k fodkl djuk gS rkfd cPps tc fon~;ky; dh pkjnhokjh
ls fudydj okLrfod thou esa izo's k djs]a rks mudh f'k{kk gh mudk lacy cus
blhfy, cPpksa dks LowQyh thou osQ lkFk vklikl osQ ckgjh thou o okrkoj.k
ls tksMu+ s dk lq>ko fn;k x;k gSA
;g lR; gS fd cPpk vius vkl&ikl osQ okrkoj.k ls cgqr&oqQN lh[krk gS
ysfdu lcls igys og Hkk"kk gh lh[krk gSA Hkk"kk lHkh osQ thou osQ fy, mi;ksxh
vkSj lkFkZd gS D;ksfa d blh osQ ek;e ls ge vius fopkjksa dk vknku&iznku ,oa
Hkkoksa dh vfHkO;fDr djrs gSAa
f'k{k.k iz.kkyh esa Hkk"kk f'k{k.k cgqr gh egRRoiw.kZ gSA Hkk"kk dh ;ksX;rk vkSj
dkS'ky osQ pkj lksikuksa esa ls lquuk vkSj cksyuk rks cPpk ?kj esa jgdj gh lh[k
ysrk gSA ysfdu tc og ?kj osQ nk;js ls fudydj ikB'kkyk u,] vifjfpr ,oa
vuq'kklucn~/ okrkoj.k esa izo's k djrk gS rks mlosQ eu esa ,d f>>d vkSj Hk;
gksrk gSA cPpksa dks bl Hk; ls eqDr djus osQ fy, mudh #fp ,oa LoHkko dks
osQa nz esa j[kdj gekjk ,d iz;kl iqLrdh; k [a` kyk osQ :i esa vkiosQ le{k gS]
ftldk uke gS ladYiA ;g d{kk ,d ls ysdj vkBoha rd osQ fon~;kfFkZ;ksa osQ
fy, gSA gekjk mn~n's ; cPpksa dks fganh Hkk"kk fl[kkuk gSA ;g mn~n's ; rHkh liQy
gksxk tc LowQyksa osQ izkpk;Z@izkpk;kZ ,oa f'k{kd@f'kf{kdk, cPpksa dks fofHkUu jpukRed
xfrfof/;ksa vkSj f;kdykiksa dh lgk;rk ls lh[kus dk ekSdk nsxa As
;g lgh gS fd fon~;ky; esa vuq'kklu dk ikyu djuk vfuok;Z gS vkSj blosQ
fy, le;&rkfydk dk egRRoiw.kZ LFkku gS ijarq bu iqLrdksa osQ fuekZ.k osQ mn~n's ;
dks ;ku esa j[krs gq, nSfud&le; lkfj.kh esa yphykiu ykuk Hkh k:jh gS rkfd
cPpksa dks Lo;a lh[kus dk ekSdk feys vkSj os NksV&s NksVs lewg cukdj okrkZyki
,oa vU; xfrfof/;ksa dk dk;kZUo;u Lo;a dj losQa A
f'k{kd&nf'kZdk dk fuekZ.k f'k{kdksa osQ fy, fd;k x;k gS rkfd ^ladYi*
k [a` kyk dh i`"BHkwfe esa fufgr mn~n's ;ksa dks os cPpksa rd lgh <ax ls igqp
k losQa A
vk'kk gS] Hkk"kk&f'k{k.k dh fn'kk esa fd;k x;k gekjk ;g iz;kl mi;ksxh fln~/
gksxkA
f'k{kkfonksa ,oa vuqHkoh f'k{kdksa n~okjk fn, x, lq>koksa dk ge Lokxr djsxa s
ftlls Hkkoh la'kks/uksa esa enn feysxhA
ys[kdx.k
(iii)

fo"k;&lwph
1- eaxyxhr-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
2- lk,---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
3- og fpfM+;k ,d vykeZ ?kM+h Fkh-------------------------------------------14
4- ftl lekt esa rqe jgrs gks-------------------------------------------------- 21
5- v/Zjkf=k dk lw;ksZn;-------------------------------------------------------------25
6- xksHkh dk iwQy--------------------------------------------------------------------- 30
7- oDr------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37
8- 'kkafr----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
9- /wicRrh % cq>h&tyh!----------------------------------------------------------45
10- rqylhnkl osQ nksgs----------------------------------------------------------------51
11- xkSjk------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 57
12- rksM+rh iRFkj------------------------------------------------------------------------ 62
13- izfr dk vfHk'kki------------------------------------------------------------- 66
14- tgkvkjk dh Mk;jh------------------------------------------------------------- 71
15- ek! eq>s vkus ns!----------------------------------------------------------------- 77
16- Mk;jh osQ i`"Bksa ls----------------------------------------------------------------82
17- dysaMj dykdkj----------------------------------------------------------------- 87
18- izse&jax Mkjks------------------------------------------------------------------------ 91
19- iap ijes'oj------------------------------------------------------------------------ 95
20- kafrdkfj;ksa dk riksouvaMeku&fudksckj------------------------- 100
21- nks fodykax foHkwfr;k-------------------------------------------------------- 104
22- nqfu;k dBiqrfy;ksa dh-------------------------------------------------------108
(iv)

1- eaxyxhr
ikB~; cnq
bl dfork dks i<+us&le>us osQ ckn Nk=k bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- fdlh Hkh dk;kZjaHk ls iwoZ eaxydkeuk gsrq Lo;a dks izLrqr dj
losQa xsA
2- vius vklikl osQ txr osQ izfr fu"Bk ,oa vknj izLrqr dj losQa xsA
3- loZLo gsrq eaxyHkko eu esa yk losaQxsA
4- ml ije lRrk us tks oqQN Hkh fn;k gS] mlosQ vkHkkjh gksaxsA
5- Hkwr] orZeku vkSj Hkfo"; osQ izfr vk'kkfUor gks losaQxs ,oa larks"k
izkIr dj losaQxsA
6- ,dkxzrk /kj.k dj losQa xsA
ewyHkko
Lons'k esa i'kq&i{kh] ekuo lekt] izfr osQ izfr eaxyHkko dk xk;uA
ikB dk lkj
gekjs Hkkjr ns'k esa czkg~e.k tu vkSj fon~oku fon~;k osQ rst ls ;qDr gksa_
{kf=k; nq'euksa osQ ny dk fouk'k djus okys egkjFkh gksa_ xk;
nq/k: vkSj v'o rsk nkSM+us okys gksa_ lnk gh lkSHkkX;'kkfyuh ukfj;k
jk"V dh vk/kj gksa_ lHkh ;ksn~/k cyoku gksa_ iq=k ;Kkfn ifo=k deZ
djus okys gksa_ ckny [kwc cjlsa vkSj /jrh dk rki gjsa_ vkS"kf/;k
vpwd mipkj djsa_ izfr iQy&iwQyksa ls ynh gks vkSj gekjh Lok/hurk
lnk oqQ'ky&eaxy jgsA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
w izR;sd 'kqHk dk;Z ls iwoZ eaxydkeuk dk egRRo le>k,A izkFkZuk]
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 5

oanuk] xhr vkfn osQ :i esa viuh ldkjkRed tkZ dk iSQyko


djus osQ fy, dgsAa
ikBkjaHk
w ikB dk Lo;a 'kqn~/ okpu djsaA izR;sd 'kCn dks 'kqn~/ mPpkj.k]
y;] vkjksg&vojksg] vuqrku&forku osQ lkFk i<+saA
w 'kCn Lo;a cksysa vkSj vFkZ cPpksa ls cksyus osQ fy, dgsaA 'kCnkFkZ
dh bl iBu fof/ ls cPps ikB esa vk, dfBu 'kCn vkSj muosQ
vFkZ Lo;aeso le>saxsA vc ckWDl esa fn;k gqvk ikB dk lkj i<+saA
M ,d&,d iafDr i<+dj izR;sd 'kCn dk vFkZ crk,A nks iafDr;ksa
dk vFkZ crkus osQ ckn iqu% mls nksgjk,A
M bl izdkj iwjk ikB i<+kus osQ ckn ,d ckj iwjk vFkZ 'kCnksa osQ
e ls crk,A
M vc cPpksa osQ ekufld Lrj dks ;ku esa j[krs gq, muls vFkZ
iwNk tk ldrk gSA
M cPpksa ls nks&nks iafDr;k kksj&kksj ls i<+ok,A ,slk ikp&Ng
ckj fd;k tk ldrk gSA
M ikB esa vk, 'kCnksa osQ i;kZ;@milxZ@izR;;@dfBu 'kCnksa ij ppkZ
djsaA u;k&fujkyk ij ppkZ djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- gekjs jk"V esa n~fot fon~oku vkSj czge~ osQ rsk ls ;qDr gksus pkfg,A
2- {kf=k;ksa osQ fo"k; esa dkeuk dh xbZ gS fd os ;qn~/&dkS'ky esa
fuiq.k gksa_ cy'kkyh gksa_ lH; gksa vkSj ;qn~/Hkwfe esa 'k=kq dh lsuk
dks ijkftr djus dk gkSlyk j[krs gksaA
3- Lo;a dhft,A
6 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

ysf[kuh ls
1- ^jk"V dh vk/kj ukjh gksa* izkFkZuk esa ,slh dkeuk bl dkj.k ls
dh xbZ gS D;ksafd ftl ns'k esa ukjh i<+h&fy[kh] vf/dkj laiUu]
le>nkj vkSj /kfeZd laLdkjksa ls ;qDr gksaxh] og ns'k vius&vki
gh fodkl djsxkA mlh izdkj ftl ifjokj esa ukjh dh bkr
gksxh] izse gksxk] mlosQ fopkjksa dk lEeku gksxk] mldh ubZ lksp
vkSj lg;ksx osQ vk/kj ij ifjokj dk fodkl gj {ks=k esa gksxkA
ukjh gh vius ifjokj dh ,d vyx igpku lekt esa cuk,xhA
2- iq=k osQ ;teku gksus ls mlesa /kfeZd laLdkj tkx`r gksaxsA ifjokj
osQ lHkh lnL; laLdkj ;qDr gksxa As ;teku iq=k lekt dh cqjkb;ksa
ls cpk jgsxkA
3- ^bPNkuqlkj cjlsa] itZU; rki /ksosa* iafDr ls vk'k; gS vkdk'k
esa ckny gekjh bPNkuqlkj cjls_a /jk dh riu (xjeh) dks nwj
djsa_ isM+&ikS/ksa] iwQy vkSj ouLifr;ksa] i'kq&i{kh vkSj uj&ukjh
dks lq[kh djosQ le`n~/ cuk,A
4- (d) czg~eu! Lojk"V esa gksa n~fot czg~erst/kjhA
([k) cyoku lH; ;ksn~/k ;teku iq=k gksosaA
(x) gks ;ksx&{ksedkjh Lok/hurk gekjhA
5- ([k) leLr izfr vkSj izk.kh txr dk eaxy gksA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr o.kZ dh
'kCnksa dh laf/
fon~;kFkhZ] ekuqlkj] 'kj.kkxr] egky;] Jn~/katfy
ckr 'kCn dh
1- i;kZ;okph 'kCn
(d) ukjh
L=kh] ofurk
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 7

;ksn~/k lSfud] ohj


vkS"k/ nokbZ] tM+h&cwVh
([k) (iii) fe=k
(x) (iii) rqjax
2- ^v* yxkdj cus gq, ikp 'kCn
vdky] vKkr] vKku] vfo'okl] vlk/kj.kA
3- lSfudny] 'k=kqny] foi{khny] fVM~MhnyA
Hkk"kk iz;ksx
fon~;kFkhZ Lo;a djsaA
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

2- lk,
ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us&le>us osQ ckn Nk=k bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- dgkuh osQ NksVs&NksVs okD;ksa n~okjk iwjs dFku dk vfHkizk; le>
losQa xsA
2- os ik=kksa ls Lo;a dks ,dkdkj dj losaQxsA
3- vius Hkhrj bZekunkjh tSls vewY; xq.k dks iSnk dj losaQxsA
4- ;g lh[k losaQxs fd thou esa vk'kk dHkh ugha NksM+uh pkfg,A
ikB dk lkj
nks uUgs nq/eqgs cPpksa dk firk iSlk dekus lqnwj vI+kzQhdk pyk x;kA
tgk mlus ,d lTtu dks vius dkjksckj dk fgLlsnkj cuk;kA chekj
gksdj firk py clkA ;gk Lons'k esa izrh{kkjr mldh #X.k iRuh vkSj
8 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

cPpksa dks i=k&iSlk Hkstdj ml bZekunkj fgLlsnkj us firk dh fy[kkbZ esa


i=k fy[kdj muosQ Hkhrj bl vk'kk dks txk, j[kk fd og Bhd gS vkSj
dke ls iqQjlr ikrs gh vk,xkA cPps i<+]s cM+s gks x,] yM+dh dk fookg
Hkh gks x;kA firk ls feyus dks mRlqd iq=k fcuk lwpuk fn, tc vIk+ Qz hdk
igqp
k rks mls ;g lPpkbZ ekywe gqbZ vkSj og vius firk n~okjk yxk, x,
ml mn~;ksx (dkjksckj) esa o`n/
~ lTtu dk gkFk cVkus yxkA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
ikB dk vkjaHk ^fe=k* 'kCn dh O;k[;k ls djsafe=k dkSu gS\
oSQlk gksuk pkfg,\ rqEgkjk fe=k oSQlk gks\ rqe fdlosQ fe=k gks\
vkfnA ikB osQ vkjaHk esa fy[ks lkj dks mPp Loj esa i<+sa vkSj ml
ij ppkZ djsAa
ikBkja Hk
w ikB osQ vuqPNsnksa] ?kVukvksa@ fLFkfr;ksa osQ ekuqlkj vkn'kZ okpu
djsa vkSj le>krs tk,A
w vkn'kZ okpu dgkuh iBu osQ :i esa mfpr mrkj&p<+ko ls gksA
'kCnksa osQ 'kqn~/ mPpkj.k ls gh dFkk esa izokg vk,xk] bl ckr
dk fo'ks"k ;ku j[kk tk,A
w ikB osQ var esa cPpksa dks fVIi.kh djus dk volj nsaA mudh
jk; tkusa] fiQj viuh jk; nsaA
w cPpksa ls tkusa ;fn firk osQ fe=k lgk;rk u djrs] rks ifjokj dk
D;k gksrk\
w cPpksa ls vuqdj.k okpu djus osQ fy, dgsAa
w fojke fpg~uksa osQ iz;ksx ij ;ku nsaA
w ^eu ik[kh cu* osQ iz'uksa ij ppkZ dj mudh dYiuk dks mM+ku
nsAa
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 9

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- i=k osQ feyus ij ifjokjokyksa dk cqjk gky gks x;kA ml i=k esa
vTtw osQ firk dh chekjh dh [kcj FkhA i=k cgqr gh d#.k vkSj
nnZHkjk FkkA iRuh i=k i<+rh vkSj jksrhA vcks/ cPps #ykbZ Hkjh
vk[kksa ls ek dks ns[krs ysfdu jksus dk dkj.k mudh le> esa
ugha vkrkA
2- ?kj ls tkus okys i=k esa vTtw osQ ckjs esa fy[kk Fkk fd bl ckj
og d{kk esa izFke vk;k gSA mls okh-iQk feysxkA og cM+k gksdj
bathfu;j cusxk] ikik osQ lkFk [kwc dke djsxkA og i=k esa
fy[kh fgnk;rksa dk ikyu djrk gS] ek dks fdlh Hkh fdLe dk
d"V ugha nsrkA
3- lgt :i ls ruq osQ fy, oj fey tkus dk dkj.k ;g Fkk fd
oj i{k okys lksp jgs Fks fd yM+dh dk firk vI+kzQhdk esa [kwc
lksuk cVksj jgk gS blfy, nku&ngst dh dksbZ deh ugha jgsxhA
4- vTtw osQ fy, vI+kzQhdk ls dherh dS ejk] xje lwV dk diM+k
vkSj ,d lqanj ?kM+h vkbZA
5- mRrj esa osQoy bruk gh fy[kk Fkk fd ogk dke cgqr c<+ x;k
gS] uSjksch vkfn LFkkuksa ij mls fu;fer :i ls tkuk iM+rk gSA
vTtw dks igys viuh i<+kbZ ij ;ku nsuk pkfg,A
6- Lo;a djsAa
ysf[kuh ls
1- i=k dks vthc blfy, dgk x;k gS D;ksfa d ;g uSjksch osQ vLirky
ls fy[kk x;k cgqr gh d#.k vkSj nnZHkjk i=k FkkA bl i=k dks
i<+rs gh iRuh jksus yxh vkSj vcks/ cPps viuh ek dks jksrs ns[k
jgs FksA bl i=k esa gh vTtw osQ firk us fy[kk Fkk fd mldk jksx
10 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

2-

3-

4-

5-

csdkcw gks x;k gSA vkijs'ku gksus osQ ckn Hkh og pan fnuksa dk
esgeku gS vkSj mls lcdh fPakrk lrk jgh gSA
firk th dh e`R;q dk lekpkj u nsdj firk osQ nksLr us vPNk
fd;kA
firk dk nksLr ;fn vius fe=k dh e`R;q dh [kcj nsrk] rks
ifjokj fc[kj tkrkA ifjokj osQ yksxksa esa fujk'kk] grk'kk] vlqj{kk
dh Hkkouk Hkj tkrhA iRuh vius ifr dh e`R;q dh [kcj ikdj
;knk fnuksa rd faknk ugha jg ikrh] cPps vukFk gks tkrsA vTtw
brus gkSlys ls i<+ ugha ikrkA ruq dh 'kknh Hkh /we/ke ls vPNs
?kjkus esa u gks ikrhA
eS=kh fo"k; ij vuqPNsn fy[krs le; ge bl ikB osQ ewyHkko
(midkj djus ls feyus okys larks"k) dk fk djuk pkgsaxs]
ftlosQ ckjs esa yksxksa dks Kku ugha gSA dfBu le; esa enn djus
okyk fe=k gh vlyh fe=k gksrk gSA bl ikB esa ,d ,slk gh fe=k
gS] tks vius nksLr osQ iwjs ifjokj dk Hkj.k&iks"k.k djrk gS vkSj
nksLr dh deh dks og eglwl ugha gksus nsrkA
bl dgkuh dk 'kh"kZd ^lk,* ys[kd us lgh j[kk gS D;ksafd
firk osQ fe=k osQ lk, (lgkjs) ek=k ls firk dk ifjokj eqlhcr
osQ Hkoj dks ikj djosQ fdukjs yx tkrk gSA ;fn fe=k dk lgkjk
u feyrk rks ifjokj ikuh osQ cqycqys dh rjg lekIr gks tkrkA
(d) bl iafDr dk vk'k; gS fd tSls gh firk dh gkyr esa
lq/kj osQ fo"k; esa vI+kzQhdk ls i=k osQ lkFk oqQN #i,
igys dh rjg igqp x, rks muosQ mnkl psgjksa ij [kq'kh
Nk xbZA
([k) tks ifjokj firk dh 'kkjhfjd gkyr [kjkc gksus osQ
dkj.k vkfFkZd vkSj ekufld :i ls ijs'kku Fkk] og
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 11

firk osQ fe=k dh nwjn'khZ lksp osQ dkj.k fc[kjus ls cp


x;kA vI+kzQhdk ls vk, mRlkgtud i=k vkSj #i;ksa us
lcosQ eu esa vk'kk dk lapkj dj fn;k FkkA vc mudk
ifjokj fujk'kk osQ Hkoj ls fudydj fiQj ls lkekU;
knxh thus yxkA
(x) le; rskh ls chrrk x;kA firk dh e`R;q dks dbZ o"kZ
chr x,A vTtw vc cM+k gks x;k FkkA csVh dh 'kknh gks
pqdh FkhA
6- ys[kd dgrk gS fd lgkjs dh vn`'; Mksj Hkh euq"; osQ fy,
,slk la cy gksrh gS og dekksj vkSj vosQyk gksus ij Hkh
dfBukb;ksa osQ taxyksa ls ckgj vk ldrk gSA tSls dgkuh esa
o.kr ifjokj esa vI+kQz hdk ls vkus okys i=k gh mudk lgkjk cu
x,A vTtw osQ firk osQ fe=k us vn`'; lgkjk nsdj lewps ifjokj
dks fc[kjus ls cpk fy;k vkSj fe=k dks ejrs le; fn, x,
opu dks iwjk fd;kA
7- ([k) D;ksafd firk dk nsgkar gks pqdk FkkA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr o.kZ dh
folxkr 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ
1- v{kj'k% iwjh rjg] v{kj&v{kj osQ vuqlkj
izk;% ges'kk] yxHkx
izkr% losjk] izHkkr
laHkor% eqefdu gS] 'kk;n] gks ldrk gS
vr% blfy,
e'k% eiwod
Z
12 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

2- gM~fM;k] mn~fHkUu] NqV~fV;k


3- (d) vfr $ vkpkj vR;kpkj
vfr $ midkj vR;qidkj
vfr $ vkuan vR;kuan
([k) izR;qidkj] izR;kxr] izR;kgkj] izR;sd
(x) (ii) izR;qRrj
ckr 'kCn dh
1- vf/drk] vko';drk] mnkjrk] deZBrk] deZ.;rk] rYyhurk]
laiUurk] rKrk] #X.krk] O;koqQyrk
2- (d) esgekunkjh] nsunkjh] ukrsnkjh] fj'rsnkjh vkfn la Kk 'kCn gSAa
([k) nkjh izR;; ls cus nks 'kCn(1) nqdkunkjh (2) oI+kQknkjh
3- foykse 'kCn
vLoLFk] vuko';d] fu;fer] vk'kktud] foLrkj] vukFk]
vlqj{kk
4- rRle :i
ngh nf/
nw/ nqX/
?kh ?k`r
lkx 'kkd
ckr okD; dh
lac/
a cks/d vO;;
1- gkFk osQ vkWijs'ku osQ ckn vc og i=k ugha fy[k ikrkA
2- os nhokj ls lVs /q/ys fp=k dh vksj ns[krs jgsA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 13

leqPp;cks/d vO;;
1- MkWDVjksa us vkWijs'ku dh lykg nh gS drq mlesa Hkh dksbZ lkj
vc yxrk ughaA
2- gj ckj oqQN&u&oqQN vM+pusa vk tkrha vkSj mldk tkuk
LFkfxr gks tkrkA
Hkk"kk iz;ksx
1- ekSle lqgkouk ns[kdj lcosQ eqj>k, eq[kMs+ f[ky x,A
2- dfBu izfr;ksfxrk esa igys nl izfr;ksfx;ksa esa LFkku izkIr djrs
ns[k ek us vius iq=k dks ckgksa esa Hkj fy;kA
2- ;gk [kMs+&[kMs+ esjk eqg D;ksa rkd jgs gksA tkvks] HkkbZ dks xys
yxkvksA
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

3- og fpfM+;k ,d vykeZ ?kM+h Fkh--ikB~; cnq


bl ikB dks i<+us&le>us osQ ckn cPps bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- le; osQ egRRo dks tYn le> losaQxsA
2- i'kq&if{k;ksa osQ izfr laosnu'khy gks losaQxsA
3- fpfM+;k ls le; ikyu dh izsj.kk ys losaQxsA
4- lkfgR; i<+us osQ izfr viuh #fp dks txk losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
ys[kd vius cpiu dks ;kn dj dgrs gSa fd os Hkh ,d lkekU; cPps
dh rjg nsj ls mBrs FksA ukSdjh yxus ij tc os ?kj ls nwj pys x,
rks vyx jgus dk viuk vyx jksekap mUgsa vuqHko gqvkA nsj jkr rd
14 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

dfork, fy[kuk] i<+uk vkSj lqcg nsj rd lksuk ,d vyx gh vkuan


dh vuqHkwfr djkrk Fkk! ml dejs esa ,d fpfM+;k us ,d rlohj osQ
ihNs viuk ?kksalyk cuk fy;k FkkA nsj rd njokkk can jgus osQ dkj.k
mlus ys[kd osQ fljgkus cSB viuh pha&ph ls mUgsa mBk;k vkSj njokkk
[kqyrs gh ckgj pyh xbZA ;g e tkjh jgkA blh dh otg ls fpfM+;k
muosQ fy, ,d vykeZ ?kM+h cuh vkSj os lw;ksnZ ; ls iwoZ mBdj izfr
dk vkuan ys ik,A
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
lqcg mBus] izfr osQ 'kqHkz :i] mlosQ vkuan dk o.kZu djsAa i'kq&i{kh]
;g pjkpj txr] izfr lHkh le; dk ikyu djrs gS]a bls le>k,A
ikBkja Hk
w ikB osQ izR;sd vuqPNsn dk vkn'kZ okpu djsaA
w dfBu 'kCnksa dks ';keiV ij fy[krs tk,A
w izR;sd vuqPNsn osQ ckn #ddj mls okD;&nj&okD; iqu% i<+dj
le>k,A
w iwjs ikB dk vuqdj.k okpu djus osQ ckn iwjh d{kk dks eokj
ikB i<+us vkSj vuqdj.k okpu djus dk volj nsAa
w iz'u&mRrjksa ij ppkZ ls iwoZ ikB dk ekSu okpu djus dk
le; nsAa
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- ,slk dgdj ys[kd us ?kM+h dh mi;ksfxrk dks fln~/ dj fn;k
vkSj le; osQ egRRo dks Hkh le>k;kA ml le; ljdkjh foHkkxksa
esa izFkk Fkh fd tc Hkh dksbZ deZpkjh fjVk;jesaV (lsok&fuo`fRr)
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 15

ysrk Fkk rks foHkkx fu'kkuh osQ :i esa mls ,d ?kM+h HksaV esa nsrk
FkkA ys[kd us lq>ko fn;k fd bl izFkk esa lq/kj djosQ ;fn
?kM+h dks ukSdjh yxus ij deZpkjh dks fn;k tk, rks csgrj
gksxkA blls deZpkjh le; ij vkWfI+kQl igqpsaxs vkSj le;kuqlkj
dk;Z djsaxsA
2- ys[kd us ;g viuh vknr osQ dkj.k dgk D;ksafd mls nsj jkr
rd i<+us dh vknr Fkh vkSj nsj rd lksus dhA ys[kd dks
viuh bl vknr osQ dkj.k dbZ ijs'kkfu;ksa dk lkeuk djuk
iM+rk vkSj og vkWf-iQl nsj ls igqprkA viuh uhan iwjh u gksus osQ
dkj.k fnu osQ dke vkSj n+rj osQ dke vO;ofLFkr gks tkrs]
vius vkyL; osQ dkj.k og vykeZ ?kM+h dks Bhd ugha djok
ikrk FkkA mlus u rks vykeZ ?kM+h dks Bhd djok;k vkSj u gh
viuh vknr esa lq/kj fd;kA
3- rfd, us ys[kd dh ckr dks lquuk can dj fn;k D;ksfas d rfd;k
rks ys[kd dks le; ij txk nsrk Fkk ysfdu ys[kd dks nsj jkr
rd i<+uk vPNk yxrk FkkA rfd, n~okjk txkus ij Hkh vkyL;
osQ dkj.k og lks;k jgrkA
4- fpfM+;k ys[kd osQ fljgkus ij cSBdj 'kksj blfy, dj jgh Fkh
D;ksafd mls lqcg&lqcg ?kj ls ckgj tkuk gksrk FkkA ?kj ls ckgj
tkus dk jkLrk fl-iQZ njokkk FkkA fpfM+;k 'kksj epkdj ys[kd
dks txkuk pkgrh Fkh rkfd og njokkk [kksysA
5- fpfM+;k us ys[kd dks vius lkFk mBkdj izfr dk lqanj ukkjk
ns[kus dks ck; fd;k vkSj BaMh&BaMh gok dk Li'kZ eglwl
djok;k ftls og nsj rd lksus osQ dkj.k [kks nsrk FkkA og
fpfM+;k osQ lkFk tkxdj iwQyksa dh lqxa/ vkSj rkkxh dks eglwl
djus yxkA ys[kd us lqcg osQ izkfrd n`';ksa dh rqyuk vueksy
jRu ls dh gSA
16 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

