VOL. n.



























.titutc cf A/i-diasvol Studies







i 1991


From the beginning of the Rule of the Exarchs to the beginning of the eighth century.







— Rise

of the Church on the Ruins of


— S.


Cassiodorus becomes a

Monk — Beginning
in Italy

— Subiaco

Monasticism in Rome,

— They advance

and Monte Casino and Spread of

Progress of the


as far as

Rome —Benedict


— Pelagius



Lombards Besiege the City

Monte Casino, 580
Monastery Byzantium

— Gregory

Rome — Pelagius

— Foundation of the

— Destruction

First Benedictine



Imperial Court


Inundation and Pestilence of 590 Death of Pelagius the His Building of S. Lorenzo,



.16 .29

Election of Gregory the First

His Past Appearance Michael over Hadrian's Mausoleum,

— Penitential Procesof

— Legend







Gregory consecrated Pope His First Sermon Rome hard pressed by the Lombards Gregory pronounces her Funeral Oration Purchases the Withdrawal of the Lombards,








Imperial Officials

— Silence regarding the Senate,

Rome — The





Position towards the City — His Care the —Administration of the Ecclesiastical Property,


Gregory makes Peace with Agilulf Phocas Ascends the Throne of Byzantium and Receives Gregory's Congratulations His Column in the Roman Forum,






Character of the Sixth Century

Religious Conditions of the


— Gregory

— Mohammed and Gregory Time — Worship of Relics



Church of


in the Suburra,

.70 .80

Gregory's Dialogues



of Learning — Accusations against — Increasing Ruin of the City — Gregory Attempts

— State

— Legend concerning Trajan — The Forum
. . .

to Restore the


Gregory's Activity in Ecclesiastical Affairs

— His



Unite the


— Death of


German West with
the Pope, 604

Rome — Conversion


— His





and Death of Sabinian and Boniface the Third Boniface the Fourth Dedication of the Pantheon to the




Pope Deusdedit, 615 Revolts in Ravenna and Naples Earthquakes and Leprosy in Rome Rebellion of the Exarch Eleutherius in Ravenna Boniface the Fifth Pope Honorius the First, 625 Right of Confirming the Papal Elections devolves on the Exarch Buildings of Honorius S. Peter's Plundering of the Roof of the Temple of Venus and Rome Chapel of S. Apollinaris .113 S. Adrian in the Forum,




Theodore by the Palatine Ancient Associations The Church SS.173 . Adeodatus Pope. 642 Rebellion of Maurice in Rome Death of the Exarch Isaac Court Revolution in Byzantium Constans the Second Emperor The Patriarch Pyrrhus in Rome The Churches of S. VI. — — — — — — — — — .163 2. . Vincenzo and Anastasio ad Aquas Salvias — — — — page — — Pancrazio. 2. George — — — — — — — — — . . Agnese outside the Porta Nomentana S. . 672 Restoration of the Monastery of S. Rome. . . . . . . Leo the Second. — . — Benedict the Second — Conditions of —^John the Fifth — Factions the Successor — Conon — Clergy. .. . . 682 the Papal Elections Election of this People — Sergius the 687. . in — 3. . 649 Roman Synod on the MonotheDesign of the Exarch Olympius against lite Controversy — Martin's Life — Theodorus Kalliopa forcibly the Pope. . SebasThe Basilica in Velo Aureo^ tian S. 657 visits Italy —The Emperor Constans the Second — His Reception and Sojourn Rome.. . Army. 144 its .. carries off Pope. 678 The Archbishop of Ravenna makes Submission to Rome The Sixth (Ecumenical Council The Pestilence of 680 S.124 CHAPTER 1. and at First —The Exarch Platina comes to . Erasmus Donus.. .. V. 3. 653 — Martin dies in Exile — Eugenius 654. 663 A Lament over Rome — Condition of the City and Monuments — The Colosseum — Sack under Constans Death of the Emperor in Syracuse. . Valentine and S. vil S. S.134 Martin the First Pope. . Euplus.. 638 The Chartular Maurice and the Exarch Isaac Plunder the Ecclesiastical Treasury Severinus John the Fourth The Lateran Baptistery Theodorus. . Lucia in Selce S. Quatuor Coronatorum on the Coehan S.— CONTENTS. 1 50 CHAPTER 1. 676 Agathon. Vitalianus Pope. Death of Honorius the First.

Rome —The — — The Italian Militia — — — — . 713 — — Death of Constantine.. Justinian the Second reascends the Byzantine 705 Throne ^John the Seventh's Oratory in S. . Veronica's Handkerchief Restoration of S. 715 version of Germany by Boniface — His Activity Image-worship Vatican.. S.. in S. Sisinnius.. —— — . 708— Punishment —The Pope goes to the East — Executions in Rome — Revolt under George in Ravenna — First Confederation of Italian Cities — Philippicus Bardanes inflicted Ravenna The Romans refuse their Allegiance The Roman Duke and Duchy Civil War in Rome The Palace of the Ceesars Anastasius the Second Emperor..181 CHAPTER 1 VII. 71 1 Emperor. — — . . 191 3. of the Spathar Zacharias to of the Ravennese Sergius Rejects the Articles of the Trullan Synod Remove of — Relations —Arrival the Pope — Entrance to page Ravenna . VIU 3.. 715. 200 BOOK IV.. Subiaco. Peter in the . John the Sixth.. CONTENTS. the Isaurian — The — Leo — Con215 Bronze Statue of S.. to CHAPTER I. . Pontificate of Gregory the Second. 186 2. 707 on — Constantinus. 701 Exarch Theophylactus comes to advance before the City Restoration of the Abbey of Farfa Gisulf the Second of Benevento invades the Campagna ^John the Seventh.. Rome and . Byzantium — Johannicius of Ravenna... Peter's S. (715) From the Pontificate of Gregory the Second THE Coronation of Charles (800).. . Peter's 689 — Pilgrimages Rome — Cad walla receives Baptism — Conrad and Offa take the Cowl— Sergius adorns the Churches with Offerings — Leo's Tomb to Peter's.

and Leo the Isaurian. afterwards from Pipin Journeys to France Consecration of Pipin and — — — Treaty appointed Patricius of the Romans.. 4. 2. . Domus CtiltcBy 260 Stephen the Second Astolf conquers Ravenna. 741 He Journeys to meet him — Negotiates with Liutprand Lombard Donation to the Church Second Journey of the Pope to Liutprand — Death of the King Rachis succeeds to the Throne of — — New Pavia. .. 749 Papal Recognition of Pipin's Usurpation Death of 752 Example — Astolf. . his Sons. .. — Pipin . the Venetians and Greeks form a League against him The King advances against Rome and retires A Usurper in Tuscany Death of — — — — Roman the Third Gregory the Second.. — Buildings ... 751 Stephen seeks Aid from the Emperor. Zacharias.. Attitude of Liutprand Sutri to the He Conquers Ravenna Presents Pope The Pope. — His .— — CONTENTS. 2. — 255 Continued Recognition of the Emperor with Byzantium Carloman takes follows his — Peaceful the Relations Cowl — Rachis — The . Roman Church — The Pope — He confiscates Charles Martel. 272 .. 741. .. 754 — Defensive — of . IX in Edict of Leo against Image-worship — Resistance Rome J'age and Italy— Plot against Gregory's Life The Romans and Lombards rise in Arms Revolt against Byzantium Gregory's Letters to the Emperor. . Synod convened against the Iconoclasts Art in the West Buildings of Gregory the Third Restoration of — 731 — Gregory — — the City Walls. . Kiersey . 246 CHAPTER 1. King of the Lombards. — 3.. II. Zacharias Pope. 225 3. at the . — Italy — — 235 Leo the Isaurian sends a Fleet against Property belonging to the acquires Gallese Benevento turns — Enters into Alliance with Spoleto and — Liutprand invades the Duchy — Gregory to Charles Martel — Deaths of Gregory the Third.. Lateran . — — — .

..314 3. —Astolf raises the — Peter's to the Kings 285 5. Fruitless Negotiations with Astolf — Stephen's return comes Pipin's to Italy —Astolf — Pipin Peace page accepts the proffered Deed of Gift. 754 The Lombard King enters the Duchy Siege of Rome.. 768 install in Lateran Council. Petronilla Catacombs to the City S. Rome — The —The . 769. Peter's —The . CONTENTS.. 293 CHAPTER 1.. . surprise the City the Lateran Philip — The Lombards — Stephen the Third—Terrorism Rome Punishment of the Usurpers — Death of Pipin. Pipin comes to Italy Arrival of the of the Siege of Rome Byzantine Envoys of the Submission of Astolf State — Pipin's Deed of Gift— Foundation Church—Death of Astolf. Buildings of Stephen the Second and Paul the First Vatican and S..... 767 Usurpation of Toto The Pseudo-Pope Constantine Counter-revolution in Rome Christophorus and Sergius. with the aid of the Lom- — — — — bards. III. Death of Paul the First. . 756— King of the Lombards Death of — Their Disillusion Desiderius recognised — Stephen. to Byzantium —Peace — Relavi^ith 305 2. Silvestro in Capite. . 757.. 757 Letters of the Romans to Pipin Friendly Relations of the Pope to the King Desiderius — — punishes the Rebellious tum — Comes Dukes of Spoleto and BenevenPolitical dealings to Rome — Paul's tions of the Pope and the City Desiderius. — Removal of the Saints from the — Foundation of the Convent of ... in 320 . . Paul the First. — S.. first Belfry in Chapel of S. .. 756 Devastation of the Campagna Sack of the Roman Catacombs first — — — — Stephen's Letter to the Franks of the Franks.X 4.

. France . 383 . 332 2. among the Greeks and Venetians.— — CONTENTS. of Pavia and the 4. . . the Claudia. . Domus — Capracorum. 359 Benevento to Independence — Papal War on — Charles's Second and Third Visits Rome — Expedition against Benevento — Conclusion of Peace— Fresh Donation the Church — Arichis negotiates — Settlement of the with Byzantium — Byzantine Iconoclastic Dispute — Grimoald. attains . Jovia. . 350 Constantine's Donation — Geographical Limits of the Caroline . Adrian the First — Overthrow of the Lombard Party in Rome — Hostile advance of Desiderius — Fall of Paul Afiarta The City Prefect — Desiderius lays waste the Roman Duchy — Adrian prepares defence — Retreat of the for Lombards. Ravenna Charles claims the Right of Confirming the Archbishops the Ravenna The Patriciate of S. XI CHAPTER 1. . —Arichis account of Terracina to affairs . Inundation of the Tiber in 791 Adrian restores the Walls of the City. . the Aqua Trajana. IV. Peter Evidence that Pope submits to Charles's Supremacy Traffic in — — — Slaves 5. and Aque Virgo Foundation of Colonies in the Adrian's — — Campagna Culice — Position — . . . 772. Donation of : Spoleto the Sabina . of the Coloni . Lombard Kingdom. Tuscany 774. 374 CHAPTER Condition of the City V. «343 cele- Charles's Expedition into Italy brates Easter in Rome — Confirms — Siege of Pavia Pipin's Donation — He — Fall . PAGE Power of Christophorus and Sergius in forms an Alliance with Desiderius before the City Pope's Share — Desiderius advances — Fall of Christophorus and Sergius—The in their tragic end — Project of double and Rome — Stephen Marriage-Alliance between the Houses of Pavia — Counter-Intrigues of the Pope — Resistance of Ravenna — The Frankish Policy turns in favour of the Pope — Death of Stephen the Third. . 3. Duke of Benevento.

Portico of the Vatican Lateran S. Franks. Comites Frontiers other Officials of 429 3.Xll CONTENTS.. — .. Lombards. Peter's Rome — — The — — . Foreigners .. Saxons.. Susanna. — Diaconus Schools in Rome Sacred Music Disappearance of Poetry Epitaphs Decadence of the Latin Tongue Rise of the new Roman Tongue. its .. Civil Administration of the City Senate — Administration Papal Court the Papal Palace. Adrian's Ecclesiastical Buildings S. 408 CHAPTER VL 1. Internal Condition of Rome and the Three Classes ercitus — Organisation of Romanus—The System of the Character Frisians. and in the Triclinium of Leo the Third. Maria in 2.. — — — — — . — Roman Tuscany exercised — The 446 CHAPTER VIL I. Death of Adrian. the Corporations —The — The Exof Scholae — Universal System — Scholae of Roman People Militia : Jews.. page — Cosmedin 3.. Tribuni.. Greeks. 795 Charles Significance of the — Leo the Third — His Embassy to — Charles's Treaty with the Church — Symbolical Keys of the Apostle's Grave and the Jurisdiction Roman Banner — Supreme by in .. Paul's Activity of Art in S. Charles as Patricius — Representation of the Harmony 459 between the Spiritual and Temporal Power Mosaics S. Giovanni ante Portam Latinam S. —The Consuls —The City Officials—The Nobility of Justice — The City Prefect — The — Non-existence of the —The seven Ministers and — Duces.. 418 2. . — — The Schola Grceca — Monte Testaccio. — 396 Condition of Learning in the time of Adrian Ignorance of the Romans Culture of the Lombards— Adalberga Paul... Institutions in other Cities Duchy of Rome and Campania — Sabina — Umbria.

Peter's Judgment on the Romans and the Pope Leo's Oath of Purgation Charles elected Emperor by the Romans Restoration of the Western Empire Charles the Great crowned Emperor by the Pope. Xlll ^age Conspiracy of Adrian's Nephews and other Nobles against Leo the Third with Charles — Attempt upon the Life of the Pope — His in Flight to Spoleto. 800 Opinions concern- — — His — ing the Legal Origin and the Imperium.. 2. and Meeting Power of the Nobility Leo's return to Rome. 799 476 3... takes Proceedings against Alcuin's Advice to Charles — Rome the the Accused. — — Conception of the new 488 510 INDEX..— CONTENTS.. . Germany. Charles's Journey to . Rome — Parliament in S. . through his Envoys.. Journey to — — Charles.....




Rome — Rise of the Church on the Benedict — Subiaco and Ruins of the Empire — — Monte Casino Cassiodorus becomes a Monk — falls to Decay S. VOL. and still here and there covered with gold-embroidered hangings. II.HISTORY OF THE CITY OF ROME IN THE MIDDLE AGES. of temples and a thousand artistic chambers resplendent with precious marbles. One little corner alone remains A . The ^ ^^^^' monuments. Beginning and Spread of Monasticism in Rome. still. I. even the historic recollections of the past gradually fade from fall memory. standing life has passed away. The Capitol. CHAPTER I. The temples on its solitary hill. With the overthrow of the Gothic kingdom begins Ruin of ^ the ruin of the Italy and laws. displays the sumptuous monuments of the greatest Empire ever known to history. it is true. But the Imperial Palace. is but a haunted and deserted fortress from which all semblance of to ruin. a colossal labyrinth of halls and courts. the Rome of antiquity. although enduring in its main outlines.

and the mosaic pavements grown loose and costly disjointed. though robbed of its orna- ment. for the most part. The mind of Narses is incapable of projecting itself the past. The vast Thermae of Imperial times. Silent and deserted. grass-grown and filled with rubbish. and splendid baths of porphyry or oriental alabaster remain in the beautifully painted halls. a eunuch from the court of the Greek Emperor. no longer useless.2 HISTORY OF ROME inhabited by the Byzantine Dux. remain unheeded. The Some still ancient chairs of light or dark marble. triumphal . the sumptuous Forums of the Caesars and of the Roman people have already fallen into the obscurity of Circus legend. moulder to decay. The theatres and the huge Maximus. carried away by the the priests. A few. to serve as episcopal chairs in churches. with his secretaries. and already mantled with ivy. where the chariot-races. to be shattered still and overthrown by masonry back into or buried for centuries in dust. as receptacles for the ashes of some saint. the cherished and last remaining amusement of the Romans. or been ruthlessly stripped from their walls. resemble ruined vastness and desertion. servants and guards. falling together with numerous statues. cities in their marbles have already fallen. The Amphitheatre of Titus stands undestroyed. but one by one these too are. and realising what the Roman of the days must have felt as he wandered through the deserted city and beheld the world-famous monuments of antiquity. the innumerable temples. or as fonts in the baptisteries. supplied by any aqueduct. or a half-Asiatic general. are no longer celebrated. however. forsaken.

must ever excite the wonder of mankind as one of the greatest transformations in the record of history.IN arches. The gradual growth and rise the of the spiritual power upon the ruins of the ancient State. not that of the annalist of the city. with the overthrow time upheld the institutions for a While continuing the history of the Rome closes we now enter the period of her papal Middle . 3 columns and statues falling to decay. who of the State. its power. The Pope had meanwhile raised the structure of the Roman hierarchy. and built churches and convents with untiring zeal. all political robbed of tion. when the scanty remnant of the populace. of the Lombard. in the eighth century. or already levelled with the ground. The metropolis of the universe was converted into a spiritual city. utterly degenerate. Imagination in the may after strive to depict the desolate aspect of the city its momentous conquest by Totila. under conditions the most difficult. seemed lost in the vast capital of the Caesars. To Let it follow this transformation is the task of the ecclesiastical hissuffice us to trace in outline the general progress of events. The political life of of the Goths. city. in which priests and monks bore entire sway. Rome suffered a metamorphosis and became transformed into a city of cloisters. torian. theatres. THE MIDDLE AGES. a mass of moral degrada- seemed to sleep the sleep of ages in the ruin of great past until. The lay population. and menaced by the sword. Power. is denied us to realise a picture so dark and terrible. or early days of Byzantine dominion. however. the voice of Pope aroused it to a new energy. scourged by famine and pestilence. however.

Within these walls the Church preserved the Latin idea of the monarchy. Rome seemed Even the Italian conquests of the Lombards. and the fact invested power planted its sacred banner on the ruins of antiquity. They weakened the power of the Byzantines. the Church stood vigorous and alone. but the preservation of a law of history. civilising them through itself Christianity.4 Ages. her repeatedly. They forced the Roman bishops to put forth an independent policy. After the majesty of Rome had when perished. summoning them out of their deepest . the vitahty which yet remained to the people was now exclusively directed towards the service of the Church. who resisted them for more than two hundred years in Ravenna. the historic importance of w^hich we have already noticed. subject to the Canon of task of civilisation would have been impossible had the Germans who ruled in They attacked and besieged Italy conquered the city. made them The Ecclesiastical Law. which threatened the overthrow of the Roman Church. a policy to which the Papacy owed the powerful position to which it gradually attained. These conquests further revived the national feeling of the all their energies in the exercise of Roman people. and. HISTORY OF ROME Every civic impulse having died away. in the end aided her triumphs. Roman civil law and the tradiFrom here she undertook tions of ancient culture. Italy She alone preserved the the State had fallen her with Imperial asunder. and entrenched spiritual The behind the walls of Aurelian. with the barbarians who had overthe great struggle thrown the Empire. moral union of authority.

Benedetto in Piscinula. and to engage in a dogmatic struggle with Byzantium. is still pointed out as the spot occupied by the house of his parents.i Here he retired to a cave. The Roman Church was soon able to Catholicise the Lombards. 5 apathy to armed self-defence. a struggle which became a revolution. born in the Umbrian Nursia about the year 480. in one of the loveliest valleys of Italy. and whose life and works inaugurate the dark centuries we have now to depict. In the midst of the ruin into which Empire and s. Bene- towards the end of Gothic times. a rock above the Anio. He escaped to Sublacus. the solemn figure of a Latin saint. of S. the youth was seized with a passionate desire to fly and dedicate himself in solitude to the contemplation of the Eternal. son of Euprobus. Amid the corruptions of the decaying State. This memorable man was Benedict. a man whose character reflected the period of transition to which he belonged. and from which she issued a rich temporal power and mistress of the Eternal City. a had fallen. The . that absolutism was rejected by Europe. as also of that with Greek absolutism. and the little church in the Trastevere. arose. was. received its Nero had had constructed there for the name from some lakes which adornment of his villa. or Sublaqueum. and that the Western Empire appeared in the form of a feudal Christian Empire. while Romanus. The result of the long conflict of the Popes with the Lombards. As a boy of fourteen he came to Rome to study. the creation of the united Latin and city German nations.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the patriarch of western monasticism. ^ Sublacus. that the Church obtained freedom for herself.

120. The Senator Equitius brought his son Maurus. and. that Theodoric Benedict himself had been obliged to issue an edict against the worshippers of the gods. Powerful patricians sought him out. however. laws of the last Emperor having been of so little desecrated .^ iii. and occupied with the establishment of his order. resolved to leave the now Accompanied by ravens. one of the saint's pupils yielded to of his The fame sanctity spread. 17. They swore to drive away the saint. Benedict trained the future apostles of Gaul and Sicily. Memorie di Subiaco^ Genova. 1856.^ iii. Here he dwelt years. Like-minded fugitives from the world gathered round him. Benedict Subiaco. It was to the foundation of the monastery. in these two pupils. and Jannucelli.6 HISTORY OF ROME brother anchorite. temptation. and guided on his way by angels. cheered several by the encouragement of his sister Scholastica. and in a short time he was able to build twelve little convents in the neighbouring mountains. avail in uprooting the ancient faith. bringing their children to him to be educated. earliest Hist. and legend relates that when one day they brought seven beautiful hetcercB to the convent. the envy of the priests in Varia or Vicovaro. Anal. The fame of the founder of the order excited. Tertullus his son Placidus. however. . Nibby. he wandered until he reached the mountain of Castrum Casinum in CamHere he found Paganism still existing the pania. ministered to his material wants. that the Castrum Sublacum owed its origin. arrived in No sooner had Casinum than he overthrew the altars of Paganism and destroyed the last temple to Apollo mention of the site is in Pliny. Nat.

became in the course of time the honoured Building of casino. . Isidorus. sought to hinder the work. and from whose mouth he learnt his fate by a prophecy. From its 7 of which history speaks. 1842. 3rd The present of 7000 slaves in Sicily. ). to eleventh. Agathias. King of Persia. This convent.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. he had vainly hoped to delude by a disguise. Damascius. metropolis of all the Benedictine monasteries of the West. this solitary watchtower of learning survived to lighten with its beneficent rays the universal gloom. (p. 1155). undismayed by the demon. alleged a palpable absurdity. curiously enough. exiles to the court of Chosroes. Hist. the later Abbey of Monte Casino. is the fictitious document is forth.^ Its foundation by Benedict coincides. They as ii. which took place in the same year {^29)} it was that the hero Totila visited the saint. throughout the darkness of the Middle Ages. Priscianus. and the Privilegium of Pope Zacharias. A breath of the Muses from the ruined of Apollo had been preserved in this Temple academy of praying and studying monks. fled Eulamius. The seven sages Athens were Diogenes. Simplicius. ruins he built a convent. coming ^ in the Sicilia last Sacra of Pirro Plermias. exists only in copies since the Sicily. is Tosti admits that the deed of gift bears the character of the tenth century. 30. sitting on one of the prostrate columns. with the banishment of the last philosophers of the Platonic School from Athens by Justinian. who. Luigi Tosti. Here Benedict uttered his prediction of the Here whom destruction ^ of Rome by the elements. Storia della Badia di Monte Casino (Napoli. the Paradise of the Benedictines of which Benedict sent Placidus as missionary.. and. together with Messina and to Panormus. and later vol. in which the donation is ratified. have been bestowed on Benedict by Tertullus.

.^ p. Diaconus. soon after the death of his faithful sister. and Mabillon's Annates Ord. according to the Commentary of Paul. s?ec. Ord. as a monk of Monte Casino. Here the sainted patriarch died about the year 544. and many. may be termed the true epic of monasticism. when civic society had fallen asunder. 323. Diarizmt Ital. S. Casin. . These paintings are characterised histories as by grace and purity of imagination. Bened.. portraits of Benedict. feeling. gives from a Cod. sought refuge in solitude.. following a natural impulse. from the Lombard Warnefried. illustrations of the ancient habit i. Diaconus. made expiation for the sin of his people. S. more than two hundred years later. The memorable life of the father of Western monasticism has been adorned by time with various poetic legends.8 - HISTORY OF ROME writers have quoted his prophecy with the object of exonerating the Goths from the accusations which have been heaped upon them. and. . free from the harshness of the martyr folly of later legends. too. Pope Gregory. Acta Sanctor. 100. see Dacherii et Mabillonii. which painters of mediaeval days have sought to depict in numerous frescoes in the upper church of Subiaco. in the artistic couplets in which he glorified the miracles of Benedict. dedicated the second book of his dialogues to the legendary history of the saint. and. who had previously laid waste the the monastery. this extraordinary man arose and constituted himself a law-giver in the sphere of Christian life ^ and xi. where we also find the rule of Benedict. Monks already existed in the and West Montfaucon. a younger contemporary of Benedict. Tosti. of the Benedictines so.^ At a time when the political order of the Empire was dissolved. Benedicti. or Paul. For the history of Benedict.

Adopting in his rules the Christian ideas of the denial of the State. small in number. however. and therewith emancipated herself from the influence of the East and Benedict thus acquired an entirely national importance for Rome now appeared to institute a -^ 1 . but later also dwelt apart in cities. and the Western world. Freedom from the world appeared only in the painful form of servitude. on the contrary. and give a definite outline to monasticism. since those who enjoyed . Hving rules of the Greek Basilius. and renouncing marriage. of the according to Equitius of Valeria Honoratus of Fundi or Hegesippus Benedict of the Castellum Luccullanum in Naples. whose Pythagoras he was. he created a brotherhood of anchorites. Through him the Latin Church received her first independent organisation. he must appear one of the greatest figures of the early Middle Ages. : man / c/ and philosophic men. the most part errant reform of a Roman order. and could therefore only be realised at the expense of civic society.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the narrowest social boundaries. at first led isolated lives amid the free solitude of the mountains. for They V and undisciplined. His societies. In judging monasticism from the standpoint of our present social life we cannot possibly do justice such as Benedict but if we seek to estimate it according to the requirements of his time. Before each of these law-givers hovered a social ideal that of the renowned Greek to be realised in a brotherhood of to a . The monastic republic of Benedict had. actively fulfilling all the duties of life in the family and the State. before the time of Benedict. 9 were.

and who are excluded alike from the struggle with the world and the enjoyments of its riches are indeed tremendous. and as a law- them shape. and in the course of time these democracies of saints degenerated into a mere caricature. renounce an attractive world and fly to the ideals of an inward longing.10 it HISTORY OF ROME were the vowed slaves of the Lord. the more numerous will they be. The problem whether it were possible to establish the kingdom of Heaven on earth was to be solved in cloistered communities. The restraints imposed upon men to whom a merely mystical liberty is conceded. who. but to impose them is certainly beyond the design of nature. to put in practice the teachings of humanity and love. over the door of the convent of Grotta Ferrata are inscribed e|co yevecrde rrjs /x46r]s riav (ppovriZoov. . And the more loveless. of his order consists in his having shown that these principles are not vain ideals. the more unhappy. too. but can be truly carried ^ Nobler : spirits did this actually from the imjDulse of which the poet speaks Cast aside the slough of mortal clay And from close dull life to the dominion Of the the words : Ideal flee away ! So. and finally to The greatness establish a communion of property. willingly or under compulsion. -To submit to such restraints may not be beyond the power of the human constitution. the more confined society is.^ Benedict collected within his giver gave The high-minded republic of holy men all his desire to realise the religious energies of that evil time. of self-renunciation and moral freedom. It was the Christian theory of obedience to the moral law. but nature asserted her claims.

AGES. we may say that in a barbarous when brutal egoistic passions governed mankind. own aims they were for her what the military had been for ancient Rome. New convents sprang up at this period over the colonies /3 . arts and science in many countries of Europe this order the most praiseworthy of all the orders to which Christianity has given birth thus conferring an everlasting service on mankind. it received an impress of no ordinary character. The Benedictines formed in truth the . II and. THE MIDDLE pay a this. barefooted. illustrious families entered its ranks. according to the social principle of the division of labour. ^ 1/ . From the time of its rise onwards it served The sons of rich and as a place of refuge to society. after the eighth century. and scarcely had the Empire fallen asunder when Roman monks. and. i . it . and still more by its pursuit of learning. The Benedictines became the teachers of agriculture. handicrafts. the cord around their loins. monasteries. Benedict did not allow his monks to dream away the time in idle contemplation they must work. Gaul.IN out age. Italy. Spain. — — aristocracy of monasticism. for her Germany became filled by its The Roman Church made use of them . and. The order spread rapidly over the West . England. if we desire to well-deserv^ed tribute to his system. by the influence of its members. fearlessly traversed as conquerors those districts of the Ultima Thule and the wildest regions of the West which the consuls of old had with difficulty vanquished at the head of their legions. was able to oppose to them the example of a community of active self-denying men. with hand and head.

dating the decay of Latin literature from the time of Cassiodorus's retirement to the cloister. During his sojourn in Squillace. c. the last Roman. men whom we only mention together as representative of the contrasts offered by the time.12 HISTORY OF ROME Italy. it whole of One we is enter with thirty the deepest reverence. See Teuffel. de orthographia^ for the use of his monks. for the last asylum of Cassiodorus. Geschichte der röm. presents a pathetic spectacle. Athalaric and Vitiges. Amalasuntha. and having averted barbarism so long as he remained in power. Marc's suspicions with reference to the minister's motive for embracing the monastic life. Italy for After having ruled years under Theodoric. In 538 he founded the Monasterium Vivariense in his native town. had in the middle of ^ Tiraboschi. hundred years old. Litteratur. the aged statesman withdrew from decaying Rome. for since Athanasius of Alexandria. weary of life and despairing of the world. He over a . Socrates and Theodoret further.^ Several monasteries had meanwhile already arisen in Rome. . . the pupil of the Egyptian Anthony. to bury with himself the learning and political wisdom of antiquity in the monastic cell. i6. the charming situation of which he likens to a cluster of grapes hanging from the rocks. During his retirement he strove by his writings to impart a classical flavour to theology. lying down to die in the cowl of a monk. iii. refutes with dignity St. i. Squillace in Calabria. an extract from Sozomenus. none the less tragic that in the figure of the statesman we see typified the fate of Rome herself. whom he enjoined to devote themselves to the writing of manuscripts. — dorus. in 545 a contemporary of Boethius and Benedict. . The sight of Cassiodied. Cassiodorus wrote his Historicz ecclesiasticce tripm-titcB libri XII.

439.^ Augustine speaks of monasteries in Rome. where anchorites. Even as early as the days of RutiHus. . Caprara and Gorgona. there little was scarcely a island in the Tyrrhenian Sea. 1 the fourth century introduced monasticism into the city. sq. sq- ). and Jerome knew not how better to honour the saint than in extolling her as the first nun of noble birth in Rome. " shunning the light. a member of a family which reckoned a long line of consuls and prefects Marcelia. Her courageous conduct had removed the stigma previously attaching to a step hitherto unheard of among women of position. Peter of ^ Rutilius (v. the system had spread with rapid strides. and Jerome reckons with lively satisfaction a numerous company of both monks and nuns. Only a short time before Athanasius and his successor.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Quod soli nullo vivere teste volunt. In a letter to Principia he gives some interesting the pious particulars of the rise of the convent for women in the city. Palmara or Monte Cristo.) makes the first satiric attack on monasticism : with which we are acquainted in the elegant verses Processu pelagijain se Capraria tollit. Squallet hicifiigis insula plena viris. Marcella. 439. had chosen the life. had lost her husband in rejecting the seventh religious month of her marriage. and. Ipsi se nionachos graio cognoviine dicinit. among its ancestors. The foster-daughter of the celebrated life Marcella had begged him for a sketch of a of the matron." had not settled. Miinera fortwice inettnmt^ dum danina verentur : Quisquam sponte miser ne miser esse queat ? ^ —(v. such as Igilium. the advances of the Consul Cerealis.

inonachorum innumerabilis multititdo (S.14 HISTORY OF ROME flying Alexandria. long live there. KAL. The earliest monumental mention of a nun in Rome belongs to the year 447 4. X. c. Ep. S. Inscript. Christian^ i. Jerome. OCTOB. Paula and Eustochium. believes this convent . Bonif.^ of doubt. and the marvellous stories they had related of the lives of come Rome. however. has been transformed into Jerusalem the convents of virgins are many. before her propaganda took effect. 739. but she at length numbered with pride among her converts Sophronia. ^ Gaudeamus Romam factam Hierosolymam. she instituted and henceforward maintained a lively correspondence with the saint. had from to the persecution of the Their teachings.. 126 ad Principiam). Arians. Roma. and Rome. having made the acquaintance of S. provokes a smile. We saw Marcella M^ith Principia on the Aventine during the Gothic sack Marcella died a few days after the fall of the city. CALLEPIO VC. DEP. Kieron. De Rossi. and in her zeal the pious widow would have had all the women in the city at once follow her example. . V. and the monks and nuns in the rocky deserts of the Thebaid." ^ . : HIC QVIESCIT GAVDIOSA CF ANCILLA DEI QVyE VIXIT ANNVS XL ET MEN. we know that. Marcella retired to a country seat. It has been supposed that the first convent for women in Rome was founded by Marcella This. CON. et Alexii. n. on the Aventine to be the oldest convent in the The donation of Euphemius. since a matter embracing the religious life. and " May you there dwelt with her pupil Eustochium. city. however. first is in her palace on the Aventine. "through your example many are instructed. and innumerable the multitude of monks. however. Years passed. had fired the enthusiasm of Marcella. Pachomius and Anthony. 1752. Crehra virgimim monasteria." wrote Jerome. Finally. to our joy. de Teinplo et Ccenob. when ^ Nerini.

Diacon. c. The nuns were called in Greek monastrice. vi. Gregory on the Coelian Hill. are passed in such tears them none of us would have been able to survive under the swords of the Lombards for so many years. Peter's and dedicated it to SS. Diacon. Peter. Ord. whether living together in cloisters or dwelling apart in cells. the company of monks and nuns.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Acta SS." a sum which Gregory estimates as altogether insufficient during the prevailing distress. still exists close to the church of S.. spent the revenues of his house in founding a monastery within his ancestral palace on the Clivus Scauri.^ ^ Joh. in Vita S. The appearance of Benedict gave Rich a new direction to the prevailing impulse. Gregory.. in Latin sajiditnoniales. Ben. 2. a convent now Leo the First had already built a arose beside it. Vita S Gregor. he says. 6.. c. This which he dedicated to the Apostle Andrew. Paul. Letter to Theoktista and Andreas. i. 1 Wherever there stood a church. a patricians built or endowed convents. Eighty pounds from " the patrimony of S. was so great that he reckoned no fewer than 3000 nuns who were in receipt of yearly allowances from the ecclesiastical treasury. that but for .^ At the time of his elevation to the Papacy. member of the celebrated family of the Anicii. John and Paul. Ep. lives of these The self-denial. building. and women. S. monastery close to S. Gregor.^ i. lib.^ ^ Mabillon. 23.

1 HISTORY OF ROME 2. Gesch. though mixed with the heathen races of Germany and Sarmatia. — — — — — — — The monastic as it institution of Benedict.^ The Latin Church. ^ . ii. ii. however. belonging does to the latest Gothic times. Europa. at first sight. cites a hymn to Barbatus of the year From 667. di Beiievento. More than 150 years were. Progress of the Lombards in Italy They advance AS far as Rome Benedict the First. in the Italians credited the behef of the Lombards the German nation with the worship of trees in general a belief which Goethe discovered still existing in Italy. 578 The Lombards Besiege the City Destruction of Monte Casino. had arisen In this institution the before the invasion of Alboin. Lorenzo. des Heidenthiitns im n'ördl. was incapable of receiving the ancient civilisation which it found in Italy otherwise than through the instrumentality of the Church. 574 Pelagius the Second. gradually imparted to them the classical culture which had sought refuge within the cloister. 580 Foundation of the First Benedictine Monastery in Rome Pelagius Implores Aid from Byzantium Gregory Nuncio at the Imperial Court Inundation AND Pestilence of 590 Death of Pelagius THE Second His Building of S. of Arian faith like the Goths. . required before the work of Lombard civilisation was accomplished. Borgia. one of the strongest obtained weapons with Church which she was destined to subdue the Lombards This foes who. 277. The heathen customs of the Lombards have been described by Mone. first subduing the invaders. the theme of which is the cessation of serpent-worship. rude people. Memor. and this . enchanted trees. 96. appeared so terrible.

and with the cities the remains of the ancient Latin constitution also Another spirit dwelt in the people of perished. they repopulated it. to the whole of Italy. VOL. which in the course it afresh. but not until after a three years' siege did the Lombard enter Pavia. gave birth to those numerous families who for centuries ruled Italy from the banks of the Po to the southern recesses of the peninsula. of time became Latinised.IN THE MIDDLE Her AGES. in terrible periods in the history of Italy. B . Taking possession of the palace of Theodoric in 572. eager make his dwelling in the palace of the Caesars. like Theodoric. and colonised This new population. Milan had surrendered to Alboin as early as 569. and rule thence. the the Goths had protected Latin Lombards destroyed it. and whose names have filled alike the annals of Church and State. The preservation of the almost undefended capital excited the selves. Meanwhile the new invaders Entering a province filled a great void in Italy. Ravenna. Rome. I7 interval constituted one of the most cities. which had been laid waste by war and pestilence. still preserved their Roman character and remained filled with the desolate monuments of the past. Alboin than in the followers of the great Theodoric civilisation. II. to amazement of the Romans themAlboin had fixed his desires upon it. One after another they now fell under the sword of the barbarian. restored agriculture. and the seaports alone upheld the banner of the Empire. spite of having been devastated and depopulated by Attila and the Gothic wars. he thence undertook the subjugation of the rest of the kingdom.

The difficulties of the time were so grievous that S. was now Peter's chair chosen to fill the vacant chair. lying before the gates or in the neighbourhood of the city. however. 569. whence the newly elected Pope had to receive the Imperial ratification.^ The successor of Benedict. Kleph. and at the time of Benedict's death (July 578) Faroald.1 HISTORY OF ROME His troops. who first made use of the Lombard documents of Memoria Istorico-Diplomatiche riguardanti la the Abbey of Farfa serie del Duchi— di Spoleto^ Camerino. The Liber Pontificalis informs us that during his reign the entire country was overrun by the Lombards. was engaged in laying siege to Rome. dying in 575. had already encamped before the walls of Aurelian. i8oi. was allowed to remain for more than a year unoccupied. A Roman. tion. died in July 573. sent supplies of corn from Egypt to 'eiagius and strove to alleviate the general distress. a ^ Roman of The duchy of Spoleto was founded apparently as early as the year See Fatteschi. son of Vinigild. The Emperor Justin. prevented all communication with Constantinople. and that pestilence and famine worked fearful havoc among the populaRome was visited by both these scourges. under whose pontificate these events had taken place. : . Meanwhile John the Third. Tortus. or more probably the noble Tiberius. the first Duke of Spoleto. on whom the Lombards had bestowed the crown of the murdered Alboin. the disordered kingdom was divided among thirty-six dukes. The Lombards. The chronology of early Lombard times remains very obscure. Pelagius the Second.78-59o. Benedict the First. ' . marching from Spoleto and spreading devastation by the way.

and unparalleled the if interval of effeminacy. again militia. and advised ^ its being used instead to bribe In Rome. whom necessity had made her intercessor and was soon to make her ruler. turned to sue for help from her sovereign. however. made the hasty election of her spiritual head a matter of urgent need. however. and the Emperor only sent an insignificant body of troops to Ravenna. as The Goths had not entirely disappeared from Italy. of more importance than Rome. who had once subdued the world by force of arms.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. ^ The difficulties in which the city found herself. a city. We are ignorant of the means adopted by the inhabitants for their defence. He declined the gift of money. . and the absence of both Dux and Magister Militum. in his eyes. A tors and priests. headed by the in gold. grounds for believing that this siege gave rise to the first military organisation of the citizens. The Romans. the solemn deputation of senaByzantine Emperor. brought before the throne her cry of despair and a sum of 3000 pounds The Persian war. 1 Gothic descent. nor do we know whether to the scanty Greek troops who formed the garrison there was united a body of city militia. undertook as formation of of a small civic destitute any previous military traditions. The afflicted city or her bishop. patrician Pam phronius. returned in this later period of their historic after a long life to their first beginnings. We have. and. was therefore hurriedly consecrated without waiting for the Imperial ratification. they survived in Latinised families. demanded all the resources of the Empire. on the Campagna.

Diacon. Mabillon. Monte Casino reduced and the monastery of ruins. . c.. by which they obtained their ransom. 589. and here they founded the first Benedictine monastery within the city. the unfortunate building near the Lateran. Ordinis S. 126. Benedicti. led his army back across the Liris. Duke of Benevento. ^ iv. the monastery beside the Lateran attained its zenith. In the later Middle Ages every of this monastery dis- appeared. p.. ^ Paul. and Zoto.* Even ^ ^ before the time that the fugitive Benedictines Menander. places the destruction of the monastery about the ." trace i. however. Script. time to escape. and while Monte Casino lay in ruins for a period of 140 years.20 the HISTORY OF ROME Lombard King.. fled to Rome. however. Amtal. 17 . Das Herzogthitm Benevent {i?)*]!). Aquino was burnt. ad Ami. Hirsch. " ChroniconS. Later it fell to decay. t. Casin.^ Pelagius gave them shelter in a the night.^ Zoto attacked it in monks finding. 580 Tosti accepts the year I have followed the Annals of Mabillon and the Acta SS. written by the hand of the saint. p. edited by him. year 577. iv. the church of Constantine received from the adjoining monastery the Baptist as its patron. in Muratori. the merciless on to suffer the to ravages of enemy. bearing with them the book of the institution of their order. 2. Excerpt. and. and in the eighth century it Gregory the Second found necessary to restore it.^ The Romans formed a treaty with the enemy. The called beautiful province of Campania was. c.. Valentinian was elected the first abbot. This they dedicated to the Evangelist and the Baptist. Monast. as they later undertook the liturgical services in the basilica. Benedict. 4.

and King Autharis. the sister of Maurice. as yet unratified by Imperial consent. itself represented an Apocrihad by Roman Church sarius or permanent ambassador. successor to Longinus in the Exarchate. finally sent no Imperial general at the time in Gregorius and the Magister Militum Castorius. Gregory Byzantium. Lombards. Theokista. The treaty was concluded in 584 by Smaragdus. a post which. Gregory. who had again united the Lorn- —there being the city — the Dux . accompanied apparently by the same deputation had. one of her foremost patricians. was usually to regarded as the step the chair of as Peter. Gregory won for himself influential friends. in 579. but also at Byzantium with the Emperor.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. both at the court and among the nobility among them the Empress Constantina. That Gregory was in Constantinople in 584 is proved by a memorable letter addressed to him by Pope Pelagius. had founded a monastery on the Pelagius. This is the last first institution of a Nuncio. 21 gained admission to the city. which the Pope wished to appease with regard to his ordinaThe tion. not only at Ravenna with the Exarch. and Maurice himself. recognising in Gregory the Ccelian Hill. the gone to demand aid against the . drew him out of his solitude and him as Nuncio to the Byzantine court. Gregory went to Constantinople. man sent of the future. who in 582 ascended the Imperial throne. as we have already seen. Maurice. implored by the Nuncio to relieve Rome in her distress. and Rome was temporarily freed from the enemy by a three years' truce. daughter of Tiberius. Arrived at the capital of the East.

v. were distinct. 1052. n. xi. Reg. de Regno ^ i. unless God move the heart of the most pious Emperor to have pity upon his servants and graciously to give us a Dux or Magister Militum to rule over the territory. i.. the nople. speaks of the peace. to Elias. : magisirtim milihim.^ The Roman district. vel writes to Laurentius of Milan Vel unum Sacrat. ^ Respublica here stands for the Empire. however. to aid us our in a still danger. The Deacon Gregory in 889 . to " bearer of the petition to Constanti- demand speedy therefore. 585. Cod. Carlo Troya. Oct. . n.. Dipl. . the May God prompt in is Emperor. Concil. Dipl. 623). . i. Ep. was governed by the Senate and the other ii. Cod.).). Thus King Childebert juxta votum Rouiancz reipubl." help from the Emperor. in common with Bishop Sebastian. and Pelagius wrote to Gregory requiring him.. in the absence of the city Dux and Magister Militum. to the 5th Oct. Labbe. . Pont. Dipl." ^ army of the godless people position to seize those cities which the republic ^ Sigon. 62. and that quickly. before the retains.. Noris and Muratori are agreed in fixing the date in 586. Pelagius Ep. Lojig. 16. and the Exarch writes that he cannot help us. for the republic harassed by our ruin seems inevitable.. " Speak wrote and discuss together that you may come as quickly as possible is to relieve our distress. believes that. dated 4 Non. Bishop of Grado. and to the Bishops of Istria and Venetia (in Labbe. offices et unum ducem letter to the n.. ind. which Muratori gives to the year 587 Troya.. Pelagius. 2nd ed. n. i. 17. however. the authorities. xiv.22 HISTORY OF ROME bard kingdom. iii. and in the Cod. seems bereft such difficulties that of a garrison. more than any other. .^ The truce was. lamenting that he is unable to defend his therefore own immediate territory. dignetiir concedere — the Mansi. nostri Imperatoris (Troya. . two ix. immediately broken by the Lombards. iii. Troya's. Jaffe. ^Letter (ad Gregorium Diacon. i. vi.

Defenset tenuem Garumna Tibrim. the letter of Maurice to Childebert. Ut Martern validus per inquilintcm. Thus was foreshadowed the later time when a Pope said of Charles the Great cujns industria Romanor. 23 The ancient capital was in truth reduced to the direst extremity. had succeeded in founding the powerful kingdom of the Franks on The Franks had the ruins of the Empire in Gaul. Chro7iol. where the Emperor speaks of priscani gentis Francor. Bishop of Auxerre. federates of the i. nisi ut huic urbi." A memorable letter. The Greek Emperors. n. acknowledged the orthodox Catholic faith from the time of their conversion. quod Romano imperio in orthodoxceßdei confessione sunt similes . written by Pelagius the Second to Aunachar. occupied by the migrations of the Slav tribes on the banks of the Danube. 577) refers to the lines addressed by Sidonius to Eurich. credimus —sine iv. et Ditionis Romanes unitatem. Dipl. vel universce Italia finitivios^ adjutoresqtie pnestaret. in a document given in : — .. on this account already began to turn his eyes to the West. ex quafuerat oriunda. Francorunique concorporavit Imperium Sergius. and the priests had already bestowed on Chlodwig the title of " Most Christian King " and " the second Constantine. King of the Visigoths Roman Troya {Storia d' Italia. 1308 Tav. : — Eorice. as Leti or con. Autisiadorensem : nee enim vestri reges magna div. by the Persians in the East. as early as 486. In them the Pope therefore saw the future defenders of the Church.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ In fact the Emperor ^ Ep. and revolutions The Roman bishop at home. p. had already expressed the clear conviction that the orthodox Franks had been called by Providence to save Rome from the hands of the Lombards. ad Aunacharium Episc. where Chlodwig. See in Cod. Long. 43. frovidentice admiratione disposihim. tuce manus rogantur. The Franks were regarded Empire. left Italy to her fate.

He was. overflowing its banks. Thiel. monosyllabic " overflowed the city to such an extent that the ancient buildings fell in. and the granaries of the churches were destroyed." he says. with reference to an expedition against the Lombards. 624. by the Archhis monastery The following years are hid in obscurity. and his place filled deacon Lawrence. and there remained Until summoned to ascend the sacred chair. i. Ep. Gregory was recalled from his post in Byzantium. The nundation ^iber. his history of the Franks.. Hist. GenuincE. ^ i. and destroyed several ancient temples and monuments. A. R. The honoured Bishop Gregory of Tours at this time sent a deacon to collect relics in Rome. Francor. situated.24 HISTORY OF ROME Maurice stood in active negotiation with Childebert. with extraordinary additions. Gregor. Turonen. Towards the end of the year 589. Hist. had already given utterance to the hope that in him the Church would find protection. prevailed upon by Autharis to make peace and abandon his design. however. and the accounts given. Following his authority. the Frankish King. de Metz. Deutsche Verfasstmgsgesch. Pope Anastasius. and dismal as itself. x. in the Field of Mars. chronicles of the time."-^ Maurisse. the Tiber. 185)..^ iii. 190 (Waitz. c. laid a part of the city under water. speak of nothing but the havoc worked in Rome by pestilence and the elements.. by this eye-witness on his return were afterwards embodied by the bishop in " The Tiber. He returned to on the Coelian. Pont. . and in 584 Childebert advanced with an army against Italy. p. 589. in a letter congratulating Clovis {Cludceco) on his conversion (in the year 497). A short time after. we may suppose.

x. and de gestis Lang. Greg. 23. Vita S. . The stricken died. or ghosts (^acr/xara Saijmovcoi/) who imparted death to those they met by a blow. and glandnla. it i. i.. Paul. also variola. Alveri. Diacon.. The frenzied imagination heard in air the braying of trumpets. tion to the year 1660. Lang. and stalking in the streets the demon of pestilence himself. the extent of horrors and visita- seems to have been unsurpassed by the Black Death of a later age.^ Confined to no season.. but generally followed in three days. now broke out afresh in many parts which.. 24. 22. de gest. pestilence. - Procop.. 23 . have in minutely described its this terrible scourge. pustula. Marius of Avenche calls ^ c. Diacon. Paul. Diaconus tion. and then. Diaconus.. gives the history of all the inundations and pestilences in the city from the time of its foundac. Roma inogni stato. 34. like Rome. iii. scarcely ceased its ravages over the various countries of Europe. de gest. since the year 542. had been visited by inundations in 590. which.. c. THE MIDDLE AGES. iii. as usually seems to be the case in great national disasters. had followed in the track of war. c. Diacon. c.. The consequences were not always immediate. 25 however. 3. 24. c. the plague had suddenly appeared in Constantinople. c. Gregory of Tours. i. with great audacity and frequent mistakes. ii. it seized alike on men and animals. . Lang. saw the mark of the destroying angel on houses. de bello Persico. fever.IN Still greater. Procopius. after him. and the Väa S. iii. overpowered by sleep or consumed by Joh. and Paul. and of Italy. and spreading without contact. Paul. and. writers lues inguinaria) had. ..^ Arising in the marshes of the Egyptian Pelusium. Greg. was the havoc wrought by The This frightful scourge (named by Latin 590.

again appeared with such violence that the city. and substances like charcoal within the tumours. but the wicked were hurled into the stream. p. 36.^ Pelagius s. c. after having broken out afresh in January 590. Annal. Lorenzo beyond the gate. The soul of a soldier. on the further side of which lay beautiful flowery meads. The dreamer saw a cleric. sick of the plague. was removed from the body to the lower world. and. ^ Gregor. shot it threatened to depopulate Gregory. remained a monument to the memory of the bishop who governed A remarkable vision of Paradise and iv. found in the letter of S. fell over. Stephen.^ ix. Here he beheld a bridge over a black stream. The celebrated Basilica of S. and while a foreign presbyter succeeded fellow-men. as quoted by Gregory. reads like a presentiment of Dante's Hell. The just were permitted to cross the bridge. Dial.. Boniface of Mainz to the Domina Eadeburga. men with their own eyes beheld arrows piercing their down from Heaven apparently Fear gave birth to visions. is Purgatory later . 590. the angels who strove to hold him back being overpowered by demons who dragged him bridge in safety. dying on Lorenzo ^ wa^is? February 8. Peter.. in crossing the Roman. assures us that who mentions it in his writings. a below. lying under a heavy weight of iron on the ground. fell a victim to the plague. The same pestilence had already visited Rome and Italy during the Gothic war. See Baronius.26 HISTORY OF ROME bodies being opened disclosed the bowels covered with ulcers. 11. an example of which. rebuilt by him. filled with men in white raiment.

J\Ion. The inscription. the sacerdotal order in the Roman mythology. that he had accomplished the work under the sword of the enemy (the Lombard). where houses for pilgrims and small basilicas had already arisen side by side. constrtictam. and had caused them to be buried in the same coffin with those of his fellow-martyr. The association between Law: is shown by a sentence of Leo the First a Solis ad occasum Leviticorum luinintim coruscante fulgore. Pelagius had brought his remains from Constantinople Rome. tam illustris ßcrct Roma rence and Stephen ortu.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. basil.^ ^ Hie fecit supra corpus 2 b. The 314 . is given in Rom. which still remains. 13.^ The grave of Ager Veranus had already been enclosed within a chapel by Sixtus the Third in the fourth century. 2J the Church through this period of terrible distress. Archdeacon of the church of Jerusalem. a fundani. Stephen. Vet. Pont. usque . was the object of peculiar Legend relates that veneration as proto-martyr. Pilgrims streamed to his festival at the Cata- combs of Hermes and Hippolytus. Next to Lawrence. c.. as the principal figures in the to diaconate. Stadtbeschr. ^ iii. marl. inscription (six couplets) ii. Prastile Pelagio viartyr Lazirentitis olim Templa sibi statuit tain pretiosa dari Mira fides ! gladios hostiles inter et iras Pontificent meritis hcec celebrasse suis. quam clarificata est Hierosolyma Stephano. Lib. boasting. 2. Laur. while other saints belong to the military order or to the ranks of the people. serves to recall one of the darkest periods in the city's history. His fame waxed with the martyr on the time. Lawrence. Pelagius now rebuilt and enlarged the church already existing over the grave of S. in Pelagio. These two saints represent. Ciampini. in the inscription over the triumphal arch. et tabulis argenteis exornavit sepulcrum ejus.

Pelagius apparently found the first row of columns already existing. . In the lower row the five pillars at each side and the two at the end of the choir are ancient and splendid. and. S. must originally have been built within the catacombs. The plan of the building shows that the martyr's grave was not originally enclosed within a basilica it was probably in order to erect this that Pelagius built a porch. are one and all beautiful. serin. Two of these capitals are ornamented with victories and armour. c. and erected on their architrave the upper row of smaller columns. although differing in style. threw a triumphal arch over the high altar. evidently formed from the and a Galilee (ante-chapel) of a later The former. M. temples of the best Imperial times having been despoiled to provide the material. in which niches for graves and date. 83 in festo S. iii p. and that the church raised on eleven steps was an addition of later date. thus produced a presbytery. one over the other. Laur.28 HISTORY OF ROME The Arch remarkable of Pelagius unites the two parts of this basiHca. which speaks of the temple. Leo Papa . and their Corinthian or fantastic capitals. Laiir. 169 3. Laurentio. Dam.^ p. The architrave which they support is comoriginal chapel posed of antique fragments roughly pieced together. . It contains two rows of columns. traces of ancient painting are still apparent. The inscription under the old mosaic. (Lugdun. since it would seem that the grave of the martyr at first existed in the form of a temple surrounded by a colonnade. constructing a raised choir out of the original colonnade. 1700) in Fonseca. S. de Basil..

29 appears to apply to this twofold building. Ilis Hfe was written by Diaconus. Pelagius decorated the triumphal arch with mosaics. and carries the model of the building in his hand. of w^iich much of the original character has been sacrificed in restoration.' both clergy and people fell on Gregory. Him and seems to present Pelagius to the Saviour.^ 3. Stephen and S. as also to S. later days attributed to this. On the death of Pelagius the unanimous choice of Gregory 590-604. who holds an open book. with He bestows the benediction. is bareheaded. stand SS. without a nimbus. its favourite saint. Lastly. a contemporary of Anasta- . in the left Christ sits in black garments on a globe . a man whose memory has ever been deservedly cherished as that of one of the greatest of Popes. at the two ends. Hippolytus. Beside . Lawrence is not yet represented in the youthful and attractive form which the ecclesiastical art of S. The Pope is clad in white.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. are depicted the towns of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. resplendent in gold. Peter and Paul close to S. Election of Gregory the First His Past PeniLegend of the Appeartential Procession ance OF THE Archangel Michael over Hadrian's — — — Mausoleum. Sebastian. Joli. according to the ancient manner of representation. Paul S.^ member of the A ^ The ancient couplet under the mosaic has been restored ]\Taytyrhi7n flaminis olim Levita stibisti. hand uplifted right He holds a staff with the Cross. : Jure - Hits iemplis lux beneraiuia redit.

i. and afterwards a deacon of the Roman Church. . He filled the city Prefecture. the leading family in during the later days of the Empire. O. about the year 882. however.. however. his native country being held in subjection by the Lombards. 2. he was the grandson of Pope Felix and the son of Gordianus. nor Bede {Histor. l) is there any mention of the fact. Two of his aunts on his father's side had entered a convent a third sister remained. ii. Gregory had grown up in an age.30 HISTORY OF ROME ancient house of the Anicii. Paul Diaconus. however. sacrificed to their wild thirst for destruction. when. A monk in Monte Casino. lib. : Gregory says (Ep. the most terrible of any in the city's history. merely a compilation from the Ecclesiastical History of Bede. the schools once protected by Theodoric can scarcely still have existed. and Gregory's ^ own works. Diaconus also wrote a Vita S. S.) at the instance of John the Eighth. however. There is. Ben. the barbarians had appeared before the very gates of Rome. Gregorii. an office which yet lingered on. sius Bibliothecarius.) ego quoqiie tunc iirbanum prcefecturani gerens. iii.. Rome Destined in youth for a political career.^ but what could a high-minded Roman effect in the State in a time such as this ? to what post of honour could he rise in the republic ? The highest aim which could allure a descendant of Repelled by the the Anicii was the bishop's chair. Paul. to enjoy the pleasures of the secular life. where. he compiled the work (Mabillon. the reading J>rcetu7'am. ActaS. which is. Silvia. and neither in Gregory of Tours. c. Saba on the Aventine. owned a palace beside S. His mother. Gregory had acquired all the rhetorical and dialectic education which could be furnished by Rome. and the last remains of Latin civilisation had been .

Gregory. now dedicated a mean cowl. Cleriis. glittering with jewels. it would Gregory of Tours. " The man who had formerly been accustomed to parade the city in splendid silken raiment. the City Prefect. The Heaven ^ for deliverance from the pestilence." ^ himself to the service of We Pelagius consecrated him elected deacon. like Cassiodorus. c. is says John Diaconiis. substituted in their stead. 39. No however. Six he built in Sicily. During the vacancy of the sacred chair the administration of the Church lay in the hands of the arch-presbyter. and by letter requested the Emperor Maurice (with whom he stood on friendly terms) not to ratify the election. x. but the nobles. Hist..IN political THE MIDDLE AGES. containing urgent entreaties that the Emperor would confirm the election. Vita. but since before being consecrated Gregory commanded a delay of three days for penitential processions to invoke letters were. c. intercepted by Germanus. however. i. sought to escape his high calling. popiihisque Romamis. 3 circumstances of the time. The Pope designate. i. and others. sought refuge in the habit of monasticism. and Rome with him Pope. word Senate here used merely to signify the . senatiis. the archdeacon and the primicerius of the notaries. a fact which proves that his family must have possessed considerable property on the island. the Lord in have already heard how he spent his wealth in founding monasteries. and made him Nuncio at unanimous voice now Constantinople.^ one seemed better qualified to guide the Church in her distress than the most eminent and benevolent citizen and former Prefect of Rome.

the Litany not being arranged in strict ^ c.^ The whole popula. iii. III. . Marcell. all the laity from S.. No church the earliest designations is mentioned in the Trastevere. ^ S. l) and Paul. ^ According to Martinelli. correspond with ecclesiastical regions are here mentioned not so. however.32 HISTORY OF ROME Penitential procession. and Laderchius. xi. John and Paul on the Ccelian with the presbyters of the second region . r^^^ population was divided into seven groups. and their monks from SS. and IV. iii. c. the Basilica of S. accordance with the regional divisions. asserted that the Romans died in great numbers. accord- ing to age and class. all the married women from S. . Ep. . Cosma and Damiano goal. Mart. and thence made a pilgrimage to one Maria (Maggiore). .^ The proccssion was odrered in the following manner. . S. lo. Sabina on the 29th August. 2. Euphemia stood on the Vicus Patricias not far from the Titulus Pudentis. the nuns from SS. c. appear that on this occasion the duty of representing the bishop devolved on him alone. Diaconus {de gest. and that the houses remained desolate. . the remainder. de Sacris 24) speak of this Litania Septiformis All seven Basil. Euphemia with the presbyters of the fifth 2 and lastly. different Each division assembled in a church. . Gregory of Tours (x. treats of it in general. Clement's with the presbyters of the third region. Marcellinus and Petrus with the presbyters of the first region all the children of Rome from SS. The clergy started from SS. The plague still continued its ravages. Gregory himself. Gervasius and all (San Vitale) with the presbyters of the fourth region the abbesses with . SS. Stephen on the Coelian with the presbyters of the seventh region the widows from S. Gregor. in the penitential sermon which he delivered in S.. common with the presbyters of the sixth region the abbots Protasius . Lang. i.

hovering over Hadrian's mausoleum. reached the bridge on the way to S. symbol of the priesthood. however. S. The chapel on its summit. whose mission it is to spread peace Unfortunately.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Angelo. however. beautiful The angel sheathing the sword would by Benedict the be the most on earth. and to inaugurate the dreary The procession centuries which were now to follow. Men fell to Vision of the earth dead. head. As Gregory. put an end to both litany and plague. The bronze figure of the Archangel sheathing his sword still hovers. 12. and made the air re-echo with their solemn chants. 33 tion thus joined in penitential procession. As early as the tenth century the mausoleum received the name of S. the people. in memory of this beautiful legend. Pestilence accompanied the procession. It is first to be found. C . who usurped also the power of the sword. having been built probably in the eighth century.^ — ^ The present figure was placed on the fortress Fourteenth. repeated from ancient century) in the Legenda Aiirea (end of the thirteenth and in a German sermon belonging to the twelfth or thirteenth. A supernatural vision. the most wonderful of all earthly monuments. B. Paul. placed a flaming sword in its sheath a sign that the plague was stayed. Diaconus. with outstretched wings. dedicated to S. had been of earlier origin. of 590 may in truth be regarded as the beginning of Rome's Middle Ages. a heavenly vision greeted the eyes of The Archangel Michael descended. over Hadrian's tomb. VOL II. Peter's. or Joh. they seemed to bear the phantom of ancient Rome herself to the grave. Michael. The legend is not men- tioned by either of Gregory's biographers. Müllenhof in Haupt's Zeitschr. and while they marched among the ruins of the deserted city. and. however. 321. The traditions. nor yet by Bede or Gregory of Tours. it scarcely applies to the Popes.angel ing the train of penitents..

not otherwise known to me. where the fortress towers in the background. von S. Rome possesses four. and an arid dissertation on the subject. but a picture on slate. Casimiro {Gesch. representing a procession in the act of carrying a bier across a bridge. Of the seven pictures of the Madonna. were likewise engraved with a representation of the legend. Marco striking up the Antiphony Regina Coeli when it reached the Ponte S. may possibly have owed its origin to some statue. of which that of Ara Coeli is esteemed the earliest. The silver doors of the shrine.34 HISTORY OF ROME Other legends ascribe the cessation of the pestilence to a portrait of the Virgin borne by the Pope in the procession. which once enclosed the sacred picture within the church. This work belongs to the fifteenth century. the great procession from S. Virgo kcec quam cernis in ara circumvecta nig7'-am dtspulit urbi lueni. The memory of the legend has been celebrated down to our own days [until the prohibition of processions in 1870. The custom of carrying images of the saints in Gregory's time is. Angelo. Translator]. which had remained on the summit of the mausoleum. perhaps of a winged genius. is of a later date. Maria in Ara Coeli) gives the Byzantine portrait of the Madonna.^ is legend. : . which we owe to no less an artist than the Apostle Luke. which of earlier date than the tenth century. however. ^ The inscription says Luccb et Lucis Opus.

but Condismay from the 3rd Sept. and there consecrated Pope. The citizens who followed in search were guided to his retreat by a radiant dove. First Sermon Gregory Rome hard pressed by the Lombards Gregory pronounces her Funeral Oration Purchases the Withdrawal of the Lombards. Ep. 4.^ He himself admits that he sought to avoid it by flight. to use his own i. His first letters. sed lippa.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. : and the pra:f. " secretiora loca pctere aliqtiando decreveram S. found the Church. 590. S. feaifzda. and legend in the ninth century related that he had caused himself to be conveyed secretly from Rome by some merchants. Gregor. and hidden in a wooded ravine. The references to Rachel and Leah were afterwards made use of by Dante and Michael Angelo.2 ^ Hq 4. especially those to Theoktista. Ep. consecrated Pope — His — — — The ratification of the election arrived from Gregory shrank in high mission which lay before him. CHAPTER II. quainvis aviplitis parens.. Peter's. hicein tarnen subtilius videt. of the liber Pastoralis : -tastoralis cures ine pondera fugere . Lea viihi in node conjtmcta est^ activa videlicet vita. sister of the Emperor. Diimis videns.. stantinople. or a column of light. vi. and the reluctant candidate was led back in triumph to S. 35 I. Greg. lib. give vent to his lamentations over the lost happiness of the contemplative life : Contemplativce vitce pulchritudmem vehit Rachelcm dilexi sierile7)i sed videntem et pulcraiji^ qu(Z etsi per qtiietem stia?n mimis generat. lib.

gives the legend of the flight. horrors and nation. Gregory summoned the remnant of the citizens to S. Peter's. The this desperate straits to which the city was reduced afforded him material the for his first sermon. listened in feverish suspense as their forefathers had listened to the orators in the " Temple of Concord. swept by the waves on every side. 49. and that a column of light revealed his hiding-place. x. 10. When at moment Roman bishop (in the truest sense of the term the priest and father of his people) ascended the pulpit. famine and pestilence. 11. Vita. and earthquakes. c. that he was carried away xxi. ^ Evang. II. and the degenerate descendants of Cicero. and that signs from heaven are in store for us. out world. c. and whose timbers. latibula fugcB p7'(Epararet. and shows us the misery of the wornit. relates a basket. the words to which he gave utterance were indeed historic actuality. in and Paul. most dreadful will teach us to fear His judgments. shaken by the storm. merely says: cum i.^ We have already been visited by some of these disasters and of others remain in dread. the Lord forewarns us that nation shall prevail against how many kingdom against kingdom. however. i. Diaconus. threatened immediate dissolution. In the extract of the Gospel we have just heard. Diaconus.36 HISTORY OF ROME expression. in order to divert our love from see You storms have heralded its approaching If we do not seek God in quiet. so spoke the dejected bishop. Lucse. " desires Our Lord. crowded together in the gloomy basilica. Joh. an old wreck. . c." to find us ready. For that nation rises against delitiscendo vohusse. trials the overthrow. Gregory of Tours. capitur.

and unforeseen blows strike us to the ground. his flock waiting for death. nor have any foretaste of it within themselves. more forcibly than even gospel history. and through a sea of troubles hastens to approaching population death. The world grows old and hoary. although bearing within themselves so many germs of a new life. 1436. as if In the midst of that ruin. reddened with the blood of mankind. the 37 fear. We have heard from other quarters that countless cities are destroyed by earthquakes while we ourselves suffer incessantly from pestilence. stood the effete and worn-out Romans. You .IN nation THE MIDDLE AGES. might have taught us. Every day the earth is visited by fresh Lombards. Those who love God should shout for joy at the end of the world. were yet unable to perceive anything beyond the accumuGregory's first lated ruin of the Empire. our own experience. and who neither long for the future life. Be alert and watchful ! calamities. but the same bishop who enjoined ^ to familiarise themselves with the idea of destruction. i." i sermon reflects the temper of his time. when Rome and mankind. True. edition of the Benedictines. on the Gospels. but changes in the atmosphere lead us to suppose that such signs are near at hand. we do not yet perceive signs in the sun. Homily I. Those who mourn are they whose hearts are rooted in love for the world. see how few remain of the ancient each day sees us chastened by fresh afflictions. . which soon after flowed in streams. Fiery swords. moon or stars. were seen in the heavens before Italy became a prey to the and subdues land by .

i. . . Famine was. 3. more induced Childebert of France to take the against Autharis in 590 but hunger and pestilence having mown down the ranks of the Frankish army 1 S. " If the Chartularius Maurentius comes.. The expression Sitonicum is frequently used in the 2 letters instead of annona. however. Faroald. that of Ariulph. i. and cant Lombards hovering round the city as round a corpse. for an immediate supply of grain. more easily averted than the terror of the enemy the sword of King Autharis or . while the sword of the enemy threatens us incessantly from without.peror. we are menaced by still greater dangers from the rebellious soldiers within. and the times were of such a nature that the bishop was obliged to regard himself as its true regent. Ep. Ep. In the universal distress there was but one asylum. " I pray you help him to relieve the general distress.^ A small portion of this supply may have been furnished by the Em. vultures being the Duke of Spoleto. the successor of now directed immediately against Rome.38 HISTORY OF ROME provided at the same time for their escape." ^ and The invitations of the Emperor Maurice had once field . the Praetor of Sicily. welfare of the city was his The first care." wrote Gregory to the Scholasticus Paulus. Famine ruled in the deserted city Gregory wrote to Justin. The garrison was insignifi- mutinous from want of pay. but the greater part was provided by the Church from the resources of her own estate. 2. since. lib. and but one helper and saviour. Gregor. which still remained the granary of Rome. the Pope. the Church. lib.

and Rome. is donativum or ii. Church. in Rome good stead. Duke of Turin. lib. 129. was accessible to the influence of his Catholic wife. vix dant. the enemy at a distance. Ariulf of Spoleto and Agilulf. Urging the archbishop to prevail on the Exarch to make terms with Ariulf. which sighed for a lasting peace.IN in THE MIDDLE AGES. would scarcely exert itself to guard the walls. bestowed The Lomher hand and the crown of the Lombards on the heroic harass The new ruler. 39 with the Lombardy. it keeping. for the reduced the city to the direst extremities in 593. the sole regiment that was left. however. Ind. ^oya vii. ranged in companies and ^ Arrival of ^^ Romamis^ Rome. Gregory. . to the Erogator Donellus. might have enjoyed temporary at least tranquillity. ever entered the city. as did. Ep. in a letter to the Archbishop of Ravenna. and that the Theodosian. the Pope at the same time expressing the proud consciousness that in rank and dignity he far surpassed the Imperial official. lib. the Bavarian princess Theodolinda. could the wishes of the Pope have been brought into harmony with the policy or energy of the Exarch.i Romanus had previously come to Rome. because the men had not received their proper pay. the scheme undertaken in conjunction Exarch proved unsuccessful. ii. People and clergy. x. 46. his widow. fortunately ^o™^Agilulf. so far as we are aware. bitterly laments the intrigues of the Exarch Romanus. ad nniroruju quidem stipenditi»i. Theodosiaci vero. Ep. However. the first Exarch who. Gregory laments that the Imperial troops had been withdrawn. it stood Autharis dying in 590. who prevented the negotiations for peace. qui hie remafiserunt custodiani se accorno- rogain non accipientes. Ind. Erogator the paymaster.

The approach of the Lombards interrupted Gregory in his public explanation of Ezekiel. Diacon. men who had and the news of the imprisonment and death of others. departed. recently conquered by the Lombards treason to which their own Duke Mauritius had allowed himself to become a party. .. however. p. iv.. even to the Theodosian regiment. with empty hands gave the people no festivals and. when he appeared in all his strength before the capital. and conducted him from the Lateran. however. where he was received by the Pope. the fears of Rome must have been roused to the uttermost and scarcely had the Umbrian city fallen into the power of the King.. such as Narni and Perugia. 187. Paul.^ the Greek patrician being accorded the honours due to the Emperor he represented. Lang. iv. Polimartium and Bleda further. c. 8 S. Ravenn. . which had driven Agilulf to arms had been the violation of treaty by the Exarch in the occupation of the now Lombard cities of Tuscany. He . although tinged himself informs us that the sight of suffered mutilation. — . with him. super Esechiel. Seeing Perugia attacked. He came. Rubeus Hist. Hieron. Gregor. ^ 2 ii. in lib. Prsefat. in order to transfer them to other threatened towns. de Gest. preached under the influence of contemporary disaster.40 bearing HISTORY OF ROME their banners. The main cause.^ These sermons. to his dwelHng in the ancient Palace of the Caesars... taking the Greek mercenaries. and Homily VI. after having doubtlessly extorted gold from the treasury of the Church. the treason of Perugia. Horta.. had caused him to forsake his studies. . came to meet him.

hot and that its that it may become brass Yes. so that in her seems to be fulfilled the fate which the prophet Ezekiel predicted for Samaria: Set on the pot. is reduced. because the debt of sin. the meat shall be consumed. The chastisement of heaven is not satisfied. and still the ' * remnant of mankind is daily stricken. and its bones were cooked." exclaims Gregory. and the bones shall small ' dissolve. some maimed. "What " to is is there in the world. and also pour water into it: gather the pieces thereof into it'. . 4I with the colouring of rhetoric. even under such punishments.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.' may be when Rome . and their actions molten. Set the empty pot also over the faggots. all around sighing. it seethed and boiled. others put to death. us. once the mistress of the world. She is bowed down by pain unfathomable. Heap up the bones together that I may kindle them with fire. scarcely a dweller remains in the towns. and when people collected in the city from every quarter of the earth.' And again. by depopulation. and in the eighteenth Homily more especially we possess a picture of the period of inestimable value. and further. the pot was set up for us was founded. I say. faithfully depict the historic conditions of the time. set it on. No husbandman is in the fields. Cities are destroyed . We are forced to recognise the position to which Rome. . is not wiped away. We see some led into captivity. by the assaults of the enemy and the weight of her own ruins. and the whole mass shall be cooked. gladden All around is mourning . fortresses levelled to the ground farms laid waste the earth reduced left to a desert.

The nations have revolted the flesh also is consumed.' . and the whole mass shall be cooked. the flesh consumed.42 HISTORY OF ROME seethed within her. All the glory of earthly dignity has expired within the city. But see how all the mighty men of the world are taken from her the bones thereof have been dissolved. and the bones were cooked in the midst thereof. although the glory itself disappeared with those who sought after it. in which flesh as well as bones have previously been consumed. . will the weakness of nations be governed by the ! mighty ones of the earth. . the nations since as the meat is borne by the bones. ' : shall dissolve. even as hot water within the pot.' Where is the Senate ? Where is the people ? The bones are dissolved. and yet the few of us that remain are daily oppressed by the sword and afflictions innumerable. so does the empty city already burn. The bones signify the powerful ones of the earth the flesh. Therefore it is excellently said It seethed and bubbled. the flesh shall be consumed.' For because there is no Senate the people perished. But why do we speak thus of men when we ' : themselves fall to pieces? Therefore of the already deserted city it is seasonably added Let her become hot and her brass shall see the very buildings : ' Already the pot. and since the trouble and sighing of those that remain wax daily. is itself in dissolve. Therefore it may be said Set up the empty pot upon the coals thereof. so ' : . All her greatness has vanished.' The desire for earthly glory first seethed strongly within her. Therefore may Heap the bones together that I may it be said kindle them with fire. and the bones .

those who once is delighted in the giory of their pride ? Rome? Where Where fulfilled their pomp ? Where their frequent them is the saying of the prophet against Nineveh and unmeasured delight? ' : In that was destroyed Where is the dwelling of the lion ' Were and the feeding-place of the lion's whelps ? not your generals and princes the lions. ' of Judaea eagle. The pinions on which it was wont to fly in search of prey have fallen. deserted . by whose means the city despoiled her enemies. as acquired booty Of such not one remains behind. is the baldness of the city deprived of its inhabitants. None any longer hasten to her to seek their fortune in this world. overran the whole earth in search of plunder ? The young lions found their food when boys and youths.' : ' Her baldness spreads like that of the The baldness of man is confined to the head. con- . bloodthirsty and greedy of gain. Where is the dwelling of the lion and the food of the young lion ? It has befallen Rome even as the prophet said no oppressor. but that of the eagle extends over the whole body." ^ ^ Ubi enim senatus ? ubi jam populus ? Contabuerunt ossa . Behold. Wherefore we ask. therefore ! now is the city now is she destroyed and weighed down : with groaning. plumage. 43 process of dissolution. for after the inhabitants have Where are perished. No mighty men ' by violence. the walls themselves fall in. now that all the heroes. have passed away. since fall when the eagle grows old his plumes and feathers And like the eagle bereft of its from him. who.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. gathered from all sides eager to secure their temporal fortune. children of the worldlyminded.

being thinly populated and devoid of military aid. tot annis inter gladios deo auctoj'e.^ As the Pope mounted to the battlements of the now tottering walls of Aurelian sumptse sunt carnes est. but without energy . arouses a feelIt ing of sadness utterly tragic. servamur. : and Belisarius he beheld omnis in ea secularium dignitatum fastus extinctus Quia enim senatus deest. amid the solemn and presence of the saints. allying. as fulfilled prophecy before their eyes. . it does. whose stern likenesses looked down upon them from the walls. and his words were instinct with the very breath of Roman Rome. felt still lingered. patriotism. Peter or of God. oration pronounced was the funeral by the bishop beside the grave of This bishop was her noblest patriot. else were " it impossible that the city could have withstood the attack. vii.44 HISTORY OF ROME The Romans. silence of the basilica." it was thrown on the protection of S. born the in golden days of Theodoric. Ind. Ep. the history of the capital of the Roman Empire to the prophecies of the Jews. lib. the last scion of an ancient and illustrious house. populus interiit jam vacua ardet — Roma. We . ^ In qua i. amongst whom aged men. The desperate fate of the city stood like a have no more terrible picture of the condition to which Rome was reduced at the end of the sixth century than this assemblage of her citizens and the sermon of the Pope the magnificent imagery of which. 23. according to Gregory's assertion. when. [iirbe) sine magnitudine populi^ et sine adjutoriis milihim illczsi. must have their hearts fail them in in despair as they listened to these utterances of pain. Agilulf besieged Rome.

After enumerating the dangers to which the attitude of the Exarch had exposed him. and while the Prefect Gregory and the Magister Militum Castorius. but to the coffers of the Church was due the withdrawal of the enemy. lib. on the contrary. iv. writing later to Empress Constantina. and ^ Ep. Ind. as a simpleton. and the sufferings which followed. because he had allowed himself to be deluded by Ariulfs promise of coming to Rome to arrange the terms of peace. the Exarch strove to cast suspicion on the bishop. conducted the doubtful defence. 43. He upbraids him. terms himself with an paymaster of the Lombards. led captive by the Lombards. Maurice wrote a violent letter to Gregory. under whose swords the Roman people only preserved its life thanks to the daily ransom paid by the Church. He was apparently indignant that the latter had negotiated the ironical sigh. reproaching him that during Rome had not been sufficiently provided with corn.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. who was dangerous to his own importance. and Gregory. the repeated assaults against the gates may well have Neither to the vigilance of struck him with dismay. but also with conscious dignity and diplomatic address. the defenders. in a word. To the Imperial letter Gregory answered with the humility due from a subject to his Emperor. 45 with his like coupled together dogs. . to be sold as eyes citizens. the only Imperial officials of rank in the city. nor to the endurance of the citizens. own Roman slaves in Gaul. " the with the enemy on the siege his own authority." ^ The deliverance of the city brought the Pope no thanks from the Emperor. xiii.

and to touch. Mag. viii." who were regarded as general commandants. 47. : 7. Milit. 56. .^ 2. vii. the affront experienced at his hands. Dux Neapolis. 12. i. however. and Naples 25 13. Ind. and that a Roman " Ducatus " is nowhere spoken of. 46. for instance. himself the head of the ^ Gregory Roman is The Dux 1. 21. lib. In the neighbourhood of the to act for Rome Ep.). Sicily xii. all official. and were evidently invested with the full powers of a " Dux. defence against Agilulf. : si terrce inece captivitas per felt quotidiana mo7neiita non excresceret. " and in Rome and the territory belonging to it. Sardinise mentioned (Ep. We have seen that at this time no " Dux " is mentioned in Rome. The words State. xii.46 assuring the HISTORY OF ROME Emperor that he would accept. Ind. " Magistri Militum. ^ Ep. . in consequence. only occasionally appears in Rome. as a officials title of honour. 40. we find in some towns " comites " and " tribuni. city. and probably also commissioned were the Magistri Militum Velox and Mauricius.^ To the Dux. are also frequently mentioned in xii." The latter however. 5. lib. 75. when Castorius conducted the as. V. — The mention of the Prefect and the Magister Militum invites us to devote a passing glance to the government of the city. deserve attention. itself.^ On the other hand. xiii. ^ Dux Campaniae. he seeks to protect the Imperial from disgrace by the extolling their active vigilance in the defence of city. Condition of the Temporal Government in Rome The Imperial Officials— Silence regarding the Senate. 71. on one of the darkest spots of her history. . Dux Arimini.

The ^ Ep. Prafectiim^ atque viii . and i v. but only in one instance with the significant title Urbis. viii.). viros. Proconsul Italia (Ep.. Gregory's letters. Gregory complains to the Proconsul. Gregory names these officials in his letters. Prafectiis vii. Notitia I?)tp. 2 who ^ Urbis Johannes : Ep. is more intelligible to us than that of the Proconsul of Italy. 3. xii. Gregorius.* The prefect directly conducted all civil affairs. 115. financial as well as those dealing with the prefect. 3. was City Prefect. Georgius. Ind. that the Diaconate of Naples had been deprived of the annona. 37. per ii. . as Blondus and Giannone falsely assume. 4/ and the jurisdiction accompanying troops. 38. i. and refers to the action of John his predecessor in office. Proef. too. iii. which clearly differs jurisdiction and Ind. In Ep. 2. Africse. Illyrici. Sicilies. There was a Prefect of Italy as and lllyricum prefects also of the three dioceses. The Proconsuls had not yet ceased to exist.IN military affairs THE MIDDLE AGES. so. them were entrusted. 23. . and has been already mentioned. viii. A Proconsul I)ahnalii>?. occid. although the pay of the under the name of roga^ precariuiUy or donativum^ sent from Ravenna or Byzantium to Rome.^ The Prefect is more frequently mentioned in Prefects. 7. . passed through the hands of the erogator on its arrival. 24. : are distinguished excelL Romanum 38. vii. Patriciu7n (Exarch) et per emin. of the city.^ and the position of the well as of Africa . Panciroli. give Praetor). 2 administration Ep. viii. 37.. 20. says without ground: Italia serins recuperatce stius Pmfecttis redditus ^ non invenitur. Italise. which had formerly been placed under the Praifectus Praetorio of Italy. 129.^ The Pope often speaks of prefects without any further distinction. Ep. and we must not therefore assume that the City Prefect is always present to his mind. p. alios Civitatis sua: nob. from that of the Exarch. Praef. 21 (here other MSS. 22.

" and to " Illustrissimus") did not in truly many cases avail them from a barbarous punishment. ^ Ep.48 HISTORY OF ROME recommendation of the Pope generally influenced the appointment. retiring from their posts were obliged rank (Gregory bestows on " to render an account to their successors in office or to and their high them the protect titles of " Magnificus. The Pope moreover. " This. filled with a noble indignation. replied it was a painful office. wrote to Leontius the finest in the whole a letter which reflects the collection of his letters He greatest honour on the character of the writer.^ . summoned before the extraordinary tribunal of the ex-Consul Leontius in In conseSicily. The prefects on deputies ." . been made aware of the troubles that awaited him. he would not oppose the appointment. by the example of his predecessors." Gloriosus. but also to that of the city. X. devoted to learning accounts but that. Gregory. was highly unsuitable that a man should occupy himself with although regretting the future annoyance of the man. not only to the Prefecture of Italy. In truth the letters of the ex-prefect reveal striking proofs of his experience. justly enraged at the thought that a free man should be scourged. In 602 the ex-Prefect Quertinus. because the candidate had. evidently that of Italy. : quia quid passurtis sit^ exemplo pracedentitim non nescinius. . besought Gregory to intercede with the Emperor that it in favour of Bonitus. quence of this atrocity. The ex-Prefect Libertinus. 30. was shamefully beaten with rods. and that. a candidate for the prefecture. herein speaks as a Roman.

tion to the criminal punished for embezzlement fitly ' Gregory addresses a beautiful letter of consolaEp. the latter of free men. In the time of Gratian and Valentinian the Prefect 1 Ep. men being It Threatened officials sought his protection.^ From this revelation of dishonourable practices. 56. and had I failed to obtain your attention I should then have turned to the Emperor." He threatens Leontius with the power conferred on him by his position as Roman bishop " had I." ^ This letter clearly shows us the authority which Gregory assumed over public officials. " is the difference between barbarian Kings and Roman Emperors the former are the lords of slaves. before your eyes. justice. 55." said he. The ex-Prefect Gregory adopted this course. 58. and secondly freedom. Ind. it is evident how even the higher ranks of officialism had been corrupted by the influence of Byzantine despotism. and we find a series of letters from the Pope to various influential persons. VOL. and there to remain until assured of their safety by an Imperial notary. D . Baronius : compares his relations to Leontius with those of Cicero Ep. to Verres. was the custom for government functionaries. 49 he says. 5i> X. the actions of these subject to his supervision. In all your dealings you ought to keep first. 31. 3. 54. in which he earnestly recommends the fugitive for protection against the despotism of the judges. even those of high rank. it would have behoved me to . when retiring from office.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. viii. viii. II. " found the accused in the right. to fly for refuge to the asylums offered by the Church. : warn you before by letter. recollecting former times. 57.

until it reappears This celebrated municipal institution. river. It is thus explained how. de Prafedo Urdzs (Rom^L. endured. though only down to the year 600. aqueducts. however. the public spectacles and the the city. walls. his control . at which date the Prefecture was filled by Johannes. the annona and the markets. I find that the . the entire civil administration devolved on the City Prefect. 1766). as the sole surviving office of antiquity. his importance sank under that of the Dux of Rome ^the Governor General. altered form. His jurisdiction. which in 774. in the later Middle Ages acquired a by no means insignificant degree of power. by Corsini {de Prcefectus Urbis^ Pisa. is only important for the later Middle Ages. 1631). extended as far as the hundredth milestone and to him appeal was made from the suburban All public affairs in the city were under provinces. the census. from the time of Augustus onwards. we cease to hear of the office altogether. taking Princeps of the precedence of all patricians and consuls.^ ^ Felix Contelorius.50 HISTORY OF ROME official. in the sixth century the political remained so important that and military government belonged to the Magister Militum. the Prefect Gregory was the foremost person in the defence and custody of the city. these comprehensive powers disappeared before the influence of the military official. of Rome the decline of the office it nevertheless. next to the military commander. although in . of the city was an exalted Senate. After the year 600. He was followed. In the seventh century. who now gained complete supremacy and. while the City Prefect found his office restricted to jurisdiction. monuments of brought with although it The decline .

52. however. however.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and fall before the silence of the historian.). palatii urbis Roj/icb. Such authors as assert the continuance of the Curia have no other reason to assign for their opinion than the passage already referred to in the Pragmatic the nature of whose duties is . according to ancient custom. VenanHis wife even was called Patricia. 6. later Prefect observe that the Palatinos and Patriciits (51.. xi. whom Gregory speaks of diversa he begs the annona. the Pope could have existence when dealing with the weightiest of state. Gregory makes use of Abbot Probus as his agent. 43. 33 ^ ii. common in his time.^. In Ep. speak of the Patricius Galliarum. the account of Menander of the mission of some senators to Constantinople in they explain to have been head of the Senate. Ind. had the Curia survived as the in the Council of Magistrates or the representative of the political rights of the Respublica Romana ignored affairs its time of Gregory. We shall see that.^ How it fared with regard to the Senate we do not know. . et viulta contra xii. was tius Patricius. officia did for venisse. in his negotiations for the peace with Agilulf in 599. Sanction of Justinian.^^^^^ are untenable. 42. still It is utterly incredible that. 27. Thus a Comes privaforum Beator : vtclt. Opilio Patricius. or the existence of the Prefect. 26. vii I do not. and neither of senaJohn bore the titles title Patricitis. 128. 17. Ep. hie qui quasi comes privatortim agere. 51 Besides the City Prefect and the Magister Militum or Dux there were in Rome other Imperial officials. All such arguments. and borne exclusively by the Exarchs. viii. . however unknown and occasionally an Imperial messenger appeared. whose despotism occasioned no slight dismay. omnes Ep. v. xii. whom Extinction senate in f^j. xii. a title bestowed by the Frankish Kings still i. 29. &c. 579. 33 . also the Roman lady Rusticiana.

Long. ^ c. 2) seeks to uphold the existence Senate in spite of this Homily. The latter author thinks that the term Ordo {Clero. is sul. as actual proof of our view. i. as yet unconquered by the Lombards. at most suppose that signature of the . der i. rejects Savigny's view. nevertheless. Städteverfassung. in 717." according to the highly doubtful analogy of the cities of Italy. when Agilulf sent his messengers to Rome.52 tors. the Pope was alone required to the treaty of peace not a single word reveals the existence of the Senate. Gov. the Senate subsisted as a corporation of " decuriones. and when (n. am not acquainted with any passage which supports Savigny's view. says . We can. beyond that in the letter which speaks of the reception of the portrait of Phocas by clergy and Senate. holding that the Curia had already become extinct {Gesch. But as late as the year 874 a Bishop of Torcelli was called by the name of senator. 131). 367. which speaks of the non-existence of the Senate. c. Ordini et Plebi). Troya. matters. "Osserv. sores. that the decurionate. of the Gregory's letters give evidence of the Senate. di Roma nel 595" {Cod. Dip. however. and Troya considers that Savigny. and explains it as signifying the position of Honorati et Fossessurvived in Italian cities . populus interiit. a name which had also been borne by Cassiodorus. maintains that Gregory's utterances are exaggerated. a passage which I believe to be a later addition. is there the slightest mention. at pains to prove the continued existence of the Senate. in spite of the still Lombard conquest. an error later refuted by Carl Hegel. I.. Senatus deest.. HISTORY OF ROME nor of any share taken by the Senate in political Further. Troya. customary in Gregory's time.^ ^ Neveri. 2). no sense. was a form in use at the Chancellor's court. Vendettini {del Senato Rom. i. and we therefore Gregory's the celebrated utterances of eighteenth Homily.^ in this mention of a Curia to There is. still preserved some remains of the Roman revert Curial constitution. however. recognises in 401) a Senator filius Albini appears at the court of Luitprand him a Senator Romanus. therefore. due to the editor of the letters. which.

Generally speaking. Gregory. that the military. Ordo must Although the records of the government of the city at this time are very scanty. in case of appeal. as possess- ing the faculties suited to the circumstances of the was brought into a position which made him the tacitly recognised head of Rome. Supposing that. like inierut. of a civic corporation such a body. to whom and its recourse was made . in fact. deest is merely rhetorical. time.IN theless. the survival of a name merely. so much at least is certain. and with perfect right he is looked upon as the founder of the temporal dominion of the Papacy. while a certain supervision belonged to the Pope. and not the reality. which possessed restricted civic jurisdiction under the City Prefect. a council of administrative officials. — — Gregory's influence far outweighed the power of Growing the Imperial officials. civil and political power in the city was in the hands of the Emperor's officials. nevertheless. Gregory's Position towards the City His Care FOR the People Administration of the Ecclesiastical Property. that the it is. Romans reverencing their a Pope who united in his illus- {he^bishop. . reappears under the name of Ordo. we find the Pope restricted to the Church jurisdiction nevertheless. THE MIDDLE AGES. 3. 53 we can scarcely believe in the entire absence . and embassy of senators in 579 proves the survival of the Senate. the master and preserver in person the episcopal dignity and the renown of Gregory. afterwards called the Concilium. and a part of this have been that corporation.

Ind. senate. . 7. and silken hangings for S. There were no longer any public festivals but those of the Church. The only events which occupied the minds of the indolent people were of a spiritual nature.^ while time-honoured names are discovered connected with estates which already belonged to the Church. hitherto unparalleled. disasters. She consoled herself with pilgrimages to Sinai. the ambitious. ten pounds in gold to purchase the freedom of slaves.^ Religious interests had completely thrust civic affairs into the background. CassianuSy Cornelius^ Primianus. The Church had already become a great asylum for society. The needy there found food and shelter. Thus in the deed of gift of property to S. Gregory's letters seldom speak of any of the wealthy houses of ancient descent. for instance. Ep. and Gregory seems in vain to have invited her to return. the Roman people had adopted an entirely spiritual garb. 9. ^ The wealthy Patricia Rusticiana had withdrawn to Byzantium. however. her 2 five letters.54 trious descent. Paul we find the estates Antonianus. nor games recalled the temporal dominion the patrician families had almost entirely disappeared. and the crowd of men anxious to enter convents and the ranks of the priesthood assumed overwhelming proportions. that the draperies should be borne in solemn procession to the basilica. Neither consuls. . and. as we have already seen. Peter's . Gregory wrote . the belief in the approaching end of the world had gained universal acceptance. demanding. HISTORY OF ROME Since the fall of the Gothic kingdom had extinguished the last remains of public life in the city. xii. except of such as had removed to Constantinople. Under the influence of natural and of the horrors of war. and the Pope with gifts sending him. Rome had suffered a complete transformation.

and gold to the needy.. The Emperors continually Patricius Venantius Italy. Ep. 62. ii. presbyter and bishop had become for the Romans what those of praetor. in an age when the titles of deacon. for the tonsure. he held the day charitable institutions. 55 and rank. the unfortunate slaves of the financial burdens of the State. Even as a monk in his cell on the Clivus Scauri Gregory had daily fed the poor as Pope he still ministered to their necessities. and the Pope gave it abundantly. from taking refuge in the priesthood. meat. 65. forbade soldiers from civil officials from being nominated to of the Church. 16. and at each of the great festivals bestowed gifts on the Church and on Like Titus. in 320. 2. We have. had forbidden the decuriones. Vita. that Gregory strove to enforce some restraint. c. 3. offices Even soldiers deserted their colours were in and the candidates for ecclesiastical all classes so numerous. Constantine. by an edict of 592. At the beginning of every clothes. Hence a misunderstanding Ep. i. '^ Joh. Theodos. ii. on the man forsaking the cloister to assume secular became ex vionacho Cancellarius of and drew upon himself the censures of Gregory.^ its Roman poverty did not stretch out hands in vain for the treasures The times gold among the people. Cod. The strove to prevent the competition of secular officials for ecclesiastical dignities. arose between Gregory and the Emperor. and the cry of the people for " Panern et Circenses " made itself but half-heard. They desired bread.IN di<^nity THE MIDDLE AGES. the case of a office. when the consul scattered when the prefect provided for oil the public distributions of corn. . Diaconus. no longer existed. 33. while the Emperor entering the cloister and Maurice. ecclesiastical offices. xvi. month he distributed corn. other hand. and lard from the coffers of the State. tribune and consul had formerly been esteemed.

to approach the altar. Possessor of the estates which the Church inherited in the peninsula. The Romans now thronged and officials. had at least become the richest landowner in Italy. hearing that a beggar had died in the streets. whether as pilgrims or as fugitives seeking protection from the Lombards. The public distribution of times been made from porticos. in which poverty and Christian humility are simply masks.! The property which gradually accrued to the Church in gifts and legacies from private individuals was conscientiously devoted by Gregory to charitable And the ecclesiastical possessions were objects. and on reaching Rome. Christian benevo- lence exercised true charity in the relief of genuine distress. and once. as priest.56 lost HISTORY OF ROME on which he had not satisfied hunger and clothed nakedness. . Jerome. date apparently from Gregory's days. theatres. and did not venture for several days. he shut himself up. already so vast and numerous that the Pope. if not as yet wielding authority over dukedoms. the friend of S. to the porches of convents food and clothing from spiritual of pilgrims from The crowds beyond the seas found the ancient house in Portus. filled with remorse. and exercising over them a definite though limited 1 Easter. corn had in ancient and the basilicas to receive granaries of the State. The public washing of the feet and banquets to the pilgrims at now degraded into theatrical representations. ready for their reception. or in quarters provided for the purpose. received food and lodging in the hospitals. erected for their use by the Senator Pammachius.

53.. to these sub-deacons. in and Campania. And. assigned to the Apostle Peter. such as it remained for several centuries. The property of the Church was letters The many cultivated by coloni. 2 Joh. Gaul. and the Cottian Alps. at times compelled the peasants to increase the " modius " from the legitimate Brunengo. It consisted of vast patri- monies or domains whole of Southern Sardinia. by Gregory ii. Liguria. has well described the influence which these vast possessions had in forming the character of the temporal power of the Papacy. as a king sends ministers into his provinces. Corsica. f. p. and the numerous letters addressed . It was usually named and collected by conductores or farmers of revenue. c. or government councillors. for Gregory possessed too strict a sense of honour to permit the ecclesiastical treasury to be polluted by questionable gains. THE MIDDLE in AGES. and while they arbitrarily raised the measure of corn. ^ 1862. who paid a tax in pensioy money or in kind.IN jurisdiction. officials who united the attributes of spiritual temporal overseers. the Pope sent deacons and sub-deacons (rectores patrimonii).^ Church.. 25. Vtfa. Le origini della sovranitä temporale del Papi. men bound to the soil. over the Dalmatia. light 57 of a great he appeared the The property of the Roman temporal prince. in Sicily Italy. These officials frequently extorted half the gains of the coloni.^ The accounts of these officials were severely scrutinised. with those of which he addressed to these rectors of patrimonies give an insight into the condition of the Roman peasant. Illyria. Diacon. was scattered over various countries. Rome.

fleet of corn sailed to Portus to supply the storehouses of the city. fixing the modius decisively and decreeing that out of 35 bushels one only was to be given up. economical regulations were exemplary.^ Were supplies lost at sea. This register stated the price paid. the renowned horses of which had once been the theme of Pindar's song. lib. i. These regulations affected Sicily. and to it the colonus could appeal. sheep. The great Pope proved himself an excellent when sitting his horse in a procession. otherwise the loss would be ascribed to them. or 24 Roman pounds. might have boasted that We whether Pindar would have considered the descendant race of " Thou hast sent apostolic steeds worthy of an ode. to 25 sextarii. 70. " a miserable horse and five good asses. he might reckon on the equity of the Pope to accord him a cows. and instituted. called Libellus securitatis. 1 The horse I Ep." Gregory once wrote to the sub-deacon. Gregory taxed these oppressions. from which regularly twice in the year. me. amongst whom the compensation was divided and Gregory warned the rectors not to delay the voyage beyond the favourable season. the loss fell upon the poor coloni. and out of 20 bushels of grain to surrender one. cherish as to some doubts.58 HISTORY OF ROME 1 6 sextarii. prospered. still the granary of Rome. Peter. Peter's estates in Sicily many salutary improvements were landlord. however. his palfrey was provided by the same ancient Trinacria. A register was kept for each colonus. and swine. a at 18 sextarii. new inventory of S. . and. in spring and autumn. The . Had a failure of harvest or other misfortune befallen him.

because they are asses. illatio biirdationis. Patrimonium urbanum has been established by Pope Sergius the First to the church Susanna on the Quirinal {Bull. 440). Ind. the Labicanense between the Via Labicana and the Anio the Tiburtinum between the Via Tiburtina and the Tiber lastly. Ixxxi. 59 cannot ride. and vineyards in the city itself. crist.^ lib. Ind. Adrian entreats Charles : tales nobis famosissimos mittite equos. 1855. ad Petrum Subd. Storici suit agro Romano dal little ^ scec viii. A golden maxim. i. the Church had acquired houses. 34. 30.. p. After the loss of the Sicilian estates. which deserves to rescue from oblivion the letter which contains it. quia nos ecclesice 2 Zaccaria de patrimonis S. atque antiq. as far as the Via Latina. xiii. Var. nor mount the asses." ^ S. 44.. 44. and others iv. Peter's property within Roman territory consisted of four separate groups on both sides the Tiber. the Popes obtained horses from France. in vol. which comBeprised the tract on the right bank of the Tiber. iii.. which together formed a Patrimonium Urbanum. Cenni. 7. Arch. 1870. qzii ad nosiram sessioneni facere debeant. 12 . coloni. With regard to the Ep. the Patrimonium Tusciae. containing a plan of the Ager Romanus by Emidio Pitorri. pertinent ib us. Carol. lib. burdatio (burthen?). from a deed of gift of of S. Roma. 18. ^ Ep. see Cod. i. which comprised the entire Patri- within J^^^^^Q^y between the Via Appia and the sea. 25. de rebus ad hist. 2 : . . Ind. Ixvii (in Cenni. : Gregory expresses his principles in Ep. sino ai giorni nostri.. to the conductor. 19. E. a useful work. he paid a solidus. 781. pensionem ziilegram pensanteni ad septtiagi}ita bma The payment was called pensio (from pensuni). where existence of a . R. p. Eccl. the most extensive of the four. siliqtiaticum.. the mcptiale sctciiluvi commodtim. Ep. 9. A ep.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ Each division of the great district . gardens. Ind. 1 ii. Fulginii. The Patrimonium Appiae. Ind. Sicil. The De Rossi. The canon et concern- ing grain is thus expressed persolvant. was called Cassiodorus. ix. because he is wretched. ex hicris turpibtis non vohnnus inquiitari. also burda or certain duty 30. xii. 93). : 21.^ sides these.d. ii. When a colonus married. 6.

ruins around the walls. such as the Vicus Alexandri Convents and Subaugusta. as the monuments of the capital were despoiled for the construction of the city churches." and several Masses.60 patrimonial HISTORY OF ROME district was divided into tracts for husbandry. according to the current expression of present times. With the title Fundus was designated a small piece of ground. The on which some olive plantations alone remained. . plain in impressive the most world. and a great many catacomb churches. also ii. Goths. again. The columns and blocks of marble belonging to the country houses of former days were carried off to adorn the neighbouring churches. and the traces of the enemy extended ground.^ In this excellent work the relations of the Patrimonia (1879) p. for two hundred years. to which CascB or Casales for the coloni belonged. . abbeys and noble landed proprietors. trodden in down the fields belonging to the city. Tomasetti. The Church had become part the possessor of a great of the Ager Romanus. and Lombards had. which have long since disappeared. called FundiLs^ or Massa. Societa Rom. II. stood here and there amid the ruined villas of Roman nobles. The whole solemn and it is : of the Roman Campagna. are thoroughly treated. a " Tenuta. Several Fundi together constituted a Massa. was cultivated but sparingly by basilicas. " Delia Campagna Romana." Arch. was the . On the Campagna deserted hamlets. Greeks. or. crumbled to ruins. said G. owning a little cultivated land. See ex patrimonio urbano intra hanc urbem Romam. d. formed a Patri- mony.

of which these patrimonies formed the actual foundations. Edistius. S. villa Pertusa in foro Priviiano. Even now the Massa is delle acque Salvie. While in the private property gradually disappeared. peror. Ind. fifth 6l reduced. Cassiano Silottis. Thus the names of ancient families reappear. Antoniano. Paul's. the possessions of the monastery of S. Cornelii. Ep. . Cella vinaria. the ransom of captives of war further. To the treasury of her bishop Rome owed not only her release from the enemy. on the left. the largest in the Appian patrimony. the indemnity demanded for peace by the Lombards. xiv. while the Church adopted the attitude of poverty towards the Emto defray the : Pope was able .e. as also most distant provinces of Italy. Stephen. after the Victoriola and the Cesariana. women) of S. even in the waste.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. i. the Sabina and Tuscany. Thessalata atque Corneliano. aim omnib. resources the Out of his expense of apparently incredible undertakings the maintenance of the churches and of the city. Paul's Alassani quce aquas Salvias mcnaipatur. to a melancholy The Roman Church districts in thus ruled over wide-spread Latium. the and the fossa latronis . still That the the right name of the stream light Almo survived. and had therefore become a temporal power long before the rise of the political ecclesiastical State. the wealth of her treasury remained unexhausted. fuitdis suis . 14. eift and received with submissive gratitude the of a few pounds which he now and then let ^ Gregory set apart the revenues of certain estates for the mainten: ance of the lamps in S. 7. is evident from the same Bull. which throws on the neighbourhood of On outside the gate stood the convent (for Pissinian estate. but occasionally also her almost independent position towards Ravenna.^ century..

borrowed vii. — — Gregory in point of fact exercised almost the power of a sovereign. Ind. that he even sent a tribune to Naples to protect the city already harassed by the Lombards. a gift which was acknowledged by Gregory with thanks (Ep. 2). stationed in the city to obey his behests. viii. 2. however. scarcely controlled by the Exarchs. . and with Constantinople only through a few and cut off from Ravenna by the Lombards. famine. ordo. Gregory makes Peace with Agilulf Phocas Ascends the Throne of Byzantium and Receives Gregory's Congratulations His Column in the Roman Forum. and almost entirely devoid of military protection. Ind. and people to yield obedience to the orders of his nominee further. 129. in Sardinia. the reins of temporal government passing of themselves into his hands. but also with respect to other places. That this was the case not alone with regard to the city.^ Reduced by war. of Rome. guards were everywhere on pounds of gold to be divided About ^ÖQ/lVCaurice sent thirty among the clergy and the poor.62 fall HISTORY OF ROME like golden drops of pity on the rubbish heap pestilence. 4. and that he commanded the troops . 3). to see that 1 He had previously commissioned Bishop Januarius of Cagliari. and admonished the clergy. money from the Church (Ep. united officials. is seen by the fact that he sent a certain Duke Leontius to the Tuscan fortress of Nepi. The Exarch. Rome found in Pope Gregory a national and self-elected head.

Naples. that had he. made Gregory the mediator of peace. at length succeeded in obtaining it in 599. xii. 21. So conscious was he of the greatness of his power. Ind. and also that he communicated with the military commander in regard to undertakings against the enemy. he occupied himself with military measures. until the negotiations of his own envoy. Ep. vii. the servant of the Emperor. Cagliari. 7. conversion of the barbarian enemy. frustrated his intentions. and the urgent distress of Rome. vii. through his Nuncio. or dreading their revenge on the Catholic churches and lands within their territory. his 6^ Rome demanded more that. to the Mag. 24. 2 : Letter of thanks from Gregory to Agilulf and Theodolinda. .^ the Emperor Maurice meanwhile having apparently invested Probus with full authority for the that ^ Nepi. 2. 41. Ind. 5. Mauritius.^ The disastrous condition into which Italy was sunk. xi. Vitalianus. writing to the leader of the troops he did not esteem it right that the soldiers should be withdrawn from the city.IN the alert/ and THE MIDDLE since AGES. 23. 42. lo. they would have no Foreseeing the longer had king. Militum Velox. ^ Ep. that he informed the Emperor. Ind. Ep. Ind. duke. desired the overthrow of the Lombards. militibus Neapolitanis todice civitatis 2 — magnif. Ep. he agreed to an amicable peace. Ind. or count. The intrigues of the Exarch. we can scarcely be surprised a temporal overseer. 7 Universis Constantimuii Tribtimim cics: deputavinnis prcesse. Ep. 22. and strove to maintain it throughout the year. virum xii. 2. and it was owing to his energies that peace was at length restored. 2. however. the Abbot Probus. immediate like care.

Neither days recognise himself as more who. the theory of the two swords as yet undiscovered.64 purpose. who had in Constantinople. The doubtful repose which the city now enjoyed was interrupted by the news of a bloody disturbance The brave Maurice. to be sent by sea. to Theodorus. vii. Peter and S. side. for Exarch Calhnicus. according to the command of the gospel. successfully defended the Empire against the Avars. requesting him to sign the treaty of peace. So great was the esteem in which Gregory was held. stained with the blood of the Emperor and ^ Ep.^ The truce was prolonged until March 60 1. evaded the request. had fallen a victim to a military revolt. centurion. since later letters contain requests from the Pope that the Magister Militum Maurentius and Duke Arichis of Beneventum would allow the beams. not wishing through his signature to burthen himself with responsibility. . and even sent messengers to Rome. . Ind. that the Lombard King regarded him as an independent power. HISTORY OF ROME The negotiating parties were. however. the successor of Romanus. Curator of Ravenna. was required to avoid temporal dealings and did a in those Pope than a priest. the idea of a royal united to a priestly authority being as yet unknown . Gregory. and one of the most infamous monsters known to Byzantine Phocas. a common history had ascended the throne. 103. political affairs . prepared in Bruttium for the basilicas of S. 2. on the one Agilulf and his dangerous to Roman interests the other side —and among them — and — Ariulf of Spoleto on anxious peace — was the dukes. and was then apparently extended. Paul.

vient people. Adrian the First wrote iniperialis to Constantinus and Irene : neque enim quando vel supereffusam Concil. I. I. 603 the BeneNote to Ep. and. O Christ. iii^. in solemn procession. 65 incredible barbarity. Maii. to the magistrates These likenesses. called " Laurata. apparently because the heads were crowned with The subserlaurel. et acclamatum est eis in Leontice Augustor. " Grant. under an escort of soldiers and flute-players. placed them on the spot consecrated to their reception.^ Under the title. filled the place of the Emperor. It was already an old-established custom that each Emperor on his accession should send his own and the Empress's portrait. vultus et imagines in civitates introducuntur." proclaimed the accession of Pope commanded the two-fold portrait to be placed in the oratory of the martyr Caesarius in the episcopal palace. to ^ dictines in the With regard to the Laurata. see Baron. 6. and the Leontia Augusta. and. Kai. he Phocas had caused to be slain in the sight of their father. Ro?7iam VOL.^ viii. 23/^^°"^'^°^ The new Emperor hastened to send his own 601. E . Ep. . unblushingly met them on their arrival in the city.^ On the present occasion clergy and nobility assembled in the Lateran. also Friedländer. after having done homage to them as to living and god-like beings. et obviant judices et plebes cera scripturam^ 758). and his wife's portraits to Rome. with AGES. ßguram imperatoris (in Labbe. Ro??is. Byzantine had ruled in the Palace of Justinian since Nov. and with lighted tapers. . THE MIDDLE whom. saluting the arrival of the images with the invocation. xi. Ind. xi. Darstellungen aus der Sittengesch. 6 and Ducange in the Glossary . II.IN of his five sons." of the provinces. where they arrived on April 25. - cum sed laudibus^ tabulam konorant. life to Phocas Augustus and the tyrant. 210. Ind.. Venit atctem icona suprascriptorum Phocce et VII. ad Ami.

appears probable. Vitaliani in the Lib. et apostol. have been that of S. an Oratorium S. the life of S. invents a site in the Palace of the Caesars. coronand. Gregorius Papa reponi in oratorio S. ad. a proof that the hall in question was a triclinium in the ancient Lateran Palace. Adinolfi. No imperial official is spoken of as present. but how can he have remained in ignorance of the fact that the Church still bestowed canonisation on the Popes even after the days of S. Baronius erroneously supposes on the Via Appia.^ The spot set apart for the solemnisation of the Oath of Allegiance was by no means the ancient Palace of the Caesars. intra palatium.66 HISTORY OF ROME however. ^ Speaking of the Emperor Constans in Rome. it is again the Pope in who orders the imperial images to be placed in is the oratory of a martyr. Cesarii in it to Gibbon His inaccuracy with regard to the topography of the city is pardonable. 2 Roma di Mezzo. It Julice Imperatricis mentioned in the was identical with the ca^nera Ordo Rom. Tunc jussit ipsain iconam Dom. Galletti. is there any mention of the Senate. Ccesarii mar. Impera222. On the contrary. That this basilica received its name from the Gentile name of the mother of Constantine. i. in spite of the importance of the occasion. but some part of the Lateran Palace is intended. .2 found Gregory must have shrunk from the very depths of his soul from an Emperor who had waded to sovereignty through streams of blood. beat. but policy compelled him to write submissive congratulations to Lateranis in basilica Jtdii ab omni clero et senatu : Exaudi Christe : Phocce Augusto et Leontice Augustce Vita. we are given to understand that not a church. p. 3. but a hall in the Patriarchlum of the Lateran. ff. Gregory ? the Vestiarium of the Lateran. says venit ad Lateranas et Iccttis ibidem pranstis est hi basilica Julii (read Julia). and this oratory the Lateran. nor. Flavia : ^ Julia Helena. orem. Pont. Cesario There was. of Basilica Julii. del vesturario. however.

Neither Rome nor art any longer possessed the means of constructing a new column. . Histoire dtc Pontife St Grdgoire (Paris. Gregory had no further share in the erection of this Column column. above whose heads towered the majestic columns of Trajan and Antoninus. to Phocas. flatters Lewis the Fourteenth. 38. Ind. Muratori's indignation is betrayed . xi. Gregoire peu content du gouvernement de . Maimbourg. and this statue was placed by Smaragdus in the Forum. 44. i. xi. excuses Gregory. 1680). * : ' tout le respect et toute la soumission qu'un sujet doit ä son Prince. 257. xi. and redound to his dishonour in the same way as the column of Phocas in the Forum does to that of the city. to Leontia. of The unfortunate Romans. in his eulogy of Maurice Gibbon and Bayle speak the truth. and the new rule We read restored freedom and fortune to Rome. Ep." Saint says with elegance etait : ' * ou voit par cette lettre. They constitute the only stain in the life of a great man. however. in the month of June Ep.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Baronius. An antique ^ To Phocas. even to a tyrant such as Phocas avec .^ the letters with indignation. sideways over against the Triumphal Arch of Septimus Severus. as if the death of the upright and once friendly Maurice (who had. 6. striven to check the growing importance of the Roman bishop through the Patriarch of Constantinople) had removed some grievous yoke." The Abbe Fleury merely combien Maurice. still perhaps bearing on their summits the likeness of those glorious Emperors. while blackening the fame of Maurice. He makes heaven and earth rejoice. telling him that Gregory's humility was so exemplary that he wrote. 6/ Phocas and Leontia. which was not placed in the Forum until four years after his death. were forced by the Exarchs to ask Phocas to bestow the honour of his statue upon their city. Ep. 45.

had been erased by the just hatred of the Romans. accordance with Rom. until. amid ruin and decay. The column of Phocas still stands in its place. it has remained upright amid rubbish and decay. unless the artist was an adept in flattery. Cesario. however. The Emperor's statue. of the Corinthian order. We entertain some doubts. the Romans could here better view the coarse. of gilt bronze. It is probable that a statue of some earlier Emperor may have received the name of Phocas. and set upon a great pedestal of four-sided pyramidal construction. was erected the last public adornment of Rome. its March pedestal was uncovered. and inscription . in 1813. for centuries the curiosity of the enquirer. while the statues and other columns of the Forum which surrounded it have disappeared. further. yS palms in was borrowed from an ancient building. and this is all the more likely. in the sense of antiquity. and. The name of the Emperor. Accident has preserved this isolated column. and the statue of Phocas is also the monument of Byzantine despotism. Thus. together with some of the epithets bestowed upon him by his flatterers. because a proceeding of the kind would have been entirely in and. was placed upon its lofty capital. as to whether this statue was an actual portrait and the work of a contemporary artist. and. exciting . and its brought to light. misshapen form of the Emperor than they were able to do in S. among nameless pedestals from which the statues have long disappeared.an tradition because no Roman had beheld the Byzantine tyrant.68 fluted pillar HISTORY OF ROME height.

. : ariiis^ rigidtts. 1813. I. Of the Senate there is here no more mention than on Narses' bridge over the Anio. 170. 4. Hist. see Carlo Fea. Comp. . 69 midst of a chaos of overthrown fragments. Iscrizione di Roma. Z. vi. sanguin^ For the inscription. it symbolises the life of a despot more fitly than the most eloquent words of Tacitus could have done. headless..IN in THE MIDDLE AGES. Alongside this pompous inscription it is amusing to read the list of epithets bestowed on the Emperor by Cedrenus vinosus^ mulierosus. &c. Publici. and alone. statueless. p.^ the Momiin. and Corp. 1200.

in the noble figure of we have hitherto seen Gregory nothing but the clear light of a penetrating intellect and an unequalled and many-sided energy. in others it is powerless. Character of the Sixth Century Mohammed and Gregory Religious Conditions of the Time Worship of Relics Belief in Miracles Gregory Consecrates the Gothic Church of S. and the mind necessarily remains subject to the influence of the time in which it dwells and by which. Agatha in the suburra. III. thick cloud of barbarism. as The sixth century. — — — — — The present chapter obliges us to return to the If reverse side of the picture. hung over the Roman Empire. and on this account believed that the end of the world had come. and his writings have served to diffuse these superstitions over various lands and peoples. by the atmosphere. Genius in some instances may enable a man to rise above the level of the age to which he belongs. His mind was entangled in many a superstition. sixth century is The A .70 HISTORY OF ROME CHAPTER I. it is surrounded. as it were of dust arising from the crash. of a great and ancient civilisation. we must now survey him as he stands encompassed by the darkness of his time. one of the most memorable In it mankind experienced the overthrow j^^ history.

IN THE MIDDLE its AGES. The Catholic Church everywhere constituted itself the vital principle of these growing nations. slowly arose . while the marvel of the Byzantine Empire. Rome and Mecca. premature heralds of Germany. which. became the symbolic temples of the Covenants of the European and the Asiatic world. Gregory and Mohammed were the two priests of the West and East. and. These events took place at a time when the East was stirred by a like impulse of development when Mohammed had appeared to found a new religion. amid which the Goths. Each founded a hierarchy on the ruins of antiquity. destroying angel. . forced the Byzantine Empire first to return to Italy. To the Church they turned as to a centre. there the Caaba. the Church by degrees drew them together in a union which was destined. and through the concussion of the two systems the future fate of Europe and Asia was decided. Sophia. here the Basilica of S. through the instrumentality of the Lombards in Gaul through that of the Franks in Spain by means of the Visigoths in Britain by those of the Saxons. uniting nations on the eastern ruins of the Roman dominion. sooner or later. 7 devastated throughout length and breadth by the ills. and then . . dealing pestilence and other The world entered upon ment. for centuries to . Peter. had perished. be the bulwark of Hellenic culture in the West. remained the centre of existing Hellenism. through the conquest of Arianism. the church built by Justinian to S. Upon the ruins a turning-point in its develop- of the ancient Empire. to give political form to a new Western Empire. fresh forms of national in Italy life now .

a like procession. A mystic excitement.72 Is it HISTORY OF ROxAIE strange that in a period of chaos and transi- tion such as this the rehgious imagination was pre- eminently active? When in the crisis of illness all other powers of the mind are suspended. as its object. imagination wanders unchecked through the realm of dreams. Before the time of Constantine. Sick with grievous ills. would have had Christ. that in the procession for the plague already described. and in Benedict we have already seen the founder of a new monasticism issuing from Rome.other did the people turn for delivery. a fact which shows that Mariolatry (at the present day both in Italy and Greece the prevailing worship). the goal was the church of the Virgin Mary. It is a significant fact. Is it too much to assert that the transformation from the formerly youthful. the Founder of its religion. as in the time of Constantine. Apollo-like ideal of Christ into the stern and aged figure in the mosaics had contributed to alienate the popular mind from the worship of the Saviour ? The pure worship of the Divinity . who. only appeared to the suppliant for mercy under the form of the dreadful Judge of all. Not to the Saviour. the mind of mankind sank into the gloomiest extravagances. with regard to the religious life of Rome at the time. but to His m. In Vandal and Gothic times it would have turned to the Apostle Peter. had already gained the ascendancy. took possession of society. represented in the mosaics in severe and terrible majesty. could such have taken place. but in the seventh century the imagination of the populace was more immediately directed to the mother of Jesus than to the Son.

or. with new saints from every province. for their Christ. a part of the shrine of a church she was build- . Their churches filled the towns. Secular learning. the institution of ceremonies. still maintained a feeble ideal among degenerate mankind. Descending from Christ to the Apostles. the reverence of believers had been diverted to the great multitude of martyrs. surrendered to the Lombards their city itself rather than any portion of these relics. 73 had been for some time past split up into a new mythology. an art the importance of which in such an epoch cannot be over-estimated.Worship of ^^^^ ^' theism and the Romans had no sooner become ^ Christians than they proceeded to fill their city. at his remains.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. for instance. and the pompous forms into which the service of the Church had developed after the age of the Fathers and of the dogmatic struggles with regard to the fundamental teaching of Christianity. The Empress Constantina ingenuously implored Gregory to send her the head of the Apostle Paul. for any rate. time of Gregory as it is to-day. criticism. the rite of the Mass. since ancient times a Pantheon of the gods. and judgment had vanished and given place to mystic enthusiasm and material worship. or champions. bones and altars the churches. The worship of relics was as fully developed in the Relics. The sensuous all times been incapable of mono. and would have Latin race had at . and their churches with the bones and relics of these saints. Painting alone. Chief of all their sacred possessions the Romans boasted the remains of the Apostles Peter and Paul. the worship of saints. as. as the princes of the hierarchy. had come to an end.

The and silently made away with their spoils. A piece of cloth which had served to cover his tomb. Lawrence. 12. while engaged in building the church of S. when. he cunningly added.i The Romans had every reason to guard their relics with a jealous eye. Numerous were the adventurers in search of treasure. still more numerous perhaps those in search of bones. was not. Ind. Men travelling for their own ends. always successful. placed in a box. He replies that it would be a sin worthy of death to touch the sacred bodies. for relics were in great demand. but often filed at the chain without getting even a little span of it. iii. one of the workmen employed in the undertaking had been snatched away by death. would suffice to show the miraculous powers of the Apostle and these magnetised rags. however. He himself had wished to undertake a trifling alteration at the grave of S. Romans.74 HISTORY OF ROME ing in her palace at Byzantium. called Brandea^ would he send the Empress. he goes on to inform her. Pelagius. stealthily ransacked the churchyards to discover the remains of the martyrs. had opened the grave of the saint. priest. and all the monks and custodians who beheld the corpse had died within ten days. could he succeed in detaching one. or in the com- mission of foreign bishops. although guarding the relics of their city ^ Ep. to whom such a task was entrusted. . as he could assure her. Peter. or else a link of the chain of The S. 30. or even to approach them by a glance. and Gregory's answer betrays the difficulty he had in mastering the irritation roused by the request. Paul.

Proud in the possession world could share. harum circumdata nexu. Petri Apost. Greeks digging for one day. were held in the same esteem as the conse- which no other church in the crated Golden Rose in a later age. the history of the Apostles. calHng itself the Brotherhood of Peter's Chains. revived the custom of sending S. but also the magnet which should attract pilgrims from every land. eris. discovered dismay. EczdeiJi igitur qua sancta colla tenuerunt^ suspenses colla vestra sanctificent. He sent them to Alphonso of Spain. was formed as late as the year 1866. Filings from the chain of S. A society. says at the end of Arator. in his the first poem on book : His solidaiafides^ his est tibi Roma catenis Perpetuata salus.^ Sometimes shavings of iron from the fabulous gridiron of S. quid eni?)i non vincula prastent. corpore coruscare catencB. Libera semper Quce tetigit. 29. : i. and at others gold crosses enclosing fragments chain in of wood of the true cross. non ullo penitus quatientur ab hoste. Never were any chains worn so long as those of . Peter. qui portam pandit in astris. to which the safety of the city was ascribed in the sixth century. Lawrence were added. It had become the custom to enclose infinitesimal portions of the golden keys. Gregory VII. 6. clavem a S. —qua super cegros inultis Gregory sent to Andreas de Dibiria solet niiraculis nam ilia etiani de ejus catenis interius habet. Paul. Peter's keys as presents.IN THE MIDDLE its AGES. S. Peter. qui cuncta potest absolvere ? cuius Hcec invicta manu. and to wear these keys as amulets round the neck. Greg. Such crosses and golden illness : keys were esteemed means of defence against ^ Together with Ep. . Claudit iter be His. 75 better than they did their walls. vii. Reg. they beheld in them not only the Palladium of Rome. to bones near the of pledges Basilica of S. vel religiosa triumpho Mccnia..

2 Rome.2 the The Pope sent amulets only to persons of most exalted rank. Gifts of oil from the lamps burned before the graves of the martyrs were bestowed on distant churches. Childebert of France. . Ep.. and there were fixed days on which believers were accustomed to anoint themselves with the sacred liquid. the sixth do they seem to have come into general use. gives a list of the oils of the Marini's in various martyrs of Rome brought to Monza at the instance of Queen dates from about the year 600. and Theodolinda. fit Peter which he had captured. vii. placed in vases labelled with the of the saint. note. sufficed to work miracles. Marini. the custom to send presents of the oil from the Holy Cross in Jerusalem to Rome. was punished for of artistic insolence by the blade piercing his throat. : Theodolinda.'yiov ^ravpov. p. . Fish. Cotton steeped in this title oil. ^ still . prefects. Pap. and bard of his Gregory himself relates how a Lom- who desired to alter the form of a cross S. The document 377.^ soldier. patricians.. as in ancient times but although crossshaped amulets were known in Rome in the fourth century. crucis et 34. Christ. It was. on the other hand. not until De Rossi. unu7n quod tactu benedicat. was sent to these sanctuaries. alitid quod incensiim bene redoleat. which is preserved in the Treasury at Monza. vi. Reccared of Spain. as. were first worn round the neck also golden bullce. May 1863. 23. for instance. aloes lignum.^ Gregory. Dipl. Con- Gregory affirms. as Gregory sent an amulet in the form of a golden cross. The use of amulets was common in Rome as early as the fourth century. and Ducange 'EAoioj/ toC h. n. 143. made of metal and containing relics. Bullettino di Archeol. Paul to tact with it. to ex-consuls. and kings. who had refused the head of S. ^ Ep. The ex-Consul Leontius sends him oletim s. to Queen Theodolinda.^6 HISTORY OF ROME like evils. his Glossary.

and gladly though we would esteem these superstitions to be to discover these delusions cherished long-vanquished errors of the imagination. FzVa. and another of S. and thus the Romans had fortunately been able to replace . halos round the heads of the saints. 'JJ the Byzantines. xxiv. the appear- ™^^^ ^^* ances of Mary. which now strove more eagerly than ever to gather It is said within her walls relics of world-wide fame. the fragrance of bodies. Paul had performed them. which. whose breadth of mind led him to protect the very Jews from the persecution of fanatic bishops. It by a man such as Gregory. that the Pope had succeeded in discovering the miracle-working robe of S.^ 189. all is. the belief in all the superstitions of the age. evidence ^ Joh. how^ever. their lapis manalis. Pagi is not surprised that a coat should work when the handkerchiefs p. or rainstone. had for centuries effected the same results. .^ With this worship of relics was associated the belief in other superstitions of the Belief in time . surprising long found acceptance. John Diaconus. F. of which beliefs had nevertheless.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. c. carried in Pagan times along the Via Appia. and girdle of S. three hundred years later. John the Evangelist. miracles. Andrew. 58 : vestes—foras excussce. the resuscitation of the dead. . to the city. Diac. visions of demons . and had it deposited weithin the Lateran basilica. it had called down rain at the time of the inundation it had brought clear skies. Breviar. of Peter. had himself brought an arm of the Apostle Luke. His letters and dialogues betray. asserted that in his time the robe still sustained its reputation that at a period of drought. when shaken outside the doors of the Lateran. iii.

The constant intercourse maintained with Sicily undoubtedly explains the adoption of the saint insular into the Roman worship.^ He During three nights a frightful noise was heard in the rafters. iv. to uproot the last associations of and on this account consecrated the church.yS HISTORY OF ROME of present times unfortunately forbids us to do so. Dialog. The devil was Arian. in the Third Region. 1291. Ii. and to dedicate it to S. n. 19. p. founded by Ricimer. and here the worshipped as protectress from the flames of Etna. several of which had undoubtedly belonged to the Arians. Agatha of Catania. in the invisible but yet palpable form of a pig. Severinus. 161. ran to and fro between the legs of the worshippers until he finally made closed.^ his exit. Gregory tells us that he intended to purify an Arian church beside the Palace Merulana. Reg. 30. saint is still to S.^ . Jaffe. Gregory dedicated the church in the Suburra. ^ Ep. The Pope desired.. We repeat this anecdote solely on account of its historic Toleration for the Arian faith had expired interest.. whose remains were brought to Naples by his brothers in the time of Odoacer. Ind. with the fall of the Goths the last traces of Gothic rule still clung to the closed churches. for whose ashes he had It is needless to add that the written to Campania. ii. ^ He terms the church qtiondam spehmca p7'avitatis h(2retic(Z. solemnly relates that after the ceremony the devil. c. to the Catholic faith. and after the disturbance had ceased a fragrant cloud remained on the altar. iii. and in him Gregory alludes to the Lombards. the doors of which had long remained Arianism within the city. 2 19 . . I have not been able to discover any church in Rome dedicated to the celebrated saint of Noricum. moreover.

the poet Saxo says doctrine. viii. quia pro labe necesse est Corporea^ tristis me sorbeat ignis averno. ssec. c. he was undergoing punishment for his heretical assent to the election of the anti-Pope Laurentius. Kegist. is the term adopted by the Fathers used by Prudentius. divided. into various parts (poenales fire.. worthy of remark that. loci). 79 had long been and that the dogma of purgatory {piirgatorius ignis) dates from the days of Gregory. Such as died in the faith were purified by purgatorial . was said to have been carried to the volcano of Lipari. According to p. had but just arrived. current. f}ietu gehenncB aterna incendia pertimescens. as in Dante's poem. He appears to have already an idea of purgatory. It is. iv.-^ 1 Dialog. other places also bore The the reputation of belonging to the lower world. sent by his physicians to the baths of Anguli (the present S. soul of Theodoric.. 40. although the valley of Gehenna was held to be the especial abode of the lost.IN belief in hell THE MIDDLE AGES. : guisquis In the ninth century sevis tortoribus igne gehenne. more especially in : the singular passage in the Hamartigenia avidcz nee Devoret hanc animani sic 77icrsa77i fornacibus imis —Esto In a ßamma gehennce : cavernoso. The paralytic Bishop Germanus of Capua. It is Gehenna also of the Church. : 260) of Deed of we read Gift (see Gregory's there was a bottomless pit (Infernus) in the earth. — Farfa in Fatteschi. Angelo in the Abruzzi). when he was thrown into no slight dismay by seeing in the midst of the vapour arising from the baths the perspiring soul of The ghost assured him that the Deacon Paschasius. &c. for instance. however.

in reading anecdotes such as these. Maurus.80 HISTORY OF ROME 2. the wish involuntarily arises that the great Pope had not been responsible for their authorship. with which Gregory is supposed to regale the ears of Peter. — — — — — — The foregoing pages. and delusions prevailing The student. may read the Dialogues written by the Pope himself. and where a word occasionally let fall serves to maintain the form of a dialogue. few books obtained a like measure of success. ^^^^ volumes filled with miraculous histories. The editors. which suffice to confirm our illus- opinion of Gregory and his contemporaries. his faithful deacon. members of the congregation of S. spirit of Be that as it may. them into the Saxon tongue. ascribed the conversion of the Lombards to the influence of these works. In copies and translations the Dialogues spread over East and West a version appeared in Arabic at the end of the eighth century. among mankind at the period. and that the belief in such superstitions . Written in the fourth year of Gregory's pontificate. and the historian of Italian literature in a later age maintains that the contents of the Dialogues are of a nature calculated to impress the childish a barbarous people. and Alfred of England later rendered . however. Gregory's Dialogues Legend concerning Trajan The Forum of Trajan State of Learning Accusations against Gregory Increasing Ruin OF the City Gregory Attempts to Restore the Aqueducts. trate a few of the beliefs Gregory's la ogues. anxious to pursue the subject more fully.

she prevails on Trajan to dismount and Gregory. 8l illustrious had not been sanctioned by the authority of so a man." asks the poor widow. he looked with admiration on this work of Roman greatness. could be used as a weapon against the Arianism of the Lombards. "who shall secure me justice?" and the answer that his successor would award it. The whole of the second book is dedicated to the acts of Benedict. and the Dialogues went forth from the hands of the Pope as silent missionaries of the Roman Church throughout has been lasting. were national. when passing the Forum of^j. and which. The widow bewails her son. the provinces.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. . setting forth to battle. n. In return for the the great many marvellous histories which Pope has related. His attention was more particularly attracted by a bronze group. seeing this F grant her justice on the spot. believed that In the eighth century was Legend concernins: one day. and demands justice of the Emperor. nevertheless. failing to satisfy her. however. Gregory only relating such legends as were calculated to increase the fame of Italian saints of his own time.^J^" Trajan. which represented Trajan.^. as evidence that the Roman Church was still in possession of miraculous powers. he has himself become it the subject of legend. " If thou fallest. their harmfulness They. Trajan promises to judge her case as" soon as he has returned from the war. VOL. who had been slain. in the act of descending from his horse to give audience to a suppliant widow. Their usefulness as a means to is conversion doubtful or transient . possess a signiThese histories ficance which we cannot overlook.

he heard a voice from heaven him that his prayer for Trajan had been heard. 69. Several arcus pietatis are mentioned in the Middle Ages . a province being perhaps represented as a woman supplicating the Emperor. heaven was found to be dogmas of the Church. who. had pronounced Christianity a religio illicita. that the soul of the Pagan Emperor had been released. condemned the wept at the thought into telling way to S." 35 fasc of the Bibl. de t^cole des hautes Etudes. given in Joh. with whom Trajan seems to have been afterwards confounded. c. being placed by one of the holiest of Popes among the blessed variance with the fable. The Mirabilia transfer the meeting of the widow with the Emperor (whose name is not mentioned) to the arcus pietatis ante S. .^ The audacious idea of a Pagan Emperor. 16. c. where. c. one in S. i. Damascen. falling an ecstasy. viii. This in the pretty which arose time of Rome's decline. 14. Diac. the cere- mony ended. 1883. where were a templum divi Adriani and arcus pietatis {Mirabilia). ii. *'La Legende de Trajan. Die Cassius. Vita. Mariam rotundam. Peter's. has ^ The legend doubtless arose from some relief then existing in the Forum. c. another near S. Aquiro.). but that he must not again attempt to intercede for an unbeliever. Pastor on the Esquiline. and delivered in it over to the persecution at of the State.^ overcome by grief to eternal all that so just a ruler should be perdition. and Arturo Graf. ii. relates the incident with the suppliant 2 woman of Hadrian. by his edict to Pliny. (ssec. Roma nella memorie del medio evo. qui in fide dormierunt . de iis. 6. Legend further adds that Gregory reanimated the dust of the Emperor in order to baptise his soul fell . Diac. 12. Maria in Gaston Paris has traced the development of the legend in literature. the body to pieces while the soul ascended to heaven. Joh. and. Paul.82 incident HISTORY OF ROME represented in bronze. The legend is 27.

as. also rejects the shall not. but he is instead so carried this occasion. further into however. and demonstrates that the Pope was guilty neither of any compassion for Trajan nor of having ever prayed for a Pagan. that is to say in the eighth century. c. ^ appears to have not yet i. 83 been severely condemned by Cardinal Baronius. trouble ourselves. with enfeebled memory. of the controversies. Bellarmin. which we have only repeated here as one of the most remarkable memories of the decadence of shows us the Romans of the eighth century. that he heaps sins away by zeal on mountains high on it the soul of Trajan. he found this legend depicted Qtiivi era storiata Valta gloria Del rovian prince^ lo cui gran valore Mosse Gregorto alia sua gran vittoria : Lo dico di Traiano imperadore^ ^c. ^ first Amid the reliefs illustrative of humility which Dante beheld : in the circle of purgatory. canto x.i It the Forum itself. de Purgatorio. We legend. 8. though dispassionately. In the time of Paul. Thus the legend arose. in order to thrust hell. who carefully whitewashes the sainted Gregory from the innocent charge. . torn. Diaconus. The Cardinal might with justice have expressed some doubt as to whether bronze statues remained in the Forum in the days of Gregory. they looked on the column of Trajan.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. by whom the legend it is related.^ Of the condition of the Forum of Trajan at this Fomm of ^^^'^^' period we are entirely ignorant. who gravely. and spread like some climbing plant in Rome. — Piirgaf. and told each other wondrous tales of the deeds of their noble Emperor.. either with regard to Baronius or to Cardinal Bellarmin.

and even later. fila tuis. . from the among them that of the Emperor. Venantius Fortunatus. Vifa. Virgil. Diacon. Fortun. they might have been quoted by the historian of the Roman Senate in the Middle Ages as evidence of the continued survival of the Council of the Fathers. iii. and from which we can form some idea of the beauty of his Forum.^ According to two statements made by Gregory's contemporary. carm. 23 vii. c. Stravissent plantis aurea And again : Si sibi forte fuit bene notus Homerus Athenis. and another relief containing several figures. 27 g'twd opere mirifico constat esse con- structum. Ve^idettini del Sen. poem 10.84 HISTORY OF ROME fallen into utter ruin. ^ Translator. iv. c. [But the second passage is hardly evidence of Homer having been recited in Rome .^ Aut Maro Trajano Although these lines apply as fitly to remote as to more recent times. Rom. Quod si tale decus recitasses auri senatus. lectus in urbe foro.. at this time. The bishop says : Vix modo tarn nitido pomposa poemata cultu Audit Trajano Roma verenda foro.^ ^ A modern writer on : Italian Paul. down to the Gothic period. ^ Venant. or some other poet read aloud. the people were here accustomed to assemble to listen to Homer. Bishop of Poictiers. 17. The Lateran Museum contains two magnificent alto-reliefs Forum of Trajan. p.] From : the epitaph of Venantius on Bishop Leontius he quotes the following — Nob Hitas altum ducetis ab origine nomen Quale genus Romce forte senatus habet. c. — Lib.. 8. which must have belonged to his triumphal arch..

who borrows the substance work from Giesebrecht's dissertation. and Jordanes. history. and are consequently led to inquire into the state of learning at the time. and the Senate awarded a carpet of cloth to of gold the victor in rejecting these literary contests. The writings of these distinguished men show quence antiquity that poetry. &c. 6. philosophy flourished. The author in this poem renders the history of the Apostles into hexameters ^ by no means of his Ozanam. by Boethius and Cassioprovided with teachers dorus. their Contemporary poets there declaimed works. through their means.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 85 mediaeval literature has."^ literal Although such interpretation of these flowers of rhetoric. Pietro ad Vincula (544). poetic art of had not as yet been banished under the at the influence of the Church. the Bishops Ennodius. During the rule of Theodoric and Amalasuntha. the Ex-comes and Sub-deacon Arator might have been heard reading his poem. we admit that down to the time of Gregory the custom of reciting poetry in the Forum of Trajan still survived. The Gothic period is further graced by the last names of eminence in Latin literature. amid the applause of an appreciative audience. state of ^^'^"'"^• we have seen schools in Rome paid well cared for and by the State. p. Venantius Fortunatus. been betrayed into the assertion that " at the end of the fifth century Virgil was solemnly read in the Forum of Trajan. the verses of Virgil same time that were declaimed in the Forum.. De literarum sttidiis apud Italos. in the Basilica of S. and elo- still The and classic. . Documents in^dits.

and Job had written in metre. was comes domestzcorum under Athalaric. He makes use of Olympus for the heaven of Christianity. and asserts his opinion that the been which visited a sub-deacon in the sixth century. 21. who died in 615. . as is shown to by the Psalms. Tiraboschi. 1665. took orders apparently at the time of the siege of Rome under Vitiges. and became sub-deacon. He wrote two books in hexameters: "Deactibusapostolor" {Max. in which Paganism now and then transpires. A. The muse of Virgil. n. and who in his works naively places ^ Arator. c. a Ligurian (who died 556 or 560). the end of which.86 barbarous/ and to HISTORY OF ROME in the inscription whom it is is dedicated. 139. also contains an account of the dedication to Vigilius. Gesch.. fol. Each poem was read aloud seven Both are found in Cod. begins with the Alanus ab Insulis in the twelfth century. Christendom had become wholly imbued by the forms and ideas of antiquity. who. its ancient metres. justifies himself that metre not foreign to Pope Vigilius. the first dedicated to S. in the writings of Gregory's con- temporary. f. by saying Holy Writ. p.). Kunst. and innocently appeals to the Almighty under the name of Tonans. i. the second to S. i. Allg. . its times in public by author. Galletti. in the Mythologie und Symbolik der Christi. when. might have supplemented this chapter with examples from the time of Arator. the celebrated Irish monk Columba. Patr. del priniicerio. x. with Canticles. ideas reappearing in the time of renascence of Charles the Great. 2 These forms never entirely faded from Christian literature Pagan X. i. Veter. Peter.^ t. Ebert. Bibl. iii. 39. carries him away in some timid recollections. originally Jeremiah. .^ Paganism again appears. Vatican. Vigilius accepted these Pagan conceits in 544 with as little reluctance as did Leo the Tenth. Piper. Paul.. der Liter. des Mittelalters (1874). 490. the ancient God of Thunder. in the sixteenth century. the founder and abbot of the monastery of Bobbio. and of the public reading of the poems.

Ep. we are led to believe that Rome of John was. the Max. 28. Ind. et miseria vitcB mortalis. same time of no longer hear of the dialectics.^ 24. since Gregory than reputation invited Marianus.^ The overthrow tine wars. how- ever. . Long. may to some extent have existed. Castiglioni. later It Westphalia.IN Christ THE MIDDLE AGES. The celebrated Cod. under Gregory's government. and no doubt teachers and pupils of the humane sciences must have always been forthcoming. ad Fedolium" p. schools of rhetoric. BibL). bishop of the latter city. and to Upsala. was thence conveyed to " Ulphila Gothica Versio Epistolce divi Pauli Mcdiol. physicians If Roman we accept the pompous utterances Diaconus. Ix. in Carlo Troja.y'' 1829.^ The cost of education had to be defrayed from the scanty resources provided by private rather than Education could not be entirely public means. Sy Danse. Columba belonged to Bobbio. zealously cherished still by Theodoric. Dipl^ ii. Both rhyme and assonance already appear '^ xii. from which he suffered. 4. sciences. involved the destruction at the the humane . Cod. in truth " a temple of wisdom supported by the seven arts. de vanitate by Gothic priests. of in his poem. like pillars. Pa:mata Epist. to come to Rome to be treated for some chest complaint. Columbani. and jurisprudence in We Rome that of medicine alone. argenteus of Ulfilas." Nor among the Pope's companions was there any whose ^ S. 34 (torn. of public institutions by the Byzanfall and the of the Gothic kingdom. neglected. apparently enjoyed a higher those of Ravenna. Hector alongside of Pygmalion and and Achilles. a treasure probably bestowed on S.

and Ep. Ind xv. Joh. vindicabit. of his the barbarism picture which own century Fifth. : dictata bene transferant nan sunt. imposturarum sibi prcestigia. vi. et facundissima virgo Cecropia (the Greek language). each and all were versed in Latin literature. . Neither did Byzantium boast any scholar capable of explaining Latin documents. ii. and how completely Rome was severed from the classic literature of the Greeks. Greg. Speech or manner bore the traces of barbarism on the contrary. 13. where. (ii. monk of Monte Casino in the ninth century. 27. that in Gregory's Curia no one was able to speak Greek. Latinis tradiderat. .^ The study of the liberal arts again the learned had no longer to take thought flourished . of their lives highest rank. the Pope chose as his associates men of the greatest learning rather than those of the in short. and the fact seems strange. Varrone ccelibatum SMum auferente. and we are thus enabled to understand how entirely the two cities had become estranged from one another. The Pope himself admits that he did not understand the language. 2 c. quce quondam suce mentis acumina. 14) remarkable in his century soia deej-at interpretandi bilinguis peritia. Gregory admits his ignorance quamvis expresses himself is : : The "barbara eleganza" with which Ep. c. ^ Togata and traheata latinitas^ says the barbarous Vita S. sicut ipse in suis epistolis quceritur. namely. et de Latino in Grcecum GrcEcce Ungues nescuis : . civitate qui de Grceco in Latinum. in John Diaconus sketches. Diacon..88 HISTORY OF ROME .^ Constantinople. he must have heard Greek in daily use. vi. when we remember at that he had lived so many years as Nuncio although Latin remained the official language and that of the court. hodie in Constantinop. It is difficult to believe this. 29. (the ninth) a would have better the befitted the later court of Nicholas The learned monk laments but one shortcoming.

Job. writing to the Gallic bishop. and speaks of the Pope as being so versed in grammar. the brilliancy of his plain terms that The own chronicler. This admission. . and that he disdained considering syntax and construction. as introduction to the Exposit. literary studies flourished in rival Rome. JIM . and dialectics from his childhood that. dont viii. 563. is explained by Tiraboschi. Desitells sdSices ashamed to hear that Desiderius had instructed some persons in grammar. 111 sciences derius. 235. 48. ^ Non barbarismi confusionem devito. Hist. says Fleury. he is him he speaks of ancient literature as it " foolishness. Moral.^ He elsewhere admits that it was not his object to avoid barbarism of style. effaces picture when he tells Gregory prohibited the reading of Pagan authors to the clergy he even quotes the notorious passage in the Pope's letter which proves Gregory "^^ enemy -1 r^ Gregory s hostile attitude towards the humane of the . John DIaconus ascribes to Gregory a thorough acquaintance with all liberal discipline. the Pope. Phil. Epist. situs niotusque ccclestis et tionum casus servare co7itemno.^ godless that there cannot be ^ " " to set Quia in uno ix. ad. quia ijuiigjtum vehementer ut verba oraculi restringam sub regulis Donati. praposiexistitno Ep. and maintains room in the same mouth for the praise of Christ and that of Zeus. as he expresses it. had no us in in the city. who defends Gregory with great skill. on which Erucker. EccL. rhetoric. se ore cum Jovis laudibus Christi laudes non capiunt.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. in Libr. lays great stress. 89 True. iii. although in his time. Leandrum. however." declares any value upon it. Crit. holding it unworthy to force the word of God into the rules of Donatus. il nous reste le plus d'ecrits. where. Hist. C'est des tous les papes celui. as a scholar.

26. . Sicily.).90 HISTORY OF ROME The that first of these passages is sufficient to prove Gregory showed himself hostile towards the humane sciences. His position forced him to confine his influence exclusively to the Catholic life. 20. x. The presbyter was probably a lover of the fine arts. and his Latin is by no means barbarous. iii. with marvellous mental energy. it were vain to require from either the man or his even a factor in the education of mankind. or . amid the cares of office and constant ill-health. he found. ).. and while. but his language frequently rises in flights of rhetoric. but we have no justification for asserting that he was himself ignorant or uncultured. In Reggio the Presbyter Sisinnius worshipped an image of one of the gods in his own house (4. encourage. a silent supposition which none of his writings. was rewarded by Gregory with a brief. His works bear the stamp of his time. (Ep. Ep. . in Corsica. vii. 2. Ep. iv. who incited the monks literature. . The toleration of the judices of this island for Paganism could be purchased by money. in iii. If he were acquainted with the dialectics of the ancients. time the culture of profane recognition of 'literature as a Pagans in Terracina Greg. &c. as regards philosophy.^ but could feel no attachment to the poets of antiquity and Gregory the bishop must be judged by another standard than Cassiodorus the statesman of classic culture. . There were numbers of Pagans in Sardinia their duke.. ^ . vii. His learning was of a theological nature. 33. leisure for his theological writings. becoming a convert to Christianity. where they were known as Barbaricini Hospitio. The man to whom England owed her conversion beheld Italy still here and there under the spell of the graceful myths of Paganism. he put away such knowledge from his mind. 23.

ut traditur a maioribuSy — incendio dedit probates lectionis. It is evident that by mathematici astrologers alone are to be understood. p-I of his cloister to the study of grammar and dialectics. Lateran. I Gregory was himself the law-giver and director of the pompous ritual of Rome.. 32 elements de la latine. Ep. however. 571. brought author. 2 John of Salisbury (Polycrat. His biographer extols him as having founded the institutions for singers at S. in Mabillon. . wrongly interpreted.Unfounded 1 . arius was written by Gregory from the dictation of an angel in the Oratory of the Holy Cross in the Lateran. Scripta Palatinus qucBcumque tenebat Apollo. Peter's and the Lateran and the school of Gregorian music became the teacher of the West. and at the same time that Gregory declared war against the poets of the ancient mythology. accusa. — Horat. et les langue grecque. 1 • has been ^^^^^l do not It said that he suppressed the study of mathematic This reproach.i In later and even modern times tions have been levied 1 many ^1 .. The earliest papal choir embodied the musical traditions of Paganism. c. foundation than a passage. asserts that the Antiphon: Ozanam. ii. quce ccelesiium mentem. et 3. i. of an English writer of the end of the twelfth century . Joh. 1 ' J r^ accusations these charges. sttperiorum oracula videbantur hoviinibus relevai-e. he tolerated their rhythms in the sacred service . of having burnt it the is Palatine at least library. is of graver moment.^ The accusation brought against him by the same however.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. of the Mass. Mus. 26): doctor S. in quibus erant prcecipua. agamst Gregory admit of proof.. ItaL. &c. Diaconus de eccles. Gregorius non modo 7)iathesin jussit ab aula recedere^ sed. rests on no other science. and ^ remarkable ou 'y enseignait assurement la metrique p. ii.

92 that in HISTORY OF ROME the Middle Ages legend related that the zealous promoter of Catholicism had destroyed the But the fate of the celebrated library which Augustus had once formed in the portico of the famous temple dedicated to the Sun. library of the delta sede apostolica^ Rome. however. monuments of Rome were not the property of the Pope. down to Gregory's own time. by ancient library of Apollo. 29. as is evident from the Liber Diurnus.. In the overthrow of learning the Augustan and Ulpian libraries had found an unnoticed end. either that the Greek Emperors may have had its contents conveyed to Byzantium. 28. and Gregory also speaks of libraries in Rome and of the archives Roman Church. It is possible. but the Papal archives also were to be found in the Lateran in the sixth De Rossi. and since it is utterly impossible to conceive that the Emperor would have sanctioned the He here shows that the Church was not yet very coixiplete. degrees. The first foundation of the Lateran library of the is ascribed to Hilary. a prey to worms and dust. p. the Acts of the Martyrs^ the writings of the Fathers. . filled the shelves formerly dedicated to those treasures of Greek and Latin learning. and. ^ Ep. to Eulogius of Alexandria. the destruction of which is even more to be regretted than that of the masterpieces of ancient sculpture. 1884. but of the Emperor. century. the decrees and letters of the Popes. predecessors of the present the public secret archives in the Vatican. La Bibl. Not only the library.god is completely obscure.^ Since. or that they may have perished in the vicissitudes that had befallen the city or even that they may have survived. vii. .

relate with satisfaction how the Pope struck off the heads of the ancient gods and mutilated their limbs.^ The advocates a still of the great Pope were placed in by another no less serious namely. not only with the view of uprooting the last remains of greater difficulty accusation. a precious Amalricus Augerius — Gregory for this deed. clear we cannot forego the attempt memory from the atrocity laid to there be to Gregory's his charge.the successor of Gregory.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Ciceronis the monastery of Bobbio. Muratori.^ Romse. Paganism. that Gregory. iii. by a happy accident. it may in some degree console us to know that. Cardinal Mai was enabled to rescue any truth in the report that the the books of Cicero's Republic from the the grave of Roman Middle Ages. 55. a Dominican and an Augustine monk. that had belonged to Tullii. but also the pilgrims in order to prevent the eyes of who flocked to the churches and graves of the martyrs from being attracted to the beauteous works of Pagan antiquity. p. in Two ignorant chroniclers the fourteenth century. 2. 104: "Leonis Urbevetani Chron. Lamius. repiiblica 2 De supersunt. of Joh. late The work was qua discovered in a palimpsest. in his zeal for religion. V. . had destroyed the ancient monuments. during a famine of the fifteenth A stirred ^ up the people against the memory of the See the preface to M." Delicice Ertiditor. 1822.^ the end how biographer of the Pope at century further recounts Sabinian. 93 wanton destruction of the greatest library in the city. . et lie erroris antiqui semen de ceiero ptdlularet^ imaginibus capita et Ddmomim also extols membra fecit generaliter amptitari idea of this general amputation of the statues. And if Pope swore especial vengeance on the works of Cicero and Livy.

Fea. as he believes. . which found acceptance not only among Protestants. for what they are worth. regarded the broken aqueducts. and the destruction of many a beautiful statue is undoubtedly due to the pious zeal of one or other bishop. but also among numerous Catholics. was even asserted that he had thrown the statues promiscuously into the Tiber. who looked with indifference on the gradual destruction of the temples. however. like Leo of Orvieto. at the instigation of the Pope. The reproach of Vandalism is one shared by many Popes in common with the barbarians. and. is incapable of proof. as arguments in his defence. having. has made the Pope the subject of a violent attack. Platina. Gregory must naturally have been indifferent to the beautiful creative art of the ancients. justifies Gregory for . and to the number of monuments which survived his days. which must inevitably perish did not the city provide for their restoration.^ sank hopelessly day by day into ever deeper ruin. with city ^ ^ The Platina in the life of Sabinianus. to the Emperor's right over all public works. though entertaining doubts of these acts of Vandalism. destroyed statues and temples he holds the opinion that the Romans themselves. with most Bayle takes the imputations success. 560. Brucker.94 HISTORY OF ROME the It Pope.^ This accusation. and in the appendix. Nevertheless. reminding them that he had destroyed monuments of antiquity throughout the entire city. iii. but our sympathy leads us to adopt the views of such writers as point to his love for his native city. Gregory. Bargseus. we recognise a certain amount of justice in the assertion made against him during the Middle Ages. have exonerated Gregory. had destroyed their city. Bandini. a barbarian. Tiraboschi.