6- fpfM+;k dh rqyuk ys[kd us ek ls bl dkj.k ls dh gS fd


ftl izdkj ek vius cPpksa dks I;kj ls lgykdj txkrh gS mlh
izdkj dgkuh esa og fpfM+;k Hkh okRlY;e;h ek osQ leku iyax
osQ fljgkus cSBdj >q>ykgV Hkjs Loj esa pha---pha djosQ ys[kd
dks txkrh gSA tc mlosQ 'kksj djus ij Hkh tc ys[kd ugha
mBrk] rc og jkkbZ dk dksuk pksap ls idM+dj [khap nsrh Fkh!
cpiu esa brus gh I;kj vkSj >q>ykgV ls ys[kd dh ek mls nsj
rd lksus ij txkrh FkhA ys[kd fpfM+;k esa viuh ek dk
izfrcc ns[kus yxk FkkA
ysf[kuh ls
1- ^^la osnukvksa osQ Lrj ,d tSls ugha jgrsA**ys[kd dk vfHkizk;
ml vykeZ ?kM+h ls tqM+h laosnukvksa ls gS ftls mlus fuca/
izfr;ksfxrk esa izFke iqjLdkj Lo:i ik;k FkkA ml le; og ml
vykeZ ?kM+h esa pkch Hkjdj vykeZ dh ?kaVh dks ckj&ckj ctkdj
izHkkfor gksrk jgrk Fkk vkSj mlosQ izHkko dks xgjkbZ ls eglwl
djrk Fkk D;ksafd mls og ?kM+h buke osQ :i esa feyh FkhA vc
egxs ls egxs eksckby iQksu dh vykeZ ofu esa Hkh mls og ckr
ugha izrhr gksrhA
2- ys[kd lkfgfR;d vfHk#fp;ksa osQ O;fDr FksA jksk nsj jkr rd
i<+uk mudk 'kkSd FkkA e; jkf=k esa tc pkjksa vksj 'kkafr jgrh
Fkh] rc os fganh vkSj vaxszkh dk lkfgR; i<+rs FksA mUgsa fdrkcsa
i<+us esa vkuan vkrk FkkA i<+us&fy[kus osQ blh O;lu osQ dkj.k
mudh uhan nsj ls [kqyrh FkhA
3- fpfM+;k ys[kd osQ iyax osQ fljgkus cSBdj ,d vyx rjg dh
>q>ykgV ls Hkjh pha---pha rhoz vkokk osQ lkFk djrh gqbZ txkrh
FkhA ys[kd rc Hkh ugha mBrk rks og viuh nwljh dksf'k'k esa
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 17

yxh jgrhA og fuMjrk osQ lkFk iqQnddj rhoz ofu ls dejs


dks xqtk nsrh FkhA ys[kd osQ u tkxus ij jkkbZ dk dksuk pksap
ls [khapdj cM+h gh fuMjrk osQ lkFk mlosQ lhus ij tk cSBrh
vkSj xqLls ls pha---pha djrh rkfd ys[kd njokkk [kksy ns vkSj
og dejs ls ckgj pyh tk,A
4- izkr%dky osQ n`'; dk o.kZu djrs gq, ys[kd dgrk gS fd
BaMh&BaMh rkkh gok dk >ksaosQ us tc mldh vylkbZ vk[kksa dks
Li'kZ fd;k rks mls cgqr vkuan dk vuqHko gqvkA mls mxrs gq,
lwjt dh yky&yky fdj.kksa dk n'kZu gq,A fpfM+;ksa dh e/qj
ofu lqukbZ nhA bu lc vuks[ks n`';ksa dks ns[kdj ys[kd us ;g
vuqHko fd;k fd og O;FkZ gh nsj rd lksdj bu ukkjksa ls
oafpr jgkA
5- ^fMfc;k esa jRu gS] ;g vuqHkwfr ugha tkuh pkfg,!* bu ia fDr;ksa
esa ys[koQ osQ ca n dejs dh rqyuk ehukdkjh okyh fMfc;k ls dh
gS ftls [kksydj fpfM+;k us ys[kd dks m"kk lqna jh osQ jRuksa osQ
n'kZu djok fn, vkSj izkfrd n`';ksa dk vkua n ysuk fl[kk fn;kA
6- ([k) mlus mUgsa izkr%dkyhu lkSan;Z osQ n'kZu djk, FksA
7- vk'k; Li"Vhdj.k
(d) ys[kd xksfoan oqQekj xqatu us bu iafDr;ksa osQ ek;e ls
Li"V fd;k gS fd dejs esa fpfM+;k osQ 'kksj djus dh
otg ls tc og njokkk [kksyrk Fkk] rc fpfM+;k osQ
dejs ls ckgj tkrs gh [kqys njokks ls rkkh&rkkh] BaMh
gok dk >ksadk 'kjhj dks Nwus yxrk FkkA rkkh gok osQ
Li'kZ dks ikdj gh mlus eglwl fd;k fd nsj rd lksdj
bl izkfrd lkSan;Z osQ lq[k ls og oafpr jgk gSA
18 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

([k) izLrqr iafDr;ksa esa ys[kd fpfM+;k dks gh viuh vykeZ ?kM+h
ekurk gSA ogh fpfM+;k iya x osQ fljgkus jkkbZ ij cSBdj
e/qj pgpgkgV ls mls txkrh gSA mldh pgpgkgV esa
vc ks/ ugha gS] viukiu gS] izes dh Hkkouk esa Mwch gqbZ
og I;kj ls mls txkrh gS] tSls cpiu esa ek txkrh FkhA
fpfM+;k osQ dk;Zdykiksa ls ys[kd eglwl djrk gS fd nsj
rd lksuk mls ilan ugha gSA og pkgrh gS fd ys[kd Hkh
mlosQ lkFk tkxdj lfjrkvksa dk ty] ok;q] lw;Z dh igyh
fdj.k vkSj mldk izdk'k vkSj iwQyksa osQ f[kyus vkSj mudh
lqx/
a osQ vkuan dks eglwl djsA
8- (d) ys[kd us viuh i<+u&s fy[kus dh vknr dks O;lu dgk gSA
([k) ys[kd us ,slk bl dkj.k ls dgk gS D;ksafd og vosQyk
gh ml dejs esa jgrk FkkA mls jksdus&Vksdus okyk dksbZ
ugha Fkk] u gh fdlh izdkj dh #dkoV gh FkhA
(x) bu iafDr;ksa esa ^[kxky Mkyuk* 'kCn ls vfHkizk; Kku ls
gSA ys[kd dks i<+us&fy[kus dk 'kkSd bruk vf/d Fkk
fd mlus vius Kku dh o`n~f/ osQ fy, fganh vkSj vaxsz kh
dk lkjk lkfgR; i<+ MkykA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- ,d 'kCn
uothou
njokkk
cs[kcj
dfBukbZ

ls vusd 'kCn
uo] thou] tho] ou
nj] nok] njkk
csj] [kcj] [kj
dbZ] ukbZ] dfBu
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 19

2- funsZ'kkuqlkj mRrj
(d) miyC/ $ b miyfC/
([k) lqna j $ rk lqna jrk
(x) fpfM+;k] fMfc;k
(?k) dfBu] dk;kZy;
() (ii) bZ;
(p) (ii) vuqiyC/
3- eq>s vkSj ugha pkfg, cl bruk i;kZIr gSA
bruk Hkkstu esjs fy, vf/d gksxkA
eSaus vkpk;Z dk Lokxr fd;kA
eSa cM+ksa dk vfHkoknu djrk gwA
vius fe=k osQ tUefnu ij eSaus migkj fn;k gSA
lqnkek HksaV nsus osQ fy, pkoy ys x,A
4- 'kCn ifjokj
x`g x`gea=kh] x`g;qn~/
ekuo ekuo'kkL=k] ekuosanz
;ksx ;ksxek;k] ;ksxcy
n'k n'keq[k] n'kewy
LoxZ LoxZunh] LoxZo/w
ckr okD; dh
okD; fuekZ.k
1- ek us eksgu dks [ksyus ls euk fd;k ysfdu og [ksyus osQ fy,
pyk x;kA
2- 'ksj dks ns[krs gh fgju tku cpkus osQ fy, rsk xfr ls nkSMk+
vkSj Hkkx fudykA
20 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

3- vki ekSlh dh yM+dh osQ ;gk tk,xs vFkok fdlh vkSj lnL;
dks Hkst\w
4- fueZyk us ya ch nkSM+ izfr;ksfxrk esa iSj yM+[kM+kus ij Hkh fgEer
ugha gkjh vkSj izFke LFkku izkIr fd;kA
5- vkiosQ fy, pk; yk ;k dkWI+kQh\
6- dy ijh{kk gS blfy, ;ku ls i<+kAs
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

4- ftl lekt esa rqe jgrs gks


ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us&le>us osQ ckn cPps bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- lekt dh vko';drk vkSj mldk egRRo vPNh rjg tku
losaQxsA os tku losaQxs fd ftl lekt esa ge@os jgrs gSa] mldk
LoLFk gksuk vko';d gSA
2- O;fDr vkSj lekt ,d&nwljs ij vkfJr gSa] os ;g tku losaQxsA
3- uSfrd ewY;@ekuoh; ewY; gh ekuo dks faknk j[krs gSa] os ;g
Hkh tku losaQxsA
dfork dk lkj
unh dh rjg ;g gekjk lekt gS vkSj ygjsa ekuoA izR;sd 'kfDr'kkyh
ygj dh rjg euq"; gh lekt dh 'kfDr gSA lekt :ih e'khu dk
dyiqkkZ ekuo gh gSA ;fn og ,d csgrjhu] lkFkZd dyiqkkZ cus] rks
vPNk gSA fuf'pr :i ls ekuo gh lekt dh ,d egRRoiw.kZ bdkbZ
gSA nwljs dh d#.kk ij thuk vieku ls Hkjh e`R;q gS_ Bhd ,sls] tSls
fdlh fdlku osQ ?kj vR;f/d fu/Zurk VwVk&iwQVk cjru j[k nsrh gSA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 21

,slk thou thou ugha] e`R;q gSA ftl euq"; esa lekt dh 'kfDr] Hkqtk]
pj.k vkSj vk[k cuus dh ;ksX;rk gS vFkkZr~ ftl euq"; esa 'kfDr]
vkokk esa gqadkj] dk;Z'khyrk] xfr vkSj n`f"V gks] ogh lekt dk
vkn'kZ curk gSA ,slk thou gh mPp thou gSA
euq"; dks vius lekt dks lc izdkj ls mUur cukus osQ fy,
iz;Ru'khy jguk pkfg,A
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
ikB eas fn, ^u;k&fujkyk* 'kh"kZd osQ varxZr nh xbZ lkexzh dks i<+sa
vkSj ml ij fo'kn ppkZ djsAa ^eu ik[kh cu* dh ppkZ djsAa
ikBkja Hk
w dfork dk lLoj nks ckj vkn'kZ okpu djsAa
w dfork osQ mQij fy[kk ikB dk lkj i<+sa vkSj le>k,A
w dfork osQ dfBu 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ crk,A
w dfork dk vFkZ le>k,A
w lkj vkSj izfrikn~; esa varj le>k,A
w dfBu dkO;ka'kksa dk vFkZ Lo;a fy[kok,A
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
w dfBu 'kCnksa dk Jqrys[k ysaA
w dfork osQ dfo dk ifjp; nsAa

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- euq"; dh lkjh vko';drk, lekt ls gh iwjh gksrh gSaA euq";
vkSj lekt nksuksa dks gh ,d&nwljs dh k:jr gS blfy, euq";
lekt esa jgrk gSA
22 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

2- lfjrk dh vxf.kr ygjksa esa ,d ygj dk Hkh egRRo gSA ,d&,d


ygj osQ feyus ls gh unh ;k lkxj esa vxf.kr ygjsa fn[kkbZ nsrh
gSa tks cM+s&ls&cM+s tgkk dks Hkh nwj isaQdus dh {kerk j[krh gSaA
3- dyiqksZ osQ fcuk rks e'khu dh dYiuk Hkh ugha dh tk ldrhA
NksVs&NksVs dyiqkks ls gh ,d cM+h e'khu curh gSA ,d Hkh
dyiqkkZ ;fn [kjkc gks tk, rks e'khu ij dk;Z laHko ugha gks
ldrkA
4- dfo us d#.kkiw.kZ thou dh miek ^fu/Zurk* ls nh gS] ftls
thou dh Hkk"kk esa frjLdkjiw.kZ ej.k dgk x;k gSA
ysf[kuh ls
1- euq"; dks lekt dh 'kfDr mlosQ vkilh lg;ksx ls dk;Z djus
osQ dkj.k dgk x;k gSA izR;sd O;fDr osQ dk;Z djus ls lekt
osQ fodkl dks 'kfDr feyrh gSA lekt dh rjDdh ls jk"V dk
fodkl laHko gSA izR;sd O;fDr osQ ;ksxnku dk egRRo gSA blh
dkj.k ls mldh rqyuk ygjksa dh ,drk ls dh xbZ gSA
2- ^vuqifs {kr vko';drk* ls vfHkizk; gekjh ewyHkwr vko';drkvksa
ls gS ftudh ge mis{kk ugha dj ldrsA
3- dfo us lekt&thou dk izrhd gksus osQ fy, ekuo osQ lEeq[k
'krs j[krs gq, dgk gS fd mUgsa lekt dk fgLlk cuuk iMs+xk]
mUgsa lekt osQ fy, dk;Z djuk iMs+xkA mUgsa Lo;a ls ;g iwNuk
iMsx+ k fd os D;k dk;Z dj ldrs gSa ;k fdu dk;ks dks djus
dh ;ksX;rk muosQ ikl gS] mudk lekt esa vfLrRo D;k gS_
os D;k gSa_ bu iz'uksa dk Lo;a ls iwNdj gy <w<+uk iMs+xkA
4- O;fDr vkSj lekt nksuksa ,d&nwljs osQ iwjd gSaA nksuksa osQ lg;ksx
ls gh jk"V dk fuekZ.k vkSj fodkl laHko gSA ;fn lekt esa xfr
vkSj nwjn`f"V iSnk djuh gS rks gesa lekt dk fgLlk cuuk iMs+xkA
mlosQ fy, dk;Z djus iMs+axsA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 23

5- ekuo dh 'kfDr] vkokk] dk;Z'khyrk] xfr vkSj n`f"V osQ egRRo


dks mYys[k djrh gqbZ iafDr;k
^^;fn rqe mldh ,d 'kfDr gks
mldh yydkjksa esa ls yydkj ,d gks
mldh vfer Hkqtkvksa esa nks Hkqtk rqEgkjh
pj.kksa esa nks pj.k rqEgkjs
vk[kksa esa nks vk[k rqEgkjh
rks fu'p; lekt&thou osQ rqe izrhd gks
fu'p; gh thou] fpj thouAA**
6- (?k) n;kghu gS
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- milxZ ;qDr 'kCn
nquokj] vfer] lqfo/k] vuknj
2- izR;; ;qDr 'kCn
oqQfVyrk] ekSf[kd] fn[kkoVh] fueZyrk] ,sfrgkfld
3- (d) i;kZ;okph
'kfDr
ygj
thou

'kCn
cy] rkdr
ekSt] rjax
faknxh] izk.k

([k) (iii) HkkxhjFkh


u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

24 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

5- v/Zjkf=k dk lw;ksZn;
ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+u&s le>us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- 'kghnksa dk lEeku dj losaQxsA
2- viuh vkkknh dk ewY; igpku losaQxsA
3- ns'k osQ izfr HkfDrHkko dk;e j[k losaQxsA
4- Lok/hurk laxkz e dh kafr osQ bfrgkl dks le> losaQxsA
5- ml egRRoiw.kZ ?kM+h dk ewY; vkd losaQxs] ftl iy Lok/hu
Hkkjr dh ?kks"k.kk gqbZA
6- ns'k osQ izfr vknj@lEeku@ izse dk ltho fp=k.k i<+ xn~xn~ gks
losQa xsA
ikB dk lkj
yacs le; ls vkkknh dh ckV tksgrs Hkkjrokfl;ksa osQ lkeus og 'kqHk
?kM+h vk igqph] ftldh mUgsa pkg FkhA 15 vxLr 1947 dh izFke
?kM+h esa Hkkjr dks Lok/hurk dk lEeku feykA [kq'kh osQ ekjs iwjs Hkkjr
osQ yksxksa dh vk[kksa ls uhan xk;c FkhA bafM;k xsV osQ eSnku esa 'kke Ng
cts otkjksg.k fd;k x;kA 16 vxLr dh lqgkuh lqcg esa ykyfdys
ij frjaxk iQgjkA 90 o"kZ osQ la?k"kZ dh dgkuh iwjh gqbAZ chrs gq, dy
dh ih<+h us gesa vkkknh dh eafty rd igqpk;kA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
^u;k&fujkyk*] ^eu ik[kh cu* ij ppkZ djsaA ikB osQ vkjaHk esa
fy[kk lkj i<+saA
ikBkja Hk
w loZiFz ke ^v/Zjkf=k dk lw;ksnZ ;* okD;ka'k ij fVIi.kh djsaA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 25

w 15 vxLr dh Hkksj (14 vxLr jkf=k dh lekfIr) dks ^iquhr


jkf=k* D;ksa dgk x;k gS] le>k,A
w ikB dk lkjka'k i<+sa vkSj mls le>k,A
w ikB dk vuqdj.k okpu djsAa dfBu 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ crk,A izR;sd
?kVuk ij ppkZ djsaA jk"Vh; izrhdksa (fpg~uksa) ij Hkh ppkZ djsaA
w ikB dh ?kVukvksa osQ lanHkZ esa cPpksa osQ fopkjksa dks lqusa] ppkZ
djsaA
w ,d&,d vuqPNsn dk okpu djok,A mPpkj.k ij ;ku nsAa
w ^eq[k ls* 'kh"kZd esa fn, x, iz'uksa dks iwNsaA
w ^ysf[kuh ls* 'kh"kZd esa fn, x, iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA fy[kus osQ
fy, nsAa
w ^Hkk"kk ls* esa fn, vH;kl dks le>k, vkSj dkWih esa djok,A

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- izLrqr okD; esa ys[kd Lora=krk vkanksyu :ih ;K dh ckr dj
jgk gSA Lora=krk izkIr djus osQ fy, 'kghnksa us Lora=krk laxkz e
:ih ;K esa viuh lq[k&lqfo/kvksa dh cfy nh] vR;kpkj lgkA
ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i vkkknh gkfly gqbZ vkSj uo&fuekZ.k dk
;qx vkjaHk gqvkA
2- daVdiw.kZ ekxZ ij pydj geus vkkknh dh eafky izkIr dhA
3- 14 vxLr dh jkr fnYyhokyksa dh vk[kksa esa uhan vkkknh
gkfly djus dh [kq'kh esa ugha vk jgh FkhA fnYyh dks nqYgu dh
rjg ltk;k x;k Fkk vkSj turk [kq'kh osQ lkFk ukpdj viuh
[kq'kh kkfgj dj jgh FkhA pkjksa vksj >afM;k] frjaxs >aMs fn[kkbZ
ns jgs Fks] feBkb;k ckVh tk jgh FkhaA jk"Vh; xhrksa osQ fjdkWMZ vkSj
eaxy okn~;ksa dh lqjhyh vkokk xwt jgh FkhA
26 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

4- otkjksg.k osQ le; vikj HkhM+ esa cSaMokys] cktsokys vkSj Me


okys b/j&m/j fc[kj tkus osQ dkj.k /qu ugha ctk ik,A
5- ^ekuo lkxj ygjk jgk Fkk* ls vfHkizk; vikj HkhM+ ls gSA
6- vaxjskksa us rksiksa osQ eqg pknuh pkSd dh rjI+kQ djokdj blfy,
j[kok, Fks rkfd yksx ncs jgs vkSj vaxjskh lRrk osQ f[kyk-iQ
cxkor u djsAa
ysf[kuh ls
1- usg: th Hkkjr vkSj mldh turk dh lsok vkSj mlls c<+dj
ekuork dh lsok djus dh ckr blfy, dgh D;ksafd os Hkkjr
esa gh ugha cfYd iwjs fo'o esa 'kkafr vkSj [kq'kgkyh iSQykuk pkgrs
FksA
2- ykMZ ekmaVcsVu Hkkjr osQ izFke xoZuj tujy vkSj egkjkuh
foDVksfj;k osQ iM+ukrh FksA mUgksaus Lok/hu Hkkjr osQ izFke xoZuj
tujy cuk, tkus osQ dkj.k Hkkjrh; usrk dk vkHkkj O;Dr
fd;kA
3- u, nkf;Roksa dks fuHkkus osQ fy, ia usg: us ns'kokfl;ksa dks
lacksf/r djrs gq, dgk fd
(d) ^^gekjk Hkfo"; vkjkensg ugha gS cfYd yxkrkj ifjJe
djus osQ fy, gS rkfd ge vkt yh tkus okyh vkSj izk;%
yh xbZ 'kiFk dks iwjk dj losaQA
([k) gekjh ih<+h dh egkure O;fDr dh bPNk ;gh jgh gS fd
izR;sd O;fDr dh vk[kksa osQ vklw iksaN fn, tk,---tc
rd fdlh dh Hkh vk[k esa vklw vkSj nq[k gS] gekjk
drZO; iwjk ugha gksxkA
(x) gesa Hkkjr osQ ,sls 'kkunkj Hkfo"; dk fuekZ.k djuk gS
tgk Hkkjr osQ lHkh cPps jg loasQA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 27

(?k) Hkkjr dh vkkknh vius lkFk u, nkf;Roksa dk cks> ysdj


vkbZ gSa ftUgsa ge Lora=k vuq'kklucn~/ jk"Vh; Hkkouk
vkSj n`<+ fu'p; ls gh fuHkk ldrs gSaA
() y{; dks egku lk/uksa ls gh gkfly fd;k tk ldrk
gSA
4- usg: th us viuh Lora=krk dks v{kq..k cuk, j[kus] Lora=krk osQ
nkf;Roksa dks fuHkkus] fo'o dks 'kkafr vkSj Lora=krk dk lans'k nsus
vkSj lcdks Hkkjr ek dk ;ksX; iq=k cukus osQ egku dk;Z djus
dk ladYi fy;kA
5- 1857 esa esjB ls vk, eqfDr lSfud kafrdkjh Fks ftUgksaus
va xjskh lRrk osQ fo#n~/ vkokk mBkbZA
6- vk'k; Li"Vhdj.k
(d) bu iafDr;ksa esa ys[kd /esnz ukFk us Li"V fd;k gS tc
vk/h jkr dks lalkj lks jgk gS] rc Hkkjroklh tkxdj
Lora=krk izkfIr osQ {k.kksa osQ xokg cusaxsA
([k) izLrqr iafDr;ksa esa ys[kd us Li"V djrs gq, dgk gS fd
Hkkjr dks vkkknh rks fey xbZ gS ysfdu fkEesnkfj;k c<+
xbZ gSaA ns'k dh vFkZO;oLFkk vkSj ukxfjdksa osQ fodkl osQ
fy, ubZ uhfr;k cukuh gksaxhA blfy, lHkh ukxfjdksa dks
lg;ksx djuk iMsx+ kA
(x) bu iafDr;ksa esa ys[kd us dgk gS fd le; lnk ,d&lk
ugha jgrkA ftl baXySaM dh egkjkuh us lu~ 1858 esa Hkkjr
dk 'kklu xzg.k fd;k Fkk vkSj ftls Hkkjr dh jktjkts'ojh
dh mikf/ ls foHkwf"kr fd;k x;k Fkk] vkt mUgha jkuh
dk iM+ukrh Lora=k Hkkjr osQ jk"Vh; ot dks lykeh ns
jgk Fkk vkSj laosQr dj jgk Fkk fd vc Hkkjr va xjskksa
dh nklrk ls eqDr gks x;k gSA
28 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