Vitale. with the exception perhaps of some slight attempt at restoration. v. during the reign of Gregory it is only when dealing with churches or convents that the historic names of once familiar sites obtain a casual mention the monuments of antiquity are already veiled in the shadows of an ever-deepening .IN grief THE MIDDLE AGES. : quatenus cura formariim committi Atigusto vice- comiti debuisset.^ ^ Ep. no single aqueduct was put into working order. night. however. xii. He wrote repeatedly to John the sub-deacon. his Nuncio in Ravenna. ut nisi major sollicitudo fuerit. The 2 letter belongs to the year 602. The aqueducts were consigned to ruin.i Generally speaking. The spot called Pallacense vFhere their remains may still be seen. 44. Nothing further. 44. intra pattcutn tempus omnino depereant. The names : of the ancient city xi. was endowed from Ravenna with the ancient their restoration. Gregory speaks of the Thermoe of Agrippina. who. it appears. 95 and dismay. Ep. where he founded a . again of a Taberna jnxta Fallacenas. title He of Count of the Aqueducts. convent near S. appears to have taken place. The Thermoe of the wife of Germanicus stood in the valley of S. 24. Marco is already known to us. Nam sic despicitintur atque ne^ligent'ur formce ipsa. gates only once appear in Gregory's writings Ep. earnestly entreating him to intercede with the Prefect of Italy for implored the latter to entrust the charge to the Vice-comes Augustus. . and.

as might have been expected. of the Fathers had ended. His predecessor Leo. resolutely contested the Roman claim to supremacy. Gregory's Activity in Ecclesiastical Affairs His Efforts to Unite the German West with Rome Conversion of England Death of the Pope. 604 His Monuments in Rome. and the absolute power of The age lupremacy apostolic ^^^^' the Roman Pope gained full development. resolutely opposed the assumption of the rival prelate.. while with shrewd humility he. but The oriental laid the foundations of Papal dominion. however. bishop. The title Papa . first among the Popes. the fundamental dogmas of the Trinity and of the nature of Christ already fixed.. Joh. Diacon. her Patriarch. adopting on his side the title of GEcumenical or Universal Gregory." 1 Sei'vus Servoriim Dez. John Jejunator. and a new era had begun. dioceses of Antioch and Alexandria. having already attained in principle the recognition of the supremacy of the Apostolic Gregory not only ushered in the new era. ii. to the Papacy. i. and leave it to ecclesiastical history to describe the importance of his reign on matters belonging to the Church. the long Before his elevation doctrine struggle which established the structure of ecclesiastical had been already fought out. adopted that of " Servant of the Servants of God.96 HISTORY OF ROME 3. — — — — We must in these chapters restrict ourselves to deaHng with the influence which the great bishop exercised on the city. in the course of which the East became separated from the West. chair. c. Constantinople was yet more indefatigable in her resistance.

opposed to these claims the supremacy of the successor of S. at the same Gaul and Spain." The Metropolitans of Ravenna. G . and the two Rhaetias. about the year 510. where the Visigothic King. title was fixed for the the time of Gregory the Seventh did oi fiontifex Italy custom become law. had been time. Roman bishop within their respective Gregory. and the Bishop of Aquileja in Venetia and Italy. Besides the churches of the Roman possessed patriarchal authority over Illyria and Africa. her patriarchates. early as the days of 1 The title maxinms was bishop in use as Leo the First. was Ennodius of Ticinum. Peter. 437. Reccared. subject to the " Vicarius Romae. The first to apply to the Roman bishop. and constituted himself essentially Patriarch of the West. Accordtension The ing to the limits established by Constantine. however. brought the Teutonic in (TTttTTTraj) Church was it at this time bestowed on other bishops also. the Bishop of Milan in Liguria. to the exclusion of other prelates. The importance of the Greek Church was at the same time lessened. II. however. enabled the West to attain an independence. being for the greater part swallowed up by Islam. the Cottian Alps. i. which increased with time into an irreparable breach.^ He also. essentially due to the union of the Roman Church with the Germans. the Roman bishop. the oldest foundations of Christianity. in the ^milian and Flaminian territories.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. VOL. disputed the Apostolic power of the territories. 97 between the Papacy and the East. the Bishop of Rome possessed jurisdiction over the ten suburban provinces of Italy. From the seventh century onwards. but not until See note in Gieseler. To Gregory also was due the extension of the boundaries of his patriarchate in the West.

English boys for service in the monasteries.^ It is related that one day before his elevation to the papal chair. The success of the missionaries was great." even conquered for Rome the distant island of Britain. due to the pious zeal of Queen Theodolinda. Gregory sent the Presbyter Candidus to Gaul to buy i. and Joh. abandoned two hundred years before by the Empire. 179. Lau. . c. stood in but lax connection with Rome. through the agency of a solitary monastery beside the Colosseum. Histor. c. to the distant isle once ruled by Rome. named the faith.. and informed of " their nationality. like angels are they. not island until 596 was he able to send from his cloister on the Ccelian a band of monks. " ^ he cried Angles. I. 21. Thus Ad — it stands written in Gregory's epitaph. He released the homeless children and. recalling old associations. incorporated with the orthodox Church. Britain. seineyn ^ ^ der Grosze nach Leben und seiner Lehre Leipzig. Gregor. under the leadership of Augustine. and then conquered by the powerful English race. wished himself to go as missionary to the but being detained by his fellow-citizens. as a new province filled with zeal for Gregory. . see G. Christum Anglos convertit pietate magistra Adquirens fidei agtnina gente nova Hisque Dei consulfactus IcBtare triumphis. which I. into closer relations with the Roman See while the gradual conversion of the hitherto chiefly Arian Lombards. ^ Vita^ Angli quasi Angeli. as " Consul of God. became. seized with the Apostolic spirit. secured the unity .^ Gregory. ^ Roman On Gregory's relations with the German Church. p. Beda. of faith in Italy.^ ii. Diacon. seeing three beautiful boys in the slave market of the Forum.98 HISTORY OF ROME converted to the Catholic belief. 1846.

IN THE MIDDLE AGES.. Peter's. and exhorting them to mild government. 2 Ep. to the Exarch of Africa. vi. 60. Never has any pontiff left behind a greater mass of writings than he who has been named the last of the Fathers. Ep. 604. in ^ : . ix. He confronted Kings and Emperors with dignity. and in making and respected. of the Roman bishop over the Western Church. which was to last a thousand years.. or more actively and successfully fulfilled it. in cabins formed of branches ranged round the churches. 59.2 Ep. He protected individuals and Rome universally honoured also provinces against the oppression of Imperial . .^ The powerful individuahty of this single man. we are instructed by Ep. and the letter of introduction which the Pope gave monk Augustine 52. 3. 99 King Adelbert and his wife Adelberga the new Constantine and the new Helena. After a truly glorious during which he founded the supremacy. such a degree by the Greek children. on the festivals of martyrs. Peter's chair. where a good inscription was placed in his honour. to •^ officials that they even sold their own later lie was buried in S. Gregory died in Rome on March 12. His care and correspondence embraced all the countries of Christendom. Arch- .^ Never has a Pope more highly understood his mission. ix. &c. As to the way in which Gregory adapted himself to Paganism. i. and a meal to be given to the baptised. thus succeeded in penetrating distant countries and peoples. the greatest of his century. 71. nor has any greater or more noble spirit officials ever reign. enjoining justice towards their subjects. filled S. This was composed by Petrus Oldradus. to the which he commands the Pagan temples to be consecrated as churches. his quick ear heard the cries of complaint from savage Corsica and distant Africa. v. The Corsicans were oppressed 59.

Cancellieri de . p. him to adorn his native city with buildings." We are informed in his letters that he ordered beams from Calabria in order to undertake the restoration of S. His face solely on the spiritual bishop of Milan. John Diaconus. in the curiously brief notice that it gives of Gregory's reign. has described them in detail. secretariis vet. intent needs of mankind. and grasping his right hand. called also " fastigium. escaped destruction. Basil. The Liber Pontificalis. Peter was represented on a throne. 669. he disdained.100 HISTORY OF ROME Few monuments endure to preserve his memory in Rome the misery of the time either did not permit . a " baldacchino " over the high altar. Peter's and S. that is to say. his feet encased in small boots. so rich in catalogues of the buildings and gifts of his predecessors. but it is doubtful whether the work of restoration was ever carried out. Had the portraits. wearing the dress of a deacon. Vaticance. Paul's. they prove that painting in colours was still practised at the time. who saw these paintings. or. the father of Gregory. they would assuredly have been of the utmost importance in the history of art. S. to trouble himself like other bishops about the material splendour of the churches. Executed in fresco. which were painted by his command in the atrium of the monastery. only mentions. that he dedicated a Ciborium with four silver pillars to the Apostle Peter. Before him. stood Gordian. according to the expression of the monk Beda. The foundation of the monastery on the Clivus Scauri has already been mentioned. and Secretary of Adrian the First. a chestnut-brown chasuble over the dalmatic.

chestnut-brown chasuble hung over the dalmatic. whose folds passed from the right and his eyes represented Gregory's shoulder over the left. A white tunic fastened round the throat. : to the world. held a prayer-book on which was written " My soul lives and will praise thee. breast. high. Silvia w. with a heavy beard. the sweet lips and the serenity of her mien bore witness to the happiness her heart experienced in having given such a son like a dalmatic. and sides. lOI described as long and serious. a pleasing figure of mild with a brown beard and a forehead bald. and little apse. hair thick. in ancient Roman fashion.IN is THE MIDDLE AGES. marked with the cross. white face was seamed with wrinkles. and found that even age had not availed Although the round to dim the matron's beauty. fell over his shoulders. his picture animated. afid thy signs will help me. John Diaconus looked with reverence on the picture.as wrapped in a white veil-like garment. denoted dexterity in writing. No nimbus surrounded . Gregory. surrounded with scanty black hair the expression of his face was gentle." Vzvit anima inea et laiidabit te^ et indicia tua adjuvabiint ine. rounded and the pallium. and broad. Another mother as a noble matron of the time. — his biographer tells us that his beautiful hands. —was represented . With the fingers of the right hand she Her left hand apparently made the sign of the cross. and falling in large folds to her feet. the great blue eyes under their soft brows. was decorated with two stripes and a white mitra or hood covered her head. whose likeness was depicted on a circle of stucco in the aspect. with their A fingers.

. altered m\. On it is depicted the procession filing past Hadrian's mausoleum. hundred years after Gregory's death. Peter.102 his HISTORY OF ROME head . It is said is that Gregory's church. the front of the in In Gregory's chapel a fine relief on apparently of the same period. and its the period of later ruin is uncertain. p. Vita. being only used in the case of the departed. Mariano Armellini. of the edition of the Maurists). monuments endure to commemorate the history of the noblest of all the successors of S. formerly Commendator of the Camaldolese Monastery near S. 83. altar. iv. as also in the adjoining chapel. in was rebuilt 1633 by Cardinal Scipio Borghese. behind it. was the founder of three chapels close to the church. shows the Pope in prayer for the release of souls purgatory. however. 84. represented. Andrew has perished. Bayle says there was in Gregory le fond de toutes les ruses et de toutes les souplesses dont on a besoin pour se faire de grands protecteurs et pour attirer sur I'Eglise les Angelus Rocca wrote a treatise on these benedictions de la terre.^ Here. unknown. a square frame instead.^ of S. with the angel hovering above. stands in the Salviati chapel. dedicated respecc. 1887. the date of which. he says non quidetn inagnis sed patulis—-fui'vis has been. ^ Joh. Le chiese di Roma^ Rome. occupies the still site of the earlier building.ofnlvis. the legend relating to Trajan is not. 291. the circular glory. Diaconus. was restored by Gregory the Second. the emblem of hood. Baronius. the gift of an abbot of the year 1469. Gregorio. deserted by the The monastery it A monks. wrongly perhaps. however. showed saint- that the portrait was painted during the life-time of the Pope . An artistic Ciborium. Of Gregory's eyes. 2 It iii. oculis piipilla furvis portraits (torn.

THE MIDDLE S. is had decorated with paintings by Domenichino and Guido Reni. attracts the beholder less than the inferior work of an unrenowned artist depicting the conversion of England. AGES. previously . S. Barbara.IN tively to S. and The probably erected on the spot where Gregory built a church to the Apostle. first. The faded splendour of these frescoes. IO3 Andrew. Silvia. where nothing commemorates the life of the Pope.

23. 607. c. who asserted that Gregory had squandered the ecclesiastical revenues. IV. 29. struck him on the head.104 HISTORY OF ROME CHAPTER I. The new Pope.. and heaped denunciations on the memory of the dead. overwhelming him with reproaches. Gest. threw open the granaries of the Church. Sabinian was undoubtedly hostile to the memory of his great predecessor. Vita^ Siegebert.2 In the opinion of many of his contemporaries. Legend related that the angry spirit of the former Pope appeared to his successor. but the supplies thus provided by no means sufficed to meet the needs of the populace. and envious of his renown. ^ Paul. the chair of Peter remained vacant for half a year after Gregory's death. iv. and that Sabinian died shortly after from the effects of the blow. Pontificate and Death of Sabinian and Boniface THE Third Boniface the Fourth— Dedication OF THE Pantheon to the Virgin.^ The Pope. — Owing to a delay in the election of a successor to the Papacy. . Ckron. Diacon. Long. previously deacon and Nuncio of the Roman Church at Constantinople. entered upon his office stances. it is true. ^ c. and de ad Ann. Sabinian of Volterra. Rome by a under the most disastrous circumand the whole of Italy being visited at the time terrible famine. and..

We have no grounds. 220. it was feared that his remains might fall a prey to the fury of the famished mob. and terror of the enemy. a Marsian from Valeria. Boniface the Fourth. according to ecclesiastical on November 10. Pont. and. however. and we are left to imagine how the unfortunate city must have sunk into ever deeper ruin. I05 during a revolt of the populace.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. to be regarded as the head of Christendom. The Apostolic chair. to this Pope is due the rescue of one of the most splendid monuments of antiquity from the darkness in which ^ 608-615!^^ Jaffe. that during the pontificate of Boniface. one circumstance of importance alone being recorded. whose name points to a Greek ^^ ' ancestry.^ His reign of more than six years was saddened by famine. the dispute between the the Greek by which Pope and the Patriarch of that Constantinople was brought to a successful issue Emperor declaring Rome hencefor- ward was writers. namely. Nevertheless. History is silent with regard to the brief and uneventful reign of the new Pope. on September 15 Boniface ' Boniface the Third died. again left vacant. election of the Roman. Boniface the Third. for supposing that Sabinian met his death by violent means.^ p. Rome suc- ceeded in obtaining a decree from Phocas. Peter's by a circuitous route round the walls. of the following year. apparently was therefore deemed advisable to have his coffin conveyed from the Lateran to S. 607 . was elected Pope. until Phocas confirmed the 607. . son of John Kataaudioces. remained Boniface empty an entire year. and it Himself dying in 606. J^e^-. pestilence.

the Odeum and the Stadium of Domitian. Its halls. had already bid defiance to the elements Neither the for more than six hundred years. Laurentius in Lucina. theatres and groves. which had now arisen. as did districts of the others in the Campagna. with its adjacent colonnade. collected new life around them. the most beautiful monument of Agrippa. had never at any time been thickly populated. even at the present day. the Temple of Minerva Chalcidica and the Iseum. two only. severely from inundations of the Tiber. had chiefly served for the amusement of the people. — S.I06 it HISTORY OF ROME for ages. which. rose proudly on the other. or Alexander. Of the numerous churches at its extremest out- within the city. as centres round which a fresh population clustered. The Pantheon. and while on one side stood the lordly buildings of the Antonines. the Theatre of Pompey. had been built on the Campus Martius. at this time a prey to ruin. although rich in buildings of every kind. great marble The Pantheon stood surrounded buildings. however. and in Damaso by the while the centre of the district possessed but two small oratories. however. and these skirts. inundations of the Tiber. baths and temples. must have presented to the beholder a sight of melancholy magnificence. rises almost yearly. overflowing the floor of the rotunda. The churches. Nero. nor the rains of winter pouring down through . serving in the more deserted desolate regions of the city. had remained shrouded The vast Field of Mars. had suffered Around huge dome towered the Baths of Agrippa. in 590. which. These splendid monuments of antiquity.

^ Whether the pediment still retained its ornament. : His act of Vandalism was avenged by the innnortal squib - qtiodnonfecerunt Barbaric fecerunt Barberini. n. approached by marble. however. it Already Pliny had bestowed upon the name of Pantheon. whence it follows that the building was used thus early for religious purposes. The earliest Roman document in which the name Pantheum occurs dates from the year 59. Peter's. 1866.^ ^ Urban the Eighth (Barberini) despoiled the roof of ks supports. of which. found in 1866 on the spot sacred to the Dea Dia on the road to Portus. nor had as spoilers as yet laid hands on the metal well as which were covered. stood unimpaired. surmounted by Corinthian capitals of white five steps. This is an Arval table. which he melted into cannon and into pillars for the cover of the high altar in S. Adjoining the Thermse. The statues of Augustus perhaps and Agrippa. but the construction of the vestibule by Agrippa.IN THE MIDDLE on AGES. De Rossi. proves that it was even thus early portico cupola destined to serve the purposes of Pagan worship. . 4. we do not know. the opening of the cupola collected in marble and shake the firmness of subterranean channels. the Pantheon could not originally have served as a temple. those also of the deified Csesars with whom Augustus These statues refused to have his name associated. during the reign of Nero. The Fratres Arvales there record that they were of Agrippa accustomed to assemble in Paniheo. during his third consulate. less to injure latter. Bit licit. beside the statues of Mars and Venus. and within the building Dion Cassius had beheld. porch. had availed to its walls. we have no description. placed there by the remained in their original niches. its IO7 floor. still Time was powerany with tiles. the rafters of gilt bronze. Its magnificent with sixteen granite columns..

he is. della BoXoeldes ov. as also in the sedicula between. liii. Treasures in the building the barbarians could not have discovered. : Consecrazione del Panteon^ Roma. and although some of these in the building in statues were still found time of Boniface. Rafael von Urbino. a contemporary of Raffaelle. due to Giuliano da S. shows the ancient pedestals in the sedicula. . 284. Plin. sufficient to attract their cupidity. maintains that the buildthe Christians c. the ulterior idea was that of doing honour to the Caesars. and in particular from Jupiter Ultor. ingeniously explains the name WavQiiiov. 2 A drawing in the Barberini Gallery. although Visigoths show and Vandals had undoubtedly burst open the great doors with their plates of bronze. the present day. — no — scarcely those of Roman perhaps had crossed the threshold of the Pantheon for two hundred years. which commanded all temples to be closed. the more the valuable had the invader. although the temple received its title in general from Cybele. Sulle Rovine^ note p. But the images of the neglected gods still stood in the six niches of the interior. xii. adorned with metal rosettes. by Fea. in remembrance of the great victory of Augustus at Actium. Hist. Pietro Lazeri. ing was neither a temple nor regarded as such by (viii. representing the interior of the Pantheon. 24. fitted so admirably for the purposes of Dio Cassius. the mother of the gods. nor were the polished marble panellings nor the cassette of the roof. however. Passavant. i. on which stood the images of the gods.^ Owing to the edicts of the Christian Emperors.) . refuted 1749. .. Gallo.I08 HISTORY OF ROME that.^ probably already become the spoil of eyes on this marvel The Pope looked with longing of ancient ^ art. '6ti t^ ovpavui irpoaeoiKev. I Pantheon Jovi Ultori ab Agi-ippa facttim. Nat.^ xxxvi. 322. 27.

^ tion of all Nothing more clearly proves that the Pope possessed no rights over the public buildings in the city than the significant remark of the chroniclers. petente 37 : Idem Papa Bonifacio ablaiis quod Pantheon vocabant. 3 Lz7).. seemed to invite him to take possession and the beautiful cupola. Indict. and commanding instead the consecrasuch buildings to the uses of Christianity and this order. de G. Gottfried. Vienna.. et iv. . Theodos.. . Martyr. 10. xvi. in Bonif. Virginis Marice. mssit in vctcre fano. Gregory had sanctioned by his directions to Bishop Melitus. a sphere rising into the air. and differed in form from the usual architecture of a temple. idle tale tu cüKo56fxr]aau airoAAcbs Kai evKSyios in budfiari ayuwarc}} öecD. in Cod. Christi. Viennensis. The church^^ streamed. 1840 and he adds the Ep. the first instance of a transformation of this kind. Po7tt. The later Emperors had issued edicts. the seat of the virgin Athene. forbidding the destruction of the Pagan temples. 11). omn. had been converted into a church to the Virgin Mary.IN a church. that Boniface begged the Emperor Phocas to grant him the use of the Pantheon. Commentar. alio Paul. The is temple of Baal at Heliopolis. at the same time. : Hie petiit a PJiocate Principe tetuplum. through which the light of heaven circular building. 4. qtiod fecit ecclesiam beat. c. IO9 Conse^ which stood on an open space. converted into a church about 391. appeared to him to offer a fitting dwelling for Mary. was but tardily adopted in Rome. however. with regard at least to Britain. quod Pantheon vocabatiir Diacon. calls the Parthenon vabs Ty\s deofi-fiTopos. It proves. and that the Pope received the building as a ^ gift. THE MIDDLE AGES. ac glorios.^ ix. Queen of Heaven. (n.^ The system which already prevailed in ancient Athens. IV. where the Parthenon. et Dei genitricis semperq. 71. tit. ed. : ^ The Anojivjn. Long. Ludwig Ross. idololatrice .

which adds in hujus autem templi fastigio stabant duo tauri erei deaiirati. ibi memoria sanctorum. for the first time. Mirab. virg. Martyrum fieri. with the note of : . from which every symbol of Paganism had been removed. Boniface assembled the clergy of the city. Chron. occurrence. non deo7'um. Martyrolog. Baronius on the 13th of Usuard. Ado.no HISTORY OF ROME that the relations of the Roman Church with Byzan- tium were of the most friendly nature. Ecrlesiam ut ubi quond. were opened. Romce.. and . Maries. Rornanum. chanting their While the Pope sprinkled the walls. Pontific. Bede likewise narrates the b. a procession of Christian priests.. with holy water. 107 he also speaks of Mars. The evil spirits were as numerous as the gods of Paganism. and the vaulted roof echoed back the strains of the Gloria in Excelsis. the same Emperor having but a short time before (in 608) erected his column in the Forum. &c. May . to which the cross had been affixed. entered the lofty rotunda. and. the Romans may. sordibus. and Graphia aurece urbis R. Leo of Orvieto drew from the " Mirabilia" in the Chron. See Lamius. oniizitim deinceps omn.^ Legend of the twelfth century may well have been the popular belief of six hundred solemn liturgy. and Martyrologium . iv. The later Middle Ages. believed that the gilt statue of the great goddess had been placed over the opening of the cupola. sed dmnonum cultus erat. Both mention Neptune in addition to Cybele. the bronze-covered doors of the Pantheon. aware that the building had been dedicated by Agrippa to Cybele and all the gods. and down to the time of Boniface the Pantheon had been regarded as their peculiar stronghold. in imagination. semp. fieret ^ et omn. have beheld the affrighted demons seeking exit by the opening in the roof.

but statements as to the year vary between 604.! new sanctuary with relics of so-called According to the Martyrologium Romanum. Baronius. 606. Sabina took the place of the goddess Diana on the Aventine. is. which embraced within its walls Christian saints of every land. the Pantheon was consecrated on the 13th May. and there can be little doubt that Boniface despoiled the catacombs of whole waggon-loads of bones. and that the Pantheon was held to have been especially dedicated to Cybele may reasonably be inferred from the fact that Boniface dedicated it to the Virgin and all the Martyrs. k stazioni. Thus the temple supposed to have been dedicated to the twin brothers. thus found appropriate expression in the Christian Pantheon. Others ot only eighteen. ^ Ugonio. speaks of twenty-eight carts.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Boniface. was consecrated to the twins Cosma and Damian. reckons with satisfaction thirty-two waggons filled with bones. p. and the Temple of all the Gods was transformed into a church dedicated to all the martyrs. in order to make way for the new Magna Mater. Romulus and Remus. banished the great mother Cybele. . Ill years earlier. the Christian Church preferring to install in the temples converted to the uses of her faith such saints as most fitly corresponded to the deities they supplanted. S. the canonised military tribunes. The claim of universality made by the Roman faith in the city. which nevertheless. in order to provide the shrine of his martyrs. and George and Sebastian. 313. from a manuscript belonging to the church. that of the war-god Mars. a by no means insignificant number. in accordance with tradition.

Annal. these days were set apart by Boniface. 220. 610. Siegbert.^ HISTORY OF ROME The anniversary of dedication is still celebrated in Rome. the splendid would undoubtedly have been converted some noble in the Middle Ages. which hallowed its to Christian uses. we do not know. 609. like the tomb of Hadrian.^ The Rotunda of mourning. not until the ninth century did the festival. and from the Temple of all the Gods proceeded the spirit of gentle melancholy and pious remembrance. Contractus.. Chron.. 609. and. which. The Pantheon became the Temple of Piety and Rest.. for preservation from the spoiler. dov/n to latest times. . On account of this Boniface has been judged worthy the single deed. this transformation not taken place. Annotat. Rojh. 2 Baron. Whether. Pont. universal throughout Christendom. and the Feast of All Saints commemorated on the ist. 604. would have survived. originally Roman. i November. or whether this was not done until the time of Gregory the Fourth. p. Chron... 609. to the Martyrol. The finest architectural monument of ancient it Rome Had has to thank the Church. building into the fortress of ^- Ado. 2nd ed. obtain recognition from the nations on the other side the Alps. Herrn. Marianus Scotus.. after having undergone assaults innumerable. Reg. and even yet we cannot cross the threshold of this incomparable building without reverent emoItaly tion.112 609. JafFe. that of All Souls on the 2nd November. Certainly. Vienn. 610. however. only in ruinous and mutilated guise.. has inspired the musical genius of both festival of Agrippa thus gave birth to the and Germany to some of its most thrilling creations. Monastar.

^ its On the score of its antiquity.^ 2. Apollinaris S. to which the inscription on his tomb lays claim. and the other papal possessions. Maria Rotondo their city. son of the sub- Gregorio Qtiarttis. Pope Deusdedit. every senator was obliged to swear that. Mariam Rotimdam.IN title to THE MIDDLE AGES. Templum fore qticc Roincc Dehibra cunctorwii fuerunt Dccmoniortuu Hoc - exptLvgavit Sanctis ainctisque dicavit. II. Mabillon. Peter's Plundering of the Roof of the Temple of Venus and Rome Chapel of S. — — — — — — — — — Boniface the Fourth died in May 615. and. and sanctity. Transtyberini. castelhun Crescent ii. Peter's. its beauty. the Castle of S. 625 Right of Confirming the Papal Elections devolves on the Exarch Buildings of Honorius S. he would also defend S. in- stclam. Mus. Ital. nrbcni Romanam^ civitatem Leoninani.. Juramentum Senatorum Urbis in the Ordo Roman. . remained the zealously-guarded property of the Popes. II immortality. Angelo. Even in the thirteenth century. 615 Revolts in Ravenna and Naples Earthquakes and Leprosy in Rome Rebellion of the Exarch Eleutherius in Ravenna Boniface the Fifth Pope Honorius the First. ii. the been esteemed by the new church has always Romans the most precious ornament of from the seventh century onwards. of Cencius Camcrarius. This barbarous inscription may still be read in theCryptof the Vatican. for the Pope. together with S. and five months ^ later the Roman Deusdedit. II VOL. jacet hie Bonifacms alums Hums qui sedis ftdt ccqtms Tonpore^ qui Foccb cernens Rectoi' et ccdis. 215 nominatim aiitem sanctum : J'etruin. Adrian in the Forum.

Advancing to Rome. Pont. Leunclavium Jus Graeco-Roman. Joh. Callinicus. John of Compsa. who. Eleutherius. His action compelled Eleutherius to leave Ravenna. was elected Pope. Exarchs succeeded each other in the following order Smaragdus. the Oriental war had its influence on the affairs of the Exarchate. HISTORY OF ROME These events deacon Stephen. 587 . of whom we hear towards the end of the Gothic war. took place in the sixth year of the reign of the great Heraclius. conquered Naples. According to Marquard Freher's ChronoExarchs (apud Joh.114 Deusdedit Pope. had carried first his arms into the heart of Persia.^ Deusdedit. and the disturbance was only quelled by his successor. Joh. i.). Like the Lombard Kings. t. . and returned victorious to Ravenna. 612. 598 Smaragdus iterum. and succeeded in making himself master of Naples. sufficient to call the latter movement into being. logy of the Francf. : Longinus. .. the first of the kind of which history gives any tidings the Exarch John Lemigius was slain. 602. rebelled against the Byzantine government. Although the Lombards were still at peace. The 1596. and in the who had succeeded his father Agilulf on the throne of the Lombards. put the rebels to death. With this revolt was allied a rebellious movement in Naples.1 ^ Liber. . Eleutherius. he was received with every honour by Deusdedit. the Exarchs adopted the name of Flavius. having deprived the tyrant Phocas of throne and life. 584 Romanus. where the nationalities of Latin and Greek came into ever harsher collision. A revolution broke out in Ravenna. 616. 615-618. Lemigius. unless the unsettled state of the times had been year of that of Adelwald. . probably in 616 or 617. Lemigius was the fifth Exarch. an esteemed burgher of that city.

apparently of the plague. herself entered into a violent contest with . the sparse history. and Paul. 6i8. a second revolution broke out in Ravenna. tempted by the difficulties in which the Byzantine Emperor was involved. The Latin nation. is mentioned as taking place in December of the same year.f Bonifacius V. however. Breviar. set up as Emperor in Italy. Greek Imperialism a contest momentous in its consequence for the entire West.. ^ Pagi. appeared in determined opposition to Greek rule.. . Boniface Before his successor.^ but. the Neapolitan 619-62?' had been ordained. Deusdedit died on November 8. the affairs of Italy shaped themselves anew. This ambitious eunuch. Critica in Baron. Boniface. and Franz Pagi. headed by the Exarch Eleutherius himself. on this year. strove to attain independence. Lib. with the seventh century. by the war against the Persians and Avars. Church became the champion of these national movements. on the ground of dogmatic differences. Boniface the Fifth. Diacon. strengthened through the Church. while the Byzantine governors. and advanced against Rome. killed by his own troops at the fort of Luceoli. restored throughout the country. c. on The Roman their side. 34. Pont. He was. iv. nothing is recorded of the reign of Pope beyond the term of its duration. and.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. II The Liber of our Pontificalis. to seek independence.^ The election of another Pope. hoping to overpower the city and to win confirmation for his act of usurpation. although he lived until this ^ October 625. and only source remarks that peace was herewith In the meanwhile.. and his head sent to Constantinople in 619.

Boniface V. and prepared the way for the future conquest of the country by the Arabs. consecrated on Nov. while the religion of Mohammed was founded and years of its course. who had borne the consular title. compiled between the years 685 and Although the Liber Diurnus contains the 752. Reg. shook the Persian kingdom under Chosroes. Pont. According to Jaffe.. was buried on Oct. and not unreasonably appeal to the formulae of the Liber Diurnus. a man of noble Latin race. Rome lay like the consumed dross of history on the ground.Il6 HISTORY OF ROME century. was raised to the chair of Peter only a few days after the death of Boniface the Fifth.^ They assume that the right of confirming the papal elections hitherto been usually made over to had the Exarchs by the Emperors. 25. and Honorius I. and we search in vain for any trace of municipal life or civic organisation. Archdeacon. •^ most urgent and The Archpresbyter. a circumstance which causes ecclesiastical annalists to suppose that the Exarch Isaac must have been in Rome to ratify the appointment. spread amidst furious struggles in Arabia. no Prefect is anywhere mentioned. son of Petronius. the day-book of the Roman bishops. know nothing of the inner conditions of the city no We . is veiled in darkness during While Heraclius. Dux. no Magister Militum. while those Exarch are couched in the obsequious terms. Honorius the First of Campania. See the two Pagi. formulae petitioning the to the Emperor to ratify the election. 3. . the most fatal and destructive The seventh the first fifty in the history of the city. these formulae remain in the background. by his brilliant campaigns in the East.

but the Arch- bishop and Judices of Ravenna also entreated to use their influence in obtaining the sanction of the all- These formulae undoubtedly prove the absolute power of the viceroy we may therefore assume that the Exarch. Gives . confirmed the already elected Popes. since the former stood in immediate relation towards their city. possible to ascertain the precise date of for the history of the constitution the decree. naturally. at this time representative of the Emperor. suffering under powerful regent. he always retained this right. but it remains questionable whether later. was the intelligence furnished to the Exarch. signed by the clergy and laity. V. .IN THE MIDDLE AGES.i The Romans had ^ reason to be satisfied with the Dmrnus. electione Pontificis was issued It is witnessed by it Optiniates et Milites sen a fact which. especially from the time of Honorius onwards. then deposited among the archives of the Lateran. and a copy sent to the Emperor. It is probable therefore that. was . editor of the Liber believes that the second after the election Formula or Decretwn de of Bonif. the viceroy of Italy being not only implored in sub- missive accents to ratify the election. More important. were city. the people themselves implored the Emperor to spare them this annoyance by delegating the privilege of confirmation to the Exarch. 11/ and Primicerius of the Notaries were accustomed to notify the death of the Pope to the Exarch the deed of the election. Cleriis^ Garnerius. The Roman clergy and people must naturally have attached more importance to the favour of the Exarch than to that of the Emperor. the delay in the ordination of their bishops. and guided the decisions of the Byzantine court. would be of importance of the .

in weight. his solicitude for the conversion of the East and West Saxons in Britain. dethroned by Ariald in 625. strove to follow in the steps of the great Gregory. It the middle door leading into the called the was Janua regia major or mediana^ and from henceforward also. Petronius did not spare the revenues of the patrimonies. argentea} ^ Investivit regias majores in ingressu eccksia. He restored all the church furniture in the Basilica of S. so severely censured. Lib. securing for his memory chus. But the scope of our history allows us to describe neither his exertions for the restoration of King Adelwald. qiias vocant medianam^ ex argento^ &c. 975 ing centuries. The present splendour of the tomb of the Apostle is but modest adornment compared with the wealth lavished on it in this and the followHe covered with plates of silver. covering the shrine with massive silver to the amount of 187 pounds' weight. nor his indulgence. in He distinguished himself Rome by the building of churches. when the question was one of decorating the basilicas of the city. . who furthers |the transformation of the Peace with the Lombards gave him freedom war had not exhausted the treasury of the Church and. the son of the Consul . Honorius. a place by the side of Damasus and SymmaPope thus After a long interval of time a again appears ancient city.Il8 HISTORY OF ROME and election of a compatriot of distinguished family. on account of An ancient inscription in its adornment. pounds basilica. towards the heresy of the Monothelites. . Peter with the utmost magnificence. Pont. a pious and highly-educated man.

. Dux of the door may probably have been adorned with chased workmanship. Besides this.IN verse. stating that Istrian schism. If 68. &c. Doctrinis monitisque suis defaucibus hostis Atistiilit exactis jam perittira At tuns argento prccsid construxit opimo Ornavitque fores Petre beate Til tibi. modis. at the left of the principal door. Palatin. the main door. Guidonea. since we can hardly suppose it to have been a plating of simple metal. from the fact was termed that through it the dead the fifth were carried into the church. people . there were in S. speaks of the Pope as Plebis} The silver covering The inscription simply Duke of the people. because reserved the town of the Ravennese) . i. was known as for the Ravignana or Ravennata. served the pilgrims the fourth. IIQ Honorius had put an end to the was fastened to this door. ^ Gruter. was set apart for the Roman . modo ccciortiin qiiapropter Janitor alme Fac tranqtiilla tui tempora ciincta gregis. . inhabitants of Trastevere (called in the Middle Ages Janua judicii. whence it follows that the work would not have been executed until after the year 630. 1 163-5. the third. Peter's yet four other doors. before the grave of the Apostle. bontis Antistes ecclesiis I give the end : Sed Reddidit dux plebis Honorius arinis membra revtdsa piis. The second on the right. Guidonea — per quella erano guidati — explanation. according to the Cod.. each weighing 272 pounds. called Romana. Honorius also placed two great candelabra. THE MIDDLE AGES. ^ Severan. the i Pere- grini. which had perhaps already received the names by which they were known in the Middle Ages. we can accept this questionable name certainly cannot belong to the seventh century.

Its tiles were removed to cover the roof of S. Apollinaris had been consecrated to the See of the capital of the thus . Other basilicas. the Temple of Rome and Venus» in Honorius succeeded a gift from the Emperor obtaining this ancient roof as Heraclius.^ and scarcely a Roman but rejoiced in the removal. stood close beside it. Apollinaris in the Porticus Palmaria of the basilica. of Hadrian's finest building. in admitting the Greek saint to the Roman calendar. The little church of S. Peter's. Lib. Peter himself. the legendary founder of her bishopric and Honorius. temple of ancient Rome was Exarchate by S. probably wished to do honour to the powerful Exarch and the Archbishop. or so at least we are informed by the Liber Pontificalis. nevertheless. and built another chapel to S. Peter's. according to tradition.I20 HISTORY OF ROME but even the splendour of these ornaments paled before the magnificence of the new roof. in Honorio. a Greek from Antioch. which still endure as memorials of 1 Opertiit etiam oinnem ecclesiani ejtis ex tegtiUs areis. quas levavit de templo^ quod appellatur Romce (erroneously Roimdi) ex concessit Heraclii piissimi Imperatoris. The covetous glances of the priests had long been directed to the gilt bronze tiles. namely. Apollinaris. Andrew. although not within the portico. erected by Symmachus in S. . spared by the Vandals. Pont. The Pope. was not unmindful of the fact that. Apollinaris. scarcely one bewailed the ruin of one of the finest monuments of antiquity. was to the city of Ravenna what the Apostle Peter was to Rome. and the greatest consigned to destruction. Honorius also decorated the shrine of S.

round the Altar of Victory. following the example of Felix the Fourth. Here. and the — . One of the most noteworthy sites of ancient history. however. Here stood the time-honoured Curia. in 412 by Epiphanius. the remnant of the most revered institution of the Empire had assembled in parliament. the Comitium. the City Prefect. was especially chosen by Honorius for the basilica. under Gothic rule. however. their existence to the Pope's passion for building. a spot which hitherto. brought from Constantinople. and beside it other famous monuments. or Senatorial Palace of Imperial times. is Foremost among these the reception of the S. 121 of Honorius. remained empty and forsaken for more than fifty years. had possessed a civic importance. of the City into a church. had been fought the latest struggle between the old and new religions. the Arch of Janus. and every Roman was familiar with their history and significance. This imposing pile of buildings still endured in its main outlines. and Adrian» . The ancient Hall of Council was known in the mouths of the people as the Curia or Senatus. been rebuilt by belonged the Secretarium Senatus. who a century earlier had transformed the circular Temple Diocletian.IN the reign THE MIDDLE owe AGES. The historic halls had. and here. Honorius. and successive sacks had robbed them of their costly decorations. Adrian's. Basilica of vEmilius Paulus. constructed for remains of the Nicomedian martyr. under the name of Tria Fata. A fire had destroyed the Curia and to it in the time of Carinus restored the palace had. resolved to construct a basilica within one of the desolate halls.

I. Peter as early as the sixth century and the church of S. and which occupies the site of the Secretarium Senatus." unfortunately merely indicates the : site thus fecit basilicam b. Opposite S. and that the sole fragment of the ancient . Adriano in tribns fatis. Adriano an oratory within the Pvlamertine prison had been consecrated to S. Adriano to have been the Temple of Saturn. vi. the Prefect of the City. and the church of S. ^ The Lib. . VAtda e gli ttffici del Senato Romano (Lincei.1883). See the recent investigations in Lanciani.2 Churches gradually arose throughout the entire which extends from the foot of the Capitol across the Forum and along the Via Sacra. as far as the Palatine. Early archaeo- logists. Lorenzo in Miranda was erected within the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina at some date unknown. was discovered the inscription announcing its restoration by Epiphanius.122 HISTORY OF ROME a martyr bearing the name of a renowned Emperor. The remains of the Templum Sacr^ Urbis had been transformed into the oft-named Basilica of SS. Font. Martina. " Vita Honorii. Such was the fate of the world-famous Senate house Recent investigations corroborate our assertions they prove that the basilica arose in one of the chambers of the Curia. such as Marlianus and Marangoni. 1 718. believed S. 2 Corp. palace exists in the church dedicated to the Eastern saint. Maria de Inferno had arisen close to the Temple district. 1882. was installed in possession of the ancient Curia.^ Within the neighbouring church of S.. . which had probably been erected in the seventh century. in which was the yErarium. Z. Cosma and Damiano..

IN THE MIDDLE AGES. At the time of the pestilence. issued from the Forum. 130. In the list Roman d. decorated with paintings. S. remained one of the chief centres of the city. Rom. The Forum had served Roman Campus life had not yet neighbour- withdrawn ing hills to itself from the Forum and its the low-lying Martius. This. Silvestri in . earliest walls of the church. and contributed the centre of national life of by-gone days. sacra. p.^ A Christian oratory. Legend has ascribed the It was also known Remains of the were discovered of foundation of this church to as the church of S. Panciroli. however. during the reign of Gregory the Great. seems to have been constructed itself2 within the very Basilica of Julius Caesar Many monuments of antiquity adjoining the Roman Forum were thus by a somewhat violent transformation. tesori nascosti. Pope Laat {Curtii). Marie in Adriani and S. 702 Martinelli. 222. further. The time was yet distant when the Forum Romanum sank to the level of a public stone quarry and rubbish ^ Sylvester. Roma ex ethn. Marucchi. Martine. 1 23 of Vesta and the dwelling of the Vestal Virgins. by S. that of the presbyters. followed Stadt. . '^ in 1885. preserved to ecclesiastical uses. to invest this. 53) we find Ecc.. p. with at least as atmosphere could under the later Emperors and during Gothic times as a place for political meetings. the most important of the processions. is mere conjecture. and. and as late as 'j^'j it formed the place of meeting of the populace on the occasion of a much-contested papal election. churches taken from the Turin Catalogue in Papencordt {Gesch. even after its desertion in the seventh century. Foro. p. much importance as a religious lend it. would identify the traces of a Christian oratory in the Basilica Jidii with this church dedicated to the Virgin. p.

incapable of proof. Pancrazio.124 HISTORY OF ROME heap. and in the days of Pope Honorius. Theodore. Theodore. 1883. AGNESE OUTSIDE THE PORTA NOMENTANA S. a brave soldier. ancient churches already stood in the neigh- bourhood of the Forum and at the foot of the PalaS. although falHng day by day into ever deeper ruin. The reader. LuCIA IN SeLCE S. Anastasia and S. 8). . The date of their erection is uncertain.. — — — — — Two tine. for having in his zeal set fire to the Temple of Cybele. Foro Rom. Descriz. circular slope of the church to his Palatine. p.^ 3. said to have still it may be retained its ancient character. had suffered martyrdom in the persecution of the Christians under Maximian. ViNCENZO AND Anastasio ad Aquas Salvias S. a district of greater legendary renown than ^ The Romans memory on the dedicated a To write the history of the gradual attractive but ruin of the Roman Forum would be an It is most difficult task. like George and Sebastian. The first is spoken of as a titular church in the Council of Symmachus — — (499) the other appears as a diaconate during the reign of Gregory the Great. however. Quatuor Coronatorum ON THE CCELIAN S. S. however. both of which may here find mention in connection with the other basilicas with which we have already dealt. Forum did not cease to be a place of popular resort until after the sack of the city by Robert Guiscard in the twelfth century (O. Marucchi. on the subject scattered throughout this work. . will find information generally believed that the This supposition is. dying at Amasia in Pontus on the pyre. Theodore by the Palatine Ancient associations The Church SS. del.

Winckelmann. 1643. 4. is the church or not. V. tribune. The history of the church has been written by Torrigius. His right hand raised in the act of blessing.^ as the third in the Marangoni. was rebuilt. Paul with a book with the key near the latter. with Mars and Romulus. The SS. to the uses of Christianity. Theodore in a goldembroidered mantle. I25 almost any Ruminalian in Rome. Cose Gent. Cosma . ii. cites S. . the church of Teodoro S. to Pagan temples transformed . in the tribune belong. here some pious bishop later erected a church.^ behcves it 52. Marlianus. On the score of a group answering to the description having stood in ancient times in a little temple in the Palatine. by the memory of a Whether Felix the Fourth built Christian warrior. series of ciroli Panhave been the Temple of Romulus and Remus Venuti. antiquaries have erroneously supposed that the bronze group of the she-wolf was discovered near Theodore's. c. 162) explain it as a Temple of Romulus. with the exception of the ancient . due perhaps to the time of Nicholas the Fifth. His left holding the staff surmounted by the cross. Theodore was long held ^ to have been the c.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Peter right stands S. Here in earlier days stood the fig-tree and the ancient Lupercal and . to uncertain. and Nibby (note to Nardini. The beautiful youthful figure of Theodore seems to have been the subject of later restoration. Temple of Romulus. lib. in order to banish the associations connected with the Lupercalia. grouping of the figures resembles that in and Damiano Christ sits on the star-studded globe. To the to the left S. S. nor can it be ascertained what date the mosaics . bearing the crown of martyrdom near S. Paul another figure likewise bearing a crown. under whom the church. Roman S.

Christian women brought their suffering children to the saint.126 HISTORY OF ROME wolf.^ Even in the later Middle Ages Roman nurses celebrated their festival on S. Kunst. Rom. Crist. delle anticJiita di Roma. Teodoro belongs to the An ancient ara serves as cantharus in Celio.. c. Coronati e f. : the Capitol. ^ Capitol. c. 376. : et intercessionem Beati Theodori liberet te Dominus noster Jesus Christus ab hac infirmitate.*^ It had been erected on the ruins of an ancient building in the quarter Caput Africae. ifi. on the spot known to tradition as the site of the fabulous grave of the nurse of Romulus and Remus." the courtyard. "I Sancti Q.^ Pagan tradition centring round S. 2 Venuti. 705. in the .. i. speaks of a re/nei/os where he had seen the group standing in the neighbourhood of the Lupercal x"-^'^^^ iroi-nfiara waKaias There was a second group of the same description in ipyaaias. Gesch." Annal. stood in the Lateran as early as the tenth century. See E. and was thence transferred The bronze to the Capitol in 1471. Stevenson's investigation regarding the bronze wolf in the " Scoperte di antichi edifizi al Laterano.. Honorius also restored the celebrated basilica on the Ccelian. which had existed as a titular church under Gregory the Great. a. Romulus and Remus. 1 is of opinion that the group of the nursing wolf is the ancient § 3. that of the Sancti Quatuor Coronati. Theodore's day. 1879. la loro chiesa sul Bull. ff. p. d. 1877. di Arch. however.. i. tesori nascosti. d. 3 De Rossi. and as in ancient Rome mothers had carried their ailing infants to the Temple of the Twin Brethren. p. p. At present S. 79. Sodalitas Sacrati Cordis Jesu. p. 45. P. 65). Winckelmann. Alt. Panciroli. Descriz. however. Torrigius (cap. 1 one mentioned by Dionysius {Ant. delP 1st. . Dionysius. Theodore survived through a long course of centuries. which end with the words per sigmwi sanctiferce Crucis. i. 21) gives the ancient prayers for the sick.

Wattenbach iii.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and bore the names of Severus. disappeared The mediaeval fortress-like however. Carpoforus. or officers of the lower rank. This church was also S. The four four martyrs of the time of Diocletian. Five stone-masons from Pannonia. striking character to the Ccelian Hill. The building of Honorius has. Roman army. Udi vertue — Martial. Roman. . 19. x. unfortunately. perhaps from the ancient fountain {Lacus OrpJiei) mentioned by Martial as situated in the neighbourhood. ^ Outside the city the Pope was no building a church to S. and. still remain. Lucia in called in Or'phea.. M. ad fin. who in refused to chisel images of the gods. as having site been the times. were honoured in the same church. Illic Orphea protimis videbis lubriciim theatri. of the Castra Peregrina in ancient for these had probably been purposely chosen canonised representatives of the in successive restorations.^ The Coelian. Cyriacus at the for the 8th JMartyrol. Lucia on the Carinae. 12/ Beautiful Corinthian columns in the vestibule. serve to impart a s. Stephen. also dates from the time of Honorius. prove some ancient building had been despoiled to for its provide materials " Coronati. and the that fragment of an architrave built into the wall. Severinus. were Roman Cornicularii. November. in conjunction with the ruins of the Aqua Claudia and the massive walls. less active. circular church of S. Biidinger's Unterstuhtingett ztir " The legend concerning them has been edited by Rom.^ It seems to have been rebuilt by Honorius." construction. and Victorinus. Kaisergesch. ^c. so called from a street paved with polygonal blocks of basalt.

lights repelled her lover's importunate attendants the youth on the threshold of her chamber. Agnes. and her sarcophagus. The youthful martyr was buried on the family estate outside the Nomentan Gate. Ambrose. tender maiden with her long hair himself sank lifeless celestial . as in the Roman places of entertainment. 488. with ^ Martyrol. when the maiden confessed that she had become a convert to Christianity. loved the maiden to when he so discovered his passion to be hopeless. the Prefect caused her removed all to the vaults of the Circus Agonalis. further adds that her death took place on January 21. On her refusing to sacrifice to be to Vesta. a cian family. and Jacobus de Voragine. according to legend. and one to Severinus near Tivoli. The son of Symphronius. the City Prefect. Agnes beyond girl the Porta Nomentana. courtesans used to ply their trade. but years of age. where. . Rom. fervently invoking the God of the Christians. and rebuilding from its foundations the celebrated Basilica of S. veiled the .128 HISTORY OF ROME seventh milestone on the road to Ostia. and Usuardi on January 21. Angels unseen. ascribes the legend to S. but fire refusing to harm her. despair preyed upon his health as to threaten his death. Surius. His father besought Agnes to save his despairing son. i. she fell a Legend victim to the sword of the executioner. The priests of the old religion sentenced Agnes to be burnt as a sorceress. he hurried through the streets. suffered Roman of patrithirteen martyrdom when only distraction. Restored to consciousness by the virgin at his father's entreaties. however.

who composed several epihonour of the martyrs. 2. later. and so far below the level of the ground that a descent of fortyseven steps leads to the entrance. and a church was built. Nuinine divino imiltwn Christoque jtivante^ Sacravit templwu viciricis virginis Agnes 6^^. Agnese is also situated in a hollow. to Constantina. Agnes. It possesses two rows of columns with Roman arches. by an ancient Scarcely inscription. by Symmachus. still to be attributed to tablet in the basilica.. grams in read on a marble to the saint. S. especially that on S. Damasus. the higher forming an upper church. Psyche. II. The beautiful workmanship and the material of Phrygian marble prove the columns to be the remains of some ancient ^ Constantina Deuni venerans Christoqtie dicata. one over the other. ^ — Rom. Omnibus iinpensis devota inente paratis. in the it has suffered many still remains essentially a work of this Pope. is still preserved. Like the ancient sepulchral church of S. and although. Lorenzo.^ a hundred years Honorius to be in judged it necessary to restore course of time. Prudentius dedicated a I poem VOL. and does honour to the architecture of the period. The inscription is Stadtbeschr. it found by such ruinous condition that he the building was it . iii. though small. and catacombs of considerrepresentations of able extent were soon founded in her honour. . erection of the later The original is catacomb church. namely. is of graceful proportions. changes. 1 29 Oceanus and Gsea. and the finest memorial of his reign.IN its THE MIDDLE AGES. restored attributed. 445. Eros and Her fame spread rapidly. The basilica. a Roman lady. on the edge of the valley which runs from the Via Nomentana towards the Salara.

. a memorial to the Pope and a witness to the decline of art. among the best of their period and more artistic than the picture which they extol. Agnes. owing to the floor of the hall having given way. her limbs draped in a richly embroidered notwithstanding the oriental mantle. with a model of the on the . are still legible. on the 14th April 1855.^ stands another bishop. Et complexa simul clauditur ipsa dies. were suddenly precipitated to the lower The Pope storey. restored the church in gratitude for his escape. but the tastelessness Symmachus or and glaring effect of the modern paintings has utterly destroyed the simple character of the ancient basilica. Below the mosaic the ancient verses. Fontibus e niveis credas aurora subire Correptas nubes roribus arva rigans. but the The mosaics on theirgold background in the tribune remain. forth to place the lies at her feet the sword of the executioner flames are repre- sented at each side. The hand of God the Father stretches crown upon her head . left each Pope wears a chestnut-brown chasuble and white pallium. Vel qualem inter sidera lucem proferet Iris Purpureusque pavo ipse colore nitens. ^ Pius the Ninth and a company assembled in the Coenobium of S. has disappeared. absence of individuality and life. . HISTORY OF ROME great tabernacle of gilt bronze. The figures represented are but three.130 building. erected by Honorius over the altar. an attenuated figure of Byzantine character. their shaven heads are uncrowned by any halo. In the middle stands Agnes crowned with the nimbus. possess a certain naive grace. and. Sylvester Aurea concisis surgit pictura metallis. her On the right Honorius presents basilica . her face devoid of light and shade.

Sursum versa nutu. suffered martyrdom on a gridiron at Saragossa in the time of Diocletian. Vincent in Peristeph.^ Tradition adds that the victorious Heraclius sent the head of ^ Martyrol. Giorgi in the Archivio della Societä Romana. Paul. Vestibus et factis signantur illius ora. The Basihca of Anastasius is not mentioned until the end of the eighth century. see J. if indeed a church on due to Honorius at all. deserted his colours. nevertheless.IN Qui potuit THE MIDDLE AGES. No other church in Rome bears the like stamp of antiquity . quod cunctis cernitur usque Prsesul Honorius hasc vota dicata dedit. 5. had. Hym. like his compatriot Lawrence. De Rossi. I3I noctis. Roman. and. Excitat aspectu lucida corda gerens. Anastasius. becoming a Christian in Jerusalem. for the 22nd January. Martyrum e bustis hinc reppulit ille chaos. Of the three lonely churches which gradually arose in this neighbourhood. the present building first is later than the foundation of Honorius. ad the Porta San Paolo. Prudentius sang the fame of S. existed long previous to the year 688. 1878. on the other hand. and through the merits of her two saints Spain had this site is attained a conspicuous place in the Roman worship. vel lucis reddere finem. 88. 1869. a renowned Spanish saint. a Persian magus in the army of Chosroes. The church over the three fountains. . 49. p. that dedicated to these two saints was the most important. returned as a missionary of his new faith to Persia. Vincenzo and Anastasio ad Aquas Salvias on the Via Ardeatina beyond Tradition has also attributed to Basilica salvias. On the churches acl Aquas Salvias. Honorius the foundation of the church of S. The Deacon Vincent. — Griiter^ wji-a^. i. . BiilL. p. ff. dedicated to S. In the East.

had been baptised on the Coelian Hill. Honorius. and soon afterwards the canonised youth was honoured as one of the foremost heroes of Christian Rome. being only fourteen at the time of his martyrdom. innumerable pilgrims had thronged to visit his grave. and his name had been given to the ancient gate previously known as the Aurelian or Janiculan. in his history of the Gothic war. were the crusades of the seventh century and the Emperor forced the Persians to surrender the cross. He had accompanied his uncle Dionysius to Rome. was almost equally youthful. even as in later times they received the cardinal's purple for their favourites. which Chosroes had taken from Jerusalem. as a follower of Christianity. held to be true and genuine. and soon afterwards beheaded. victorious The wars of Heraclius . The Romans were accustomed to pledge their most solemn oaths by the . and. obtained altars for such saints as they chose to put forward as candidates for the honour. to whom the Roman bishops stood largely indebted. the Emperor himself bringing it in solemn procession back to the sacred city. also restored the Basilica of S. Pancratius. in his love for building. Even before Symmachus had erected a church in the catacombs to his memory. The altar here dedicated to Anastasius was therefore a memorial of the Persian campaign of this great Emperor. had already spoken of this gate as the Porta Sancti Pancratii. Procopius. Church Pancrazio. Pancratius had been a contemporary of Agnes. on the Aurelian Way. The pious Octavilla caused his body to be interred in the pozzolana caves.132 the martyr to HISTORY OF ROME Rome. In these days monarchs.

qua: conducit aquam ad Tiberiin.^ The pro- cession of Pelagius the First already described. and the later transformation of the church the outlines In speaking of this church a doubtful passage in of the earlier building have irretrievably perished. and restored it in 6^S." . An inscription under the mosaic set forth the particulars of its erection. c. Pancrazio to S. Paiicratius Martyr. accompanied by Narses. this passage may serve to confirm the supposition that Belisarius had actually restored the aqueduct of Trajan. when. 1803 M. disquisitio. Honorius found the ancient basilica in ruins. de Fancratii p. - Armellini. 1887. Glo7'ia valde in perjitriis idtor. in The mosaic. Gregory of Tours. which bore the water from the Sabatine the Liber Pontificalis mentions that lake to the city. As it is impossible that mills could have been erected on the Janiculum unless the aqueduct of Trajan. Et ibi constituit niolani in loco Trajanijuxta innriun civitatis. Peter's to free himself from the accusation of conspiracy in the death of Vigilius. 766. qiuc ducit aqnani a lacu Sabbatino. at the close of the ** Vita Honorii. 1 33 grave of the saint. however. was destroyed. Lc Chiese di Roma. et sub seformam. Honorius had erected mills near the city walls. Pelagius had evidently first taken his stand by the grave of the Defender of the Oath. . hiijiis iirbis vinro et S. under the behef that the curse of heaven would descend on the perjurer. Pont. was at the time capable of providing the necessary supply of water. Martyrum. was most undoubtedly connected with this belief. Romoe. Gregory had built a convent close to this church of Symmachus about 594. which entered by the Pancratian Gate.^ ^ Est hated proail ab Paulinus. See Lib. etfor mam. the Pope walked from S.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. de Basilica S. close to the aqueduct of Trajan. 35 .

as his The was not. among According to Jaffe. Valentine and S. Death of Honorius the First. 638 The Chartular Maurice and the Exarch Isaac Plunder the Ecclesiastical Treasury Severinus John the Fourth The Lateran Baptistery Theodorus. and The Romans chose their election fellow-citizen Severinus. — — — — — — — — Severinus Pope. Euplus. the First died on October 12. ^ 28.134 HISTORY OF ROME CHAPTER I. consuls. Font. Reg. V. 638. Peter's. before the ordination had taken place^ the Imperial officials had laid violent hands on the ecclesiastical treasury.^ Meanwhile. . The Vestiarium of the episcoofferings treasury. and private persons had endowed it. however. 640. pal palace contained not only the numerous with which Emperors. a of the Patriarch The Exarch robs the ecclesiastical formula favourable to Monothelism. 640. ratified more than a year. apparently on account of the refusal of the Pope-elect to sign the Ecthesis Sergius. but also the money out of which. for in S. HONORIUS was buried successor. EmPEROR Patriarch Pyrrhus in Rome The Churches of S. after a pontificate of two months and four days. 642 Rebellion of Maurice in Rome Death of THE Exarch Isaac Court Revolution in ByzanThE tium CONSTANS THE SeCOND. the son of Labienus.. Severinus was consecrated on May and was buried on the 2nd August of the same year.

perhaps the capacity of Magister Militum. inflamed their discontent. and. in the first instance. with the knowofficer of the Roman army. been organised as a city militia. and the magnificence of his buildings lends strength to the statement. Judices. or commanding Chartular Maurice was in now This Exercitus Romanus consisted of troops in the pay of Byzantium. the ransoms of prisoners of war and the alms to the poor were defrayed. that is to say. summoning the . and the by the Emperor had been withheld. all the chief officials . ledge and sanction of citizens. For three days he held the Lateran besieged then. The retainers of the papal household made a manful resistance. the Isaac Imperial troops the demanded pay. immediately rose in indignation throughout the entire city. but which had undoubtedly. It was reported that Honorius had accumulated wealth incalculable. attacked the Lateran.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and conceived desperate thought of seizing the ecclesiastical wealth. and inaugurated one of those popular outbursts. The populace. inveigh- ing against the injustice of the fact that Honorius remained received in possession of vast sums locked up in the coffers of the Patriarchate when the soldiers had not the pay due for their money sent from time to time services. some of the more prominent summoned these mercenaries. he took counsel with them in . thirsting for plunder. The in Rome. and Maurice shrank from bloodshed. and nobles accordance of the city. 1 35 Other current expenses. Maurice. such as were so frequently repeated throughout the Middle Ages on the death of a Pope. The Exarch found himself in grievous their straits .

another share he kept for himself. was originally the only chapel in Rome in which bishops administered the rite of baptism on Easter Eve. Pont. a third he sent to Heraclius. and. and Severinus ascended. apparently. which claims our present attention. It had served as the model for all such baptisteries in Italy which stood beside the churches as separate buildings. 640) only a year and nine months. survives as a memorial of his reign. which he only filled for the short space of two months and six days. drove the presbyters or cardinals out of the city. for the made the spoliation the price of his assent candidate received immediate consecration. 640. beside the Lateran. the papal throne. for he survived his ordination (December 25.^ 28. John the Fourth. a Dalmatian and son of the Scholasticus Venantius. and then invited the Exarch to come and take possession of the wealth he coveted. May Johannis in Fonte. An oratory close to the Lateran Baptistery. during his eight days' sojourn.136 HISTORY OF ROME with their decision he placed the Imperial seal on the treasury. The reign of his successor. . been a hall belonging to the palace. and he had. completely sacked the Lateran. was likewise brief. did not hesitate . The Baptistery of the Lateran had originally. ^ The This is evident from the Lib. The Exarch had come to Rome under the pretext of ratifying the election of Severinus. Isaac he came. on Isaac returned to Ravenna. it would appear. in Severino. who. A part of the spoil he gave to the troops. where ConstanBaptistery. vS. according to tradition. left the sacrilege unpunished.

•' The : ancient inscription offert. whose tlie ^ Lib. * .e. Christi. probably also owes its origin to the same Pope. n. Pont. Stephen opposite. Venantius. but at those of some Arian bishop just before his death. and ornaments in the by-gone style of Pagan art. which he had attended as legate. representing vases. fain. birds. Lib. et colwnnas porphyrcticas erexit qiias et versib us exornavit. Joanni Evangelistcc Hilartis Ep.^ In later days Hilary constructed the still existing oratories of SS. ornamentum fontcm^ quod ante ibi non erat. Pont. epistylia inarmorea. at the 137 hands of Sylvester. consecrated cross. was founded by Hilary in gratitude for his escape from the robbersynod of Ephesus (449). Jo. and the present octagonal building. They have been destroyed oratory of the cross survived until the time of Sixtus the Fifth. a third oratory to the worship of the and built the chapel of S. These sxipcr — couplets may still be read in modern characters on the architrave above the columns.^ "Vita S. A fragm. in Hilaro. That the same Pope must also have added to the Ba]3tistery is evident from Gruter. The saint. is also still preserved.* Such was the form of the Lateran Baptistery at time when John the Fourth added the fourth oratory." That Constantine did not receive to the reader. hiefecit in Basilica Constant. baptism at the hands of Sylvester.ent of the ancient mosaic on the roof of the latter oratory. Silvestri. 69.^ Hilary. together had received baptism with the original bronze doors of the oratory of the Baptist. will '^ be : known Lib. 11. Pont. John the Baptist and Evangelist. Dei In the other oratory the restored inscription over the Liberatori Stio B.^ So much is at least certain. Baptistcc Hilarus Ep. that Sixtus the Third erected here the eight magnificent porphyry columns.. 1163. dedicated to S. the . moreover.IN tine THE MIDDLE AGES. i. famulus door It : In honor B. n. fruits. in Sixto III. which was afterwards only raised in height.

and the Istrian schism having at this time been appeased. In this oratory the apocalyptic representations of the four Evangelists are enclosed in square and the knowledge frames on the triumphal arch saints . had vanished from In the fifth Christian art. between two angels and clouds. His right hand Below surrounded by is a series of nine figures. how far painting had fallen from the traditions of antiquity. her arms uplifted in prayer. Peter and Paul stand one at each side. In the seventh the perception of form of drawing likewise perished. like the aged Baptist him . The still existing mosaics of the time of John the Fourth betray. the Pope. but also the pilgrim-staff with the cross. . and a glance at the mosaics of this and the following period suffices to reveal the barbarism which not only prevailed in Rome but extended throughout the West. in the coarseness of their style. of Christ. may have hoped the more closely to unite it to Rome. The Bishops Venantius and Domnius . in doing honour to the national saint of the province. Together with Venantius and Bishop Domnius. after the instead of the sword with which later art has invested Peter bearing not only the two keys. common to the ancients.138 HISTORY OF ROME also borne name was by the father of the Pope. had been a Dalmatian bishop. the latter holding a book middle. and sixth centuries the last lingering remains of the sense of beauty. eight canonised Slavonian warriors also obtained admission to the city and oratory. beside him. the Virgin in dark blue draperies in the manner of the paintings in the catacombs. at each side stand four in the tribune is a rough half-length portrait raised.

The war between the Exarch and King Rotharis affected only the northern provinces and even the great battle on the Scultenna. where theological controversies with the Eastern Church fanned the flame of the ill-will with which the Latins regarded Greek Imperialism. of a Bishop of Jerusalem. chair. et Christum promts adorans Effusasque preces impetrat ilk suas. 1 39 on the left the builder of the oratory. November 24. . failed to disturb the tranquillity of the city. THE MIDDLE AGES. sandificante Deo. The decree of the Exarch on the death of John Theodoms Pope procured the election of a Greek. . enjoyed a prolonged respite from Lombard aggression. The new Pope was not. bearing the model of the church on the right another figure. Providus instanter hoc coptdavit opus . who finished the building. All impending misfortune came from the side of Constantinople.. meanwhile. Vetej . who in after times were elected to the papal . which cost the lives of eight thousand Greeks. Over the Ciampini chapel. At sacrifontis si7niH fulgente metal/o. 642. Quo qiiisqtiis gradiens. the consequences of which might have ^ Martyribus Christi Domini pia vota JoJiannes Reddidit antistes. son 642-649. was raised to the Papacy. Three couplets are written in one line underneath. sacrificing every sentiment of nationality in favour of the principles of Rome.^ Rome. however. calculated to further the policy of Byzantium. Mon. The early days of Theodore's reign were disturbed by an event. and Theodore. completes the series. ii.IN follow . c. probably Pope Theodore. 15. and we may here observe that we generally find those Greeks.

Muratori relates the event in give 644 as the year of the rebellion. the Magister Militum sent by Isaac. in Theodoro. the revolt troops. wrongly Marquard Freher accepts 642 as the date of the same year. meeting no opposition.^ Not only the aloof. Montfaucon places it in 641. and Maurice. The outbreak. Donus. of all he came to an underand induced the garrisons the fortresses within the territory to refuse obedience to the Exarch. ^ no mention yet made Ducatus Lib. joined his standard. qticc erant sub civitate Romana per the circttihun. Lib. Vitale. raised the standard of revolt in Rome. he was beheaded on the way. but the Judices also. entered the city with his troops. • Isaac's death. by order of the Exarch. The is district belonging to the city of was thus designated Romanus. where he ^ Et misit per omnia . is still preserved in Ravenna by the Greek inscription on the sarcophagus in S. .. and army alike irritated against Byzantine standing with the citizens.^ The memory of this Exarch. Maria Maggiore. Dragged away to be carried off with the most distinguished of his associates. of whom we have spoken as the spoiler of the Church. where. nobility. The remainder of the prisoners were released on the news of his cleath. an Armenian by birth. although the clergy astutely held assumed a national character. castra. Contract^ and after him Baronius. however. in Theodoro. and set up in the Circus as a warning to others. and the rebellion was openly declared. was soon suppressed. forced to seek shelter.I40 HISTORY OF ROME been of dire importance to the city. The Chartular Maurice. and his head sent to Ravenna. was found clinging to the altar in S. Herrn. rule. and. Pont. Pont. finding people.

Pu)fj.€vios ifv yap ovtos e« AafXTrpov yevovs. Constans the Second. in the meantime. succeeded to the purple. filled his place. as a fellow-soldier of the Emperors and General of the East and West. Martina. Apij. with which was associated a revolution in the palace at Constanti- nople. been removed by poison. who. and Paul. had ascended the throne. 98 The For the inscription see Montfaucon. it is believed. was now proclaimed Emperor. on the death of his great father Heraclius in 641. by Pyrrhus. The Pope. Heraclius Constantinus.r]u Ital. and Constans Emperor! ^41. Avdphs Xax6vTOs eK KafxaTuiv evSo^iau Ev Tots avaroXaTs r]\i6v Kal rfj dvcrei. and also. the Monothelistic Herakleonas. The informs us that Isaac had successfully governed Rome and the West during eighteen years.^ He was succeeded in the Exarchate in by Theodore Kalliopa. Diar.IN THE MIDDLE wife AGES. : 'Ej/raCöa /ceiTat 6 (rTpaTr}yfi(Tas KaXois. re (pvXd^as aßXaßri Kai rrjv Svcriv Tpls e| iviavTo7s ro7s ya\7]vo7s SecTrt^raiy laaaKios rwu ßacTiAewu 6 (rvfifxaxos. supporter of the ^ One Will. TovTOv davöi/Tos eu/cA-ews 7) crufißios ^uKTavva (Tuxppoou rpvySvos (Tefxurjs Tpoirc^ TlvKvöös (TTevd^eL avSphs iareprijxevri. I4I inscription was buried by his Susanna. four months later. a still more zealous tion exile. StpotoO yap ^p|6 ttis Svaeus Kal rris eco . 'O rrjs aTrdarjs 'Apfievias Koc-fios ix4yas. became involved fresh disputes with the Eastern Church. son of Heraclius Constantinus. but a popular insurrection condemned both mother and son to expiate their guilt by mutilapatriarch. had. administered by his step-mother. Pyrrhus escaped to Africa. the son of Martina.^ p.

or mono?i thelema. Although Pyrrhus had voluntarily seat. but came in person to Rome at Abbot Maximus to lay his profession of faith at the feet of the Apostle. but the violent excitement which arose in consequence. Christendom thus became divided into two violently contending factions. He received Pyrrhus. but in an altered shape. and while the East adhered to the Ecthesis. Africa and the entire West held to the orthodox teaching of Rome. he had never been and the Pope lays stress upon the fact in the letters which he addresses to those bishops who had consecrated Paul. the new patriarch. The appearance of a contrite Patriarch of Constanti- nople at the grave of S. fell under the power of Greek sophistic. they asserted that these were united in a single undivided energy of one will. The Patriarch Sergius of Constantinople. not only abjured Monothelism. in the presence of the clergy in the and people assembled Vatican Basilica. had all declared themselves adherents of this doctrine. the same question.142 HISTORY OF ROME sect of the Monothelites was a branch of the school of the Abbot Eutyches. resigned his canonically deposed . Pyrrhus himself. with . Cyrus of Alexandria. Although admitting the separation of the two natures in Christ. feigning to have been converted by the eloquence of the Ecthesis. After the Monophysite doctrine had been condemned. caused Heraclius in 628 to issue his numerous was rejected by Pope John the Fourth. Peter was no slight triumph for the Roman bishop. who had taught that the one nature {physis) of Christ was the result of the union of the divine and human natures. which an African Council. Heraclius himself.

On receiving the news of his second change of faith. and feigned a belief which he did not cherish. Peter's. and roused the indignation of the Roman Church by a sudden recantation and return to the Monothelite creed. may have recurred at times to disturb his repose. left Rome. he again returned to the patriarchal chair of Byzantium.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. p. 649. according him an episcopal chair near the high altar. on the death of Paul. ^ Theophanes. The Pope. unfortunately. by means of his alliance with Rome. Theodore had likewise hurled his excommunications. The fanatical custom was of . he took the consecrated chalice. Theodore assembled a Council in S. whose national pride found cause for satisfaction in the consciousness of the supremacy of their Pope and Church. and condemned the renegade with curious and awful ceremonies. and it is probable that the recollection of the anathemas. when. to recover his lost patriarchate. regarded Pyrrhus evidently the spectacle as a triumph. signed the decree which pronounced the anathema. hoped. He accepted the invitation to the court of the Exarch. until he recognised a better prospect of attaining his object in reconciliation with the Emperor. dying on May 13. The Romans. Chronogr. did not long survive his zealous defence of the Roman faith. Advancing to the grave of the Apostle. Greek oriiiin. 143 every honour. which had been thundered against him.^ Pyrrhus was not perhaps wholly indifferent to the curse of the Roman bishop.. Against Paul. 275. and letting a drop of the " blood of Christ fall into the ink.

who. and fate ordained that his successor should fall a sacrifice to the enmity of the Byzantine patriarch. and S. S. He further built or restored two churches outside the city S. and S.144 HISTORY OF ROME left : but few buildings behind in the city the Lateran chapel begun by his predecessor may perhaps He have been completed by him. without waiting for the Imperial ratification. not far from the Milvian Bridge. Valentine's to Pope Julius (337-352).^ : 2. Salvator on the Via Ostiensis. Both fell to decay. La cripta Valentmo sulla via Flaminia. and an energetic Pope ^ Martinelli. had ordained their candidate. close to the pyramid of Caius Cestius. was raised to the papal chair on July 5. Valentine on the cemetery on the Flaminian Way. Rome. Orazio Maruchi. 1878. 649 Roman Synod on THE MONOTHELITE CONTROVERSY DeSIGN OF THE Exarch Olympius against Martin's Life TheoDORUS KaLLIOPA FORCIBLY CARRIES OFF THE POPE^ 653 Martin dies in Exile Eugenius. The Liber. previously Nuncio at Constantinople. Pontif. — — The Monothelite controversy was at its full height at the time of Theodore's death. a native of the Umbrian Tudertum (the present Todi). sepola'ale di S.Valentine being entirely destroyed. Martin the First. Martin the First. Euplus apparently transformed into the church of S. p. 654. Euplus beyond the Ostian Gate. Pope. Sebastian. It ascribes the foundation of S. was restored by Honorius and Theodore. The election had been the work of the Roman clergy. 649. 301. Roma ex ethnica sacra. and it is probable that he also built an oratory dedicated to S. . Pope.

in Martino. did he find it hostile. 78. and even foreigners should sign the formula. by which united Christendom was commanded to bury the now stood summoned in opposition to the . 1 45 Greek Church. assembled on the 5th October in the Lateran ^ to discuss the Typus. Imperial official Labbe. and. II. composed of the chief citizens and burghers. Si atiteni potiieris siiadere exercihii Roma consistently jubemus hoc idem tcnere Martinuni si atiteni inveneris aliquid contrariufn in ^ " — — tali causa. He the bishops in council one hundred and fifty princes of the Church.2 A light is thus thrown upon the position in which Rome stood with regard to the Exarch the position of the Roman . This was an edict issued in 648 by Constans the Second. with express injunctions to see that the bishops. landowners. The Emperor required the Pope's assent to this edict. . army.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. in Rome as well as in Ravenna. The Exarch was even commanded to seize the Pope and to compel the bishops to accept the edict. an army in the form of a militia. question of the single or dual nature in a discreet silence. from the various cities and islands of Italy. was no longer able to deal despotically with the city. sq. taciti abitote. . exercitiini taciturn haheto. p. . Pont. a force submissive to his will. the new Exarch. Baronius's reading. gives a good sense. Coiicil. He was further enjoined cautiously to enquire into the dis- by the Arabs. clearly and unmistakably. VOL. vii. to let the matter rest. a subject which lay nearer the Imperial heart than the recovery of the provinces conquered Constans had therefore despatched Olympius.. country people. t. Lib. until he had acquired. K . and we discover for the first time.

as did also an attempt on the life of Martin. n. Maria Maggiore. struck the eyes of the spathar with blindness. and. according to the reading of Vignolius in Martino. however. he sought to work divisions in the Council. and the three patriarchs. Sergius. so that he was not able to see the Pope. accustomed to protect His servants.! 'Yhe city was in a state of the greatest excitement.146 HISTORY OF ROME This army received an uncertain pay from Constantinople. says the chronicler. Feigning to have made peace with Martin. His designs. withdrew to Sicily. he entered the church of S. where the Saracens had already settled. and. while. Olympius came to Council in full Rome and The activity. The Exarch remained a considerable tim. or armans secum exercitus v. and Paul had already been solemnly denounced. deal the death-blow of the Pope. . advanced to the altar to receive the communion at his hands. virtutem. with the aid of his own troops or such of the Roman army as he could gain by bribery. We are informed at the same time that Olympius made his peace with Martin. which was to But God. while in the act of swallowing the Host. Ecthesis and found the Lateran Typus. Cyrus of Alexandria. and doubtless made his dwelling in the ancient Palace of the Caesars. and upon its adhesion depended the Exarch's prospect of success. awaited the appointed sword-thrust of one of his retainers. ^ Annans se ciuii exercitus virhite. professing sincere repentance. but was in itself essentially national and Roman. failed. Pyrrhus. with which he is credited by the Liber Pontificalis.e. The Exarch strove to carry out the orders of the Emperor.

the Exarch entered Rome with his troops on June 15. believes that Martin was carried away captive in 1 653. he took the precaution of having it searched. where he had alighted. office of Muratori doubts whether Theodore Kalliopa actually filled the Exarch a second time. Martin. on the charge of having usurped the sacred chair without the Emperor's ratification.^ Accompanied by the Chamberlain Pelarius. making no attempt at resistance. : Quibtis stisceptis in palatio Cofici/.^ affected to lament the illness of the Pope. . armed to the priests an Imperial decree.. surrounded by Exarch entered with his before the high altar of the Lateran Basilica. and declared his intention of waiting on him the following day (Sunday) to testify his respect. The and handed which commanded the deposition of Martin.IN THE MIDDLE defeat. Martini ad Theodor. vii. 66. AGES. The Pope lay on his couch. tumult A immediately arose the Byzantines struck retainers. under pretext of gout. Ravenna was filled in 652 or 653 by Theodore Kalliopa. Palace of the Caesars. as in duty bound. in Labbe. Suspecting that the episcopal palace would be filled with arms. The priests answered with the anathema. Pont. . and surrounded himself with his own troops. Ep. rejecting the date (650) put forward by Baronius. sent the clergy to meet him. I47 There he suffered His place in and was overtaken by death in the midst of his rebellious designs. and sent by the Emperor with express orders to overcome Martin's opposition by force. remaining behind in the Lateran The Exarch received the envoys in the Palace. Exarch for the second time. Keg. p. xv. Pagi.. 2 Jaffe. 653. the terrified Romans clergy. himself.

however. in Rome. cannot allow ourselves to follow his bitter experiences in Constantinople. de Dticaln Benevenl. but must be satisfied here to take our leave of the heroic bishop. : quia . The Terra V. had a claim on the liberality of the people. he died on the i6th September 655. sic obliti sunt. On the night of the in a 8th June he was conveyed thence to a boat lying in the Tiber and rowed to Portus.14^ HISTORY OF ROME the lights from the altars with their swords. and the defenceless Martin was torn from his couch and carried to the Palace of the Caesars. Martin says that he had taken ship at . had the gates closed in fear lest the Romans might attempt his release. The clergy 1 body desired to follow him into captivity. The unfortunate Pope was first taken by a circuitous voyage to the island of Naxos. at this Misenum was 2 time pronounced Messena and Mesenu. his long trial. Messina Messina.^ Among the accusations brought against him was that of having conspired with Olympius and brought the Saracens to Sicily.^ ^ We In his letter to Theodore. Camillo Pellegrino. surely he. deserted alike by friends and enemies. . but the Exarch. Laboris. Diss. mentioned in the same letter. and thence in September to Constantinople. for. a martyr for Roman supremacy. Deposed and banished by Imperial decree to the ancient Chersonesus in the Crimea. Lipari probably Lebori or Labori. who had te^'rani^ funditus sim super infelicitatis niece sive formerly been Pope. whose character sheds an added lustre on the Papacy. must here stand for Misenum. I . sive He entreats the Romans to send since even strangers were provided for non him means of sustenance. et nee scire volunt siin.. is probably a corruption of Terra Liparis. allowing him only six pages or servants. where he was imprisoned as guilty of high treason. He reproaches his friends . or his manly defence.

654. as a national insult. was expressed such am- biguous terms that the Romans. the violence to which Martin had been subjected at the hands of the heretic Greeks. August 10. Upon the deposition and banishment of Martin. to the Roman in bishop. According to Roman tradition. a Roman belonging to the first Aventine region. or Confession of Faith. The ancient titular church of Equitius was dedicated to the two Popes. was accordingly consecrated. son of Ruffianus. by Sergius the Second in 844. Eugenius. the restored Patriarch of Byzantium. I49 His remains. and the exiled Pope was obliged to submit in silence to the uncanonical and arbitrary act. whose claims to canonisation have also obtained recognition in the Greek calendar. Compelling Eugenius to condemn the formula. and it is now evident how completely the Romans had already become absorbed in ecclesiastical interests.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. rejected it. The document. in accordance with the usage. the Emperor commanded the election of a successor. Peter. however. although the Liber Pontificalis and the martyrologies of Bede and Ado are alike silent with regard to their removal. were later brought Rome. hastened to despatch his Synodica. to first buried in the church of the Virgin of Blachernae in Constantinople. people as well as clergy. and the Popes theirs to Constantinople and. is still celebrated on the 12th of November. and here the festival of this Pope. Rome. . they made it evident that they resented. Sylvester and Martin. The custom had arisen for the newlyelected Patriarchs to send the formulae of their faith to Eugenius ' ' 657. Sylvester and Martin of Tours. the coffin was deposited in the church of SS.

hastening to make known his forgiveness. and the hatred of Taking ship his subjects accompanied his progress. a Latin and a native of Signia in the Volscian Mountains. and Vitalian. he came himself to Rome. The shade of Theodosius (his murdered brother) drove him forth on his wanderings. Vitalianus. was consecrated Pope. The Emperor Constans. Six years later. with condescension. Constans received the Roman Nuncio. and sent Vitalian a gift of a codex of the Bible. showed himself ready to meet the Imperial advances. set in gold and diamonds. and by the subjugation of Rome and the Roman bishopric to Imperial rule. although. of the Athenian port still perhaps awoke the reverent love of mankind.ISO HISTORY OF ROME 3. the bearer of the Synodica. ViTALiANus. in the middle of the seventh . 663 A Lament over Rome Condition OF THE City and its Monuments The Colosseum Sack under Constans Death of the Emperor — — His — — — — in Syracuse. The name at Constantinople he came to the Piraeus. in 662. but of the events which filled the interval of the city's history invest the we are entirely ignorant. Eugenius dying in June 657. who may have already conceived the idea of visiting the West. 657 Second visits Italy The Emperor Constans the Reception and Sojourn IN Rome. now sought to estabHsh friendly relations with the Latin Church. Pope. to Constans quitted the capital of the East Empire with a fresh lustre of that portion of Southern Italy by the recovery which had fallen under Lombard dominion. confirmed the privileges of the Roman bishopric.

The descriptio urbis Athenarum 'Ad-quoov) of the Anon. unlike those of Rome. Bd. The ashes of Greece. . 1881. Rome. but the memory of former philosophers frequently in the Middle Ages bestowed on many ruins the name of the schools likewise spread over those of Athens. Akad.IN century. As in Rome. i. from Athens to Tarentum. were not destined to arise to any second historic existence in after centuries.^ Constans sailed from Athens to Italy in 662. On landing at Tarentum the Emperor resolved to Tarentum. 151 Athens was little more than a waning recollection in the minds of the few who yet boasted acquaintance with the writings of the ancients. as the ruins of Roman dominion round the forsaken Capitol of Jupiter. See my Mirabilien der Stadt Athen. d. was but a progress from ruins to ruins of the most celebrated cities of the past. Vienna. (StSao-zcoAeia) of Socrates. of wSophocles. &c. of the Cynics.. Rome was of the Eleatics. Sitzungsberichte der Kgl. THE MIDDLE AGES. Legend relates that Autharis. and of the Tragedians. and the Imperial journey from Byzantium to Athens. Wissenschaften. published by L. and Syracuse. and the melancholy remains of the most glorious silence period of human history stood in forlorn around the Acropolis. Since the time of Justinian the voice of Philosophy had been hushed. many imposing buildings are designated as palaces {iraXdTioi/). Southern Italy from the yoke of the Lombards. however. {to. century. This work (the production of a Greek in the fifteenth Rosz from a Viennese manuscript. 3 Heft. having advanced through the peninsula until he reached the free the provinces of ^ Athens in the Middle Ages —a subject for difficult but profitable research. Viennensis Oearpa Kal 5iSa(rKa\e7a rcau may be read with the greatest interest. 1840) shows that the same veil of legend that shrouded the monuments of so in Athens. Aristotle. bay er.

which embraced the ancient Samnium and Apulia. iii. Naples. and extended northwards beyond Sipontum as far as Mons Garganus. lieutenants of the Emperor. behind as Dux in the former city. zum . and stood there. ignorant of navigation. 2. the predatory expeditions of the LomGaeta. never succeeded in rule. cap. however.^ Two Italy. bility followers of Autharis. the first duke. 3. i860. rendering these provinces subject to their people. c. Das Hej'zogtzim Benevent ^ . Sorrentum. 9 Storia di Be7ievento. and other Greek ^ Paul. The Lombards. Amalfi. Reichs. Storia del regno di Nap. 1871. the duchy embraced the greater of Southern Italy. and the Dissertation of Camillo Pellegrino Ferd.. Giannone. Diacon. iv. Naples. spurred his horse into the sea at Rhegium.152 HISTORY OF ROME Straits of Messina. years before the arrival of the Emperor in Grimoald of Beneventum had seized the Lom- bard throne in Pavia. but had left Romuald. Hirsch.. . and for some time also in Tarentum towns which remained impregnable to the Northern invaders. The Lombards . bis Untej'gange des langob. " ^ Here is column which the boundary of the " and although the tale is in all probanothing more than an idle fable. Beneventum had already been raised to a dukedom by Alboin and bestowed upon Zoto. . Zigarelli. 32. ruled in the seaports of Naples. striking with his spear a cried. Constans collected troops from Sicily. remained an inland and Greek Duces. and. p. parts of Campania and Lucania. so far at least the Lombard conquests actually did extend. his youthful son. under the part fifty years' reign of Arichis the Second. From this celebrated duchy. Leipzig. bards issued.

The thoughts of men turned to the last days of the Empire. was fortunate for the Church. to cover his retreat. and leaving a force of 20. the bishop or Pope. 1 53 and advanced before Beneventum. whose courageous defence of the city is described in one of the finest passages in the history of Paul Warnefried.000 men at Formiae. went to Naples. imagine the excitement which the arrival Constans visits We may of the Imperial ruler awoke in the desolate city. no Emperor had visited the city. The appearance of a Byzantine monarch who still legally entitled himself Emperor of the Romans was undoubtedly a great event. if not actually defeated. by the heroic boy. with an army. Constans stood. amid uncontested of the Latin nation throughout the whole of Italy. The Church feared him. the growth and fall of the German monarchy. the present Molo di Gaeta. Here. the Roman towards Church. sat alone. however. at least unsuccessful. Since the days of Odoacer. she would have been forced bitterly to rue the consequences of his victory. passing in review the many changes which filled the two hundred intervening years : ?J5™q' 66 the extinction of the Western Empire. which had already experienced at least in strained relations injuries repeated insults and at his hands. withdrew to Rome by the Appian Way. the open variance. the overthrow of cities and nations. He was defeated. the ruin of ancient and the rise of new Rome. if not at representative ruins.IN districts. . THE MIDDLE AGES. and had he come as conqueror from Beneventum. That he was. the Emperor raised the siege. tidings of Grimoald's approach On the Naples.

as he came by the Via Appia. There can be no doubt that he afterwards took up his abode in the ancient Palace of the Caesars^ from the ruinous vastness of which the Byzantine. July 5. The Emperor was conducted in solemn procession to Rome on Wednesday. awaited the Emperor at the sixth milestone from the his city. however great the ruin into which the Imperial fortress had fallen. courtiers must have shrunk in dismay. rose but too vividly to Vitalian's mind. stained with the blood of the rebels he had so cruelly slain. he made his entrance by the Porta Sebastiana. the starvation of Pope Martin. like Theodoric. the Catholic bishop. and we may infer that. But. and the account deserves attention. banners. as the hated Constans stood before the Pope. Peter's immediately on his arrival to offer his prayers and a votive gift at the grave of the Apostle. Pout. with crosses. when the great Theodosius arrived at Milan. and the martyrdom of Maximus.^ Vitalian was unable to confront sovereign with the intrepid spirit displayed by Bishop Ambrose. ^ j being the residence of the Imperial Lib. he proceeded to S. a sense of shamej preventing the writer from adding the customary hoiiorifice. And yet. says merely : Dux orl The szipcepit ewn . . clergy. who. and tapers. and representatives of the city. corresponding as it does to the solemnities observed throughout the entire Middle Ages on the arrival of the German Emperor. and that. 663.154 HISTORY OF ROME Pontificalzs has described the ceremonial The Liber of the Emperor's reception. the recollection of the brother he had murdered. stood in the porch of the church and forbade the offender even to ascend the steps. The Pope.

c. a part of the building already known to us as a Triclinium in the ancient palace. ^ The excuses of Baronius may be summed up in his own words : dum modo * catholicce veritati esset consultum. and laid a pallium of gold on the high altar. Maria Maggiore to offer a gift. reprinted by Jafife [Monum. The pitiable position of Vitalian and his humilia- tion before the Emperor awake in us a feeling of for- bearing sympathy. v. where. It seems probable that it was on this occasion that the beautiful strains of lament over the disgrace of Rome. ad Ann. 148) . in the seventh century. Governor. The following Saturday the Emperor proceeded to S. bathed there.^ missiveness gave long course of centuries was required to elapse before this spectacle of papal subthe scene of Canossa. Bainhergcnsia. . He here received the communion at the hands of Vitalian. and gave a banquet in the Basilica Julii. . Paul. received by the clergy and conducted by the Pope. the Romans themselves must have been roused to painful recollecplace to A Sunk in tions by the sight of the Imperial over-lord who deigned to visit their city. and the presence of the Greek courtiers who regarded them wdth contempt. were raised over the fallen city. and on Sunday went. quoted by Muratori.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 11. Diacon.^ The following Sunday he proceeded to the Lateran. it must still. Peter's. de sex cctat. p. accompanied by his troops. med. 4625. poverty and ruin as they were. so. and Bede. he entered the basilica.. Muratori discovered this elegy in a Codex at ii. Modena {Antiq. 457) from avi.^ ^ Pallium auro textile in Anast. have remained to some degree habitable. I 5 5. in solemn procession to S. too.

tibi subito motibus ibit amor. : Constantinopolis florens nova Roma vocatur. power were granted us to cast a glance into the Imperial Palace on this occasion. Joh. ruis Deseruere tui tanto te tempore reges Cessit et ad Graecos nomen honosque tuum. : . 144) . ede perede melos. juej/ olouel "Epoos. &c. Inclyta quae fueras nobilitate nitens. had sunk to the level of coloni. perhaps ironically. Hoc cantans prisco prsedixit carmine vates Roma. 14.. .' Roma subito. wcrre "Kavras epwri 0eiw irepl t)]v iroAiv Kar^x^o'dai. 143. . Langob. The priestly name was Flora. Heu male. is Ingemiique tui.156 HISTORY OF ROME Nobilibus fueras quondam constructa patronis. ix.. Mancipibus subjecta jacens macularis iniquis. speaks of it as ilhid aiitiqtniin. iv. In te nobilium Rectorum nemo remansit Ingenuique tui rura Pelasga colunt. 322) thus the senators. Tempore jam longo Roma misella fores. Sidon. The servoTum servi refers to the Byzantines. de Mensib. 50. and adds another Sole medere pede. have been written before the time of Gregory. The 'versus recurrentes. that . i.. says Rome has three names reXdffriKhv UpariKhu ttoXitlkou. in my opinion. deprived of their projDerty. and Pizzeti {Antühztä Toscane. &c. clad in their oriental gold brocades. Lydus. ! Subdita nunc servis. Would a Bamberg Codex of the tenth century. vServorum servi nunc tibi sunt domini. to the Popes Gregory the First having already called himself servns servorznn Dei.^ : i.. The poem cannot. Non si te Petri meritum Paulique foveret. The connection between Roma and Amor is ancient and mystical. and behold the Byzantine monarch seated at the banquets given in his honour amid the crumbling ruins of the past that we could discover the forms in which nobles and magistrates. Apollin. Mosnibus et muris Roma vetusta cadis. Vulgus ab extremis distractum partibus orbis. Ep. also. the political Roma. is an ancient trick. reXecrrcKhv line : The explained by Troya {Cod. Roma.

by the Forum of Trajan. nothing of any restorations instituted by him. above all. The Temple of Jupiter was already in ruins. the Forum of Peace. could no longer them with the learning of a Cassiodorus. the Theatre of Pompey. as described by Ammianus. scarce even in his barbarian ignorance. hear nothing of public diversions. the Amphitheatre of Titus. and surprise at the number of her inhabitants. In three centuries Rome had become completely transformed. nothing of distributions of money or bread made by We the Emperor. . the columns of the Emperors. if such existed. and whose admiration of her splendour. Constans did not filled enter Rome with the reverence that had the son of Constantine when in 357 he visited the city. If. of which. Constantius was more especially attracted by the Capitol. he knew the now legendary names. years.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. while the local antiquaries. a Roman Emperor again stood in the presence of these in constans^ monuments. the Odeum and the Stadium of Domitian. we may perhaps recall. in great part disastrous. the Baths had fallen into a like state of decay the Fountains stood empty grass covered the Amphitheatre. although still in . however. The Imperial Palace. fragments. 1 5/ and the degenerate people of Rome. but. the walls of which were crumbling to explain . the Baths. trable silence. the blame is that of the faulty chroniclers. After a period of more Rome than three hundred. the Pantheon. the Temple of Venus and Rome. were there repreBut the entire period is buried in impenesented. we are left in ignorance of the sums extorted from the ecclesiastical treasury to defray the honour of the Imperial visit.

158 HISTORY OP^ ROME . was already half destroyed. city thus i met the eyes of Constans 1 . Rome had. The Colosseum. columns. while here and there the blackened monument of a Greek or Roman genius struggled against oblivion. and architraves. church. And everywhere the eye rested it that beheld. who makes . . i an ancient and a modern. but on account of its vast extent. experienced a metamorphosis and a transposition of her monuments here were temples converted into basilicas there blocks of stone. The barbarous the end of the English of title appears for the century. . but lately despoiled of its roof. the And the Colossus of Nero. torn from the buildings to which they had belonged. and removed to form part of a more or less distant their ruins. This gigantic monument of Imperial power was already known in the popular dialect as the Colysaeus. as now. in every sense. in first time at use of the seventh the writings monk Bede. convents clinging to the historic walls. amid the hoary monuments of antiquity. not on account of then. stood in majestic silence amid tottering temples and emptylibraries. was itself a ruin the Forum of Peace . like that of Marcus Aurelius. Circus and theatre were alike slowly yielding to the destructive influences of time the huge Temple of Venus and Rome. A twofold • . or the statua solis^ already long in ruin. Amphitheatre of Titus was the centre of the ancient city. or the temples themselves transformed into churches. churches which had arisen from . and all the other Forums had fallen to decay the column of Trajan. even such as i we see to-day. part inhabited.

1875. Roman But antiquaries in the fifteenth likely that a statue. Cosma and Damiano) Galletti. Fabio Gori. together with the name Colysaeus. p. When falls the Colysaeus. consequently. Maria Nova see De Rossi. from S. . from the building theatre of its Verona Illustr. Jordan.IN it THE MIDDLE AGES. p. and the Vatican. and especially when that statue was destroyed." Rome. century. Rome shall fall. should give its name to so huge a building? The Roman Amphipositam document of the year 972 domiim non longe a Colossus in temphim quod vocatnr Romuletim (beside S. again revives the theory that the Amphitheatre was called is it after the Colossus of Nero. Le Memoria Storiche del traces the Rome. : stat Roma et : Qiiando cadet Colysaiis^ cadet et Roma iii. is of opinion that the . even of colossal size. 483.. but the prophecy. 1 59 in quoting the celebrated prophecy concerning : Rome " While stands the Colysaeus. Erchempert. 510. the world. the Christian Capitol.^ In the modern city two ecclesiastical centres had Bede was never apparently in arisen : the Lateran Palace. and even streets it stations the Christian city scattered within in the and was its apparent solely ^ number and splendour of et Quamdiu stat Colysceus. Beda. derivation of the name to the structure ii. also known as Colossus in the ninth century. La7igob. Collectan. cadet Scipio Maffei itself ( Mtmdtis. Colosseo. name is derived The Amphi4). theatre is called Colossus in a : Roma rcgione quarta . 4. also itself. i. . and Capua was 56. as Colossensis. Hist. its The ancient city survived in in its great . Vat. Rome shall stand. Cod. more especially by Poggio. had probably reached the north through German pilgrims.. And when Rome falls. Topogr. 58. di Roma. governor Guaifar. constructions. Qtiando cadet Roma. 76. H. der Stadt This was the view held by Rom im Altert. iv. f. c. 8054. ct Flares. Piante iconogr.. which gradually usurped the place of the Imperial Palace. c.

Laurent. bechianus. Maria: ad Maj'tyres qua tecta tegulis cereis erat. in the Palazzo Pio (the Theatre of Pompey).^ the splendid equestrian statue of Marcus 1 Omnia qtice erant in csre ad ornatiitJi civitatis^ deposuit : sed et Eccl. et in regiam urbem ami aliis diversis. squares as the Pantheon. S. direxit. . seeing its Emperor on glittering roof of the gilt bronze. Peter. Pont. Lib. p. or the fear of rousing the Romans to insurrection. the sanctity of the basilica. more especially in the Palace of the Ccesars. Sidle Rov. quce deposuerat. alone prompting During his twelve days' his act of self-renunciation. it may have to been arrested avarice. More probably..into the obscurity of legend. Fea. and the bronze Athlete and the Hero were . Unwillingly he renounced the similar tiles belonging to the roof of S. v. Cod. The bronze Hercules was unearthed in 1859. where fragments were discovered in the eighteenth century. discoperuit. Maglia. sojourn in the city he contrived to despoil her of all but an insignificant remnant of her treasures in bronze. ii . and Constans. by some objects calculated still gratify his Many statues of bronze stood in the streets and Procopius had described them. Mirabilia'.l6o HISTORY OF ROME already fast churches. Paul. and the wandering Byzantines may have discovered others in The Pope showed his guest the deserted temples. as his glance roved in passing curiosity over the ruins of the city. comforts himself with the assur- ance that some bronzes still remained.. It is scarcely likely that the Greek Emperor indulged in melancholy reflections over the fate of the capital of the universe. Diac. the gift bestowed by an the Church. c. the histories of which were sinking. his own possession. 2iXiAA7ionyni. ordered the costly tiles to be conveyed on board his vessels. 313. heedless of the glory of the Virgin or company of Martyrs.

Zeitschrift für Deutsch. has also been established by Vincenzo Tizzani. This statue stood on the Lateran Field (Campus Lateranensis) east of the basilica. nevertheless forsake the opinion expressed in the earlier editions of this volume.^. and only as a favour did he yield to the entreaties of the Romans and leave them the statue of Marcus Aurelius. The celebrated statue had been removed from the spot on which it had originally been placed the spot itself had been converted into a vineyard. Aurelius remained at the Lateran until 1538. von Moriz Haupt. Ron'^s. who read the dedicatory on its base by the Arch of Severus. within the ground belonging to the Baths of Constantine. the place of the Emperor's birth and early education. and now hold that the statue of M. in 66. as by miracle. no less than the ignorant populace. VOL. IL L . La Stat tea Eqtiestre ^ di Marco AureliOy Rome.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 325. Henceforward the clergy.^ The day of his departure the Emperor again discovered in the Via Nazionale. 1880. and it was not until 1538 that Paul the Third had the monument transferred to the Capitol. This view has been put forward by Müllenhof. If. . l6l Aurelius escaping the rapacity of the Byzantine. Altert. bestowed the name of Constantine the Great on the equestrian likeness of his predecessor. and the statue continued to be regarded as that of the later Emperor throughout the whole course of the Middle Ages. in the spring of 18S5. ^ inscription of the eqims Constantini is Although the Anonymus of Einsiedeln. and the site occupied in former days by the house of his grandfather Verus. It Bd. Constans no doubt carried it away in one of his vessels. and is followed by Jordan in the Topogr. xii. the equestrian figure of Constantine still remained by the Arch of Septimius Severus. it were. curiously silent regarding the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius I by the Lateran.

and here remained. is there any information. dwelling on the island of Ortygia. the Emperor took up his abode in the ancient city. but even the altar-vessels plundered from the churches. that the transformation had been effected by Belisarius (Pirri. and even monk Michele Amari {Storia dei Musulmanjii in Sicilia) gives us but little light. But neither Constans nor Constantinople were destined to enjoy the spoils of Rome. Neither in the letter of the Theodosius. de Syracus. Arriving at Syracuse. 123). nor yet in Facello. The masterpieces of ancient sojourn. of the year 878 (ad Leonam Archid. when the illustrious city of Gelon and Hieron shared the fate of Athens and Rome. Sacra. and Epipolse were reduced to mere depopulated ruins of bygone splendour. urb. .'" In the time of Constans the Temple of Minerva had already been converted into a church (the present cathedral) and dedicated to Maria Theotokos it is scarcely probable. and Achradyna. Here four years later he was murdered. fell art. Bibl.l62 HISTORY OF ROME attended mass at the grave of the Apostle. Szcul. and Sardinia. however. Calabria. the spoils of his Roman soon after into the hands of the vic- torious Saracens.. a stalwart slave striking him one day on the head with a copper vessel as he lay in his bath. Africa. Expugnat.. ''^ . Tyche. He says: ratratia era la citta nel nono secolo dal tempio di Giove Olimpico e dalle Epipoli alia penisola : ratratto Vumano htgegno da Gelone al Monaco Teodosio. ii. Caruso. Neapolis. Sicil. ). i. heaping up not only the accumulated taxes of Sicily. and taking leave of the Pope sailed to Naples with the plunder he had acquired. nor in Pirri.^ ^ The history of Syracuse in the Middle Ages is very obscure.

c. Founded in the sixth century. shows that in a Bull of John the Nineteenth the Campus Meruli still bore its name." &c. (It is now known as Campo Merlo in Portese. Stefano Rot. With regard to the monastery and house of the Valerii. MartyroL. 1886. di Storia e Diritto^ Rome.^ this ^ monastery was later united Pontif. a bishop in Campania. 672 Restoration of the Monastery OF S. due the restoration of the celebrated monastery of S. George The Basilica in Velo Aureo. vii. in the house of the Valerii. . VI. 163 CHAPTER I.. 678 The Archbishop of Ravenna makes Submission The Sixth CEcumenical Council TO Rome The Pestilence of 680 S. suffered martyrdom under Diocletian. — — — — Adeodatus J^^^^' — — — VlTALIAN dying towards the end of January 6^2^ was succeeded (April 11) by the Roman Adeodatus.^ is devoid this To Pope is. Adeodatus Pope. According to the Lib. ^ Erasmus. June 3. His martyrdom forms one of the most revolting subjects depicted by art . he restored S. Erasmus on the Coelian. in the Stiidi e Docwn. see De Rossi. 676 Agathon. son of Jovinian. 24. we may see and shudder at the painting of Nicholas Poussin in the Gallery of the \'atican. however. Erasmus Bonus.^ with the Abbey of Petrus in the ii. of which in former days he had been a member.. Usuardi.. Bosio. 20. Ro?)ia Sotterr. di S. whose four years' pontificate of importance in the history of the city.) Adeodatus died in the middle of June 676. " La basil. Sebastian S.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Campus Meruli on 1 the Via Portuensis.

Roma ex etk. . 357. Peter's on January 10. Did this building owe its foundation to Boethius. or had it merely arisen in his house ? 3 Consecrated June or July 678 buried in S. Monasterium Boetianum. in the life of Donus. near the titular church of Pudens.^ The history of Rome is at this period dark and uneventful. The so-called Sepulcrum Scipionis is represented in the form of a pyramid on the bronze door of S. Both churches have perished. mentions. iii. 2 367 . delle 7 Chiese. Donus or Peter's with great blocks of white marble. but HISTORY OF ROME fell decay at some date unknown. Euphemia on the Via Appia. it we may infer that was furnished by the despoiled monuments.^ a Pope little ^ Ugonio. le stazioni. In the later Middle Ages it was asserted that the marble had been taken from the so-called Tomb of Scipio..^ to Domnus. a Syrian monastery. Platina in Dojto. Martinelli. Donus also restored the church of S. The Liber Pontificalls informs us that he paved the Atrium of S. p. Nardini. afterwards known as that of Romulus.l64 Subiaco. ^'j^^ but reigned little more than a year. Donus died April 678. however. an ancient tomb of pyramidal form in the neighbourhood of S. i. This assertion is put forward by Peter Mallius in his work on the Basilica of S. p. a building situated in the Vicus Patricius. 486. . the length of their reigns. Severano. Peter. Peter. with the remains of some ancient paintings. 291 . The celebrated saint of Chalcedon had a church within the city itself. p. Stefano until near the end of the sixteenth century. and was succeeded by Agathon. containing more than the list of the Popes. endured beside S. a native of Palermo. The Liber Pontif. 681 (Jaffe). son of the Roman Mauricius. Its ruins. succeeded Adeodatus on November 2. as is it scarcely probable that the quarries provided the required supply of costly material. and the churches which they built. and. Angelo.

which was furthered by the Emperor Furnished Constans. who was then in Syracuse. supet'iori Episcopali conditione ^ — Even : in the ninth century Agnellus expresses the jealousy of of Theodore. et omnium gratulatione hnmo .^ the rising power of which was further in* Agnellus. Maurus and his successor Reparatus treated the papal anathemas with utter contempt. he Ravenna. the new Emperor. both in West 678-682. and allowed himself to be consecrated by Agathon. Gregory was Exarch at this time (666). This supremacy had already been contested in the time of VitaHan by Maurus. and East.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. with the Privilegium of entire independence from the Patriarch of Rome. encouraged by the strained relations then existing between Rome and ConstantiA schism nople. had thus arisen. dated Kal. having declared . sed manere earn avTOKe<})d\T]v.^ short time later. on the Vita Mauri. It sancimus amplius securam atque liberam ab omni is said therein : manere et nan stibjacere pro qtiolibet modo Patria7xh(B Urbis Roma. 165 who had of the p:ood fortune to obtain the recognition Agathon Pope orthodoxy. The victory over the Church which stood next in power to that of Rome itself was highly beneficial to the interests of the Papacy. adds After having described the subjection cum mjilta alacritate Sacerdotujn. Roman supremacy and A himself favourable to to the Pope. Ohserv. the Arch- bishop of Ravenna was obliged to yield submission and Theodore. Archbishop of Ravenna who. successor of Reparatus. Roman Catholicism. had refused obedience to the Pope. granted him by the Emperor. Constantine Pogonatus. in person renounced the autocephalia^ or independence claimed by Ravenna. Martias Syraaisa. under the pontificate of Donus. gives the Privilegium of Constans to the Church of Ravenna.

which numbered eighteen Acts or Actiones. . in Ardica B. ^ Ep. in evil times and in the midst of barbarians. acknowledged his errors Macarius theological .l66 HISTORY OF ROME creased by the triumph obtained over the doctrines of the Monothelites. D. however. viii. The submerstis est. George. 655. Council at Constanti- and Agathon had previously (March 27. with the view of putting an end to this tedious controversy. although the presbyters may have been. With these three deputies the Pope further letters associated three Cardinal legates. Agathonis. Apolinaris subhts jacet. who elected the Bishops of Portus. 680. but who. condition of learning in Igno- The opened celebrated in the sixth CEcumenical Council was Hall of the Cupola. summoned an CEcumenical nople. Concil. and Paterno as their representatives. decrees of November 7.. had been obliged to earn their bread by the work of their hands. Patriarch of Constantinople. lasted until September 16. obstinate resistance. Constantine Pogonatus had. 680) assembled a synod of Italian prelates. as in official style they were called. Rhegium. were declared vanquished. they succeeded in winning the victory for the orthodox faith at Constantinople. The Rome were pronounced canonical. Agathon excuses himself for sending men who were neither eloquent nor learned. See close of the Vita Theodori. In the with which he furnished these envoys. in Trullus or the Palace of Byzantium. admission allows us to perceive the Rome at the period. 681. drama. in Labbe.^ This honourable rant. and dead and or. after living Monothelites laid down their arms.

and apparently raged throughout the rest of Italy. n.. The dead professors of One Will in Cyrus of Alexandria.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. on Honorius. Paul Diaconus. was deposed and banished. c. and in our own times the condemnation of Honorius has formed a weapon in the hands of the " More has opponents of the Jesuitical dogma of Papal Infallibility. and that death followed every . Sergius. Pont. however. . 243. The unique instance of a Roman Pope being publicly anathema148. this vi.^ p.2 ^ At length the belief became current. asserts that the angels of good and evil were beheld passing through the streets that at whatever door the good angel made a sign." 2 the space of a hundred and Paul. and their mosaic portraits in the churches were defaced. and Lib. hcsretüus. the evil struck with his lance. one subject (that of Honorius) in Church history in fifty years than on any other topic in fifteen Döllinger. Roman Church recognised as its dogmatic Pestilence almost depopulated Rome in the summer Pestilence 680.^ A dense cloud of black cobwebs then fell upon the people. 5. in the anathema pronounced against him. had to expiate in his grave his forbearance towards the Monothelites. One instructed or confirmed in respect to the Two Wills. and Pyrrhus of Byzantium. Non quidem xviii. were solemnly anathematised. Papstfabeln des Mittelalters. Pope Honorius himself. and the head. 1 67 of Antioch. "Vita S. remaining defiant. that tit Breviar. been written on hundred. describing its wholesale ravages in Pavia. of 680. The recollection of the circumstance undoubtedly faded with the eighth century. Christendom was now Christ. Franz Pagi. tised on the charge of heresy by an (Ecumenical Council constitutes one of the most remarkable facts in ecclesiastical histoiy. 1863.. blow.. Diacon." ii. in token that heresy was conquered. but was revived in the sixteenth. Leonis. sed ut hareticorzim fautor .

de prohat. 1570. and the evi- plague forthwith disappeared. Paul Diaconus dently referred to the church of S. Peter ad Vincula. had professed Christianity. Relics of the martyr were sent for to Rome.. ^ Surius. in the were an church of S. Lucina. On his death. also still exists in the left aisle of the same basilica. a liberty for which he ought to ask the pardon of both martyrs and martyrologists. . who makes use of the 452. belonging to the time of Agathon. a young military tribune. George of 1 He is thus depicted by Sodoma in the beautiful picture in the Uffizii at Florence. The saint. Petrus ad Vincula in Pavia the Romans of a later date. Hist.^ Sebastian had long been worshipped in a church over the Rome Catacombs of Calixtus. i. caused his remains to be interred in the Catacombs of Calixtus. namely. Sebastian. Sanctor. a native of Narbonne. which after- wards became one of the seven principal churches of Rome. A rough mosaic of Byzantine style. where it has been embodied in a painting of the fifteenth century. allows himself to deviate from facts. the pestilence would cease. claimed the legend for their own church. 434- Cardinal Wiseman.l68 HISTORY OF ROME altar erected to S. and had been made a target for the archers in the Imperial Palace. a pious matron. however. legend in his tale of Fabiola. Cologne. Sebastian is here represented clothed and as an aged man the idea of depicting him as a youth naked and bound to a tree did not : arise until a much later date. . torn. having been dedicated to him as early as the time of Gregory the Great.^ Another military tribune had also already obtained the honour of an altar in Rome. on the 20th January.

The account : George. According to legend.^ S. the Dioscuri. and a magic poison proved powerless to harm him. no other martyr had the strength to resist the power of the executioner. he showed himself still able to recall the dead to life in the very presence of the Emperor. and of Mercurius were very common during the period of the Crusades. and to overthrow the statues in the Temple of Apollo by his mere command. George. were. George. for I am with thee " a white-robed figure stood by the wheel and gently folded the sufferer in his arms. 169 s. in as it the course of time. ^ Since the head of Paul had fallen under the sword. crying. of the Christian mythology . George. . Cappadocia. he had been Comes of the cavalry. red-hot shoes. a martyr under Diocletian. says the legenda aurea in the of S. ^ Apparitions of S. George remained three days in a burning lime-pit but fire. of the miracle so deeply impressed the mind of the Empress Alexandra as to effect her conversion. " Fear not. Acta Sancton on the 23rd April. George is one of the most popular of this species of fiction. he suffered death by the sword of the executioner. After having endured the weight of a heavy stone on his breast throughout an entire night. a flash of lightning rent the heavens. Euphemia.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ Sebastian and George became. While patiently undergoing this painful sentence. had undauntedly admonished the Emperor against any further persecution of the Christians. The legend of S. and a voice was heard. of Theodore. the favourite saints of chivalry. and had heroically borne the tortures of martyrdom. The Church was life . Finally. he was condemned to be slowly torn to pieces by an iron-toothed wheel. Virtus christianorum nonnisi in ferro vincittir. On the contrary.

He and relates that a King exposed Justinian his daughter to a dragon at Silena. positam in loco qui ad sedem dicitur. Z'jZ : LOCVS AVGVSTI LECTORIS DE BELABRV. Defensor. bears a striking resemblance to the Pagan Perseus. The Janus Quadrifrons. . which. Archbishop of Genoa (died 1298). had afterwards been drained. Georgii. De Rossi. n. . the little Goldsmith's Arch also stands close to the its church. As late 482 the ancient name was still well known. ^ Jacobus de Voragine. accustomed to invoke. . ^ S. in Libya.. ecclesiam S. weaves the life of the martyrs into a set of popular romances. a haunt of moneychangers. The inscription of a certain : Hie locus Christian. that S. set her free. in ancient times a marsh. Lombardica and aurea. as we see from the Ordo Rommt. Gregor. but the district must assuredly have derived larger building. ^ name from the the church says as Abbot Stephen in the entrance-hall of ad velum prcenomine dicitur auri. George came on horseback to the rescue of the princess. True. is mentioned as early as the time of Gregory the First.^ The church dedicated to his memory in the in Velabrum was probably built by Leo the Second 682 and a basilica to S. first printed in Nuremberg). with the title Ad . which had supplanted that of the ancient Velabrum^ was borne by the valley lying between the Capitol and the Palatine. 68. Maurice. in the conflict with the unbeliever. . who had also obtained possession had already dedicated a church to the of the Temple of Ares in Athens.170 HISTORY OF ROME depicted on horseback with shield and spear. Sebastian. vel. Sedem^ George Velabro. in his Legenda Sanctor. and George. ad armandum Eccl.2 The designation Velum auri. Urbis Romce. i. stood the Forum Boarium. saint. should be brought into connection with the expression ad : sedem. George. as we are informed by an inscription on the Goldsmith's Arch. in the act of rescuing a maiden from the clutches of a dragon. Lzscript. ix. alium Alilitem. Here. Ep. (called Hist.

The Cloaca and the ancient fountain Juturna. It is. known by the name of S. p. is. 18. Antiq. Georgii Milit. Julia Pia. Beside it rises the imposing mass of Janus Quadrifrons. the tower of the church was added to the monument. the building was originally on the spot occupied in former times by the Basilica of Tiberius Sempronius.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.. opposite the arch erected by the Roman goldsmiths to Septimius Severus. 21. an archaeological invention of later times. its inscriptions. however. some of them in Greek frons According to George Fabricius.^ The triumphal arch was annexed to the basilica. that of a basilica. in its desertion. and the most unfortunate of mothers. more properly speaking. Caracalla and Geta. Boetii lived in the thirteenth century. his infamous sons. in Velabro. its simplicity. surrounded by ancient. well-preserved monuments. 106. I7I and the spot. still gushes forth beside it. now. by. The original form of the church. its ^ sculptures.^ If the inscription over the entrance of the ancient church erected speaks truth. flows close Maxima George. an ^gidius iii. Mart.. At any 2 rate. of later date) is still and a small basilica of three naves with sixteen ancient granite or other church within the city marble columns. Martinelli. or. followed by Ugonio. building of The is Leo the Second preserves its (the entrance-hall original outlines. however. one of the most interesting in Rome. Vita Gregor.^ Murat. p. p. . the Janus Quadriwas known in the Middle Ages as the casa di Boctio. 582. : The inscription runs Basilica Seviproniana S. Scarcely any is so pervaded by the atmosphere of early Christian times. The name probably originated with some noble family who fortified the arch.

among the Roman basilicas. Christ is represented on the globe between Peter and Paul at the left stands Sebastian. which were afterwards replaced by paintings.^ On the other hand. . combine to form a powerful impression on the imagination of the beholder. but Greeks. one and all fell to decay . Roman 2 George was revered as Duke of the Christian people. and the churches built his honour. ^ Letters from the recent Abyssinian Expedition (1868) inform us that S. offering Martinelli him the gift of a chalice. The tribune of the church was apparently originally covered with mosaics. in Vatican©. and in the chivalrous country of the Franks. with the solitary exception of the basilica in the Velabrum. the saint in later times the patron of knighthood in became Spain. England. the representative of the ancient war-god. George in Velabro is. George in Martio. S.^ The Greek saint. the pendant to the little temples of Vesta and Fortuna Virilis of antiquity. and Armellini speak of churches of S. obtained any popularity among the now effete and unchivalrous Romans. a banner in his hand and his horse beside him. its its air of spell-bound tranquillity. George is worshipped as patron saint in Abyssinia itself. The Popes who founded and encouraged in his worship were not Romans.172 dating from the HISTORY OF ROME first centuries of Christianity. however. de Specis.^ ^ S. situation in the valley between the Capitol and Palatine hallowed by so many historic associations. never. at the right George. The Senate in the Middle Ages celebrated his festival on the 23rd April.

and. p. a year and seven months after the death of Agathon..^ Leo the Second was a Sicilian Greek. The Bishop : ^ . with the literature. . — — — — — — Second was elected to the Papacy on August 17. Leo the Second. and the scholar who spoke Greek as well as Latin was regarded as a phenomenon of learning. not being ordained predecessor — leads a year the death of until The long vacancy after of the sacred chair which followed his us to suppose that disturbances must have arisen in ^ Mabillon. the Bishop of Ostia. 173 2. 682 Benedict the Second Conditions OF the Papal Elections John the Fifth Factions at the Election of his Successor Conon — Clergy. cxviii. the Bishop of Albano began the Adesto supplicationibus nostris . and laid his hands on the head of the pontiff.. Ordo Roman. ItaL. Comment. Rom. in Ordin. of the Liber Diurnus. consecrated the of Ostia placed the Gospels on the neck. Portus. Leo only lived until the summer of ^'^^. namely. in Mabillon. was now a rare attainment. the Bishop of Portus first oration chanted the second: Propitiare Domine. xiv. Army. a Roman. still more.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 682. . the last of whom appeared as representative of the Bishop of Albano. 272 Titul. the Leo Leo the ^g^^^^' From this it follows that the consecration of the Pope by the three suburban bishops had already been accepted as a canonical usage. 687. I^eo the Pope. The knowledge of Greek had by this time so entirely died out that acquaintance with the language. that previous to the time of Second only one bishop. refutes the opinion of Sigonius.. vii. ii. and Velitrae. and People Sergius the First The Exarch Platina comes to Rome. The Liber Pontificalis informs us that the new Pope was ordained by the Bishops of Ostia. Benedict ög^fö^g?"*^ — Benedict the Second. Miis.

or direct from the Emperor. civitatis. O. ecclesia in is Baronius exclaims ! : restituta Romana pristinam libertatem This. either from the Exarch. permission to proceed with the election of the already chosen Pope. Justinian and Heraclius. et pop. vi. and was regarded as such by Constantine had apparently some his successors. . per quant ut qui electus fuerit in sede Ap. p.^ suscepit divalem jussioize?n clement. as yet succeeded. Papstwahl und Kaise^-ttim. 1874. concessit. See. exercitum Rom. and rendered the Church of Rome dependent on the Byzantine court. that he allowed his two sons. Berlin. as evident from history. The process of obtaining the each successive Pope. ^ The youthful Pipin was adopted by King Liutprand by the cutting The cutting of the beard also served as the symbol of of his locks. They had not. The Popes therefore strove to rid themselves of the irksome formality and to acquire independence. however. This important concession could. was costly and tedious. 53. and army of Rome. e vestigio absque tarditate Pontifex ordinaretur. as the three elective bodies. therein contained.. Diacon. however. adoption. sending to Benedict. in a ^ chapel of the Lateran. 26. which conceded to the clergy. clerum. people. to be adopted by the Pope. was not the case. the Liber Diwiius and the professiones fidei addressed to the same Emperor.. although Benedict the Second had obtained an Imperial rescript.174 HISTORY OF ROME or Rome Ravenna. Lorenz. however. on this point. These locks of hair were named Paul.. principis Constantini Hie ad vener. only be regarded as a temporary permission of the orthodox Emperor Constantine Pogonatus. atqiie feliciss. according to the curious custom of the time.^ personal relations with Benedict of which we are now ignorant certain it is. locks of the hair of both princes symbols of adoption which were solemnly deposited ratification of the election of .

previously Nuncio at Constantinople. 685. to his presence. the clergy favour- the Arch-presbyter presbyter Theodore. and VitaHan. on John the 685-686. Hke those of Gregory the Great. Diacon. a Syrian from Antioch. Honorius the First. murdered both. . Stephen's on the Ccelian. After tedious parties. two. or whether there rapidity with which . form exceptions to the rule the greater number of Popes in the sixth and seventh centuries reigned only one. The treacherous barber he shaved Taso's beard. Rome ing divided into two factions on the question Peter. I. The so-called army the Archarmy (Exercitus) met for deliberation in S. August throne .. kept his promise . Pontificates of thirteen and more years. The were darker causes to account for the brevity of their Benedict the Second died on reigns. but rather serves to prove that the election lay entirely in the or hands of Exarch Contested ^^^<^^^°"- Emperor. or three years. we do not know. 1/5 Pope succeeded Pope at this period is a curious and even sinister phenomenon. and John the Fifth. severed from his body. iv. but died immediately after. and occupied the Lateran. Syrians or Greeks With John begins a series of who successively filled the papal could scarcely have a circumstance which been the result of accident. but not until his head was Paul. opposing between the clergy renounced their negotiations Mallones (from /xaWos). ascended the sacred chair. under the pretext of adopting them. sons of Duke Gisulf of Forli. in order to prevent the clergy from conducting their candidate to the epis- copal the throne.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. after having enticed Taso and Caco. 38. Whether these men were only elected in extreme old age. the of the succession to John the Fifth. The Exarch Gregoiy. May 7.. 686.

and. consisted of nobles. the clergy and the This army. and the acts of election. who served on horseback. ii. iv. who served on foot. tit. Diurmis^ tit. represented the prosperous of the Emperor.. and soon obtained the assent of the entire army. were forwarded to the Exarch Theodore. The judges {judices) and the leaders of the army came to an agreement. et de exercitali gradtt in Clerus^ Optimates Milites seu cives sign the act of . and by degrees so powerful. HISTORY OF ROME and elected Conon. : vivos honestos cives. The Exercitus. They had been called into existence by the Christian Church. as classes in general . I On the occasion of the reception of the hair of the Greek princes army are alone mentioned. its said to have included in tion of free citizens in ^ be ranks the entire popula- may Rome. signed by the three elective orders.. in Constantine's rescript to Benedict the Second. To the clergy was assigned the title venerabzlis. that the entire population naturally became divided into clergy and laity. a Thraclan. which created a caste of clergy. therefore. clergy. as the corporations recognised in the papal elections. roughly speaking.176 candidate. From in the detailed account which is given that us the the Liber Pontificalis^ we may at this infer time divided into three great classes. viz. to the population of Rome was army felicisshnus^ and clergy and the two most powerful classes in army formed Rome. in the pay we have seen during the insurrection of Maurice. army. as Lib. and people classes which we have already seen specified.^ et We shall later see. and well-to-do citizens. so disproportionately numerous. by the Pope.

clero. seu civib. nobis. Scholcß MiliticB or florentissimus atque felicissimus citus was ^constituted in detail. In the meantime. . Hegel. n. Next to the primates exercitus^ we generally find the judices or officials. Dipl. soldier bearing arms. 1 77 eighth century. et universa militari prcesentia^ seu is litis civib. inclined to believe that the opti?}iates stood to the milites in the same relation as the proceres ecclesiie to the sacerdoteSy and that the cives hon. constituted the nobility of Rome {Opthnates or Axiomati) a civil and military official hierarchy. 113.. forming a third and fourth class. attempts to prove that the Milites and Cives were entirely distinct. atqtie opthnatib. therefore. These were the higher as well as the aristocracy in general. univ. 248. clero.. Primates Exercitus. Pap. the army only yielding their consent after some days' delay. were merely the populus or piebs. who. It is and am.. The election took place as follows 7)> cunctis sacerdotib. and and Judices offices. II. ac procer. on the whole. body exercised franchise apart from the leaders of the army. urbis. i. VOL. equally stood out from the generalitas difncult to decide the exact relations expressed by the particles **^/" seuy I pop. Romanus Exerwe their perceive that the entire mihtary nevertheless. et moris est (sac. They corresponded : to the body tit election. eccl. et univ. I punctuate thus : cunctis sacerdotib. people carrying on an industry are found as vi^'i hotusti but must not these men have belonged to the Exercitus? If the nobles served on horseback. et univ. who boasted rights to civil and military who bore occasionally the consular title. convenientib. formed the aristocracy of the Exercitus. eccl. According to Marini. honestis^ et aincta generalitate populi ^* a deo servata Roviana. M . who were the Romans who served on foot ? Assuredly citizens capable of et cuncta generalitate populi. militari prccsentia . civil judges. and holds that the cives hon. 112. atque optiviatib.IN in the t\\Q THE MIDDLE how the AGES. honestis The Miles was essentially a cavalry he served on horseback. They followed the clergy in proclaiming Conon. ac procerib.

i. : split into aristocracy. Croton. The Ordo. was. John. who administered jurisdiction in They formed at this period a new Rome. Ordini et Plebi. and in Ravenna. In their place other names with a Byzantine ring. &c. i. Diurn. ecclesiastical provinces. In the course of time. In Naples the nobiles were added to the i"est there of an army. Nobilibus. Constantine. landowners. Sergius. Lib. as Hegel believes. Theodore. the ancient Curia. v. Sacerdotib. who had permitted themselves to become naturalised in Rome. Roniani exercitus — ac universitate civium et . Judicib. ii. which had here. Paul. Maximi. There is not. however. of which nothing Clero.. To this division corresponds the form of election customary in other towns from Clero. any mention 56. omni clero. Petronii.. Stephen. and remained common in the century. The names of patrician families familiar to us in Gothic times are no longer discovered in any chronicle of the seventh century.: convenientib. Since the families fall order dis- of nobility in the ancient of the Empire part Roman had in great appeared. iv. These are undoubtedly city until the ninth to be explained . eminent. by side with the citizens. such as Paschalis. Terracina. 27. et glor. Importunati. had already faded from history. The Probi. . others clearly prove an immigration of Greeks. had crept into use. Perusia. 14. florentis consuls and judices stand side probably as their civil judges. the time of Odoacer Ep. as in Rimini.. Ordini et Plebi : 3.178 of the to the HISTORY OF ROME army exactly as the Proceres of body of the clergy. 58.^ Judices de militia the Church The (the lay nobility) were other distinguished from the Judices de dignitaries clero. by •^ Tit. ii. . is heard in Rome. et reliqiio consulib. Venantii. as we see by Gregory's letters 21. : : . by in the ruling influence of the Byzantines for although some of these names may have been received baptism. Festi.

The Acts of Conon's election were. in Conon. new families were constantly rising to the surface. whom Fresh account of ^^^^" . in the capacity of Judices. the chief dignitaries both of Church and State. successor Justinian the Second but how great the influence of the Exarchs remained on the papal election is proved by the following facts.IN THE MIDDLE relations. the Romans again split into two factions one choosing the Arch-presbyter Theodore. however. took up their abode in the Lateran Palace. 6^y). v. the other the Arch-deacon Paschalis. Both competitors. Pont. 1/9 through Imperial or ecclesiastical dignities.^ On the death of the noble and enlightened Conon (September 21." sent to the Exarch for examination and which proves that the concession of the Emperor Constantine Pogonatus no longer existed It had. his ambiratification.. qiios Romcs ordinavit et direxit ad disponeiidani civitateffi. and even at this time through papal nepotism. charging the judices he had appointed to administer Roman affairs to procure the election of Paschalis. Conon was ill his death was expected. but only know that the judices change. AGES. were elected. . tious arch-deacon. together with their adherents. and Paschalis. J^^ ^ Suis ßidicilnis. been revoked by his as a right. There were also in Rome the descendants of means of business many noble Gothic houses who had gradually become Latinised. We are not precisely informed to which classes the contending factions belonged. " according to custom. From the ranks of the nobility. in fact. . Lib. hurried to the Exarch to sue for in ex- the succession and to offer a gift of money John Platina agreed. n. .

Sergius was reluctantly compelled to hand over the required sum. ut nee signa. Paschalis. that to say. vel cleri seditiosi pars : plurima et prcesertim.^ Together they agreed to elect the Presbyter Sergius. ^ Lib. Pout. sace7'dotum. Qui sic abdite venit. . Theodore voluntarily did homage to the Pope-elect . yielded but a forced renunciation. . nee banda e7im militia Romani nisi exereittis occurrissent ei juxta eonsuetudinem in co77tpetenti loco. received the ratification of the Exarch. inpropiitquo Romanes civitatis. Pont. in Sergio. n. however. and privately sent messengers to aid. in return. and. inito consilio^ primates judicum et exercitus Romana aique militice. Lib. 6Zy. the secular with the spiritual nobility. 159. Ravenna Sergius the to summon the Exarch to his 687-701. where his arrival was wholly unexpected. and consecration on December 15. and succeeded by force in installing their candidate in the Lateran. His opponent Paschalis was deposed and banished to a monastery.l80 HISTORY OF ROME dignitaries of and primates of the army sided with the the Church. is civium midtitudo ^ the multitude of citizens. and that the majority was in his favour. Hastening to Rome. however. He exacted.^ John Platina convinced himself that the election of Sergius was canonical. of those who did not serve in the army. from the Pope-designate the hundred pounds of gold already promised him by Paschalis out of the ecclesiastical treasury.

Peter's chair. in vain brought all its weapons into action.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. One and same spirit animated each successive Pope: namely. new The city itself its had grown accustomed to look upon the Pope as head. the genius of ever aspiring dominion. was of Syrian blood. Sergius had come to Rome as a youth during the pontificate of Adeodatus. To whom : could the unfortunate omnium Romanorum people turn but to the holy bishop. . l8l 3. reached the received the highest dignities. steps of his predecessor. Sergius Rejects the Articles of the Trullan Synod Arrival of the Spathar Zacharias to Remove the Pope Entrance of the Ravennese Relations OF Ravenna to Rome and Byzantium Johannicius of Ravenna. only aided the Popes in advancing the work of Western centralisation. which. — — — — Sergius the First. he resolutely doctrines of Byzantium. in the endeavour They only rebounded to shake S. served to sustain intellectual life. through his ^ Baronius was able to say Umis sph'itiis pontifiaun. his father Tiberius having forsaken Antioch for Sicily. inexhaustible in the generation theological doctrines. which the Church had received as its heritage from ancient Rome. little of though they may have redounded to the honour or advantage of humanity. who. risen into had prominence by title his learning. from the powerful prosaic intellect of Rome.^ The sophistic spirit of the Greeks. had gradually and had at length Following in the opposed the the of presbyter. though born in Palermo.

it was held in 691. whose sharp eye. esteemed at that time of gravest import. The Emperor forthwith sent an official of high authority to Rome. for instance. such." Pagi and Muratori assume that from the circumstance that it was summoned and Sixth QEcumenical Councils. that of " Quini-Sextum. sending his Protospathar Zacharias to past. that neither the Fifth nor the Sixth Synod had propounded a Canon of Discipline.^ A hundred and two laws were promulgated. and forbade the publication of the articles. discovered among them some doctrines dangerous to the Church. which showed that Greek rule could not hope ^ But the times of Martin and the authority of Byzantium suffered The date of this Council has disappeared together with the Acts. Its name was derived from the cupola or hall of the palace. but throughout Italy. and other rules. the prohibition of Saturday fasts. Justinian ventured a yet bolder stroke. and signed by the papal These articles had been sent for ratificanuncios. and a Council was summoned to frame one. The Pope refused his signature. not in Rome only.1 82 HISTORY OF ROME had become the powerful head of Italy? And it was soon evident that the Pope could reckon upon the Romans. as the condemnation of celibacy among presbyters and deacons. however. tion to Sergius. to supplement the Fifth . Rome to fetch the Pope himself a prisoner to Constantinople. approved. position. who required two of the most respected prelates to accompany him back to Constantinople. the Trullan Council was held in ConstantiThe Byzantine theologians had announced nople. A few years after the succession of Sergius. The Romans having permitted leave these dignitaries to without any attempt at resistance. were a moral defeat.

Here. for the against ^^^^ first time. the Byzantine crouching beneath his bed. and with shouts demanded to see the Pope. that is to say. he fled for protection to the Pope's sleeping-room. The Palace was closed. a civic militia. and in it discover. but by that also of the Duchy of Pentapolis. whose sad fate was thus avenged. As the Imperial commands of his sovereign. Fano. the Pope within. Theodori Papce apertis januis sedens . The militia of these districts advanced to Rome. and in order to the ^' Rimini. Pesaro. The thoughts of Sergius on this pitiable occasion may have reverted to his predecessor Martin the First. who. The Ravennese.IN for THE MIDDLE AGES. animated with the spirit of Italian independence. he was followed not only by the entire army of Ravenna. 1 83 a long-continued existence. surrounded the Lateran. On this occasion also occurs the first mention of the Duchy of the Pentapolis. had been seized by night and carried on board a vessel. and by the troops of all the other districts which lay between Ravenna and messenger departed for Rome to execute the The take the ^^^ "^^^^^ Rome. Giving the absurd order that the gates of the city should be closed. the district comprising the five maritime cities of Ancona. whither the Protospathar had already arrived. we find mention of the army of Ravenna. it was reported. defend the Pope. already within the city. He comforted the Spathar with the assurance that not a hair of his head should be hurt.^ blessed the liberators and calmed their ^ Egressiis—^oris basilicam D. instead of a body of Greek mercenaries. and showed himself to the triumphant people in front of the Lateran . Sinigaglia.

It would. had attracted the attention of the Exarch Theodore. inhabitants of Ravenna. . amongst which the subjection of the archbishop to papal supremacy. the Imperial messenger the city. Sebastian. of the energy with which the Popes had united the various provinces of Italy in an ecclesiastical organisation. which they had rendered subject to the sacred chair. and. just described. irritated by Byzantine were meditating Ravennese named Johannicius seems to have been the chief of the conspirators. of derision left from the populace. was one of the most important in its history to the time of which we speak. at the same time. however. S. in the absence of any special co-operating causes. built An illustrious This is the oratory of by Theodore. be impossible wholly to explain the expedition. more especially his knowledge of Greek. a work accomplished by Leo the Second. From this post he was summoned to the Byzantine court. in sede. whose secretary he became. The day that witnessed this how great and national the power up showing of the Papacy had event. It was further the result of the long struggle of East and West concerning dogma. quce vulgo appellatur sub Apostolis. namely. was the most important. and of the interference of the Byzantine Emperor in the affairs of the Romish Church. at the time when the peace-loving Damian filled the archiepiscopal chair.1 84 HISTORY OF ROME amid cries indignation. in 692 or 694. This power was the result of a work silently accomplished. of the Ravennese. as become. His talents and acquirements. These events took place. revolt. and when the rule.

with Byzantine cruelty. . an offence never forgotten by Justinian.^ ^ Agnellus. 353. 1 85 He now his returned to Ravenna. and we presently find son George heading his rebellious fellow-towns- men. dragged to the Hippodrome. Felicis^ c. had been deprived of ears and nose. 2. Some citizens of Ravenna took part in this military insurrection. however.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and there. Vila S. sq. preceded the rising in the Exarchate. A revolution in Constantinople. In 695 the cruel Justinian had been dethroned by Leontius.

until. — Pilgrimages to Rome — Cadwalla RECEIVES Baptism. Spain. . Rome had again become the desire of the city nations. 689 Conrad and Offa take the Cowl — Sergius adorns the Churches with Peter's Offerings —Leo's Tomb in S. and the reverence for the Apostle Peter and his successors on the papal chair.^ magnet which drew wanderers from distant lands and enabled them to overcome difficulties indescribable their goal. a relic. though the the fatal spell. the mythic tomb of the poor Galilean fisherman in the sumptuous basilica ^q^^^q ^]-^g chicf sanctuary of the West. a grave their reward. but after the middle of the seventh century. meanwhile grew and strengthened. and Britain. The importance of Rome as the head of the Church. In the days of Prudcntius barbarians had not yet made their way across the Alps and seas to visit Roman shrines.1 86 HISTORY OF ROME CHAPTER I . VII. ^ See his letter to his mother Helvia. S. had yielded before the power of other Relics of the sainted dead were now the attractions. and the hope of a future paradise. Peter's. . a prayer offered up before it. in time. Growing rnipor ance Peter's. which Seneca eloquently describes Eternal City as possessing over the minds of men. became yearly thronged with thousands of pilgrims from the distant lands of Gaul.

receive baptism and . Returning home. 689. more effectually than political ties ever could have done. watched him conducted by the Pope to the Baptistery of the Lateran. they entered houses the city of their dreams. of the West Saxons. clad in white. Eden of bliss . sought the houses for the The and there found shelter and countrymen pilgrims. Their descendants foreign barbarian now time beheld a monarch enter their city in the guise of a pilgrim. or in the vassals before their for the first attitude of suppliant tribunals. a lighted taper in his hand. they became so many missionaries of the faith. . inflamed the longing of others. saw the longhaired Cadwaiia on Easter Eve stand. singing hymns. After fierce contests with the Scots. from the mystic porphyry basin of Constantine. to receive baptism at the hands of the Pope. The Roman people had in earlier days not unfrequently witnessed the spectacle of foreign princes led as young hero sheathed captives in triumphal procession. 1 8/ of as No sooner did these pilgrims arrive within sight Rome than they threw themselves on their knees before an pilgrims. to the " Mother of nations. and binding mankind. the his sword and set forth for the distant South. became there an object of the most enthusiastic who spoke .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and spreading abroad marvellous accounts of the Sacred City." It was more particularly the but recently converted Cadwaiia Angles who were drawn to Rome by zeal for the Sfgdmage faith and in 68q Cadwaiia. King. and. ^o Rome. and were thus instrumental in uniting West and North with Rome. admiration. their own tongue and acted as guides on their visits to the churches and catacombs.

or affected by the climate. Hist. Exuvias. Rex Saxonum. in order to lay mystic gifts at had forsaken riches and throne. I middle of the inscription : — and more correctly in t.. Gentis Anglor. castra. and a magniloquent epitaph. c. v. . quote some lines from the beginning and 15. anno et Consulatus quarto. The author was probably Benedict.1 88 HISTORY OF ROME the name of Peter. p. Archbishop of Milan. . lares Quczque patriim virtus. ancestors. Indie tione secunda . Peter's. so^olem. . to gaze as a royal guest on the seat of Peter. perque vias. c Auctor. Culmen. vi. children. Diacon. 7 The epitaph given in Bede. triumphs and spoils. sub die duodecimo Kalendaruni Maiarum. and household gods for the love of God. by the strange ceremony. also in Paul. and that he had at length exchanged the Apostle's grave . pollentia regna. that he an earthly ^ for a is heavenly kingdom. He was buried by the Romans in the atrium of S. et quce congesserat ipse Ccedual armipotens. triumphos. kingdom. the tamed Saxon hero fell a prey to illness. records that Cadwalla had crossed the seas from the further ends of Britain. Eccl. per freta. . proceres. . Hie depositus est Ccedual. imperante Domno Justiniano piissimo Augusto. Papa anno Cadwalla's baptism and death in Domno Sergio Rome are also . and travelled through foreign lands and peoples to visit the city of Romulus and the temple dedicated to Peter. which still remains. Classicor. sedemque Petri Rex cerneret hospes enim veniens supremo ex orbe Britanni Per varias gentes. fortresses. liquit ajnore Dei. of Angelo Mai. cities.^ v. Urbem Romuleam vidit iemplumque verendum Aspexit Petri ^ mystica dona gerens.. . . quivixit annos plus minus triginta. opes. Unnerved. and died on the Sunday in Albis (the 20th April). pontificante Apostolico viro secundo. perhaps. mcenia. Sospes Ut Petrimi. qui et Petrus. 404.

. but to exchange the purple for the habit of the monk. with the prospect of a grave in the atrium of the basilica. and Kings from the heroic land of Arthur deemed themselves fortunate in being permitted to disappear from sight. they Pope.. Rome now for the first time witnessed monarchs kneeling at the Apostle's feet as suppliants for the cowl. pious The they were already Christians. "Vita Constant. and. Peter's.. in a convent near S. as the early followers of Christianity had done. The long waving hair of the English princes was cut off and dedicated to S. The appearance history is of Cadwalla on the scene of our typical of . Aldhelm (who died 709) writes Ceduvalla.IN THE MIDDLE AGES." and Bede. magnifying this example of royal renunciation as one worthy the imitation of other princes. Only twenty years later." in Carmen Aldhelmi de Basilica sedificata a Bugge filia Angelo Mai. Rome's mission for centuries in and the future typical. 1 89 Pilgrimage Offa. Peter their royal youth was buried in the white frock of monasticism. by degrees mentioned regis Anglice. 388. that is to say. and ingenuously says in the *' : Alta supemorum conquirens regna polorum Clarum stelligeri conscendens culmen Olympi. two other English Kings. ^ Lib. 20. c. and a place to for . of the subjugation of the Teutonised West to the spiritual power of the example was quickly followed. arrived in Rome. amid a swarm of obscure monks. ibid. among the blessed in heaven. Pont. v.^ The Church thus drew within herself the vigorous ardour of the North. p. not be baptised. where. came. renouncing worldly wealth and honours. Conrad of Mercia and Offa of Essex. These Kings died in Rome a short time . after.

that of S. . explained by De Rossi. crist. ing the chalice over the altar. ^ The fragments of this deed of gift have been pieced together and f. containwith columns or at least the art of the mosaic . 89. together with their souls..1 90 HISTORY OF ROME collected an English colony within the precincts of the Vatican. presbyter. still remains to to inform us. On the contrary. Peter's. penitents. constructed in the form of little temples of porphyry.^ He also erected a tomb Pope Leo the First in S. d. Bull. Arch. &c. the cardinal cardinal. remained in constant demand. These royal penitents did not come with empty hands. and believers from the West flowed more abundantly into ecclesiastical coffers.. censers. and with every succeeding year the gifts of pilgrims. and metal-worker. they offered sums of money to S. and to provide them with costly altar vessels. Censers {thyiniaterid) were adorned the ciboria and tabernacles. 1870. Peter. were covered with cupolas decorated with gold and precious stones. chalices. cups. . p. and the laborious minuteness of Byzantine artists was emulated by those of Rome.^ Sergius endowed the church of which he had been Susanna on the Quirinal. and furnished the Popes with means to adorn the churches with ever-increasing magnificence. with vast wealth a fact of which an inscription in marble. able kinds. vases. 1 Cymelia was the generic term used for the sacred vessels under it were included lamps. of innumer. recording the deed of gift to John. Art. Sergius was zealous in his endeavours to maintain the splendour of the basilicas.

Subiaco. Ultii7ia Pontificis gloria major — Gruter^ erit.Veronica's The Exarch Theophylactus Handkerchief — Restoration of 7. Peter's itself of primitive times. not only The custom burial. Andreas on the Via Labicana the only work of the kind attributed to Pope Sergius. the custom. Exornans rutilum pretioso marmore tumbtim. namely. 701 COMES TO Rome — The Italian Militia advances BEFORE the CiTY — RESTORATION OF THE AbBEY OF FaRFA — GiSULF THE SECOND OF BeNEVENTO INVADES theCampagna — John the Seventh.^ This basilica itself. or in the atrium of the basilica. is The rebuilding the oratory of S. In quo po scentes mira stipe j-na vident. 705 Justinian THE Second reascends the Byzantine Throne — John the Seventh's Oratory in S. 4. of having only one altar in a church. II70> ri. had caused Leo the Great to be interred in the transept and erected an altar over his grave in 688. and that most in harmony with was the first tomb within the having hitherto either the principle of the Christian religion. After Sergius. I9I the inscription of which has been preserved. however. John the Sixth. after Sergius died on short interval ^ September 701. was thus abandoned.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the Popes been buried in the cemetery beyond the gates. S. 2. it became the custom to accord such Popes as were held in greatest esteem. . Et quia prccmicuit ??nris virtutibus oli?n. but worship in S.Peter's — S. and a was succeeded (October 30th) by John amove It ends : Sergttis antistes divino itnpuhus Nunc in fronte sacrcc transtulit hide donnis.

Tiberius Apsimar. the Popes remained staunch supporters of the Imperial power. Although already wielding a greater influence over Italian affairs than the Exarchs. however. having induced the Italians to retire. who were again threatening Rome. ordered the gates to be closed. cautiously acted as mediators in every revolution. outside the city walls the population was in revolt within the Pope. at this time occupied the throne of Byzantium. who. The cause of the Emperor's hostile attitude towards . the Popes as yet possessed no temporal power. degrees been subdued by the influences of Italian ^ Apudfossatum. and his envoys. in quo in unum life convenerant. The native savagery of the Lombards had by . . In the of John the Sixth the expression used to denote the camp of the Lombards. HISTORY OF ROME a Greek.192 the Sixth. effected the escape of the Exarch.^ John's attitude on this occasion proves him to have been a man of shrewdness and foresight. four years previously. had overcome the usurper Leontius. since the immediate enfranchisement of Italy from Byzantium (now the seat of Roman Imperial authority) would only have redounded to the advantage of the Lombards. and. I must leave undecided. . patriotism was aroused the dominion of Byzantium The militia lay encamped was nearing its end. and that the militia from the different Italian provinces Latin forthwith arrived in defence of the city. Fossatum is a camp is surrounded by a ditch. . Whether or not the event belongs to the year 702. They continued to acknowledge themselves subjects of the Emperor. Rome remains inexplicable to us we only know that he sent thither the Exarch Theophylactus from Sicily.






and their princes, nobles, and bishops, converted from Arianism to the Catholic faith, were now the foremost champions of the Roman worship. Churches and monasteries had arisen, where learning flourished under the care of Lombard monks and Farfa, an abbey which had previously suffered the The ° fate of Monte Casino, owed its restoration, at the end


of the seventh century, to





of Spoleto, had been specially active in rebuild-

ing this monastery, which, although situated in Sabine

belonged to the Lombard duchy of Spoleto,^ the rulers of which province proved less dangerous to Rome than their rivals of Benevento. We are ignorant of the motives which impelled the powerful Gisulf the Second to invade the Campagna in the second or third year of John's pontificate. He here occupied Sora, Arpino, and Arce, devastated the banks of the Liris with fire and sword, and encamped near Horrea. John, however, by means of a heavy ransom, induced the duke to retreat. The occupied towns, the possession of which had already been a matter of dispute, lay on the frontier. Later, it would appear that they were not reckoned as belonging to the duchy of Benevento, and, when conquered by Gisulf, stood apparently either under the jurisdiction of the Roman commander, or, like Terracina and Gaita, under that of the Sicilian Patricius.^ Paul.
1 Muratori, ad Ami. MabilL, Annal. Bened., xvii. c. 20, 561 683 Chron. Farf. and Muratori's Prolegom. to it vol. ii., Script. ^^. 2. In the archives of Farfa the formula invariably runs: Monast. S. Dei
; : ;

gcnitr. Maricc

quod situm


in territorio Sabin, in loco tibi dicitur


The Tabula

Chorogr. Medii



John Barretta









Diaconus distinctly speaks of Sora as a city of the Romans, and with Diaconus, as with Procopius, Romans invariably stand for Greeks.^ Ancient Latium extended along the left bank of the Tiber beyond the Liris to these frontier towns seawards,


stretched to Terracina.

no more than on previous occasions, is there any mention either of an Imperial Dux, or yet







again the Pope, who,


of a Greek general, conducts the negotia-

and who, through the intervention of the

and out of the funds belonging to the ecclesiastical treasury, purchases peace. John the Sixth died in January 705, leaving the Apostolic chair to the son of the Greek Plato, who was ordained as John the Seventh on March ist.


the reign of this

Pope peaceful


Lombards, Aribert formally restoring to the Roman Church the estates in the Cottian Alps seized by his predecessors.^ The deed of gift, written in letters of gold, and forming one of the most ancient documents of its kind, was sent to Rome. The relations with Constantire-established


throws as



on the subject as does Camillus Peregrinus'
Procop., de


de ducatu Benev.



I5> represents



territory as extending to Terracina

is TapaKTjt/rjv irdKiv oiKovcriv, ovs


ol 'Vwfjcris (ipoi

ots Kafj.irauol &XP^ iKdcxovrai.

The Ltd.

Font, only mentions the

unknown Horrea.

Paul. Diacon.,

on the other hand,

Suram, Romanoruni

civttatem, Hirpinos


Cluver and Muratori read


Arpinum^ Arcem

Sora was a fortress of the Samnites ; the ancient Arx or present Arce is situated near Arpino. 2 A restitution of ecclesiastical property, and by no means, as Baronius supposes, the donation of an entire province.






where the banished Justinian had succeeded in regaining possession of the throne, were, on the other hand, full of menace. Escaping from the Chersonese, where he had been living in exile, Justinian reached the mouth of the Danube, and, with the help of the
Bulgarian King,

made himself master of


Here he

revelled in the blood of his enemies,

them by thousands. The terrible Rhinotmetus,^ for so he was called by the Greeks after the loss of his nose, had scarcely
impaling, beheading, and blinding

regained the throne, when, recollecting the decrees ot
the Trullan Council, he sent



Rome by


hands of two Metropolitans, to request the papal


true, refused,

but lacking the

courage to condemn the uncanonical articles, drew on himself the censures of the orthodox. His biographer discovers in this offence the cause of his death, which took place in October 707. To John the Seventh are ascribed some buildings, which are in part associated with remarkable local legends. He erected a chapel in S. Peter's, and lined it with mosaics,^ which, regarded at the time as the greatest ornament of the basilica, formed in truth the most important artistic achievement of the age. In the centre stands the Virgin,^ at her right the Pope, his head crowned by a square nimbus, and the model
The Emperor replaced the nose which he had lost by one of gold, and when he cleansed the latter, those who were present knew that the death of some one had been decided upon. These mosaics are described by Torrigio, Le saa'e grotte Vat., ii.


In 1609 this portrait was removed to the Ricci chapel in S. Marco


Florence {Furietti de Älusivis,

5, p. 79).



of the chapel in his hands. Traces of figures, together with the ancient inscription, may still be discovered
in the crypt of the Vatican.^


walls of the oratory

were also covered with mosaics, depicting S. Peter preaching in Jerusalem, Antioch, and Rome, the fall of Simon Magus, the deaths of Peter and Paul, and the history of the Saviour from His birth until His descent into Hades. The execution of these mosaics bears witness to the lamentable decline which had taken place in art, but the idea of decorating a chapel entirely with mosaics, and of representing the drama of Christianity in a series of actions, seems to us a conception so daring in this barbarous age as to call for attention. After an existence of nine hundred years, the chapel was pulled down in 1639, ^^^ ^^^ remains of the mosaics removed to S. Maria in Cosmedin. Here the time-honoured relics (now more than eleven hundred years old) still remain, built into the walls of the Sacristy, and, rough in execution though they be, bear the stamp of an age, the pious simplicity and child-like faith of which it is scarcely
possible for us to understand.^



said to

have also deposited the Handkerchapel, where, in the

chief of Veronica within the

tenth century, and assuredly


was the

Joannes indignus Episcopus


B. Dei Genitricis servus.


Mary is here

represented with the Child, veiled after the manner of

an angel stands before the Virgin behind her, a figure who and a second figure, perhaps Joseph. The work, executed on rough material, is as crude as that of the contemporary representation of S. Stephen in S. Pietro ad Vincula.
the Greeks
offers a gift to the child,

Crescimbeni, Storia della basilica di S. A/aria in Cosviedin^
gives an illustration of this mosaic.

p. 145,





object of universal veneration.^


inscription relatstill

ing to the


and dating from John's time,

crypt of the Vatican, and, since the handkerchief was regarded in the Middle Ages as
in the

Rome's most precious possession,
here find a place.^




Tiberius, afflicted with incurable leprosy, one




informed the senators that, being beyond the aid of man, he must have recourse to heaven. He had been told that a divine magician, named Jesus, dwelt in Jerusalem, and he ordered the patrician Volusianus immediately to repair thither and implore the renowned physician to accompany him back to the Imperial court. Storms delayed the arrival of the messenger for a whole year and, on reaching Jerusalem, Volusian was met by Pilate with regrets that the Emperor had not sooner made known his desires, as the magician had already been crucified by the Jews. Volusian, unable to execute his commission, thought

himself fortunate in obtaining a portrait of Jesus.

Chron. Benedicti^ a




monk of S. Andrea on Soracte {Mon. German., Johannes prceerat papa^ qui fecit oratorium sancte Dei
ubi dicitur

genitricis^ opere pulcerrimo^ intra ecclesia b. Petri apostoliy

a Veronice.

With regard

to the handkerchief {Sindote) there is a small litera-









work of

Alfonsus PakTeotus, Jesu


Crucifixi Stigmata sacra Sindoni

impressa^ which gives an appalling representation of the
Christ having

His likeness on the funeral-sheet, every



investigated with barbarous erudition.


in ogni

210, and Severan.,



Chiese, p. 154,


account of




have given a handkerchief. Karl

Pearson, Die Fronica, ein Beitrag
Mittelalterj Strassburg, 1887.






Veronica, a pious matron, had wiped the face of the

Saviour as


passed, overpowered

the cross, and the

Saviour, in

by the weight of return, had allowed


impress of His features.^

Volusian conducted Veronica, and with her the portrait, back to Rome, bringing Pilate in chains on board the same vessel. When they arrived in the presence of the Emperor, Tiberius sentenced the exgovernor to life-long exile in the town of Ameria.

The handkerchief he ordered
into tears,

to be brought


him, and hardly had he set eyes on

when he




in adoration,

diately recovered of his leprosy.


and immeheaped wealth

upon Veronica, and had the handkerchief set in gold and precious stones, and preserved in his palace. He survived his recovery only nine months an interval which he spent in constant prayer to the Saviour and in adoration of His portrait. The celebrated legend is one of a number which bring the Pagan Emperors into connection with Christianity. Round Augustus, in whose reign the Saviour's birth took place, centres one of the most beautiful of these local myths, and his terrible suc;

cessor Tiberius,

who occupied

the throne at the time

of the Crucifixion, became in like manner the subject

of legend.


history of Veronica's handkerchief,

which existed

main outlines



days of
true to



Landsberg assures us that the


he even discovers the print of the blow inflicted by an impious soldier on the face of Christ. Severan., p. 160. S. Veronica is, however, unfortunately a fiction, and originated from vera icon, or " the true
portrait " of Christ,

supposed to have been given to King Abgarus of



Farina, Storia d' Italia,







Eusebius and Tertullian, is of earlier date than the legend relating to Augustus although at what time

the belief became current that Tiberius, in


quence of his miraculous cure through the handkerchief, had Christ enrolled among the Roman deities cannot now be ascertained. The Senate, it is said, refused to obey the Emperor; on the contrary, it commanded all Christians to leave the city, and
Tiberius, in a transport of rage at the disobedience of

the Fathers, sentenced several of them to immediate



the twelfth century.

legend probably dates from Bishop Orosius, however, who

lived in the beginning of the fifth, and who knew nothing of the handkerchief, informs us that Tiberius, on the refusal of the Senate to enrol Christ among the gods, became suddenly transformed from an

amiable prince into a monster of cruelty.^








Sudarium, and asserts that Veronica remained in possession of her treasure after the Emperor's death, but that, dying herself at the age of a hundred, she bequeathed it to Bishop Clement, whose successors carefully guarded the relic until it was deposited by Boniface the Fourth in the Pantheon.^ John the

Orosius, Hist.y

xii. c. 4,

does not mention Veronica, but only
Christ's death


us that, on receiving the

and resurrection, Tiberius desired to enrol Him among the gods, and was prevented by the Senate. Otto von Freising, Chron., iii. c. 12, borrows from Orosius, but he too has nothing about Veronica, although the monk Benedict was acquainted with the legend two centuries earlier. - A chest still stands in the Pantheon bearing the ridiculous inscription In ista capsa fiiit portatiim siidai-iiim passionis Domini nostri

news of

Jesu Christi a Hierosolymis Tiberio Augtisto.