7- ftl izdkj lwjt osQ fudyus ls v/sjk nwj gksrk gS] mlh izdkj
ls 14 vxLr dh jkr osQ e; esa Lora=krk dk lwjt fudydj
pkjksa vksj mYykl vkSj g"kZ dk izdk'k iSQyk jgk FkkA fctyh osQ
jaxhu cYcksa dh >kyjksa ls ,slh jks'kuh dh xbZ Fkh fd jkr Hkh
fnu ekywe gks jgh FkhA vkkknh dh [kq'kh esa lkjh turk ukp
jgh FkhA bl okrkoj.k dks ns[kdj ,slk yx jgk Fkk fd jkr esa
gh lwjt fudy vk;k gS] tks ikB osQ 'kh"kZd dks lkFkZd dj
jgk gSA
8- (d) D;ksafd vR;f/d HkhM+ osQ dkj.k lqj{kk O;oLFkk oLr
gks xbZ FkhA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- 'kCnksas dh laf/ vkSj ifjorZu
Lo $ bPNk LosPNk
uj $ bZ'k
ujs'k
egk $ banz
egsanz
egk $ bZ'oj egs'oj
ohj $ mfpr ohjksfpr
ij $ midkj ijksidkj
lIr $ f"k lIrf"kZ
2- bd izR;; ls cus 'kCn
(d) lekt $ bd lkekftd
uhfr
$ bd uSfrd
/eZ
$ bd /kfeZd
jktuhfr $ bd jktuSfrd
([k) (ii) vkfFkZd

v
v
v
vk
v
v
v

$
$
$
$
$
$
$

b ,
b ,
b ,
bZ ,
m vks
m vks
vj~

ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 29

3- fo'ks"k.k
vf/d
mPp
y?kq
xq#

'kCnksa dh rhu rqyukRed voLFkk,


vf/drj vf/dre
mPprj
mPpre
y?kqrj
y?kqre
xq#rj
xq#re

ckr okD; dh
f;k inca/
1- Mk jktsna z izlkn vkSj ykWMZ ekmaVcsVu 10 ctdj 10 feuV ij
gkWy esa nkf[ky gq,A
2- jkr esa 11 cts dk;Zokgh lekIr gqbAZ
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

6- xksHkh dk iwQy
ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- vius lCth&Kku esa o`nf~ / dj losQa xsA
2- gkL; jl dk vkuan ys losQa xsA
3- yksdksfDr;ksa dk vFkZ tku losaQxs vkSj mudk lkekftd O;ogkj
esa iz;ksx tku losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
guqekuizlkn th gjh lfCk;ksa osQ eqjhn gSaA os muosQ xq.k vkSj LokLF;
ij muosQ izHkko ls Hkyh&Hkkfr ifjfpr gSAa mUgksua s fdlh dke ls y[ku
30 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

tk jgs ys[kd ls vius fy, xksHkh osQ pkj iwQy ykus osQ fy, dgk vkSj
os iwQy oSQls gksus pkfg,] bldk Hkh funs'Z k fn;kA ys[kd ,d >kck
xksHkh osQ iwQy dk ysdj Vsu esa p<+s drq BlkBl Hkjh xkM+h esa ;kf=k;ksa
dh ykrsa [kkus osQ ckn ,d Hkh iwQy lkcqr u cpkA ys[kd us vius
'kgj osQ gh ckkkj ls gh ikp&ikp vkus osQ xksHkh osQ iwQy [kjhns vkSj
guqekuizlkn th dks y[ku osQ crkdj viuh tku NqMk+ bZA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
w ^u;k&fujkyk* osQ varxZr vk, ikB ls tqM+s 'kCnksa ij ppkZ djsaA
ckcw guqekuizlkn osQ O;ogkj ij fVIi.kh djsa vkSj cPpksa ls Hkh
fVIi.kh djus osQ fy, dgsaA iwNsa vko';d dk;Z gsrq tkus okys
O;fDr ls bl izdkj viuh vko';drk dh oLrq, exokuk vkt
osQ bl le; esa dgk rd mfpr gSA
w ^gkL;&O;aX;* 'kCn ij fVIi.kh dks le>k, vkSj nwljh vU;
dgkfu;ksa ^izk;f'pr*] ^lkbfdy dh lokjh* vkfn dgkfu;ksa
dh ckr djsAa
ikBkja Hk
w ikB dk lkj i<+dj ikB osQ izR;sd vuqPNsn dk okpu djsAa
w mPpkj.k dh 'kqn~/rk rFkk dfBu 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ crk,A
w ikB dks le>k,A vuqdj.k okpu djokus osQ mijkar ikB esa vkbZ
gkL; dh NVk dh vuqHkwfr gsrq ekSu iBu osQ fy, dgsaA
w cPpksa ls mudh vuqHkwfr iwNsaA
w ihNs fn;k gqvk vH;kl djok,A
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 31

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- dksbZ Hkh daq tM+k eu ls ckcw guqekuizlkn dks blfy, ugha cqykuk
pkgrk Fkk D;ksfa d muosQ nqdku ij vkus ls mls cgqr nsj rd
fglkc yxkuk iM+rk Fkk fd lkSns osQ ckn ?kkVk fdldks gqvkA
2- bl iafDr osQ ek;e ls ys[kd dguk pkgrk gS fd ftl fMCcs
esa og ?kqlk ml fMCcs esa cgqr HkhM+ FkhA ml fMCcs esa cSBs ;k=kh
nwljs fMCcs esa [kkyh txg osQ ckjs esa tkudkjh nsrs gq,] jsyos osQ
lkjs dkuwu ,d lkFk le>kus yxsA ys[kd us bu lc ckrksa dh
vksj ;ku ugha fn;k vkSj mlh HkhM+&Hkjs fMCcs esa vius xksHkh osQ
>kcs osQ lkFk jgkA
3- nwljs osQ leku dks ^yks"Bor~* ns[kus ls vfHkizk; gS fdlh nwljs
dh oLrq ij yypkbZ ukj ls u ns[kuk vFkkZr~ mls feV~Vh osQ
rqY; le>ukA bu iafDr;ksa dk ys[kd us vFkZ oLrq dh pksjh ls
fy;k gSA blesa pksj dks tc rd oLrq dks pqjkus dk ekSdk u
feys rc rd pksj mls feV~Vh osQ leku ns[krk jgrk gS vkSj
ekSdk feyrs gh pqjk ysrk gSA
4- ^ij vkneh tc turk gks tkrk gS*ls rkRi;Z ;knk HkhM+ ls gS
ftlesa dksbZ fdlh dh ckr ugha lqurk gSA bl izlax esa ys[kd
dh ckr Hkh fdlh us ugha lquh] lykg lHkh nsrs jgsA
5- guqekuizlkn th dks xksHkh nsus dh ys[kd dh fgEer bl dkj.k
ls ugha iM+h D;ksafd xksHkh osQ xBs gq, iRrsnkj iwQy turk dh
bruh ykrsa [kk pqosQ Fks fd mUgsa igpkuuk eqf'dy FkkA ;fn
ys[kd ml xksHkh dks ysdj tkrk rks guqeku izlkn osQ Hkk"k.k
lqurk vkSj mls mudh ukjkkxh dk lkeuk djuk iM+rkA
32 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

ysf[kuh ls
1- ^vkfn dkj.k* ls vfHkizk; igyk dkj.k gS ftlls l`f"V osQ lc
O;kikj mRiUu gq, gSaA bls ge ^ewy dkj.k* Hkh dg ldrs gSaA
ckcw guqekuizlkn dh gj leL;k dk gy gjh lCkh esa fNik
jgrk gSA fdl lCkh esa fdruk foVkfeu] fdruk yksgk] fdruk
pwuk] fdruk dRFkk] fdruh ydM+h] fdruk bVk] fdruk xkjk
oxSjg gksrk gS] bu lcdk fo'kn Kku mudks gSA
2- i`Fohjkt pkSgku va/k gksus ij Hkh 'kCncs/h ck.k pykuk tkurk
FkkA i`Fohjkt osQ dfo panjcjnkbZ us nwj cSBs gq, eksgEen xkSjh
dks ns[kk vkSj i`Fohjkt dks crk;k fd ^^pkj ckl] pkSchl xt]
v"V vaxqy izek.k@rk mQij lqyrku gS er pwoQS pkSgkuA** bruk
lqurs gh i`Fohjkt us ck.k pyk;k vkSj eksgEen xkSjh ej x;kA
mlh izdkj xkM+h vkrs gh ys[kd osQ oqQyh us Hkh mls vkokk
nsdj fLFkfr ls ifjfpr djk;kA
3- xksHkh osQ iwQy /hjs&/hjs djosQ Hkhrj vk jgs FksA nks iwQy IysViQkeZ
ls f[klddj fMCcs osQ uhps jsy dh iVjh ij igqp
x,A bu
iafDr;ksa ls irk pyrk gS fd xksHkh dk >kck fc[kj x;k FkkA
4- ys[kd us vius bykosQ dh lCkh eaMh ls ikp&ikp vkus osQ xksHkh
osQ iwQy [kjhns vkSj mUgsa nsdj bl leL;k dk lek/ku fudkykA
5- vk'k; Li"Vhdj.k
(d) mDr iafDr;ksa esa ys[kd guqekuizlkn osQ ckjs esa dgrs gSa
fd lHkh lCkhokys mudh vknrksa ls ijs'kku Fks] tSlsgjs
kfu, dh xM~Mh iSls&iSls ;k nks iSls dh rhu ysuk]
'kyte osQ iRrs rqM+okdj rqyokus dk vkxzg djuk] vkyw
NkVdj p<+okuk] lM+k dq EgM+k nwljs fnu okil djkuk]
vjch kqyokdj feV~Vh gVkdj ysuk vkfn vusd ,slh
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 33

ckrsa Fkh ftuosQ dkj.k lHkh lCkh okys pkgrs Fks fd os


mudh nqdku ij u vk, D;ksfa d cgqr nsj rd mUgsa
fglkc yxkuk iM+rk Fkk fd lkSns osQ ckn ?kkVs esa vkf[kj
dkSu jgkA
([k) bu iafDr;ksa us ys[kd us crk;k gS fd tc mlus y[kumQ
dh lCkh eaMh esa tkdj lCkh okys ls nks vkus esa xksHkh
osQ iwQy nsus dks dgk] rks mlus euk dj fn;kA lCkh okys
us rhu vkus esa gh iwQy nsus dh ckr dgh ijarq guqeku
izlkn th us nks vkus okys gh iwQy exok, FksA ys[kd osQ
yk[k le>kus ij Hkh og nks vkus ij xksHkh osQ iwQy nsus
dks jkkh ugha gqvkA
(x) fu'kL=khdj.k dk vFkZ gksrk gS 'kL=kksa dk u gksukA
fu'kL=khdj.k osQ fy, yksx u,&u, lq>ko nsrs gSa ysfdu
fu'kL=khdj.k ugha gks ikrkA blh izdkj xksHkh dks lgh
LFkku ij j[kus osQ fy, yksxksa us rjg&rjg osQ lq>ko fn,
drq leL;k T;ksa dh R;ksa cuh jghA
6- gkL; jl dh NVk fc[ksjrh gqbZ iafDr;k
(d) IysVi- QkeZ ij gkFk esa ,d vnn [kwclwjr vVSph osQ lkFk
,d >kck xksHkh osQ iwQy ysdj l-iQj djus okyk eSa vius
<ax dk vosQyk gh eqlkfI+kQj fn[kkbZ iM+ jgk FkkA
([k) nks&,d ifjfpr psgjs fn[kkbZ iMs+A cksys] ^^dfg,] nkor
dc gS\**
(x) esjs oqQyh us ^vc u pwd pkSgku* dh rjg eq>s yydkjkA
(?k) xksHkh osQ iwQy /hjs&/hjs djosQ Hkhrj vk jgs FksA vkf[kjh
fdLr esa nks iwQy IysVi- QkeZ ls f[kldj fMCcs osQ uhps jsy
dh iVjh ij igqp
x,A
() ^^b/j xksHkh gS! vjs Vad m/j ys tkvks th---**
34 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

(p) ;gha osQ ckkkj ls ikp&ikp vkus osQ iwQy [kjhndj]


^y[kumQ osQ* dgdj mUgsa ns vk;kA
7- (d) ys[kd us ;g guqekuizlkn ls dgkA
([k) ifjfpr psgjs us ys[kd osQ gkFk esa xksHkh osQ iwQyksa ls Hkjs
>kcs dks ns[kdj muls dgkA
(x) ys[kd us guqekuizlkn dks ikp vkus osQ xksHkh osQ iwQy
dks y[kumQ osQ iwQy dgdj ns vkus vkSj cnys esa
lkjxfHkZr Hkk"k.k lquus ij dgkA
8- (x) ys[kd osQ fy, xksHkh ykuk leL;k cu xbZ FkhA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- fganh
ekZ
[kjkc
oDr

i;kZ;okph
jksx
cqjk
le;

'kCn
dkI+kQh i;kZIr
[kwclwjr :ioku
lI+kQj ;k=kk

eqlkfI+kQj ;k=kh
tokc mRrj

2- vusdkFkhZ 'kCnksa ls okD; fuekZ.k


ij
fpfM+;k osQ ij lqanj yxrs gSaA
eSaus mls 'kknh esa cgqr cqyk;k ij og ugha vk;kA
d{kk esa v;kid th us xf.kr osQ lw=k crk, ij esjh le>
esa ugha vk,A
diMs+ Nr ij lq[kk nksA
xqkjk
eSa vkfI+kQl ls xqkj gh jgh Fkh fd esjk HkkbZ eq>s fey x;kA
esjs ekrk&firk dks xqkjs gq, 25 o"kZ chr x,A
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 35

bl egxkbZ esa xqkj&clj djuk dfBu gks x;k gSA


og ikuh dgk ls xqkj jgk gS\
3- JqfrlefHkUukFkZd 'kCnksa n~okjk okD; iz;ksx djuk
fprk vFkZ % pqudj j[kh gqbZ ydfM+;ksa dk <sj ftl ij e`r
O;fDr dks tyk;k tkrk gSA
okD; % mls fprk ij fyVkvksA
fPakrk vFkZ % lksp] fiQ
okD; % fPakrk dks fprk osQ leku ekuk x;k gSA
vkfn vFkZ % izFke] fcyoqQy
okD; % vkfndky ls euq"; fPakru'khy jgk gSA
vknh vFkZ % vH;Lr] pLdk
okD; % og pk; vkSj iku [kkus dk vknh gSA
dk-iQh vFkZ % i;kZIr
okD; % esjs dke osQ fy, 5]000 #i, dk-iQh gSaA
dkW-iQh vFkZ % ,d is; inkFkZ
okD; % dkW-iQh ihus dk izpyu fnu&izfrfnu&fnu c<+rk
gh tk jgk gSA
ckr okD; dh
fojke fpg~u dk iz;ksx
1- ckcw guqekuizlkn ;fn lkjs lalkj esa fdlh oLrq dks vkfn dkj.k
ekurs gSa] rks og gS^gjh lCkh*A
2- ^^gSa---gSa---] b/j ugha! b/j xksHkh gS] vkSj m/j tkb,A vjs HkkbZ!
cpdj fudfy,] vksg! nks iwQy dgk x,\** eSa fpYyk;kA
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

36 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

7- oDr
ikB~; cnq
bl dfork dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- lekt esa jgus okys O;fDr;ksa osQ O;ogkj esa vk, cnykoksa dks
le> losaQxsA
2- O;ogkj esa vkbZ rVLFkrk osQ dkj.kksa ij fopkj dj losaQxsA
3- ^lgtrk* D;k gS\ D;ksa vko';d gS\ bldk dkj.k vkSj funku
[kkst losaQxsA
4- ekuo iqu% laosnu'khy cu losQ] bl ij fopkj dj losaQxsA
dfork dk vFkZ
dof;=kh Jherh dhfrZ pkS/jh vkt osQ ;qx esa O;fDr;ksa osQ cnyrs
O;ogkj osQ fo"k; esa pfrr gSaA os dgrh gSa fd ;g oSQlk le; gS fd
'kCnksa osQ vFkZ [kks x, gSaA gekjs eu dh Hkkoukvksa dks izdV djus okys
'kCnksa dk dksbZ vfLrRo ugha jgkA dM+h ls dM+h ckr dk dksbZ cqjk ugha
ekurkA ?k`.kk vkSj izse osQ izrhd 'kCnksa dh dksbZ igpku ugha jghA
vfHkO;fDr osQ ljy laosx] [kqydj ckr djus okys 'kCn ugha jgsA
lekt esa pgq vksj rVLFkrk O;ki xbZ gSA ge viuh lgtrk Hkwy x,
gSaA
gk] fiQj Hkh] ekuo lq[k&nq[k ls fufyZIr gh jgrk gS tSls ;s Hkh
thou osQ vko';d vax gSa] lq[k esa u vf/d lq[k vuqHko djrk gS_
nq[k esa u vf/d nq[kh gksrk gSA ;g oSQlk le; gS\
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
f'k{kd ekuo eu osQ laosaxksa dh ckr djsa] vuqHkwfr dh ckr djsaA
lgt O;ogkj djus okyk O;fDr vkSj rVLFk jgus okys O;fDr dh
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 37

lkekftd igpku ij ppkZ djsAa vR;f/d lq[k euq"; dks laons ukghu
cuk nsrk gS rks nwljh vksj dfBukb;k Hkh ekuo osQ lkgl] fo'okl
dk var dj nsrh gSale>k,A lkekftd O;ogkj esa vk, cnykoksa
ij ppkZ djsAa
ikBkja Hk
w dfork osQ lkj dks i<+saA
w dfork dk nks ckj lLoj okpu djsAa
w iqu% ,d&,d in~;ka'k i<+dj vFkZ Li"V djsAa dfBu 'kCnksa osQ
vFkZ ls enn ysAa
w dfork dk izfrikn~; fy[kok,A
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
w ^u;k&fujkyk* esa fn, x, eqgkojksa osQ vFkZ crk, vkSj okD;
fuekZ.k gsrq izksRlkfgr djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- yksx vc dM+h ckr dk cqjk blfy, ugha ekurs gSa D;ksafd os
viuh lgtrk dks Hkwy x, gSa vkSj lq[k&nq[k osQ izfr mnklhu
gks x, gSaA
2- viuh Hkkoukvksa dks O;Dr djrs le; tc ge nwljksa osQ lkeus
fofHkUu eqnkz vksa esa ckr djrs gSa_ tSlsgluk] xqLlk djuk] nq[kh
gksuk] [kq'k gksuk vkfn vfHkO;fDr osQ lh/s&lkns :i gSa tks
thou dks lgt cukrs gSAa
3- ^blosQ fcu* lgtrk osQ fy, dgk x;k gSA tc ge lgt :i
ls viuh [kq'kh vkSj nq[k dks eglwl ugha dj ldrs] rks blosQ
fcuk gekjk thou dfBu izrhr gksrk gSA
38 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

4- dof;=kh la?k"kks dh ckr dks Bhd bl dkj.k ls ekurh gSa]


D;ksfa d blosQ fcuk ge y{; dks gkfly ugha dj ldrsA
5- (?k) ykpkjh
ysf[kuh ls
1- bl lalkj osQ yksx LokFkhZ] <ksaxh vkSj rVLFk gks x, gSaA
2- yksx vius&vki esa] vius dk;ks esa bruk O;Lr gks x, gSa fd
,d&nwljs ls vkxs fudyus dh nkSM+ esa lq[k&nq[k dks eglwl
djuk gh Hkwy x, gSAa
3- dfork dk 'kh"kZd ^oDr* lekt esa vk, cnyko dh vksj laosQr
djrk gSA dof;=kh us ^oDr* dfork osQ ek;e ls igys osQ
lekt esa jgus okys yksxksa osQ xq.kksa] tSlsHkkbZ&pkjs dh Hkkouk]
lq[k&nq[k esa lkFk nsuk] opu dks fuHkkuk] lEeku nsuk] fuLokFkZ
lsok] ijksidkj dh Hkkouk dks n'kkZ;k gS] ysfdu vc bu xq.kksa
dh deh gks xbZ gSA vk/qfud ;qx esa yksxksa osQ ifjorZu'khy
O;ogkj dks ns[kdj dof;=kh us bl dfork dk 'kh"kZd ^oDr*
fcyoqQy lgh pquk gSA
4- ^izxfr osQ fy, la?k"kZ k:jh gS*;g ckr dfork dh fuEu
iafDr;ksa esa vkbZ gS
tks Hkh gks] la?k"kks dh ckr rks Bhd gS
c<+us okys osQ fy,
;gh rks ,d yhd gSA
5- thou dh lgtrk dks Hkqykus dk ifj.kke ?kkrd fudyk gS
mlosQ fcuk thou dfBu gks x;k gSA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 39

6- (?k) y{; dh vksj fujarj pyus okys


Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- dfork esa vk, f;k 'kCnksa dh lwph
[kq'k gksuk] gkjuk] eu Hkj ykuk] >q>ykuk] Hkwyuk] igpkuuk]
fclkjuk] le>uk] c<+uk bR;kfnA
2- fnu fnudj] nSuafnuh] fnukad] fnus'k] nSfud
le; lkef;d] le;cn~/] le;kuqlkj
lq[k lq[kvklu (ikydh)] lq[kdj] lq[kh] lq[kiwod
Z ] lq[kn]
lq[k/ke] lkS[;] lq[klkj bR;kfnA
3- ehBh ckr] dVq ckr] rh[kh ckr] vPNh ckr] cqjh ckrA
4- ([k) rk
ckr okD; dh
1- cPps Lo;a djsAa
2- cPps Lo;a djsAa
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

8- 'kkafr
ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ mijkar fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- cky eu dh dksey Hkkoukvksa dks vkSj vPNh rjg ls le>
losQa xsA
40 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

2- cPpksa osQ izfr ekrk&firk osQ lgh@xyr drZO;ksa esa I+kQoZQ tku
losQa xsA
3- laU;klh dh n;k] d#.kk] ijksidkj dh Hkkouk osQ vuq:i lalkj
osQ fuekZ.k dh dYiuk ij fVIi.kh dj losaQxsA
4- dgkuh osQ ik=kksa dh pkfjf=kd fo'ks"krkvksa ij fVIi.kh dj losaQxsA
5- ekrk&firk osQ dk;ks dks viuh vo/kj.kk dh dlkSVh ij dldj
viuk fu.kZ; ns losaQxsA
6- ^Hkk"kk ls* esa le>k, x, Hkkf"kd cnqvksa dks le>dj vius
ys[ku dks =kqfVghu cuk losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
,d laU;klh v?;Znku djrs gq, bZ'oj ls ;g izkFkZuk djrk gS fd lHkh
thoksa esa ,drk vkSj izse gksA b/j nwljh vksj] lalkj osQ thoup esa
izR;sd izk.kh vius&vius ikfjokfjd nkf;Roksa dh iwfrZ esa yxk gSA phy
dh ek vius poqQys dh] lkfiu vius liksys dks] Hkhy vius ckyd
dks lqj{kk osQ fu;e le>kdj vius&vius f'kdkj dh [kkst esa py nsrs
gSaA b/j cPps vius cky euksHkkoksa ls nqfu;k osQ thoup dks rksyrs
gq, izse] d#.kk] HkkbZpkjk] ijksidkj dk lkezkT; ns[kuk pkgrs gSaA dgkuh
osQ var esa laU;klh v?;Znku ls fuo`Rr gks viuh i.kZoqQVh dh vksj ykSVrs
gq, ns[krk gS fd phy] lki vkSj vkneh ,d&nwljs dh cxy esa lks,
gSaA mls viuh lk/uk fln~f/ ij fot; izkIr gksrh fn[kh drq rhuksa osQ
'ko ns[kdj og viuh lk/uk fln~f/ ij 'keZnk gqvk vkSj mldh
vk[ksa cjlus yxhaA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
cPpksa osQ ikB dh fo"k; oLrq ls tksM+rs gq, iz'u djsa fd D;k
taxyh tho&tarq vkSj ekuo esa izse gks ldrk gS\ ugha] rks D;k
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 41

dkj.k gS\ ppkZ djsa fd cky euksHkko lHkh esa ,d tSls gksrs gSa]
ekrk&firk cPpksa osQ ikyu&iks"k.k esa fdu&fdu nkf;Roksa dk ogu
djrs gSa vkfnA
ikBkja Hk
w igys ikB dk lkj i<+saA ^'kkafr* 'kh"kZd ij fVIi.kh djsaA
w ikB dk ,d&,d vuqPNsn i<+]as Li"V djsAa
w dfBu 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ crk,_ dfBu iafDr;ksa dks Li"V djsaA
w cPpksa ls dfBu 'kCnksa dk mPpkj.k djok,A
w var esa ekSu ikB dk funs'Z k nsaA
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
w Hkkf"kd cnq Li"V djsaA
w eqgkojksa osQ okD; d{kk esa ekSf[kd cuok,A

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- laU;klh bZ'oj ls izkFkZuk dj jgk Fkk fd bl nqfu;k esa veu]
'kkafr dk lkezkT; iSQyk nksA og ,slh nqfu;k ns[kuk pkgrk Fkk]
tgk flag dh ihB ij [kjxks'k [ksyrk gks] mdkc dh xksn esa
lki lks;k gks vkSj lHkh tu fey&tqydj jgrs gksaA og nqfu;k
dks v'kkafr osQ nkokuy ls cpkus dh izkFkZuk dj jgk FkkA
2- lkfiu dks leqnz dh vksj tkus okyh unh mlosQ Vs<s+&es<s+ gksdj
pyus osQ dkj.k dgk gSA ftl izdkj unh vius Vs<s+&es<s+ jkLrs
ls pydj leqnz esa foyhu gks tkrh gS mlh izdkj lkfiu Hkh
Vs<h+ &es<h+ pydj vius y{; rd igqp
us dh dksf'k'k dj
jgh FkhA
3- laU;klh dh izkFkZuk dk ifj.kke ;g fudyk fd mls viuh ekx
iwjh gksus dk Hkze gqvkA mlus ns[kk fd lki] phy vkSj vkneh
42 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

,d&nwljs dh cxy esa lks, FksA mls viuh riL;k dh fot;


dk vglkl gqvk fd lHkh izseiwod
Z vxy&cxy esa ysVs gSaA
4- laU;klh dh vk[ksa lki] phy vkSj vkneh osQ 'ko dks ns[kdj
cjlus yxhaA
ysf[kuh ls
1- ekrk&firk vkSj muosQ cPpksa esa lcls cM+k varj muosQ fopkjksa
dk gSA lHkh ik=k lki] phy] vkneh ,d&nwljs dks viuk nq'eu
le>rs gSaA mUgsa ekjuk viuk drZO; le>rs gSa tcfd cPpksa osQ
eu esa dksbZ Hksn&Hkko ugha gSA mUgsa ek dh fPakrk gSA ;fn fdlh
dk cPpk ejsxk rks ek jks,xh] ;gk rd fd os lkfiu] phy vkSj
vkneh dks euilan Hkkstu ykus ls jksdrs gSa] mudh txg os
oqQN vkSj [kk ysaxs ysfdu fdlh dks ekjs ughaA bl dgkuh osQ
ik=kksa esa gesa cPps vPNs yxsA ftUgksaus vius ekrk&firk dks
le>kus dh dksf'k'k dh fd os nq'euh@cSj djuk NksM+ nsAa
2- Hkhy] phy vkSj lki osQ cPps dks tc ;g irk pyk fd tks
Hkkstu mUgsa muosQ ekrk&firk ykdj ns jgs gSa og muosQ nq'euksa
osQ cPpksa dk gS rks os mls NksM+us dks rRij gks x,A mUgksaus vius
vfHkHkkodksa dks le>kus dh dksf'k'k Hkh dh fd uI+kQjr djuk
NksM+ nsa] mUgsa ,slk Hkkstu ugha pkfg,A
3- dgkuh esa phy liksys dks] lki&Hkhy dks vkSj Hkhy pdq ys dks
ekjuk pkgrs gSa D;ksafd lHkh ,d&nwljs osQ nq'eu gSaA
4- ys[kd us ikB dk 'kh"kZd ^'kkafr* laU;klh dh bZ'oj ls izkFkZuk
djus osQ dkj.k j[kk gSA og lalkj esa 'kkafr vkSj veu dk;e
djus dh izkFkZuk bZ'oj ls djrk gS vkSj yksxksa osQ eu osQ v/sjs
dks nwj djosQ n'kZu nsus o Kku nsus dh izkFkZuk djrk gSA
5- Lo;a dhft,A
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 43