Seventh at length removed it to the chapel ot which we have spoken in S. Peter's, and there had it enclosed in a marble tabernacle. This Pope, however, conferred a yet greater benefit on the Church by his restoration of a world-renowned monastery in the Campagna. The Benedictine


of Subiaco, the earliest foundation of Benedict,

had suffered the fate of its colony, Monte Casino. Destroyed by the Lombards in 6oi, and its monks transferred to S. Erasmus on the Coelian, Subiaco had remained deserted more than a hundred years before John undertook the work of restoration.^


— CONSTANTINUS, 708 — PUNISHMENT IN—The Pope goes to the East — Executions in Rome— Revolt under George in Ravenna — First Confederation of Italian Cities — Philippicus Bardanes Emperor, 711 — The Romans Refuse their Allegiance — The Roman Duke and Duchy — Civil War in Rome —The


Palace of the C^sars Anastasius the Second Emperor, 713 Death of Constantine, 715.
sisinnius ope, 708.

Sisinnius, a Syrian, succeeded


in the ponti-

ßcate, but

reigned only twenty days.^



vented him from carrying out his praiseworthy design of restoring the walls of the city, which had fallen into a ruinous condition. His successor, Constantine, likewise a Syrian, a
Mabillon, Annul. Bened.^ lib. xix. 23. John the Seventh was buried in S. Peter's on October 18. Sisinnius was consecrated in January 708, and buried in S. Peter's on the 7th February of the same year (Jaffe).






strong and active man, was ordained on March 25, ConVarious events of importance characterised the Pope, 708.

seven years' reign of this Pope.


In 709 Ravenna was a terrible calamity, the Emperor carrying


into execution his

scheme of revenge against the city which he had sworn to punish. The Patricius Theofleet


dore appeared in the harbour with a


Sicily, by the

beguiled the local nobility and the principal clergy

on board the vessels, and there loaded them with chains. The Greeks landed, sacked, and burnt the city, and, at the same time, massacred great numbers of its inhabitants. The more important citizens, however, were led prisoners by the Patricius before the throne of Justinian, and sentenced to execution. Among these victims of Imperial revenge was Johannicius. Condemned to be immured alive, the celebrated Ravennese was led through the streets of Constantinople, the executioner who walked before him. proclaiming the cruel punishment he was ordained suffer.^ His fellow-prisoner, the Archbishop to
^ Johannicius Ravennianus ille facundus poeta^ quia invictissimo Augusto contrarius fuit inter duos fornices murina morte vita pj'ivetur. Agnellus gives the history of this man in Vita Theodori, Damiani, S. Felicis. It is, however, a romance. His sister begged that the head of her brother should be shown her from the window after his execution she saw it, wept, and died. Agnellus calls himself the great grandson of Johannicius. With regard to this memorable historian, who closes his work with Bishop George about the year 844, see the Prolegomena in Amadesi's An'tistit. Ravenn. Chronotaxis Favent., His wretched prose is a mixture of the naive simplicity of the 1783. chronicler with a bombastic imitation of the style of the ancient rhetoricians. The latest edition of Agnellus is that of Holder-Egger in Mon. Germ. Hist. (Script, rer. Laiigobardicar. et Italicar.^ s^ec.
^ ;


1878 j.


was deprived of
his sight,

and banished



Ravenna struck dismay through every province of Italy, and increased the hatred with which Byzantium was
dreadful fate which had overtaken


already regarded.


but the


been united,

and had dread of the Lombards not crippled their powers, they might thus early have thrown off the
Byzantine yoke. Rome bewailed the ruin of her rival the Pope, however, turned the situation to his own advantage, and the Emperor found himself obliged to assume an attitude of friendliness. Jus;

tinian invited the

Pope to come


person to Constanti-

nople to settle the still-disputed points in the articles of the Trullan Synod, and the head of the Roman Church, terrified by the punishment which had befallen Ravenna, yielded obedience to the Imperial command. Sighing, he embarked from Portus on

accompanied by the chief dignitaries of the Church, Bishop Nicetas of Silva Candida, George of Portus, and several cardinals and officials


of the papal palace.

It is

curious to follow the



and trace the route then taken from Rome to Constantinople. It led from Naples to Sicily, thence to Rhegium, Crotona, and Gallipolis. The winter was spent in Hydruntum in spring the
his journey,

journey continued along the coast of Greece, thence The to the Isle of Caea, and on to Constantinople. authorities had everywhere been instructed to accord

Muratori derives
of blinding,








by which the condemned was obliged a red-hot basin in which vinegar was poured.

to hold his eyes

Pont. by confession. the mitre on his in the on horsehead. he confessed. rejoicing. 2 Lib. the Exarch. speaks of the it mitre as Kafjt.€\aiJKiov) the Italians call carnauro.^ The Emperor was Constantine capital. awaited his arrival. of all the privileges of the Roman Church. led several of the Roman who had hastened thither to greet him. however. Outside the capital. . him back he re-entered the city. prostrated himself and kissed the feet of the Pope ? It is added that. John Rizocopus.^ It 711. therefore obliged to leave the at the at Nicomedia. at the head of the Senate. after a They year's absence. Arrived at Cajeta. who can believe. fortified with the ratification. since the wary Constantine returned from the East in the autumn of recorded. Immediately on his departure. dripping with the blood of his and repair to meet him enemies. and Cyrus the Patriarch. . pro delictis suis. and took up his abode his entry made Palace of Placidia. . camelaucuDi (Greek. son of the Emperor. he found clergy and nobles. The cruel Rhinotmetus. the papal embrace. and the last Pope ever seen in Constantinople back. at the head of the clergy. became purified in the eyes of man by . October 24. the crown on his head. See Vignoli's note on this passage. and is communion but of the matters discussed during the interview nothing would appear that Emperor and Pope came to an understanding. 203 a courteous reception to the Roman bishop. and. that the Emperor.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Tiberius. informed of the dreadful occurrences which had taken place during his absence. was time at Nicea in Bithynia. and received the communion. Pont. ^ He was now The Lib.

a fact which contributed to the revival of the Latin national sentiment. like It the Gothic Monarchy. men and women. the greatest city of the time in Italy. both in Ravenna and the other cities of the Exarchate. They were divided into two parties. and those from the PosThey fought terula. and far out-stripped Rome in wealth. The text . Roman laws still survived in the Romagna.^ Out ^ An ancient game with quoits. An unconquerable independence has. but as the Exarch left for Ravenna immediately after the execution. he informs us. the children played with quoits. testify. and the inhabitants of Ravenna were a people of passionate instincts and fanatical customs. next Rome. Ravennese. or from the Sinnmus viciis. The Roman Empire. was the residence of the Byzantine viceroy was. as the accounts of their chronicler. Every Sunday. with slings.204 HISTORY OF ROME to had come Rome. which it owed to its commercial relations with the East. characterised the hot-blooded Romagnoli. those from the Porta Tiguriensis. it would^ seem that it must in some way have been associated with the rebellion of the ecclesiastical officials. Agnellus. The motive of this action remains unknown. The thrown unfortunate city had risen off the in despair and yoke of Byzantium. It was the capital of the rich province of Romagna. now known as ruzzola. were accustomed to contest with each other outside the city gates. and the seat of a powerful metropolitan. which had remained unconquered by the Lombards. its . nobles and people. lay buried within to walls. had here seized some of the chief and had them executed without a trial. in all ages.

IN THE MIDDLE AGES." With and we occurrence the seventh century ends. Ravenna still possessed theatres and baths. pereselidas pei'iscelidas. Bishop Damian ordered the whole population sackcloth and ashes to join in procession. and shops were closed A week passed filled the streets with lamentations. dextralia women imitato7'ias (?) \i. c.^ in when. here stabbed him. 205 of these popular games struggles for life and death arose. says : paj"vuli aim viodica orbitella. Baths. who wrote only a hundred years mentions the ornaments then customarily worn by vestes^ pallia. ii. even at this period. The assassins were executed even their wives and children had to suffer the popular revenge. and the dead were disclosed to sight. pmsidia (?) ct laiidosias (?). : especially i saccojti. they cover of a solemn reconciliation. party feeling. et spcaiia. and henceforth the district was known by the opprobrious name of the . and secretly made away with the corpse. . No one knew what the Posterula left their had become of the missing citizens. were called later. inaures. monilia (necklets).^ {hx?iQ. Those who wore them of haircloth Agnellus. Each man took a guest home with him. et liliola (ornaments formed like a lily). they invited the Tigurians to the Basilica Ursiana. . have quoted it here merely as an example of this the height to which. as the vanquished party from dead and wounded covering planned a diabolical revenge.^Q. public widows and orphans resorts. Agnellus. anulos. et himilas (lunate ornaments of gold).].'&). " Brigand's quarter. the earth opened. olfactoria (scentbottles) et actis. Under the field. One Sunday. away. anklets Transl. as the Ravennese historian relates. Vita Daniasi. 327.e.\. ^ Saccos indtiti sunt — ciliciis se operierunt — the cowls of the confra{ciliccino) ternities. The quarter Posterula was destroyed.

He divided Ravenna into twelve companies or bands. soar 122) . Adorator (an unexplained word). and the Division of the Archbishop.206 the HISTORY OF ROME peculiar characteristic of the Middle Ages in had already been developed. Victricis Mediolan. and doubtless corresponded to a like arrangement in Rome. Unconquered Banner. Primicerius. Band i. the Italy. probably Dacians from Zarmisia (n. of Marini adduce 90) . Numerus for regiment belongs to Imperial times . (n. Num. Cesena. and Optio or Ozio. 95) felicum Per Invicti (n. Veronensium (n. according to the divisional banners of the city militia Ravenna. The officers were called Tribunus. The Papiri (n. Numerus felicum Theodosiacics Sermisiana. . answering to the Regions of the city. in the language of the Middle Ages. au X^^ siede. son of that John who had been executed in Byzantium. or from abstract ideas. citus) of martyrs. These military divisions continued to exist in the ninth century. miniorum Num. names and Juniorum Num. also a military subdivision of the Thema. Num. the term is even found in an inscription of Damasus to denote the company {exerSome of these companies existed under the Exarchs. Mil. Emperors. rose in insurrection in 710 or 71 1. Arminiorum (n. Merry.^ George succeeded in forming the first federation of the cities of which we have any know" : ledge : Sarxena (Sarsina). Firm. was elected leader of the insurgent city. Forum Pompilii (Forlimpopoli). Banner of Classe. bandits or vexilhivi^ is the significance of which variable. New Banner. ^ Forum was Livii (Forli). with the Clergy and Servants of the Church. . (n." as we may already call him. Constantinopolitan. 93) places. 91) : . explained as the distributor annonce milit. p. Dipl. . Ravenna Capitano del Popolo. numerus synony- mously. Num. Band 2. 1870. George. Faventia In the Imperial administration of Byzantium. Ram baud. 95) Num. iii). V Empire gi'ec Agnellus makes use of bandus^ militia. Milanese. Cervia. The were derived from Ntim. 194. Veronese Banner.

The suppression of the revolution in Ravenna is veiled in darkness. formed long before Milan or Florence had attained power or renown. while the axe had probably been already whetted for the neck of his murderer and successor. p. three months after the Pope's return to had seized the throne of Byzantium towards the end of the year 711. the first Forum and confederation of Latin cities. Unfortunately. dead Caesar made its Imperial progress through the provinces he had so grievously oppressed. and had sent the head of the executed Justinian to the West. as the Liber Pontificalis . confederation. Even the year of the rebellion. is uncertain. 20/ Bononia (Bologna). THE MIDDLE Cornelii AGES. almost the entire territory of the Exarchate This memorable joined in league with Ravenna. The Ravennese may perhaps have risen on the news of the death of the Emperor. which happened. : .vTOV (nradaplov ravTqv evri ra Sutiku Theoph. (Imola). which is the close of an entire period. conthe mutilated temporary documents here fail us further information ot history of Agnellus giving no the confederation and its wars against the Greeks. in these dark ages. to gladden Roman eyes.IN (Faenza). and we know nothing more than Rome. ushers in the Middle Ages in Italy.^ The people had probably crowded round the lifeless head with the same dull curiosity as they had previously evinced on the arrival of the same Emperor's laurel-crowned Thus. informs us.. the head of a statue. 319.. Chronogr. and constitutes the first step towards the communal independence of the Republics. Philippicus Bardanes ^ 6 5e 4>iAi7r7rt/cJ)s 5ta fxeprj ews 'PcijUTjs e^eVe/ut^ej/ tov a.

where it was. Pont. Bardanes sent his to Rome. or profession of faith. and his name from their Theological excitement imparted a new prayers. This significant manner of embodying a political protest was again resorted to in Rome under all deeply penetrated relations of life. and decided to refuse recognition to the Emperor. and so that the insurrection each Emperor on his succession was expected to send his Sacra. was painted on the walls of S. Dogmatic theology was in this age esteemed of such vital importance. had scarcely assumed the purple when he annulled the resolutions of the Sixth Council. and that the cities of the Exarchate were again rendered subject to the Emperor. large picture. illustrating the Sixth CEcuminical Council. "Vita Const. 2 Lib. and resolved to exclude alike the coins bearing his effigy from their currency. They again appeared as the Populus Romanus.2 other conditions in the later ^ The Greeks called these pictures pancai-ea. Lib. Peter's. cum statuisset poptihis Romanus solidi nequaqtiam suscipere. : Hisdem temporib. rejected by the Pope and clergy as heretical. They determined to accept neither his portrait nor his rescripts.^ The entire people were now in open revolt against an Emperor who had dared to deny the dual natures in Christ. however. apparently under Philippicus.. to the chief bishops of the Empire. a heretic and Monothelite. Pont." n..208 HISTORY OF ROME was crushed by the Byzantines. and had the picture which represented it removed from the wall of the Imperial Palace. aut chartas. 174. that A Middle Ages. vel figuram . hceretici Lj7iperatoris nomen. Bardanes.

his authority by the Emperor or Exarch. for the first nobility. n. in connection with this Duchy. It is singular that the to sight until a time when their pro hnjusmodi causa Duces of Rome never come powder was on the wane. The people. as an event which ushers in a civil war °"^^' ^" new ^ era. 209 hitherto only character to the city. and the Campagna may be understood.^ Christophorus had been appointed during the previous reign. under the leadership of Agathon. 176. army. dignified by the Liber Pontificalis with the high-sounding name of civil war {bellum civile^. one.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. unanimously agreed Even the Liber to resist the head of the Empire. now the light of citizens. divided into their guilds. The majority of the people. ^0"^^^"^- and by these words the entire district right and left of the Tiber. Pontificalis on this occasion makes use. revives recollections Petrus qiiidam pro ducatu Romanes prceceptwii The passage runs : contigit. of the expression " Duchy of the Roman city. VOL. at the same time." Ducatus. ut et urbis Ravennafii dirigeretur^ acciperet^ n. Roman Tuscany. o . In the obscurity of these times we follow the course of this tumult. with suspense. took part with Christophorus the minority. however. the Duke who administered it is also mentioned. Peter of Ravenna was sent to Duke of Rome but was now deprived of Rome to fill the vacant place. in order to favour the new government." . and took their part in political affairs. into two factions. The city again divided under the name of " Christians. and. espoused the cause of Peter. For the first time. refused to accept the nominee of the heretical Emperor. and the citizens. who had come forward on appeared in the occasion of a papal election. the The time. and.

father of John the Seventh.^ ^ In Via Sacra ante palatium. and the ancient pavement was stained with the blood of the slain. and. and. as overseer of the ancient informs us palace. then Rector of the Patrimonium Appiae in the The first of these tablets church of S. It thus follows that both the in the Via Sacra and the Palatium still existed beginning of the eighth century. entered The into the heavenly palace of the Eternal King. Anastasia. . we are led to conclude that the palace was inhabited by the Duke himself The adherents of Peter.^ The Palace of the Caesars had undergone a restoration only a few years before. now almost The rival factions came into collision on the Via Sacra. close to the Palace of the Caesars. Plato qui multa per agmina lustrans ^ Hie jacet ille Et maris undisoni per freta longa volans Claruit insignis regno gratusque minister Celebre77ique sua pnestitit esse manu. 2 Ultima funereo persolvens niunia busto Quo pater illustris membra locanda dedit Adjecit titulos proles veneranda Joannes Ne t ant is quovis esset honore minor. The office. having restored its great staircase. doubtless attacked him in the government buildings. referring to Plato and his wife Blatta. so highly esteemed by Cassiodorus. a Cura Palatii Urbis Romce^ or official set apart to take charge of the palace. at the end of the seventh century. had been filled by Plato.210 of HISTORY OF ROME forgotten antiquity. and two inscriptions of the years 6Z6 and 688. were erected by their son. judging from the particular site at which the struggle took place. that Plato. the more effectually to expel Christophorus. had been appointed.

180. Dep. and Visconti. Cura Palatii Urbis Romce Vix. LXVI. (Marini. faction of the Christians could easily Although the have vanquished Pope commanded them to withdraw. now sank into total oblivion. II. Visconti and Lanciani in the Guida del Palatino. Anno II. in the Anastasius the Second. I am further surprised to find the fable accepted by C. ii. Imp. parted the combatants. the centre 211 of the many Emperors.IN dwelling of so THE MIDDLE AGES. after having captured the Cross. M. p. L. 354) we are told that Heraclius. DipL^ p. Justiniano Aug. p. Die. VII. Cittä e famiglie. PL M. bearing crucifixes and the gospels. and monks planted the olive in the dust of vanished splendour. a private secretary Post ergo multiplices qiias prisca Palatia Romce Prcestiterant curas longo refecta gradu Pergit ad <zterni divina palatia regis Swnere cimi meritis pramiafiriiia dei. Indict. iii. . so that. Ejus Anno. and Domitian had become the haunt of owls. III. 134). ii. Cassinens. came to the Aurea Urbs and was there crowned in the Palace of the Ccesars. the effected a peace. 55» ^^Th' The same chronicler (who can scarcely have written. history of the universe. Plato V. sec.C. 667. Nob. even as they do to-day. Tiberius. as early as the days of Charles the Great. 255. and a truce was silently concluded. (Muratori. Pap. A procession of priests. Papal policy astutely upheld the principle of neutrality in all party strife. before the year 1000) relates the same fable of the Emperor Maurice. however. An. and the Pope now their opponents. i. course of centuries or disgracefully whence through so long a mankind had been wisely governed oppressed. n. P. In the Epitome Chronicor. can believe this. until news arrived from Sicily a few days after that Bardanes had been dethroned and deprived of sight. the forsaken halls of Augustus. I am astonished that Nibby on Nardini. i to n. DN. XV.

issue. Städtefreiheit. 715. HISTORY OF ROME.i At of this point the Constantine. Emperor. obtained recogni- tion as Duke. as Viceroy of the entire duchy. head of the city and of the 1 86) justly assumes that the Duke was It cannot be doubted that the Duke. ^ From the active part taken by the people in the election of the Duke. entrusting him with his orthodox profession r Rome must the of faith for the ^-^^ r • 1 r t t^ Roman i-i bishop. -r» reter. and the new Emperor after a time sent the Patricius Scholasticus as Exarch to Italy. p. They were nov\^ subdued.212 palace. 713. therefore follows that the disturbances in Reconciiiation with have lasted nearly a year and a half. had brought this revolution to a successful and had himself proclaimed Emperor on June It 4. Liber Pontificalis closes the He died on April 8. life — worthy predecessor of the greater Popes under whom Rome effected her emancipation from the yoke of Byzantium. . Romans of a complete amnesty. after assuring Emperor. Bethmann-Hollweg {Ursprung der Lomba^'-d. was rector of the Rome of his time.



While deacon.. ancient Roman name.son of Ansprand. — After Roman the seven Popes of Greek or Syrian descent. in the third year of the at reign this of the Emperor Anastasius. and. a prince of lofty ambitions. the successor of Constantine First. The Lombards were time governed by Liutprand. Peter in the Vatican. Marcellus. and on the deliberations on the articles of the Trullan Council had acquired the reputation of an eloquent and determined man. I. Pontificate of Gregory the Second. He refused to confirm the donation of Aribert the Second. and one destined to be productive of important consequences. Gregory had accompanied his predecessor to the Imperial court. He was elected to the Papacy on May 19. 715.CHAPTER I. The Romans had elected a fellow- countryman evidently in opposition to Byzantium. 715 His Activity Conversion of Germany by Boniface Leo the Isaurian Image-worship The Bronze Statue of S. although the Pope strove to avoid a . leads us to suppose that the new Pope may have been descended from some illustrious patrician house. borne by his father. and had thus taken a decisive step. The of Gregory the Second. — — — — . a Gregory the Second. . again nlled the papal throne in the person 715-731.

de sex ad Ann.. was tunate. he was rewarded by the Pope with a gift of seventy pounds in gold from the ecclesiastical treasury. in Gregorio II. ^ Mus. 177. et Abbat. Pout. de Gest. n.^ prevented the fulfilment of the design. n. where. the dearth of contemporary documents leaving us in ignorance even of the Pope's energetic career. the bulwark of Roman independence.^ n. the second. Lorenzo. Diacon. 181. converted by the earlier Pope. . Lib. Pont. Lib.. 2. and so. when an unexpected hindrance. while equally victorious. As the first Gregory had conquered distant provinces for the Church.. Lib. the "Index Ducum i. Spoletan. Paul.2l6 rupture. Lang. Gregory nevertheless deemed it open prudent to restore the tottering walls of Aurelian. Pagi and Muratori place the inundation in the year 716. the Neapolitan the papal to John. HISTORY OF ROME and the Nuncio succeeded in preventing any hostilities. the Lombards of Benevento had succeeded Dux.^ vi. too. . 4671.^ Such are the sole events concerning the city itself recorded during the early years of Gregory's reign. and Bede. 180 (Etat. Farfensium" in Mabillon. Ducatum eisqualiter agerent quotidie scribendo prcestabat. so ^ commands but. however. 36. in the form of a sudden rise of the Tiber. Pont. 1 2 still more for- The English. Ital. in acquiring the strong Greek fortress of Cumae. 63. Workmen were already engaged in repairing the portion of the walls beside the Gate of S. His authority extended into Southern Italy. found himself obliged . Baronius in 717.. obey having later on wrested the fortress from the Lombards. The river overflowed the lower part of the city and caused great destruction in the Campus Martius.

In the fulness of youthful vigour. 21/ now in turn became the missionaries of Germany. When. Gregory the Second. and. sent this still of the ^^^"^^^s. the ruin of the Roman world was at length complete. and the ties now formed dominion of the Roman were destined. and here devoted servant of the Papacy established bishop. having invested the celebrated Winfried or Boniface with the dignity of a German him as Apostolic legate to those uncivilised and forest-covered lands. While uniting the German races in England. and this federation in the course of time again assumed the form of the Roman Empire. . the Church created an international federation in the West. Spain and Italy together with the Latins in one common spiritual order. the Mohammedans attacked Constantinople. The period was in the throes of a new development. Gaul. already threatened with dangers. the vigorous warrior races of Germany were again brought into immediate communion with Rome. and this territory the Church had taken within her keeping. Boniface. advancing from Spain. however. to the southern provinces of Gaul. but also that of the entire West. Thus. threatened the kingdom of the Franks. menaced Italy and Rome. the Saracens ruled in the Mediterranean.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and with it the bulwark of the Roman Church in the West. out of the universal chaos a new continent had arisen. in the seventh century. the Church. the Arabic East rose in arms. at no distant date. This united Empire of Germans and Latins was. after long centuries of obscurity. to influence not only the fate of the Church. which they had already subjugated.

^ Leo the Third instituted the memorable attempt. and. 717. filled the Emperor with shame. which he evoked his by an edict.2l8 HISTORY OF ROME Meanwhile. The simple soldier spirit Emperor had fallen a victim to the passion theological questions common to the Byzantines. which had overthrown the Emperors Anastasius and Theodosius respectively. This defeated the Arabs before the energetic man had walls of Constantinople. by decrees and part of the councils. the Isaurian. p. After two military revolutions. to reform the Greek Cherishing the ambitious idea of purifying the Christian religion from the worship of images. has rendered of for the name immortal. Gesch. Schlosser. and the malicious speeches of the Jews at the Imperial court. scorn of the images in the The ^ unbelievers asserted that the Christians. and Beser. 1812. The glory of his warlike deeds faded during his lifetime. had sucMarch 25. who gave vent to their lifeless vanquished cities of Syria. while Leo's advisers were Bishop Theophilus of Nacolia in Phrygia. but the bitter contest with reference to the use or misuse of images in churches. . a convert from Judaism. ceeded to the throne on Leo the Third. The cries of derision on the Mohammedans. an event took place which was to give a new form alike to Rome and Italy. persuaded that the worship of images in the churches was the sole hindrance to the conversion of the Jews and Mohammedans. he found himself unable to accomplish this herculean task Church. revived by his successor more than a hundred years later. der bilderstür- menden Kaiser. and had infused a new life into the Byzantine Empire. 161.

wherefore should I confine the Almighty in a narrow cell ? Is it not wiser to consecrate our souls and hearts a dwelling-place for God ? " ^ The times ^ Quod cniin simulacrivii Deo ßngani. more especially in Asia Minor. in the poverty of their plebeian religion. a man. and the hideous likenesses of innumerable miracle-workers. while the spirit of the true and only God. The Roman world. There were Greek bishops also. nor statues. aim si rede cestimes^ sit Dei . filled 219 the world pretending to adore the true God. and the law of the Prophet were the sole ornaments of their mosques and synagogues. and Christianity had degenerated into idol-worship. who disapproved of the abuses of image worship. altars. and contrasted the faith of the early centuries of Christianity. and that the professors of the evangelical faith unhesitatingly worshipped objects of metal.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. had with more gods than they had overthrown in the Pagan temples since the time of Constantine. and wood. faces painted on cloths. with the degenerate religion of their own times. they maintained. In former days the Pagans had taunted the Christians that the latter. and the Christians had retorted with the enquiry. when such worship was unknown. " believe that Do you we conceal the object of our worship because we have neither temples nor altars ? What does an image of God signify to us. stone. have such a spacious dwellingplace. when man himself is made in the likeness of God ? Wherefore should I build a temple when I cannot even compre- hend the universe which is the work of His hands ? and when I. possessed neither temples. had returned to its earlier Paganism.

represent the two thieves hanging on their crosses. Even F. Miraculous likethe days of Constantine. and the saints. There on the Palatine X. Kraus. Nonne melius in nostra ima dedicandus mente. . while Christ still is raised in glory above very rare in His cross. ancient crucifix of Lucca represents the Saviour as clad in a decent tunic. pictures and images of Christ. ne qziod coliitir et adoratur in parietibus depingatur. a Pagan caricature of the Crucifixion. is the celebrated Graffito. p. the worship of such pictures and images had remained optional. ^ The custom of representing Christ naked on the cross was unConcil. In the sixth century. : Paris edition. however.220 HISTORY OF ROME and unbelievers contemptuous scorn. of Minuclus Felix were now were able to retort in Synod beginning of the fourth century. moreover. 1605. in nostro into consecrandiis est pectore ? A beautiful passage in the Octavitcs of ^ Minucius Felix. represents the Crucified as clothed. known in in the early centuries of Christianity. from the early part of the eighth century onwards. Spottcrucifix crucifix vom Palatin.^ of Illiberis. Illiberis. Placuit picturas esse in ecclesia non 36 debere. Das no instance of a The being discovered in any of the oldest churchyards of Rome. It is unnecessary to add that. had crept into universal use in every country of Christendom. The use of the the time of Gregory the First. the imagination of the East was utterly degraded in the constant production of representations of the saints. which depict the Saviour's passion. the promulgation of a similar decree had already become impossible. crucifix was . presented to Queen Theodolinda. had prohibited the use of images in the churches as a source of danger. 367. 1872. Can. in the beginning of the eighth century. . found 1856. the representation of the cross itself not having received general acceptance until long after But. in the the Virgin. The past. and diademed. Until the fifth. The Byzantine oil-vases in Monza.^ homo est ipse sinntlacrum ? . Freiburg.

and on the tribunes and triumphal arches in the basilicas. Cassian) saw a senting the schoolmaster-saint being tortured to death with styluses by his pupils. and drew crowds of pilgrims to such churches as could boast the possession of these lucrative attractions. is the earliest mention of a picture of this descrip- tion.IN nesses. In the beginning of the fifth century Paulinus of Nola had the church which he dedicated to S. This. to S. instead. portraits THE MIDDLE of Christ as AGES. in such churches as have already come under our notice. depicted at an early date in the catacombs. we must distinguish the likenesses of Christ and the saints. The histories of the martyrs had hitherto been avoided. The West had followed the example of the East and as early as the sixth century churches had been adorned with pictures as well as statues of saints. for in any single instance found This class of subjects was reserved a later age. but mystic impressions from the original. " European and Asiatic cities. They ^ depict. In the sixth century pictures of this nature came into general use in the churches.^ a in Neither the paintings the catacombs. Christ in the act of teaching painting. repre- Prudentius (Hymnus ix. the aid when demand waning faith seemed to of such gruesome stimulants. or works of angels or the Apostle Luke. Saviour. so far as I am aware. . suddenly appeared in Virgin. Felix painted with the histories of the martyrs. in the sepulchral church at Forum Cornelii. Among these paintings. the tortures inflicted on the early followers of Christianity have not representation. however. reveal a single representation of the Passion of our Lord. nor the sculptures on the ancient Christian sarcophagi. so that. and 221 of the not made with hands " {axeipoirolrjro?).

Christianity would again degenerate into idol-worship. qucEcttmque erat. c. 29). the adoration of wonder-working images. 4. thou doest wrong in destroying these : ^ The earliest portraits of Christ and are of Gnostic Qua fuerit ille probably belong to the third century. in When Serenus of Marseilles had resolved to destroy some pictures one of the churches of his diocese. Rome could not remain in the background. facie nos penitus ignoramus nam et ipsius Dominicce origin. — fades carnis fingitur 5. on which Rome congratulated herself. quce iii. and other Asiatic cities began to boast the presence of genuine portraits of Christ.^ In the time of Gregory the First. oper. took occasion to inform him that the pictures were not intended to serve as objects of Enlightened adoration. inmtmerabilium cogitationum diversitate variatur . c. the Virgin. Gregory wrote in remonstrance " Thy zeal to prevent the adoration of man's handiwork redounds to thy honour. in sending copies of these portraits to Bishop Secundinus.. et tamen una erat. possession of the bodies of the highest rank of the sainted dead. and the two Princes of the Apostles.222 HISTORY OF ROME disciples The performing His miracles. may have long prevented. viii. and it is not improbable that the Handkerchief of Veronica may have been publicly exhibited as early as the seventh century. that. in the mind of the superstitious multitude. fearing. but when Edessa and Paneas. . or at least checked. with good reason. but merely as memorials. is De Trinit. Alex. . but in my opinion. Severus said to have placed the effigy of Christ in his Lararium (Lamprid. bishops of Gaul regarded the idolatrous practices with displeasure. Rome herself laid claim to genuine portraits of His or Christ. Augustine knew of no genuine likeness. Jerusalem. and the Pope.

Ind. since the in order THE MIDDLE AGES. The manufactory of likenesses of saints gave occupation to countless artists and monks. numbers of gold. Idcirco eniin pictura in ecclesiis adhibetur^ ut hi qui litteras nesciunt saltern in parietibns videndo legant. As early also as the fifth century.. figures carved in wood were not yet carried in procession in Rome. their moderate on devotion assumed the character of direct worship. sed frangere easdem imagines non debtiisse jiidicamus. partly on account of the horror with which statues had been regarded by the early Christians. the celebrated bronze statue of S. If. and the churches which boasted the possession of these miraculous the fact. ^ Et qtddem zehim vos. partly from other causes. 2. vii. the Virgin.. 54. ix. having made less progress than painting. habtiisse latidavinnis. Ind. . and the Apostles existed in the churches. ne qiiid mamifacttim adorari possit. and to Secundinus. Peter had been placed in the atrium of his basilica and the Apostle henceforward had offered his foot to the kisses of the faithful. even . silver. 9. vii. effigies the art of sculpture.IN pictures. these irrational The multitude opinions . drew considerable revenues from Pictures were more numerous than statues. no. Ep. Ep. share the contrary. qtice legere in codicibus non valent. did not. 2. So. 223 Church has made use of painting that such as are unable to read pictures on the walls in may be instructed by the matters which they could not otherwise understand. Greg. and bronze statues of the Saviour. S. in the letter to Serenus. however." ^ The views to which Gregory here gives utterance with regard to the use of pictures were eagerly quoted by all such later Popes as took up arms in defence of the question. too. Ep. in the beginning of the eighth century.

his left grasping the keys. — et gratulatioitibus non solum id venerari. c. Peter. seated. or whether ^ it Cicero in Verreni^ iv. Herctdis teniplum est apud Agrigentinos. The foot of the bronze Peter in the Vatican has been worn entirely smooth by the kisses of the multitude . 44. describes it as the object of the most the iconoclastic jealous statue. owing to the fact that the figure had become a cause of special offence in the eyes of Ltican Emperor.224 HISTORY OF ROME renowned bronze Hercules Agrigentum had presented his face in as in former times the the temple at to le bronze in the Iter be saluted by his devoted worshippers. and defended no less zealously than the statue of Victory had been defended The statue. verm7i etiam osculari solent. the long kiss of time proving as destructive to monuments as its gnawing tooth. Martin near the Vatican Basilica.^ We have already. in dealing with the times of Leo the First. which by their Pagan forefathers. With regard to the latter statue. we are informed by Cicero that the chin had been worn smooth by the fervent kisses bestowed upon it.entttm paulo sit attrititis. Ibi est ex cBre simulacrum Herculis. his right hand raised Apostle the represents in benediction. § 94. spoken of the statue of S. The bronze which at this time stood in the monastery of S. while Pope Gregory. its is of ancient but unknown origin . was honoured by the Romans of Gregory's days with reverence as the Palladium of their city. on the other hand. and now again revert to it. dixerim quidquam me vidisse pulchrius usque eo. outlines are bold. Whether the of the Capitoline Jupiter be tenable. quod in precibus — quo non facile judices ut rictum. assertion that and it its had been formed out of the molten bronze of the image draperies good. love of his fellow-townsmen. ejus ac m. .

p. c. — In 726 the Emperor issued his celebrated edict.^ 2. Pont. with short. which formerly stood over the main door of the basilica. n. Vatic. but as ancient and pure as that of the sculptures on the best Christian sarcophagi. vi. Hippolytus.. 1850) have written on the subject of the celebrated statue. The mode in which it became customary to represent the Prince of the Apostles. 225 be more than probable that the figure is merely that of some consul or early Emperor. woolly hair and round cropped beard. P . 73. Leo pro- ordering all pictures to be removed from the churches worship of throughout the followed.. saa'e grotte. by this famous figure in the Vatican. Edict of Leo against Image-worship Resistance IN Rome and Italy Plot against Gregory's Life — — The Romans and Lombards rise in arms — Revolt against Byzantium — Gregory's Letters to the Emperor. Torrigius.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. is now in the crypt. ^ 184. or that of the marble statue. The populace Empire.. 2 Imago cujuslibet Sancti aut Marty ris^ aiit Angeli. Lib. Chronogr. p. Bartolini holds it to belong to the time of the Emperor Philip. Pieiro. both in storm of resistance the East and West. cekbratissima Statua di Bronzo del Principe degli Apostoli S. 49. Paul. and Theophan. Peter. S. to whom smooth hair and a long beard were assigned. though it may well have been fixed. che si venera nelle sua Vaticana basilica^ Rome. Diacon. but of marble.) Le Basil. II. Paul. 338. it is at least certain that the style is not Byzantine. VOL.^ A ™6^^^' ^ Another similar ancient statue of S.. namely. and believes it a portrait of the Apostle. p. Both Cancellieri {de Sacrariis nov(E and Cardinal Domenico Bartolini {Delia 1503. in contrast to S. at present standing in the Lateran Museum. f. was probably not first created.

The Pope. Replying to Leo's edict by a Bull. immedi- ately issued fresh orders. prcepediebat. took up arms as against an enemy. he explained that it did not lie within the province of the Emperor either to dictate in matters of faith or to reverse the sentences of the Church. The national spirit was aflame. not only in the rose in fanatical revolt. induced him to avoid an open quarrel with the Empire. Pont. The effects of his pastoral The entire Pentapolis and letters were universal. East. however. Theophan. the Venetian forces flew to arms in his defence. defended the mythology of the Christian faith even more zealously than Symmachus had been able to defend the ancient gods or the altar of Victory. but also in some provinces of the West. while Jews and Mohammedans regarded with malicious satisfaction the progress of destruction. did the latter continue in his disobedience. Gregory called upon the cities and bishops of Italy to oppose the heretical tendencies of the Emperor. merely censum in provincia poni . Reasons of weight.226 HISTORY OF ROME and the innumerable company of priests were forced to recognise that their power rested mainly on the material apparatus of the faith. and a fresh imposition of taxes seems to have been the only movement on the part of Byzantium that aroused active opposition on his part. Leo. threatening to deoose the Resistance D?Gregory. and. in his turn. and a sign from the Pope would have sufficed to kindle a revolution.rjs rovs 4>6povs TTjy 'iToXtas says : iKdü\u(T€u. Countless statues were destroyed. Pope. as the Liber Pontificalis informs us. however. The Ltd.^ ^ Kal fiaowv tovto Tprjyopios Ktti 'Pwfxrjs 6 Trdinras ''Pdjj.

Chartular Jordan.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. whom Basilius. and only too ready to weaken the Imperial power. and intercessor with. 22/ Italy rises Rome and revolt. a plan had been formed of disposing of Gregory in true Byzantine fashion. .^ This memorable scheme ^ shows that the indignant Italians never Con- Omnis Italia con silimn iniit. Leo equipped mouth of the but before it set sail for the Tiber. together with the Romans. orders to suppress the insurrection at among the Romans cost whatever. The a fleet. barred the passage of the Salarian Bridge. and threatened to place a new Emperor on the Greek throne. The Pentapolis openly renounced obedience the cities of Central Italy expelled the Byzantine officials. Lib. doubtless summoned by the Pope to rise in his any . its protector against. the Dux the Emperor had just sent as Dux to Rome. already excommunicated by the Pope. ut sibi eligei'cnt Iniperatoreni^ ct stantinopolini ducercnt. The new Exarch Paulus entered Ravenna with strict . . occupied the frontiers of the Roman Duchy. Pont. 184. On receiving the news of the rising. the Emperor. The Greeks turned back and the Exarch. elected their own leaders. and. n. in conjunction with Marinus.. He sent an army against but the Lombards of Spoleto and Tuscany. and the Subdeacon Lurion. when the sudden removal of Marinus averted the fulfilment of the design. found himself in danger even in Ravenna. ^ E^mpe^ror. Jordan and Johannes were put to death by the populace Basilius sought refuge in a convent. the provinces as far as Calabria rose in and the Pope appeared as the centre of the movement. formed a plot to murder the Pope. Rome defence.

p. however. in the Palace of the Caesars. has said on the subject. Storia : 215. uniting Italy under his sceptre. The Pope was. Gregory never once conceived that the Italians proposed to elect another Emperor. d" Italia. as because he feared that a convulsion so violent would betray Italy and Rome into the power of the Lombard King. . Gregory. He therefore adopted a course of prudent moderation. I am persuaded of the entire justice of Döllinger. all that is erroneous. obliged to avoid everything that would cause ^^"^ ^^ appear in the light of a rebel against the legitimate authority of the Empire. or of any partition of the Empire. i. opposed the scheme. not so much that he hoped for the conversion of the Emperor.^ ^ The account of Theophan.^ For this reason. 343. and warned the Italians to avoid any breach with the Emperor. and Leo the Isaurian).. would necessarily have required Rome as his capital. Papstfabeln des Mittelalters (Gregory II. that the Pope had stirred up Rome and the Italians to revolt. moreover. ^ Petrwji duceni turbaverunt or orbaverunt. observes with quite modern patriotism non da pastore nh da amico d' Italia. the Imperial Dux. In his letters to Leo. whose authority is followed by Zonaras and Cedrenus. The Vita Gregorii II.228 HISTORY OF ROME The Pope the Italians revolting igainst the dreamt of a restoration of a Roman Empire in the West. Expediency had already prescribed the policy of keeping the seat of government at a distance^ rather than of allowing a monarchy to be established in Italy. Gregory had previously endured his presence in the The Romans. following the example of other city. Romans op7'b : ne desisterent ab vel fide Roinani imperii. La Farina. although allowing the populace not only to besiege Peter. but finally either to expel or slay him. says that he exhorted the ajjiore. The Emperor in Constantinople was less dangerous than would have been a king. who.

but we have no authority for supposing that Rome formally declared a Republic. THE MIDDLE AGES. and Orientals engaged in commerce. at the head of which stood the Judices ^ Such is the very modern-sounding assertion (after Pagi) of Sugenheim. the former Exarch.^ Meanwhile. but very insufficient. Ex- may A hilaratus. appointing the Pope as its temporal head. Geschichte der Entstehting und Atisbilding des Kirch- enstaats. who had entered the killed Campagna with an army. new order of things. and called into being a civic government. . It is difficult to produce any historic authority for this theory. From here Eutychius. In Rome Imperial influence was completely at an end the Byzantine party had almost ceased to exist. Greeks. as the only. whose prudent attitude on this occasion again proves him an accomplished statesman. would have seriously suffered by any breach with the East. 229 perhaps on this occasion have elected a Dux of their own. step such as this would have been in direct variance with the whole policy of the Pope. the Dux of Naples.IN Italian cities. and owed his life solely to the intervention of the Pope. might regard himself as its actual head. counter-revolution in Rome. had been defeated and by the Roman militia. being chiefly Jews. The Byzantine power soon found itself restricted to Naples. means of revenging himself on the Pope. The revolution against the Imperial officials had produced a . The indignant Emperor now seized the ecclesiastical revenues in Southern Italy. the population of which. and Gregory the Second. vainly strove to bring about a His agent was seized. although only bishop of the city.

230 HISTORY OF ROME de Militia. angry and barbarous. in Labbe. unanimously supported him against the Emperor. however. written while the revolution in Rome was at its The language. enounce for the first time and so decidedly the hierarchical principles and the consciousness of the supremacy of the Pope as head of Christendom. Syn. The controversy on its dogmatic side was meanwhile furiously waged by means of the pen. found in Aci. his accomplished predecessor. These rebellious letters on the part of the Roman bishop. never could have penned. Muratori to .^ The later Papacy of the period of Gregory the Seventh and Innotheir powerful bishop. 651. under the protection of Letters of Gregory to the Emperor. however. . Pagi to 730 . over . this power in the course of time assumed an historic form. Rome again appears as a city independent of Byzantium. whom the Pope silently exercised authority. Niccen. II. they ^ Both letters are Baronius attributes them to the year 726 729. still recognised the Imperial sway. The bishop was the natural head of Roman nationality. who refused any longer to be ruled by Greek satraps. during the Iconoclastic controversy in Rome and throughout the Duchy. arose the temporal power of the Pope. Veiled in its beginnings. viii. The Romans. however. Gregory the First. that they served in after times as models to all succeeding Popes. under republican aristocratic forms forms. is such as height. We possess two letters of the Pope to the Emperor Leo. which are unknown to uSo The city may probably have been governed by magistrates under the name of consuls or duces. and thus. Placing themselves.

were not the curse which thou hast laid upon thyself sufficient for thee and thy counsellors. and the days were yet distant when powerfamiliar 1 Baronius asserts that. Even little thy soul. 944. We. the Cherubim of the Ark of the Covenant.^ and informs the Emperor that there such pictures which proved a great attraction to pilgrims." Ina later age Gregory would unhesitatingly have thundered his anathemas against the Emperor. endowed with power and authority from S. These portraits were not idols. because you yourself are rough and uneducated." writes Gregory in his first letter to the Emperor.IN cent the Third " is THE MIDDLE AGES. nor were the saints themselves worshipped they were merely regarded as intercessors with Christ. Silvestro in Capite." The Pope then proceeds to remind the Iconoclast of the Tables of Moses. can only address you. with His autograph.' and immediately they will hurl their writing tablets at your head. would impose some punishment upon thee. I am the Emperor who wages war against the images. ad Ann." children turn thee into ridicule. " from the denunciations heaped on thee by mankind. uneducated style. where it is still preserved in S. " Free . Go into the schools ' where they are learning the alphabet and tell them. after the capture of Constantinople by the Turks. Peter. " in a rough. We King were of Edessa. . the celebrated picture was brought from Edessa to Rome. 23 here to be seen already developed in its chief characteristics. by the Saviour Himself to Abgarus. Atinal. many he says to the Emperor. and the original portrait presented. but the time had not yet arrived when Popes had become with the use of these formidable weapons.

' Thou must know that if thou too nearly approachest us with threats it will not be necessary for us to descend to a contest. . and informed the Emperor that the irritated populace had trodden his own portraits under foot.^ .rjs els r^v to %w/3aj/ KafATravias. which I tell thee is regarded by all kingdoms of the West as of the When Apostle. ^Ov al TTucrai ßacrtXelai rrjs Svaeus Oehu eTriyeiov exovai. Baronius does not even read us Qe6v. and that the people were on the point of doing the same in Rome. Gregory pointed with self-satisfaction to the rebellion in the provinces." he exclaim. Peter. and by the Pope himself. that Peter was thus explained to be God. " look with reverence on that image which thou in thy vainglory threatenest to destroy. he is so overcome with zeal as to contradict himself. earth." celebrated speaking of the Emperor regarded as the chief idol of the West. on that of S.v4fji. God upon 1 EtKocrtTecro'apa arddia uTroxwpiijo'ei u apxi^ep^vs a. rely upon ^ its fleet.232 ful HISTORY OF ROME Kings and even Emperors could be placed under sentence of excommunication. thou mayst look to the winds. for if the Pope but ' move 24 the stadia away statue into the Campagna ^ of Rome. the Byzantine government not retaining power sufficient to hold the city. " But thou seekest to terrify us. which could. at the most. and sayest. had driven out his officials and appointed others in their place. Peter. and will even carry off the Pope in chains as Constans did Pope Martin. Kol viraye dioo^ov robs The Pope seems speak with irony and exaggeration of the weakness of Byzantium. 'Pufj. " All nations of the West. I will send to Rome and destroy the statue of S.s.ovs. which Abstain from thy schemes thy power and indignation cannot prevail against Rome.

233 nor its power by sea. He appears to attach great importance to this baptism. He evidently wished the Emperor to understand that the influence partaker of in order that of the Roman Church reached to the remotest West. Gregory does not think of the Franks.IN THE MIDDLE itself. The entire West honours the holy Prince of the Dost thou send messengers to destroy his Apostles. but to lead back to a godly life. soul. We receive entreaties from the furthest West. who. and show us how . as he expresses it. In a second letter he explains with more logical sequence the distinction between the temporal and powers the powers. These memorable definitions mark. from the so-called Septetus. it " unarmed and defenceless. of the Palace and the Church and draws the line between the functions of the supreme judge who spiritual — — punishes with the sword. with God's favour. and those of the chief bishop who. AGES. desires to see our face." We do not know to what unknown German barbarian monarch the Pope here alludes. neither against the city image ? upon thy own head be the blood that is spilt. imploring us to go and make him a Holy Baptism. who were summoned by his successor only a few years later to be the defenders of the city. referring to it again in a second letter. and that even in these distant regions nations were prepared to rise in his defence. sentencing the body to imprisonment or death. for the first time in the history of the Christian Church." chastises the erring not in order mercilessly to destroy it. the limits of the temporal and spiritual powers. and we shall gird our loins we may not be guilty of neglect.

It also remained unknown to Constantine and his successors. where the Pagan Church. within a space of one hundred and fifty years. but. was unknown to antiquity. which filled the life of the entire Middle Ages. but in the calm self-consciousness of his sacred majesty. This dualism. naturally regarded themselves as heads of the This was so simple an Imperial principle.234 HISTORY OF ROME Church and State stood in regard to one another as two opposing forces. . was nothing more than a form of religion serviceable and subservient to the State. Hence it suddenly transpired that. wrote to Gregory. ^ "On ßacriKevs Koi Upevs eljj. on account of its polytheistic divisions. " I am Emperor and I am priest.i : in the same letter. in which was concentrated the spirit of the West."^ And it was this saying which not only gave rise to Gregory's memorable definitions. the spiritual and temporal. at the same time. the Roman Church had developed as an independent power. the Church and the Empire. not in despotic arrogance. brought about the division between the two worlds. which plays so great a part in history. after Christianity had become the religion of the State. that Leo the Isaurian. who. and continued down to our own times. Imperial Church.

a umprand. restoration of a national Roman . King of the Lombards. the Venetians and Greeks form a League against him The King advances against Rome and retires A Usurper in Tuscany Death of Gregory the Second. Italy was evidently about to sever herself from the Hellenized East. Attitude of Liutprand He conquers Ravenna Presents Sutri to the Pope The Pope. The cherished aim of the prince of this already Latinised nation was to unite Italy under one sceptre an aim which it were impossible to realise otherwise than by the conquest of Rome and Ravenna. views and had he possessed but the requisite power and ability. 235 3.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. such as had existed in the time of Odoacer. — — — — — — — — — From the furious struggle which now raged between lists. might have derived an inestimable advantage. and no doubt lent his aid to one or other party in the insurrecThe Exarch Paulus was slain by the insurgents tion. He beheld to his satisfaction the Greek provinces in revolt. Latin nation already looked forward to the possible Empire. whose Emperor was no longer able to retain the reins of power and the resuscitated third candidate in the . This was Liutprand. . 731 Gregory the Third Roman Synod CONVENED against THE ICONOCLASTS ArT IN THE West Buildings of Gregory theThird Restoration OF the City Walls. Liutprand was sufficiently shrewd to decline all tempting proposals to enter into alliance with Byzantium. Even did no vision of the Imperial crown hover before his eyes. Emperor and Pope. it is probable that he hoped at least to restore the kingdom of Theodoric.

but gifts. of the conquest of Ravenna. which can no longer be Gesch. Ravenna. not only sacked and destroyed the port. are. Liutpraiid (1880).236 in HISTORY OF ROME Ravenna. but even surrendered Sutri. vi. Advancing with his entire army. Vita Joha^inis p. entreaties. and Liutprand. perhaps about 727. .^ p. .Martens arbitrarily places it in the year 726. 409. only speaks of the ^ capture of Classe (the passage is corrupt). of Ravenna. who. as confusing as a labyrinth. and. W. p. This erroneously denies the conquest and excursus. These events. in c. and entering the Roman Pope this Duchy and advancing himself occasion for as far as Narni. and previous to the undertaking against Ravenna. even in Martens' work. and diplomatic remonstrances on Gregory's part induced the King to retrace his steps. The year in which these important events took place is uncertain.^ The Lombard immediately occupied the cities of the yEmilia and Pentapolis. The Vita Gregorii 11. was not qualified to carry out the mighty task to which the time and circumstances seemed to have called him. and does not mention that of 49. gave the dismay. he made himself master of the capital of the Greeks in Italy. K. Diac. 54. The capture of the latter is also related by Agnellus. a town which he had conquered. Polit. Paul. . 156 (Muratori's edition). Liutprand. He not only withdrew from the Duch}^. gives an account of the taking of Classe. to the Pope. in the name The conquest of Classe must be distinguished from that of Ravenna. but entered the city itself.^ A bold advance upon Rome would have placed the seat of papal power in the utmost danger. c. a pious Catholic. Martens. The date of expedition is also unfortunately unknown. 37 must have taken place previous to 730. after having succeeded in taking the neighbouring Classe by surprise. des Langobardenreichs tinter established with chronological accuracy.

Gesell. Arch. imputed to the Pope. 253. already astute Gregory The won means of a treaty. Sutri forms the first instance of a city being bestowed upon the Church. striving to compass more than a powerful prince would have been able to achieve. "Langob. 237 of the Apostle.. and sent his envoys to treat with the delegates of the Greek Emperor on the subject in the City of the Lagoons. ^ Facta donatione beatiss. Fear of Liutprand again induced Gregory to make advances to the Emperor and if a letter to the Doge. therefore in 728. laid some inexplicable claim to the city. the lawful property of the Greek Emperor. ing republic of Venice.^ over the Lombard by same time inwardly resolving to deprive him as quickly as possible of the Romagna. more powerful than that of the King whom he outGregory the Second turned to the flourishwitted. für gift ältere dent. Gesch. ^ 1S78. " The conof Sutri. "restitutions. d. took place in the eleventh Ind. &c. p.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ n. at the destined the Exarchate as the heritage of the Church. which may have floated across the mind of Gregory the Greaty but which could scarcely have there taken a definite shape. which Liutprand only retained in his possession days. pious Catholics and . . Apostolis Petro et Paulo restitnit atqiie donavit. be genuine. A^. The Pope.. 157. now assumed a decided form in the brain of The political intellect of the Pope was his successor. 140 Regesten " by Bethmann and Molder-Egger. he had no scruple in denouncing the same Lombards who were his allies. The design for the subjugation of Italy." Sugenheim. p. Vita Gregorii 11. 11 first We have : entered on the period of " Sutri consequently appears as the quest and germ of the ecclesiastical state outside Rome. inciting it to the liberation of Ravenna.

Annal. and the Venetians. f. c. (729). the Emperor and his son Constantine Copronymus. Andrea Dandolo (Murat. {Excursus. nephew of the King. descending by tradition from generation to generation.) and Labbe. and not only made peace with the Emperor.. The history of papal diplomacy. Liutprand finally surrendered the sea-ports and the Romagna. filiorumqtie nostror. but is obliged to admit that his view is unsupported by Muratori. viii. 1 A nee dicenda gente this Langobardorum — the bestowed on in people by the Pope. p. in the hope of overcoming the Dukes of Spoleto and Benevento. Peredeo.. The letter to customary attribute Ursus of Venice. . it is true had already cast doubts 4ipon sufficient evidence. /. and even of seizing the Pope. appeared within sight of Ravenna. Duke of Vicenza. . Concil. thus Venetian fleet begins with Gregory the Second. expelling the Lombard garrison. the policy of all A but united with the Exarch. against it. xii. vainly strove to defend the city Hildebrand was taken prisoner. Imperator. as a shameful people. The Pope says iit ad pristinuui statum saricta Reipublicce in Imperiali Leonis et Constantini servitio dominorum. has in skill and subtlety surpassed Liutprand the^^'^^^'^^ Exarchate. restored the Exarch Eutychius." ^ We do him no injustice in asserting that he secretly stirred up the Dukes of Spoleto and Benevento against Liutprand. which. Martens. magnor. tit zelo et amore sanctce fidei firmi persistere^ Domino cooperante^ valeamus." at the same time that he terms his enemies. however. ipsa revocetiir Ravennattim civitas. 177. Both the Dukes legally stood in the relation of vassals towards the Lombard King each. 66. slain. and Hildebrand. seeks to show that the letter is not genuine. " his lords and sons. temporal courts and princes.). : the letter.238 HISTORY OF ROME " worshippers of images.

and that before^^ probably of Italy and the Popes. p. if ever in history this object were attainable. who aimed at the unifica- tion of Italy should first gain possession of Rome . made submission in Spoleto. The disarmed enemy at once to wronged King sank on priestly magician led the his the Apostle's grave. his sword.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 239 had already acquired an almost independent position. and addressed him in a speech spirit conceived in the of Leo the Great. 1861. its history. Liutprand. together With regard to the relations in which the Lombard Dukes stood towards the kingdom. Liutprand Had he now conquered the city. Pabst. Gesch. succeeded in regaining Spoleto and Benevento. and the pious his regal mantle. Het'zogitimSy Forschungen zur deutsch. King the The taking the oath of vassalage in 729. the Pope stood utterly unprotected.^ and. it was attainable now in 729. at this critical As the defenceboldly entered Gregory moment the camp of Liutprand. ii. vol. however. his 1 monarch laid aside very crown.. when. necessary that any prince and. Geschichte des Langob. the deeplyknees before him. 405. would have assumed ^°^^> 7^9It was absolutely an altogether different form. f. they used their powers in behalf of the Papacy. see II. deserted by the Greeks and unsupported by other allies. Trasamund the Second and Romuald the Second. accompanied by Exarch. . The two Dukes. and encamped on the Neronian field. But a mysterious power seemed to guard Rome and to prevent the German conquerors from becoming masters of the city and destroying less its cosmopolitan character. since the dismemberment of the Lombard kingdom would have profited alike the Papacy and themselves. forthwith hastened to Rome.

Duke of a city in Roman Tuscany. Mankind. in its recognised head. offered a field of ambition to any enterprising spirit. and. the Pope released the Exarch from the sentence of excommunication. This one hour decided the future of papal domination. Liutprand did not even enter the city. sunk in barbarism and ignorance. it testified to mankind the mysterious height to which the power of the Roman bishops had attained. thus vanished for ever from the grasp of a prince who lacked the energy to win Whether Liutprand's misfortune was also that of the country. The affairs of Italy. Brighter than the legendary vision which accompanied the interview of Leo with Attila. suddenly rose. bowed before the sacerdotalism of the Church.240 HISTORY OF ROME with his ambitious hopes. human Under the Pope°he withdraws ^ nature. three hundred years before the celebrated scene at Canossa. at the feet of the dead. is a question that remains unsolved. . in which it honoured the of the only divine power upon earth and. and. which for a moment had seemed to hover above his head. -pj^^ crown of Italy. sunk in dire confusion. having collected a band of followers. the scattered members of which he would have been able to unite. The enterprise of a usurper put him to fresh shame. but broke up his camp and withdrew by the Flaminian Way. at the King's entreaty. and Tiberius Petasius. Peace and reconciliation were effected. it shines in the record Papacy. Peter's in by a tragic overthrow. Rome. already acknowledged a saintly being of super. were soon called on to expiate his genuflexions S. His people and his successors it.

the Emperor. valuable acquisition to a Pope in the existing state of affairs. although Gregory the Third possessed. From VOL. the Papacy had made gigantic strides towards temporal dominion. in insurrection against The Pope immediately placed the Roman army under the command of the Exarch. The Church recognised that the necessary condition of her authority. in addition. 731. but undoubtedly also the more immediate alarm that. Gregory testifying by this act that he still acknowledged the Imperial supremacy. and now wished to resume peaceful relations with the Byzantine government. in case of the fall of the legitimate Imperial authority. Among the reasons which contributed to render this course desirable.IN in THE MIDDLE AGES. people elected Gregory who was to the papal chair as Gregory the Third on March His intimate knowledge of Greek. The unanimous now fell on a priest vote of both clergy and of Syrian descent. other qualifications which rendered him worthy to succeed his eminent predecessor. 731. II. was probably one of his chief recommendations. after a memorable reign of fifteen years. he (the Pope) would sooner or later be forced into collision with the Romans. on February 10. were not merely the dread of the growing power of the Saracens in Spain. own existence at the time was the maintenance of Imperial Gregory the Second died meanwhile. a highly 18. 24I 730. at the time in Rome. The Pope had already been reconciled with the Exarch. Under the guidance of this accomplished statesman. and the head of the rebel was despatched to Constantinople. 731^™"^' Q .

and the messenger was once more obliged to set forth for Constantinople in charge of the letter. Peter's. commuted for an ecclesiastical penance. was. Fortunately for himself. on the entreaties of a Synod and of the Roman nobility. The Emperor Leo greeted Gregory the Third in an amiable letter. and been succeeded by a kind of truce without surrender on either side. the representatives of the nobles Roman title clergy. the and people. which had now become little else than the symbol of division between the Church and the absolutism of the State. in prison for a year.worship.242 HISTORY OF ROME third Gregory inherited the troublesome bequest of the Iconoclastic controversy. returning to at fulfil him the his the feet of the Pope. on of " whom the the Liber Pontificalis bestows the Consuls. reiterated the views of the former Pope in such an unhesitating manner. et reliquis Christianis plebibus adstantibus decrevit. n. Gregory opened a Council ninety-three Italian bishops. nobilibus etiam constilibtis. however. in his reply to the Emperor. Vita Gregor." assembled ^ in S. III.^ The Synod passed The Cum cuncto clero. that the Nuncio entrusted with the delivery of the letter did not venture to mission. 192. he was detained in Sicily by the Imperial PatriciuSj and there kept I.. cardinal. recog- nised division of the three elective bodies in Rome. in which he expressed his hope of finding the new Pope more accommodating than his predecessor. but. Gregory the Third. who had Rome. cast himself weeping The degradation of the shown so little inclination to become a martyr for the sake of I mage. : On November 731. . The first passionate fury of this memorable strife had died away.

the discord still remained purely dogmatic the Italian revolution being . Petitions from the cities of the Roman duchy for the toleration of the images met with the same fate.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and covered them with silver recognised. son of Leo the Sex columnas oiiychinas volubiks ecclesiatn b. duxit in . not satisfied with the destruction of images. The Decrees of the Synod were to be taken by the Defensor Constantine to Byzantium. Petri Apostoli. at the present day. the Apostles. in beaten work. He laid upon the pillars beams. on which were representations. also waged war against the honour paid to relics and against the worship of the saints. and the relation with the plates. Nevertheless. we can unhesitatingly take ^ Copronymus. Peter's. and thus pronounced the separation between Italy and the Byzantine Empire. concessas ab Eutychio exarcho. spent. and were thence sent back with insults to Italy. 243 sentence of excommunication against the Iconoclasts. the authority of the Emperor was formally Pope stood in such friendly Exarch Eutychius that the latter presented him with six valuable onyx pillars. like- nesses of the saints and with relics since Constantine Isaurian. If. The Emperor would receive neither messengers nor letters. and various saints evidently a protest against Iconoclasm.^ These columns Gregory devoted to the adornment of the shrine in S. spoils more probably of some building in Rome rather than of any in Ravenna. their bearers lingered eight months in prison. The Pope purposely provided the Roman churches with . but again the papal messenger was detained in Sicily. of the Saviour.

was the However re- gloomy was transfigured and idealised by symbols. which retained the polytheism of images. Panselinos. and. pulsive its tendency. it was yet of the highest value in the civilisation of mankind. Lionardo. and Italy. was able. where a hospitable reception invariably awaited them. art product of religion and public worship. and however defective the forms in which it appeared in centuries so barbarous. . to justify herself in the genius of Giotto.^ At many artists ^ The Byzantines. and the time of the Iconoclastic struggle. tardily yet triumphantly. also diligently cultivated painting. Historians. in which all that was . ancients. meanwhile. dogmatic style of Byzantine painting throughout Italy. It raised men from the rough materialism of faith into the sphere of the ideal placed before them the realm of the beautiful. and these men probably contributed to spread the stiff. a consideration of the aesthetic requirements of mankind must lead us to moderate to purify religion which our judgment of their opponents. are silent with Raffaelle.244 Art in the HISTORY OF ROME part with the Byzantine Iconoclasts in their endeavours from the Pagan influences with it was imbued. meanwhile. and during the dark night of superstition remained the sole surviving influence to cheer impoverished humanity with a ray of light. from the East made their way to Rome. checked the free development of Western art. The struggle of the Papacy with the Byzantine Emperors saved it in the West. so As among the among Christian nations. justifying themselves in the person of their Raffaelle. by the establishment of a traditional type.

Peter's. ix. n. not improbably. printed 1750. that likeness Christ. Maria in (called also the Campo Marzo 750." now preserved the chapel Sancta Sanctorum. and rebuilt the deacons' house of S. dispute Many of in among them. The supposition . Gregory of Nazianzus) in the year See the little chronicle of the convent. Maria in Aquiro on the ^ Campus Martius. to whom was given the power of wielding an invisible and angelic brush. See. " not made by human hands. He erected a chapel for relics in S. that the picture was brought thither by some fugitive its Greek is at least a more probable solution of winds in Constantinople by the hand of the unfortunate Bishop Germanus. 245 regard to the short-lived school of painting in the East. Vita. Chrysogonus in Trastevere. spettaiiti a due concilii Romani de^ secoH. many sacred pictures were rescued of those ancient. Basilicain S. Other readings are: Vignoli gives: in . In it came. Dei Genitricis quce in Aciro.i In like manner. here of the Rome by some favouring breeze.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ He further restored a great Fugitive nuns founded the Greek convent of S. it arrival than that. which we now see in Roman churches. rough and black portraits of Christ and the Madonna. the marble inscriptions of the Inediti in the Crypt of the Vatican. De Rossi. 201. Gregory the Third founded some churches and oratories. ^ convent of S. ^ Pope They were dug up in 1495. with regard to this chapel. Due Monumenti e. cast to the was wafted to any case. were probably brought from Byzantium during the period of the Iconoclastic from the East. viii. in Aquiro dicitur. . which he had covered with paintings ^ founded the monastery of S. like many other productions Apostle. in Adchiro.

however.. in Aquiro. Leo the Isaurian sends a Fleet against Italy He confiscates property belonging to the roman Church The Pope acquires Gallese Enters INTO Alliance with Spoleto and Benevento LiUTPRAND INVADES THE DuCHY GREGORY TURNS TO Charles Martel Deaths of Gregory the Third. 344. M.. and Leo the Isaurian. p.^ He in also rebuilt the walls of Centumcellse. Cod. in fear of the Saracens. providing the expenses of out of the ecclesiastical treasury. Rome. in Cenni. .000 gold pieces. which his restoration scarcely had time to touch. restaurata 2 est. Charles Martel. 1866. foundered miserably in the Adriatic.^ The ecclesiastical estates were numerous. his Rome and the other rebellious and in 733 he despatched a fleet under the Admiral Manes against Italy. Ep. and terror also of a landing of the Byzantines. 202. Vita.246 HISTORY OF ROME predecessor had part of the city walls. dellachiesa di S. The vessels. both in Sicily and The name was probably derived from that of some Roman Aquirius or Aquilius. Thereupon he seized upon all ecclesiastical patrimonies in Calabria and Sicily. The Emperor had by no means renounced intention of punishing provinces. ^ Hujus temporib. This viii. who may have erected the church in his house. who already occupied Sardinia. n. confiscation iii. is mentioned by Pope Stephen. Theophan. — — — — — 741. Silvio Imperi. 4. It is clear that he behaved as ruler in the Roman duchy. property from which the Church derived a yearly revenue of 35. plurima pars murorujn hujus civitatis Romancz Cyro. Carol.

near Capua and Naples. known as Icaonia . Stephanie for the yearly of 109 gold solidi. n. 14) : Grcgorius III. here as applicable to the duchy. Seeking to indemnify herself elsewhere. while Cardinal Deusdedit in his compilation {Cod. unfounded. &c. the Bishops of Rome cherished the project of the formation of a temporal principality. Vat. and 100 nugarici vini. is. Breve page Istor. although. which. was bought by Gregory from Trasamund. as to the 'Sacrum Romatiuni Iviperiiim. considerable. Peter owning property at Sorrento and Misenum. n. for twenty-eight years. Gailienshim castrtcm recuperatuvi Vita. or to the narrower district of the The ambiguous expression. is territory. Tenipor. I. The exercitus The opinion of Cenni now {Momun. itself. The Popes.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Martini in Sorrento to a deaconess . to the Consul Theodore. he regarded it solely as belonging to the Roman city. however. Docum. Pancratii near Misenum. S. rent Insulani Capris aim monasterio S. in The Pope oaiiese. the place in Campania. place the Church acquired the fortified Roman Tuscany. .^ Although the Pope again united the city to the Roman duchy. 3833) at the end of the eleventh century. Pont. collected notices of the leases of estates from the registers of Gregory the Second Theodoro Co7isiili in annis ^ : XXVIII.. as also in the island of Capri.^ The loss was naturally Gallese. having been annexed by the Lombard Duke of Spoleto. Peter.. which belonged to the Empire (the Respicblzca). 203. the populace p. To the presbyter Eustachius was let the convent S.. sanctain rempublicam (state of the Church) instituit. begins to signify Do?ninat. Append. Borgia. del 2 Htijiis temporibtis domin. According to the curious expression in the Liber Poiitificalis^ Gregory annexed Gallese to the Holy Republic and the Roman army. which the Pope began to claim as the patrimony of S. since the time of Gregory the Second. the convent S. sancta resptiblica. est — et in coj?i- sanctce reiptcblicce atqtie in corpore Christi dilecti exe^xitics Romani annecti prcecepit. 247 the Neapolitan territory.

weakest. To the chaotic conditions in which Italy was sunk. Trasamund fled to Rome seeking to turn Italy's distress to their (739).248 veiling their HISTORY OF ROME growing dominion over the city in a twihght of diplomatic art. obtained Gregory's support. Trasamund and Godschalk of Benevento. Delivering Italy from the Greek yoke. as Dux of Rome. alongside the Pope and the to give . they restored her to a place in the Latin nationality out of its state of depression. army. but the Pope and the Roman army. with great sagacity allowed the forms of Empire to remain. The cession of the district of Gallese was the result with Spoleto of a secret treaty between Gregory and the Spoleto. where he sought and obtained protection from Liutprand entered Spoleto. ment raised the national flag to Forms an alliance . from the fate of becoming a Lomhistory of nations. shows that an Imperial official still remained in Rome as regent of the duchy it further shows that Gregory acted in concert with the Exarch Roman . As Liutprand advanced against Spoleto. to the weakness of Byzantium. under the leadership of the ex-Patricius Stephen. and demanded the Pope. of the Papacy With the is origin of the temporal first associated the power movenational and the history of succeeding centuries teaches us that the Popes were strongest when they in Italy. and to their own energy and ambition the Popes owed their power. and rescued Rome. own advantage and to render themselves independent of the Lombard King. the surrender of the rebel. refused The mention of this Dux him up. raised They bard capital. Duke of and Benevento. the seat of the Church. when they allowed it fall.

and the banished duke was enabled to re-enter Spoleto in December. as it is asserted. the Pope stood in no little danger. Recognising that Italian and Byzantine alliances were not sufficient to protect him against the just revenge of the Lombard King.^ n. under the guise of minister of a puppet King. 2 of older date and in keeping with the Langob. without actually occupying the throne. 1 Dum a Gregorio Papa atqtie a Stephano. without. Regesta of L. may be said to have reigned supreme. Pont. had delivered France for ever from the Saracens. 207. the hero of Poictiers. cit. VignoH. returned to Pavia (August 735). Lib. the Applies to most powerful man in the West. in the beginning of the it is true. Peter. an expedition against Spoleto and Rome. vel omni exercitu Romano prcedictus Trasimtmdus redditus non — flasset. who. . The celebrated son Martei for of Pipin of Heristal. occupied ^miHa. having laid siege to Rome or sacked the Basilica of S. he refused any longer to be a party to the papal designs.^ In consequence of this refusal. character of the time. The other rendering. loc. however." Romani. The prand prepared for . Bethmann. and leaving troops behind in these different towns. The Pope lent Trasamund the services of the Roman army to aid in the recovery of his dominions. he turned to Charles Martel. 249 Ravenna. since the death of the Merovingian Theodoric in 735.^ Returned thither. Horta. more especially to aid and while Liutin the recovery of the four cities .IN in THE MIDDLE AGES. Liutprand advanced into the duchy. gwes patricio is et duce o??inis exercittis "Vita Zacharise. the actual sovereign of the country and. was. on ^^^p* 739the bloody field of battle. quondam Patricio el Duce. PoHmartium and Bleda.

. The superscription of Gregory the Third runs Do7?ino Excellentissimo filio Gregoj'itis Papa. is. Pipin." n. : . in consequence of the treaty with the rebels of Spoleto and Benevento. to Charles Printed Martel. Pont. ad Ann. Mühlbacher. and Charles the Great. is silent 235. Gregory laments that Charles did not come to his aid that he had given ear to the false representations of Liutprand or those of his nephew Hildebrand and that he tolerated the hostile movements of the Lombards. to whom you have appealed. had said. With these letters begins the Codex Carolinus^ one of the most important documents of history. Zacharias the First. xcviii. who. before Liutprand had taken possession of the four . and two of the Pope's letters to Charles have survived to present times. 13. come with the army of the Franks and deliver you out of our hands. these letters of Migne. must have been written when the King. in their scorn.^ In the first. ed. in Cenni's " Monum." He reminds the Frank of some earlier attempt on his own part. .. which unfortunately is not forthcoming.. This is assumed by Pagi. "Vita Steph. and the pride of the Viennese library. and the Anti-pope Constantine. Gregory's first letter. based solely on the Lib. III. recently by Jaffe. t.250 HISTORY OF ROME Popes had long since turned their eyes towards France. n. Adrian the First. " Let Charles. ^ . Stephen the Third. 14 whose opinion however. Pont. dating from 739 to 791. Dominat. This collection. 726. first attempted to make war. Regesten unter den Karolingern (1881). The two existing letters probably belong to 739 or 740.i Gregory himself had sent envoys to the Frankish prince (739). on the ^ subject. and of a letter from Liutprand. contains 99 letters of Gregory the Third. Stephen the Fourth. and Gregory's predecessor had already summoned Charles Martel to his aid. suhregulo Carola . instituted by Charles the Great." in the Cursus Completus Patrologia.

who asserts that Liutprand had laid siege to Rome and sacked S. however. they would undoubtedly have contained loud lamentations on the part of the Pope over the loss of these cities. O the power given him by God. beloved with Prince of son. that they had a treaty with her. they only give vent to his complaints over the spoliation of the ecclesiastical property in the Ravennese territory and the devastation of the Roman duchy . 25 T cities. characteristic of the new epoch that had set in for Rome : the Roman people. Peter. but he wishes to prove the hearts of the faithful. Had they been the product of any later date. Benevento are rebels. and had sworn faith to the Church. ^ Populus peadiaris. their spiritual mother. the property and pecus of S. in . 741) confutes Baronius. The dukes are ready. is a falsehood. . while.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. oppresses them. The only motive for their hostility is that the dukes refrained from attacking us in earlier years.^ " We are filled with sorrow inconsolable. and her dependents. to yield obedience to the King the King." exclaims Gregory in his first letter. since all that they write is Their pretext. " that such illustrious sons do not come forward to defend the Holy Church. Do not give ear to aught that those monarchs may assert. Peter's. . a new phrase. according to ancient usage. may defend his house and his people. ^ Muratori {ad A. and refused to lay waste the property of the Holy Apostle or plunder his people for the dukes asserted that they did not make war against the Church of God and the people who belonged to her. as they stand.^ The the Apostles himself. that the Dukes of Spoleto and false.

declined to involve himself in any dangerous interference in the affairs of Italy.252 HISTORY OF ROME order to drive them away. He already denominates the inhabithe duchy the people this " Rome and belonging idea in and boldly introduces new He entreats Charles Martel to send an he may inform himself of the distress of the Church. significance of the present gift seems to be of a To me also the more exalted nature. and the arguments they put forward in behalf. rob the Apostolic Prince. that these keys were of a different kind from those which Gregory had so frequently sent to other princes. and to fill their place with men of violence. I am acquainted with its the authors of the assertion. Peter." The Pope adopted treaty which he this tone in order to palliate the was obliged to admit he had made with the rebels. at the same time. however. namely. Not only had tuary. tants of to " S. of distinction conferred on Catholic princes. but now doubly significant. and implores him not to hesitate between the friendship of the Lombard King envoy to Italy.and lead his people into captivity. by this the golden keys of the Apostle's grave symbol appointing the Frank Defender of the SancCharles Martel. Petri. who will daily harass the Church. in 739. The Pope sent at same time by Anchard. but he had also. legal terms. with whom he was on terms of personal friendship. the bearer of the letter. that and devotion the to the Prince of the Apostles. or from other motives. mark . the long customary. to the guardianship of the grave.^ Liutprand taken the place of a father to the youthful Pipin in Pavia. whether from a sense of duty to the Lombard King. 1 Sacratissijiias claves Confessionis B. helped to drive the Saracens out of the South of France. and to refer. . but to undertake the defence of Rome.

of Metz. been asserted that Gregory the Third title invested Charles Martel.i the exceptional rights over Rome. list p. the chains of Peter. 253 despatched by the Pope to Charles. This statement is supported by or the authority of a chronicler." iii. was equally fruitless. rejects the idea of this consulship. 741). are nowhere spoken of. himself engaging to recognise the Emperor no longer. : nevertheless. . in Ruinart's edition of Gregory .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. that is to say. Petri (particles of iron) legationem ' . no. c. complete jurisdiction over Rome. almost Ruinart and Pagi accept the investiture of Charles with the Patriciate. of a Consul of the Romans. and Muratori finds it confirmed by . B. writing 160 years after Gregory {Momim.. . The Frankish Prince is simply summoned to undertake the defence of the Church against Liutprand . adds a decrctum Romanor. in brief. * —Prindpi destinavit—Eo pado patrato. Moissiacense word. et pectdiarem popuhwi. Mon. the only authentic documents regarding a step of such grave import in the history of the Papacy a step destined to be later followed by consequences so unforeseen. together with the Patricius. The anna/. Gregorius daves of Tours: Eo enim temp. Prindpum word for ad Ami. with actual power over the city. P. Germ adAji?t. supposed to have been offered by the Pope. Imperatoris et rece- deret. '•^ Second letter. It has. Romamwi Consulatum prcefato prindpi Carolo sanciret. and handsome presents. are the contents of these letters of Gregory. and that the Pope invested the Frank with the Roman consulship.. bis a Roma venerandi sepulcri cu7n vinculis S. Such.^ A resolution so ^ Nostris obedias niaiidatis^ ad defendendam Ecdesiam. 2. without mentioning the consulship. Do??i. with his account. who asserts that in 741 Gregory despatched to Charles a second embassy bearing the keys of the grave. A second letter. ut a partib. the Chronic.. Cenni. 734 accords. Continuator Fredegar.

although powerful and renowned. in tell's. ad regnum direximus . not only the right of defending Rome. who. King continued his march towards Spoleto and Rome. however. quas vobis that is to Rome. however. The answer returned by Charles must therefore have been a hence the silence of the Liber decisive refusal Meanwhile. that it doubtless formed a subject of public discussion in the national councils. 83. Gregory. the latter on the 18th June. Petri. can be reconciled neither with Gregory's policy nor with the legal conceptions of the Neither do we know what answer Charles aee. 1869) y"<2^r(5. The invitation constituted an event of such importance in Prankish history. iii^. d. . over first letter : et ipsas sacratisshnas claves con- fessionis B. Jaffe adheres to the reading ad Rogwn 714-741 ("Die Zeit Karl Mar- (entreaty).254 HISTORY OF ROME weighty. were utterly adverse to the idea of war with the Lombards in behalf of the Pope. Thus death snatched away in rapid succession the three foremost men of the age. Verfassungsgesch. Breysig. . the former dying on the 21st October. Deut. the community of the Roman city and district " to Charles Martel But such a a belief shared by Waitz. died on the 27th November Charles Martel and Leo the Isaurian had pre741. was still no- thing more than the first minister in his country." believes the transference of the "dominion over . Reichs. as that of making over to a Frank. It is not possible to regard this Patriciate " otherwise than as conferring on Charles the privileges of Defender and Champion of the realm. . the passage in Gregory's say. transference can in * * no M^ay be meant. ^ T. frlUik. ceded him to the grave by a few months. which. but also temporal authority over the city.^ Martel returned to the Pope. the dominion. as we shall see hereafter. the Lombard Pontificalis on the subject.

being elected His family belonged to Siberena. a province which had already given birth to a Pope in John the Seventh.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 741 He negotiates with LiutPRAND Journeys to meet him New Lombard Donation to the Church Second Journey of THE Pope to Liutprand Death of the King Rachis succeeds to the Throne of Pavia. where the latter. the son of Poly. it could no longer have been considered necessary to wait for S. entering the Benedictine monastery at the Lateran. a native of Rossano. Zacharias Pope. . a term of four days Greek who. Bartolini. Comnientarii of Cardinal Dom. tiara. II. wore the chromios. 741. : the Imperial ratification. although the biography of each of S. the election was notified to the Exarch. — — — — Peter's chair only remained unoccupied during Zacharias Zacharias. Peter's suc^ Di S. had become a cardinal deacon during the reign of Gregory the Third. 1879. in this age. Severina in Calabria. The Liber Pontificalis bestows the most unqualified praise upon Zacharias.741-752. Zaccaria Papa e degli anni di suo Pontificato. Ratisbon. the last Pope on December 3. as we can scarcely doubt.^ If. the present S. John had apparently induced the youthful Zacharias to follow him to Rome. 255 CHAPTER 1. and.

to and the abandon Trasamund.256 cessors in turn is HISTORY OF ROME opened with an official eulogium. unite his forces with those of the Duke. which had now fallen into the hands of Charles's three sons. The death of Charles Martel. and to the four cities. " Zacharia. to restore p^p^^ ^^ the j^jg part. and the perand to punish plexed state of the Frankish government. the Church enjoyed a ten years' reign of prosperity and peace and since to him is due the translation of Gregory's Dialogues into Greek. Together they constructed a treaty. deprived Zacharias of every prospect of support from France.. unhesitatingly sacrificed to of personal advantage. The treaty formed was to the same effect. The Pope therefore Treaty with " pran decided to enter into negotiations with Liutprand. saying tralascio altre osservazioni. eloquence displayed by the Pope. Carloman. it follows that. Pipin. Thanks to the resolution. : opinion of the Roman policy. Pont. by which the m King promised . Aid from Byzantium was equally out of the question. and even over- thrown by means of Lib. the most pressing duty that lay before the new Pope was to avert the threatened danger. arms." Roman n. and .-^ Muratori here suppresses his 208. . wisdom. with respect at least to the benefits acquired for the Church. Liutprand being resolved to reconquer Spoleto Rome. Zacharias was also a man of learning. according to the standard of his age. and Griffo (each at variance with the' other). Gregory had so eagerly defended against the accusation of high treason. the tribute in the case of Zacharias seems to have been well deserved. was declared a rebel by Gregory's reasons ^ Lombards against with Trasamund and the same Duke whom successor .

IN THE MIDDLE AGES. possessions of the Church which had been won by Liutprand himself. sending envoys to meet him at Narni. and Valle Magna near Sutri. The persuasive eloquence of the Pope won a rapid credulous victory over the mind of the surrendered Horta. and was dismissed to receive the cowl with fell into returned to restoring and tonsure. Polimartium. Valentine. Ancona. VOL. Numana. but to the Church and ^^^ p°p^' and confirmed the donation by a document. Osimo. Another King. and Bleda. for the previous thirty years in possession of the Lombards. 210. R . threw himself at the feet of the King. in front of the Basilica of S. which was deposited in S. Peter. third Lombard donation by right of conquest to the Pope. him to the ful- Liutprand no sooner heard of the Pope's departure than. habitatoribtis redonavit virosite Quas et per donationejn firmavit in Oratorio Saivatoris. intra ecclesiam Petri apostoli. and Beneventum forthThe conqueror the hands of Liutprand. and the ecclesiastical estates of Narni. 257 The Duke. He further obtained from the aged King the patrimony of the Sabina. The acquisitions of Zacharias did not end here. The King himself here received his illustrious guest. the Greek Emperor. as he made no show of four cities. to exhort filment of the treaty. but. The King sealed ^ Prczdictas qiiatuor civitates^ quas ipse ante biennuim abshilerat (hence 740) eidem sane to cum eorum Vita^ n. Liutprand Ameria. in the spring of 742. the Zacharias left Rome in person.^ This was the S. he had him conducted with military pomp and in a splendid retinue to Interamnium (Terni) the Spoletan territory. Tuscany. recognising that he was undone. II. b. Peter's. not to their lawful ^o^tion to master.

saying. such groom's service had even at that date been rendered by of the Pope. Liutprand having concluded a separate peace with the Roman duchy (a fact which proves that he Ubi cum tanta suaviiate esum sumpsit^ et hilaritate cordis^ ut tantum se nunquam meininisse commessatum. that he never remembered to have dined at so costly a rate. Peter's." and the shouts of the people that greeted his return pro- claimed the city the property of the Pope. the earliest recorded instance of such an act of royal humiliation. Pont. restored all Roman or Greek prisoners to liberty. This is. the Emperor to Pope Sylvester. . Vita. So great was the complaisance of the King and so great the genius of the Roman priest ! Every mouthful that Liutprand swallowed at the papal table cost him a tract of land. and on the following day the populace marched in procession from the Pantheon through the Field of Mars to the Basilica of the Prince of the Apostles. accordingly. Duke of Chiusi. who made Zacharias over to him the possession of the four entered Rome. to offer thanksgivings for the success that had crowned the papal efforts. and by some " " Gastaldi. on the Pope's request. says that the King walked half a mile beside the stirrup ^ diceret ipse rex.^ The Pope departed on Monday. with a genial smile. He addressed the multitude assembled in S. Zacharias was driven by urgent circumstances to undertake his journey a second time the same year (742). In the same way Pipin accompanied Pope Stephen as his vicestrator." cities. and the King arose from his meal. The Lib.258 HISTORY OF ROME his generosity with the ratification of a twenty years' peace with the duchy of Rome. According to the donation of Constantine. accompanied by Agiprand. bearing the Palm of Victory. and.

Dux 711 Dtici : . however. . about which they were restored to in treaty. See Baldini's note to Anast. 717. so far as we know them.^ Zacharias boldly 28. gain Liutprand's consent by means of messengers and self.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the Emilia. 740. Pont. 616. but earthly hindrances were of no avail against a saint who travelled protected by a cloud against the sun. As early as the year 764 Paul the Peter. gifts. restored his conquests to the Greek Empire. now The Exarch Eutychius invoked the Pope's mediation. and from the other threatened cities. 720. in Cenni. yielded to his wiles. " the This portion he also later Republic " on the return of the urbe envoys from Constantinople. Marinus. from Ravenna. The series of these Duces. 713 . Zacharias endeavoured to fruitless. ^ This is related with naive seriousness by the Pope's biographer. : relicta Roitiana jam dido Stephano Patricio et ad gubernatidum. is as follows Christophorus.^ The King did all in his power to avoid his impetuous guest. and the Exarch's entreaties were seconded by letters from the Archbishop John. and preceded by a troop ment of the city to the Patrician of fiery warriors in the heavens. vol. and Pentapolis.^ ^ Lib. He was the last Imperial Dux in Rome. is here the ecclesiastical state already formed.. fascinated as it were by the eloquence of the Pope. Lombard capital on June After a long the King. retaining as pledge but a third of Cesena and its territory.. I repeat that I regard this Stephen as a Greek official. consigned the govern- and to the Dux Stephen. Carol. ^ Parti reipubliccc restitueret. Basilius. iv. First speaks oi xxxviii. attacked Ravenna. entered the struggle. . already received with all due honour by the Exarch.. Stephen. 259 regarded the duchy as independent territory). 718 Peter. xxiv. Vita Const. and when these proved went him- He previously.) : pars nostra Romanorwn {Cod.

The satisfaction which filled Rome at the tidings of his death was increased a few months later by the overthrow of Hildebrand. He. and by the accession of Rachis. p. Duke of Friuli. ^ with the Emperor became more friendly than before. the Roman bishop Sigurd Abel. had achieved the political union of his country. 1859. . Continued Recognition of the Emperor Peaceful Relations with Byzantium Carloman takes the Astolf. greeted him with hearty congratulations. and in him the star of his people set for ever. as well as the decessor. The accession of Rachis. his nephew and successor.^ 2. Peace was restored. Der Untergang des Langobardenreichs in Italien^ Göttingen. and received in return the confirmation of a twenty years' peace with the whole of Italy. 749 Papal Recognition OF Pipin's Usurpation Death of Zacharias. Zacharias. — — — — — — — Survival of The fate of Italy now lay in the hands of the most Imperial authority in Italy. were alike fall Pope enemiy by the of his pre- due to the exercise of papal diplomacy.26o HISTORY OF ROME short time after his successful journey the A Death of was permanently delivered from his hand of death. and rendered it a power formidable alike to Pope and Emperor. 22. 752 His Buildings at the Lateran The Domus CULTM. well acquainted with the orthodoxy of the new King. and relations fortunate of Popes. The magnanimous prince died after a reign of thirty-two years. Rachis follows his Example Cowl King of the Lombards. Though 1 actually independent. the greatest of Lombard Kings.

. 26 respected the lawful authority of the State. 34. Finding himself obliged. The Cyclopean walls of Norba still awaken our astonishment. Zacharias even received valid donations from the Empire. The energetic Con- Copronymus. the Popes still continued to recognise the Imperial supremacy. Lib. Con. on the °^*^" Philipps. says : imperantibus domno nostra piisimo Augusto Constantino a Deo coronato 2 magno * Iinperatore^ «S:c. presented the Norma and Church with the territory of two cities in Latium. concerning certain estates of Farfa. 220. Donationem in scriptis de duahis inassis^ quce s. R. And. in truth.^ 1 Nympha and Norma. in Rome by the Dux.^ Cautiously veiling their temporal designs. Norma also in turn became . Adrian's Bull of 772. n. Pont. however.bestows^ stantine. Several Acts of Gregory the Third and Zacharias contain similar chronological formulae. Ki)xhenrecht. The town becoming deserted. Papcv S. jure perpettio direxit possidendas. iii.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. they took care to obtain authentic stability from the Imperial authority for the rights or possessions which they gradually acquired. exercised Ravenna by the Exarch. it was solely to the exertions of the Pope that the Emperor owed the survival of his authority in the Italian provinces. when the Franks had assumed the Protectorate of the Church. even more zealous an Iconoclast than his father. The to adopt a friendly attitude towards the Pope. — — of the year 743. Norma was built beside it. jtiris existentis publici eidem et b. Eccl. had recently overcome the usurper Artabasdus. whose name the Pope untroubled by any scruples as to the legitimacy of succession had inserted in the acts of the Council stantine the Fifth.^ The names of in the Iconoclasts were acts of . still inserted in Bulls and in the Synods and even in later times. on the request of Zacharias. Nymphas et Normias appellantiir.

Hahn. and not Norma. deserted. and twenty miles distant from Rome. displayed in the figures of two yet more illustrious candidates for monasticism. Nympha. Jahrb. city. by Hein. decided ^^ 747 to renounce his rights to the power and splendour of royalty for the sake of the cowl. Peter's. As in the time of his predecessors the Romans had beheld Kings of Britain. hill The classic associations of this of the Hirpinian shepherds. and entreated permission to receive the tonsure and monastic habit. Zacharias willingly acceded to the request. consecrated to the solitary Sun-god. they now witnessed the mystic power of the Church. after living some years in the withdrew to a wild mountain retreat in Etruria. had long since perished.^ Boniface. and which was fruitful of such great advantage to the Church. the eldest son of Charles Martel. p. Reichs^ 741-752 (1863). so. and to end his days in a Roman hermitage. and the royal penitent. threw himself at the feet of the Pope. f. '^ Fear of the Saracens. seems to have been of the fortified town. the Apostle of Germany. when Nympha arose lower down. and the sight of the mountain probably no longer awoke any In the eighth century inhabited. played a leading part in this pious tragedy. ad loc. apparently drove the population back to the shelter See Westphal and Sir W. Carloman came to Rome. however. Carloman. 89. clad in the habit of the novice. eight the adjacent Tiber. des frank. standing on the steps of S. which left Pi pin sole heir to his father's power and dominion. Gell. which further increased the authority of the Church. under Zacharias. . lonely Soracte towers above the Flaminian Way and to where.202 HISTORY OF ROME Carloman '^ moiX^^ Fortune favoured Zacharlas moreover with two still greater triumphs.

Annal. Ind. Cod. S. A on the summit of monastery of S. . and Irene. It was derived from the word * SORACTE. found on an whence the cunning of ignorance constructed a saint. Pontificalis. Cenni. S. ORESTE. Bened.^ The loneliness and the natural beauty of the mountain one of fitted it for a hermitage.IN recollection THE MIDDLE AGES. Silvestri construdo monasterio.^ c. Gregory {Dialog. concerning Pipin's donation. 7) it describes it as situated Soracte. ad montem . Sylvester. Ep. Cod. Summe Deüm^ sandi custos Adrian speaks of it in the letter Synod. The mountain is called Syraptim in the MSS.^ It rocky wilderness which Carloman chose Here he either built a monastery to for his grave. Pipin later presented the principal monastery to the Pope. Silvester ^ yEneis^ 785. had fled for refuge to one of its rocky caves.Cenni. — Virgil. in the days before Constantine's conversion. xxxii. Soracte7n^ ubi —persecutionis causa — receptus.. with S. II. viii. Zirapti and also in Sarapte in the chroniclers. i... Carol.^ Rather would the Roman of the eighth century have recalled the legend of Bishop Sylvester. . 9. xxii. says monachtis fadus hi monte Soracte apiid eccl. At what time the name of S. i. and a monastery the earliest of the Campagna had already arisen on Horace and — — its slopes. 12 and. belonging to the tenth century {Mon. Erasmus (Gregory..^ i. in the n. Od. xii. united it inscription there. : Egin- hard... S. 24. See Paul's Bull Mabillon. Oreste first appeared. in the Lz/e of Charles^ c. It S. the chronicle of the monk Germ.. Ad. xli. . xi. Benedict of Soracte. but does not call S. as of the Lib. or enlarged one already existing. Silvestro in Capite in Rome. Niccen. Sylvester.xv[. who .. Carol. who.y Labbe. 750: ^ Soradis Apollo .* He also founded three was this ^ Vides ut alta stet nive candidu?n Sorade — — Horat. endures to the present day. to it 263 by- of the verses once dedicated Virgil. to Constantine 7?nsit . is uncertain. 9) stood on a slope of the mountain. 2.

1877. and his daughter. Monasteries arose in all directions. the v. digging in a vineyard of the monastery. 166. Flaminian Way. however. as he had previously gone to Liutprand. his conduct was thrown into the shade by a yet more striking instance of renunciation. Duchesne. close to the The situation of the hill. Lombard may have from tlie The word is derived Acta Silvestri. Rotrudis. Zacharias went to him. he succeeded in prevailing on the prince not only to renounce his designs on Perugia. Peter. Rachis himself. the The King. and souls were dedicated to the Church {pro salute or mercede afumce). Roman Tasia. also retired to Monte Syraptim Casino. the Church being the sole and allattractive. all-ensnaring power in a world sunk in ignorance and fear. Surprising though the resolution of the Prankish prince may seem to us.). and after some years he withdrew to join the Benedictines on Monte Casino. Rachis his wife. f. He had broken the treaty of peace in 749. and lands. . p. after a few days' sojourn in the camp. had threatened the Pentapolis. gifts. but also to lay aside the to the intrusive visits of noble crown. Etude sur le liber pontificalis^ Paris. the pious King of the Lombards. laying aside the purple. cast away their royal garments at the grave of S. exposed the royal monk Franks making pilgrimages to Rome. adopted in its place the Benedictine cowl. and laid siege to Perugia. and were clothed by the Pope with the mantles and veils of the cloistral life. where. and exercised his eloquence and fascinations to such purpose that.264 HISTORY OF ROME other monasteries.

and the thought of Frankish intervention had been entirely renounced Pope. These negotiations had ceased. we rnay mention Anselm of celebrated monastery of Nonantula near Modena. however. and how Rachis had offended the national feeling how his subjects turned from him. had led Open rupture with Rome. at this i. Leo Ostiensis. while Tasia and her daughter disappeared from sight in a neighbouring convent. . 265 found solace in the sight of the Frank Carloman performing some equally servile office. bardenreichs . lib.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. when he Untergang des Lango. into with a warrior willing action. ^ Lib. vacant by a weakling. to renew his negotiations with the Franks. however. Among other princes who time entered the Friuli. 23. Casin. were the dominating ideas of the Lombard people.^ fill The nation was. well left satisfied to the place. therefore. the establishment of an Italian kingdom under a Lombard sceptre. rising in revolt the incapacity and the Roman tendencies which he displayed. Pont. 7 and 8. c. throne of Pavia with the firm intention of Lombards. to carry these ideas The hot-blooded the Astolf. brother of Rachis. that he had not taken the step of his own accord. of Aquitaine and 2 Hunold founder of the Sigurd Abel shows of the Lombards. ascended Astoif.. n. succeeding in the aim from which his timid predecessor had allowed himself to be dissuaded by the His hostile intentions drove the Pontiff. More probably the spirit of the against Lombard nation.. Chron. 223. and to his determination. p. cloister. as the Gothic had once risen against the Roman sympathies of the Amal. allowed himself to be influenced by the Pope.^ The remorse which Rachis later experienced clearly proves.

and Folrad. an important event changed the whole situation of affairs and exercised momentous Pipin. to ^ Council. contains a single letter (of the year 748) from Zacharias to the Major-domus Pipin. was now to be effected. the last to ascend the throne (743). and in 751 sent of Würzburg. The ancient family of the Merovingians had fallen to decay. prince. The consciences of noble as well as peasant might. but it relates to ecclesiastical affairs alone. and. and all Pipin found himself obliged referred the question to a the lawfulness of of this nature scruples to appease. was nothing more than the despised puppet of the kingdom. as embodied in the papal ratification. the Apostle of the Germans. and of which Boniface. since the withdrawal of his brother. house had already long acquired. Abbot to ask the Rome. saw that the time had come when he might seize the crown. for which Pipin had paved the way. without any misgivings concerning the long succession of ancestors who had previously worn it and handed it down from one generation to another. change of dynasty. as to however. in full possession of the authority which his Franks.266 HISTORY OF ROME since the death of Charles Martel. Denis. entertain doubts breaking an oath. the sole heir of his great father. To a free people belonged the right of taking the crown of the country from the head of an incapable A and of offering it to the energetic son of a hero.^ Meanwhile. Carol. had been a zealous advocate. Pope whether the Cod. and Childeric the Third. Pipin. The Franks Bishop Burchard of S. effects on Rome and Italy. . but it was necessary that the usurpation should receive the divine sanction. to the bishops and princes Pope The of France.

of the great Chlodwig having already been banished to a monastery) Bishop Boniface. may have assembled either in . Jahrb. A more powerful inducement was that which now presented itself.fränk. p. possessed the power to bestow crowns and to take them away.2 He first used the words. and placed the crown of Childeric on his head.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Annal. — that of arrogating to himself the . Fear of Astolf was not the only motive that impelled him to recognise the usurper.^ iii. by G. d. Deutsche Verfassiniggesch. and He died on March in the same year (the last descendant 14. 752. but declared the right subject to the papal sanction. the grace of God. all acknowledged that the power. ad Ann. wishing to depose the and to elect their renowned duke as King. He answered source of in the affirmative. Le Cointe. even the royal. 752. in presence of the assembly at Soissons. 267 effete Childeric Prankish nation. The necessities of a usurper thus raised the position of the bishop to an immeasurable height and the incident forms one of the most decisive moments in the history of the Papacy.^ It is uncertain whether or not Zacharias survived the coronation of the usurper. office of supreme arbiter between kings and peoples. giving. 145. Eccl. quickly grasped the importance of the question. could Zacharias be released from their oath of allegiance. date of elevation cannot be assembly which elected the new King Pipin's The Prankish ascertained. Reichs j 741-752. lay in the people themselves. Francor. through the grace of God. occasion to Roman the Popes to proclaim the theory that they. the papal legate. According to Heinrich Hahn. anointed Pipin. as it did. Waitz. 198. the precise ^ Theocratic ideas begin with Pipin.

among them the private Popes. several chapels. Stephen. His chief care had been devoted to the Patriarchium of the Lateran. delle 7 chiese. 535 . triclinia.^ Zacharias enlarged the Patriarchium and decorated the beginning of the year 752. Close to the basilica stood chapel of the the Baptistery. while the Vatican was the centre of the faith. the Monastery of SS. that of S. celebrated and later.268 HISTORY OF ROME Although the ten years of Zacharias' reign had been spent in peace. The Patriarchium contained the archives of the Church and the Treasure Chamber. now that the power of the Popes had so largely increased. called S. of the Popes and their households. xxxvii. The Lateran Palace. besides the great basilica. Contini. of the Basiliken des Christlichen Rom. he left behind but few monuments of his rule. Lorenzo or. formed the centre of their spiritual as of their temporal government. several smaller churches. since. refer the reader also to Tab. Pietro in Montorio and in the Vatican. Sergius and Bacchus. See plan in Severano. or at the end of July or the beginning of August. which immediately adjoined the Basilica of Constantine. at the same time. Andrev/ and Bartholo- mew. Fr. executed by the from Buffalini's plan of the city. i. . many oratories. like the present Vatican. formed of themselves a little town of labyrinthine plan. also from tradition. ^ architect. their dwelling seemed to call for a greater splendour of adornment. from drawings I in S. and a fourth to SS. apparently another monastery already dedicated to S. and was the dwelling. These buildings. or dining halls. John the Baptist and the Evangelist. Sancta Sanctorum. or the seat of the Prince of the Apostles.^ by Gutensohn and Knapp. it included. Enlarged by degrees.

218. Mus. the fagade of the This building was afterwards called by preference the Palace of Pope Zacharias. Ordo Roman.^ The exertions of the Pope. Peter's. basilicas with silken draperies. with regard to the ^ Ducitur ad palatni7n Zacharics PapcB^ quod vulgariter dicittir Casa major. ^ The technical expression is vela — vela serica ? alytina from Ä\i/tos. . in Mabillon. xiv. AGES. out of which had originated the Orbis pictus of Agrippa. or from a. So many churches had arisen in the city prior to the seventh century.. n. ordered by Zacharias for S. in popular speech. and the plans of the city during Imperial times. ii. ItaL. with a tower. Lateranense poriiciwi atque turrim descriptio7U7n orbis terrarum. and the Liber Pontificalis informs us that on the covering of the altar. . the birth of Christ was depicted in gold embroidery. They represented mainly Biblical scenes. or.^ The portico. which either served as coverings for the altars or to hang between the columns of the nave. that the task of . for a considerable length of time. built 269 a portico. insolubilis. gave access to the tower. and Zacharias did not build any new churches we may here observe that.\T\Qiv6s. with greater He to furnished palace. genuine .. ante scrinium. keeping those already existing in repair was work Zacharias provided several sufficient for any Pope. in which the various countries of the earth were depicted in colours. . With these oriental draperies a greater luxury was introduced. 260. the Casa Maggiore. Vita. architecture in Rome had produced nothing of any note. decorated with paintings.^ Thus was continued the great world-embracing idea of Rome. which contained a triclinium. ^ Fecit autem a funda^n.IN it THE MIDDLE splendour.

had by The desolation of the Campagna. through purchase and donations. "Delia Campagna Romana" These topographical designa{Arch. but the demand fugitives rose with the population. Lauretum. and it remains doubtful whether tions are. which. bore the title Paonaria.i The 1 The list of the estates of the Ager Romanus by Eschinard cites Fontignano in S.. take active °^^ highest praise. now found itself also robbed of its granaries both in Calabria and Sicily. or farms in which the colonists established themselves. iii. These foundations are treated of in the Lib. had gradually appropriated more and more soil. spread with fearful rapidity. article " Lauretum. seat of King Latinus. The Church.2/0 Zacharias coionise^he HISTORY OF ROME Cultivation of the Campagna. found herself utterly unable to cope with the distress. de Dintorni di Roma more thoroughly by G. 318. The first. owing to the dearth of free landowners. and was apparently a large estate on the Via Aurelia. with the Massa Fontejana.). now deserted Campagna." y^^za/. The scattered estates of the Church in Etruria and Latium since the city. f." the ancient . which furnished a partial supply. deserve The Popes found it necessary to had long since been deprived of its stores from Africa. d. The erection by Zacharias of five Domus cultcB. vol. Nevertheless. very obscure the dam. Tomassetti. but failing to pursue any system of colonisation on a large scale. Paolo. . swollen rapidly increased. from the Campagna seeking shelter from the Lombards. alsoby Nibby. Pont. was called "Lauretum" or " Laurentum. Rom. . however. deserves our attention. cult. Sac. although probably not so great as at the present day. measures for the promotion of agriculture. the efforts of the Popes for the cultivation of the Campagna at this period are highly honourable.

fourteen miles from Rome in the Tuscan patrimony. the ruins of which were again rendered habitable. neighbourhood of Gaeta. and on the site of destroyed villages. Pont. 642. " Subaugusta. Rassegna Italiana^ vol. I Centri abitati nella Camp. 27 from a chapel of the milestone on the Tiburtine road. f. stco studio adqtiisivit . Petri in afterwards the so-called Latifundium jure b. and even a village such Subaugusta. Masses qucB vocantur Antias et For7nias. Genuince. Rom. probably to be discovered in the Massa S. a suburban diocese.^ The new colonisation of the not. in the early Middle Ages. »Some ancient " Pagi " in the neighbourhood of the city were Succusanum. . quas et doinus cultas statuit. While the forsaken as cities of the ancients. Lib. Thiel. such as Gabi. Tomassetti. 375. AGES. Ulmanum. nel medio evo. situated doubtless near second was called name at the fifth ancient Antium in the Volscian territory. With regard to this subject. Labico. 499. which was rather than in the Campo Morto.IN THE MIDDLE S. i. Ficulea. Caere.^ The revenues of the property managed by the Church undoubtedly could not have been very ^ great. ii.D. Lemonium. agricultural colonies were established on the country seats of the ancient Romans. A. on the site of the ancient villa of Helena Augusta. p. Zacharias also founded a third Doinus ailta. Pelicianum. Its bishop is mentioned as Subaugustanus in the Acts of the Synod of Symmachus. Ep. R. undistinguished by any name. Petri Formias is more Forma. but consisted simply of a colony planted in the deserted villas and villages of antiquity. the present estate of Centocelle. however. Pont. A. Cecilia. 1883. in Roman territory by the entirely Church did any case entail an foundation. see G. Aurentinum. He finally acquired the estates Antius and Formia. were converted into episcopal sees. was.

a Roman. for the maintenance of the lamps in S. Stephen seeks Aid from the Emperor. Under the pontificate of dawned for the Papacy. Vatican. Bartolini. sacr.^ 3. 752-757. which lay scattered over the country as far as Anagni.^ f. which.272 HISTORY OF ROME Gregory the Second set apart. A had succeeded 1 this able man a new era short time before. 2 ^ The it Bull in the Bullar. apparently at a very low rent. although the seat of a bishopric. presbyter Stephen was elected successor to Zacharias. but died only three days after his nomina^ The -' -^ Stephen the Second. . is true. and were devoted to olive-farming. as Stephen the Third. 552. di S. Astolf in attaining that is which his predecessor portico of The ancient inscription built into the wall of the i. He ranks. Thus Zacharias conferred the Massa Pelagiana in the Patrimonium Labicanum on the Comes Filicarius. Peter's/ the proceeds of fortyeight estates. and the Massa Gallorum and Appiana on the Roman Christoforus. 752). 754 Defensive Treaty of Kiersey Pipin appointed Patricius of THE Romans. was appointed to the vacant chair (March 25. had sunk to the level of a fundus. 7. Stephen the Second Astolf conquers Ravenna. Peter's. To the latter also belonged the ancient Gabi. after751 wards FROM Pipin Journeys to France Consecration OF Pipin and his Sons. — — — — Stephen the second. p. S. if his predecessor be reckoned in the list of ordained Popes.^ tion. The farms were let to Roman nobles in emphyteusis. Zaccaria.

Chron. repenting his weakness in the course of four Claims months. AGES. and all the remaining Byzantine provinces. die Julii A. n. Vulturnense. per Indict. n. ''^^^ was able to issue a royal decree from the palace in conquered Ravenna." solidus from every Roman. Stephen sent the Abbots of Monte Casino and S. II. from this time accurate and trustworthy.^ On hearing of his threat.^ Eutychius. 751. whether or not the Lombard King be the future lord of Italy. however. the last of the Exarchs. and the question had now as July 4. 2. he demanded the yearly tribute of a gold o?Rome. the duchy. Fantuzzi.feliciss. was portioned off with Ferrara and other districts under Lombard rule. the ^ Muratori has been enabled to determine the date from a diploma of the abbey of Farfa. Stephen. x. regni nostri III. v. IV. p. Script. IV. dated by Astolf: iu.. after a course of nearly two hundred years. Ravenna in Palatio. entailed momentous issues. onwards iii. vel subjacentia ei The lib. succeeded in arrest- was to after the conquest of ing his march (June 752). fairly hanc Romanam. Pont. and. 401 . viii. 273 had long striven rule in Italy had The seat of Byzantine Ravenna . The mutilated history of Agnellus ^ silent concerning this important event.^ 67. the rule of Its extinction the Greek satraps came to an end. Antiq. fallen into his hands and as early by^Asroff. but. Vincenzo on Vulturnus.IN THE MIDDLE for in vain. is t. Fatteschi. which he now claimed as successor to the Exarch or Emperor. Astolf departed for the south to reconquer Rome. Murat. Ital. VOL. Et sua is jiirisdictioni civitatetn castra subdere indignanter asserebat. fe lie iter. Immediately Ravenna. he to be decided. and swore a twenty years' peace with the Roman duchy. i. and announced his intention of incorporating the city with his kingdom. 264. S . lib. by means of his legates.. The King yielded. Diss.

and. accom- Lombard King. however. See Marangoni. Dei et Salvatoris nuncupahir. Stephen addressed the people in a sermon. Dom. of the monastery from the Barberini Library. the religious and patriotic passions of the citizens a procession was formed. however. The envoys were. as Gregory the Great had previously done in a similar situation. and threatened to massacre the Romans as soon as he had carried the city by storm. his overlord. /*' delta Capetla di Sancta Sanctor.^ marched to The Maria Maggiore. The danger grew more pressing. vi. He did not.274 HISTORY OF ROME two most celebrated Benedictine monasteries in Italy. resort to arms. c. but merely sent letters by his plenipotentiary to the Pope and the envoy. as might have been expected. which. The It is mention of this sacred picture. the embassy proved unsuccessful. J. Taso. He roused . Vincentius on the Vulturnus. Astolf on his side demanded unconditional surrender. first quce acheropita imag. Diacon. his own brother. brothers. and forbidden to see the Pope. and the chronicle contained about 500 monks. 233. the Saviour. For a considerable time it Paul. and Paldo. painted on wood. was founded by three Lombards. about the year 703. celebrated monastery of S. admittance. in the diocese of Isernia. n. headed by the Pope likeness bearing of ^ on his shoulders the miraculous S.^ Rom. back to Astolf. edited by Muratori. .. refused to the King. Reduced to these grievous straits. The Pope called upon the incapable Emperor. is is dark. Tato. illustration in and entirely Byzantine. to send troops to deliver Rome and Italy by force of arms from the enemy. ^ Procedens in laetania Christi^ cum sacr. represents the Saviour with a beard. nri. Stephen sent this panied by Paul.^ Meanwhile the Byzantine Emperor demanded the restoration of the Exarchate. Vita. 40. sent back to their monasteries. i .

The nocturnal procession. end 105. 28. . have. It.. • 1 • He aid. pilgrim. Cose Gentil.. rout. and on the of the Assumption was washed in the Forum. threw herself into the arms of the Frank. however. 151).. Rojna ex. the statue of Cybele in the Almo {Ordo Roman. mindful of the relations of his predecessor with France. Before Constan- time to give an answer to the messengers sent to implore his aid. and centred in the vigorous German tribes. Mabillon. the Pope recognised that the Greek Emperor wars not in a position to undertake afresh the conquests of Justinian. 157 Marangoni. Mus. . having degenerated into a Bacchanal Fifth. had assumed the crown. The history of Europe followed uninterruptedly its westward course. as in former days xi. The new 753. was Astolfs proclamation of peace. King of the Franks gladly accepted a commission which brought him into contact with Rome. however. where Pipin. 275 Attached to the borne in the procession. while Rome. Andr. renouncing Greece. and God and the people were invoked as witnesses of the act of perjury on the part of the King. Stephen did not. de Ostia. was driven by necessity to a step. vigil It was used in processions in the Middle Ages.. imploring his • 1 . the historic results of which it was as yet tine had had impossible to foresee. it left the Byzantines to their dogmatic sophistries and their weary struggles with the Slavs and Mohammedans. These first letters. .IN THE MIDDLE cross. c. remain satisfied with processions. towards the Martinelli. with the consent of the Pope. unfortunately perished. AGES. Ant. ii. and might prove of such importance towards the develop1747. Rom. -J sent letters to Pipin J !_• by a 1 • and even requesting an belonging to the year The Pope summons pjpin to ^^^ ^'^' interview. I. was abolished by Pius the . ethn. Fulvius. Stephen.

united In the backto transform the history of nations. and Chrodegang. whether with the of Patricius the Protectorate of the city was to be formally made over to the King of the Franks. The step was too momentous to be undertaken on the responsibility of the Pope alone. The Pope. behind Rome in need of a protector. It was doubtless subassembled in parliament.). x. question to be decided was. forms one of the most instructive chapters in the history of the world.) and that (xi. to the dukes of the Prankish people first which Cenni has fittingly put in the place. Rome was The title in a state of the greatest excitement. and Stephen was by them invested with authority to mitted to the ^ Roman people The two letters of Stephen. ground.. The gradual development of this ecclesiastico-political system from insignificant beginnings and temporary needs. drawn together by ties of mutual need and gratitude. the usurper of the crown of his lawful King.276 HISTORY OF ROME ment of his kingdom. He sent the Abbot Droctegang from Görz to treat with the Pope.^ The usurper of Childeric's throne had found it necessary to appease the murmurs of the nation by a solemn consecration at the hands of the Pope. stood the Germanic-Roman Empire. to escort the Pontiff to France. Bishop of Metz. that to Pipin {Cod. a rebel towards his lawful Emperor. and soon afterwards the Duke Autchar. . Carol. which soon appeared as the inevitable result. and Pipin. and behind the youthful dynasty of the Carolingians. and the foreign monarch thereby endowed with a permanent and powerful position in Rome. refer to these events.

" ^ He doubtless left spiritual concerns in the hands of a vicar. but Stephen instead committed " the entire people of the Lord to the care of the Saviour and the Apostle Peter. like the phrase /^(:«/2arzi'/i7/«/«i'. by the Imperial minister. a Dux or consul. he set forth. &c. bringing. instead of arms. The journey of a Pope to France was an event hitherto unheard of. 2// conclude a treaty with Pipin. to visit Astolf. Pont. . Escorted by them. the government of the city had been entrusted to a Dux. is. the Silentiarius John of Constantinople arrived with the his emissaries. Carol. Cod. already appointed by the Romans. while some official. and prevail on the Lombard surrender the Exarchate. 753. Stephen's journey led him through the midst of the Jussionem Imperialem^ says the Lib. On the occasion of his predecessor's journey to Liutprand. leaving Rome on October 14. provided with a safeconduct by the Lombard King. "^ ^ very significant. Imperial to command that the Pope should It is repair in person to the court of Astolf. whose messengers were to accompany him on his journey. No Roman bishop had ever crossed the Alps to visit a German nation in the West.^ uncertain whether Stephen informed the Greek envoy of his negotiations with Pipin. conducted temporal affairs. by several dignitaries of the Church and leaders of the Roman militia. Co7umendans cunctam dominicam plehem bono pastori Domino The expression Dominica plcbs^ so frequently used in the nostro. to denote the Romans. While Stephen prepared for his journey in the autumn of 753. after the people had elected him their Patricius. in the customary style.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

Mauritii aula seciis ßuvii Rhodani . : epitaph (in the crypt of the Vatican) says — His barbarous Ex hac urbe processit suo seciitus pastorem tendentes Jn Roma salvanda utrique petebant regno Sancta perveniens loca Francorum B. 753. Pipin. Neither replied that he was not to be intimidated.^ P. at the convent of S. threw himself on the ground before him. and doubtless also attended ' by some of the leading Romans. Stephen was received with all due honour by the . he had hoped to meet Pipin but instead of the King. with regard to which Pipin's envoys were urgent in their entreaties. and then proceeded on foot ^ The Primicerius Ambrosius died at S. . Stephen left Pavia on November 15. the nobles and people. Maurice. 753- soon reached the Alps. with an escort of bishops and cardinals.278 Stephen HISTORY OF ROME troops Lombard ° who garrisoned the duchy. dismounting from his horse on the Pontiffs approach. alone made their appearance. The Lombard foresaw the consequences of a journey which dread of his powerful rival alone forbade him to prevent. plenipotentiaries of and to ipin. He royal family (January 6. — Galletti.4i- . however. The royal envoys. invited the Pope to proceed with them to France. would Astolf consent to the Pope's journey to France. Denis and the Duke Rothard. where Pipin awaited him at the castle of Ponthion (Pons Hugonis)} Arrived at Ponthion. Maurice. ^^Q Abbot Folrad of S. Before AstcSF^ he reached Pavia the King sent orders forbidding him to mention the restitution of the Exarchate and of the other cities of the Empire. Stephen. Litus ubi vita noviliter ductus ßnivit niense Decemb. his deputies. . however. Del Primicer. 754). where.

and forbade the Franks.. Pont. henceforth to elect as King any but one of the Carolingian family.^ At the castle. Stephen in turn humbled himself before his powerful defender. iSSi) only recognises a vow made by Pipin at Ponthion. however. Carl and Carloman. Stephen consecrated Pipin. under penalty of excommunication. and his sons. who remained on horseback. 754). Reg. Martens {Die Rdm. and we pass in thought over a space of more than a thousand years.. in the church of S. to glance at the remote consequences of Stephen's journey to the time when the usurper Napoleon invited Pius the Seventh to the northern capital for ends almost identical with those of his remote predecessor. Peter and the Roman republic. G. Pont. Dionysius. ascertained that the treaty 14th April was executed at Kiersey. Denis (July 28." 754. the reward demanded by the Pope had been agreed upon either in Ponthion or Kiersey (Carisiacus). Here.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Frage tinter Pipin u. Only the '* Vila Hadriani " speaks of Kiersey as the place of Hence W. however.^ tery of S. is only aware of Vita Stephani" in the Lib. Jaffe. the promise The continuator of Fredegar . 25. ^ Cui et vice stratoris usqtie zw aliquanttim loci jttxta ejus sellareni properavit. It is c. at made Ponthion the *' Carl d. and on his knees implored Pipin to lend his protection to the cause of S. the Liber Pontificalis mentions the French capital. . 279 some distance beside his guest. for the first time.^ fixes the date of the treaty of Kiersey on the not. . Stephen was soon after conducted and there took up his abode in the monas. his wife Bertrada. Pipin swore compliance to Paris. - " Vita Steph. Already Pipin's thanks did not consist in words. merely says that the fulfilment of the promise was determined on at Kiersey. the treaty.

however. 1880. z. Genelin. forms the foundation on which the whole structure of his temporal dominion was afterwards reared by the Roman bishop. are devoid of all foundation. and of certain other territories in Italy. The views of such writers as place the later pretended donations of the Carolingians and their successors on the same level with the compact made between Pipin and the Pope. Schenkg. This promise. retained in the that these are derived from sources formed a treaty of partition with the land south of Luni (p. f. ^ Ficker. . Reichs unter König Pipin. and assert that at this period a fixed portion of Italy was agreed upon between the two potentates. is form of the first formulae of later deeds of gift.. Pipin s. Ital. Kirchengesch. is entirely unknown to us. f ). which legally belonged to the Emperor.^ and then transactions at S. nor with the practical international relations of the time. a fact which their subsequent surrender to the Pope renders indisputable. 1871. Reichs u. On the other hand. Das Schenkungsversprech. donation of Pipin ii. (1869). and promised the Pope asserts that the . 333. with which the " Roman question " was created. d. given by Pipin in 754. relating to this treaty. Jahrb. soon as the Prankish King had acquired them himThese territories were the Exarchate and Pentapolis. des frank. That the promise had reference to other territory is improbable.280 HISTORY OF ROME show that Pipin Letters of Stephen had privately promised not only to rid him of the Lombards. Denis. so self. see CElsner. but to place the Roman Church in possession both of the patrimonies of which she had been deprived. and can neither be reconciled with the conception of law. ti. 366. and were garrisoned by Astolf. The document. and that Pipin essentially genuine Stephen. Forschg.

ic. Car. vi. Cenni. ^ 45. Schrift. A mutual and defensive. Stephen appointed the Frankish King Defender of the Church and her temporal possessions. 49): vos b. The appointment of Pipin as Ro^ians!^^ Patricius.. is to be found in Fantuzzi. Petro. offensive . xli. iii. and Pipin unhesitatingly accepted the proffered dignity. Raverni. xvi. the result of a decision of the united Roman people. 28 Pipin entered into a legal relation with the Roman Church and with its head.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. n. steadfastly to The Pope.. and in the following letter).. se amicis nostris aniicos esse. Paul the First likewise expresses himself {Cod.. ^ Stephen the Third thus clearly expresses himself to Carl and Carlo- who went adopts the exposition of Ficker. took the dcfensio et exaltatio Ecclesice in . Thus Pipin undera spiritual and temporal sense. " Die Schenkungen der Karolinger an die Päpste " (Ä7. however. • France accompanied by some of the leading Romans. He boldly arrogated to himself the Imperial privilege in investing Pipin and his And sons with the title of Patricius. was thus agreed upon. 1881). have been a single-handed action on the part of the Pope. on his side.. was undoubtedly the bearer of the resolution. but must rather have been treaty. and Patricius moreover of " the Romans. which bears no date. on the other hand. promising for himself and his successors to defend the Church and to provide her territories.^ The Imperial supremacy was still silently acknowledged in principle nevertheless. permanently identifying him Stephen. Sybel. et prafato vicario ejus." could not. vel ejus siiccessoribus spopondisse. B. The Romans and the Pope thus constituted him a Roman citizen and head of the Roman nobility. sictit et nos in eade??i sponsioiie firmitet dinosci/nur pervianere. Cenni. Mon. et se inimicis ininiicos. undertook uphold the new dynasty. The forged deed of gift of Pipin. to See. man in 770 {Cod. a title hitherto borne him Patriby the Exarchs. Carol. Histor.

the duchy. as Patricius of the Romans. and the Burgundian Sigismund. 222. this title is never associated with the conception of a Defensor. devolved the duty of defending the Popes astutely derived this duty from a divine call. Odoacer. 212. De Stirpis KarolincB Patriciatu. 146. 74. 191. that on the King.. Münsterj . the regarded. 190.^ ^ Pipin is merely spoken of as Defensor or Protector. and this view is justified with regard to the time of Pipin. in consequence. and.^ P« 51» ^'^'^ Memorie Stor. 167. 199. 141. the idea arose that it was the special province of the Patricius to superintend the papal elections and act as Advocate of the Church. 220. Niehues. and the Exarchate was accordingly expressed by a Roman title. rejected The Dominium of Pipin is also by B. sees in it the position of Advocate of the Church. 82. 227. or indefinitely and generally from the treaty with Stephen.282 HISTORY OF ROME with the interests of the city. 160. 170. not as a political right. 150. Cenni. Borgia. di Benevento^ p. Origin- used to denote an office in the time of Constantine. such as in times past had been borne by Chlodwig. Never is it indicated. but as a title of honour. Breve Istor. conferred for life. 187. 233. 79. 208. &c. Purposely evading the true meaning of the Patriciate. of which consecration was the symbol. it had become a dignity. 210. in the papal letters. i8q. It is nevertheless striking that. The title of Patricius henceforward attained an historic importance. With the institution of the Exarchate this dignity seemed by preference to ally have been conferred on the Exarchs. everywhere Defensor! I reject the opinion of Ducange that the Patriciate was thus early the Dominium. The position in which the Prankish prince stood towards Rome. 181-184. 13. they apparently desired it to be city. 196. and bestowed upon barbarian kings.

from a 182. addressing him. di S. Pont. ii. he Dei Ecclesice Romanes. p. Mabillon.Emperor. and informs us that when the patrician is elected he first kisses the Emperor's feet. for the time. A later formula very clearly expresses the connection of the two ideas. Patricius Romanoruin. &c. 16) bestows on Pipin the would assuredly have been ^ The spurious deed of foundation of at that time S.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. title. called Defensor S. and invest thee with this honour." The Emperor then invests the patrician with the mantle.^ We cannot suppose that ceremonies in : names himself 1864. knees. Silvestro in Capite (Giacchetti. The Graphia of the Golden City of Rome. and of the office now conferred upon thee thou shalt render account to the Supreme Judge. and mouth. Silvestro de Capite. The 735 Lib. Defensor EcclesicB. and they all cry " Wel" It come. in 774. Ozanam. contains an account of the ceremonial of the investiture of a Patricius. Docum. documents. The same formula is given by Ducange in the Glossary. Hist. also. p. title. afterwards all the Romans." and having placed a golden circlet on his head dismisses him. Defensor Romajitis .. inddits. " Be thou a faithful and upright Patricius. purposely avoids any mention of the appointto the Patriciate." The. We therefore constitute thee our helper. places the ring on the forefinger of his right hand. which belongs to the latter half of the tenth century.. Qualiter patricius sit facie)idus. De re Dipl. gives him a written paper containing the words. says appears too difficult to us to fulfil alone the office entrusted to us by God. . ment of the kings c. that thou mayest see justice done to the Church of God and the poor. 283 Pipin himself never makes use of the first and it is Charles the Great who. 3) asserts that Stephen's investment of Pipin with the title of Patricius was merely honorary.

Mus. Aula Byz. although. floated before the mind of Stephen. deutschen Carl Hegel. i. 812. and included.. Rome which had been wielded Was it possible. i.. n.. 236. Constant. the privilege of ratifying the papal election. &c.. De De Cerimon. The same idea of the Patriciate. d. Rhein. however. Kaiserzeit.. Diaconus. Later investigation attributes the Blume. and by Mabillon. i. p. re Dipl. in investing the Frank with the dignity. Gesch. . ix. c. in the name of Emperor and Empire. this. Vatic. The recognition of the usurper Pipin on the throne of the Merovingians was but the reward for the war which he promised to conduct in behalf of the Pope in Italy. De Gest. The Frankish prince undertook duties and acquired dignities but duties soon developed into rights..284 HISTORY OF ROME such as these were observed on the occasion of Pipin's investiture. he strove to avoid conveying with it the direct authority over by the Exarchs. that Pipin could be satisfied with a costly title without claiming the power with which in Byzantine times this title This power had amounted to jurisdiction in Rome and the Exarchate. at the same time. The Popes. 123 formula to the age of the Ottos. Compare with 47. Lang. 316 . but reluctantly acquiesced in the change. and from an armed advocacy the Patriciate grew to be a power of supreme jurisdiction. had been accompanied Cod. Porphyrog. however. v. . für Jurispr. 3. and Giesebrecht. that of a supporter of the Church. ? . of Paul.

demanding the restitution of his conquests. The unfortunate monk expiated his dangerous commission by imprisonment in the monastery of Vienne. Italy. Peter's to the Kings of the Franks. — — — — — — — — Astolf looked with annoyance on the action of the Pope and the Romans. passing him contemptuously by. and offering him a sum of money would he restore " the property to its owners. had received the consent of his nobles to his expedition. the Lombard sought to thwart Pope at the court of France. and there spent the short remnant of his life. Even somewhat unwilling subjects. 756 Devastation of the Campagna Sack of the Roman Catacombs Stephen's Letter TO THE Franks S. had made over the guardianship of Rome set to the powerful before Pipin. he departed for accompanied by the Pope (August 754). with his forth for King of the Franks.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. who. to try and induce him to break off his treaty the plans of the with the Pope. to his brother Pipin. At his left his retreat at Monte Casino. 285 4. 754 The Lombard King enters the Duchy Siege OF Rome. at the Diet of Braisne. After Pipin." Italy. for the temporal aspirations of the . Happily. Stephen fervently hoped to attain his object without bloodshed. as the envoy of Lombardy. however. and while on their march he and Pipin sent messengers to Astolf. Carloman instigation and went. Fruitless Negotiations with Astolf Stephen's RETURN PiPIN COMES TO ItALY ASTOLF ACCEPTS THE PROFFERED PeACE PiPIN's FIRST DeED OF GiFT.

ix. 248. and memorable invasion —the invasion of a Prankish King in an historic sense was the result. from two letters of Stephen.286 HISTORY OF ROME bishop. it would appear that. and the Abbot Arrived thither.^ n. dating from the end of the year 754. the capital.^ ^ See Pipin's is first Italian war in L. after the declaration of peace in the autumn. in Cenni. the Roman Pipin's Lombard declined the first offer. tibus. Carol. saviour and deliverer. a short interval having sufficed to work such great results. Lombard back to France. p. under the escort of his envoys. routed the enemy at Susa. Pipin had actually drawn up a deed of This document formed the basis of the State gift. says sub ter^'ibili sacrajuento.. and peace was immediately granted. Pipin now hastened Pavia. where a : list of the cities also given.^ These events took place as early as the autumn of 754. Pipin's ° gi?. QElsner. his natural brother Hieronymus. vi. only in the most general terms that Stephen's biographer tells us that Astolf had pledged himself nor to the surrender of Ravenna and other cities . atque in eod. leaving the Pope. He swore by a solemn oath to surrender Ravenna and other cities. The written deed of gift is . Meanwhile. and to prove that the once formidable power of the Lombards was already shattered. 192. redditurum civitatem Raveujtatium cum aliis diversis civitavii. to return to It is Rome. Stephen was greeted by the exultant people as their Folrad. The Vita Stepk. 2 Cod. does the historian seem to be aware of any previous donation to the Pope. pacti fcedere se illico per scriptum paginam affirmavit.. vii. and laid siege to — Here the terror-stricken Astolf himself prayed for peace. The Defender of the Pope crossed the passes of the Alps.

which were menaced by them. The Pipin. more correctly speaking. had really been executed. doubtful.. and had been made use of by Stephen the Second. " the restoration or restitution to the Republic of term the Empire in the abstract can no longer be understood. conquest of Ravenna under Justinian had been a usurpation. . because the {Münchner hist. made his first donation at this time. and the fact that Stephen the Second and his successors up to Charles recognised the Greek Emperor as the legitimate head of the Empire. ^ DöUinger.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the Romans. however. and not earher at d. " Das Kaisertum Carl's Gr. even those not belonging to the Pope. maintains that the Pope referred the restitution to the national Italian or Roman republic. On the other hand. Genehn {Das Schenkungs-versprechen) explains the term reddere by the assumption that the pretended donation of Constantine had been forged before the year 752. 287 of the Church. It were better to explain the phrase restitution on the ground that the giving back of the patrimonies occupied by the Lombards was extended to all the provinces. even in Italy. the Roman Church. this case the But in Greek dominion generally. since it does not appear whether the restitution of which it treated applied to the territories claimed by the Church or to the Greek provinces. : et necesse est." Under this undoubted therefore. expressions used for the surrender are reddere et contradere. would be an inexplicable contradiction. which. Ponthion or Kiersey. as founded by Pipin and Charles the Great. Its contents are. by virtue of which the cities previously conquered by the Lombards were to be surrendered to the Pope. und seiner Nachfolger" Jahrb.^ or. from the time of Belisarius. Not a single syllable denotes that either Ravenna or the Exarchate were taken into consideration. 1865). whose head was now the Pope. but only the Roman duchy. ut ipswn : Chirographum expleatis. The official expression was It therefore follows that the document. had also been a usurpation.

^ With the honey Stephen. however. "flowing from God.^ The letter was de" mellifluous look spatched to France. reminded the Frank that he had undertaken a dangerous journey to consecrate him King. ßtiasque regalis ExcellenticB is The summit of barbarism reached in the expression deißuo. embracing both legal and possession. but in a short time Astolf stood before the walls of Rome. stiam justitiajti suscipiaf. had Pipin left Pavia when Astolf allowed himself to be persuaded into a violation of the treaty. Scarcely. Stephen found himself defenceless and in the utmost danger. as ." borrowed from the ancient but still existing idea of the State. vestris mellifltiis obtutibus^ iieciareas inelHvestrce syllabas. title an adroit phrase. anxious to punish the fox who had ventured to snatch the prey from the vengeance of the lion. and conjured him to see that the Apostle had his rights. ^ Ut pj'inceps Apostol. he addressed them a letter of remonstrance. Suspecting the Franks of treachery. mingled bitter reproaches for Pipin's credulity. Without surrendering a single town to the Pope. however. " your mellifluous Grace. document is barbarous.288 as a HISTORY OF ROME growing temporal power. ." and countenance. ^ Vestra melliflua bonitas. throughout the whole of the Carolingian collection and the exaggerated epithets. that Peter had chosen him before all the kings of the earth as protector of the Church." show how offensive were the courtly formulas of an age which allied the bombast of the Byzantine chancery to the phraseology of the Bible. he marched instead into the Roman duchy." The title Christianissimus is already a standing epithet of the Frankish King. and the The Latin of the style bombastic. diplomatically veiled itself behind the broad term " Respublica.

289 hundred years had passed since Rome had endured its last tedious siege under Totila. and with it the crown of Italy. to make a last desperate attempt to conquer ^> 756the city. II. The derision to the : civic militia. 445. the Lombards of Tuscany by the Triumphal Way. On January I. Carol. Cenni. Paul's. We may therePipin. T and Excursus. VOL. ff. ix. enemy. or any Roman leader mentioned by name.^ In order to surround the city. Romans beheld the approach the of the 756... OElsner. who came in three divisions.. The King now appeared with Astoif the whole arriere-ban of the nation. the main division by the Salarian. has been established by L. All succeeding attacks of the Lombards had either been utterly unimportant or averted by the prompt payment of an indemnity. 254. who are not mentioned. The Lombards approached the walls. is No Dux. as also of Pipin's second inter- vention. ff. summoned for the Romej^ occasion. Astoif enbefore the Salarian Gate and the Tuscans camped before the Portuensian. were probably included this in Tuscicc partibus. vi. in the capacity of envoy. was in the city at the time. . or tribune. who. but the Pope.. and the Beneventans by the Via Two Latina. gave honourable evidence of their patriotism. The Reichs chronology of expedition of Astoif. The the Spoletans. already experienced in arms through various contests. frank. in his letter to bestows especial praise on the heroism of Werner. crying in " Let Romans w^ho manned them the Franks come and deliver you from our swords. ^ Cod. p. Jahrb. iv. viii. the Prankish abbot." The Romans answered by a resolute defence.. while the lines of the Bene- ventans stretched from the Lateran to S. des U7iter Köin'sr Pipin. p.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

At the same time and no contrast more strikingly illustrates the character of the period. Petrus in Coelo ^ became a aureo at Pavia. laid The Campagna was ruthlessly waste by a vindictive enemy. Peter and S. the same men who committed these outrages. In 722. which lay within his territory. treated them with open Iconoclasts. Prafatus vero Warneharhis : — ut both bonus Athleta Christi decertavit letters. Astolf. The Lombards seemed to recall the Arianism of their Sacks the catacombs. and had it laid. which had been restored by Lombards . withstood the battering machines of the but the distress within the city increased day by day. with a troop of Frankish had come to Rome. amid the rejoicings of the people. were levelled with the ground. troop now lent valuable aid in the defence. the army.^ The ancient walls. and the colonies of the Church. forbade any one to molest the churches of S. — sainted dead. and made bonfires of their remains. Gregory the Third.290 fore HISTORY OF ROME assume that Werner. it is true. They showed no reverence for sacred on the contrary. Liutprand had bought the body of Augustine at a high price from the Saracens. totis suis viribus at the close of . Paul. probably Greek mercenaries in derision. but all other churches outside the city were sacked. destroyed the images of the saints. ransacked the churchyards for the bones of the forefathers. scattered here and there over its surface. instigated either by motives of piety or hope of gain. things. positive epidemic) in the Basilica of S. and that this soldiers as escort. but. and the monks and nuns subjected to the roughest usage. later it The desire for these relics (a century had long taken hold of the nation.

nor any of Franks. Henceforward they remained unheeded until the fifteenth. Muratori. sacked by the Lombards. quote. merely in passing. The Roman catacombs. and the united Roman people and enforced The written ^ army . and addressed a furious letter to his " adoptive son. . De Rossi. n. sacra 7)iysteria ad magnum anima I Lib. .IN Astolf THE MIDDLE AGES. 6. and of dukes. 249.i The siege had already lasted fifty-five days when. is The all first. on the 23rd February. on which some injuries had already been inflicted during the Gothic war. the second in his own. even when the irate Leo had threatened to destroy his statue. Roma Sotterranea Cristiana^ Introduction. Peter ^^^^^^ ^ letter to the name himself. utilised the siege of Rome catacombs and the city of the dead. But with the immediate danger to his city or patrimonies he was roused to action. continued to be visited until the ninth century. addressed to the entire Frankish people. of the Prince of the Apostles ^ Neither the heresies of Arius or Nestorius. in order to hasten the expected aid from the Franks. Stephen. v.. had called forth remonstrances from S. when they must have been discovered anew. Pont." the King of the the other erroneous teachings which had . Casino. tribunes. and had brought them to Gaul. chartulars. menaced the Catholic religion in its innermost being. ^ Pestifer Aistulfiis — nain et miilta corpora sattctortwi effodiens. suffered a ruthless sack. The Pope the weight of his exhortations by a third in the letter. couched in the name of the Pope. vied. 29 to ransack the now . that in 653 Frankish monks had stolen the remains of Benedict and Scholastica from M. avi. Antiq. Peter nor had the Apostle been stirred to any sign of displeasure. p. sent the Abbot Werner with other envoys to Pipin. the clergy. comites. eoriini suce detrimentuni abshdit. His letters reflect the desperate condition of the city.

where by God's command it rests. rises to an angry tone. xvii. n. mais les biens temporeis consacres ä Dieu troupeau de Jesus-Christ sont les corps. admonishes and commands. an. which threats of excommunication. unites her entreaties to ours. nor the people belonging to me dispersed and killed by these Lombards transgressors . but the sheep of the Lord who dwell therein and are troubled. Eccl. the Apostle to write as follows : the ever. barbarians guilty of perjury and of God's word. the Apostle. and with her the thrones and dominations and the entire army of the celestial host. but the Church itself —a spirit which did not shrink from employing the most sacred motives of religion in the cause of secular affairs. Tassemblee des fideles. not the century alone.292 Franks.Virgin Mother of God. or ^ Fleury. protests. and the Holy Church which God has confided to me. le les . so that (which may God avert) my and body. et non pas les ames et motifs les plus saints de la religion employes pour une affaire d'etat. may neither be desecrated by them.^ " The Pope caused Our Lady Mary. 755. my grave. Hist. be guilty of delay or evasion. as well as the martyrs and confessors of Christ. we cannot believe. HISTORY OF ROME This remarkable invention constitutes one of the most authentic witnesses to the gross spirit which pervaded. from the hands of the persecuting Lombard . and utters " Should you. Together we exhort and conjure you to deliver not only the city of Rome entrusted to us by God. for which the Lord Jesus Christ suffered. at the close of the letter." After having descended to entreaties. and all those who are acceptable to God. : I'Eglise y signifie non .

" ^ of this. in company with the devil and his angels. however. viris Presbyteris. by the power of the Holy Trinity. . even in an age so rude. you shall. &c. 5. Cenni. PiPiN COMES TO Italy — Death The the Siege of Rome Arrival of the Byzantine Envoys Their Disillusion Submission of Astolf Pipin's Deed of Gift Foundation of the State of the Church — — — —Astolf raises — — of Astolf. iii." he dared not venture to expose S. atqtie sanctissimis Episcopis. letter of the Apostle attained the desired end. my city of Rome. et crucienttir cor- pora. but had Pipin remained unmoved by the threat of " his body and soul incurring everlasting Tartarean fires. King of the Lombards— Death of Stephen.^ His ^ Cod. et anivia vestrcB in ceterno atqtie ituxtinguibili tartareo igne cutn diabolo. entrusted to me by God and its chief priest. Abbatibus. vobis x. . know that. : Petrus vocaüis Apostolus a Jesu Christo Dei vivi excellentissimis Pippino.. . Vignoli. ancient reading in the Lib. &c. Pont. inhabitants. vel cundis generalibus exercitibus et populo Francis. and served Pipin as a plausible pretext for urging on his reluctant people a second invasion of« Italy. filio . subtili relatione. et ejus pestiferis Angelis. 293 to the rescue to obey our exhortations coming and the Apostolic Church. 756 Desiderius recognised 757. corrects The letter contains the phrases : Ne lanientur. The curious device may have extorted a smile from the intellect of a King. . - : subtili fictione Pipino — intiviavit it The &c. on account of your disobedience to my summons. be declared to have forfeited the Kingdom of God and Eternal Life. by the grace of the Apostolic office confided to me by the Lord Christ.IN fail THE MIDDLE in its AGES. can well be applied to this letter. Carol. Peter to the ridicule of the public. Carola et Carolovianno tribus Regibus..

n. and the news of his departure obhged Astolf to raise the siege and hasten to the north to drive the Frank back from the frontiers of Italy. the Emperor imagined Rome. He prepared for war. one of the Imperial ministers. Pont. however. promptly took ship. and learnt that Pipin had been summoned by the Pope Overcome with consternation. Gregory. the duty of protecting both city and Church by arms. that the Exarchate was to be restored to " the Roman Empire.^ King had already crossed the Alps. 250. the Patricius of the Romans and Defender of the Church. that the to detain the Apostolic Nuncio. they sought himself. envoys of the Emperor Constantine the Fifth three entered Ignorant of the nature of the contract between Pipin and the Pope." and therefore sent his ministers to Rome. expedition against Astolf. his Rome that Pipin with forces was approaching the Italian frontier for the second time.294 HISTORY OF ROME Astoif raises the siege compact with the Pope laid upon him. learnt in His messengers. hastened ^ We owe the revelation of these diplomatic secrets to two ingenuous sentences in the Lib. and heard in Massilia Here they began to grasp the true state of affairs. accompanied by a papal representative. The Imperial envoys. While Pipin approached the Alpine passes. The proud Emperor even hoped to entice the Franks into his service. .. and to make use of them to claim the support Zeno had previously made use of the Ostrogoths against Odoacer and he undoubtedly hoped to persuade Pipin to join in an against the Lombards. mounting a swift horse. as . of the Pope in behalf of his demands with the King of the Franks.

after ompin° having reduced the Lombards to subjection. This valuable document has since disappeared. Astounded at these Byzantines hastened to the Imperial rights. He was forced to become tributary to the Prankish King. for the second time shut up in arms in the autumn of 756. vel Ponti- ficis ApostoliciC Sedis qtwquomodo altenari. on the contrary. and for the welfare of his soul the treasures upon earth would he break his word to the Apostle. unhesitatingly admitted that he had not undertaken either of his two expeditions on man's account. would surrender all the cities to S. to lay before the Pope a vain protest against this monstrous infraction of Astolf. but solely out of devotion to S. Pavia. 295 advance of him. overtook the Prankish army on Second the march to Pavia. Pipin. but. that not for all Peter. and that this document was preserved to his time (the ninth century) ^^''^h^^^*"" among the archives of the Roman ecciesiastica.^ new political ideas. for the first time. nulla pcnittis ratione easdem et a potestate beati Petri jure Ecclesice Romance. Church. &c.1 State. meanwhile. the Roman Church.IN in THE MIDDLE AGES. to restore "i^° ^^^^y» the Exarchate and the remaining cities to their lawful owner. tells us that Pipin executed a deed of gift (that of 754) in Donation ^^'" which the possession of the cities was ceded to the and Roman Church and to all the Popes. Peter. the Rome. No student has discovered the geographical ^ These occurrences are ctiltor^ clearly related in the life of Stephen : asscrens isdem dei civitates niitissimus Rex. . Pope. however. lowered his Stephen's biographer here. and the . and also to add Comiaclum (Comacchio) to the towns restored. leaving no trace. obliged to fulfil the earlier treaty. and implored the King.

and bestowed them on the Bishop of Rome. as do Baronius. and Orsi. be denied that Pipin did execute a deed of gift. although undecided. which are nowhere men- remain obscure. pagijia and chirographtmi. Pipin. and Southern Italy there is not the slightest mention. Pipin assigned only the Exarchate and some patrimonies in Lombard territory to the Pope. snatched them out of his hands. Pagi bestows the absolute dominium on the Pope. de Meo. Cenni. but as on the recognised head of the city of Rome and the ^ Sugenheim holds that Pipin only ceded the Dommntm utile to the Pope . territories on which tioned. Corsica. to Doniinüun invested utile in was only given the these districts. he ceded to the Roman Church the cities of the Exarchate and Pentapolis. by virtue of conquest.^ Pope with actual The relations with Rome and the duchy. The fact that. inclines to the same opinion. the donation could no more have applied to it than to the Greek cities of Naples or Gaeta. Istria. the victory over the Lombard King. It cannot. however. Muratori. survival of Byzantine rule. Borgia. Marca assert the also. 2 The existence of Pipin's donation of the year 754 is confirmed by two already mentioned letters of Stephen. or whether he was the sovereignty. and that. and de I. not as upon a spiritual prince. or as on a sovereign provinces from the who stood outside the power of the Empire. able to exactly enumerate define whether to No still one less is the towns. the Church possessed not the slightest claim. . Le and Cointe. which speak of donationis But of the gift of Venetia. and. therefore.^ The Emperor had become incapable of regaining these Lombards and maintaining them any further. proves that the promises after given did not extend any further. since Pipin had not conquered the province. and that the Pope was satisfied with the donation. admit its existence as a theoretic principle at this time.2g6 HISTORY OF ROME or political boundaries of the donation.

claims were opposed on the part of Byzantium. 4 ed. Gesch. it was answered. is more admissible than his opinion that Pipin had already acquired this authority over little Rome and districts. its invisible head. the duchy. We shall presently see how limited were the territorial rights. that Pipin exalted the actual sovereignty of in the iii. the Imperial power was actually extinct the provinces no longer obeyed a Greek Viceroy. 297 Roman duchy. he thinks. says that the Roman of. without foundation. asserts. he received in the name of the Roman Church and of even concealed his usurpation behind the title of the Apostolic Prince. to such a pretender. in these following events will show. that to the Pope. also gives to the Pope the donation.. with astute policy. the Church. How power he did exercise Savigny. 537). as Patricius of Ravenna. was made to the Church is and the Roman Republic. i. or were subject to a Lombard King they recognised the authority of the temporal dominion of the Pope. 81. the most powerful man in Italy. at the same time. how- ever. Deutsche Verfass. Nevertheless. pality (see treatise already quoted).^ ^ Döllinger rejects the opinion that Pipin founded a spiritual princiPhilipps. or successor of the Exarch and Patricius of Ravenna. already honoured with idolatrous reverence. bishop accepted Pipin's conquests and as the representative for the Empire shares . and that in these territories the Pope only appeared as the Vicar of the Empire. . was assigned the authority of the Exarch. and by the Republic understood. the Pope Exarchate to a de juj-e authority. Döllinger this opinion. He that the supreme civil authority of the Emperor still continued to be recognised. 360. 48.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. position solely these territories But since the Pope accepted this as head of the Church. conceded to the Pope. Rom.. Peter. not the . i. Kirchejzrecht. and the true head of the : Latin nation. S. which Charles. Waitz. the power of Exarch d. Rechts. as continuator of the work begun by Pipin. iii. If. The view of Eichhorn {Deutsche Staatsund Rechtsgesch.^ for.

and the independence of the Church had found its political expression in the emancipation of Italy from Byzantium. In the Iconoclastic contest it had obtained independence from the East. had framed attention. considerations of another nature demand our This sacred institution. already been conceived.298 If HISTORY OF ROME far from Pipin lay the thought of deliberately founding an ecclesiastical State in the sense in which the champions of papal sovereignty desire to represent. The power of the Pope was recognised in the matter of dogma the supremacy of the Apostolic chair had been established in the days of Leo the First and Gregory the Great. restoration had . which had been The thought of its usurped by the Byzantine Emperors. and on the and in the midst of the structure so created. Empire herself with m. whose new royal dynasty she herself had the great Catholic city. allied organisation of the .onarchy of the Franks. he nevertheless invested the Pope with territorial rights over some of the fairest provinces of Italy. but the ancient Western Roman Empire. Csesarism. Both Church and hierarchy had become penetrated throughout by the canons and policy of Imperialism. where we have reached a fresh epoch in the history of the Church. itself on the lines of Roman . . Here. by means of which the unity of Italy was rendered impossible for long centuries to come. the Bishop of Rome exercised in matters of religion the authority of a Caesar. the visible yet only spiritual community of the faithful. and was thus the founder of the later State of the Church. The West separated from the East and the Church. alienated from the Greek Emperor.

The essentially contradictory nature of their twofold deeper and deeper into the vortex of political ambition. and they became of necessity involved in the demoralising struggle for the maintenance of their temporal title. lastly the in disruption of Italy. THE MIDDLE this AGES. and creating a permanent ecclesiastical State. the purely episcopal and priestly. yet. the distance and powerlessness possession of the of the left Byzantines. the bishops of Rome The continuous energy of in giving a political sagacious Popes now succeeded existence to the Church.IN consecrated. With the establishment of such a State. by which Rome became an entirely ecclesiastical city. had field. contrary to the principles of the Gospel and the teaching of Christ. in intestine strife with the citizens of Rome. who. The Church now became more worldly the Popes. could no longer . as it did. The successful founda- character drew them . and of making themselves masters of a part of Italy. from the days of Gregory the Second and Third. If the pontiffs of the eighth century could not rise to very lofty aspirations. preventing. retain unsullied the purity of the Apostolic office. they grasped the idea of giving a tangible foundation to their spiritual supremacy. the estabhshment of a western CaHphate in Rome. united royalty to the priesthood. and the existence of the Prankish kingdom was a fortunate matter for Europe. she 299 foresaw the In monarchy restoration of the Roman Empire. the greatest and most honourable period in the history of the Roman Church came to an end. and in lasting quarrels with political rivals. The overthrow of the Western Empire.

The city itself.300 tion HISTORY OF ROME of an ecclesiastical State awoke a . the Emilia. Such were the suddenly gave an entirely new and material basis to the position of the Papacy. received their hostages. the Pope had nevertheless attained actual dominion over the city at the end of the year 756. and more particularly on that of Rome. Witness. deposited the latter in the shrine of S. took their keys and . Suffice it here to observe. the donations of Subiaco and Monte Casino. that. . asserted rights of the Senate its communal privileges. While recognising the Pope as best guarantee in ^ its Dominus. every and. With the year 756 a new period began in the inner and outer life of the city. desire for possession in every other church of time.^ The King of the Franks commissioned the Abbot Folrad to execute the treaty the Abbot went to the cities of the Pentapolis. and these found their the choice of the supreme head. and deeds of gift sprang up unexpectedly in every direction. and the Exarchate. Rome's example was zealously imitated. although the severance of Rome from the Greek Empire had never been pronounced by any of the parties concerned in the transaction. with the documents drawn up by Pipin. it preserved the and people. into the form of which we shall events which presently enquire. and exercised an influence so powerful on the history of Italy. Meanwhile. Peter. in the course abbey and bishopric wished to develop into an independent state of priests. for example. the nature of the papal government in Rome was in no way monarchical. at the time of the first beginnings of the Dominium temporale.

and the occupation of We Rome by the alleged successors of Peter. Nor do we even know whether this new authority bestowed upon the Pope was derived from The a treaty dating from the time of Pipin. stood in continual State. Nor does any one tell us of that most memorable of all parliaments of the Roman people. the three rights strife. the ancient right of the Imperial monarchy. The successors of Stephen the Second soon recognised. a masterpiece of priestcraft This valuable possession was worthy of the greatness of the Popes. the ancient municipal right of the people. however.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. they adopted the resolution of endowing the Bishop of Rome with the power of a Doge of the Republic. silently accomplished under the eyes of the impotent successors of Constantine. For. mysterious origin of the Papal dominion is one of the most remarkable events of history. assembled in tribus fatis. when. The transference by the Romans to their bishop of the temporal power is lost in the twilight the election of the of history. on which it namely. . and the newly-acquired right of the Papacy. Astolf did not long survive his humiliation. 3OI Pope being the act of the entire people. have no information with regard to any documental contract between the city and the Pope. that it partook of the nature of Pandora's gift. since the foundation of the ecclesiastical rested. all of which had their roots in Rome. on the time-honoured P'orum. The history of the city is therefore for many centuries the strife nothing more than the development of of the three forces with and against one In the another.

Desiderius knew of ally than the ^ Etenim tyrannus ille. the position of Rome remain. . Ecclesiar. Haistulphus devorator sailguinuni CkrisHanor. et exultet terra) . to which no heir could lay claim. did the forgotten Rachis hear the news. divino ictu percussus Cod.. in consequence of a 756. xi.. is pierced by the sword of God and thrust down into the gulf of hell.. .Z^2 Astoif. towards the close of the year vindictiveness of the Pope pursued the dead even in the grave."^ The unfortunate The savage prince died. that tyrant and associate of the devil. No sooner. sequax diaboli. so similar did priestly hatred and . summoned no better the followers of his house. and proclaimed Desiderius. in similar words {Lcetentur cceli. Dei destructor. v'm. who swallowed the blood of the Christians and destroyed the Church of God. . his wrath being further aroused by the fact that Astoif had failed to surrender Desiderius ^^^* towns stipulated in the treaty. est^et in inferni voraginem demersus Five hundred years later Innocent the Fourth rejoiced over the death of Frederick the Second. the great enemy of the Papacy. and that consequently Folrad had only been able to deposit a portion of the keys in the shrine of the Apostle. and placed himself at the head of an army. however. HISTORY OF ROME beginning of the year 757 Stephen was able to inform the King of the Franks that his relentless enemy was no more. This he did with the most exaggerated expressions of hatred and joy. The Lombard army now undertook to dispose of the vacant throne. than. " Astoif. Carol. even now in the very days when but a year ago he was preparing to destroy the Roman city. fall while hunting. Duke of Tuscany. breaking the vow that compelled him to lifelong renunciation in Monte Casino. he several of the discarded the monastic habit. 756. their King. Cenni.