6- vk'k; Li"Vhdj.k
(d) bu iafDr;ksa esa laU;klh unh esa [kM+k gksdj lw;Z dks ty
nsrs gq, eu&gh&eu esa lksp jgk Fkk fd nqfu;k osQ yksx
rjg&rjg dh ijs'kkfu;ksa ls f?kjs gq, gSaA muosQ eu esa
v/sjk Nk;k gqvk gSA og bZ'oj ls izkFkZuk djrk gS fd
,slh n;k lHkh thoksa ij djs fd os vkilh jkx&n~os"k dks
Hkqykdj izse ls jgsaA lcosQ eu osQ v/sjs nwj djsaA
([k) bu iafDr;ksa esa ys[kd us crk;k gS fd ges'kk ls ,slk gh
gksrk vk;k gS fd cPpksa esa mlh dke dks djus dh
mRlqdrk gksrh gS ftls djus dks muosQ ekrk&firk euk
djrs gSaA bl dgkuh esa Hkh ekrk&firk us vius cPpksa dks
LoPNan fopj.k djus osQ fy, bl dkj.k ls euk fd;k
Fkk fd dgha muosQ nq'eu cPps dks uqdlku u igqpk,A
cPpksa us mudh ckr ugha ekuh] os Hkh Lora=k ?kweuk pkgrs
FksA yk[k euk djus ij Hkh vius ekrk&firk osQ vuqxkeh
cu x, vkSj vius&vius izk.k xok cSBAs
7- (d) (ii) rqEgsa n;kyq gksuk pkfg, FkkA
([k)(iii) laU;klh
ckr o.kZ dh
M@M+ _ <@<+ osQ iz;ksx dks i<+sa vkSj le>saA
ckr 'kCn dh
^u*] ^ugha*] ^er* dk iz;ksx
(d) vius ?kksalys ls er fudyukA ckgj er vkukA
([k) esjh ckrksa dk [;ky j[kuk] Hkwyuk ughaA
(x) mldh ek ugha jks,xhA
44 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

(?k)
()
(p)
(N)
(t)

esjs fy, og pdq yk er ykvksA


ugha! FkksM+h nsj vkSj #d tkvksA
mls dkVs cxSj eq>s pSu ugha vk,xkA
rks mldk csVk ugha jks,xk\
;g dke u rqeus fd;k u eSua As

ckr okD; dh
Lo;a i<+dj le>sAa
Hkk"kk iz;ksx
eqgkojksa dk okD;ksa esa iz;ksx
nko yxkdj cSBuk (?kkr yxkuk)taxy esa 'ksj fgju dks
idM+us osQ fy, dc ls nko yxkdj cSBk gSA
iyd ekjrs vkuk (cgqr gh tYnh vkuk)csVs! rqe fPakrk u
djksA eSa iyd ekjrs gh okil vk tkmQxhA
jksaxVs [kMs+ gks tkuk (fdlh Hk;kud phk dks ns[kdj Mj
tkuk)lM+d ij gqbZ dkj nq?kZVuk dks ns[kdj esjs rks jksaxVs [kMs+
gks x,A
vk[ksa xM+kuk (VdVdh yxkdj ns[kuk)rqe esjs [kkus dh phk
ij dc ls vk[ksa xM+k, cSBs gksA vkvks! rqe Hkh [kk yksA
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

9- /wicRrh % cq>h&tyh!
ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- fouezrk dk ewY; le> losaQxsA
2- viuh ok.kh] deZ vkSj O;ogkj esa fouezrk yk losaQxsA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 45

3- roZQ vkSj fparu n~okjk dfBu ifjfLFkfr esa lkgl j[k ik,xsA
4- ik=kksa dk pkfjf=kd fo'ys"k.k dj losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
ys[kd us /wicRrh dks Vs<+k djosQ fn;klykbZ dh rhyh ls vklkuh ls
tyk fn;kA >qddj gh Kku xzg.k fd;k tk ldrk gS >qdus ls gh ysus
dh lkeF;Z vkrh gSA nsus okyk Hkh vgadkjh dks @ rus gq, O;fDr dks
nsus ls drjkrk gSA
ys[kd eqacbZ esy osQ FkMZ Dykl oaQikVZesaV esa p<+us osQ fy, [kM+s Fks fd
,d jkschys iBku us f[kM+dh ls flj fudkydj crk;k fd bl fMCcs
esa txg ugha gSA p<+us okys lkr eqlkfI+kQjksa esa ls ikp us rks nwljs fMCcksa
dh 'kj.k yhA NBs eqlkfI+kQj us pSdj ls f'kdk;r dh drq p<+us esa
vliQy jgkA lkrosa Lo;a ys[kd viuh fouezrk osQ cy ij fMCcs esa
izos'k ikus esa liQy gq,A mUgksaus vius dk;ks @ fouez O;ogkj ls [kku
dk fny thr fy;k vkSj /hjs&/hjs ckjg eqlkfI+kQjksa dks mlesa cSBk fy;kA
[kku us ys[kd osQ ln~O;ogkj vkSj fouezrk dh rkjhI+kQ dh vkSj
mrjrs le; ys[kd ls gkFk feyk;kA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
cPpksa ls iwNsa fd /wicRrh oSQls tyk,xs\ fn;klykbZ vkSj /wicRrh
esa ls fdls >qdk,xs\ D;ksa >qdk,xs\ blh izdkj Kku izkIr djus
okys O;fDr dks oSQlk O;ogkj djuk pkfg,\
fouezrk D;k gS\ D;ksa vko';d gS\ vkfn
ikBkja Hk
w ^u;k&fujkyk* i<+saA
w ikB dk lkj i<+dj ,d&,d vuqPNsn dk vkn'kZ okpu djsAa
dfBu 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ crk,A
46 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

w
w
w
w
w

vuqdj.k okpu djok,A


iBku okys izlax dk ekSu okpu djok,A
Nk=kksa dh izfrf;k iwNsaA iwjh ?kVuk ij muosQ fopkj tkusaA
iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
Hkkf"kd cnq Li"V djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- rhu fn;klykb;k tykus ij Hkh /wicRrh ugha tyh D;ksafd og
lh/h [kM+h FkhA
2- pkSFkh fn;klykbZ ls /wicRrh FkksMh+ >qdh gksus osQ dkj.k ty mBhA
3- /wwicRrh osQ tyus vkSj u tyus ls ys[kd us ifj.kke fudkyk
fd igys /wwicRrh [kM+h Fkh (og [kM+h gqbZ /wwicRrh vgadkjh
O;fDr dh izrhd gS) tks ys[kd osQ ckj&ckj tykus ij Hkh ugha
tyhA tSls gh /wicRrh dks FkksM+k >qdk;k x;k] og tyrh
fn;klykbZ osQ Nwrs gh ty mBh vkSj mldh lqxa/ ls iwjk ?kj Hkj
mBkA bl >qdh gqbZ /wwicRrh osQ ek;e ls ys[kd us le>k;k gS
fd >qddj ge Kku izkIr dj ldrs gS]a ;fn gesa fdlh ls Kku
izkIr djuk gS rks vius O;ogkj esa uezrk ykuh gksxh] ;g uezrk
gesa fon~;k vkSj laLdkj ls vkrh gS vkSj fon~oku O;fDr ls Kku
gkfly djokus esa gekjh enn djrh gSA
4- ^csVk cudj lcus [kk;k* iafDr esa ^csVk* cuus ls vfHkizk; uez
gksus osQ Hkko ls gSA ge uez gksdj fdlh ls oqQN Hkh ik ldrs
gSaA vius LoHkko esa mn~naMrk dk Hkko j[kdj ge u rks lEeku
ik ldrs gS]a u gh oqQN Kku gkfly dj ldrs gSAa
5- nkrk osQ eu esa nsus dh o`fRr rc fodflr gksrh gS tc ysus okys
esa fouezrk gksA ;g mldh ;ksX;rk ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd nsus
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 47

okys ls fdruk ys ldrk gSA nsus dh o`fRr ml le; laoqQfpr


gks mBrh gS tc ysus okys esa vgadkj] vfou; vkrk gS] rc nkrk
nsus esa Hkkj ekurk gSA
6- ekyoh; th us ys[kd dks le>k;k Fkk] ^^nss'k osQ gj n~okj ij
,d nkrk [kM+k gS] viuh [kqyh FkSyh fy, ijarq deh mu gkFkksa
dh gS ftuesa og viuh HksaV ns losQ!**
ysf[kuh ls
1- ^ikus osQ fy, uez gksuk vko';d gS* bl rF; dks mnkgj.k
n~okjk bl izdkj Li"V dj ldrs gS
a
/wicRrh dks >qdkdj tykus ls og pkSFkh fn;klykbZ esa ty
mBhA >qdus ls gh ge lh[k ldrs gSaA
Vsu esa l-iQj dj jgs jkschys is'kkojh iBku dk mnkgj.k ns
ldrs gSa ftlus ys[kd osQ uez O;ogkj osQ dkj.k mls fMCcs
esa p<+k;k vkSj mlh fMCcs esa ys[kd us ckjg eqlkf-iQjksa dks
Hkh lhV fnyokbZA ys[kd osQ uez O;ogkj us iBku osQ n;
dks thr fy;kA
2- fou; ls lq[k izkfIr dks ys[kd us 'yksd n~okjk le>krs gq,
dgk gS fd fon~;k ls euq"; esa fou; vkrh gS] fou; gksus ls
ik=krk (ikus dh ;ksX;rk) vkSj ik=krk ls og /u ikrk gS] /u
ls djrk gS /eZ] rc lq[k&gh&lq[k gesas gkfly gksrk gSA ik=krk
dk ewy ea=k gS fou;] uezrk] >qdukA ;fn gekjs vanj bu xq.kksa
dk lekos'k gks] rks ge tx dks thr ldrs gSaA
3- ekyoh; th n~okjk fn, x, lans'k dk ijh{k.k ys[kd us eqacbZ
esy osQ ml FkMZ Dykl daikVZesaV esa fd;k ftlesa ,d jkschys
iBku vkSj mldk ifjokj lI+kQj dj jgk FkkA mlosQ jkschys
O;fDrRo vkSj jkschyh vkokk dks lqudj ys[kd dks NksM+dj
48 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

4-

5-

6-

7-

8-

lkjs eqlkf-iQj nwljs fMCcs esa p<+us osQ fy, pys x,A ys[kd dh
uezrk dks ns[kdj iBku us mls vius fMCcs esa txg nh vkSj [kkus
dks lsc Hkh fn,A ys[kd us ,d&,d djosQ ckjg eqlkf-iQjksa dks
ml fMCcs esa lhV fnyokbZ] ftlesa fl-iQZ iBku dk ifjokj gh
l-iQj dj jgk FkkA
ys[kd dks [kku ;enwr osQ leku yxkA mlus lkr eqlkf-iQjksa dks
fMCcs esa p<+us ls jksd fn;kA tc eqlkf-iQjksa us pSdj ls f'kdk;r
dh rks ml ij dksbZ izHkko ugha iM+kA
[kku lkgc dh bl fuMjrk dks ns[kdj pSdj rks f[kldk gh]
os eqlkf-iQj egk'k; Hkh ukS nks X;kjg gks x,A
(d) ;g [kku us eqlkf-iQj ls dgkA
([k) ;g ys[kd us nksuksa tokuksa ls dgkA
(x) ;g [kku us ys[kd dks dgkA
[kku dh igyh fo'ks"krk gS mldk jkschyk O;fDrRoA nwljh
fo'ks"krk mldh fuMjrk] n;kyqiu vkSj viuRo dh Hkkouk gSA
ys[kd dh fouezrk vkSj Li"Vokfnrk us Hkh izHkkfor fd;kA
euq"; us FkksMs+ ls Kku dks gh iwjk Kku le>dj vius dks
fon~oku le> fy;k ysfdu ;FkkFkZ esa og vKkuh gh jgkA
mldk laiw.kZ fodkl rks ugha gks ik;k gS rHkh rks og ?keaMh gks
x;kA ;gk ij ys[kd us mldh rqyuk ml /wicRrh ls dh gS
ftls rhu ckj tykus ij Hkh og ugha tyhA mlosQ u tyus dk
dkj.k lh/k [kM+k gksuk gSA tc ys[kd us mls >qdk;k rHkh og
tyh vkSj mldh lqxa/ dejs esa iSQyhA mlh izdkj tks euq";
>qddj ;k uez gksdj Kku lh[krk gS] mls gh Kku feyrk gSA
?keaMh O;fDr dks dHkh Kku ugha feyrkA mls Kkuh gksus dk
fl-iZQ Hkze jgrk gSA
([k) uezrk dk Hkko
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 49

ckr o.kZ dh
1- ia[ks] xaxk] da?ks 2- iaNh] Hkatu] iatk 3- iafMr] daB 4- fPkaru]
can 5- xaHkhj] paikA
2- 'kqn~/ mPpkj.k dhft,A
ckr 'kCn dh
1- foijhrkFkZd 'kCnroZQghu] vleFkZ] fudkl] nqxeZ ] mn~/r]
xzghrk] foLrkj] vLohdkj] vlR;] nkrkA
2- (d) cgqopu/wicfRr;k] fn;klykb;k] rhfy;k] f[kM+fd;k]
dksBfj;k] xksfy;kA
([k) ikuh] turk] n;k,dopu
vklw] gks'k] n'kZu] gLrk{kjcgqopu
3- laokn] la'k;] la;ksx] laj{kd
ckr okD; dh
1- (d) rVLFk jgdj
2- vksgks! rqe bldks fcBkvksxs\ fcBkvksA
tc xkM+h pysxh vkSj eSa bldks ckgj isaQowQxk rks rqe cl >aMh
fgykukA
vks,] dgk tkrk gS\ vkvks b/j] ge iwjh lhV nsaxsA
rqe ugha x,\
D;ksa] xkM+h esa ugha p<+ksxs\
D;ksa\ nwljs fMCcs esa ugha p<+ksxs\
rqe Mjrs ugha] eSa rqEgsa uhps isaQd nwxkA
rqe pkgs fdlh dks cSBkvks] ij rqe k:j cSBksx]s eSa lksus tk jgk gwA
^^ljdkj rqedks jksk ckEcs esy esa j[ks rks eqlkfI+kQjksa dks cgqr
vkjke feysxkA**
50 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

Hkk"kk iz;ksx
1- fdlh ls oqQN ysuk gks] rks >qduk vko';d gSA >qduk D;k 'kjhj
dk\ ugha th ;ksa >qddj] naMor ysVdj gh rks -iQkSt osQ flikgh
xksfy;k nkxrs gS]a rks >qduk nsg dk ugha] Hkko dkA lkI+kQ&lkI+kQ
;ksa fd ikus osQ fy, uez gksuk vko';d gSA yksdksfDr gS
^csVk cudj lcus [kk;k] cki cudj fdlh us ughaA ;g csVk
cuuk uezrk gh rks gSA
2- yksdksfDr;ksa dk okD; esa iz;ksx
(d) okD; % fdlku us jkr dks vius [ksrksa dh igjsnkjh ugha
dh rks pksjksa us I+kQly dkV yhA vc iNrk,
D;k gksr tc fpfM+;k pqx xbZ [ksrA
([k) okD; % jes'k dks dke djuk rks vkrk ugha_ cgkus
cukrk jgrk gSA lgh dgk gS
ukp u tkus vkxu Vs<+k
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

10- rqylhnkl osQ nksgs


ikB~; cnq
bu nksgksa dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- czt @ vof/ @ [kM+h cksyh osQ varj dks le> losaQxsA
2- lgh mPpkj.k osQ lkFk nksgspkSikbZ i<+ losaQxsA
3- rRdkyhu lkekftd ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks tku losaQxsA
4- nksgs ;kn dj vuqPNsnksa esa iz;ksx dj losaQxsA
5- vius 'kCndks'k esa u, 'kCnksa dks yk losaQxsA
6- nksgksa esa nh xbZ lh[k dks vius thou esa mrkj losaQxsA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 51

ikB dk lkj (nksg)s


w rqylhnkl th dgrs gSa fd ehBs opuksa ls pkjksa vksj lq[k dh
o"kkZ gksrh gSA ehBs opuksa ls ge gj ,d dks vius o'k esa dj
ldrs gSa blfy, dBksj opuksa dks R;kx nsuk gh mfpr gSA
w rqylhnkl th dgrs gSa fd fon~;k] fou; vkSj foosd] lkgl]
vPNs dk;Z] lR; dk ikyu] jke uke dk tki;s lc foifRr
esa vk, euq"; dk mn~/kj dj nsrs gSaA
w jke uke dh ef.k :ih nhid thHk ij j[kus ls vanj vkSj ckgj
mft;kjk Nk tkrk gS vFkkZr~ ftl izdkj n~okj ij j[kk nhid ?kj
osQ Hkhrj&ckgj mft;kjk dj nsrk gS] mlh izdkj jke uke dk
tki djrh thHk eu osQ varjre dks vkSj ckgjh O;fDrRo dks
izdk'keku dj nsrh gSA
w jke osQ uke osQ lgkjs osQ fcuk ijekFkZ dh vk'kk djuk Bhd
,slk gS tSls cjlrh gqbZ cwnksa dks idM+dj vkdk'k esa p<+us dh
dkeuk djukA
w rqylhnkl th dgrs gSa fd unh osQ fdukjs dk fucZy vkSj csdkj
frudk Hkh 'kj.k esa vk, O;fDr dks ;k rks cpk ysrk gS ;k
m[kM+dj lkFk cg tkrk gSA
w rqylhnkl th dgrs gSa fd n;k lcls cM+k /eZ gS vkSj vfHkeku
lcls cM+k ikiA euq"; dks rc rd n;k dk R;kx ugha djuk
pkfg, tc rd 'kjhj esa izk.k gksaA
lqanjdkaM
lhrk us jke uke vafdr vfr lqanj euksgkjh eqfnzdk ns[khA vk'p;Zpfdr
lhrk us og vxwBh igpkuh] mudk n; g"kZ&fo"kkn ls voqQyk x;kA
jke dks rks dksbZ thr gh ugha ldrkA mudks thrus osQ fy, dksbZ Hkh
ek;k dke ugha vk,xhA lhrk bl izdkj ls vius eu esa fopkj dj gh
52 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

jgh Fkha fd guqeku e/qj opu esa jke osQ xq.kksa dk o.kZu djus yxsA
,slk o.kZu lqurs gh lhrk osQ eu dk Hk; pyk x;kA os ,sls ehBs o.kZu
dks ;kuiwod
Z lquus yxhaA guqeku us mUgsa 'kq: ls lkjh dFkk lquk nhA
dkuksa dks ve`r ln`'k yxus okyh dFkk lhrk dks vfr fiz; yxhA
guqeku lhrk osQ ikl x,A lhrk osQ eu esa vk'p;Z Hkj x;kA guqeku
cksys] ^^ekrk tkudh! eSa guqeku Jhjke dk nwr gwA eSa Jhjke dh lR;
'kiFk [kkdj dgrk gw fd ;g eqfnzdk Jhjke us eq>s vius ifjp; osQ
fy, nh gSA ekrk tkudh us iwNk uj vkSj okujksa dh ;g nksLrh fdl
izdkj gqbZ rks guqeku us lkjh dFkk mUgsa crkbZA
guqeku osQ ,sls izse ls Hkjs opuksa dks lqudj ek tkudh osQ eu
esa fo'okl iSnk gks x;k vkSj mUgksaus ;g tkuk fd ;g okuj eu] deZ
vkSj opuksa ls Jhjke dk nkl gh gSA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
w jkek;.k osQ bl izlax dh ppkZ djsaA
w guqeku] jke] lhrk ik=kksa dh pkfjf=kd fo'ks"krkvksa ij ppkZ djsaA
ikBkjaHk
w dfo Jh rqylhnkl osQ thouo`Rr] rRdkyhu lkekftd ifjfLFkfr
ij ppkZ djsAa
w igys 'kqn/
~ mPpkj.k dj ,d&,d 'kCn dks i<+rs gq, nksgk iwjk
djsaA rRi'pkr iwjs nksgs dk y;iw.kZ okpu djsaA
w ,d&,d 'kCn dk vFkZ crkrs gq, iwjs vFkZ dks Li"V djsAa nksgs
osQ n~okjk dfo D;k dguk pkgrk gS Li"V djsaA
w iqu% ,d ckj vFkZ crk,A
w Nk=kksa ls nksgksa dk lLoj okpu djus osQ fy, dgsaA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 53

w nksgksa dk vFkZ iwNsaA


w ^Hkk"kk ls* esa fn;k x;k vH;kl djok,A

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- ehBs opu cksyus ls pkjksa vksj [kq'kh dk okrkoj.k Nk tkrk gSA
ehBs opuksa dk izHkko bruk vf/d gS fd ge lcosQ fnyksa dks
thr ldrs gSaA ;g ,d ,slk lq[kn ea=k gS ftldk vxj O;ogkj
esa iz;ksx fd;k tk, rks dBksj opu cksyus okyk O;fDr Hkh
vius LoHkko dks NksM+dj eqnqHkk"kh cu ldrk gS bldh lkFkZdrk
rqylhnkl th us vius nksgs esa crkbZ gSA
2- foifRr osQ le; lkFk nsus okys xq.k fon~;k] fou;] foosd] lkgl
o lR;] vPNs deZ osQ lkFk&lkFk vius b"V nso ij Hkjkslk
j[kuk gSA ;s xq.k ftuesa gSa mUgsa fdlh lkFkh dh vko';drk ugha
iM+rhA
3- Hkhrj vkSj ckgj ls izdkf'kr gksus dk mik; gSjke uke dk
tkiA jke uke osQ tki ls Hkhrj vkSj ckgj ,sls izdkf'kr gksrs
gSa tSls nsgyh osQ nhid ls ?kj osQ Hkhrj Hkh vkSj ckgj Hkh
izdk'k iSQy tkrk gSA
4- lhrk dk nq[k v'kksd okfVdk esa jkepUnz osQ xq.kksa dks lqudj
u"V gqvkA
5- guqeku th us Lo;a dks jkenwr fln~/ djus osQ fy, Jhjke n~okjk
nh xbZ eqfnzdk fn[kkbZA ml eqfnzdk us gh guqeku dks jkenwr
fln~/ fd;kA mUgksaus Jhjke dk xq.kxku fd;kA guqeku us 'kq: ls
ysdj lqxhz o fe=krk rd dh lkjh dFkk lqukbZA
54 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

ysf[kuh ls
1- e/qj opu dks o'khdj.k ea=k bl dkj.k ls dgk x;k gS] D;ksafd
bldk iz;ksx djosQ ge lcosQ fnyksa dks thr ldrs gSa] ?kj osQ
vklikl dk okrkoj.k lq[kn dj ldrs gSa vkSj blosQ peRdkjh
izHkko osQ dkj.k fdlh nwljs ls eupkgk dke djok ldrs gSaA
2- fon~;k] fou;] foosd ;s xq.k ,sls gSa tks eqlhcr dh ?kM+h esa 'kjhj
osQ vo;oksa osQ leku lkFk nsrs gSaA eqlhcr dh ?kM+h esa tc vius
lkFk NksM+ nsrs gS]a ;gk rd dh viuh ijNkbZ Hkh lkFk NksM+ nsrh
gS] rc ;s xq.k gekjs dke vkrs gSAa fon~;k ls gesa lkspus dh rkdr
feyrh gS fd bl eqlhcr ls oSQls fudyk tk,A fou; osQ n~okjk
ge fdlh vuqHkoh ls ml eqlhcr dks nwj djus dh lykg ys
ldrs gSa vkSj foosd osQ n~okjk vPNs@cqjs dh igpku dj ikrs gSAa
3- lhrk th dks g"kZ jke uke ls vafdr Lo.kZeqfnzdk dks ns[kdj
gqvkA tc lhrk th us eqfnzdk dks igpkuk rc bl ckr ij eu
esa nq[k Hkh gqvk fd ;g eqfnzdk ;gk ij oSQls vkbZ\ esjs Jhjke
dks rks ekywe Hkh ugha gS fd eSa ;gk ij gwA dgha dksbZ jk{klh
ek;k us rks ;g u;k tky ugha jpk! mudk eu ,d rjI+kQ [kq'kh
ls nwljh rjI+kQ nq[k ls Hkj x;kA bl eqfnzdk dks ykus okyk dkSu
gks ldrk gS\ brus dMs+ igjksa osQ chp dkSu vk ldrk gS tks
muosQ fiz; dk lans'k ns\ ;gh lkspdj os ijs'kku gks xbA
4- ^^ek;k rs vfl jfp dgha tkbZ** ls vfHkizk; gS fd lhrk th us
tc Lo.kZefq nzdk jke uke ls vafdr ns[kh rks dbZ rjg osQ vPNs
vkSj cqjs fopkj muosQ eu esa vkus yxsA mUgksua s lkspk dgha ;g
jk{klh pky rks ugha gSA mudk eu fdlh cqjs [;ky ls rM+i mBkA
5- (d) guqeku jkenwr bl dkj.k ls dgykrs gSa fd os vius
Lokeh osQ lans'k dks mudk vkns'k ekudj lc txg nwr
osQ :i esa igqpkrs FksA
([k) lhrk dk uke ^tkudh* jktk tud dh iq=kh gksus osQ
dkj.k iM+kA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 55