Lid. . Bononia.. Carol. : In the Cod. and the entire duchy of Ferrara. Ferrara. which had been withheld by cities and still remained Lombard. 303 Pope. XX. Gabellum. 144). we read dilatationern Imjus provincic2. as his Missus or envoy. again sought refuge in the His party was not equal to cope with that of Desiderius. xv. Pont. . All these towns are absent from Pipin's donation They had remained Lombard. is (p. Rachis. still lingered in Rome.) hcBC miserrima et afflicta provincia. 255. and Christophorus. Humana. It appears that Folrad. could have counted on the aid of the Roman army. . Lib. Carol. which.. rempublicarn dilatans . Desiderius's proposal was joyfully accepted. Bologna. sed et plures exercitus Romanorum si necessitas exigeret Annuente Deo xxxvi. Besides Imola and these cities Desiderius was also to give up Osimo. Pont. crushed by the apostolic denunciations."^ cowl.^ Desiderius ascended the throne in Pavia with the support of the Church. n. in case of need. must have had a retinue of P>ankish soldiers. n. but also the sur- render of the Faenza. . in the Lib. Folrad. the counsellor of Pipin.. 254.. since the " school of Franks " settled in Rome could scarcely be meant by that band of warriors. with the fortified Tiberianum. his brother Paul. and Astolf. duchy Rome and the duchy are called ( Cod. Osimo. . . Ancona. : ^ Et pradidas Fulradus ipsius venerabilis cufn aliquantis Francis in atixiliwn 2 Desiderii. and the Pope hastened to occupy the cities ceded to him Faenza. Imola. and the treaty signed in Tuscany by Stephen's envoys. Cenni. and offered Stephen not only a large sum of money as the price of the papal recognition of his succession to the Lombard throne. xxxvii. backed by a band of Franks under Folrad. who. Pont. which the . c.. thus considerably " extending the bounStephen the Second died daries of the Republic.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Ancona.

or a laudable to award the nimbus. bestowed upon his predecessor Zacharias. The Church. on April 24. to this astute priest. failed accident. however.304 soon 757. whether through self-consciousness. after. have exchanged his mitre for the less ethereal but substantial diadem of a temporal prince. . HISTORY OF ROME at the summit of fortune. who might well.

VOL. and. the latter Frankish in sympathies. While Stephen lay on the impatient of his successor. 305 CHAPTER I.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. city Romans The death-bed in the Lateran were occupied in the election his Byzantine. the other voting for the Deacon Paul. the latter. U . III.^ö^ P^' modern the ideas triumphed over the conservative. Paul the Letters of the Romans to PiPiN Friendly Relations of the Pope to the King Desiderius punishes the rebellious Dukes OF Spoleto and Beneventum Comes to Rome —Paul's political dealings Relations of the Pope and the City to Byzantium Peace with — — First. and to which the to adhere two brothers themselves belonged. was divided into two factions. and ascended on May 29. Imperial greater part of the Roman which numbered the nobility. The former party was. Papal throne Paul was elected. after a short resistance. it would seem. 757. first The wished to resume relations with the legitimate authority. II. desired to the Frankish policy of Stephen. 757 — — — Desiderius. one in favour of the Archdeacon Theophylactus. The man of Paul the ^^^'. although transient. brother thus succeeding brother in the pontificate. brother of the Pope. The dangers which threatened the democratic nature of the papal election in a succession such as this.

Pipin's envoy. inherited the hostility of the Romans.306 HISTORY OF ROME at a later time. Even before his consecration Paul notified his elevation to the Benefactor and Defender of the Church. until after the consecration. the barons of the Paul was the first Roman bishops to occupy the sacerdotal chair in the character of temporal prince. it were renewed Campagna lorded over of when Rome. although elected by the entire people." with the same forms of obsequious politeness observed by his predecessors in announcing their elections to the Exarchs. Together with the already founded ecclesiastical State. Papstwahl und Kaise7'tum^ i8745 ^ The ancient formula.^ It was thus for the first time recognised that the Frankish King had taken the place of the Exarch in relation to Rome. awakening as from a state of stupefaction. The legal relation had been transferred from the East-Roman to the Frankish power. to Pipin in terms of anxious circumspection and. f. who. recognised their oppressor in their bishop. O. Lorenz. however. judged it prudent to detain Immo. in order that the Franks might be convinced of the blamelessness and dependence on the . The position in which the newly-elected Pope found himself compelled him of necessity to assume an attitude of deference towards the powerful Patricius of the Romans. but by no means justified the assumption that the right of ratifying the papal election had been Paul wrote transferred to the King of the Franks. . 31. " the new Moses and David. had hitherto been the custom was here throughout adhered to. p. he also. and regarded him with feelings of hatred and opposition. with which it to notify the election to the Exarch.

^ King of the Franks immediately after the papal election. The first of Paul's thirty-one letters. ciated probably with the divided election on the death of Stephen. Petronilla. ^ Cod. in the position of subjects of their bishop. and the Pope. was one of the highest importance. until death. The forms of courtly intercourse were at the time rude and curious the cutting of a lock of hair served as the symbol of adoption the transmission of the swaddling bands of an infant candidate for baptism was a respectful intimation that the recipient was nominated sponsor. therefore.. Pipin had written to the nobles and people of Rome. xxxi. He further assured the King that he and his people would remain faithful. Several powerful factions had moreover been formed among the nobles in the city and neighbourhood. The Romans ^ replied to the King in a letter. altulit. and both Lombards and Byzantines maintained adherents in Rome. received the mark of royal favour with and laid the clothes of the little princess in the shrine of S. Cenni.. Car. and soon after invited the Pope to stand godfather to his daughter Gisela..^ Pipin in reply sent his congratulations. the Church. soul and body. : . 307 Franks of both himself and the Roman people. The Pope reverence. be regarded as an empty asso- formula. : preciosissimum — imams Cenni. xii.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the documents addressed to the Among the Roman people appear. exhorting them to fidelity In this letter to S. xiii. Peter. Sabanum videlicet. the xiii. Carol. . ^ Cod. They rather allow us to infer that a hostile movement had taken place among the Romans. Pipin's ex- hortations cannot. for the first time in history.

Ecclesice. to say its : In reply " to Pipin they said. and of your thrice blessed and co-angelic spiritual Father. like his brother of blessed memory. striving daily. Cenni. undoubtedly entrusted some papal notary with official the expression of their sentiments. et coangelici spiritalis patris vestriy ovens Donini nostri Pauli." 1 ^ The name of the Senate again rises out of : Cod. we remain true servants of the Holy Church. the Spirit of God has found dwelling in your mellifluous heart. The Romans evidently recognised Paul as their ruler. et prcefati ter bealissimi. Other reasons besides The name render the of the Roman Senate reappears. atque prcecellettt."^ No voice of opposition to the prevailing loyalty with which the Pope was regarded makes itself heard in this letter.. . our Lord Paul. Pipin is only termed noster post Deimi defensor. xxxvi. appointed by God.. and the King as his defender. Assuredly. and auxiliator. or were made In truth. nos^irmi. document remarkable. Carol.—f nos. for our and cherishing and beneficently governing us as a flock entrusted to him by God.. welfare. 8ic. On 2 the other hand. Pipin. the most high Pontifex and universal Pope. Its superscription To the illustrious and sublime Lord and the runs great Conqueror. The rough duces or comites of an age in which almost all diplomatic affairs were left in the hands of the clergy. The Pope himself is our Father and best Shepherd. xv. most illustrious of kings.3o8 HISTORY OF ROME purely ecclesiastical tone of which betrays its origin. et a Deo instituto magno . protected by : " God. et salubriter gubernans. King of the Franks and Patricius of the Romans. Dei . since you are at pains to exhort our good disposition with such salutary counsel. from all the Senate and the whole Roman people. ac fideles servi S. . Domno excellentissimo. Lord King.

.. promises which he never seriously meant to fulfil.IN THE MIDDLE . Grammaticam. but only the Roman . ^ This is evident from Paul's letters.. xiv. Paul sent Pipin a sword... omnis Senatzis. Pipin had begged the titular church of S. xviii.^ were of the most friendly nature victor Pippino Regi Francor.. moreover. The Cod.^ The King of the Lombards meanwhile kept the Pope at bay by promises of surrendering Bologna. Carol. ^ xxv. Muratori erroneously attributes the letter to the year 763. a sword. Cod. on the Emperor as Defensor of the Church and Miles of See formula in the Ordo Roman. cardinal afterwards conspired with Byzantium the Pope implored the King to banish him as bishop to some city of his Empire. nobility. Peter. xxv. and xxxix. Cenni. Ital.. Geometriam^ .. 309 the long silence of history it we perceive. At later coronations the Pope took a naked sword from the altar of S. Antiphonale et Responsale — Grammaticam Orthographiam. Cenni. Aristotelis. the instance of the consecration of {Cod. and frequent courtesies were interchanged. ^ The Pope sent presents of books.. Osimo. 148. further cause for hostility in the fact that Stephen had incited the Dukes of Spoleto and Beneventum to revolt against their lawful sovereign.. et Patricio Pouiajtor. that is is no longer the ancient Curia of the State that understood. : . 1 59-) The sword it signified Pipin's military mission. Peter. Carol. and xix. first libros. Caj'ol. xv. Chrysogonus for the presbyter Marinus. Cenni. populi generalitas a Deo servata Roinancz civitatis. and Paul'had acceded to the request. &c. inducing them to place themselves under the protection of the King of the Franks. xviii. however. Dionysii Areopagitce Cod. and to the princes valuable rings. Mus. Carol. xvi. in Mabillon. xvi. ii.. xv. AGES. atque univ. and girded S. and Ancona. He had..^ During Paul's reign we even hear of a cardinal being appointed at the instance of a foreign prince. Cenni. - 402. Paul's relations towards the King of the Franks messengers went to and fro.

Hydruntum on the Ionian Sea. As rebels.. the King summoned George. Cenni. ^ . and the entire Lombard force was to join him in effecting the Desiderius Rome. Desiderius advanced against Beneventum. and proposed an alliance. Desiderius returned evasive answers to all the Papal ." he implored the release of the In a second and private letter. Having overpowered and imprisoned Alboin of Spoleto. and in the further hope of extorting the surrender of the four cities. Liutprand. his .310 HISTORY OF ROME Desiderlus in 758 took the field against these and advanced through the Pentapolis. in the hope of appeasing him with regard to his conduct towards the two dukes. fled to his remotest city. having himself invited the King thither. cities and the Pope turned to Pipin in bitter indignation. was already known as Otorantum (Otranto). 1 This city 2 See this letter in the Cod. while a fleet from Sicily was at the same time to lay siege to Hydruntum.^ After having placed his vassal Arichis as Dux in Beneventum. demands hostages France. xvii. the Imperial envoy. qui se sub vestra a Deo servata potestate contulerant. In Spite of these negotiations Desiderius soon afterwards came to Rome Paul. Carol xix. however.^ explained the contents of the first. sacking districts. from Naples. in which. whose duke. while expressing a fulsome recognition of his "illustrious son Desiderius. complained of the sicque Spoletinum et Beneventamim. he hostages. conquest of Ravenna. according to the terms of which the Emperor was to send an army into Italy. he required first the delivery of the whom Astolf had been obliged to send to feigned acquiescence. and gave The Pope messenger an open letter for Pipin.


on the



devastations inflicted




negotiations with


Greeks, and

entreated him to retain the hostages.^

These candid

avowals on the part of Paul, provoking, as they do, the question whether any circumstances can justify the Pope in the utterance of a falsehood, may perplex the judgment of austere Christians. The lofty moral code of the Apostle would have forbidden all doubt

on the



facts just related further serve to

show how dangerous was the attitude of opposition, in which, owing to his temporal position, the Roman bishop was now placed with regard to his spiritual

Desiderius continued to retain possession

of the

and even to occupy the ecclesiastical patrimonies Paul to send his complaints to Pipin until, by means of the Prankish envoys, Remigius and Authar, a treaty was effected in March 760. The

Lombard King promised

to restore all the patrimonies

he actually kept his promise with regard to some of the towns, but retained possession of Imola.^

and towns of the Roman Republic

The ground

of dispute

remained, although the relations between the two powers became more friendly than before.

Meanwhile, the attitude of the Pope towards the Emperors Constantine and Leo was of the most

Letter xv.





sedbone Excelletttissime

fili, et spiritalis

compater^ ideo istas literas tali

modo exaraviimis



ipsi nostri inissi



Franciam valerent


See, with reference to

Letter xxi., Cenni, xx,


instead of the

year 759, Muratori holds it to have been 760, and the 13 Ind. holds the same opinion, Cod. Dipl. Long. torn. v. n. dccxl.





to the


While sending Nuncios to on the Emperors to restore image-


he is entirely silent concerning the differences with regard to the Exarchate or Rome. In a letter to Pipin, the Pope tells him " the Greeks persecute us for no other cause than our orthodox faith and the pious traditions of the Fathers, which they seek to destroy."^ This statement justifies the doubt as to whether the Emperor had actually suffered the loss of

his authority in


absolute power,

had the Pope attained would appear more natural to have

attributed the Imperial displeasure to the separation

of the duchy and Exarchate.^

The Popes continued

diplomas to admit the Emperor's supremacy nevertheless, as a matter of fact, the Emperor neither received tribute from the Roman province nor did any Byzantine official any longer exercise authority in the city. Rome as well as Ravenna had been wrested from the hands of the Emperor, who was forced to await a favourable opportunity for the recovery of his lost possessions. Rome was, however, distant, and protected from attacks from Naples by friendly Beneventum, but Ravenna, of greater importance on account of its position, promised to be more easy, both of access and conquest. In 761 reports of a hostile design became current. The Pope, therefore,


ob aliud nefandisstmi nos persequuntur Gracz, nisi propter

sanclaiu et orthodoxafji

ßdem, &c.

Cod. Carol., xxxiv.


Cenni, xxv.

759-762) is surprised that Paul speaks of the preparations of the Byzantines only against Ravenna,
never against Rome.


{Annal. ad Ann.


—super nos,

However, the Cod. Carol., xxxiv., Cenni, xxv. et Ravennatium partes irruere cupiunt.





upon Pipin to intercede with Desiderius, so that He the Lombard would yield help in case of need. further commanded the Dukes of Benevento and Spoleto, as his neighbours, to rise in his support, which proves that the Pope not only feared for Rome

but also that peace subsisted with Desiderius,


that the dukes obeyed the authority of the


bard King. The Emperor sought in vain to win the Archbishop of Ravenna to his side. Sergius, previously kept in custody by Pope Stephen, but reinstated in his office by Paul, hastened to send the
Imperial letter to

Rome;^ and

the Greeks, perceiving

that nothing could be less favourable for a military

than a time of peace with the Lombards, discontinued their preparations.

Paul the First had no further cause to dread the threats of Byzantium. Only once again does he

mention the Greeks. In a letter to Pipin he tells the King that he had heard that six patricians, with three hundred ships and the Sicilian fleet, were on their way from Constantinople to Rome that he was ignorant

of the object of the expedition, but had been informed
that the fleet had orders to

thence proceed to France. ^

come first to Rome, and The indifference with

which the Pope speaks of the enterprise would excite surprise, even had Rome remained on the most friendly terms with Constantinople. It is, therefore,

Letter xxviii., Cenni, xxvi. and xxiv., Cenni, xxxviii., deal with

the intentions of the Byzantines.

Qiiod sex Patricii deferentes sectim treceitta navigia, sbnulque et

Siciliensem stohim^ in

ham Ro7nanam

tirbeni absoluti

a Regia Urbe ad

nos properant.




evident that Paul treated the report as an idle rumour,

and, indeed, the six




than the

immense number of vessels, may well appear fabulous. The Greeks made no attempt to reconquer Italy by force, and the Pope might have slept undisturbed in
the Lateran Palace but for an occasional outbreak on the part of Desiderius.
Pipin was assailed



and long negotiations concerning the patrimonies, mutual demands, indemnities, and limitations of frontiers were dragged on by the representa-tives of the three powers until 764 or 765, when, on the restoration of the town of Imola, peace was for a

time restored to the Church.


Buildings of Stephen the Second and Paul the First The Vatican and S. Peter's The first Belfry in Rome The Chapel of S. Petronilla Removal of the Saint from the Catacombs to the City Foundation of the Convent of S. Silvestro

in Capite,

the Second

*^^ Vatican.

Having hitherto followed Paul's political career, we must now dedicate a few pages to the buildings which he and his brother erected in the city. Stephen the Second had restored the Basilica of S. Lawrence, and founded a considerable number of houses for pilgrims. He had also added to the Vatican, which had now increased to the proportions


of a district of the



Basilica of the Prince

of the Apostles was surrounded by chapels or smaller
churches, episcopise, houses for pilgrims, mausoleums, convents, and a colony

composed of various

classes of







here found occupation and means of As early as the days of Gregory the

had possessed three monasteries, SS. John and Paul, S. Martin, and a third of yet earlier date, dedicated to the elder Stephen, and which bore the surname Cata-Galla-Patritia.^ Stephen the Second added a fourth monastery, apparently S. Tecla, or Jerusalem, and also added a bell-tower to the
Third the

atrium of the
the kind in


overlaying this tower, the



Rome, with



To the eighth

century apparently belongs the origin of the custom

These were square, of the same proportions from base to summit, had arched windows and tiny pillars, such as the campaniles of later date, of which numerous examples
of building belfrys close to the basilica.

survive in


With the construction of the


Lib, Pont.,

iii. c.


(torn, ix.,

"Vita Gregor. IIL,"n. 194. Panvin, De Basil. Vat., " Spicileg. Roman."), gives the names of the convents

from a marble tablet of Gregory the Third from the oratory of




Due Docum.

inediti Tavola,







a piece of

B. Vat., p. 1484. The name Cata Galla Pati-icia is derived from ground belonging to Galla, daughter of the Patricius Symmachus, who dwelt as a nun beside S. Peter's, The barbarous
Chron. Benedicti of Soracte says of her

ad omnipotentes Dei servitium



Petri ap. ecclesia in monasterio tradidit.


Stephen built it in gratitude for the successful issue of his journey to Frodoard, " De Stephano II." (/)<?;//. ^öz^(7z/^/,v. 442): Papa.
. .

turrim erigitaula, Argentique colens radiis investit et au?'i. y^re tubas fziso attollit, quibtis aginina plebis admoneat laudes et vota referre


earliest use of church-bells is ascribed to

Paulinus of

ad Ann. 614. Audoen, Vita S. Eligii, anno 650, similarly, Bede, about 700. speaks of Campanse The phrase was signa pulsare ad fnissani publicam. Bells were in common use among monks from the year 740 onwards, Joh. Bapt. Casali, De profan, et


sacris veterib. Ritibus,

Romce, 1644,

p. 236.


idea of the ancient basilica

tower, the original


abandoned, and a sudden

made towards

which the tower more especially belongs. The tower was further adopted in convents and churches, chiefly from the
style of the feudal period, to


necessity for defence.^

»Stephen also built a chapel beside S. Peter's, which

he dedicated to Petronilla, who is said to have been the legitimate daughter of the Apostle Peter .^ The remains of the saint had been buried in the cemetery situated on the Via Ardeatina, formerly known as

of Domitilla (wife of Flavius Clemens).


same burial-place contained also the ashes of Nereus and Achilleus, saints who had received baptism at the hands of the Apostle. These catacombs, the
original burial-place of the Christian

branch of the Flavian family, also bore the name of Petronilla.^ At the end of the fourth century. Bishop Siricius had
built here a basilica to the saint, a

times have brought to


church which recent Stephen the Second,

The "Cod,

Freher. and

Thuan IL"

of the Lib. Pontif. speak of

the belfry of Stephen.

and Jerome speak of his wife. De Rossi holds Petrohave been the spiritual daughter of the Apostle, and derives her name from that of Flavius Petronius. Bull. d. Arch, crist., 1874, According to legend, Flavius, a noble Pagan, desired the p. 9. She requested three days for considerabeautiful maiden in marriage. tion, prayed, and died. 3 With regard to the cemetery of Petronilla, see Boldetti, Osservaz.

nilla to



Civieteride SS. Marth-i.,



18, 551.


Rossi, Bull., 1874,

1876, has described

cemetery, excavated since the year
S. Petronilla is




from the lamp of

spoken of as early as



in the


of such oils given by Marini, Papiri, &c., p. 208,


find See Petronillce filice Scti Petri Apost.






wishing to remove her remains to the Vatican, dedicated a sumptuous chapel to Petronilla near the

Andrew, the brother of Peter, already possessed a chapel within the Vatican, it was deemed

for since

necessary that the various

should rest side by


members of the family The chapel was constructed

the circular building


previously erected the
wives, Maria


Honorius had himself and his

and Thermantia,^ the ruinous structure being transformed into a chapel by Stephen, and its inner decorations finished under Paul the First. During the changes thus effected, the sarcophagi of Honorius, Valentinian the Third, and other members of the house of Theodosius, were bricked up and hidden by masonry and it was only after a lapse of ages that they were accidentally again brought to light,

without, however, being




was founded in honour of Pipin, the adoptive son of the Church or on which account the kings of France down S. Peter to modern times have remained patrons of the chapel.^
of S.

The sanctuary


The name

of the place


coi'rupted in the Lib. Pont, to Mosileos


in the time of

Odoacer a Synod was held in Mausoleo, quod est ap. b. Petriim. op. A. Thiel, Ep. R. Pont., i. 685. Cancellieri, De secretar. Veter. B. Vat., has devoted a lengthy dissertation to the round church
of Petronilla.
the graves of the Empresses Maria

Sarcophagi here were discovered in 1458 and 15 19, and in 1544 and Thermantia. The gold ornaments therein contained were stolen and melted. De Rossi, " II

mausoleo imperiale nel Vaticano




." Bull., 1878, p. 139,


Infra atitem sacrati corporis atixiliatricis vestrce B. Petronilla:, qucc pro laude (Sterna memorice nominis vestri nunc dedicata dino-



There the supposed body of the saint was deposited, when, after the sack of the catacombs by the Lombards, Paul had the remains of the dead, for their more effectual protection, removed wholesale into the city and distributed amid various churches and convents.
This, together

with the continued spoliation of the

catacombs, explains the empty state

which the

cemeteries of early Christianity were discovered


excavated afresh in after ages. The translation of Rome's sainted dead stirred the deepest feelings of

mankind in a period when the possession of relics was esteemed of priceless value. As, after the beginning of the nineteenth century,

the principal



Europe strove

to obtain

mummies from

Egypt, so in the eighth every town and church in Christendom coveted the remains of martyrs from and envoys of England, the Roman catacombs France, and Germany out-rivalled one another in the contest for such spoils. The ashes of Romans of every condition, age, and character were transported

to the furthest districts of

Germany, and there


ently laid beneath the altars of monasteries in those
distant forests,

where the remains of the warriors of had ages before mouldered into Drusus Varus and

In 761 Paul founded the


existing monastery of

This quarter of the city had, in olden times, belonged to the seventh region (Via Lata), and was partly occupied by the Gardens of Lucullus, traversed by the

Capite, in

the fourth region.


Carol., xxvii., Cenni,



the Franks accorded

such honour to Petronilla in particular remains unexplained.




Paul the
the ^^o^astery
^" Capite,



here his

Here stood the ancestral house of brother had already founded a monas-

dedicated (either from motives of gratitude to Pipin, or from the fact that he himself had lodged in - ^ -r^. M T. N T-xPans) to Dionythe convent of S. Dionysius while






the Prankish saint.

the building begun


his brother,

Paul the First completed and dedicated it to

Popes Stephen and Sylvester, and also, as it would appear, to S. Dionysius,^ and installed Greek monks
within the monastery.^

was not until the thirteenth century that the church was named in Capite. For here^at this time the head of John the Baptist, after protracted wanderings, during which it had liberally disposed of portions of itself over the various countries of earth, was at last laid to rest.*
^ Benedict of Soracte, in the tenth century, thus describes the spot Stephanus cepit hedificare domum ecclesiam ; in onore S, Dionisii^ Rustici et Heleutherii, in hurbe Ro??ia, juxta via Flaminea et ereio


?), non loitge ab Agusto, juxta formas species Francia viderat. Mon. Germ., v. c. 20. Agusto is I lay weight upon the fact that Benedict the mausoleum of Augustus. associated the foundation of Stephen with his sojourn in France. ^ It is called Monaster. SS. Christi martiruin Stephani et Silvestri atque Dionisii in the Bull of Sergius the Second. This Bull, which is, however, undoubtedly forged, and belongs to about the year 844, confirms the monastery in the possession of some properties, among others, the Porta Valentini (del Popolo) with its tolls, and the pons lapideus qui appellatur in Olivium (a corruption of Molvius). PflugkHartung, Acta Pont. R. ined., ii. n. 56. ^ Uhi et Monachorum congregationeni construe^is, Graces viodtilationis psahnodia Cocnobium esse decrevit. Lib. Pont., "Vita Pauli," n. 260. The diploma of foundation, a doubtful parchment, reproduced in Labbe, Cone, viii. 445, is preserved among the Archives of S. Siivestro.

(horologium of Augustus
decorata^ sicut in

For a detailed but uncritical history of Memorie Storiche critiche^ Rome, 1795. It was also called Cata Pauli, that is





to say,

ad Pauli doninin





Death of Paul the First, 767 Usurpation of Toto — The Pseudo-Pope Constantine Counter-

— — revolution IN Rome Christophorus and Sergius,

—The Lombards install Philip in the Lateran — Stephen the Third — Terrorism in Rome — Punishment OF THE Usurpers — Death of Pipin, 768
Lateran Council,

with the aid

the Lombards, surprise the City

Paul the First is described by his biographer as a man of mild disposition and amiable character.^ Nevertheless, the tumultuous scenes amid which his latest hours were spent, and which continued after his death, prove that, as temporal ruler of the city, he was

by no




disturbances were,

however, the natural result of the altered position of the Papacy towards the city. As soon as the Papacy

had assumed a

temporal form, and



connection with the Greek Empire had been severed, municipal instincts awoke as from a long sleep. Together with the arms which the


seized to

defend themselves against Lombards
also, inter

and Greeks,

duos hortos.


Lib. Pont, ascribes to Paul the building

of a church, dedicated to the Apostles Peter and Paul, near the Temple

Roma, on

the Via Sacra.


present S. Francesca



must have stood on the spot where the amid the ruins of the Temple of

Venus and Rome. 1 It was said in

praise of Paul the First that he visited the prisons

condemned to death a proof that the right of pardon belonged to the Pope. Et si quos ibideju conveniebat retrusos a mortis eruens periculo liberos relaxabat.
at night, in order to liberate the criminals

Lib. Pont., n. 258.


servitii ; the

He frequently purchased the release of debtors, a law against debt then still prevailed.

resolved to attain their own ambitious ends. 32 they had grasped the consciousness of power. incapable the reluctant people. when a wild tumult broke out in the city. who exercised a decisive influence in the papal elections. soon found themselves obliged new Emperor on The value of the Papacy rose in the eyes of the nobles Roman now that it was united with a temporal principality. it would appear. in others. Many palaces in the city were of ancient date. and memories of their former owners. ^^^y» and also of a palace in Rome. The palaces themselves had outlived the changes of time. The Pope lay on his death-bed in the monastery of S. of ruling the to bestow a city. and had in some cases been converted into monasteries and hospitals. and the desire for political autonomy consequently began to Henceforward we have a history of the and to this period aristocracy in the Roman Republic the inner feuds of the city. was Dux in The Dux Nepi. the Cethegi. Maximi. Decii. with the nobles. Paul without the Walls. was headed by Toto. A powerful patrician party. probably still survived as household legends. and monuments of past ages. and the optimates. centring perhaps round some ancient statue. to fortress-like dwellings. and scarcely had the news reached the ears of the people. X . who. strove henceforth to obtain the elevation of a member of their own family. The Popes. owe their origin. He was the owner of extensive property and a powers^he numerous and useful tenantry in Tuscan territory.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. VOL. the struggles of the Papacy assert itself. where some uncouth family of doubtful ancestry had made its home. Symmachi. Probi. II. .

The uproarious election could only have been accomplished by a faction clergy. and there received ordination at the hands of George and of the Bishops Eustratius of Albano and Citonatus of Portus.^ The day following. . Peter's on Sunday. a.322 Before the HISTORY OF ROME Pope was yet dead. Thus did a tonsured landowner obtain possession of the papal throne. and followed by an armed retinue. which he succeeded in retaining for a ^ 0?nnes eum derelinquentes nisi ego . who entered S. the circumstance that Constantine was a layman Toto. broke out of Nepi and forced an entrance by the gate of San Pancrazio into Rome. ed. formed by these nobles among the Roman The names Byzantine. The Romans. conducting him. to the Lateran. so said Stephen the Third in the Concil. an abbreviation common in Italy at the present day for that of Antonio. alone Pa^ ^c clang of arms. tendered the oath of fidelity to the newly-elected Pope. terrorstricken by the arms of his brother. partly The audacity of the usurpation was by . however. a presbyter brothers Constantine. p. Lateran. Rome. and raises Constan^^^ remained faithful to the last. Bishop cleric. Toto. to transform his brother into a and after ordination to consecrate him successively sub-deacon and deacon. Never was a transformation more quickly accomplished. y6j^ shamefully abandoned by his entire household Stephen. with his Passivus. amid the or cardinal. . 769. compelled George. where he entrenched himself within his palace. The Pope died on June 28. 4. of Praeneste. Toto caused his brother Constantine to be proclaimed Pope. and Paschalis. . Cenni. July 5.^ increased of their followers are partly Latin. ^ The name Toto is Latin.

: is valuable as an authority for these Of Toto it is said qtiidam Nempesini oppidi ortus Toto or the We are is not enlightened with regard to either the man circumstances. Ro mafia. to show that the King of the Pranks and Patricius of the Romans usurpation.IN year. No did not as yet exercise any direct sovereign authority During the whole period of usurpation nothing is heard of any interference on the part of Pipin. To connect this Dux with a Vallis de Toto near Sutri Tomassettti. Arch..^ The usurper had. assuring him that he.. Pont. and that envoys only appeared from time to time in Rome. or of the arrival of any plenipotentiary. 622. of a later time Soc. THE MIDDLE AGES. quietly departed for France as the bearer of Constantine's first letter. on the contrary. who was in Rome at the time. a very hazardous conjecture. Constantine begged Pipin to continue the protectorate of Rome. and more especially the dignitaries of the papal palace. however. edited Besides the Lib. . cius of the Romans. and given in full in i. seems. 323 one ventured to interfere with the violent Nothing is told us of any protest being raised by the Prankish representatives. would remain faithful to the Defender of the Church. v. alone appear to have taken any part in the drama. the Pope. events. ^ Cotincil of the year 769. a fragment of the Acts of the Lateran by Gaetano Cenni. He further informed Pipin that on the death of Paul he had been elected Pope by within the city. d. The Roman factions. Mansi's Stippl. Concil. no/nine. The fact that an envoy of the Franks. and announcing his elevation as his predecessors had done. and frequently at the request of the Pope. 1882. 642. no sooner taken his seat on the papal chair than he found it necessary to gain Acknowledging the King PatriPipin's good-will.

324 the HISTORY OF ROME Romans and people of the neighbouring towns. On him the devolved during the vacancy of the papal chair. as in duty bound. " that he had been hurled to the awful height of the Papacy by violence. Carol. and implored the King not to give ear to those who might speak to his disadvantage. Unde sicut management Church navis czquoreis procellis ßuctuatur. who. No tidings reach us of any answer from Pipin. where Constantine had sworn to grant him his life and permission Christophorus to dwell in his house until Easter. . after having in vain resisted the usurpation."^ He renewed. Both letters 98. doubtless heaved many an Christo- Sergius^" anxious sigh. while his son Sergius filled the important office of Sacellarius or Sacristan. Peter's.Q. ^ . Toof the ^ Ex improvisa enim violentia^ manu a populorum innumerabili concordantium multitudine. that is to say. the expressions of obsequious greeting. ad tarn magnum et terribile Pontificatus culmen provectus sum. Chief Chancellor or Secretary of State. of Constantine in the Cod. had been Primicerius of the Notaries and Consiliar.^ was the principal dignitary in Rome. ita ego infelix. but he was silent regarding the circumstances of his elevation. 99. It was a half truth and the presentiment of his fall when he wrote. and Constantine letter. &c. Christophorus. had fled with his sons for refuge to the high altar in S. oi\h. velut valida aura venti raptus. as if by an innumerable and unanimous crowd. A revolt against the reign of despotism was headed by the foremost officials of the Church. under Paul. despatched a second of a brother himself to reign in The unfortunate puppet who had given him the tonsure in order Rome. See the already quoted Acts of the Council year 769. Pipin returned no answer. in modern terms.

Font. metuentes Romanuin et populufH. Instead.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. He gave them the presbyter Waldipert as companion. or trusting to their oath. neqtiaquan de Janiculo ipsi Longobardi ausi sunt descen. near Rieti. but the Lombards sentry. but. . in imposed conditions. and were accom- panied by him to Pavia. dere. fellow-conspirators and traitors. lacked the courage to descend the Janiculum. in the secret hope that. return promised aid. to lend them arms for his for the conquest of Rome. Waldipert would promote his interests. men swore 325 the gether with other Romans. was felled by the mighty blows of Per imiros civitatis cum flammula ascendebant. July 28. these two overthrow of the usurper. granted them permission to leave to Rome and retire to the monas- tery of S. purple banner it n. Rachimpert. They feigned a desire for the monastic Hfe. accompanied by a Lombard army. deHghted to be rid of them. they occupied the Salarian Bridge the following morning they advanced across the Milvian and pushed forward to the Pancratian Gate. Lib. 1 1 • . Salvator. says Vignoli. The flammula. Desiderius lent a willing ear to the complaints and demand the help of r M T entreaties of the exiles he expressed his readiness Desiderius. they hastened Theodicius. was a reddishreminds us of the French oriflamme. 268. with the Secundicerius Demetrius On the cry that enemies were within the city. Toto and and the Chartular Gratiosus. allowed them to enter. j6Z. a gigantic soldier. 1 . on the overthrow of Constantine.^ Passivus. . On The whose adhesion had been gained by the conspirators. hastened to the gate. Duke of Spoleto. Sergius and Waldipert. to which they assented. set forth for Rome. and Constantine. who ^ attacked Toto.

arrived. The Roman party immetheir leader. This faction amonec c> c> was in the pay of Desiderius. unfortuthe militia were present. Vitus on the Esquiline. held the solemn banquet. that their cause his was lost. gave the people the benediction. and his Vice- dominus. beholding his fall. Going to the monastery of S. and. fugitives Waidipert place a The Lombard on the papal were at length seized and thrown into prison. the Romans. he brought forth the presbyter Philip. and the newly-elected pontiff took his seat on the papal chair. and by its means Waidipert hoped to procure the election of a Lombard Pope. In the midst of the tumult. they remained for hours sitting by the altar the palace meanwhile resounding with .326 Fall of HISTORY OF ROME the duke. recognising lances of the two conspirators. The Lombards. Pope. the Chartular cloister. the shouts of the searchers and the din of arms. and the astounded Romans beheld a new Pope conducted to the Lateran. whose coming had." A bishop was found in the Lateran to consecrate Philip. at Constantme. flight. according to usage. forced the usurper to return to his . sought refuge together in the basilica. at which the dignitaries of the Church and optimates of In the meantime. : nately for Philip. and heard the shouts of the Lombards " Philip. been for some unexplained . pierced by the Passivus. flew to the Lateran to save brother. where. Passivus. Bishop Theodore. the Primicerius Christophorus. hitherto delayed. and without the knowledge of Sergius. Peter has chosen him. 768. Waidipert assembled the Lombard faction existing. Caesarius. took to the moment when Toto sank. reason. shutting themselves up within the oratory of S. S. diately flew to arms and Gratiosus. Constantine.

Saba house. in the last days of the Empire. Sedis. Font. had been one of Paul's staunchest adherents and the sole attendant who remained by the death-bed of the Pope. sunamoned clergy and people. et cives honestos. this .^ A Synod ^ Sicque prcefatus Christophorus alia die aggregans in tribus fatis cleri^ sacerdotes. . ^ Nam Constantinus invasor ap. a site which. 271.^ in Stephano.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. He was now unanimously summoned from his church. ist. omnisqiie popttli Roman. Stephen the Third was elected on August Jaffe.. in his capacity of papal representative during the vacancy mise?^ of the sacred chair. son of the Sicilian Olivus. in ejus adhibentes pedibus in sella muliebri sedere et super equumfecerunt. had been that usually chosen for the assemblies of the people.^ The state of barbarism into which Rome had fallen Barbarous showed The revenge. m^nt of the imprisoned cardinals and bishops were deprived usurpers. 272. the usurper Constantine was derision through the city and taken to the monastery of Cellanova on the Aventine. The place of meeting was again the spot in tribus ^^^IrdTo^^^ the Papacy. dum deductus ad medium esset ^ et magna pondera est. and proclaimed in the Lateran as Stephen the Third . Ecclesiar. itself in wild scenes of fanatical of their eyes or tongues led in .^ The Primicerius here put forward the presbyter Stephen as candidate for the Papacy. cceturn usque ad parvum. n. fads on the ancient Forum. the district was called Cella there in former days the mother of Gregory the Great Nova and had owned a . deportatus in Monasierium Cella novas coram omnibus Lib. S. Cecilia in Trastevere. ^ N. and consecrated on the 7th. ac primates et optijiiates militia^ atque universwn a magna exerciium. This cardinal. 327 Christo- The following day (August i) Christophorus. Catalogus Magnus According to the monastery of Greek monks stood near the church of S.

Campanice pergentem Alatro parte77i Campania. and. 269. in spite of the fact of having aided in the overthrow of Constantine. In the manuscript D. mutilated in the Byzantine manner. had placed Philip on the papal throne.2 The inhabitants of this Latin mountain district hastened to Rome.328 HISTORY OF ROME deposed him on the 6th of August. When coming to the Mittelalter. p. until it was taken by assault. and ordained Stephen in his stead. came to my hands. according to the conjecture of Papencordt. the murderer of Toto. Pont. in Muratori : et N. . dragged the tribune from his prison. 1855. the materials left by Papencordt. either of the army or of some city. now with his armed followers vented his fury against faction.^ Gratiosus soon after forced an entrance into the monastery of Cellanova. subsequently rewarded with the dignity of Dux. and put out his eyes. He died. ubi erat. where Constantine was. had he been content to restrict himself to the political aspect of Geschichte der Stadt Rom im affairs. I conceived and began my own. '^ to cope with to this difficult The scheme of his work was unknown the first me when. 93. end of this (the second) volume of my work in 1858. first To him in belongs the honour of having been the undertaking. it was ^ 2 Gratiosus tunc Chartularius posttnodum dux. however. Gratiosus. This is mentioned by this name time the Amphitheatre of in the Lib. defended himself within the primitive Cyclopean walls which surrounded this city. with similar savagery. and edited by Höfler under the above title.^ all the adherents of the defeated in One of these. the tribune Gracilis in Alatri existed (military tribunes the country towns). in the beginning of his career. Papencordt's thoroughness gave promise of an important work. The vengeance of the Romans was now directed against the Lombard Waldipert. is Titus Near the Colosseum. who.

The condemnation of Constantine. from France. In vain he clung to the statue of a saint He in the Pantheon. both already Patricians of the Romans. immediately despatched twelve bishops to Rome. September 24. the charge of the Paracellarius. on his short f^e T'hkd turns to He had been elected in opposition to the aims of Desiderius. Stephen the Third entered pontificate. and his kingdom had been divided between his two sons. The Lateran Synod was opened by Stephen on August 12. now Secundicerius. and the establishment of the laws for the papal election formed the subjects died on ^ The renowned The synod.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. He turned. qtice vocatur Ferrata in cellario majore. and remained at open variance with the tion Lombard King. the enquiry into the ordinations which had taken place during his pontificate. 274. Charles and Carloman.^ Amid horrors such as these. 329 rumoured. in answer to his request. un- hesitatingly to the Frank. Intended to betray Rome to the Duke of Spoleto. vaults for stores) of the Lateran. Pipin to send bishops letter. received Stephen's messenger. and. 769. Vita. therefore. y6Z. and. which he did not seek to prevent. n. requested Sergius. announcing in his inten- of summoning a Council Rome. A dungeon with gratings under in the cellar or cellaria (cellar. . Eumgue in teterrimam retrudi fecerunt ctistodiam. was himself the bearer of the papal but on his arrival in prince had France he found that Pipin was no longer numbered among the living. whither he had fled for safety.'769. was thrown into a hideous dungeon and cruelly put to death. among them Turpin of Rheims.

quce Romano Domnus Paulus Papa. He died in 789. he fell on his face and begged for to it The Romans me by force. had ventured to ascend raised because of all the oppressions it had formerly suffered under Paul the First. . Ita coram omnibus professus est^ ConciL. The accused adroitly sheltered himself behind the example of other bishops. et ad Clericatuni pei'veni.^ n. already began '^ to regard the papal domination as an oppressive yoke. A portion of the people. The clergy. He died in 769. 277. nullum obstaculuin mihi esse potest (Agnellus. layman. ^ The fragment adduced above in Mansi. such as Sergius of Ravenna and Stephen of Naples. Vita Sergii. Then. viii. et sponsam habui. p. Dux of Naples and adherent of Rome. brought its first sitting.330 of deliberation. as " HISTORY OF ROME The blinded Constantine. was elected bishop by the people. The Synod committed the acts of the pretender to the flames. per brachiiun populi fuisse elecHtm^ atque coactuni in Lateranense Patri- populo ingesserat archiwn deductum propter gravamina^ ac prcejudicia ilia. Stephen. et vim se a populo perlulisse. struck him to the ground and threw him chair. 483. Sergius ably defended himself in : Rome." replied the unfortunate man. Peter's chair. and the next day his examination was resumed. where Stephen the Second kept him a prisoner Laicus fui. stretching forth his hands. who had been raised directly from the condition of laymen to the papal argument only inflamed the anger of the judges. Pont. rushing upon Constantine. chiefly members of the aristocratic party. Font.^ he. before the assembly in was asked how S.^ The justice of the outside the doors of the church. and also Labbe. Lib. et cognitum vobis factum est. The substance of its contents is given in the Lib. and passed the resolution that hence^ t.2 He was dismissed without sentence being pronounced. mercy. et dixistis. his The remainder of days are hid in silence. 424).

pp. they could. the members of the Council marched in procession to S. Jahrb. receive a second consecration. The laity were debarred from taking part in the papal elections.. it was decreed that .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Stephen thus purified the Church from the dangers of usurpation. vi. however.^ With respect to the bishops ordained astical by Constantine. or restricted solely to the right of acclamation. Niehues {Die Wahldecrete Stephanas. 1880. The Council by passing a decree which confirmed the worship of images. where the decisions were read aloud. der Görres-Geseiisch. That of Stephen the Fourth cannot. decree was issued by Stephen the Fourth {Histor. but he was not yet successful in establishing the papal authority in Rome. 331 forward no one should be eligible for the pontificate who had not previously risen from the lowest ecclesi- grade to the dignity of deacon. all such as had previously been presbyters or deacons should return to their former grade that. decree of election of Stephen the Third was revived in 862 or First.) asserts that a similar . After the acts of the Synod had been signed. 141-153). be proved with certainty. had they gained if re- the affection of their congregations. or presbytercardinal. elected. Peter's. however. closed ^ The u. 863 by Pope Nicholas the iii.

they commanded number of adherents districts. They had headed counter-revolution. both and. by the favour and the alliance Demand- . whose pledged him to many concessions in they wished to rule. 772. their successful repression of the Lombard they had shown the Frankish party. IV. in the way alike of Stephen and of Desiderius. faction. however. in the city and the surrounding They stood. had been the means of creating a a great new Pope. Desiderius they had irritated of his by their desertion cause. in Power of Christophorus and Sergius — Stephen forms an Alliance with Desiderius — Desiderius advances before the City— Fall of Christophorus and Sergius — The Pope's Share in their tragic end — Project of double Marriage-Alliance between the Houses of Pavia and France Counter-Intrigues of the Pope Resistance of Ravenna The Prankish Policy turns in favour of the Pope Death of Stephen the Third. The Pope. Rome — — — — The most fall of Toto's faction and the overthrow of the left Lombard party influential Christophorus and in Sergius the the men Rome. belonging as they did to a patrician family.332 HISTORY OF ROME CHAPTER I. into which they had entered with Carloman. election their had favour.

. and Perugia within the city. is Vita Sergii^ 4. and the natural enemies entered into Desidenus an alliance.IN ing lands they.^ the foremost object of which was thesLphenthe and Sersfius overthrow of Christophorus and their Third form ^ ^ an alliance. delayed to fulfil the obligations due to him overthrow of Toto and Even Stephen himself recognised that the protective attitude assumed by the Franks towards Rome had been weakened by Pipin's death. in Cenni. Constantine. He was ruler neither in Rome. and awaited the attack a fact which shows that the authority rested in their hands. are confirmed by Cod. not in those of the Pope. He thus found himself driven to make fresh overtures to the Lombard King. ostensibly as a pilgrim. and Charles and Carloman. ad Ttcsciam^ et usque c. nor in the Exarchate. but accompanied by an army. being at open variance with each other. on the news of his approach. King and Pope made use of the Chamberlain Paul Afiarta. instrument. Car. Christophorus and Sergius. vehit Exarchtis. closed the gates. The statements of Agnellus. where Christophorus and Sergius governed. Campania. ad Agnellus. Desiderius. li. who hostile to Rome. 333 and revenues from the Lombard King. summoned the militia of Tuscany. where the archbishop possessed supreme authority. advanced to Rome. . . gave Rome cause to dread the evils of a divided kingdom.. as a common According to the compact. leader of the Lombard faction. for his aid in the on their part. Iv. 430. ^ On their side stood the et usqtie Igitiir judicavit iste a finibus Perticcs totam Petitapolim^ niensain^ Uvalani. THE MIDDLE AGES. The Pope's position was consequently one of no little difficulty. Prankish adherents.

acted solely the interests of his sovereign. whose presence in the city was not. Peter's in the summer phorus and 769^^"^' of 769. have taken place before the discussion of the projected marriages' between the courts of France and Pavia in 770. 76. and so adroitly did the subtle Sicilian play his part. the threatened party took the initiative. a legate of Carloman.^ and together they discussed the nobles. Afiarta was to stir up a revolt in order to bring about the death of Christophorus and Sergius the art of provoking such revolts being apparently already perfectly understood. All these occurrences must. ^ Jaffe postpones this interview to the year 771. he was allowed the following They attacked the day ^ to return to Desiderius. as we may suppose. Stephen. Berlin. hitherto It was arranged that. his designs remaining undiscovered. 1866. Jahrbücher des Frank. however. Lateran under Dodo. In order to create the The situation is explained by Sigurd Abel. In the present instance. His assailants forced an entrance with drawn swords into the chapel. Pope. . in supporting Christophorus and Sergius. on the return of the withheld. however. wholly accidental. means of ridding themselves of the inconvenient while Desiderius promised to satisfy all demands concerning the ecclesiastical estates. however. and the Pope was forced to seek refuge at an altar in the Basilica of Theodore. i.^ Desiderius arrived before S. succeeded in appeasing them. that. No opposition was offered. who upheld the recognisedly legitimate alliance of chair with Fall of Christo- the sacred in the Prankish monarchy. The Prankish envoy. and summoned the Pope to meet him.334 HISTORY OF ROME Franks with Count Dodo. Reichs unter Carl dem Groszen.

and report led the people to believe that the Pope was in the hands of the Lombards. and. to outward appearance. and both men were lost. Stephen sent two bishops to the bridge where Christophorus and Sergius lay encamped. as his biographer and he himself. n. The fickle people. deserted . Stephen now remained. and demanded that they should either voluntarily retire to a monastery or appear before him in the Vatican. have maintained. in one of his letters. in terror. Peter's gate. Peter's. Bells were already rung in Rome. men who had freed Rome from the tyranny of Toto. why did he not bring them into the city when himself returning from S. together with his father. . ^ Sergitis eadem node. with the fled to the intention of casting himself at the feet of Stephen. letting Pope in S. qua hora campana hisomiit. their cause and Sergius.. and would not be released until they laid down their arms and belief that the sacrifice of the his elevation. Pont. It is more than difficult to exonerate Stephen from the guilt. deserted their leaders and dispersed a sudden outbreak took place. Peter's and himself down by the walls. 335 two powerful men. Did he really wish to save them. surrendered his opponents. to been forced upon had whom he owed him by Desiderius. and to whom he himself owed the tiara. Lib.^ was seized by Lombard guards. 288. Even Gratiosus. In order to carry out the scheme. was delivered to the Pope by Desiderius.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. shut up with his followers in S. of betraying to the vengeance of the Lombards. outside S. . or to the hatred of Paul Afiarta. Peter's ? He asserts that he left them behind in the basilica. brother-in-law of Sergius.

293. 269. opposition to his entrance. Cenni. was acquainted with Stephen's letter. Christophorus died in the convent of S. by the Pope when in full possession of his probably soon after the withdrawal of the The Pope therein exaggerates the events.^ The letter was written liberty. He ^ The writer in the Lib. the Lombard guards. xlvi. et Sergii Secundicerii filii ejus. Desider. Such were the fall employed by the Pope letter. and lingered arts in a cell of the of his Lateran until after Stephen's death. men who.33Ö HISTORY OF ROME them in safety in order to bring by night. In his Bertha. terms Christophorus and Sergius companions of the devil. ^ Et dum infra civitatem^ nocturno silentto ^ ipsos salvos introducere . Vita Hadriani^ n. unde detrimentu7n nobis detulit. Christophori Primicerii. Stephen asserted that he cruel treatment of the however. Papa et tantiimmodo per suum hiiquum argumentum erui fecit oculos — retulit.^ but that Afiarta forced his way into the church in the evening. subito hi. : Cod. with the assistance of Dodo (against Lombards. says cupiens propter insidias inhnicoruni salvos introduci Roniam. to these events the : his inclinations With regard Desiderius's envoys as follows Subtilius Pope Adrian expressed himself to miki Domnus Stephanus — quod omnia Uli mentitus fuisset (sc. but the deviations show that were Frankish. to Charles and his mother knew nothing of the two men. noctis silentio eos irruentes^ eorum eruerunt oculos.. to work the adversaries. Agatha the third day after his eyes had been put out. by order of the King. the suffered in unfortunate men themselves front of Hadrian's Bridge the fate which they had inflicted on Waldipert. Sergius recovered. inquiens.. offering no Be that as it may. suamque voluntatem de magis et duobus proceribus Ecclesi(2 explevit. ipsis damnum . xlvi. eos. super Car. qui eis semper insidiabantur. Pont. disponeremus ne quis eos conspiciens interficeret.

to the King to demand the fulfilment of his promises to S. " My predecessor. 267. great evil would have befallen him. the sub-deacon. xlv.^ and if we desire further evidence as to the understanding which existed between him and Desiderius. and the King replied Let Pope Stephen be satisfied with the fact that I have removed his rulers Christophorus and ' : Sergius. and La Farina has adopted character is his opinion. and asserts that he owed his safety to Desiderius. it is found in the speech of Adrian. wished to murder him. Cenni. Lombards be transformed into The letter was.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Peter. but not with his other letters . and with his army is ready to advance on Rome to avenge their death. For truly had I not come to the Pope's assistance. the Frankish King. Adrian. Stephen's successor in the Papacy. who had purposely come to Rome to fulfil his obligations to S. . and 2 that the brothers were enemies at the time. Lib. and Gemmulus. is The reason why Dodo's fact that painted in the blackest colours found in the he was Carloman's envoy. nor the illustrious sons. Desiderius did not restore the ^ ecclesi- Ep. VOL. and to flatter Desiderius." said to the Lombard envoy. of opinion that the letter was written under compulsion. Carloman. " one day informed me that he sent his messengers Anastasius. n. Pont. and to seize the Holy Father himself. together with Le Cointe and Pagi. written in the excitement consequent on the overthrow of the two men. Muratori has perceived the rights of the case.. the Chief Defensor. who received a copy. Peter. however. since like noble men Christophorus and Sergius could not suddenly be vile regarded as malefactors. is the friend of Christophorus and Sergius. He may now let his rights rest. Cenni. 337 whom he is especially bitter). 293. IL Y . . His account tallies with that of his biographer.' "2 Meanwhile. is xlvi.

p. The author of the Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma. 2 ^ Annales Francor. in Cenni. Seeking by letter to dissuade them from their projected marriages. and the Pope sought to renew the alliance with the much-wronged Frankish princes. It was arranged that Prince Adelchis should marry Gisela. property claimed by Stephen. The history of Holy Scripture shows us many instances of ^ princes See. were wholly indifferent to the temporal needs of the Roman Church. on this occasion : seininans intei- . but. King Charles Desiderata (Ermengard). She had herself come to Rome as a pilgrim in 770.^ For Bertha had effected a reconciliation between her sons. on the contrary..^ " It has come to my knowledge. ad Ann. but Stephen soon learnt that the Queen had also visited Pavia with the object of negotiating a double marriage between the royal houses of France and Lombardy. and such a union would be no marriage but concubinage.^ Her presence had revived the papal hopes." he wrote. with reference to this. He perceived that Pipin's sons in no way shared the views of their father. 274. Car. and took occasion to wish them prosperity. now that their dissensions were at an end.338 Dissensions astical HISTORY OF ROME Stephen Desiderius. 770.. xlvii. He therefore turned to them in complaint. Cod. and his brother Carloman another daughter of the Lombard King. as early as the tenth century. " and fills my heart with dismay. he strove to sow fresh discord between the royal brothers. The project alarmed the Pope. says reges discordia. The suggestion is truly diabolical. that the Lombard King Desiderius seeks to persuade one of you to marry his daughter.

" 2 Eginhard. and which has given birth to the family of lepers.. c. Mettensium hie ex Hildegard conjuge quattuor filios et in the Mon. Cenni.IN transgressing the THE MIDDLE commands AGES. habuit ta/neti ante legale cojimibium ex Hiiniltrude nobili puella filium nomine Pippinuui. and to these women you must now remain faithful. coviputatur. 265 letter. 281 : Perfida.^ Stephen proceeds to make sarcastic comments on women in general.. Stephen laid ^ Pope. but we fail to discover that Charles was bound by any legal tie. to women of your own country. By God's decree and your father's command you are already married in lawful wedlock. xlv. reminds the monarchs of all that as youths they had promised the Apostle — friendship for the friends of the enmity for his enemies. who had forfeited Paradise for mankind. a nation which excels all other nations. "Gesta Episcop... impart a supernatural it on the Apostle's quod absit. To power to the letter. 339 of God. xlix. 18. to Carloman it is admitted that such was the case. Germ. tissima Langohardor. . Car. a race never reckoned amongst the number of nations. and Paul. qucB in niimero gentium nequa- quam est. : : Muratori would quinqiie filias procreavit. de cujtis natione et leprosum genus oriri certum .. vulgar like to deny that the Pope wrote this and even Cenni exclaims cevo Uli dandtwi est aliquid. Diacon. What madness were it if a distinguished scion of the royal house of your glorious Franks. ac fceten- Cod. and. as befits illustrious princes. You have received beautiful wives from the noble Prankish people."^ The Pope here takes for granted With regard that both Kings were already married. should sully himself by a union with the despised Lombards. sin. gente polluatur. . ii. and falling into grievous through wanton alliance with a foreign nation. . quotes the sin of Eve.

undaunted by the papal anathema. HISTORY OF ROME and received the Communion over it : it. It was placed on funeral monuments to prevent their used at the close of documents. et a regno Dei alienum^ atque this cum diabolo et ejus atrocissimis pompis^ et cceteris impiis csternis ^ incendiis concremandum deptitatem = Formula. tit. Maria vinculo et anat/iematis Cosmedin. by these threats. of anathema in use at period.^ Meanwhile. however.. or The : inscription of a deed of in gift of Georgius and Eustatius. destruction."^ The age in which the chief priest of Christendom could write a letter such as this. excluded from the kingdom of God. impiis ceterno incendio deputatus. then closed " If any one with the following threat dares to act in opposition to our exhortations herein contained. Carloman re- nounced the idea of marriage with the daughter of Desiderius. Terrified. vii. let him know that. was truly barbarous. Charles. The form of anathema in the Liber. in the vestibule of S. atque cum diabolo et omnib. and condemned to burn in eternal fire with the devil and all the rest of the godless. Muratori maliciously remarks that Charles was not as yet ' ' the Great. c. wedded the Lombard Desiderata. troubles from another quarter increased the difficulties of Stephen's position. Since the time ^ Anathematis vinculo esse innodatum. the holy Peter. belonging to the eighth century. corresponds to the above curse almost word for word et cum diabolo et ejus atrocissimis Pompis atque cum : Juda Domini Dei et Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi^ in aternum igne concremandus. perhaps. Diurn. he is encompassed by the chains of the anathema. by the authority of my master. and remained faithful to Gilberga.340 grave. Prince of the Apostles. simulque in chaos demersus cum impiis traditore ^ deficiat. says sit innodatus et a regno Dei alienus." . the religion of Christ at the time appears actually a service of witchcraft. 22.

Duces. The ii. . however. with the consent of Desiderius and the aid of Mauritius. Rimini. series in the ninth century is almost Luigi Tonini. Rimmi dal principio delP era volgare all capital of the Pentapolis . reinstated in his office by Paul the First. with the aid of Mauritius and the judices of Ravenna. 155. Jesi. Gubbio. Magistri Mihtum. and tribunes into the provinces formerly Greek of which provinces. The people of Pipin's donation the -^ . maritima (Rimini. but Michael. Rome papal anathemas.^ made himself master of the seat. which had long been and the archbishop soon began to extend his influence over the Exarchate. . Dux of Rimini (not only the most important town of the chair.^. Cagli. they were by no means masters.IN THE MIDDLE . This towoi was the 1856. where the metropolis possessed several estates and farms. . by means of envoys and lavish gifts.1. ruled there undisturbed. Leo was thrown into prison at Rimini. later Osimo. AGES. sought. 34I Ravenna disobeys the Pope. to gain. M officials. Fano. amio MCC. in possesPentapolis. Sinigaglia. the papal sanction for his usurpation. Both territories together were called Decapolis. Pesaro. and 1 Rimini continued to have Duces._ 1 • . Stephen ordered him to vacate the chair. Ancona) the Pentapolis mediterranea or nova embraced. Librarian exempt from obedience to the Pope). but one also sion of the archbishopric. Urbino with Montefeltro. Popes had sent their own . and Michael. . Sergius. of Ravenna mistress of retained a lively recollection of the ancient importance of their city. A great number of the clergy archiepiscopal placed the Archdeacon Leo on the of the Church. Fossombrone. but the intruder maintained it by appropriating the wealth belonging to the Church. and after his death (in 770) a usurper succeeded for a whole year in defying the . complete.

however. prceter in divortio Desiderii regis. in putting less Charles having separated from Desiderata. Germ. seems by caprice than by calcula- the instigation of the Pope. Incertum. 18... ita ut nulla zmquam filice invicem." c. It is recorded of Adelhard of Corbey (with connubium 525.3 between the Franks and Lombards was thus severed by the arts of the Pope." n. Car. Eginhard Vita Adalhardi 7. when he was overthrown. had turned favour of the Pope Charles. says Eginhard. qua de is causa. Vita Car. . 17. p.2 . undoubtedly at wedded the Swabian Hildegard. in the : sandissimorum sacerdotum Sangall. remained bewailing her as his loyal to and Queen Bertha long wept the disgrace of her unhappy lawful wife.. daughter-in-law. 282. the in tide of fortune in France . and in Adrian's Ep. propria sine aliquo crimine repulsa uxore. ^ Monachi 759. Desiderata. culpabat modis omnibus tale uteretur thoro. and Desiderius was alliance 1 The Lib. whither Leo also went to receive ordination. 449.342 HISTORY OF ROME retained his position until the end of the year 771. Carloman died on the 4th December jj i to tion. . the ties which bound Charles to the Roman Church were drawn as closely as before. III. Mon. c..y ^ in Cenni. Pont. Ex 18 : And ilia of Bertha. he Having dissolved the marriage.^ the meantime. An inventive monk : at the end of the ninth century relicta alone acquainted inhabilis^ with the cause jitdicio quia essei clinica et ad propagandam proleni velut mortua. inlicite ii..^ "Vita Stephani Ixxi. xciii. The Franks. 283 . quam suadente acceperat. The populace surrendered him to the papal envoys to be conveyed to Rome. " Gesta Karoli II. have been actuated away his wife. Hildegarde) — qitod — rex says. Cod.sit exorta discordia. c.. and the Prankish and In Roman legates united in restoring order to the divided city.

versed in all the arts and stratagems of secular policy. in the " Libellus de Vita Hadriana I. Marco. ap. published by Mabillon. Stephen the Third did not .^ Adrian's father dying during his childhood. Diac.2 the First ' . and beauty. ^ Theodatus (not Theodolus) restored S. Adrian's decree of election. moreover. ability. died on January 24. February 9. twenty-four years. Angelo in Pescaria. a et solo edifi- cavit pro intercessionem aiiimcB sua reviedium omnium peccatorum. his mother had entrusted the care of his education to the priests of S. ItaL. Adrian the First Overthrow of the Lombard Party in Rome Hostile advance of Desiderius Fall of Paul Afiarta The City Prefect Desiderius lays waste the Roman Duchy Adrian prepares for defence Retreat of the — — — — — — — Lombards. and on Stephen's death he was unanimously elected to the Papacy . and had been. 2.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Marco. Adrian the ''''^ filled during an illustrious reign of nearly 7^^. as a marble tablet still existing in the church records Theodotus holiiii dux : mmc '•^ primicerius sea sed. . deposited in the Lateran Museum. Primicerius of the Notaries. 343 abandoned to his fate. Distinguished by birth. 772. i. in the parish of whose church her house was situated. et pater uius Ben. long survive these events the unscrupulous Sicilian. Adrian which he succeeded to the pontificate. He was a Roman and a member of a leading noble family who owned a palace in the Via Lata. Mus. close to S. 38. Adrian rose under Pope Paul to the highest ecclesiastical offices under Stephen he obtained the diaconate." All the electoral bodies are therein mentioned. 772. His uncle Theodatus had borne the titles of Consul and Dux.

and scarcely had the embassy returned with polite assurances to Pavia. When Lombard envoys arrived to congratulate the new Pope. widow of Carloman. to seek refuge at the court. and had himself proclaimed between the Franks sole Rome and King of the Franks. 292. and would support the Frankish alliance. with her children and Duke Auchar. Adrian thereby gave it to be understood that he would overthrow the Lombard faction which Paul still maintained in the city. envoys existed of the restoration of the party of Christophorus and Sergius. Desiderius. Papal policy Desiderius now adopted Adrian's a definite course. received the Frankish princes with open arms. care first was to see that discharged his obligations to S. Gilberga. p. gerniantis defuncti : ^ Vita Adriani. noxiis veniam concessit. Peter. and that and in the spring of 772. Adrian replied by complaining of the non-fulfilment of the treaty with his predecessor. this result.344 HISTORY OF ROME of the earliest acts of his reign was to recall the One party of Christophorus and Sergius. 426) shows that a decree of amnesty was already customary on a change of pontiffs In ipsa vero die electus est prcedictus. Paulus) in solio Apostolatus. Various The King was informed by of the close alliance . arrived at Pavia. or all the judices sentenced to exile by Paul Aiiarta. n.^ shortly before the death of Stephen. et o?7inibus . friendly relations when all thoughts of with Desiderius were brought to causes had contributed towards his an end. A PapcE (sc. et statim solvit omnes captivos. and to invite him to form an alliance. deeply offended. Charles had seized the territories belonging to his nephew. in the passage in Agnellus {Vita Sergii.

and was in the pay of Desiderius. insisted on a personal interview. Desiderius. Afiarta remained the most influential man in Rome. found necessary to compass his overthrow. His fall was planned and carried out with diplomatic subtlety. were it in chains. Desiderius resolved to obtain them by force. It was. with urgent exhortations to the King. With these events was associated the overthrow of Afiarta. by their means. He called upon the Pope to recognise their rights by consecration. eight days before Stephen's death. Adrian firmly refused. he deter- . Only now in his absence had the Romans the courage to admit that Paul. He was head of the Lombard party. On the fall of Christophorus and Sergius. therefore. 345 hope of kindling. hoping to induce the Pope to crown the children of Carloman. and. At the end of March he occupied Faventia and the duchy of Ferrara. This. Fall of The unsuspect- ing chamberlain was persuaded to leave Rome and undertake an embassy to his friend Desiderius. and the Pope sent the Sacellarius Stephen and Paul Afiarta Rupture Desidenus.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the noose was drawn round his own neck. the Pope refusing his demands. an event of some importance in the history of the city. The unfortunate Sergius still lingered in his blindness in a cell of the Lateran. and the continuance of this pitiable existence had been found so insupportable to the vindictive Afiarta that. during Stephen's illness. had been guilty of another murder. and even threatened Ravenna. a civil war in France. and while he was boasting at the Lombard court that he would bring thither the Pope. however. The Ravennese appealed to Adrian for help.

4). was thus named from a palace usque in Merolanam seczis viam. ^ was looked on in time of Scipio the light of capital to punishment. Dei Genitricis ad Prcesepe. . Rom. and the entire populace demanding the punishment of the guilty.judicum universique pop. 298. Mus. That any connection. the walls of which were painted. a book of formulae compiled Remains of an ancient house with a soon after the time of Adrian. mined The Johannes. i. a street which still leads from the Lateran to S. the Pope handed them over to the ordinary jurisdiction. ^vi. The phrase esaminare is entirely The street ad arcum ^ . was there stabbed. 297. brother of the Pope/ and various ecclesiastical officials of exalted rank were accessory to the murder. 298: tunc prcefatus s. as in the and Seneca. . 2 Rome et . Maria Maggiore. Vita Adr. and on whom the execution of all criminal sentences devolved. the Judices of the Militia. mediaeval. jussit contradere antefatum Calvulum cubicularium. Merolanas in the Ordo Roman. were discovered in the Merolana in 1874. continued banish her civitatis Tunissone Presbytero. Vita Adr. and Anag7tince. whose office had survived the days of Gregory. ii..34Ö HISTORY OF ROME to rid himself of the object of his hate. and his remains buried on the spot. et prccnominatos Campanos prafecto tirbis. and the scene of its execution and the ecclesiastical dignitaries. semi-circular building. which was carried out by two inhabitants of Anagni. stantinople.^ The murderers confessed the crime. . exists between this building and the arcus depictus. however. Ital. . suddenly reappears.^ The murderers were banished to Con. qtcce ducit ad ecclesiam S. depictuiu Leonatio Tribimo habitatoribus n. into the Dux One night Sergius was dragged Via Merulana. tit 7nore homicidarum eos coram universo populo exaniinaret. I dare not affirm.^ n. At exile this period. PrcBsul precib. ^ Vita Adr. (Mabillon. On this occasion the City Prefect.

n. 262. on his return from the Lombard court. had taken the place of the Decurions. Before.. Ibid.^ A Roman citizen. Vita Adr. with good reason refutes the opinion that by Consularis was intended the college of Consuls. Adrian charged Leo. to seize Afiarta. in earlier days. ^ Adscribi fecit suggestionem sua?n Constantino niagnisque Iinpcratoribus — ut in ipsis Grcecice partibus Ibid. i.^ In answer to the demand that he should and. More probably the Pope desired that the trial should take place at a distance. an official of the papal palace.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the trial for the despotic act. who surrendered the accused into the hands of the criminal judge of Ravenna. brought before the municipal jurisdiction of another city. perhaps even in the eighth In consequence of the S. which. in exilio manci- patum retineri pracepissent. enter Ravenna or any other city of the Exarchate. 299. however. and Adrian forwarded the documents of the trial to Leo. ^ Tradidit euiidein Paiihim consulari Ravennatiuni tirbis. ^ Ita vero idem Paulus exaininahis est. conceal many things. n. the Pope thus recognising the Emperor's supremacy. — . Archbishop of Ravenna. contrary to all law. the remains of Christoin phorus and Sergius received honourable burial and their names public acquittal. The commission was quickly executed. .^ spare the life of the murderer of begged the Emperors Constantine and Leo to allow Afiarta to undergo his sentence in some part of Greece. et Leoni August is. 300 the papal biographers. 300. wishing to Sergius. It is hard to believe that the archbishop alone was responsible however. n. should he. Hegel. as and century Byzantium sent her criminals to expiate their guilt in Rome. was thus. . Peter's trial.. 347 offenders to Constantinople. quia etiam iiec scientia exinde data est Pontifici. according to the views of Savigny and Leo. had begun.

at the time imprisoned by Desiderius. however. and Desiderius deprived of the last remnant of Lombard influence Desiderius advances against Rome. on their arrival. He therefore. the archbishop replied that this was impossible. Urbino. 25. for Afiarta. as the the large mosaic in the Rotunda of the Vatican. The supposition. attributes the epitaph of a Paul in the time of Adrian. and Eugubium Sinigaglia. and entered Etruria. however. (783). to Afiarta. little Since the excavations of Pius the Sixth. whose remains he supposes to have been brought from Ravenna to Rome. put several of the more prominent Utriculum. imploring him not The Lib. in July. of the Pope Anibaldi. ^ The ancient Utriculi Civitas was of rich in treasures of art in the days of the Empire. The papal messengers sent to conduct him thither learnt. cannot be verified. p. It was consequently determined that Paul should be brought to Rome. Bull. Head of Jupiter and .. vi.348 HISTORY OF ROME be sent to Byzantium by way of Venice. as the Venetians would exchange the son of their Doge Mauritius. 1873. probably the founder of the Roman family of the Anialdi or De Rossi. (Gubbio). twenty monks to Desiderius. for instance. Nothing remained for Adrian but to rebuke the archbishop for his only too welcome haste. distinguished by the civis Rojnanus.^ Thus was the head of the Lombard faction removed. that he was already dead. Rome. such. The Lombards here in attacked the city of Bleda. themselves at his feet in ^ The brothers threw tears. to this provincial town the museums Rome have owed many of their valuable works of art. from the Ind. is The name (Anwald) title German . speaks of the Chartularius Anualdus as at this is time present in Ravenna. the Pope freed from a powerful aristocrat. Pojit. In consequence of these events the King occupied Montefeltro. this envoy was.2 and withdrew to Adrian sent the Abbot of Farfa with citizens to death.

The Pope answered that he would come as soon as Desiderius had restored the cities which he had usurped. accompanied by Adelchis. and by Gilberga and her children. the inhabitants of the country districts of Tuscany and Latium (Campagna) were obliged to render military service in the city. Paul to be conveyed into the city. King. but summoned the Pope to an interview. Latium. and reinforcements lent him by Stephen. Adrian prepared for resistance. whose coronation at the hands of the Pope in S. . The Pope now summoned Charles to his aid. the friendly Dux of Naples. and the churches themselves barred within for fear that the ^ King should sacri- Fabricari fecit.^ He caused the altar vessels from the Basilicas of S. and threatened to march on Rome. the duchy of Perugia. Before the messengers entrusted with the papal letters had reached their destination. even armed militia from the Pentapolis. Desiderius departed in person from Pavia. After the time of Christophorus and Sergius. going so far as to have some of them walled up. The S. and sent some priests in order to be informed of their surrender. After collecting forces from Tuscany. the Frankish Duke Auchar. however. 349 The Lombard dismissed them without according them a hearing. he closed the gates of the city.IN to injure THE MIDDLE AGES. Peter and S. whose repeated entreaties for the consecration of Carlo- man's children he had steadfastly refused. Peter's he intended to achieve. conjuring him by the memory of his father Pipin to deliver Rome from the Lombard King. the customary expression for wall-building. Peter. would not hear of any surrender.

and Tibur to meet Desiderius. Prseneste. where the King dismissed them with contempt. Desiderius turns in retreat. illico with his army. 3. Counsellor of the King) appeared in Rome to convince themselves hesitated The King 111/^1 that the cities had. The bishops encountered the legiously force an entrance. and few studies can be more wearisome than the military annals of his nation during a period of two hundred years.35*^ HISTORY OF ROME Adrian next sent the Bishops of Albano. the Abbot Gulfard. under pain of excommunication. Adrian informed them to the contrary. the dread of Charles proved effectual.^ All the undertakings of Desiderius showed the same fatal lack of courage and genius. actually been restored to the Holy See. King at Viterbo. assuring him that nothing could be effected but by force of arms. as Desiderius asserted. and turned in retreat. and they returned to Charles. After having again proposed peace to Desiderius. Charles's Expedition into Italy Siege of Pavia He celebrates Easter in Rome Confirms Fall of Pavia and the LomPipin's Donation — — — — bard Kingdom. and ^ offered him an indemnity aim magna est. and Albinus. 774. instructing the envoys to forbid him. yet more. set forth for Italy ad reverentia a civitate Viterbiense confusus propria reversus . The terrors of the papal censures and. to cross the frontiers of the Roman duchy. J^ex Charles. Soon after his retreat. for the surrender of the cities. The envoys hastened to Pavia. envoys from Charles (Bishop r George.

( Agnellus says Vita Leottis. however. •' according to the Chron. had been rendered impracticable by the Lombards. in terror. Desiderius declined the proposal. given by Paul. and the race of Alboin. and the difficulties which he encountered. added to the murmurs of his troops. sought refuge with the widow and sons of Carloman in Verona. n. The Alpine passes. after a feeble resistance. which treachery had rendered probable. that the Franks would cross the Alps. to explain that he would be satisfied with three distinguished hostages. sed corda benigna. Pont.^ Adelchis and Auchar. Adelchis. induced him to despatch another embassy to Desiderius. as guarantee for the surrender of the cities. 313. In general. a strongly fortified city. and the prospect. (September 773)^ and advanced to Geneva. forced him to abandon his camp and entrench himself within the city. The sudden flight. 351 Charles itai'y. on the valiant Droctulf in Ravenna. Leo {History of was the demand which Desiderius had made to Rome. the Ravennese deacon Martinus had shown the way to the Franks Novalicense. applies to the Lombard people : Terribilis visu fades. is scarcely to be found in the records of history. ^ Piomittens instiper ei tribui quatuordecim millia atiri solidorum. p. however. a conquest achieved with so little effort.. the well-known epitaph. clerical . and followed by so great and enduring results. of his panic-stricken son.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Diacon. It was assuredly not by his conquest of the Lombards that Charles acquired the title of Great on the contrary. 439) that . et argento. shortened by internal dissensions. atiro. it was a jester. intrigues. 773. with the intention of crossing Monte Cenis. . especially were forced to yield. quant itatem in originally - Italy) conjectures that this Lib.

An way Easter pilgrimage to Paradise. the present journey of the Prankish monarch being the series of pilgrimages first in the long Comes Rome. to the graves of the martyrs was in those days. Another Prankish force appeared before Verona. At a station called Novas. below the Lake of Bracciano. and accompanied by a distinguished train of bishops. surrendered themselves into the hands of the victor. twentyfour miles distant from the city. Direxü—j'ziäües ad fere triginta miIlia ab hac Romana urbe in . 314. caused his wife. April 7742. quitted the camp 2. The reception the powerful Protector of the Church. and his sojourn in the city. and Auchar. the surest constantly following theirexample. and counts. in the and for nearly two hundred years troops of pilgrims had journeyed to Rome at Eastertide. HISTORY OF ROME Pavia. was royal and magnificent. with a part of his army.^ Charles. ^ n.^ At the foot of Montetime. foreseeing a pro- Charles surrounded tracted siege. with Carloman's widow and the little princes. and Charles determined to celebrate the festival in Rome. Throughout the entire Middle Ages we shall see emperors and kings eyes of the faithful. Hildegard. to undertaken by German kings. at Pavia. sq. 1 Charles's entrance to Rome.352 He lays siege to Pavia. are minutely described in the Vita Adriani. dukes. he was met by all the judices and standard-bearers of the militia. through Tuscany in order to reach and marched rapidly Rome by Easter accorded to Eve (April 774). and. sent by the Pope to bid him welcome. the city for the first who entered and under circumstances so momentous. Pavia made a gallant resistance for six months Easter was near at hand. and his children to be conveyed to the camp.