6Hkk"kk
ckr
Lo;a

(x) Jhjke vius xq.kksa osQ dkj.k ikfla/q dgykrs gSa D;ksafd
os {kek'khy vkSj n;kyq gSaA Jhjke vius HkDrksa ij fcuk
fdlh HksnHkko osQ leku :i ls ik djrs gSaA
(d)(ii) eqfnzdk ij jke uke ns[kdj
([k)(iv) jke uke ysuk pkfg,A
ls
Nan dh
i<+dj le>sAa

ckr 'kCn dh
[kM+h cksyh osQ 'kCn
pkjksa vksj [kq'kh
opu
xq.k
ef.k
o.kZu djuk
thHk
lquuk
fcuk
gSjkuh
eqfnzdk
fo'okl
Hkk"kk iz;ksx
1- Lo;a i<+dj le>sAa
2- vuqikz l vyadkj dk iz;ksx
(d) fon~;k] fou;] foosd
lkgl] lqfr] lR;ozrA
([k) cj"kr ckfjn cwn] pkgr p<+u vdkl
ikB esa ls vuqikz l vyadkj osQ oqQN vU; mnkgj.k bl izdkj gSa
fucZy] fuiV] fudkt
eqfnzdk euksgj] pfdr fprc] lR; liFkA
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq
56 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

11- xkSjk
ikB~; cnq
;g ikB i<+us osQ mijkar fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- i'kq&i{kh ikyu esa #fp fn[kk losaQxsA
2- bu cskqcku izkf.k;ksa osQ izfr laosnu'khy gks losaQxsA
3- LokFkhZ O;fDr;ksa dh oqQfVy pkyksa dks le>us dh n`f"V ik losQa xsA
4- fdlh Hkh i'kq@i{kh@O;fDr fo'ks"k dk 'kCn&:i fp=k.k dj losQa xsA
5- i'kqvksa osQ lkekftd O;ogkj dks le> losaQxsA
6- egknsoh dh lqanj&lqxfBr Hkk"kk 'kSyh ls ifjfpr gks losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
egknsoh viuh cgu osQ ?kj iyh ,d cfN;k ^xkSjk* dks vius ?kj ys
vkbA ^xkSjk* ukekuq:i ,d mTToy o.khZ xk; Fkh] ftldk egknsoh osQ
?kj esa izlUurkiwod
Z Lokxr&lRdkj gqvkA /hjs&/hjs muosQ ?kj esa iyus
okys vU; i'kq&if{k;ksa ls xkSjk dh fe=krk gks xbZA ,d o"kZ mijkar
ykyef.k dk vkxeu D;k gqvk ekuks nqX/ egksRlo vkjaHk gks x;kA
izfrfnu ckjg lsj nw/ us ?kj Hkj dks ^nw/ks ugkvks* dk vk'khokZn ns
fn;kA drq nw/ nqgus dh leL;k us fodV :i /kj.k dj fy;kA
xkSjk osQ vkus osQ iwoZ tks Xokyk nw/ nsrk Fkk] mlus viuh fu;qfDr
dk vkxzg egknsoh ls fd;kA fu;qfDr gqbAZ vc Xokyk fuR; nw/ nqgus
yxkA nks&rhu ekg osQ ckn xkSjk mRrjksRrj nqcy
Z gksrh pyh xbZA ijh{k.kksa
osQ ckn irk pyk fd fdlh us xqM+ dh Hksyh osQ Hkhrj lwbZ j[kdj
f[kyk nh gS tks 'kh?kz gh jDr lapkj osQ lkFk n; dks cs/ nsxhA
egknsoh gSjku jg xbA bruh fueZe gR;k dkSu dj ldrk gS\
lansgh Xokyk dk;Z NksM+dj igys gh tk pqdk FkkA xkSjk dks fuR;
dbZ&dbZ lsj lsc dk jl fiyk;k tkrk rkfd lwbZ ij oSQfY'k;e te
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 57

tk, vkSj ogk n; dks u cs/ losQA nok osQ batsD'ku fn, tkrsA xkSjk
pqipki Hkhrj&ckgj dh bl pqHku dks lgrh jghA var esa ,d fnu pkj
cts czg~e eqgwrZ esa tc egknsoh mls ns[kus xb rks mlus muosQ oaQ/s ij
eq[k j[kdj izk.k R;kx fn,A
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
w cPpksa dks laLej.k fo/k ls ifjfpr djok,A
w ikB dks cPpksa ls tksM+us osQ fy, ikyrw i'kqvksa ij ckrphr djsaA
w egknsoh oekZ osQ vU; laLej.kksa dh ppkZ djsaA
w ikB dh Hkk"kk&'kSyh] 'kCn fp=k] fo'ks"k inca/ksa osQ iz;ksx ij
ppkZ djsAa
ikBkja Hk
w ikB osQ vkjaHk esa fn;k ikB dk lkj i<+saA
w ,d&,d vuqPNsn i<+rs tk, vkSj vFkZ Li"V djrs tk,A
w dfBu 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ crk,A
w dfBu 'kCnkoyh okys okD;ksa dks nks ckj i<+sa vkSj vFkZ Li"V
djsaA
w vuqdj.k okpu osQ i'pkr ekSu iBu djok,A
w iz'uksa osQ mRrj ij vo'; ppkZ djsaA
w ^Hkk"kk iz;ksx* osQ varxZr vH;kl djok,A

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- ysf[kdk osQ eu esa xkSjk dks ikyus dh nqfo/k bl dkj.k ls Hkh
Fkh D;ksafd mudh NksVh cgu osQ ?kj xkSjk cMs+ gh Lusg vkSj
58 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

2-

34-

5-

nqykj esa cpiu ls ikyh xbZ FkhA mlosQ eu esa Mj bl ckr dk


Fkk fd og muosQ ?kj jg Hkh losQxh ;k ughaA
ysfdu xkSjk dh lqanjrk vkSj mi;ksfxrk dks ns[kdj ysf[kdk
us mls ikyus dk fu'p; dj fy;kA bl izdkj ls mudh
nqfo/k fu'p; esa cny xbZA
ysf[kdk osQ caxys ij xkSjk dk Lokxr djus osQ fy, ifjfprksa
vkSj ukSdjksa dh HkhM+ bdV~Bh gks xbZA mls yky&l-isQn xqykcksa
dh ekyk igukbZ xbZ] osQlj&jksyh dk cM+k&lk Vhdk yxk;k
x;k] ?kh dk pkSeq[k nh;k tykdj mldh vkjrh mrkjh xbZ]
mls ngh&isM+k f[kyk;k x;kA mldk uke ^xkSjkafxuh* ;k ^xkSjk*
j[kk x;kA
ysf[kdk us fgju osQ us=kksa esa pfdr gksdj ns[kus dk Hkko gksrk
gS tcfd xkSjk dh vk[kksa esa vkReh; fo'okl dk Hkko gh FkkA
nqX/ ysf[kdk osQ ?kj ij xk; xkSjk izkr% vkSj lk;a ckjg lsj osQ
yxHkx nw/ nsrh FkhA ykyef.k osQ fy, dbZ lsj nw/ NksM+ nsus ij
Hkh bruk vf/d 'ks"k jgrk Fkk fd vklikl osQ cky&xksiky ls
ysdj dq Rrs] fcfYy;ksa dh Hkh ekSt vk xbZ FkhA bl vuqie n`';
dks ns[kdj gh ysf[kdk dks ^nqX/ egksRlo* dk vkHkkl gqvkA
xkSjk dk nw/ nksgrs le; vU; i'kq&i{kh ,d iafDr esa cSB tkrs
FksA egknso lHkh osQ ik=kksa esa nw/ uki&ukidj nsrk FkkA ml nkSjku
dksbZ Hkh i'kq&i{kh yM+rk ugha FkkA nw/ dks ihus osQ ckn lHkh
ogha ij [ksyus yx tkrs vkSj vius&vius Loj esa rKrk Kkiu
djus yxrsA

ysf[kuh ls
1- Xokys n~okjk xqM+ osQ lkFk lwbZ f[kykus dh ckr tkudj ysf[kdk
dks d"V vkSj vk'p;Z nksuksa gqvkA mUgsa bl ckr dk Hkh nq[k Fkk
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 59

2-

3-

4-

5-

fd euq"; vius LokFkZ osQ dkj.k cskqcku i'kq&i{kh dks Hkh ekjus
esa ugha fgpfdpkrkA bl fueZe lR; dh dYiuk ysf[kdk us
dHkh ugha dh FkhA
xkSjk LoLFk l-isQn] iq"V] yphys iSj] Hkjs iqVBs] fpduh&Hkjh gqbZ
ihB] yach&lqMkSy xnZu] fudyrs gq, NksVs&NksVs lhax] Hkhrj dh
ykfyek dh >yd nsrs gq, dey dh v/[kqyh ia[kqfM+;ksa tSls
dku] yach iwN
vkSj mTToy jax okyh xk; FkhA mldh dkyh&dkyh
fcYykSjh vk[ksa mlosQ lkSan;Z dks pkj xq.k c<+krh FkhaA
blls vkxs fon~;kFkhZ mRrj fy[ksaA
xk; dh vk[kksa esa lnk d#.kk gh rSjrh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA d#.kk
dk ;g Hkko gh mls dfork dk&lk Hkko nsrk gSA vr% xk; dks
^d#.kk dh dfork* dgk x;k gSA
ysf[kdk dk eu xkSjk osQ thou osQ fy, la?k"kZ vkSj nnZukd ihM+k
dks ns[kdj fopfyr gks mBkA os ges'kk e`R;q dh ?kM+h esa mlosQ
ikl jguk pkgrh FkhaA mlls fcNqM+us osQ xe ls mudh vk[kksa esa
vklw vk tkrs FksA tc xkSjk dh e`R;q gqbZ rks mls ys tkrs le;
xkSjk ls vR;f/d vkReh; yxko osQ dkj.k lHkh dh vk[ksa ue
gks xbA
xkSjk osQ mipkj osQ fy, ysf[kdk us i'kq&fpfdRldksa dks
cqykdj fn[kk;kA i'kq&fpfdRldksa us xk; dks lsc dk jl
fiykus dh lykg ysf[kdk dks nhA ysf[kdk us dbZ&dbZ lsj lsc
dk jl jksk xk; dks fiyk;k ysfdu fLFkfr esa dksbZ lq/kj ugha
gqvkA 'kfDr osQ fy, batsD'ku ij batsD'ku xkSjk dks fn, x,A
ysf[kdk us cgqr dksf'k'ksa dh fd mldh xkSjk cp tk, ysfdu
'kk;n bZ'oj dks oqQN vkSj gh eatwj FkkA mlosQ yk[k pkgus ij
Hkh xkSjk dks cpkus esa og liQy u gks ldhA

60 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

6- (d) (i) Xokys dk nw/ fcd losQA


([k)(ii) nq[k esa
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- (d)(iii) fo'ks"kr%
([k) (i) izHkkfor
2-

` ek=kk ;qDr 'kCnksa dh lwph


oa`r] vyar] n`f"V] e`R;q] n;] Le`fr] "V&iq"V

3- milxZ $
fo $
vk $
ijk $
vfHk $

ewy 'kCn
;ksx
gkj
Hko
Hkwwr

ewy'kCn $ izR;;
ewy
$ bd
fo'ks"k $ r%
ifjp; $ br
ifugkj $ bu
4- fo'ks"k.k
?kj esa iyh gqbZ

fo;ksx
vkgkj
ijkHko
vfHkHkwr

ekSfyd
fo'ks"kr%
ifjfpr
ifugkfju
fo'ks";
xk;

iq"V yphys

iSj

fpduh

ihB
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 61

lqMkSy
ia[kqfM+;ksa ls

xnZu
dku

Hkk"kk iz;ksx
fon~;kFkhZ Lo;a NkVdj fy[ksaA
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

12- rksM+rh iRFkj


ikB~; cnq
bl dfork dks i<+us osQ mijkar fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- deZjr O;fDr osQ Je dk ewY; vkd losaQxsA
2- lekt esa O;kIr vehjh&xjhch dh fo"kerk dks le> ik,xsA
3- lkearh lksp osQ f[kykI+kQ vius fopkj izLrqr dj losaQxsA
4- dk;Z osQ izfr leiZ.k dk Hkko lh[k losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
dfo Jh fujkyk us bl dfork esa ,d deZjr efgyk dk fp=k mosQjk
gS ftls mUgksaus bykgkckn 'kgj esa ,d Nk;knkj isM+ osQ uhps iRFkj
rksM+rs ns[kkA
lkoys ;qok 'kjhj okyh og L=kh uhph ukjsa fd, vius dk;Z esa
yxh gqbZ FkhA vius gkFk esa Fkkes Hkkjh gFkkSM+s ls og iRFkjksa ij ckj&ckj
izgkj dj jgh FkhA mlosQ Bhd lkeus isM+ksa dh iafDr osQ chp pkjksa vksj
ls mBh nhokjksa osQ e; pk Hkou [kM+k FkkA
xfeZ;ksa osQ fnu FksA lw;Z vius rhozre :i esa ped jgk FkkA /wi
/hjs&/hjs p<+ jgh FkhA 'kjhj dks >qylkus okyh yw py jgh FkhA i`Foh
dk :i fdlh tyrh gqbZ :bZ dh rjg FkkA pkjksa vksj rirs&tyrs
/wy osQ d.k Nk jgs FksA
62 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

eq>s viuh vksj ns[krs ikdj og L=kh pkSadh ughaA mlus ml fo'kky
Hkou dh vksj ns[kk] mldk ;ku iyHkj osQ fy, Hkax gqvk] mlus eq>s
lgt n`f"V ls ns[kk vkSj iqu% mlh xfr ls vius dk;Z esa yx xbZA mlosQ
ekFks ls Je lhdj <qyddj fxj iM+sA mlus iqu% dk;Z esa yhu gksrs tSls
dgk gks^^eSa rksM+rh iRFkjA**
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
w isM+ksa dh drkjksa osQ chp iwthifr oxZ dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh
fo'kky vV~Vkfydk osQ lkeus og ;qorh gFkkSM+s ls osQoy iRFkj
gh ugha rksM+rh cfYd ml lkearh vkSj iwthoknh fo"kerk dks Hkh
rksM+ nsuk pkgrh gSA
w ^u;k&fujkyk* osQ cnqvksa dh ppkZ djsaA
ikBkja Hk
w ikB dk lkj le>krs gq, dfork dk lLoj okpu djsAa
w vuqdj.k okpu djok,A
w vFkZ le>k, vkSj fy[kus osQ fy, dgsaA
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsa vkSj fy[krs le; mUgsa 'kCn nsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- dfo us ,d xjhc efgyk dks bykgkckn osQ iFk ij Hk;adj
xjeh esa iRFkj rksM+rs ns[kkA
2- dfork dh fuEufyf[kr iafDr;k eknwj efgyk osQ dfBu Je
dks n'kkZ jgh gSa
xq# gFkkSM+k gkFk]
djrh ckj&ckj izgkj

ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 63

p<+ jgh Fkh /wi_


xfeZ;ksa osQ fnu
fnok dk rerekrk :i_
mBh >qylkrh gqbZ yw]
#bZ T;ksa tyrh gqbZ Hkw]
xnZ fpuxha Nk xb]
izk;% gqbZ nksigj
og rksM+rh iRFkjA
3- vV~Vkfydk osQ lkeus gksus ij eknwj efgyk xjhch vkSj vehjh
dh fo"kerk dk vuqHko dj jgh gSA og nq[kh gksrh gSA lksprh
gS fd vehj oxZ lq[k&lqfo/k laiUu gS vkSj xjhc oxZ Hk;adj
xjeh esa dBksj esgur djrk gSA
4- ^lq?kj* xjhc eknwj efgyk osQ fy, iz;qDr gqvk gSA bldk vFkZ
gS izoh.krk] fuiq.krkA og efgyk vius iRFkj rksM+us osQ dke esa
izoh.k gSA
5- ^T;ksa dgk*;g dFku iRFkj rksM+us okyh dk gSA
ysf[kuh ls
1- ^ur u;u] fiz;&deZ&jr eu* ls dk vfHkizk; gS fd eknwj
efgyk vius u;uksa dks >qdk, gq, eu&ls vius fiz; iRFkj
rksM+us osQ dk;Z esa jeh gqbZ gSA
2- ^djrh ckj&ckj izgkj*&ls dfo dguk pkgrk gS fd eknwj
efgyk ckj&ckj Hkkjh gFkkSMs+ ls izgkj djrs gq, iRFkj rksM+us osQ
lkFk&lkFk vehjh vkSj xjhch osQ varj dks Hkh rksM+uk pkgrh gSA
3- (d) ns[krs ns[kk eq>s rks ,d ckj
ml Hkou dh vksj ns[kk] fNUurkj_
64 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

ns[kdj dksbZ ugha]


ns[kk eq>s ml n`f"V ls
tks ekj [kk jksbZ ughaA
([k) ltk lgt flrkj]
lquh eSaus og] ugha tks Fkh lquh >adkj
,d {k.k osQ ckn og dkih lq?kj]
<qyd ekFks ls fxjs lhdj]
4- igyh iafDr esa dfo us dgh gS tc mlus ml eknwj efgyk dks
iRFkj rksM+rs ns[kkA mls bruh rsk /wi vkSj xjeh esa ,d lqoqQekj
L=kh dks iRFkj rksM+us tSlk dBksj dk;Z djrs ns[k vk'p;Z gqvkA
vkf[kjh iafDr ml eknwj efgyk us dgh gS tks vius dke esa
rYyhu gSA FkksMh+ nsj osQ fy, mldk ;ku ys[kd vkSj vV~Vkfydk
dks ns[kdj Hkax gqvk ysfdu 'kh?kz gh mls viuh fLFkfr vkSj
dk;Z dk Hkku gks x;kA
5- Hkko Li"Vhdj.k
(d) izLrqr iafDr;ksa esa eknwj efgyk vius gkFkksa esa Hkkjh
(otuh) gFkkSM+s dks ysdj ckj&ckj iRFkj ij izgkj djrh
gSA
([k) bu iafDr;ksa esa fnu osQ rerekus] //dus vkSj vkx cjlkus
osQ Hkko dks O;Dr fd;k x;k gSA
6- ([k) og dM+h /wi esa dBksj Je dj jgh FkhA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- ru oSQlk gS\

';ke jax dk lkoyk 'kjhj


ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 65

eu oSQlk gS\
u;u oSQls gSa\
gFkkSM+k oSQlk gS\
fnok oSQlk gS\
Hkw oSQlh gS\
2- i;kZ;okph
iRFkj
u;u

fnok

ekFkk
iFk

dke esa yxk gqvk


>qosQ gq,
Hkkjh
rerekrk gqvk
#bZ tSlh

'kCn
ik"kk.k] ikgu] izLrj
vk[ksa] us=k
fnu] fnol
eLrd] yykV
jkg] jkLrk

Hkk"kk&iz;ksx
1- xq# gFkkSM+k gkFk
2- r#ekfydk] vV~Vkfydk
3- ltk lgt flrkj
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

13- izfr dk vfHk'kki


ikB~; cnq
bl ,dkadh dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- izfr ls izse dh Hkkouk dk ifjp; ns losaQxsA
2- ,d&nwljs ls izfr osQ fouk'k dkjdksa dh ppkZ dj losaQxs vkSj
mlosQ fuokj.k gsrq mi;qDr dne mBk losaQxsA
3- iznw"k.k fu;a=k.k osQ iz;klksa dh vksj dne c<+k,xsA
66 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

4- iznw"k.k osQ fofHkUu izdkjksa osQ fo"k; esa tku losaQxsA


5- mls nwj djus osQ dkj.k [kkst losaQxsA
6- laokn cksyuk vkSj fy[kuk lh[k losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
lw;nZ so viuh fiz; iq=kh i`Foh osQ fo"k; esa pfrr gSa rHkh jf'ensoh mUgsa
crkrh gSa fd i`Foh rks uanuou tSlh gSA mldh prk dh vko';drk
ugha gSA drq iounso crkrs gSa fd ,slk ugha gSA i`Foh iru dh vksj
vxzlj gSA tynsoh] ounsoh Hkh i`Foh osQ fouk'kd rRoksa dh vksj laosQr
djrs gSaA rHkh iznw"k.k nSR; viuh glh ls lcdks pkSadk nsrk gSA og
vn`'; :i ls mifLFkr jgdj i`Foh ij jgus okys tho&tarqvksa osQ
fouk'k dh ?kks"k.kk djrk gSA ty] ok;q] ofu iznw"k.k] jsfM;ks/feZrk
vkfn osQ dkj.k iznwf"kr gqbZ i`Foh dh j{kk gsrq cqn~f/nsoh vkrh gS vkSj
lw;nZ so ls yksd dY;k.k osQ dk;Z djus gsrq vk'khokZn ekxrh gSaA lw;nZ so
rFkkLrq dgdj mUgsa vk'khokZn nsrs gSaA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
'kCnkFkZ esa fn, 'kCn vkSj mudk vFkZ Lo;a i<+sa vkSj cPpksa ls
i<+ok,A ikB dk lkj i<+saA ^u;k&fujkyk* esa nh xbZ tkudkjh i<+saA
^eu ik[kh cu* osQ iz'uksa osQ mRrj cPpksa ls iwNsaA
ikBkja Hk
w ;g ,d ,dkadh gSA laokn iz/ku ikB gSA blfy, d{kk osQ cPpksa
dks ,d&,d ik=k ckV nsAa tSls fdlh ,d cPps dks lw;nZ os cuk,]
nwljs dks jf'ensohA blh izdkj vU; nwljs ik=kksa dks Hkh ckV nsAa
w vc cPps ik=kkuqlkj laokn i<+saA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 67

w chp&chp esa dfBu 'kCn@okD;ksa dks Li"V djrs tk,A


w chp&chp esa nwljs cPpksa dks Hkh ekSdk nsaA le; gksus ij vU;
cPpksa dks ik=kkuqlkj iqu% ikB i<+us osQ fy, nsaA
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsa ,oa mRrj fy[kus osQ fy, dgsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- ekuo osQ vPNs gky dk o.kZu djrs gq, jf'e nsoh us dgk fd
ekuo us vius efLr"d osQ lgkjs izxfr dh gSA taxy vkSj
xqiQkvksa esa jgus okyk ekuo vkt uxjksa esa cM+h vV~Vkfydkvksa
esa jgrk gSA mlus izfr ij dkI+kQh gn rd fot; gkfly dj
yh gSA og mUufr osQ f'k[kj ij igqp x;k gSA
2- jf'ensoh dh ckr lqudj iounso] tynsoh vkSj ounso us lw;Z ls
dgk fd ekuo us mUufr ugha dh gSA og rks iru osQ xM~<s esa
fxjrk tk jgk gSA i`Foh ij nwf"kr ikuh dks ihdj og vusd
chekfj;ksa dk f'kdkj cu jgk gSA vlk/kj.k izxfr osQ dkj.k
ekuo dks tgjhyk Hkkstu [kkus osQ fy, foo'k gksuk iM+ jgk gSA
3- ok;qeaMy osQ u gksus ij i`Foh dk dksbZ Hkh izk.kh thfor ugha jg
ikrkA mlosQ ugha jgus ij i`Foh dks ladVksa ls dkSu cpkrk\
i`Foh dks dkSu vkPNkfnr djrk\ i`Foh dh vksj varfj{k ls
vkus okyh vusd mYdkvksa dks dkSu jksdrk!
4- iou dk 1@5 Hkkx ;k izfr'kr vkWDlhtu osQ :i esa iz;ksx esa
vkrk gSA
ysf[kuh ls
1- lw;Z us euq"; dks vuks[kk tho mldh lkspus&le>us dh {kerk
(efLr"d) osQ dkj.k dgk gSA
2- ounsoh us gjh ifRr;ksa dks ^vkDlhtu dk dkj[kkuk* blfy,
dgk gS D;ksafd mldh gj iRrh Hkkstu vkSj vkWDlhtu cukrh
68 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

3-

4-

5-

6-

7-

gSA mldh ifRr;k dkcZuMkbvkWDlkbM dks izdk'k la'ys"k.k dh


f;k ls dkcZu vkSj vkWDlhtu esa fo'ysf"kr djrh gSaA
ounsoh jf'ensoh ij muosQ >wB cksyus ij q n/ gqb tc mUgksua s
lw;nZ so ls dgk Fkk fd i`Foh uanuou tSlh yxrh gSA mUgksaus
taxyksa osQ u"V gksus ij nks uqdlku crk,,d iznw"k.k vkSj
nwljk o"kkZ dk vHkkoA
ok;qeaMy dh xSlksa dk ekuo ij cqjk izHkko iM+rk gSA bu xSlksa
osQ dkj.k ekuo esa vkrksa vkSj risfnd dh chekjh gks tkrh gSA
buosQ lw{e d.k ok;q esa feydj lw;Z dh fdj.kksa dks i`Foh ij
igqpus ls jksdrs gSaA lw;Z dh fdj.kksa dk iwjk&iwjk ykHk i`Foh ij
jgus okys tho&tarqvksa dks ugha fey ikrk gSA ;s d.k dhVk.kqvksa
ls feydj ty vkSj ouLifr;ksa dks nwf"kr djrs gSa ftUgsa [kkus
ls tho&tarq vkSj euq"; chekj iM+ tkrs gSaA 'kgjksa esa mn~;ksx&
/a/ksa osQ dkj.k I+kQS DVjh vkSj dkj[kkuksa ls kgjhyk /qvk fudyrk
gS] ;krk;kr osQ lk/uksa osQ dkj.k ok;qeaMy nwf"kr gks tkrk gS]
tks vkskksu dh ijr dks u"V dj nsrk gSA
jsfM;ks/feZrk ijek.kq&ijh{k.k djrs le; ;wjsfu;e osQ iz;ksx ls
mRiUu gksrh gSaA ty vkSj ok;q esa bldh fouk'kdkjh fdj.ksa ?kqy
fey tkrh gSaA ekuo ftl {ks=k esa ijek.kq&ijh{k.k djrk gS ;k
;qn~/ osQ nkSjku ftl {ks=k esa ceksa dk iz;ksx gksrk gS ml {ks=k osQ
fuoklh jsfM;ks/feZrk ls ihfM+r gks tkrs gSa vkSj fodykax ih<+h
dks tUe nsrs gSaA
cqn~f/nsoh us lw;nZ so dks Hkjkslk fnykrs gq, dgk fd os i`Foh
okfl;ksa osQ thou dks lq[kh cukus okyh ty] ok;q vkSj ouLifr
nsfo;ksa dh j{kk djsaxhA
iznw"k.k dh leL;k gekjs le{k eqg ck, [kM+h gSA ekuo us izfr
osQ fu;eksa ls NsM+NkM+ djosQ mldk larqyu fcxkM+ fn;k gSA bl
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 69

dkj.k iznw"k.k dh fodV leL;k ge lcosQ lkeus [kM+h gks xbZ


gSA iznw"k.k pkj izdkj osQ gSa
ok;q iznw"k.kvk/qfud ;qx esa dkj[kkuksa vkSj iSQDVfj;ksa osQ
yxus ls tks /qvk fudyrk gS og ok;q esa feydj mls nwf"kr dj
nsrk gSA ;g nwf"kr ok;q gekjs isQiQM+ksa esa igqp tkrh gS vkSj ge
dbZ izdkj dh chekfj;ksa osQ f'kdkj gks tkrs gSaA
ty izn"w k.kty esa dkj[kkuksa osQ xans ikuh osQ fxjus ls]
owQM+k&djdV isaQdus ls] diMs+ /ksus] tkuojksa dks ugykus vkSj
/kfeZd jhfr&fjokkksa osQ dkj.k ty iznw"k.k gksrk gSA
ofu iznw"k.kdkj[kkuksa esa e'khuksa osQ pyus osQ 'kksj ;k ;krk;kr
osQ okguksa osQ 'kksj ls mRiUu gksrk gSA buls dkuksa dh lquus dh
{kerk esa deh vkrh gSA ge cgjs rd gks ldrs gSaA
Hkwfe iznw"k.kvR;f/d o`{kksa osQ dkVus] jklk;fud moZjdksa osQ
iz;ksx ls Hkwfe iznw"k.k dh leL;k Hkh mRiUu gks xbZ gSA iznw"k.k
dh leL;k ls fuiVus osQ fy, lHkh dks ,dtqV gksuk gksxk rHkh
ge /jrh dks LoxZ cuk losQa xsA
8- (d) (iii) ouLifr;ksa dh ([k) (iii) ok;qeaMy esa ?k"kZ.k ls
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- ikB esa iz;qDr milxks ls cus 'kCnksa dh lwph
v vlaHko] vHkko] v'kqn~/] vla[;] vikj] vn`';A
iz
izfr] iz.kke] izkjaHk] izknqHkkZo] iz;ksx] iznw"k.k] izdk'k]
izlUurkA
vfr vR;f/d] vR;kpkj] vR;ko';dA
vf/ vf/ifr] vf/uk;d] vf/'kkl] v;kns'kA
mi mi;ksx] miokl] mifLFkfr] migkj] miklukA
70 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

2- bZ; izR;; dk iz;ksx


iqLrd $ bZ; iqLrdh; iqLrd ls lacfa /r
dks'k $ bZ; dks'kh; dks'k ls lacaf/r
bZ'oj $ bZ; bZ'ojh; bZ'oj ls lacaf/r] bZ'oj dk
3- i;kZ;okph
(d) (i)ekfyd ([k) (ii) es/k (x) (iii) jk{kl
(?k) (iv) mRFkku
4- fyax ifjorZu
Lokeh
Lokfeuh
cqnf~ /eku cqnf~ /erh
izk.knk;h izk.knkf;uh
ykM+yh ykM+yk
nsoh
nso
5- izkr%] e'k%] ijks{kr% vkfnA ;s rRle 'kCn gSaA
ckr okD; dh
Lo;a djsAa
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

14- tgkvkjk dh Mk;jh


ikB~; cnq
bl Mk;jh dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- vius Hkkoksa dks dyecn~/ dj losaQxsA
2- Mk;jh ys[ku osQ izfr #fp ys losaQxsA
3- eqxy lkezkT; osQ bfrgkl tkuus osQ fy, mRlqd gksaxsA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 71

4- izkfrd lqanjrk dk lw{e n`f"V ls voyksdu dj losaQxsA


5- eqxy lkezkT; dh izeq[k ?kVukvksa dks crk losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
'kkgtgk dh ckjg o"khZ; iq=kh tgkvkjk vkSj mldk HkkbZ nkjk egy osQ
NTts ij [kM+s ckrphr dj jgs gSaA tgkvkjk izR;sd iy dks viuh
Mk;jh esa fy[k ysuk pkgrh gS D;ksafd og le>rh gS fd /jrh ij
lcls vPNh phk 'kCn gSA LoIun'khZ nkjk mldh bl ckr ij glrk
gSA tgkvkjk vkSj mlosQ firk Lo;a dks eaxksy ugha oju~ rSejw oa'kh dgykuk
ilan djrs gSaA
tgkvkjk osQ firk 'kkgtgk] tgkxhj osQ rhljs iq=k FksA 'kkgtgk dk
vius firk ls erHksn gks x;k Fkk ftlosQ dkj.k mUgsa vf/d lI+kQj
djuk iM+rk FkkA tgkvkjk bl izdkj HkVdus ls rax vk pqdh FkhA
tgkvkjk mu fnuksa dks ;kn djrh gS tc mlosQ firk tgkxhj osQ
lcls fo'oLr Fks vkSj os lc ;kuh ifjokj dh lkjh vkSjrsa vius&vius
egy esa vkjke ls jgk djrh FkhaA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
w cPpksa ls Mk;jh fo/k ij ckr dhft,A mUgsa crkb, fd Mk;jh
fo/k us lkfgR; esa viuk ,d fo'ks"k LFkku izkIr dj fy;k gSA
;g fo/k lkfgR; dk ,d fo'oLr nLrkost cu pqdh gSA
w iwfN,] cPps Mk;jh fy[krs gSa ;k ugha\ mUgsa Mk;jh fy[kuk fl[kkb,A
w eqxy oa'k dk oa'ko`{k cuokb, rkfd os bl ikB dks vPNh rjg
le> losQa A
ikBkja Hk
w ikB dk lkj i<+saA
72 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

w
w
w
w
w
w

ikB dk vkn'kZ okpu djsAa ,d&,d vuqPNsn i<+]as Li"V djsAa


dfBu 'kCnksa dks js[kkafdr djok,A 'kqn~/ mPpkj.k djsaA
vuqdj.k okpu djok,A mPpkj.k dh Li"Vrk ij ;ku nsaA
izkfrd lkSan;Z] Hkko iz/ku vuqPNsnksa dk ekSu iBu djok,A
iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA dfBu iz'uksa osQ mRrj fy[kok,A
Hkk"kk osQ cnq Li"V djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- nkjk osQ vuqlkj tgkvkjk Mk;jh blfy, fy[krh gS D;ksafd og
vius dks ysf[kdk le>rh gSA
2- tgkxhj dh tax 'kkgtgk ls py jgh FkhA
3- tgkvkjk dk fny fdlh vKkr (tgkxhj osQ) 'kkgh I+kQjeku osQ
Mj ls 'kek dh ean iM+rh jks'kuh dh rjg Mwcrk tk jgk Fkk
D;ksafd mlosQ firk dh ikp o"kZ ls tgkxhj ls tax py jgh FkhA
4- 'kkgtgk dk vlyh uke ^[kqjeZ * FkkA tc mUgksaus ndu esa ,d
-iQkSth eqfge esa dke;kch gkfly dh rks mUgsa ^'kkgtgk* dh
mikf/ nh xbZA
ysf[kuh ls
1- nkjk osQ pfj=k dh fuEufyf[kr fo'ks"krk, gSa
(1) nkjk Lusgh] lkSE; LoHkko dk 'kgkknk gSA mls vius
HkkbZ&cguksa ls yxko gSA
(2) nkjk izkfrd izseh Hkh gSA
(3) nkjk nwjn'khZ rFkk LoIun'khZ gS] og jktegy esa ?kVus
okyh gj ?kVuk ij ukj j[krk gSA
(4) og [kq'kfekkk gSA og dfBu&ls&dfBu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 73

Hkh viuh cgu tgkvkjk dks [kq'k j[kus dh dksf'k'k


djrk gSA
(5) og i<+us] dfork fy[kus vkSj njckjh xk;dksa dk xk;u
lquus dk 'kkSdhu gSA
2- 'kkgtgk Lo;a dks ^eqxyoa'kh* dh ctk; rSewjoa'kh dgykuk
blfy, ilan djrs Fks D;ksfa d rSejw lqlLa r] dyk izes h] okLrqdyk
izseh vkSj lkfgR; izseh FkkA
3- fon~;kFkhZ Lo;a djsaA
4- tgkvkjk ,d fonq"kh 'kgkknh FkhA ge ikB osQ vk/kj ij muosQ
pfj=k dh fo'ks"krkvksa dk o.kZu bl izdkj ls dj ldrs gSa
(1) mlosQ pfj=k dh lcls izeq[k fo'ks"krk gS fd mls vius
vCck] vEeh vkSj HkkbZ&cguksa dh fpark gSA
(2) og izfr izseh gSA jkr esa BaMh&BaMh gok dk vkuan ysus
esa fo'ks"k #fp gSA mls ckx&cxhps] iwQy] iRrksa] dey osQ
iwQyksa ls Hkjs iks[kjksa ls I;kj gSA
(3) og nwjn'khZ gSA mls 'kkgh nwr osQ vkus ij 'kga'kkg tgkxhj
osQ I+kQjeku dk barkkj gS fd dy D;k gksxkA
(4) og ,d ysf[kdk gSA egy esa ?kVus okyh gj ?kVuk dks
viuh Mk;jh esa fy[krh gSA Mk;jh ls gesa egy dh
fuekZ.k&dyk] ckx&cxhps] Hkou dh rFkk eqxy&;qx osQ
bfrgkl osQ ckjs esa ekywe gksrk gSA
(5) og laosnu'khy 'kgkknh gSA og viuh dksey Hkkoukvksa]
fopkjksa] vk'kkvksa vkSj vk'kadkvksa dks fy[kdj Mk;jh esa
j[krh gSA ;g Mk;jh mldh lgsyh gS] ftlls oqQN iy
ckr Hkh dj ysrh gSA
(6) tgkvkjk dks vius firk dh tax ls ijs'kkuh Fkh tks ikp
o"kZ ls muosQ nknk tgkxhj ls py jgh FkhA og 'kkafrizseh
74 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

5- (d)

([k)

6- (d)

([k)

gSA mldh bPNk gS fd tax ges'kk osQ fy, [kRe gks tk,
vkSj os yksx b/j&m/j HkVdus ls cp tk,A
,slk tgkvkjk us bl dkj.k ls dgk fd ge 'kCnksa osQ
n~okjk gh vius fopkjksa] Hkkoukvksa] liuksa] vk'kkvksa vkSj
vk'kadkvksa dks O;Dr dj ldrs gSaA izkfrd lkSan;Z dks
izdV dj ldrs gSaA bUgha ls ,sfrgkfld ?kVukvksa dks
tnk j[k ldrs gSaA
ml le; 'kkgtgk dh vius firk tgkxhj ls ikp o"kks
ls tax py jgh FkhA ;g tax Hkh vius lkSrsyh ekrk
uwjtgk osQ lkFk erHksn gks tkus osQ dkj.k Fkh rHkh ls
'kkgh I+kQkSt muls yM+kbZ dj jgh FkhA mudh bl yM+kbZ ls
iwjk ifjokj] jkT;ksa esa nj&nj tku cpkrs gq, HkVd jgk
FkkA
ftl le; 'kkgh nwr -iQjeku osQ lkFk muosQ egy dh
vksj vk jgk Fkk rc 'kgtknh dk fny ?kcjk jgk Fkk fd
-iQjeku esa D;k fy[kk gksxk! mldk fny fdlh vKkr
vk'kadk ls dki mBk vkSj mlus vius cq>rs gq, fny dh
rqyuk 'kek dh ean iM+rh jks'kuh ls dj nh tks dHkh Hkh
v/js k dj ldrh gSA
tgkvkjk vareq[Z kh gSA og viuh Hkkoukvksa dks lcosQ
lkeus ugha O;Dr dj ldrh blfy, mls viuh ckr
dgus osQ fy, Mk;jh osQ iUuksa dh vko';drk gqbZ ftu
ij fy[kdj og vius eu dks gYdk dj ldrh FkhA
tgkxhj ls erHksn osQ dkj.k 'kkgtgk dh muls tax py
jgh FkhA tgkvkjk dks ;gh vk'kadk Fkh fd dgha dksbZ nwr
tax dk iQjeku ysdj u vk;k gksA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 75

Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
(d) ,dopu ls cgqopu cukuk
cfg;k] cjkens] mxfy;k] dejs] 'kgkkfn;k] njokks] nkfl;k]
cxhps] ckfn;k] iUus] cfX?k;k] csVs] dke;kfc;kA
([k) fr;Zd cgqopu :i dk okD;ksa esa iz;ksx
l ekfy;ksa us iwjs eSnku esa iwQyksa osQ ikS/s yxk fn,A
l ckn'kkg dk [kkuk cukus osQ fy, nwj&nwj ls ckofpZ;ksa dks
cqyk;k x;kA
l brus fnuksa rd rqe dgk jgs\
l Hkkb;ksa dh dykbZ ij jk[kh ck/dj cgusa mudh yach mez
dh dkeuk djrh gSAa
l dkxkksa dks D;ksa fc[kjk j[kk gS\
l igjsnkjksa us pksj dks idM+ fy;kA
2- L=khfyax 'kCn
'kgkknh] csxe] choh] vEeh] ckofpZu] ekfyu] vkSjr] /ksfcuA
3- var%iqj] ysf[kdk] 'kCn] fyfi] eueksgd] euksgj] fo'oluh;A
ckr okD; dh
1- pyk vk jgk gSA
vdeZd f;k
2- i<+xas As
ldeZd f;k
3- fy[k ysuk pkgrh gwA ldeZd f;k
4- f[kys gq, gSAa
vdeZd f;k
5- fNikuk pkgrh gwA
ldeZd f;k
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

76 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

15- ek! eq>s vkus ns!


ikB~; cnq
bl dfork dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- vf/d HkkoukRed :i ls ek ls tqM+ ik,xsA
2- yM+dk&yM+dh esa Hksn dh laoqQfpr n`f"V dk fojks/ dj losaQxsA
3- vius Hkkoksa dks izdV dj losaQxsA
4- lkekftd cnyko dh vksj dne mBk losQa xsA
5- u, 'kCn lh[ksaxs vkSj viuh dYiuk dks mM+ku ns losaQxsA
dfork dk lkj
xHkZ esa iy jgh cPph ek dh ?kcjkgV] voqQykgV] la'k;] Hkze] Mj
vkfn dks eglwl dj mls vk'oLr djrh gS fd ek! rw er MjA eq>s
tUe nsA esjs vkus ls rsjs thou esa cgkj vk tk,xhA eSa rsjs eu :ih
vkxu esa vk'kk vkSj fo'okl cudj vkxhA rsjs vkpy esa iwQy cudj
egowQxh vkSj viuh glh ls@ fdydkjh ls@ uUgs dneksa ls ?kj dks
[kqf'k;ksa ls Hkj nwxhA firk osQ cM+Iiu] xaHkhjrk vkSj HkkbZ dh 'kSrkfu;ksa
osQ dkj.k ?kj esa rsjs ncs gq, O;fDrRo dks u, vFkZ nwxhA rsjh mnklh]
Mj] O;Fkk lcdks iksaN nwxhA rq>s dHkh jksus ugha nwxhA
Mj osQ dkj.k lUukVs esa Mwck ?kj pgpgkus yxsxkA rsjh dYiuk vkSj
vk'kk dks eSa ubZ mM+ku nwxhA viuh fon~oRrk osQ cy ij eSa dgha ls Hkh
[kqf'k;k ys vkxh vkSj rsjh dYiuk dks ;FkkFkZ esa cny nwxhA ek] eq>s
bl nqfu;k esa vkus nsA Mj erA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
w cPpksa dks ^u;k&fujkyk* esa nh xbZ lkexzh dks le>k,A
w dfork dh cukoV dk lkSan;Z crkdj mlesa #fp iSnk djsaA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 77

w dfork dk lkj i<+Aas


w yM+fd;ksa osQ izfr lekt esa iSQys nqHkkZo ij ppkZ djsa fd D;k
;g Bhd gSA
w ;g rF; mtkxj djsa fd yM+dk&yM+dh esa vuqikr fdruk gSA
ikBkja Hk
w y; osQ lkFk dfork dk lLoj okpu djsAa
w fdlh cPps ls vuqdj.k okpu djok,A
w iqu% lLoj okpu dj ,d&,d iafDr dk vFkZ crkrs tk,A
w cPpksa dks ekSu iBu dk funs'Z k nsaA
w dfork ij ppkZ djsAa
w iz'uksa osQ mRrj Li"V djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- ^Mj er* iafDr esa yM+dh dks ek osQ xHkZ esa ekj nsus osQ Mj dh
vksj laosQr fd;k x;k gSA ek dks Mj gS fd dgha tUe ls iwoZ
gh dksbZ mldh cPph dks ekj u nsA
2- yM+dh ek osQ vkxu esa [kqf'k;k fc[ksjuk pkgrh gS_ mlosQ thou
osQ lwusiu dks [kRe djuk pkgrh gSA viuh fdydkjh ls ?kj esa
jkSud ykdj ?kj dh mnklh dks nwj djuk pkgrh gSA vkxu osQ
pkjksa vksj gfj;kyh cudj ?kj dks lq[k&len~f/ ls Hkjuk pkgrh
gSA
3- ^rsjs thou osQ va/dkj dks feVkdj izdk'k ls txex&txex
dj nwxh* Hkko fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa esa vk;k gSA
dj ldrh gw ek
eSa lc&oqQN
tks jks'kuh&lk pedhyk
78 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

jaxksalk pVdhyk gks]


ij vkus rks ns
Mj er
ek---eq>s vkus nsA
4- yM+dh ek dks vk'oklu ns jgh gS fd eSa rsjs lkjs liuksa dks
lkFkZd dj nwxhA Lo;a d"V >sydj rqEgsa lq[k ns nwxhA
ysf[kuh ls
1- vtUeh cPph viuh fdydkjh vkSj Bqedrs dneksa ls ?kj osQ
lUukVs dks rksM+uk pkgrh gSA gk! ;g lUukVk ek osQ Hkhrj dk
Hkh gSA nwf"kr lkekftd O;oLFkk vkSj jhfr&fjokkksa osQ pyrs xHkZ
esa gh yM+dh dks ekjus osQ Mj ls ek lgeh gqbZ gSA blls mlosQ
eu esa lUukVk iljk gSA
2- ^#[khyk vglkl vdM+hyk fekkt* ls vfHkizk; iq#"k iz/ku
lekt ls gSA iq#"kksa dh vdM+ vkSj :[kkiu fL=k;ksa dks bruk
mnklhu cuk nsrk gS fd os vius&vki esa gh fleV tkrh gSaA iwjs
?kj esa iq#"kksa dk ;g fekkt gh iSQyk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA fL=k;ksa dh
viuh bPNk,] viuh [kqf'k;k rks tSls dgha nc tkrh gSaA
3- yM+dh osQ vkRefo'okl dks O;Dr djus okyh iafDr;k fuEufyf[kr
gSa
(d) tk ldrh gw eSa
nwj&ikj
ml f>yfeykrh nqfu;k esa
yk ldrh gw
ogk ls pedhys VqdMs+
rsjs liuksa osQ
leqanj dh ygjksa osQ FkisM+ksa esa
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 79

<w< ldrh gw eSa


eksrh vkSj lhih vkSj ukfodksa osQ fgLlsA
([k) dj ldrh gw ek
eSa lc&oqQN
tks jks'kuh&lk pedhyk
jaxksalk pVdhyk gksA
4- ^^ek! eq>s vkus ns] Mj er] vkus nsA** iafDr esa ^vkus ns* dk nks
ckj iz;ksx djosQ uUgh cPph ek dks dguk pkgrh gS fd og
mls xHkZ esa ekjs ughaA mls Hkh nqfu;k esa vkus nsA og bu 'kCnksa
osQ n~okjk viuh ek ls HkkoukRed :i ls tqM+uk pkgrh gSA uUgh
cPph ek dk lgkjk cuuk pkgrh gS vkSj lekt esa vius
vfLrRo osQ f[kyk-iQ py jgs bl vekuoh; R; ij vkokk
mBkuh pkgrh gSAS
5- Hkko Li"Vhdj.k
(d) v/sjk nq[k dk izrhd gS tks psgjs ij gjne Nk;k jgrk
gSA tc og nq[k ?kuk gks tkrk gS rks vklw cudj cgus
yxrk gSA mUgha vklqvksa dks dfo vksl dh cwn&lk dg
jgk gSA
([k) leqnz xgjkbZ dk izrhd gS vkSj vkleku foLrkj dkA
ek dh vk[kksa esa xgu ihM+k gS vklqvksa dk leqn&z lk gSA
cPph ;g lc ns[k jgh gS vkSj mu liuksa dks Hkh ns[k jgh
gS tks mQps&mQps vkSj mQps tkuk pkgrs gSaA
6- (d) (iii) xHkZ esa iyrh cPph
([k) ek lekt vkSj ifr ls Mj jgh gSA yM+dh osQ iSnk gksus ij
mls rkus lquus dks fey ldrs gSaA
(x) og ek ls u Mjus osQ fy, dg jgh gS D;ksfa d og bl
80 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

lalkj esa vkdj viuh ek osQ thou osQ lwusiu dks [kRe
djuk pkgrh gSA iq#"k iz/ku lekt osQ >wBs <dkslyksa osQ
f[kykI+kQ vkokk mBkuk pkgrh gSA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- fo'ks"k.k&fo'ks";
#[khyk
vglkl
';key
'kjhj
f>yfeykrh nqfu;k
panzeq[kh psgjk
vdM+hyk fekkt
deZB
clarh
pedhys VqdMs+
ckrwuh
jk/k
2- (d) i;kZ;okph 'kCn
ek
tuuh] vack
firk tud] rkr
eksrh jRu] eqDrd
lhih 'kqfDrdk] 'kqfDr
ukfod osQoV] eYykg
([k) (ii) tyf/
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 81

16- Mk;jh osQ i`"Bksa ls


ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- viuh mPpkj.k 'kqn~/rk osQ izfr fo'ks"k lko/kuh cjrsaxsA
2- ;g tku tk,xs fd osQoy fdlh dh ik izkIr djosQ thou esa
oqQN Hkh ik;k ugha tk ldrkA ifjJe gh liQyrk dh oqaQth gSA
3- os ;g Hkh tku ik,xs fd bYe fdlh in dk eksgrkt ugha gksrkA
4- os vPNh rjg le> tk,xs fd fon~okuksa dk vknj loZ=k fd;k
tkrk gSA
ikB dk lkj
;g Mk;jh nks Hkkxksa us foHkDr gSA izFke Hkkx esa ,d ,sls O;fDr
dk o.kZu gS tks gnh esa ,e, djosQ vaxjskh esa ,e, djuk
pkgrs gSaA os ys[kd dh tks fd vaxjskh foHkkx esa gSM gSa] dh ik ls
ikl gksuk pkgrs gSaA ys[kd mu ij ;ku ugha nsrs D;ksafd mudh gnh
Hkh cgqr [kjkc gS] vaxjskh osQ rks dgus gh D;kA nwljs Hkkx esa ,d ,sls
O;fDr dk o.kZu gS tks viuh fon~oRrk ls cM+s&cM+s fon~okuksa dh Hkh
NqV~Vh dj nsrk gSA ekr`&iRuh lq[k ls oafpr ;g O;fDr LowQy esa ekLVj
gSA ys[kd dks buls feydj cgqr lq[k feyrk gSA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
Mk;jh fo/k ls cPpksa dks ifjfpr djok,ikB dk lkj i<+saA
ikBkjaHk
w izFke Hkkx dk vkn'kZ okpu djsa vkSj le>k,A
82 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

w
w
w
w

vuqdj.k okpu osQ fy, dgsAa


ekSu iBu djok,A
iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
Jqrys[k nsa] Hkkf"kd cnq Li"V djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- vkxard
q us ys[kd dks crk;k fd f'kjksrh th dh ik ls mudh
;wfuoflZVh esa lsfda M ikskh'ku vkbZ gS vkSj mudh Jherh th us
,e, fganh lsfdaM iksth'ku ls dh gSA
2- Hkkos lkgc dh ik ls mudh Jherh dh fu;qfDr lsaVy LowQy
esa gks xbZA ml le; Hkkos lkgc dfe'uj FksA
3- LowQy dk v;kid cgqr mdlkus ij blfy, cksyrk Fkk
D;ksafd mls vius bYe osQ izn'kZu esa jRrh Hkj Hkh #fp ugha FkhA
4- tc v;kid us lquk fd ys[kd baXySaM tk jgk gS vkSj ogk
vius osY'k fe=k osQ ;gk Bgjsxk_ rc mlus osY'k yksxksa osQ
bfrgkl vkSj lkaLfrd fo'ks"krkvksa osQ ckjs esa ,slh&,slh ckrsa
crkb fd ys[kd lqudj nax jg x;kA ^osQfYVd fyVjspj* osQ
ckjs esa Hkh mUgsa bruh tkudkjh Fkh tks 'kk;n oqQekmQ fo'ofon~;ky;
osQ vaxszkh foHkkx osQ v;{k Hkh ugha tkurs FksA
5- xko dh fL=k;ksa us xka/h th dh >ksyh esa xgus muosQ laf{kIr
Hkk"k.k dks lquus osQ ckn Mkys] rkfd xka/h th mudk mi;ksx
vkkknh fnyokus esa dj losQA
ysf[kuh ls
1- Jksf=k; dks f'kjksrh] Jherh dks flfjerh] Ldksi dks bLdksi]
LowQy dks bLowQy] cgqr dks HkkSr] I+kQLVZ dks iQLV tSls v'kqn~/
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 83

iz;ksxksa ls ys[kd oSls gh fp<+k cSBk FkkA vkxarqd ifjJe ls ugha


cfYd fliQkfj'kksa ls ukSdjh pkgrk FkkA blhfy, ys[kd us ,slk
dgkA
2- ys[kd dk /hjt ml v;ksX; vkSj pkiywl O;fDr dh ckrksa dks
lqudj pqd x;k FkkA
3- LowQy osQ ml v;kid osQ xq.k bl izdkj gSa
(1) os ljy] fu"diV] fouksnh vkSj fknkfny bulku FksA
(2) mUgksaus thou esa dbZ eekrd ihM+k, >syh FkhaA xjhch dh
gkyr esa jgus osQ ckokwn Hkh mlosQ psgjs ij dksbZ f'kdu
ugha FkhA
(3) mUgksaus dfBu&ls&dfBu ifjfLFkfr esa Hkh ekufld larqyu
cuk, j[kk FkkA
(4) muosQ vanj tokuksa tSlk tks'k vkSj meax FkkA vkt Hkh os
tks'k osQ lkFk ?kaVksa&?kaVksa eSp mRlqdrk osQ lkFk ns[krs FksA
(5) i<+us osQ 'kkSd dh otg ls mUgsa gj fo"k; dh tkudkjh
FkhA
(6) os fonw"kd dk ckuk igus gq, rjg&rjg osQ iksLVj
cukdj Lo;a vius 'kjhj ij /kj.k djosQ lhku osQ fnuksa
esa HkhM+ Hkjs jktekxks ij yksxksa dk euksjatu djrs FksA
(7) os vius iksLVjksa esa lelkef;d jktuhfrd ?kVukp ij
csckd fVIi.kh djrs Fks vkSj turk dks tkxzr djrs FksA
4- xko dh fL=k;ksa us vius dherh xgus nsdj Lo;a dks /U; bl
dkj.k ls ekuk D;ksafd mudk ekuuk Fkk fd muosQ xgus fdlh
vPNs dk;Z esa dke vk,xAs
5- vk'k; Li"Vhdj.k
(d) ys[kd dguk pkgrk gS fd gekjh dfYir dFkk, fofp=k
84 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

([k)

(x)

6- (d)
([k)
(x)

gksrh gSaA ;s dfYir dFkk, vDlj lR; ls ijs gksrh gSaA


okLrfod thou ls budk dksbZ ysuk&nsuk ugha gksrkA
ysfdu dHkh&dHkh O;kogkfjd thou esa Hkh oqQN ,slk
?kfVr gks tkrk gS tks bu dfYir dFkkvksa ls Hkh fofp=k
gksrk gSA tSls bl v;kid tSlk O;fDr osQoy liuksa esa
ns[kk tk ldrk gS ysfdu ;g Lo;a lk{kkr lR;:i gekjs
lkeus [kM+k gSA
bl izlxa osQ ek;e ls ys[kd dgrk gS fd fj'or nsdj
;k pkiywlh n~okjk fdlh ls dksbZ Hkh dke djok;k tk
ldrk gSA ;fn ge og dke ugha djsaxs rks dksbZ vkSj dj
nsxkA ,sls yksx gekjs ns'k esa cgqr gSa tks iSls ysdj ik
djus dks rS;kj gks tk,xsA
bl izlxa esa ys[kd us dgk gS fd i<+us osQ ckn Hkh tc
rd vki mldks ckj&ckj vuqHko ugha djsxa ]s rc rd
og i<+kbZ ;k fo"k; viuk ugha cu ik,xkA tc lh[kk
gqvk viuk cu tk,xk] vuqHko dh vkp esa ri tk,xk
rks mls o"kks ckn Hkh Hkwysaxs ughaA
blh lPpkbZ dks ys[kd us v;kid osQ tfj, ls
le>k;k gSA fd thou esa i<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk vH;kl@xquuk
Hkh k:jh gS rHkh vki dke;kc gks ldrs gSaA
ikB dk ukeMk;jh osQ i`"Bksa ls
ys[kd dk ukejes'k panz 'kkg
v;kid ?kj dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr vPNh u gksus osQ dkj.k
;ksX;rk j[krs gq, Hkh ,e, ugha dj ik,A
yksx mudh xjhch] iQVs diMs+ ns[kdj mudk ekkd
mM+krs Fks ysfdu mUgsa fdlh ls dksbZ f'kdk;r ugha FkhA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 85

(?k) yksd;k=kk ls rkRi;Z lekt dY;k.k dh Hkkouk ls gSA


v;kid fonw"kd dk ckuk igudj] ml ij jktuSfrd
?kVukp ij fVIi.kh fy[kdj turk dks tkxzr djrs gSa]
mudk euksjt
a u djosQ fny cgykrs gaAS
Hkk"kk ls
ckr o.kZ dh
o.kZ&foPNsn
(d) lkeF;Z
(iv) l~ $ vk $ e~ $ v $ j~ $ Fk~ $ v $ ;~ $ v
([k) oafpr
(iii) o~ $ va $ p~ $ b $ r~ $ v
(x) vaxjsk
(i) va $ x~ $ j~ $ , $ k~ $ v
(?k) ijaijk
(i) i~ $ v~ $ j~ $ v $ e~ $ i~ $ v $ j~ $ vk
ckr 'kCn dh
1- 'kCnksa osQ 'kqn~/ :i
Jherh] Jksf=k;] ;wfuoflZVh] Ldksi] LowQy] lkgc] cgqr] izFke]
eqf'dyA
2- (d) (ii) ikyq] ([k) (iv) vkyL;] (x) (ii) 'kadkyq
3- laf/&foPNsn
;qod $ mfpr] egk $ mRlo] fgr $ mins'k] yksd $ mfDr]
ohj $ mfprA
86 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

ckr okD; dh
(d) fefJr okD;] ([k) ljy okD;] (x) fefJr okD;]
(?k) la;Dq r okD; () fefJr okD;
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

17- dysM
a j dykdkj
ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- ^vc dysMa j nhokj ij D;ksa ugha iQM+iQM+krs* bl okD; ij xaHkhjrk
ls fopkj dj losaQxsA
2- viuh laLfr dks iquthZfor djus dk tck eu esa txk losaQxsA
3- O;aX;iwoZ 'kCnkoyh dk vFkZ le>us dh ;ksX;rk gkfly dj
losQa xsA
ikB dk lkj
izLrqr ikB esa dysaMj cukus okys ,d dykdkj osQ O;olk;ksUeq[k gks
tkus dh foo'krk dks fpf=kr fd;k x;k gS vkSj crk;k x;k gS fd oSQls
jktusrkvks]a ns'kHkDrksa vkSj egkiq#"kksa osQ fp=kksa dk LFkku fIk+ QYeh ghjks&ghjksbuksa
osQ fp=kksa us ys fy;k gSA ys[k esa orZeku lekt osQ uSfrd iru dk
;FkkFkZ vkSj ekfeZd fp=k izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
iwNsa fd vktdy ?kjksa dh nhokjksa ij ltkoV fdl izdkj dh
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 87

tkrh gS\ igys oSQls dh tkrh Fkh\ rkjh[k ns[kus dk eq[; kfj;k
D;k Fkk\ crk, fd taxs vkkknh esa oSQysaMjksa us tu&tkx`fr esa D;k
Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ] oSQysaMj ij fdu&fduosQ fp=k gksrs Fks vkfnA
ikBkjaHk
w ikB dk vkn'kZ okpu djsAa
w vuqPNsnksa dk vFkZ Li"V djsaA vuqdj.k okpu djok,A
w ekSu iBu dk funs'Z k nsaA
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
w Hkkf"kd fcanq Li"V djsaA
w tks iafDr;k Hkk"kk osQ lkSan;Z dks izdV djrh gSa] mUgsa iqu% i<+ok,A

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- e;oxhZ; yksxksa dk 'kkSd ?kj esa u;k dysaMj ykuk vkSj yxkuk
FkkA
2- e;oxhZ; yksxksa osQ ?kjksa esa jktuSfrd usrkvksa] nsoh&nsorkvksa vkSj
/kfeZd iq#"kksa osQ dysaMj yxk, tkrs FksA
3- xka/hth dk Jh".k osQ lkFk fp=k FkkA fp=kksa osQ uhps dfork esa
xka/hth dk ;'kksxku fd;k x;k Fkk rFkk muesa vkilh lkE;
fcBkdj dgk x;k Fkk fd Jh".k ^ek[ku pksj* dgykrs Fks rks
bl ;qx esa xka/h th Hkh ^ued pksj* dgykrs gSaA LraHkdkj us
,slk dysaMj cpiu esa ns[kk FkkA
4- fon~;kFkhZ Lo;a djsaA
ysf[kuh ls
1- ns'kHkfDr dh ygj txkus esa jk"Vh; usrkvksa osQ dysaMjksa dh
egRRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk jgh FkhA tc bu usrkvksa osQ fp=k ?kjksa dh
88 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

2-

3-

4-

5-

nhokjksa ij yxs jgrs Fks rks cPps fp=kksa dks ns[kdj mu usrkvksa osQ
ckjs esa vfHkHkkodksa ls iwNrs FksA bl izdkj ls os [kqn dks buls
tqM+k gqvk eglwl djrs FksA cPps cMs+ gksdj ns'k dh vkkknh
osQ fy, yM+us dk liuk ns[kus yxrs Fks os Lo;a bu usrkvksa osQ
leku cuus dh dksf'k'k djrs FksA
vktdy dksbZ Hkh usrk ns'k dk usrk ugha gSA izR;sd usrk dk
laca/ fdlh u fdlh ikVhZ ls vo'; gksrk gSA vkt osQ ;qx esa
dksbZ Hkh ,slk usrk fn[kkbZ ugha nsrk ftlesa R;kx] bZekunkjh vkSj
cfynku dh Hkkouk gksA vktdy osQ lHkh usrk Nyh&diVh vkSj
LokFkhZ gSaA blhfy, usrkvksa osQ dysaMj vc ugha yxk, tkrsA
^ckkkj esa usrk yksx vc ugha pyrs* dysaMj dykdkj bl
dFku osQ ek;e ls O;aX; djrk gS fd vkt fdlh Hkh jk"Vh;
usrk dk O;fDrRo ,slk ugha gS ftldh rqyuk vkkknh iwoZ osQ
jk"Vh; usrkvksa ls dh tk losQA vkkknh iwoZ osQ jk"Vh; usrkvksa esa
R;kx] HkkbZpkjk] fuLokFkZ lsok] cfynku tSls xq.k ik, tkrs Fks
tcfd vkt osQ usrkvksa esa bu xq.kksa dk vHkko ik;k tkrk gSA bu
usrkvksa dh dgkuh Ny&iQjsc vkSj tksM+&rksM+ dh dgkuh gSA
'kekZ th dks /eZ esa mruh jks'kuh blfy, ugha fn[kkbZ ns jgh
D;ksafd vc /eZ dk izHkko de gksrk tk jgk gSA igys yksx
/eZ osQ Mj ls ;k uke ls vuqfpr dk;Z ugha djrs Fks ysfdu vc
mldk izHkko de gSA e;oxhZ; yksxksa esa /eZ osQ uke ls tks
mRlkg o [kq'kh fn[kkbZ nsrh Fkh vkSj tks /kfeZd R;ksgkj euk,
tkrs Fks] os vc egxkbZ osQ dkj.k iQhosQ&iQhosQ yxrs gSaA
igys ?kjksa dh nhokjksa ij jk"Vh; usrkvksa vkSj nsoh&nsorkvksa osQ
fp=k Vxs jgrs Fks ijarq vc mudk LFkku ukjh osQ v'yhy fp=kksa
us ys fy;k gSA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 89

6- vk'k; Li"Vhdj.k
(d) ys[kd dk vk'k; gS fd vc dysaMj yksxksa dks izsfjr
ugh djrs blfy, yksx ?kjksa dh nhokjksa ij dysaMj ugha
VkxrsA nhokjksa ij gh oqQN fp=kdkjh djok ysrs gSa tks
mldh iiM+h osQ lkFk gh mrj tkrh gSA
([k) ys[kd dk vk'k; gS fd R;kx] riL;k] d#.kk] cfynku
vkSj ns'kHkfDr dh lh[k nsus okys dysaMjksa dks vc
ckkkj esa dksbZ ugha iwN jgkA gj dksbZ LokFkZ osQ o'khHkwr
gksdj dk;Z dj jgk gS o mDr xq.k Hkh LokFkZ osQ i;kZ;
curs tk jgs gSAa
7- (x) [kqn dks Lok/hurk laxkz e ls tqM+k eglwl djrs FksA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- O;fDrokpd 'kekZ] LraHkdkj] xka/h] fryd] usg:] iVsy
tkfrokpd jk"Vh;] dysaMj] eooxhZ;] ikVhZ] ukjh
Hkkookpd k`axkfjdrk] okluk] R;kx] riL;k] cfynku
2- oqaQHkdkj
feV~Vh osQ crZu cukus okyk
yqgkj
yksgs dk dke djus okyk
lqo.kZdkj] Lo.kZdkj lksus osQ vkHkw"k.k cukus okyk
peZdkj
peM+s dh oLrq, cukus okyk
ekykdkj
ekyk cukus okyk
ewfrZdkj
ewfrZ;k cukus okyk
lkfgR;dkj
lkfgR; jpus okyk
3- nsork&nsoh] nkrk&nk=kh] ys[kd&ysf[kdk] xk;d&xkf;dk]
cqn~f/eku&cqn~f/erh] xq.koku&xq.korh] 'kfDreku&'kfDrefrA
90 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

4- (?k) thr
5- (d) (iii) mn~/j.k fpg~u
([k) (i) vksg! lar] egkiq#"kksa] ns'kHkDrksa vkSj vkn'kZ usrkvksa
osQ dysaMj vc ugha feyrsA
ckr okD; dh
dysMa j dykdkj vkt mnkl gSfo/kuokpd okD;
Hkk"kk&iz;ksx
Nk=k Lo;a djsaA
^eu ik[kh cu* vkSj ^Kku xksrk* Nk=k v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj Lo;a
djsaxsA
qq

18- izse&jax Mkjks


ikB~; cnq
bl dfork dks i<+us osQ mijkar fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- gksyh ioZ osQ lkaLfrd egRRo dks le> losaQxsA
2- izfr osQ cnyrs :iksa ls ifjfpr gks losaQxsA
dfork dk lkj
iQkYxqu ekg gSA /jrh us /kuh pknj vks<+ j[kh gSA blh ekg esa gksyh
dk R;ksgkj jaxksa dh cgkj ysdj vk tkrk gSA iQkYxquh c;kj osQ pyrs
gh gksyh dh eLrh izkjaHk gks tkrh gSA
;g oSj&?keaM&ks/ dh gksyh tykus] dM+okgV dks nwj dj e/qj cksyh
cksyus dk le; gSA
,d lq[kn liuk fd HksnHkko Hkwydj gj dksbZ ,d&nwljs dks
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 91

viuk,] fey&tqydj izlUurk ls jax eys vkSj eXu gksdj dgs fd


gksyh osQ bl R;ksgkj ij izse osQ jax dh o"kkZ gksA
izR;sd izkar esa vusd jaxksa ls lHkh ,d&nwljs dk Lokxr@ vknj
djsa_ ,d gkFk esa fryd osQ fy, jksyh gks] rks nwljs esa jaxus osQ fy,
Vslw osQ jaxA ekSle cgqr lqgkouk gSA iwQyksa osQ jl Hkjdj lekurk :ih
fipdkjh ls lHkh dks jaxus dk lans'k ysdj gksyh dk R;ksgkj vk x;kA
ubZ ;kstuk, cusa] lHkh ifjJe ls bl lekt dks mUur cuk,A
vius vkyL; dks R;kxdj izlUurkiwod
Z ns'k dh mUufr esa viuk ;ksxnku
nsaA lHkh osQ gksBksa ij [kq'kh gks] lc egRRokdka{kh gksa] iQkYxqu osQ bl
iQkYxquh jax esa lc vk'kk&mRlkg ls Hkjs gksa] nsg vkSj eu esa ;kSou dh
cgkj gks vFkkZr~ meax vkSj tks'k Hkjk gksA fcuk fdlh la'k;@lansg osQ
lc ifjJe djsAa
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkja Hk iwoZ
cPpksa ls lkekftd R;ksgkjksa dh ckr djsaA ikB dk lkj i<+saA crk,]
gksyh osQ fnu dkys] uhys] ihys jaxksa dks lk/u@izrhd osQ :i esa ysa
drq izse osQ jax ls lcdks jxsaA
ikBkja Hk
1- dfork dks y;kRedrk osQ lkFk i<+saA
2- d{kk osQ nks&rhu cPpksa ls i<+ok,A
3- vFkZ Li"V djsaA
4- dfork ;kn djus osQ fy, dgsAa
5- oqQN fo'ks"k iafDr;ksa dk vFkZ iwNsa] tSls;kstuk dh jk/k--6- dfork dk lqys[k djok,A
7- iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA Hkkf"kd cnq Li"V djsaA
92 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- iQkxqu c;kj >wedj iqdkjrh py jgh gS fd /jrh ij izes osQ
jaxksa ls lcosQ lkFk gksyh [ksyrs pyksA
2- n~os"k] naHk] mxzrk dh gksyh iwQdus dh ckr dh xbZ gSA
3- dfo us dVqrk dks nwj djus osQ fy, e/qj opu cksyus dh
lykg nh gSA
4- I;kj ls fey&tqydj jgus vkSj e/qj cksyus ls gj dksbZ viuk
gks ldrk gSA
5- ns'k osQ nqykjs ;kstuk cuk,] ifjJe djsa] xfr'khy jgsa] deZjr
gksa] vkyL; dks tyk nsa] jaxksa ls vkuan euk, vkSj izse ls ljkcksj
gks tk,A
ysf[kuh ls
1- ^jax Hkjk liuk gks* ls dfo dk vk'k; gS fd gj dksbZ Lora=k
:i ls lksp losQA lius lqanj gksa vkSj lkFkZd gksaA
2- dfo us izR;sd ekuo osQ ,d gkFk esa Vslw&jax vkSj nwljs gkFk esa
jksyh dh dYiuk dh gSA izkarksa vkSj jaxksa dh fofo/rk gksus ij Hkh
yky jax ;k Vslw osQ jax ls ,drk vkSj HkkbZpkjs dh dYiuk pkjksa
vksj fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA
3- tc ;kstuk vPNh gksxh vkSj mls iw.kZ djus osQ fy, Je fd;k
tk,xk rks le`n~f/ gksxh] mUufr gksxh] vH;qn; gksxkA
4- ^vki [kqn tokc gks* iafDr ls dfo dguk pkgrk gS fd lc
izdkj osQ dk;Z rqe ls gh gksaxs ;kuh rqEgkjs Hkhrj gh og 'kfDr
gS] tks gj phk dk mRrj ns ldrh gS] ftlesa ifjorZu ykus dh
{kerk gSA
5- fon~;kFkhZ Lo;a djsaA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 93

6- /jrh :ih nqygu dks izse vkSj [kq'kgkyh osQ jaxksa ls ltkdj
fu[kkjk tk ldrk gSA
7- Hkko Li"Vhdj.k
(d) bu iafDr;ksa esa dfo us dgk gS gksyh osQ volj ij
fofHkUu jaxksa ls [ksydj pkjksa vksj izse dk jax fc[ksj nksA
/jrh dks Hkh nqygu dh rjg ltk nksA
([k) bu iafDr;ksa esa dfo lq>ko nsrs gq, dgrk gS fd gesa
gksyh [ksyrs le;] mQp&uhp] vehj&xjhc dk Hksn ugha
djuk pkfg,A lHkh dks ,d leku le>dj izse osQ jaxksa
dh fipdkjh ls lcdks jx nsuk pkfg,A
(x) dfo pkgrk gS yksx vkyl dks gksfydk esa tyk nsaA
ifjJeh vkSj drZO;fu"B cusaA
(?k) iafDr dk Hkko gS fd gksyh ij ,d&nwljs dks flI+kZQ
yky] uhys] ihys jaxksa ls gh ugha cfYd I;kj osQ jax ls
Hkh jx nksA lHkh HksnHkko [kRe gks tk, vkSj pkjksa vksj
izse osQ jax fc[kj tk,A
8- ([k) ;kSou
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- ;kstd fpg~ujk/k&';ke] rksrs&lh ukd] fnu&jkr] Hkw&rRo
2- (d) (ii) ikod ([k) (iii) onu (x) (iv) ikf.k
ckr okD; dh
fon~;kFkhZ vuqPNsn Lo;a fy[ksaxsA
^u;k&fujkyk*] ^eu ik[kh cu* vkSj ^Kku xksrk* v;kid osQ
funs'Z kkuqlkj Nk=k Lo;a djsaA
qq

94 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

19- iap ijes'oj


ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- lPph nksLrh dk vFkZ le> losaQxsA
2- fu"i{k U;k; esa viuk fo'okl dk;e dj ik,xsA
3- o`n~/ksa dh lsok&lqJw"kk dh Hkkouk esa cy yk ik,xsA
4- vius drZO;ksa dks Hkyh&Hkkfr fu"i{krk ls fuHkkuk lh[ksaxsA
5- izsepan osQ ys[ku ls ifjfpr gks losaQxsA
6- rRdkyhu lkekftd fLFkfr dk Kku izkIr dj losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
tqEeu 'ks[k vkSj vyxw pkS/jh nks iDosQ fe=k FksA tqEeu us viuh cw<+h
[kkyk dh tk;nkn vius uke fy[kok yhA igys rks mlus o`n~/ [kkyk
dh vPNh ns[kHkky dh drq oqQN le; ckn HkjisV jksVh Hkh nsuh can
dj nhA [kkyk iapksa osQ ikl xbZ fd mls ekgokj [kpkZ fnyok;k tk,
rkfd og viuk isV Hkj losQA [kkyk us vyxw dks viuk iap cuk;kA
vyxw us [kkyk osQ gd esa I+kQS lyk fn;kA blls tqEeu us ukjkk gksdj
vyxw ls fe=krk lekIr dj nhA blh izdkj ,d ckj vyxw us tqEeu
dks viuk iap cuk fn;kA ysfdu vk'p;Z! ks/ vkSj vieku dh vkx
esa tyrs tqEeu us Hkh U;k; osQ lgklu ij cSBdj vyxw osQ i{k
esa@lPpkbZ osQ i{k esa viuk I+kQS lyk lquk;kA vyxw cgqr gSjku gqvkA
tqEeu vyxw ls xys feyk vkSj vius xyr O;ogkj osQ fy, {kek
ekxhA lp gS] U;k; osQ flagklu ij cSBk dksbZ Hkh O;fDr u fdlh dk
fe=k gksrk gS u fdlh dk 'k=kqA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
w ^u;k&fujkyk* esa nh xbZ lkexzh i<+saA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 95

w nksLrnksLrh dh ckr djsaA


w ikB dk lkj i<s+aA
w xzkeh.k U;k; iz.kkyh (iapk;r) ij ckr djsaA
ikBkjaHk
w ikB dk vkn'kZ okpu gksA
w dfBu izlaxksa@'kCnksa osQ vFkZ crk,A
w chp&chp esa ls cPpksa ls Hkh iz'u iwNrs tk,A
w vuqdj.k okpu gksA
w ekSu iBu vo'; gksuk pkfg,A
w iz'uksa ij @ Hkkf"kd cnqvksa ij ppkZ djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- tqEeu vkSj mldh iRuh us laifRr izkIr djus osQ fy, laifRr dh
jftLVh ls igys [kkyk dh [kwc [kkfrjnkjh dhA
2- tqEeu fe;k dks vc [kkyk dh laifRr fey pqdh Fkh] ;gh
mudk mn~ns'; FkkA laifRr feyus osQ ckn [kkyk mls cks> yxus
yxh vkSj LokFkZiwfrZ us mls fu"Bqj cuk fn;kA
3- vyxw osQ iap cuus ij tqEeu fe;k blfy, izlUu gq, D;ksafd
mUgsa mEehn Fkh fd I+kSQlyk muosQ i{k esa gksxk D;ksafd vyxw
mudk iqjkuk nksLr Hkh FkkA
4- jke/u us vyxw dks iap cukus ij cqf<+;k dks bl dkj.k ls dkslk
Fkk D;ksafd mUgsa cnyk ysus dk ekSdk ugha feykA mUgsa vyxw ls
lgh U;k; dh vk'kk ugha FkhA
ysf[kuh ls
1- nksLrh gksus ij Hkh vyxw us tqEeu fe;k osQ f[kykI+kQ I+kSQlyk
96 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

23-

45-

6-

blfy, fn;k D;ksafd ljiap dh oqQlhZ ij cSBrs gh og vius in


dh fkEesnkjh le>us yxk vkSj mldh xfjek dks cuk, j[kus
osQ fy, [kkyk dks lgh U;k; fn;kA nq'euh gksus ij Hkh tqEeu
us vyxw osQ i{k esa I+kQS lyk blfy, fn;k D;ksafd mlus lR; dk
lkFk fn;kA ml le; ljiap curs gh mlosQ vanj fkEesnkjh dk
Hkko vk;k vkSj mlus ;g lkspk bl le; og U;k; vkSj /eZ osQ
loksPZ p vklu ij cSBk gSA mlosQ eqg ls tks fudysxk og
nsook.kh osQ leku gS vkSj nsook.kh esa cqjs fopkjksa dk lekos'k
ugha gksuk pkfg,A
fon~;kFkhZ Lo;a djsaA
vyxw vkSj tqEeu nksuksa dks ljaip curs gh fkEesnkjh dk
vglkl gqvkA nksuksa us lR; dks igpkuk vkSj bZekunkjh ls dke
fy;kA nksuksa osQ vklqvksa us fny dk eSy /ks Mkyk vkSj nksuksa
ifo=k Hkko ls iqu% nksLr cu x,A
dgkuh esa fe=krk dk ewyea=k lPpkbZ dk lkFk nsuk] U;k;fiz;
gksuk] i{kikr u djuk gh gSA
[kkyk osQ vanj /eZKku dh 'kfDr Fkh_ [kqnk ij fo'okl FkkA
muesa lPpkbZ dk lkFk nsus dh 'kfDr Fkh rHkh rks og fdlh ls
Mjrh ugha FkhA blh lPpkbZ dh rkdr us vyxw dks Hkh fuMj
cuk fn;kA
vk'k; Li"Vhdj.k
(d) ;g izlax ml le; dk gS tc [kkyk tku tqEeu fe;k ls
djheu dh f'kdk;r djrh gSaA os tqEeu fe;k ls dgrh
gSa fd mudk xqkkjk vc mu yksxksa osQ lkFk ugha gks
ldrk blfy, os yksx mls ([kkyk dks) mlosQ fgLls osQ
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 97

#i, nsa ns]a rks og Lo;a viuk vyx [kk&idk ysxhA


[kkyk dh ckr lqudj tqEeu us mUgsa [kwc [kjh&[kksVh
lqukbZ vkSj dgk fd mlus ;g ugha lkspk Fkk fd os
([kkyk) ekSr ls yM+dj vkbZ gSaA mls rks yxrk Fkk fd os
oqQN fnu dh esgeku gSAa
([k) [kkyk dh mez vf/d Fkh os ydM+h ysdj pyrh FkhA cq<k+ is
osQ dkj.k vkSj mudh dej >qddj deku tSlh gks xbZ FkhA
(x) vyxw vkSj tqEeu iqjkus fe=k FksA vyxw osQ ljiap cuus osQ
ckn fn, x, I+kQS lys us mudh iqjkuh nksLrh ij vlj MkykA
lR; osQ ,d gh okj ls mudh nksLrh dk o`{k <g x;kA
(?k) tc vyxw vkSj tqEeu dks ljiap cuus ij viuh fkEesnkjh
dk vglkl gqvk rks nksuksa viuh dVqrk dks Hkwy x, vkSj
mudh nksLrh dh eqj>kbZ gqbZ yrk fiQj ls gjh gks xbZA
7- vFkZ Li"Vhdj.k
(d) pkgs O;fDr vius /eZKku dk mi;ksx u djs] mls Hkwy
tk, ysfdu tc dksbZ mldh varjkRek dks yydkjrk gS
rks mls vius drZO;ksa dk vglkl gks tkrk gS vkSj fiQj
dksbZ mlls thr ugha ldrkA
([k) izLrqr izlax esa eqa'kh izsepan th nqfu;k dh O;kogkfjd
uhfr dks le>krs gq, dgrs gSa fd tc Hkh ge vPNk
dk;Z djrs gSa rks ml dk;Z dk iQy /hjs&/hjs feyrk gSA
gekjs fdrus f"k&eqfu;ksa us Hkh fln~f/ gkfly djus esa
dbZ o"kZ yxk,] vius 'kjhj dks dBksj ;a=kk.kkvksa ls
xqkkjk rc tkdj mudh euksdkeuk iwjh gqbAZ cqjs dke
tYnh gksrs gSa ysfdu mudk var Hkh cqjk gksrk gSA
98 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

8- (d) tqEeu fe;k dh [kkyk us vyxw pkS/jh dks ml le;


dgk tc mlus iapk;r esa tkdj eqg [kksyus ls euk dj
fn;k D;ksafd tqEeu mldk nksLr Fkk vkSj mlls viuh
fe=krk dks og fcxkM+uk ugha pkgrk FkkA
([k) vyxw pkS/jh us tqEeu fe;k dks ml le; dgk tc
[kkyk tku us vyxw pkS/jh dks iap pqukA vyxw pkS/jh us
ljiap curs gh dgk fd mlus vkSj mlosQ nksLr us oDr
iM+us ij ,d&nwljs dh enn dh gS ysfdu U;k; djrs
le; og vkSj [kkyk nksuksa mldh ukj esa ,d leku gSAa
(x) tc tqEeu fe;k dks vyxw pkS/jh vkSj lkgw osQ >xM+s dk
fuiVkjk djus osQ fy, ljiap cuk;k tkrk gS rc mlosQ
eu esa ;g fopkj vkrk gS fd og U;k; vkSj /eZ osQ
loksPZ p vklu ij cSBk gSA mlosQ eqg ls tks fudysxk og
nsook.kh osQ leku gksxk vkSj bl nsook.kh esa mlosQ vanj]
cqjs fopkj ;k cnys dh Hkkouk ugha gksuh pkfg,A mls
U;k; djrs le; lR; dk lkFk nsuk pkfg,A
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- fon~;kFkhZ Lo;a djsaA
2- (d) lk>k ([k) yydkjk (x) fu"i{k (?k) d"V] Dys'k
() i;kZIr (p) iko
3- (d) usdrkZ dkjd] es
a vf/dj.k dkjd] osQ fy,lainz ku
dkjd] osQlac/
a dkjd] es
a lainz ku dkjd] osQlac/
a dkjd]
lsdj.kdkjd] dhlac/
a dkjd] lsviknkudkjd
([k) dh lac/
a dkjd] us drkZdkjd] osQ lac/
a dkjd
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 99

Hkk"kk iz;ksx
q gksdj fxjuk] ([k) (i) iNrkuk
1- (d)(ii) csl/
2- (x) ygw lw[kuk
3- vkuan ls iwQy mBuk] dUuh dkVuk] bZeku cspuk] ygw lw[kuk]
ftjg djukA
1- MkoqQvksa dks vkrs ns[kdj yksxksa dk ygw lw[k x;kA
2- odhy us ftjg djosQ vius vfHk;qDr dks cpk fy;kA
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

20- kafrdkfj;ksa dk riksou


vaMeku&fudksckj
ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ ckn fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- Lok/hurk laxkz e osQ lsukfu;ksa osQ fo"k; esa Kku izkIr dj losaQxsA
2- vaMeku&fudksckj n~ohi lewg osQ tUe vkSj mlosQ fodkl osQ
ckjs esa tkudkjh tqVk losaQxsA
3- vaMeku&fudksckj dh HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr dk Kku izkIr dj losQa xsA
4- dkyk ikuh dh lkk ik, lsukfu;ksa osQ izfr viuh Jn~/katfy
vfiZr dj losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
vkdhZckYM Cys;j uked vaxjsk osQ uke ij bl canjxkg dk uke
iksVCZ ys;j j[kk x;kA ;gk dkyk ikuh dh lkk ik, Lora=krk osQ erokyksa
dks j[kk tkrk Fkk vkSj mUgsa Hk;adj ;kruk, nh tkrh FkhaA 15 vxLr
1947 dks ;s n~ohi Lora=k Hkkjr dk vax cu x,A ;gk dh HkkSxksfyd
100 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

fLFkfr dk fp=k.k Hkh bl ikB esa gqvk gS] lkFk gh ;gk dh lkaLfrd
NVk] [ksrh&ckM+h] jgu&lgu dk Hkh o.kZu fd;k x;k gSA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
ikB osQ vkjaHk esa fn;k x;k lkj i<+saA ^u;k&fujkyk* ij viuh
fVIi.kh djsaA /hjs&/hjs lSykfu;ksa dh lSjxkg cu x, bu n~ohiksa osQ
fo"k; esa cPpksa ls gh tkudkjh ysaA mUgsa crk, fd fdl izdkj
1947 ls iwoZ budk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk FkkA
ikBkjaHk
w ikB dk vkn'kZ okpu djsAa vuqdj.k okpu djok,A
w ,d&,d cPps ls ,d&,d vuqPNsn eokj i<+ok,A
w dfBu 'kCnksa osQ mPpkj.k dh 'kqn~/rk ij ;ku nsaA
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
w Hkkf"kd cnq Li"V djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- ys[kd bl okD; ls vkkknh osQ iwoZ dh fLFkfr dk o.kZu dj
jgk gS] tc kafrdkfj;ksa dks bu n~ohiksa esa j[kdj Hk;adj
;kruk, nh tkrh FkhaA
2- vaMeku n~ohiksa dks 'k=kq&n~ohi bl dkj.k ls dgrs gSa D;ksafd bl
n~ohi ij jgus okys vkfnoklh tgkkksa dks ywV ysrs FksA ;s n~ohi
leqnhz MkoqQvksa dk vM~Mk Hkh FksA os MkowQ ;gk osQ fuokfl;ksa dks
nkl cukdj nwj&nwj osQ ns'kksa esa csp nsrs FksA
3- vkdhZckYM Cys;j uked vaxjsk us lu~ 1789 esa bl n~ohi dh
[kkst dh FkhA blfy, bl canjxkg dk uke ^iksVZ Cys;j* iM+
x;kA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 101

4- le;&le; ij n~ohiksa esa can oSQfn;ksa dks tsy ls eqDr dj fn;k


tkrk Fkk vkSj mUgsa ogha ij viuk ?kj clkus dh lqfo/k nh tkrh
FkhA os [ksrh&ckM+h osQ lkFk&lkFk O;kikj Hkh dj ldrs FksA blls
bu n~ohiksa ij u, lekt dk mn; gqvkA
ysf[kuh ls
1- lsY;qyj tsy dh bekjr leqnz osQ chpksa&chp ,d cgqr mQps
Vhys ij [kM+h gSA bl bekjr dh lkr Hkqtk, Fkha] vc osQoy rhu
Hkqtk, rFkk chp dk Vkoj jg x;k gSA bl Vkoj esa jktuhfrd
oSQfn;ksa osQ uke dh lwph gSA tks Hkqtk, fxjkbZ xbZ Fkha ml Hkwfe
ij vLirky dh HkO; bekjr [kM+h gSA bl tsy esa vktUe
dkjkokl dk naM ikus okys kafrdkfj;ksa dks j[kk tkrk FkkA
lsY;qyj tsy esa dksBjh bruh NksVh Fkh fd oSQnh cSB ;k [kMs+ gks
ldrs FksA oSQfn;ksa osQ gkFkksa vkSj iSjksa esa yksgs dh eksVh&eksVh
kathjsa c/h gksrh Fkha ftlls os Hkkx u losaQA
2- vaMeku dh eq[; i- Qlysa ukfj;y] lqikjh vkSj jcM+ gSAa ;gk
/ku dh [ksrh Hkh [kwc gksrh gSA ;gk dh vk; dk eq[; lk/u
bekjrh ydM+h] eNyh vkSj lqvj ikyu gSA vkkknh osQ ckn ls
;gk ij fujarj LowQy [kksys tk jgs gSAa bl le; ;gk ij lkr
mPprj ek;fed fon~;ky; vkSj izkbejh fon~;ky; gSAa ;gk ij
lHkh /eks osQ yksx jgrs gSAa dkedkt dh Hkk"kk fganh gSA caxkyh
'kj.kkfFkZ;ksa osQ igqp
us ls caxyk Hkk"kk dk izpkj c<+rk tk jgk gSA
3- fudksckj n~ohi osQ yksx vaMeku osQ yksxksa ls dbZ ekeyksa esa fHkUu
gSaA fudksckj n~ohi osQ fuoklh eaxksy tSls gksrs gSaA ;gk osQ yksx
ljy vkSj ifjJeh gksrs gSa] >wB vkSj csbeZ kuh ls nwj jgrs gSaA
vaMeku osQ fuokfl;ksa esa fofHkUu /eks osQ yksx gSaA ;gk /kfeZd
dV~Vjrk fcYoqQy ugha gSA ;gk osQ fuokfl;ksa esa ,drk gSA fookg
102 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

esa tkfr] izkar] /eZ dk iz'u ugha mBrkA ;gk osQ vkfnoklh
^vksaxh* dgykrs gSaA nf{k.k vkSj e; vaMeku esa tjkok tkfr osQ
yksx jgrs gSaA lsaVhusjh fudksckj esa fudksckjh vkSj xzsV fudksckj
esa ^'kksbisu* tkfr osQ yksx jgrs gSaA
4- fudksckj n~ohi lewg esa 19 n~ohi gSAa ;gk ?kj oqQN&oqQN vaMs tSls
xksy gksrs gSAa Ik+ Q'kZ kehu ls 6&7 iqQV mQpkbZ ij gksrs gSAa iwjk ?kj
,d dejs osQ :i esa gksrk gS ftlesa dksbZ f[kM+dh ugha gksrhA gok
Ik+ Q'kZ osQ r[rksa osQ Nsnksa ls gksdj gh vkrh gSA buosQ ?kjksa dh cukoV
cgqr gh lqna j gksrh gSA ,d xko esa 8&10 ?kj gksrs gSAa mudk ,d
eqf[k;k gksrk gS] ftls oSQIVu dgrs gSAa ;gh vkilh >xM+kas dk
fucVkjk djrk gSA ljy vkSj ifjJe'khy ;s yksx >wB vkSj csbeZ kuh
ls nwj jgrs gSAa ;s vfrfFk&lRdkj djuk [kwc tkurs gSa vkSj vius
R;ksgkj Hkh vR;ar mYykl osQ lkFk eukrs gSAa igys ysu&nsu osQ :i
esa ukfj;y dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk Fkk drq vc ;s yksx
#i;s&iSls dks igpkuus yxs gSAa ukfj;y] ydM+h] 'ka[k rFkk lhi
dh cuh lanq j phksa cukdj csprs gSAa
5- vaMeku&fudksckj n~ohiksa dks ^kafrdkfj;ksa dk riksou* blfy,
dgk x;k gS D;ksafd ;gk ij lHkh kafrdkfj;ksa dks ykdj
lsY;qyj tsy esa j[kk tkrk Fkk] ;kruk, nh tkrh Fkha] iQklh nh
tkrh FkhaA vkkknh osQ nhokuksa dh ;knsa bl LFkku ls tqM+h gqbZ gSaA
6- (d) (ii) y?kq vaMekj osQ
([k) (iv) ukfj;y osQ isM+ksa dh n`f"V ls
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- vO;; 'kCnvuar] ;Fkk'kfDr] fujarj] fcyoqQy] cgqr] vR;ar
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 103

2- lekl
(d) ujHk{kh
uj dk Hk{k.k djus okyk
jk"Vifr
jk"V dk ifr
vkdk'kok.kh vkdk'k ls gksus okyh ok.kh
pj.kke`r pj.kksa ls izkIr ve`r (ty)
Hkkjroklh Hkkjr esa jgus okyk
jlksbZ?kj
jlksbZ osQ fy, ?kj
?kqM+lokj ?kksM+s dk lokj
'kj.kkxr 'kj.k esa vk;k gqvk
([k) (iii) 'kCnksa dk esy

(dk)
(dk)
(ls)
(ls)
(esa)
(osQ fy,)
(dk)
(esa)

ckr okD; dh
1- Fkha] 2- gS] 3- gSa] 4- Fkh] 5- gSa 6- gS] gSa
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

21- nks fodykax foHkwfr;k


ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+dj fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- nks fodykax foHkwfr;ksa osQ fo"k; esa Kku izkIr dj losaQxsA
2- oSfnd pk jpukdkj nh?kZrek vkSj yqbcZ sy
z dh oqQ'kkxzcqn~f/ ls
izsj.kk ys losaQxsA
3- thou fodykaxrk ls gkj ugha tkrk] Js"B dk;Z fodykaxrk dks
gjk nsrs gSa] lh[k losaQxsA
ikB dk lkj
yxHkx Ng gkkj lkr lkS o"kZ iwoZ tUes n`f"Vghu ckyd nh?kZrek esa
104 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

fon~oRrk owQV&owQVdj Hkjh FkhA f"k in izkIr djus osQ fy, nh?kZrek
us Kku l=k esa Lojfpr ea=kksa dk ikB fd;k vkSj iz'kalk cVksjhA lkS Js"B
pkvksa osQ iz.ksrk nh?kZrek ^'krphZ* dgyk,A
yqbcZ sy
z us nq?kZVuk esa viuh vk[ksa [kks nhaA thou ls gkj u ekurs gq,
yqbZ us ,d fyfi dk vkfo"dkj fd;k ftls ^czsy fyfi* dk uke fn;k
x;kA yqbZ us=kghuksa dh nqfu;k esa Kku dk izdk'k yk,A
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk
ikB dk
[kkstchu
deh osQ

iwoZ
lkj i<+saA ^u;k fujkyk* ij ppkZ djsaA vius vklikl
dj mu O;fDr;ksa dk mnkgj.k nsa ftUgksaus viuh 'kkjhfjd
ckotwn fo'ks"k miyfC/ ikbZ gksA

ikBkjaHk
w ikB dk vkn'kZ okpu djsAa
w dfBu 'kCnksa dks Li"V djsaA
w 'kqn~/ mPpkj.k djsaA
w vuqdj.k okpu osQ i'pkr ekSu iBu dk funs'Z k nsaA
w bl ikB osQ iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA
w Hkkf"kd cnq Li"V djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- 'kkjhfjd nks"k dks viuh izfrHkk dh izHkk ls foyqIr fd;k tk
ldrk gSA
2- fodykaxrk tUe ls] izkfrd vkink] fgald i'kq n~okjk vke.k
djus] ;qn~/ vkSj oSKkfud iz;ksxksa osQ dkj.k gksus okyh nq?kZVukvksa
ls Hkh gks ldrh gSA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 105

3- ge nh?kZrek] yqbcZ szy] feYVu] lwjnkl tSls O;fDrRo ls izsj.kk


ikrs gSa ftUgksaus viuh fodykaxrk osQ ckotwn vius&vius {ks=kksa
esa egRRoiw.kZ miyfC/;k gkfly dhaA
4- nh?kZrek oSfnd pk jpukdj FksA ;s tUe ls gh n`f"Vghu FksA
blhfy, budk uke ^nh?kZrek* j[kk x;kA
5- yqbZ dk tUe 4 tuojh 1809 esa isfjl ls oqQN nwjh ij fLFkr
oqQi- sQ uked xko esa gqvk FkkA ,d fnu rhu o"khZ; yqbZ [ksyrs gq,
vius firk dh -iQS DVjh esa pys x,A muosQ firk ml le; fdlh
ls ckr dj jgs Fks fdlh dkj.k ls cPps dh vksj ;ku ugha ns
ik,A yqbZ us cky cqn~f/ osQ dkj.k peM+k dkVus okyk vkStkj
mBk;k ijarq mls lHkky ugha ldk vkSj og vkStkj mldh vk[k
esa yx x;kA [kwu dh /kj cg fudyhA muosQ firk leqfpr
bykt dk izc/
a ugha djok ik, ftldh otg ls igys ?kk;y
vk[k dh jks'kuh pyh xbZ] mlosQ lkFk&lkFk nwljh vk[k dh
jks'kuh Hkh pyh xbZ vkSj og us=kghu gks x,A
6- yqbZ n~okjk ifj"r fyfi dks ^csy
z fyfi* dgk tkrk gSA
ysf[kuh ls
1- nh?kZrek us vius xkSjo.kZ] HkO; vkSj lqanj 'kjhj ,oa viuh
fon~oRrk vkSj vkRefo'okl ls lekt esa viuk LFkku cuk;kA
2- nh?kZrek us f"k in izkIr djus dh dfBu ijh{kk esa ^Kku l=k*
izf;k esa Hkkx ysdj izFke ea=k dk ikB fd;kA
3- nh?kZrek n~okjk jfpr&ifBr osnea=k ^^,da ln foizk cgqnk onfUr**
FkkA
4- iknjh tSafDaol isyqbZ us yqbZ dk ifjp; izfr ls djok;kA mlosQ
ckn mUgksaus if{k;ksa dh ofu] iwQyksa dh egd vkSj Li'kZ ls
mudh igpku djokbZA mUgksaus yqbZ dks dgkfu;k lquokb] laxhr
106 | ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

fl[kk;k vkSj mldk nkf[kyk lkekU; cPpksa osQ LowQy esa djok
fn;kA yqbZ us viuh dq 'kkxz cqn~f/ vkSj laosnu'khy n; osQ
dkj.k lcosQ eu esa fo'ks"k LFkku cuk fy;kA
5- n`f"Vghuksa osQ fy, yqbZ us czsy fyfi dk vkfo"dkj djosQ mudh
nqfu;k esa Kku dk izdk'k iSQykdj [kqf'k;k fc[ksj nhaA
6- (x) tks lkS pk, fy[k nsaA
7- (d) n`f"Vghuksa esa Kku dk izdk'k iSQyk;kA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr o.kZ dh
1- Lo;a dhft,A
2- Lo;a dhft,A
ckr 'kCn dh
1- foykse 'kCnfunks"Z k] fuxq.Z k] ekufld] 'kkafr] foeq[k] vuknj]
izdk'k
2- (d) bR;kfn] vR;qfDr] Lokxr] ijh{kk] vR;f/d] vR;kpkj]
y?okns'k] vUos"k.k] fi=kkns'k
([k) (iii) vfr $ mRre
(x) (i) LoPN
3- leLr inus=kghu] Kkul=k] egkdfo] yksdfiz;] fon~;ky;
ckr okD; dh
1- f;kfo'ks"k.k
(d) Ng gkkj lkr lkS o"kZ iwoZ (dkyokph)
([k) n`f"Vghu
(xq.kokpd)
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 107

(x)
(?k)
()
(p)
(N)
(t)
(>)
(k)
2- (d)
([k)

owQV&owQVdj
(jhfrokpd)
vkRefo'okl
(Hkkookpd)
[ksyrs gq,
(jhfrokpd)
rhu o"khZ;
(la[;kokpd)
tkx&tkxdj
(jhfrokpd)
oqQ'kkxz
(xq.kokpd)
izjs d :i esa
(jhfrokpd)
vR;ar xjhc
(xq.kokpd)
(ii) nh?kZrek lHkk d{k esa tkdj cSB x,A
(iii) yqbZ us xgu v;;u fd;kA

u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj


Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

22- nqfu;k dBiqrfy;ksa dh


ikB~; cnq
bl ikB dks i<+us osQ ckn cPps fon~;kFkhZ bl ;ksX; gks tk,xs fd os
1- Hkkjrh; dyk vkSj laLfr dh bl vuqie nsu osQ fo"k; esa
tkudkjh izkIr dj losaQxsA
2- dBiqryh cukus dh tkudkjh izkIr dj losQa xsA
3- bl [ksy dks [ksyus dh dyk lh[k losaQxsA
4- bldks cukus&[ksy fn[kkus okyksa dk ifjp; ik losaQxsA
5- viuh dyk&laLfr esa #fp cuk, j[k losQa xsA
108 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

ikB dk lkj
Hkkjr osQ izkphu [ksyksa esa ls ,d gS dBiqryh dk [ksyA ;s dBiqrfy;k
'kknhiqj cl fMiks osQ ikl cukbZ tkrh gSaA bl [ksy dh dgkfu;k
bfrgkl ls yh tkrh gSaA fofHkUu lkexzh ls bUgsa cuk;k tkrk gSA fons'kksa
esa Hkh budh cgqr ekx gSA bl [ksy esa vf/d iSlk ugha feyrkA fiQj
Hkh bls cukus okys] [ksy fn[kkus okys viuh dyk&laLfr dks thfor
j[kuk pkgrs gSaA
f'k{k.k fof/
ikBkjaHk iwoZ
ikB osQ izkjaHk esa fy[kk ikB dk lkj i<+dj lquk,A ^u;k&fujkyk*
dh ppkZ djsAa
ikBkjaHk
w Hkkjrh; euksjatu osQ izdkjksa[ksyksa] dykvksa osQ ckjs esa ckr djsa
vkSj dBiqrfy;ksa dh ppkZ djsaA
w ikB dk vkn'kZ okpu djsAa cPpksa ls ,d&,d vuqPNsn i<+ok,A
w bl [ksy osQ fy, d{kk esa dBiqrfy;k cuok,A [ksy osQ fy,
dgkuh fy[kus osQ fy, lq>ko nsaA fo"k; crk,A
w iz'uksa ij ppkZ djsaA Hkkf"kd cnqvksa dks Li"V djsaA

iz'u&vH;kl
eq[k ls
1- fnYyh esa dBiqrfy;k 'kknhiqj cl fMiks osQ ikl dBiqryh
dkWyksuh esa curh gSaA
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 109

2- iwj.k HkkV us [ksy dk laca/ ukxkSj uxj ls crk;k gS tgk osQ


vejflag jkBkSj FksA bldk mn~ns'; vejflag osQ thou dh
?kVukvksa dks yksxksa rd igqpkuk FkkA
3- dBiqryh osQ [ksy dks thfor j[kus dk dke ^laxhr ukVd
vdkneh* dj jgh gSA
4- ^dykdkj fodkl fon~;ky;* dk mn~ns'; dBiqryh okyksa osQ
cPpksa dks i<+kus osQ lkFk&lkFk bl dyk dks fl[kkus dk gSA
ysf[kuh ls
1- dBiqryh dks [ksy u dgdj ^dyk* blfy, dgk x;k gS
D;ksafd ;g yksxksa osQ euksjatu osQ lkFk&lkFk vkthfodk dk Hkh
ek;e gSA blosQ n~okjk dykdkj bfrgkl] jktuhfr vkSj yksd
O;ogkj ij fVIif.k;k nsus osQ lkFk yksxksa dks fn'kk fn[kkus dk
dke djrs gSAa dykdkj viuh csgrjhu dyk dk izn'kZu djrs
gq, [ksy osQ kfj, yksxksa dk euksjatu djrs gq, thou osQ
fofHkUu igyqvksa ij O;aX; djrs gSaA
2- dBiqrfy;k curh rks gSa ^ydfM+;ksa ls* ysfdu muosQ gkFk&iko
,sls pyrs gSa tSls os ltho gksaA tku Mkyus ls vfHkizk; gS mUgsa
ltho&lk cuk nsukA
3- dBiqrfy;ksa osQ [ksy osQ fy, dgkfu;k bfrgkl ls yh tkrh gSa
ftuesa ohjrk vkSj jksekap ls Hkjs dkjukes gksrs gSaA
4- fcpkSfy, lk/kj.k dykdkjksa dks bl dkj.k ls cqykrs gSa D;ksafd
os de iSlk nsrs gSa vkSj Lo;a ;knk iSlk ysrs gSaA muosQ bl
110 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)

O;ogkj ls dyk dh cnukeh gksrh gS vPNs dykdkjksa dks dke


ugha feyrkA
5- ([k) iSlk cgqr de feyrk gS blfy, ukSdjh djus yxs gSaA
Hkk"kk ls
ckr 'kCn dh
1- v/tyh] gFkdM+h] eqg tyk] uddVk
2- (d) okD;ka'k osQ fy, ,d 'kCn
(d) tks cgqr iqjkuk gks izkphu
([k) ftlesa thou gks

ltho@thfor

(x) ns[kus okyk

n'kZd

(?k) lquus okyk

Jksrk

() dyk fn[kkus okyk dykdkj


2- ([k) (i) vuqie
3- (d) dBiqrfy;k] >qfXx;k] ukfy;k] gFkkSM]+s dgkfu;k] ydfM+;k
([k) (i) fpV~fB;k
(x) (iii) #fp;k
ckr okD; dh
1- fojke fpg~u
([k) ^^vjs!** os cksys] ^^brus fnu ckn ns[kk dBiqryh dk
[ksyA**
ladYi % f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8) | 111

2- dky
orZeku dky] Hkwrdky] Hkfo";r dky] orZeku dky]
orZeku dky
3- (d) dy gh dh ckr gS eSa mlls feyus dh lksp jgk FkkA
Hkwrdky
([k) eSa lksprk gh jg x;k fd eSa ,d dykdkj dks vius ?kj
cqykmQA
orZeku dky
(x) dy jfookj gS D;k rqe esjs ?kj vk ldrs gks\
Hkfo";r dky
u;k&fujkyk] eu ik[kh cu vkSj Kku xksrk v;kid osQ funs'Z kkuqlkj
Nk=k Lo;a djsAa
qq

112 | ladYi

% f'k{kd&nf'kZdk (Hkkx&8)