^ Scholas militiit cum patronis. attended by the clergy. Z ."^ Charles accepted these honours. 339. Peter's. morning of Easter Eve. The station stands at the twenty-fourth milestone.^ No sooner did they meet Charles's gaze than. states that he has seen the ruins of Novas two miles on this side of Bracciano. 98) erroneously holds these patroni militia to &c. Crowds of the populace thronged the basilicas Roman piazza. It was the. simulque et piieris. and by an immense crowd. The Pope. however crtues^ ac : VOL. 2 Vaterandas cruces. Ilolstenius. but in his character of Patricius of the Romans. Signa. sicut inos est ad Exarchuin Soon afterwards. by the schools of children bearing branches of palm and olive in their hands. 353 Mario he was received by the united bands of militia. in Such was the form which the mightiest prince of the universe already approached the Sanctuary of the Faith. qui ad discendas literas pergebant. II. Papencordt (p. Must not locum ^ qui vocatur Novas.. with their patrons. he advanced humbly on foot to S. I find the expression pafronus used for the first time for tutelary saints in Vita Adr. kissing each step in turn until he reached the Pope. have been patron saints. Prostrating himself at the foot of the steps. who greeted his arrival with the solemn shout " Hail to the King of the Franks. and : Defender of the Church. in Vignoli (note 3. signa. c. as had been the custom on the reception of an Exarch. not as a foreign prince. n.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. id est aut Patricium suscipiendum. 35). awaited his guest on the steps of the portico. and the chronicler significantly informs us that the crosses and banners of the had been sent to meet him. Charles ascended on his knees. dismounting from his horse and surrounded by his attendants. instead of the chiefs of the military companies. deportantes omties ratnos palma7'um atqiu olivarum.

i. and. 326. and wherefore.354 HISTORY OF ROME the time. before entering the oath of peace. where King churches. presbyteros vero ad .^ threshold the solemn words : As they passed the in " Benedictus qui venit nomine Domini ing priests. they should entered the basilica together. mutually tendered the oath of security. which little ^ It is a disputed point as to whether right or seals. tit qtiando Pontifex sederit. the King took the Pope by the right hand. Cod. ingressus est Romain. apparently. as Adrian says.. yfr. liii. In later times. he and his followers descended to the crypt. Car. at the same time. ad eos respiciens. Cenni. sinistram contueatur. . ship. walking side by side. Peter Paul on the right side.. ^ Seseque mutuo per sacrainentum miinientes. and Pope. Their devotions ended. the Emperors gave and received This was. therefore. 3: episcopi quidein ad observers. a sealed bond of friendintegritatis stabilitas. determined from the point of view of the observers.^ The Frankish troops doubtless encamped on the Neronian Field. the Pope was on the right of the Ordo Roman. episcoptis ad dextram stii.?//«^ et in Rome. on mosaics and sented on the left. be near at hand when kings humble themselves to become the vassals and servants of the Pope ? when the pontiff should Charles and place his foot on the neck of his slave ? Adrian embraced each other. left is was the side of generally repre- honour. The place of honour was. in Mabillon. but Charles himself crossed by the bridge of Hadrian and entered the city. When Pope and King entered the church. the King courteously demanded permission to enter Rome and visit the other principal Before leaving the basilica.. the judices of the Romans and the Franks. sinistram intrantitim^ presbyteri vero ad dextram. ii.. however. Hi. their " burst from the lips of the officiat- Charles and his Franks fell prostrate on knees before the Apostle's grave.

on Monday in Paul's.IN THE MIDDLE first AGES. 355 knew race. that in the Frankish King who trod her first streets she received her Emperor of German them by in The future successor of Augustus looked at the classic ruins as he passed ignorant bewilderment. on Tuesday the in latter function Easter solemnities ended. in spite of the ravages of three hundred years. the of which had fallen into ruin last habitable portion since Dux. led the to the Lateran. Maria (Maggiore) . and on his mail-clad barbarian paladins. of antiquity. and afterwards entertained the King at dinner in the Lateran. Peter's. The ancient character of these . Peter's. On Easter day the King was conducted by the Optimates and the schools of the militia to S. to He is did not make his residence in the city. gazing The people with astonishment on the heroic and almost gigantic form of the Protector of the Church. the Pope read mass here. he was more versed in the annals of the saints than in those of the statesmen or heroes of Rome. although delighting in the history of antiquity. No mention it made of the Palace of the Caesars. The city that met his gaze. It was still the city of the ancient Romans. had ceased to be the dwelling of the Greek Charles undoubtedly made his abode in one of the episcopal houses near S. Peter's. a world of magnificent ruins. before the greatness of which the monuments of King Christian times seemed to dwindle into insignificance. and with the S. After having witnessed in Pope administer the Sacrament of Baptism the Baptistery. Charles returned humbly on foot the S. Charles attended service S. still bore the impress for.

a remarkable book of ritual belonging to the eighth or ninth century. on S. as the ancient books of ritual serve to show. He therefore reminded Charles of the ancient treaties and promises. and caused Adrian's Pipin's deed of gift to be read aloud. but. The Easter stations remain on Sunday.356 services HISTORY OF ROME was less pompous and more ecclesiastical than at the present day. crypt of S. Peter's. S.. i. Maria Maggiore . and for the purpose which he had in view. S. according to the statements of Adrian's 1 are contained in the Ordo Regulations with regard to the mass and the prayers for Charles Romamis. S. Peter's. Charles was invited to attend a conference in S. . but that Charles caused it to be transcribed afresh by The deed was deposited in the his notary.^ On Wednesday. Peter. Foreseeing the approaching overthrow of the Lombard kingdom. the same down to present times on Wednesday. Etherius. Peter : . exhorted him to present certain cities and provinces to S. and the basilica all and the judices of the clergy and militia still fragrant with Easter incense. and sworn to with an oath of awful solemnity. Charles Pi"fnT^ donation. the Pope appeared in the light of one of its immediate heirs. April 6th. Lorenzo. Paul on Monday. that of extorting a donation from Charles. Adrian addressed a speech to the Frankish King. not much more simple. Tuesday. the Pope assuredly could have found no more fitting site than the immediate neighbourhood of the Apostle's grave. 77^" ' biographer assures us that the King and his judices not Only confirmed the contents of the document. This so-called donation of Charles the Great. at which the Pope were assembled. which was. In presence of this company. .

3833. Fontanini. according to provisions. un- doubtedly related to the Exarchate. Venice. sicut antiquitus erat." and the copy. in Borgia. Breve Istor. deinde in inonte Burdone inde in Parma. and further. Charles evidently confirmed the dona- tion of Pipin. and This donation. which the King was It is supposed to have taken with him. Universum Exarchatum. i. which he had never even conquered. if such a document ever really existed. Istria. deinde in Regio. Orsi. forgery. the generous monarch bestowed almost the whole of Italy on the Pope. provinces. or himself falsified the statements therein contained. reserving for himself the sovereignty over the provinces to which referred . however. is aware of the donation. necnon et cunctum ducatum Spoletinum seic Bejieventantim. atqtie in Monte Silicis. except the Vatic. has never been discovered either in Germany its or France. says Berceto.^ The unprejudiced judgment has long since relegated this donation to the realm of fable. and it is probable that. The fragment chronicler of the Lib. atque provincias Venetiarum et Istriam. deinde in a Lunis et (the present Sarzana) cum insula Corsica^ deinde in Stu'iano. which. si^milqite et exinde in Manttia.. Adrian's biographer either employed an already-existing of critics. believed in by Cenni. has disappeared from among the archives of the Lateran.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. It is important to note that no historian. 357 biographer. and the duchy of Benevento. which . it and in the course of time he added to this donation other patrimonies and revenues. Vita Adriani in donee Desiderium —exilio is Mabillon merely says da??i7iarei — resquc : Carolus non prius direptas Adriano Papa - restitueret. Ravennatium. Cod. a phrase taken almost word for word from Eginhard.^ ^ His own : The text of the Vita Adriani^ according to VignoH. asserted that. of the destitit. a ratification of the donation of Pipin at Kiersey. Pont. such as Corsica. although unauthenticated. Compare Docum.

Deo coronato piiss. in Corsica. This opinion especially maintained bardenreichs. Schriften. Untej'g. annuente is 534) dat. Cod. d. spurious. in Cenni. Waitz. histor. 31. but only seven diaconates. latest writers Die Schejtkungen der Karolinger 1881) rejects the entire donation. The honorary a more tion in of Defensor also received in 774 extended significance. Reichs unter Carl. (Labbe. There were at this time twenty- eight basilicas. 37. d. Ep.358 attitude towards HISTORY OF ROME Rome was all defined by a treaty. 380). and the afflicted city surrendered in June 774. Charles took his leave. anno primo patriciatus ejus. ii. the highest jurisdictitle Rome. Martens. 1 The Ep.. 283. 2 imp. Jatt. and other writers have again advanced the opinion that the donation of Kiersey actually embraced is the territories specified in the Vita Adriani. the King claiming the privileges of the Patricius. Die röm. is rejected by Muratori. Frage. Sickel holds the same view.^ The Frankish King hastened pestilence operations on his return to the camp conspired with treachery. f. . . Sybel (A7. die Päpste.. in The views on the controversy are to be found f. and the Pope caused prayers to be offered in all churches for the successful issue of the siege of Pavia. Hadriana ad Bertherium Vienn. Carol.. rege Karolo. iii. 2a\(l Jahrb. . Constantino. The last Lombard King paid the penalty of his indiscretion in the fall of his Romans. vii. Genelin. thus became the subject of the King of the Franks. piissimo Aug. Kai.^ His relations towards Rome having been defined. On hand. 318. the duchy and the provinces of the Exarchate. all Ficker.. p. by Abel. des LangoFrank.. p. who only possessed the administration in these districts. Iv. but adds that the extent of Gr. 1. certain territories the rights accorded to the Popes in and places the other of the remains undefined . Cone. for instance. . that. Borgia. being allotted to the Patricius of the The Pope. i. the donation only had reference an to patrimonies {Acta Karolinor.

— Geographical Limits of THE Caroline Donation: Spoleto. Charles delayed those patrimonies of which the been deprived by the Lombards failing Church had to fulfil his contract. 147. as it is said. Farfa^ ac patritnis Romanor. Fraticor. while Adelchis. we find only Langobardor. Salvadore aW : monte Ainiato. Peter Evidence that the Pope submits to Charles's Supremacy Traffic in Slaves among the Greeks and Venetians. et Regitattte Domino n. — — — — To the the annoyance of the Pope. 1 . Tuscany. occasionally omitted from documents an instrument concerning the abbey of Monte Amiata. . Sessoriana at Rome). and Patricius of the Romans . all Lombard Abbey of P'arfa. The . however.TT kingdom. a pious worker of miracles. 9. of Patricius thus. He seemed to set no value on the title of the new Constantine. December Francor. the fugitive son of Desiderius. escaping to the Byzantine court. Carolo Rege 774. Corbie. and henceforward (774) styled himself King of the Franks and Lombards. Dipl. {Cod. Bibl. known. and yielded himself uncondi-1 to the monastery of^Lombard J tionally a prisoner. and there ended his days.^ Constantine's Donation 4. as a statesman. del Rex. with which Adrian flattered surrender of . 359 Fail of the dynasty and kin^-dom. .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the Sabina Ravenna Charles claims the Right of Confirming the Archbishops of Ravenna The Patriciate of S. Charles meanwhile seized the Iron Crown. of i. et Langobardor. della Badia di S. ^ Karohis grat. in which Charles confirms n. he realised that Pipin had been too liberal in his promises. entered on the dreary existence inseparable from the lot of a royal pretender. the title Diploma of June grants to the 776. He retired 1. Reg. in is. probably because.

the prerogatives of the Senate. The notorious " Donation of Constantine " not only endowed the Bishop of Rome with Imperial honours. laj'giri per quern dignatus est. "through whom God The donaConstantine. had. earlier than 781. et potestatem in his Hesperice partibus largiri dignatus belongs to the year 777. compater pletely 2 2X0. but surrendered Rome and It Italy into the hands of the Pope as his property. and the Roman clergy with . resigning the capital of the world S. had deigned to bestow everything on the Holy Church of the Apostolic Prince. Dei Constantimis Imp. Peter. which served several successive Popes... century after century.^ The words employed by Adrian are worthy of note. the year 781. in which the Pope becomes co-sponsor with the King. R. All bearing the title spiritalis divides the letters into two groups. As Rome the spot was pointed out where Peter and .360 him. logy of Adrian's forty-nine letters to Charles is at times obscure The letter The chrono. Piissinw est. . The statements of Muratori. Adrian oiiniia Deus in his letter : speaks merely of patrimonies and of the potestas in Italy CoJistantino magno per cujus ^ largitatem S. represented that Constantine. time ' Cod. in Cenni. of later date than 781. appealed to for the lix. as if HISTORY OF ROME the early Emperor. quitted Rome and retired to a corner of the Bosphorus. out of reverence to the Prince of the Apostles. or is. as Containing the first allusion to the monstrous forgeries. still Le Cointe. 352 : quia ecce novtis Christianiss. as an authentic foundation for universal dominion for the same length of time satisfied the uncritical public." had again arisen. cured by Bishop Sylvester of leprosy by baptism. Ecclesice . Carol. surrexit.^ and Italy to the successors of first This fable. — exaltata est. SanctcB Slice his temporib. . E. at least. xlix. and Pagi are generally rectified by Cenni. and even succeeded in gaining the acceptance of jurists. and more com- by the great work of in mediaeval Jaffe.

and when Pope. in the bold idea of setting himself up as ruler of a great part of Italy entered the brain of the the barbarism of Its fabrication reveals mankind the Middle Ages more. perhaps. out of which the legal foundation of the temporal power of the Papacy for all Privilegium " Paul had taken leave of one another.R. with regard to the relations of Church and State. 36 by a Pope devised at Italy was the work of a Roman priest. the time when the Greek government in in J'jj. descr. .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. than many produc- tions of religious enthusiasm. but this authority.. it serves at the same time as an historic witness to those views which had been developed. when the king- dom Lombards was first falling asunder. Its hierarchical constitution. The Church lust for is here represented as a spiritual empire with a Caesar- Pope." in Urlich's Cod. was of the in process of dissolution. shortly before the restoration of the Western Empire. 71. to whom all metropolitans and bishops in East and West are subject. Pope is endowed with Imperial dignity. so the place of the parting between Pope and Emperor was also shown arciis Romamis into: Aventinmn sunt et et Albiston^ se tibi beatzcs Silvester et Constantinus osciclati divisenmt {" Mirabilia. the Roman clergy with senatorial rank. U. The . 94)./^^. p. like the cession of Rome and Italy. originates from a " of the Emperor. the supreme director of all civil affairs its model is the Empire and the Imperial court. If the donation of Constantine betrays the insatiable power cherished by the Roman priesthood. plenaria. is considered independent even of the Emperor. which arose on the foundation of the ancient Imperial hierarchy.

Gesch. 1863) has demonstrated that this fiction is of Roman It is. In the course of time the donation was Parisiensis about 854. Hist. ideas therein contained. while the Church vicar of Christ is the Pope. its founder. J. d. 1853.. the monarch of which is Christ. Grceca^ vi. Not until the fifteenth century was it extended to the entire West. and falls between the years 752 and 777. and principal features the dual relation in which Church and Empire. after having several times in vain tried to shake off DöUinger (" Die Schenkung Constantin's. Charles was various territories comprised within this Carolingian donation. In such terms Conthe stantine's donation pronounces the separation of the two powers. this is. Spoleto. p." Papstfabeln des MittelMünchen. von Leo /. the indicates in its spiritual and temporal. from which alone the Church derives her civil form and power. K. If Adrian's biographer be correct.. incessantly reminded him of his promises of the year It therefore becomes necessary to examine the 774. at a late date. For an inquiry into the refuted by the crushing criticism of Valla. stood towards each other throughout the entire Middle Ages. see L. 1883. ^gidi. . It was only translated into Greek discovered even earlier than 752. who. recognised by the Emperor as a self-existing spiritual kingdom.^ long harassed by the continued exhortations of the Pope. R. at the same time. Langen. to be origin. 129 Görresges. Pope and Emperor.Z^2 HISTORY OF ROME time arose. It is mentioned by ^neas Fabricius. however. d. p. with bitter reproaches.. Jahrb. Bibl. Grauert. &c. 725. . While the Empire remains the highest conception of temporal majesty. K. Der Filrstenrath nach dem ^ alters^ Lüneviller Frieden^ Berlin. since the history of the provinces of which the donation treats cannot be severed from that of Rome.

363 previous Geographica. and received the symbols ofspoieto. example was followed by the inhabitants of Fermo. Hist. 775. vol. In spite of the Cod. and that Spoleto henceforward belonged uninterruptedly to the Frankish kingdom. prcesentialiter obtu lisits protectori vestro B. It was asserted that in 774 Charles had . Roman citizenship by the cutting of hair and beard. claim anything beyond the right to estates. see W.. any sovereign this With regard p. envoys from the same duchy appeared in Adrian's presence. Petro. came to Rome. of the both of Spoleto and Reate. and received from him the ratification of Hildebrand. Duchi di to Spoleto. Tuscany. 341 : quia tinum Ducatuni vos dominiuvi Fatteschi. at len^^th succeeded. Huillard. Dipl. did ^^^^['j^^i^'' homage to the Pope. 249. Martens. but beyond this province the Apostle also claimed property in Lombard Tuscany. 50. . On Desiderius's escape to Pavia.. - 1230 : Castelhini Felicitatis ^ Ninth to Frederick the quod nunc dicitur Civitas de iii.1 Lombard yoke. Friderici II. however. limits to the entrance of the Franks. ^ The Castellum di Felicitatis. Pope. maintains that the entire country.. Cenni. and the Acts Iviii. ctd Amt. Ancona.^ All these statements are. Ivi. where she was owner of some rights. the papal party have never ventured to utile for the Istria. Carol. whom they themTheir selves had previously chosen as their duke. was later known as Citta Castello. The Church had no more also the Spoleto than to Memorie —de 142. Die römische Frage.IN the THE MIDDLE AGES. although without to the Pope. doubtful but that Charles refused to cede Spoleto to the Pope. Osimo. p. formerly Tifernum. and the Castellum Felicitatis. et ipstim Spole- Muratori. is beyond all question. Peter in Roman Tuscany remained undisputed. however. Influential citizens.^ Further claims made by S. tendered him the oath of allegiance. in Letter of Gregory the Second Castello. was made over question. in the Chronicle of Farfa.

Balneum Regis (Bagnorea). xc.. . had already issued commands ^ to the Duces of both provinces. relinquished claim to the duchies of Tuscany and Spoleto. It has been asserted that. are not supported by any evidence. Adrian expressly speaks of these estates in a letter. Tuscana. also The same territory. however. Ixv.364 HISTORY OF ROME presented Soana. There was later a further promise of two cities. Carol.. 366. without otherwise abandoning his rights to the Pope. the Cenni includes Tuscia without . which Charles hesitated to surrender. Lombard Kings. together with other places not mentioned.^ The estates in the Sabina bore the names Territorium and Patrimonium Savinense. where the Pope gives orders to the Dux of Lucca.. to which Charles apparently made large additions. Gregory the First. These assertions. who. which had been seized by the Lombards. .^ The Church had possessed estates from old times throughout Tuscany. that Adrian. 480. however. as successor of the Sabina. he made a new treaty with the Pope . awarding them afresh to S. but received a part of Lombard Tuscany and the Sabina.^ Regalis (Toscana) in donation. without however. Untersuch. in consideration all of a tribute. having been ruler either in Naples or Sardinia. Peter in 781. in Cenni. in his work. and the magnanimous Charles now added to these estates the gift of new patrimonies. from which it would appear that they had actually been ceded to him. at the same time. Carol. This view has been advanced by Ficker. Rosellae and Populonia in Tuscia Ducalis.. He bases this opinion on the Cod. Ixviii. Ixxxix. Viterbo. ii. although rights of sovereignty. state of things prevailed in the Sabine Here the Church owned estates. but did not include the ^ Cod. pays no attention.

939 Ingilbaldus Dux et rector territorii Sabinensis .^ If the Pope found difficulty in making himself master of these territories. possessed several estates. 365 entire province. Peter in Rome. sicut ex antupiihis fuit sigiia inter partes constituentes The Roman boundary appears as Signum. S. Previous to the year 939 no document found in the register of Farfa.^ end of the eighth century. the Church only retained the smaller part of the Sabina. 93. entreats that the frontiers . and. and made to constitute a special Comitatus under the supremacy of the Church. Cod. and not until after 939 is it proved by documents that the province was separated from the duchy of Spoleto. Sarilonis Marchionis et Redoris 2 Fatteschi.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Ixxi. but differences about the boundaries arose between the Church and Rieti. although veterans a hundred years old testified to the fact that the lands in question had belonged to the Church since time immemorial. by whose rectors. these differences were not settled It follows that. the greater part of which belonged to the of Duke of Spoleto. 387. the dates of the reign A. Peter's. and could produce numerous deeds of ^ Ravenna. and to the poor. See also Ep.. the trouble he encountered in the Exarchate was much more serious. 941 of the Pope are here given. A. Carols Ivi. 248. 405. the revenues of which were devoted to the maintenance of the lamps in S. Ixviii. under the title of Marchio or Comes. He . relating to the Sabina is : : Territorii Sabinensis^ &c. These were unquestionably papal rectors. it was administered. in Cenni. . The royal and papal legates went thither to assume possession. may be . at the to the advantage of the saint. Apollinare in Ravenna. defined. pp. . like S. We are ignorant of the extent the ecclesiastical estates in this district.

Imola. Papir. arch- bishops. not to the pontiff.. but ^ Dux Agnellus.^ The . which produced a revenue of no less vegetables. Both may have borne the title judex simply the Pope apjDears to have sent Comites to the smaller Cod. li. in Cenni. while the . such as Gabellum. the presbyter Philippus for spiritual. strove for temporal authority within their beauteous domains Pipin's but after donation the Popes succeeded in making good their claims. woollen stuffs. Carol.000 flowed into the episcopal coffers. n. departure in Charles's the after archbishop 774.. liv. 335. fell to the remaining 16. with fruits and dyed purple. equally with the Popes. succeeded in occupying several cities of the Emilia. (Mavims occupied the archi- episcopal chair from 642 until 671. these cities had been presented. with skins than 31. Carol. liv. and other such valuable articles. Papal officials in the cities bore in general the title Actores. Eustachius for secular affairs. 273. and the city . 322. 2. places. The Church century. li.000 bushels of grain.. Vita Mauri^ c.) The Conductores of the Church in the earliest of Ravenna in Sicily appear as early as the year 444 which exists. : deed 2 Cod. the duchy of Ferrara. a title frequently encountered in documents of Ravenna.^ Nevertheless.. printed in Marini. with draperies of hyacinth-blue silk. and Bologna..000 of these Treasury in Constantinople. and Stephen the Second sent his Comites and Duces into the towns of the Ravennese Two judices had even appeared in the territory. . of Ravenna.000 gold solidi 15. 'jt.366 gift HISTORY OF ROME out of the archives of the early as city. in Cenni. that the rectors of her estates on the island could yearly send vessels laden with 25.. and in Maintaining that driving away the papal officials. as the seventh drew revenues so considerable from Sicily.

or dread of their loss. and oaths. betraying. to 367 revolt. as they do. and even the fortress belonging to it in Lombard Tuscany. can be read only with feelings of disgust. seized several of the estates which Charles had conferred on the Church. the "rebellion " of Ravenna. and worldly ambition lurked behind the form of a sainted Apostle. Prankish from which he returned more audacious than before. of those contained in the Codex Carolimis. the gain of spiritual welfare is made the reward for gifts of territory and vassals. 51 to 54.^ The Pope renewed his comHis letters. either undisguised longing for temporal possesWhile the increase of sions. himself. which treat of . and now Dux in Chiusi. Ix. in order to justify himself to Charles against Adrian's complaints.. and Adrian in vain sent his envoys to the province to receive the oath of allegiance and to demand hostages. temporal power is boldly termed the advancement of the Church. The papal messengers were driven away by force of arms. already heaped with deeds of gift. formerly Lombard lieutenant in Castellum Felicitatis. Car. Cod. 337. anathemas. letters. At the same time Reginald. went in person to the court.. like the greater part plaints to the King.IN to THE MIDDLE AGES. and heavenly bliss is allied to the sacrifice of earthly possessions. Iv. in Cenni. Vulgar passions were hid behind the coffin of a saint. who during his life had never owned the smallest temporal ^ Cum exeniiii in eandcm civil. he stirred up the Pentapolis The archbishop. affairs He forbade the Ravennese or the inhabitants of the Emilia to go to Rome on of government. nostrain Castelli Felicitatis properans. see Cenni. For these letters.

The Pope implored the King not to grant them a hearing. much more clearly was it the case with Rome. Ixxxv. 421. although unprovided with a papal letter.. Carol. the suppliants had been accorded a In 783 two influential citizens of Ravenna. The Pope did claim on Ravenna until after not succeed in making good his yS^. of which city Charles was Patricius. vanquished the opposition of the archbishop. only complained that. and where. Adrian's letter betrays the fear that through Charles he will lose some jurisdiction. had been guilty of serious offences. where their trial would be conducted with the assistance of the Prankish envoys.. and had escaped from the papal tribunal to Charles's court. permitting them to seek justice in France.26S HISTORY OF ROME property. had even been accused of murder. but to send them to Rome. The sovereignty had in no wise been transferred to the Pope and if this can be proved with respect to Ravenna. displicere atit rectum est. . which. and after his death had neither knowledge of earthly affairs nor interest in them.'^ Another instance had already taught the Pope that ^ Sed nee nostra paternitati Cod.. belonged to him in the provinces. he was startled by the claims to supremacy put forward by the Prankish King himself. Carol. sq. ad vos pro- peraverit. with the aid of Charles. 2 Cod. Ixxv. according to treaty.^ Eleutherius and Gregorius. he exercised sovereign authority. Ixxvi. . territorial . but after having. The Ravennese appealed from the Roman jurisdiction to the King the Pope. qiialisaimque ex nostris aut pro salutationis causa ^ qucsrendi justitiam. as we shall soon plainly see. in Cenni. hearing.

become of itself a right. unconditionally. in the conqueror of Italy. The occf^v'f'C flic title of patrician had. 369 was not disposed to let him govern Charles had imprisoned Anastasius. Pipin as a barren distinction. I. could the Archbishop of episcopal . acquired rights as an altered meaning and from having been borne by Patncms. Ixi. Frankish envoys had. for At the same his time he reproached the King court Paschalis and fled retaining at Saracinus. whose place he filled ? He wrote to the Pope that he esteemed the dignity of the patriciate as worthless. it had. The Pope affected to consider the arrest of a Nuncio a deed unparalleled in the memory of man. in Cenni. and entreated him to deliver these offenders into the hands of the Roman tribunal. and required Charles to surrender the envoy to the Roman jurisdiction. He had thus violated international law in the person of an envoy. Were Charles's letter but forthcoming. In 788 or 789 Charles strove to acquire the right of confirming the election of the Archbishop of Ravenna. the papal Nuncio at his court. solely on the ground of indiscreet speech.IN his royal friend THE MIDDLE AGES. What could be more natural than that Charles should revive the power of the Exarch. two rebels who had from Rome.^ The Pope was soon startled by yet further demands. in the course of time. Leo the Isaurian. 2 A . II. ^ This important letter is No. already opposed the appointment of Leo his successor on the archithrone. VOL. and been guilty of conduct no less despotic than that of his predecessor. on the death of the Archbishop Sergius. we should assuredly find that he invoked the Charles rights of his patriciate in regard to Ravenna.

with diplomatic subtlety. Peter's name. Peter also had worn the purple fillet. as we have seen. formed the actual basis of the temporal power of the Papacy. Adrian spoke in all seriousness of a patriciate of S. and : to Charles the Patricius. a Patricius also.^ Scarcely had he expressed his consciousness of the rights of the Patricius when the Pope. and will be raised : Popes individual aims behind the policy. qui plus pro vestrce decertare moliatur exaltatione^ is quam nostra apostolica assidua deprecatio. . the saint. the mythic figure of the Apostle appears as the most powerful lever. but that of the They wrote.370 HISTORY OF ROME The Pope Peter in ca^acit tiie Ravenna be elected without his sanction. with regard to the papal always concealed their person of the Apostle. replied S. and the superstitious dread of a dead saint. the offender was unhesitatingly pronounced a spoiler of the Temple. When they letters to monarchs in S. Pope speaks of the dignity of the patriciate. Writing to Charles. that a This the first time in the Cod. did anyone venture to infringe their rights. and. Did the priests covet territory ? The property was not theirs. Carolin. it was in the guise of representatives of the Holy Apostle. whose remains were supposed to lie buried beneath the shrine of the church which bore his name. that the 1 He must have written to regalis Excellentice this effect. he said " Since the dignity of your patriciate will always be faithfully upheld by us. In the subtle mechanism of the temporal Papacy. and from this patriciate traced the origin of Pipin's first donation. It will already have been observed. Peter. since Adrian replied : pro honore vestri Patriciatus nullus homo esse videtur in mundo. appeared in opposition to princes. now opposed himself. threatening Apostle.

. or as Second Consul.. 721. Mansi. et plus amplius honorifice s. so in like manner the of S. as coEmperor. weighed its deeper issues. the secular. mentioned by Siegbert.fautoris vestri. dared Charles refuse him the title? He allowed the question to remain in abeyance. magno Rege. although fallen to Qtiia utfati sumus (thus I correct est is). fecitque pactum cum Rojuanis eorumque de ordinatione pontificis.. et a vobis confiri7iatus . Pet7'i. German. 37 patriciate to higher honour. 2 Charles laid no claim to the investiture of the Bishop of Rome. pontifice. confirmed by you. he would have discovered that the spiritual monarch only regarded him. i. fully conceded to writing by your father. is Amt. simili modo ipse Patriciatus record. Roma {Mon. in scriptis in integro concessus. et must be referred only . your protector. de imperatoria 719) with regard to Charles after his arrival in Rome. 774. ad also of the v. ad Ann. to the Constitutions after the year 800. and Ravenna. The statements potestate in urbe Acts of a Lateran Council. nobis irrefragabiliter conservatur. Concil. later the residence of the ^ Exarchs. 773. D. Cod. honoratur . Pippino. xcvii. belonged to the Pope. however. &c.. Cenni. together with its public buildings. The letter may belong to the year 790. in the fact that Charles in 784 begged art Adrian's permission to remove to the request. honor Patriciatus vestri a etiani b. Suppl. 521. 13. a fiction. and that Adrian acceded The palace of the great Theodoric. Peter. however.^ The defenders of papal sovereignty in these ages claim to have a self-evident proof that the city of him in the great King Pipin. Ixxxv. ut interesset quis legal us. Carolin. But this Council."^ When S. Libell. irrefragabili jure permaneat. Had he. Peter appeared as competitor. the Pope. must remain inviolable. in the government of Rome and the West. to the According aMrarded him this right. tain a. genitore amplius vestro. some works of from Ravenna to Aachen. and Pagi.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

pr^esidia owned The Venetians They were already . tam marmora^ quamque mosivum. carried to Germany. ^ Ixxxiv. When in 785 Charles ordered the expulsion of all Venetian merchants in Ravenna and the Pentapolis. the Pope had his orders immediately carried into effect. in Cenni. and there employed in the decoration of the new cathedral at Aachen. Vita Carol. he was. vers. 26 : Ad cicjus structuram cum columnas atque et marmora aliunde habere non posset^ Roma : Ravenna devehenda curavit.. although. Quasda?n pracipuas pulcra Ravenna Carol. Ixxxi. As early as the time of Pope Zacharias it is recorded that Venetian merchants. in Cenni. asserting that they did not belong to the Church. nevertheless. c. Ixxxiii. C(zteraque exempla de eodejn palatio vobis concedimus auferenda.^ Ravenna. et 439: nos quippe — vestrce Excell. 439 Ad quce Cod. Charles also had the equestrian statue of Theodoric brought from Ravenna to Aachen. the Dux Garamanus. tribuimus effectum. or rather because.372 decay. the possession of Ravenna. mosaic pave- ments. the Prankish envoy. ready elsewhere and in other matters to recognise the authority of the King. Carol. . (Venetici) there striving for and possessiones. And the Poeta Saxo. . ^ Cod. Ixvii.. to beautify which many buildings in Rome had likewise been deprived of their But although the Pope was lord in costly marbles. sions still HISTORY OF ROME retained its splendid pillars.^ The violent expulsion of the Venetians seems to be associated with the traffic which they carried on in slaves and eunuchs. These valuable posses- were torn from their original site. had sequestrated several estates in the Ravennese territory. and marble panels. competing with the Greeks in a highly lucrative ^ Eginhard. 459. marmoreas prczstabat Roijia columnas^ dedit.

as great and strong. 222. Adrian now caused the Greek vessels in its harbour to be set on fire. bought slaves strove to suppress this traffic in to the Rome. constructed Rutilius speaks of this har- by Trajan. . assured him nothing of the kind had taken place. and the Pope lamented that he had no vessels at his own command. in reply that Romans had been guilty of selling Saracen Adrian. rarely did even a trader enter The stream of commerce had already been entirely diverted to Centumcellae. human Pope that tidings had reached him that the slaves. and added that the inhabitants of these shores. Centumcellae. Naples. trafficking in goods and slaves Ravenna. the town or its fortress had played a part in the Gothic war. Greeks. had in many cases voluntarily gone on board the vessels of the Greek merchants to end their days in slavery.^ n. no less than of the necessity of defending it from pirates.^ flesh. however. Amalfi. but that the godless Greeks bought slaves along the stretches of the Lombard coast. Pont. like the Venetians. coasted along the Adriatic and Tuscan Venice.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. No Roman navy rode any longer in : the harbour of Portus the deserted port. . and Pisa forming the centres of their trade. the present Civita Vecchia. bour. Dux of Lucca. in 373 Charles writing branch of trade. but Alio had refused. and in the time of Gregory the Great had been governed by a Comes. and the sailors thrown ^ Lib. to seize the Greek vessels in the Tuscan waters. coasts. reduced by hunger to despair. Its walls had been restored by Gregory the Third. Adrian had entreated Alio. on account of the importance of the place.

Amalfi. This fertile land. who was married to Adalberga. and by the Greek fleet. was protected by its remote position. Arichis. its size. After the downfall of the Lombard kingdom in Northern and Central Italy.^ 5. its alliance with the Greeks. Duke of — — — — — — — — — — Benevento. the Duke of Benevento became the natural enemy of the Popes. who zealously strove to Arichis effect his overthrow." ^ and Ixiii. a brave and distinguished prince. and some other towns of Calabria. Benevento alone had remained unconquered by the Franks. Carol.. its present duke. Ixv. HISTORY OF ROME the Pope thus showing himself sovereign in the country. as- sumed the title ^ of " Princeps. . Benevento independence. Benevento Arichis attains Independence Papal War on account of Terracina Charles's Second AND Third Visits to Rome Expedition against Benevento Conclusion of Peace Fresh DonaArichis negotiates with tion TO the Church Byzantium Byzantine Affairs Settlement of THE Iconoclastic Dispute Grimoald.374 into prison . Qf all the Lombard duchies. in Cenni. daughter of the unfortunate Desiderius. ruled. with the exception of the Greek cities of Naples. with its capital. the most beautiful and powerful city in Southern Italy. Benevento. over those provinces which in modern times formed the kingdom of Naples. and indifferent to the anger of the Greek Emperor. Sorrentum. Immediately after the fall of Pavia. thereby pro- Cod.

Lombard duchies began ItalietCs^ iii. His court became the centre of all the schemes his planned by the banished Adelchis for the recovery of his kingdom. Carol. divided into counties 206.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. A league was formed between Adelchis. belonged to the Greeks. Causing himself to be solemnly crowned by the bishops of his duchy.^ ^ Cod. cupientes hanc nostravi 2 Romanam invadere civitatem. but the Pope.^ defeating The King satisfied himself by Rodgausus in a rapid expedition against Treviso and Friuli. it extended to Gaeta. wrote to Charles to come and avert the threatened danger. unum conglobarent. for the expulsion of the Franks. the more eagerly contrived at Benevento. and the humiliation of the Pope. : qualiter —proximo Martio Gracorutn inense adveniente. Ivii. and Aquino formed the frontier towns seawards. 343. where Sora. i. Hildebrand of Spoleto. Arichis. obtaining knowledge of the design. Adrian . utrosque in et Athalgiso. but while he averted all further danger from all this side. and remained under the administration of the Patricius of Sicily. Rodgausus. like Terracina.. ^ lix. promulgated his diplomas from "sacred Palatium. to be and the provincial organisation and feudal system of the Franks were transplanted into Italy. which. into which the Archbishop Leo of Ravenna was also enticed. Arce. the duchy adjoined the Latin Campania. 375 AricWs Princeps. the . cum caterva terra niariqtie Desiderii filio^ et ad dimicandum super tws irruant. plots for a restoration were Landwards. in Cenni. Leo. and Reginbald of Chiusi. It was proposed to make a general attack in March yj^. claimed his independence." and apparently determined to found a Lombard monarchy in Southern Italy. sq. Arpino. Geschichte After the conquest of Friuli. he donned the purple. Duke of Friuli. .

Terracina. for the first Church with the troops of Frankish The Pope time. preferred to take it by force of arms. Napoli. Ix. successfully defended the district. 30. in 777. Ixxxiii. making war and even conquests. They rejected the peace made by the Pope. p.. must have already sunk into insignificance Adrian speaks of it. but denotes . The Beneventans had formed an alliance with Terracina and Gaeta (the temporary residence of the Patricius). in Cenni. in the days of Theodoric the Gothic King. with the object of invading the Campagna together. and. and effected the capture with complete success. Greek ^ at this time. Degli antichi duchi e consoli e Ipati delta cittä di Gceta. 1791. in Cenni. confiscated by Leo the Isaurian the Neapoli: tans.. but Adrian. arms he seized the Greek Terracina. who places it. and the oft-repeated in is servitio vestro. ^ Cod. 377. to send the army to Rome at the beginning of August at the latest. appears in the light of a temporal prince. . is spoken of as of some importance. p. Adrian exhorted the King to call out the whole " force of Tuscany and Spoleto. in order to not ^ only recover Terracina. with contempt. Carol.376 HISTORY OF ROME found himself repeatedly threatened from the latter quarter. even the " infamous Beneventans. although Federici denies it. and Muratori's supposition that it may belong to the year Gaeta was still 791 is refuted by Cenni. since force of : by although perhaps not altogether seriously. instead. which. Ixv.^ He had offered the city to the Neapolitans in exchange for the ecclesiastical patrimony in Campania.. The letter is earlier than 781.^ 357.^ thus. pariterque nostra not merely a phrase. p. Ixiv. Ut sub vestra atque nostra sint ditione. under the leadership of Wulfrin. however. Carol. Cod. forces of the overtures of uniting the counts.

He complained bitterly of the intrigues of Arichis. 781. Petronilla by the name of his grandfather (Pipin). Adrian's fears were justified. and Einhardi. The Vita Adriatii is two redactions at least. He arrived with his wife Hildegard. Moissiac. The letter Charles thus signifying his intention of uniting these provinces in one kingdom. Annal. which fall gives a minute description of political events up to the time of the of Pavia . in Rome . Chron. however. The son of Desiderius. ^ Some verses in . who had thwarted every negotiation with Naples. Ann. for the third time. ut fadera Grais Servares sapiens inviolata tatnen. seems to have been Rome immediately before the year 781. and declared himself Charles's co-sponsor. crated Lewis King of At Easter he conseAquitaine. however. The epitaph on Ccesarius. ad. had been indefatigably occupied in Constantinople in making preparations for an invasion of Italy. at Pavia. relying on the support of Sicily and his brother-in-law's duchy. the contents W'hich follow are frequently merely duplicate abstracts taken from the registers of the churches. and only awaited the arrival of Adelchis with Byzantine vessels to declare war. Laurisham . Charles itaiy.^ the altum written dominium of the King. . 401. Laurissenses . he is Dom. and his sons. and at Easter (April 15th) of the following year he came again to Rome. at Christmas 780. contains the lines : Sic blaiidus Bardis eras. deal with Charles's sojourn here spoken of as Consul. called for Charles's presence in Italy. son of Stephanus.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. daily received messengers from the Patricius of Sicily. Bouquet^ v. 37/ but also bring Gaeta and Naples into subjection. 780. The Pope here baptised Carloman in the chapel of S. Pipin King of Italy This scheme. Circumstances thus. the latest of silent it contains. Carloman and Lewis. The friendship between and Naples lasted but a short time. Dux of Naples.

tion of his bishops. Five years passed. . he proceeded to Rome early in 787. Here not only Adrian's entreaties. but returned to France by way of Pavia. limiting the extent of Pipin's donation. came. ad . Casin^ i. for the fourth time. being at the to march against Benevento.^ ii. Annal. . where Pipin took up his abode. urged him Arichis. but also considerations of his own position as ruler of Italy. He found Arichis now threw himself upon Salerno. incapable of long resisting Charles's forces. During Charles's sojourn a fresh treaty. who recognised the Prankish supremacy.^ tribute of 1 Ficker. f.. j . c.378 shattered HISTORY OF ROME the visions of the Popes. until Charles. sought to deter him by sending his son. time engaged in war with Naples. in the autumn of 786. to Italy. and the surrender of his treasury and his son Grimoald as hostages. After having celebrated Christ- Overcomes '^' 787? mas in Florence. . Arichis. 787 Tiliani Antz. Romuald. 786. Mon. Ann. He pledged himself to an annual 7000 gold solidi..^ The King undertook no expedition against Benevento. to Rome. ^ Einhardi. laden with valuable presents. however. 348. 786 Annal. himself. for whom the donation of Constantine would now seem to have been fabricated in vain. continued to alarm the Pope by his intercourse with the Greeks. was apparently made with the Pope. . during which interval we know nothing of the relations existing between Rome and Benevento. Charles detained the prince by his own person. Untersuch. and negotiated a peace through the interveq. The Chronicon. and the Franks advanced to Capua. Laurissens. and the Franks retired from Capua. (787) Poeta Saxo. .

quam b. sectotdtim vestratn donationem. 379 The third Easter that Charles celebrated in Rome Charles fresh dona- presented a fitting opportunity for the bestowal of a Dante. tradere. De Capua. — Ixxxviii. it can nowhere be shown that the Pope at any time obtained : According to his own acknowledgment. in 12.. p. Cenni.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Ixxxviii. who although neither believing in the validity nor the genuineness of his donation. Carol. addition.. and Ixxxvi... Cenni. xc.^ iv. Arce. 475 xc. and Arpinum. since to the latter monarch the Church owed the greater According to Adrian's part of her territorial property. Che inai non empie la brajjiosa voglia^ E dopo 'I pasto ha piufame che pria. Nevertheless. might with fresh donation on the covetous Apostle. xcii. and actual possession of these cities. the courts belonging to the State {curies publicce). in omnibus vakant. Cenni. cum — cccteris civitatibus obtulistis xcii. xci . . 483. atque sempiterna 7?iemoria. Ixxxi. The Roman Church was henceforward said : like that wolf of which Dante Ed ha natura si nialvagia e ria. Reg. Script. 2 Et partibus ducatiis Beneventani idoneos dii-igere dignetur missos^ qiti nobis. Ixxxix.. Petro pro mercede anijuce vestrce. the episcopal buildings. Cod. ipsiis civitates sub integritate . represents Constantine as the founder of the Ecclesiastical State.^ letters. in Muratori. der Karolinger^ ^ i.. there can be no doubt that Charles presented him with several towns in the Beneventan territory . 480. Aquino. They delivered the keys of the cities into the Pope's See. 103.^^^ more justice have reproached Charles the Great. Sora. Charles's envoys only surrendered the convents. ^hurch.^ The Pope expressly mentions the ancient and celebrated city of Capua other cities were Teano. Cenni. gives the conditions of peace. Cenni. Mühlbacher.

After the settlement of the Iconoclast Adrian demanded the restoration of the Sicilian patrimonies. Sacra Imper. . 1598). tion.. who. This Greek princess had brought from her native Athens to the throne of Byzantium a secret inclination to image-worship. ad Papam ii. had left the guardianship of the boy to his wife Irene. the worship of images was solemnly and the same Pope who had freed Italy and himself from the Byzantine Empire. remained silent. to regard the inhabitants of these cities as his subjects. dispute. but the Hbri Carolini of to an end by the Empress Theodora in 842 .380 HISTORY OF ROME keeping.^ woman won ^ a final victory. joined forces with Adelchis. however. Arichis broke his oath of vassal- age again. Byzantium. Irene obtained a place viii. on Charles's withdrawal. in Labbe.. The youthful Constantine the Sixth was the son of Leo the Fourth. held in the autumn of 787. and had summoned the Franks to their common protecrestored. &c. This donation was reduced to nothing when. had died away. expressed themselves decidedly against the adoration {Trpoa-Kvyrjoris) of images. now received a respectful invitation to visit During half a century the Greek Emperors had fought against the worship of images little by little the movement. forbidding him. and the Frankfort Cauncil of 794. Niccen. in the Acts of the Concil. dying in 730. Charles and Alcuin. however. until the machinations of a bigoted and imperious Constantinople. and sought aid from the Emperor Constantine.. and during her son's minority had found means of re-establishing this worship in the East. 678. The Pope complains of this to The Iconoclast controversy was brought Charles (Labbe. In the second Council of Nicea. Concil. a somewhat lukewarm Iconoclast. viii. honourable in an age sunk in the grossest superstition.

were betrothed. comb. . sicut Uli prcedictus Arichisus indui et to7tdi poUicitus fuerat. ^ Cod. and that the messengers had brought for the purpose the requisite gold-embroidered vestments. her throne. Charles complied with the request. in order the more firmly to secure Charles. to the The Pope conveyed the intelligence King of the Franks. whom he had taken away as hostage and. simul spatam. Grimoald the Second submitted of nising the Emperor's supremacy. In 781. and scissors. throup.IN in the THE MIDDLE AGES. et forcipes.h which Rome had The Empress been lost to the Greeks. under promise of recog- and of adopting the Greek dress and having his hair cut in Greek fashion that the Emperor had already sent two spathars to Sicily to invest him with the patriciate. vel pectinem. The Beneventans implored Charles to give them as ruler Prince Grimoald. The violent strug^g-le. her son Constantine the Sixth. Spatarios duos ad Patriciuiu et eum constituendum ferentes seciim vestes aura textas. in spite of Adrian's warnings and entreaties. assuring him that Arichis had demanded the title of Patricius and the duchy of Naples from Byzantium. 488. in Cenni. was thus tranquillised.. . 38 Calendar of the Saints. but the betrothal was broken off when Arichis sought to renew the alliance with . by means of Byzantine envoys. . but before the tribunal of God stands arraigned as the murderess of her son. Italy. xci. and Irene. Ixxxvii. Carol. . sought to unite her house by ties of marriage with that of the most powerful prince in the West.^ The sudden death of the duke prevented the execution of this design. and Charles's daughter Rotrudis. remained in the possession of the Frankish ^^^^^ King.. Constantine. Irene seeks ^^"^^ however.

22. c. Grimoaid the Second died 806 : . where he grew old in sorrow. the sorrowing Beneventans inscribed over his grave Perctäit adversas Francorum sape phalangas. married a Greek princess. The epitaphs not only of the Princes of Benevento.382 Grimoaid HISTORY OF ROME . in the hope of recovering ^j^g crown of Italy. vahiere hujus subdere colla —Anon. actually landed in Calabria in 788. who. Duke of ' Benevento. read in the Anon. and formed a close alliance with the Byzantine court.^ ^ Erchempert. epitaph on Arichis attributed to Paul. iv. 16. Diaconus c. may be c. The unfortunate son of Desiderius was forced to return hopeless to Byzantium. and ended his days as Patricius. The schemes for the restoration of the ancient Lombard kingdom were ruined. and in Pellegrino Historia Princ. Salvavit patriam sed. . . But neither his wars. tuam Sed quid plura feram ? Gallorum fortia sibi. of Salerno. Benevente. nor those of his successor. with King Pipin. Langob. belong to the province of necessity to Charles's behests this history. regtia Non The iii. according to his former intentions. but those also of the Consuls and Duces of Naples (see the same authorities) are valuable contributions to the history of the period. he even joined Pipin's troops against Adelchis.. 305. sq. Lombard rule only survived in the Dukes of Benevento. of Salerno. Grimoaid entered on his reign in the spirit of his father. Grimoaid the Third.

380. THE Aqua Trajana. may have been the arch Fea. V. the Claudia. known They further destroyed the ancient as Tres Falciclas. Tiber.^ ^ Evellens portam usque ad arcuj?i. In December 791. 356. the banks of the river. carrying its ruins to an arch in the Via Lata. falciclas. Rome was again devastated by an inundation of the The waters tore down the Flaminian Gate. the revenues at the disposal of the Church. probably more correctly. were in city . He was increased the restorer and rebuilder of the city. providing him with the means of carrying out his schemes of benevolence. Vignoli reads. sulle Rovine. the the aqueducts. n. Vita Adriani. ^S^ CHAPTER I. and the peace which the country enjoyed. Jovia.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. p. and Aqua Virgo Foundation of Colonies in the Campagna Position of the Coloni Adrian's Domus CuL T^ Capracorum. was old and decayed the churches. — — — — — praiseworthy than his ceaseless striving to increase the newly-arisen ecclesiastical State were Adrian's efforts for the welfare of the More Roman people. qui vacatur tres faccicellas. Condition of the City Inundation of the Tiber IN 791 Adrian restores the Walls of the City. . The origin of the it supposes that name is unknown. The walls. need of a thorough restoration. (destroyed in 1662) near S.

588. (in the hold neither with Fea that this it bridge was the Sublicius. The Mirabilia give a theatrum Roman. and towers of Rome previous to the year 791. 3. were obliged to lend a helping hand and to build allotted portions of the walls. 1838.^ Neither the ancient Emperors nor the Popes had been able to impose a check upon the Tiber. makes the Pope go ad This majorem viam Arenulce. Fabricii Judczorum). it had either not been sufficiently complete. and the Ordo ii. theatre can only have been that of Balbus (near the Cenci Palace). Antoninus.. Ne7'onianus ad Sassiam{\. now called the Ponte Sisto.. Fabricii in ponte Judceorum. Nibby. Tolas civitates lam Tuscice. called. Senatorum . Mus. Adrian had apparently restored when the peasantry of the various ecclesi- astical patrimonies. ^ Usque ad Pontem Antonini. ^ Roma nel. The Mirabilia say : arcus triumphalis Oclaviaiti ad S. Marco. Adrian now undertook an entire the walls restoration. Never since Imperial times had the Eternal City seen such crowds of workmen employed Rome was again fortified. Antonini in arenula. or else the last siege under Astolf had seriously injured the walls. Although this work of restoration had been begun under Gregory the Third. una . Antonini juxta pontem Antonini . 126). its waters continued from time to time to lay waste the city.\ie ruined bridge near S. ^ xi. Adrian walls. and the Romans themselves. : The Mirabilia P. 65. I Laurentitim in Lucina. though no in her service. quamque Campanice congregans. delli Retrofoli and di Portogallo. and threatened the bridge of Antoninus. give in correct : succession P. iii. ii. and nothing being any longer done to cleanse its channel or dam up its banks. Spirito). Rom. all the municipalities of Tuscany and Latium. in the Middle Ages. nor with Vignoli that was the Ponte Quatro Capi the Graphia Middle Ages.^ Lorenzo in Liicina. transiens per theatrum Antonini. Ital. (Mabillon.384 HISTORY OF ROME Porticus Pallacinae near S. Gratiani. Stadtb.

with their three hundred and eighty-seven towers. The Pope rendered in the restoration of a no slighter service to the city Restora- some of her aqueducts. No Imperial any longer protected the ancient monuments defenceless. and portions of priceless reliefs and statues. patrimonio. II. 326. After aqueducts. like a second Moses. which.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.^ Adrian now restored the Trajana. while as yet the Vatican territory remained unenclosed by the wall of Leo the Fourth. to satisfy the thirst of his people. beginning at some springs beside the Sabatine Lake (Lago di Bracciano). must have fallen a sacrifice to the lime-kiln. 331 simulque in balneo jtixta eandeni ecclesiam sito. cum popido Romano. Adrian arose. 355. The Trajana. In order to supply the fountains at S. and many fragments of temples and theatres. ^ ejusqiie suburbanis. 2 B . they surrendered their marbles. We may imagine the many relics of antiquity which now edict perished in the work of restoration. the Romans had been compelled to carry the water in casks at a great expense of labour. scarcely The any aqueduct had been restored since the days of the ^^J^"^Goths. n. nee non et toto Ecclesiastico Vita. n. which were seen and counted by a scholar in the beginning of the Aurelian. Peter's and the baths for the Easter pilgrims. 385 longer so strongly nor so skilfully as in the days of was these walls of Adrian. now lay in ruin for the second time. with the exception of the Trajana. We have seen that. : Vita. stretched its course over a distance of thirty miles to the Janiculum. ubi VOL. It ninth century. and was known even in Adrian's days as the Sabatina. Rome had suffered from a scarcity of water for more than two hundred years.

333. Vita Stephani III. or the feet of the wearied pilgrims. qui ad accipiendam eleemosynam in paschalem festivitatem anmie occurrere et lavari solebant . On the subject of the Alb.^ As the waters of the Trajana flowed at the bidding of S. though without ^ Dum vero forma. but when at length the fonts in the churches were completely empty. esse videbatur.^ The Claudia. Cassio. et in baptisterio eccL Salvatoris D. places it in 776.^ n. J. In the eighth century the desire to possess Thermae was regarded as an un- justifiable revival of Pagan luxury. Some of the Imperial aqueducts were then restored for God's service. Vita Adriani. spatia demolita in balneis Latej^an. flowed from the mountains of Subiaco over a distance of thirty-eight miles. so did those of the Claudia at the behest of S. we may infer that the The work was accompHshed in the year 775.386 and. probably of ancient origin. At the Lateran there was a similar bath. n. 271 . and had been finished et fratres nostri Christi pauperes. Ch. 359Cassio. ^ 39. de ipsa aqua lavari solebat. the contents being devoted to providing the Easter fountains outside the churches. &c. a testimony to the antiquity of the ceremony of the washing of the feet. Paschce decurrere solebat. per annor. unde qucE Claudia vacatur. and since in the Hfe of the Pope it is asserted that it had not been in use for twenty years before its restoration. i. The capital of Christendom had long suffered the extremest dearth of water. n. Peter. Corso delP acque. restoration of the Trajana : I. . pars. n. p.. et in tlures ecclesias in die s. the cry arose that the famine was no longer to be borne. et any reason. 7t. Vita. where the water was poured on the heads of the newly-baptised. 333. since HISTORY OF ROME we assume that the aqueduct had been destroyed by Astolf s soldiery. the most valued of the Roman aque- ducts. John the Baptist.

until populace of restored to its had provided the Baptistery of the the Goths deprived both saints and streams. Gate (Porta Maggiore) and. Its arches so far surpassed all others in height that. repaired by Adrian. restored by Adrian and called The '°^'^' the Jovia. eight miles from Rome. starting at the Via Collatina. where it ended at the. may have been derived from Jovius was probably the Antoniniana. " its waves fell over the brow of the hills of Rome. A third aqueduct. n. dividing in canals and on arches.^ A fourth was the celebrated Aqua Aqua Virgo. from its reservoir in the gardens of the freedman Pallas. however. August 52. Cassio decides in favour of the Marcia. reached the city near the Murus ruptus on the Pincio. it had provided the city with a scanty supply of water. tine reached the city at the Praenes. so-called of Einsiedeln notes the name at the Porta Appia the Arch of Drusus there supported an aqueduct." After it a circuitous course. according to the expression of Cassiodorus. After the time of Constantine it Lateran. it flowed as copiously as in the days of old. restored by Diocletian. sending its branches to the Aventine and Palatine. continued under the hill. and Diocletianus . It must. have been some extent by some of Adrian's prede- biography of the Pope. The Anon. . it supplied the greater portion of the city. which. is discovered under the same name along the Via Appia. the Aqueduct of Nero continued its course to the Ccelian. supplied the entire Field of cessors. in the '^ ^ Fortna qua: Jobia vacatur. Jobia was an actual name. on the birthday of the Emperor Claudius. previous to the time when. it is stated that. 387 i. a branch of the Marcia. which had been brought by Caracalla to his it baths. since.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Thence.Temple of Claudius. 332. and. Vita. .

. convents. P. must already have boasted a numerous it population. ^ At present the proportion is as follows of 362 tenute of the Ager Romanus. Safe from the dread of further invasions on the part of the Lombards. had been guided by a young maiden to its copious springs. them on lease to private indi- Accident has preserved the register of the leases under Gregory the Second in an abstract drawn up by a cardinal in the eleventh century a document — •• Formce. saw its ruined arches in the neighbourhood of the column of Antonine for?7ia virginis frada. had been begun by Agrippa had received its name from a tradition which related how some soldiers. either cultivated her let own farms. but peasant class. convents. hospitals. which.^ The The Pope also directed his attention to the Cam- Campagna P^gna. within which families of civic nobility also possessed considerable and even city guilds owned property. as generally the case.^ The was Church viduals. quce Virginis appellatur. although the Field of Mars. Adrian restored the aqueduct with such success as to leave almost sufficient to supply the whole city. atque minis plena existebat — noviter dum per annor. when it exchanged the name for that of Trevi.388 Mars. of Eins.59. It HISTORY OF ROME . the city. spatia demolita^ earn restauravit^ n. of a free for the utter absence Churches. for which it was more especially required. and hospitals had gradually monopolised vast to tracts in the territory belonging estates. or. : : . in search of water. of churches. might again have been cultivated and repopulated. 336. It was known as the Aqua Virgo until the fifteenth century. The Anon. 236 are in the possession of secular individuals 126 in that Emidio Pitorri. and religious places.

they received different names. and many details regarding particular Colonic The lands were cultivated by men of half-free condition. or altogether colonia. xenia^ or angaria. and were therefore servi terrcB. PapiH.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. und bürgerliche Verf. documents of still be E. 389 of priceless value. The dwellings of the labourers were called casales. soil who had to discharge services according to contract Tributales. Leipzig. Originarit. Reichs. Kuhn. d. to the Pope's head cook. xlvi. Die i. or the number of days in the week which such peasants as had been reduced to the level of day labourers were required to render of their own hands or their own oxen. Marini. to notaries. 1864. and to women.. röm. dwellers Massa or Mansus. who could only sites.2 Such was the name for the compulsory work. men and their families personally tributary in the Mansuarii. which acquaints us with the extent of the papal patrimonies. . the last word having passed into the language as the term for burden or oppression. such as were born on the belonging to the landlord Conditionales. Adscripti^ and Censibus . although often classed with the latter under the general term Familia. 1835. adscripti. Ueber den röm. The position of the colonate at this period can explained by the institutions of the städtische Roman Empire. They were considered free in comparison with the slaves.. Colonat. 257. the year 1027.^ Position of be sold together with the soil itself. n. casce^ cases colonicicB. 2 Concerning Angariales. Savigny. and Curtis or farm ^ is a customary expression of the time. ff. In documents of the eighth century compulsory services are frequently termed opera. those . According to the condition of the various members of this hereditary peasant class. In the collection of Deusdedit we find leases to milites.

and in a barbarous age it is scarcely probable that the peasantry found sufficient protection in the law. rent in . : Colonia . together with their wives and children. escaping from the estate. . finally. . Ducange's Canon of . . viellis pondo . they had fled to monasteries. . they ran away and hid themselves in the woods or mountains as in earlier times. There are. . see Letters of in Gregory n. n. peasants remained the same as in When the farmers of the taxes {con- ductores).^ More pitiable. or. was the condition of the servi (the serfs). where several coloni are specified by name. . to Farfa. per ehdomadam opera archives of Farfa. . A. 33 Dux . . of the colonic on a soil of inexwas not oppressively hard. . frequent instances of emancipation the conception of libertas endured even in the eighth century. ^ With regard to the colony. lactis pondo . . in spite estate. . . It thus frequently happened that. Ravenna (Marini. the lot haustible fertility. . were regarded as fixtures of the Information regarding the administration of justice and the penal code is not forthcoming. The (in Fatteschi. anse7-es . 750). the documents of Farfa.390 HISTORY OF ROME letters Through Gregory's we have already been made acquainted with the general conditions of the farmer. . Marini. and Roman citizenship . . 137) . .. prostat solldos numero . tre77iisses siliquas . p. . the chief overseers of the patrimony (rectores) were upright men. . . . gallinas ova . show a donation of Lupo. and the numerous documents of the abbey of Farfa respecting donations or barters show that the relations of the ancient times. 263. the Liber Diurnus. . and until refuge in monasticism had been forbidden. however. . .D. I. in xenio laridi pondo . or the administrators {actores). of Spoleto. the papers Glossary. however. who were protected by no right of person. of the fact that these men.

and Capracorum respectively. Two bore the name of others those of Calvisianum. private individuals endowed convents with property for the " welfare of their souls. cumido libertatis largito. and no work of Christian piety was accounted was still solemnly more meritorious than that of serf emancipation.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. c. n. n. v. n. Reg.. 75) eighth century. '^ ibid. most cases fatal to their existence. di Storia pairia Rome. xxviii. section concerning this Pope. tit. Pap. ademptio liberos dimittimus . malaria or the hostile raids of outsiders indeed did proving in arise.^ We cultcB^ have already mentioned the erection of the work of Zacharias. Galeria. xxiv.. Edistius. diurn. Tomassetti.. Adrian instituted a general redistribution of the patrimonies of the Church. civeijique Romamim soluttun ab omni subjectionis noxa decernimtis. nostrar. Farfa. both municipal and suburban. 12. S. Montana and Thomas. 1878. ." t-he in the Arch. Domus cultce. The first (Galeria). vi. And the testament of Mananes of the year 575 . : Bonostilo derico liberto nostra. In the (Marini.^ and founded six Galeria. and to have laid the foundation of villages. 94. ingemios esse volo civesqtie Rojuan^s. : quos pro animar. n." they were frequently moved by motives of compassion to set free their slaves. must not be confused with the Etruscan Leucius. : servi et ancillcc. where the Pope grants Hberty to two slaves. developed into the prcBceptuni libertatis of the Lib. ab omni se}'vili fortiina et conditione 21 liberum esse censemiis. ill "Campagna Romana. Fatteschi. . Some hamlets but only to enjoy a brief tenure of prosperity. . Domus Adrian's ^^^//^"^ These establishments might naturally have been expected to contribute to the increase of population on the Campagna. ^ The charhda mamimissionis in Ep.. which stood on the Via Aurelia beside Silva Candida. of Gregory the First. 391 When conceded to slaves. 97.

^ deserted. 328: Monast. had fallen to decay. posit. as Procopius calls it. fifteen miles anum.^ Adrian's second D omits culta (known also as Galeria) was situated beside the twelfth milestone of the Via Aurelia. A college . cum vineis Asprula. while Portus and Ostia. quce vocatur Ducange's explanation that the fundus was called lecticarius^ had to be approached on a litter.392 site HISTORY OF ROME bearing the same name on the Via Clodia. once the resort of numerous pilgrims. Laurentii. was now anxious to repopulate colony. p. i8. even Arsis. Maria di Galera or in Celsano is held to be the site of ^ one of the Domus cultce Vita. Pitorri. in S. ^ Several other ancient names appear at this period. villa stood Calvisianum. of Pope Zacharias. relapsed into marshes. Lawrence. The ecclesiastical Basilica of S. For instance. in insula portus Rojuani. and the Pope. b. determined to establish a of his foundation cannot be ascer- 1 The tenuta of S. had.^ The Insula sacra. where a tenuta bearing the name Ponte It a Galera still commemorates its existence. The site it. ei pertinentibus E. is marvellous. also embraced property on the island of the Tiber. even in the time of Adrian. Caivisi- Along the Via Ardeatina. Maria in . near a monastery dedicated to S. from Rome. is mentioned from time to time the in the Liber Pontificalis by the enigmatical name buildings. Hippolitus. because it simulque et lecticarium. and to this may possibly have belonged. the ancient ports of the Tiber. probably an ancient called by the name of the family to whom The in territory of the ancient Latins cities it had belonged. which olden time had boasted so important as Lavi- nium and Ardea. of lecticarii (carriers of institution the estate litters) had existed in ancient times. or Portiis Romani. and Rutuli. n. on an inscription belonging to the eighth century.

of all these farms was Capracorum. Coccejanum. Cervinariola. A country church bearing the latter name. Servilianuni. is once mentioned Gregory. a jugerum. 1882.. 393 tained with accuracy. d. and the church of farms. Rom. Soc. 2 The uncia was the twelfth part of by S. for the last time.. (in the territory of Gabii). Its ruins were shown in the eighteenth century near the Torre del Quinto. 559. we find a Ftindus Poi7ipejanus (the present Fundus Mercurianus.^ Adrian's parents here this Capracorum. the richest in Roman Tuscany. 561. in the course of time. 20 feet long by 10 wide. remained marked only by the ruins of Rome's ancient rival. named in Vegentano and in Rom. 115).^ S. estates such as Hosiiliamcm. Leucius. dedicated to a bishop of Brindisi. . and again. Casavini.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. The here ** were Nepesino." {Arch. This church. the ^ The church there inherited three uncics from the estate (Massa Aratiana) of the Consul Leoninus. become known as that of the neighbouring Nepi. V. note fundi situated p. at the fifth milestone of the Flaminia. In the leases of Second a Campus Veneris. formed the centre of the colony. n. Gregory the Porriamtm. owned a Fundus Capracorum. The district of Veii. fundus Mompeo in the Sabina). under Gregory the Seventh. Galletti. and the Veientine territory had. A Lucretianum names Casa nova. Delia Camp. ^ Del prim. 54. Tomasetti..^ We have already observed that the Campagna was at this time better provided with country churches than at the present day. served as the centre of one of Adrian's The most celebrated. and even that of the culta Edistius remains Domus unknown. Casa simiama have a modern Italian ring. Pompilianum. which stood at the sixteenth milestone of the Ardeatina. however. and so utterly deserted that its very name was forgotten. qnoxv On the other hand. and out of Cosmedin and in Deusdedit. It is also discovered in Vita Benedicti III.

). products which were stored in the granaries and cellars of the Lateran. and a bowl of soup. see Vita Adr. and a hundred pigs were yearly killed and taken to the Lateran. from the blessed products of Capracorum. and. and the bounty of the Pope. The foundation was entirely his own. In a diploma of Farfa (Fatteschi. roughly speaking Ben. ^ In porticu ubi et ipsi pauperes depicti sujtt. estate The yielded corn.394 the HISTORY OF ROME Pope determined to found an agricultural colony. and wine. but to the exclusive benefit of the poor. with which the walls of the loggia were adorned. therefore actual With regard to Capracorum. 327. already of considerable importance under still the was so at this time. a flask of wine. n. The oak woods of Capracorum nourished large herds of swine. n. therefore \\ pound per man) or cuppam capicntitm calices duos. received a pound of bread. 328. deciinatas viiii duas bill of fare is as follows drink for 100 poor. of Soracte says a foglietta : caldaria plena de pubnento.^ The same number of poor daily repaired to the episcopal palace. Accompanied by his clergy and the Roman nobility. and was dedicated to the noblest aims. . 339.^ ^ The breeding Emperors. xxi. from the soil of ancient Veii. vegetables. of swine. the centre of which was to be a church dedicated to S. decimata corresponds to 60 pounds. Theodicius. They consumed their meal in the portico of the palace. Dux of Spoleto. the finest ornament of — an episcopal palace. nor to the supply of monks in any con- lamps at any shrine of the dead. and could meanwhile contemplate at leisure the representations of similar banquets. Its revenues were to be devoted neither to the maintenance of idle vent. jDolenta. concedes to the abbey : debeant in 764 the right of summer pasturage for 2000 head of swine papulare in gtcaldis nostris. : The (the : pulmentuni ex milio fachwi. he came to consecrate his colony. millet broth.. Peter.

. Leo the Fourth. Porta AngeUca. Capracorum is expressly i. a striking since the have been free citizens. Adriatic /. indicated as a fortress. ._DOM^LEONIS PP. Pagina he explains by the facade of a wall between two towers. men are called militia. ^ The militia of Capracorum forms a rare instance of the transformation of coloni into free tenants. p. 7. Numbers had acquired freedom free men from the surrounding country had gathered into the town. CAPRACORUM QUAR. occasionally transferred from the prcesiditim to the oppidani (Deusd. 1 HANC TURREM PAGINE UNA. . A MILITIA ET. pp. 8). TEM. 81). out of an agricultural settlement had arisen a fortress with its own militia. had impelled the colonists to fortify Capracorum. 73 n. F ACTA. Co^^i {Capracorian coloiiia fundata da S. 48.^ n. in the eleventh century at least.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. was able to impose compulsory service towards the work on the inhabitants of Capracorum. p. still An built ancient inscription exists to inform us that a portion of the walls between the two towers was predecessor's foundation. Annot. This inscription. is to be found in Marini. Borgia Docum. EGO AGATHCE (Patron of the militia). 46. it 395 Adrian's foundation throve so quickly that soon became a strong and populous colony. however. . . 240. and had there become burghers and thus. Fifty years after its foundation. which stands high above the entrance from the street. Pressure from the Saracens. desiring to build a wall round the Borgo of the Vatican. 48. . (Marini. and had forced many of the country people to bear arms. i by the coloni of his On the tablet the workfact.^ milites must necessarily . Rome. The name milites was. note l to 48. near a second inscription referring to the MiHtia The word Saltisine. and n.

Xo him omamcnt. — — ThE Adrian's zeal with regard to the churches almost surpassed that of his predecessors and the taste foi building shown by him and his immediate successors . Adrian's Ecclesiastical Buildings Portico of the Vatican S." {Arch. Peter's The Lateran S. The which he holds to have beer Campagnano near Napi.^ 1838). tries to discover Capracorum there. Peter's was indebted for much costly We already know that a portico. Maris which must be distinguished from another churct bearing the same name in the Hadrianium Adrian had raised hott (Traspontina). Soc. portico S.^ 1882. At the entrance to the portico stood the church of S. . This was entered by a gate (Porta S. court {curtis). allowing himself to be misled by th« name Caprarola (near Viterbo). disappears in the thirteenth. or the fortress of Capracorum by all three names is the colonia known from the eleventh century onwards). 2. Giovanni ante — — — — — PORTAM LaTINAM S. Marini. leaving no trace in history. given in his biography. Paul's Activity of Art in Rome— S. ^ f-).39Ö HISTORY OF ROME The (for tower. "Delia Camp. d. led to the basilica. Rom. 137. MaRIA IN COSMEDIN ScHOLA Gr^ca Monte Testaccio. has traced the history of this place. . v. See Tomassetti. starting near Hadrian's mausoleum. Adrian entirely rebuilt several churches from their foundation others he restored all are enumerated in the long catalogue . Rom. Adrian restores the portico Peter's. Petri in Hadriano) probably close to the mausoleum. . gave architectural embodiment to the newly-arisen temporal dominion of the Papacy.

The mosaics in the which had already fallen to decay. He further covered the floor of the Shrine. Peter's. since it Vita. 2 Vita. apse. Tufi here signify blocks of travertine. 356. Adrianio. the strengthening of the roof. following the line of the usual. main staircase of the Atrium of S. caput portictis.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. n. entrance to S. with plates of hundred and fifty pounds in weight. Lorenzo's. Adrian strengthened it by new foundations. . churches to diaconates. The inscription placed on the Shrine by Adrian leads us to suppose that he and Charles the Great were repre- serine. were restored by the Pope after the original design. and. Paul's and S. taken from some temple at Perugia. river. n. unam quce sita est in 337 Vignoli reads Atriano. explains ^ it A Ham — in : Vita Adr. n. were also restored by the Pope.^ Charles presented beams for the building and some thousands of pounds of lead for further He repaired the Buildings Peter's. these were taken from ancient buildings. and provided the bell-tower of Stephen the Second with huge doors of bronze. 341. from the metal balustrade to the solid silver. lined the interior of the Shrine itself with gold plates. 397 colonnade. Peter's and the two sides of the Quadriporticus. Decora- on which scenes from sacred history were depicted. and : by in atrio prope Vaticamtm.000 square blocks of stone were required. formed the though somewhat narrow. follows that there must have been extensive depredations. a tomb of the Apostle. and restored the colonnade itself^ The similar porticos which led to S. and overlaid the altar above with wrought gold. outside the walls. a work for which more than 12..

p... P^^^^PP-.. m Stadtbeschreib. "'"""' "'" a^chittve quinque.r. Paul. de palliis p. Quas vice Hadriano crederet ilh stia Quin et Romanum la7^gitur in urbe Vexillum famulis qzd placuere si^. in characteristic attitudes It thus speaks of Christ :— Christ grants to Peter's care His sheep. /./.398 HISTORY OF ROME sented together. 1163.. the huge further restored the entire interior decoration of the basilica with lavish splendour. Princ.. I am ? p. On His most His trusty servants faithful city's banner. 8. 147. in relief. on the feast of each of the two Apostles. Peter. or light- Gruter. Tapestries of purple and gold were hung between the columns of the nave on 2 festivals At Statues of saints in silver already stood by the Pope replaced by others of massive gold. Quod Carolus mira prcEcellentissimus Suscipiet dextra glorißcante Petri. I ^b— r. shall receive From Peter's hand. Chr. and on that of the Pope.. Apostolor..mero sexaginta Patriciatum famulis basilicc. Rossi. it Charles. as also Papebroch. and with power and glory. and Andrew. by Gruter. these the lamp the name of The the great passage runs Pharos. p.. of all kings the greatest. n 11. :— Tradit ovesfidei Petro pastore regendas. n.^. He bestows which the king.. UrbisR. Arcus s ''' '^^"""^ ^" '• P^ter's'supported an .i known by 1 Christmas and Easter. substitutes 7^. and he To Adrian doth the sacred flock commend. fideli rex Ram J.. tyrus atque fundatzs fecit vela m.^/«^ the place of Pontißcatu^n famuli ^. He Apostle's grave. 90.. substitutes Per universes arcus ejusd.^ /. the Virgin SS. representing the Saviour.. De t^tl^ (ic88)..

This regarded as the earliest description of the Vatican Notitia Ecclesiarum urbis RomcB^ in Opera Alcicini.^ S. Vatican. John in Lateran also benefited by the magnifiwith its Buildings Restoring the portico of the existing palace. was lighted first by this. afterwards by a smaller cross. 399 This lamp. To ^ another church he sent twenty Tyrian draperies S. one of the lateral entrances serving Adrian. all the chapels and altars in S. 597. Paul's had in Adrian's days already fallen into a state of such utter neglect that cattle actually grazed within its thus evident that the entrance to the basilica from the side of the Tiber had altogether precincts. in its stead. cap. THE MIDDLE AGES. Peter's. Basil. Froben. or soon a pilgrim from Salzburg compiled an inventory of the in Roman churches. however.IN house. was also the gift of Adrian. ii. which hung suspended from the silver cross-beams of the Arch of Triumph above the Shrine. . one thousand three hundred and seventy lights well deserved the name bestowed upon it. Adrian erected a tower beside it (perhaps the tower of Zacharias. caused the atrium to be covered with marble. In Adrian's time. and was lit. It is fallen into disuse. which at this time probably stood in need of rebuilding). ed. The rapidity with which the Roman churches fell to decay does not speak in cence of the Pope. vol. Peter's At the time of Peter Mallius (about 1180) 115 lamps were burnt daily in : the illumination on festivals is described by this author in after. The Atrium of S. and adorned it with pictures and marbles. of his Hist. ii. t. which he enumerates work may be basilica. S. Lateran. until the custom was entirely abandoned in 1814. favour of the solidity of the architecture of the period . vi. nor did the means forthcoming always correspond to the number of the constructions. Peter's Henceforward.

writing in gold. the two already mentioned of S. pre- paring enamels. art was cultivated throughout the length and breadth of Italy. &c. A document has also been preserved from the time of Adrian. Aniiq. gilding iron.. on which scenes were viginti. and. which would therefore give only twenty-two The instead of twenty-eight titular churches in the time of Adrian. We have already expressed our doubt as to whether the artists in mosaic in Rome were. strokes. from the Anon. from a Codex of Lucca. which contains directions for the methods of sionless. the other hand. ^ See Muratori. it is evident that there must have been sixteen diaconates. Diss. of Salzburg mentions only twenty-one churches in the city. others pieced together pictures in mosaic. a smaller measure of success. and S. Pont. with. with six for each church. Silvestro near the Vaticari. in Italy. exclusively Greek workmen.^ Hundreds of artists found employment at his hands. and gives instructions the adaptation of minerals to the uses of art. even if a translation from the Greek. 24. a fact which allows us to suppose that the country possessed her own traditions and schools. On number of hangings. colouring mosaics. enumerates 440. med. ninety-six. but not altogether expres- and attempted sculpture. however. lapis for lazuli. Maria. testifies to the degree to which art had become naturalised Tapestries. painted frescoes with rough. some in enamel or lapis lazuli . This remarkable document is framed in the barbarous Latin of the eighth century.^ The numberless ^ tapestries. and no diaconate or titular church remained uncared for by the Pope. cevi. Adrian created three new diaconates.400 to be HISTORY OF ROME Activity of hung between the columns. Per unuviquemque titulum vighiti^ et linea The Lib. . Some worked in gold and silver. as may well have been the Mosaic case in Ravenna.

^ ^ Vita of Adrian Tlie VOL. Popes and bishops strove to imitate the fantastic vestments of the Jewish high priests. and had been diligently pursued in Byzantium and Alexandria. censers. purple was called plexing to the imagination. No less various in their origin were the white. model for these coverings. and are frequently derived from their native place Alexandria. or representations of animals. known to the Romans under the Greek word Cymelia^ testify to their Eastern origin. or Rhodes. lions. cups. reddishpurple. peacocks. ciboria. 4OI depicted in embroidery. draperies. were the product of foreign Their manufacture had originated in the East. set with precious stones and embroidered with histories. Byzantium. and the Church the splendour and use of the vessels with which the Temple had been filled. lands. pictures of saints. or blue fabrics.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. alike tantalising and perand Leo the Third. and vessels was found in that vast treasure-house of oriental religious splendour. and the trade in these costly stuffs. 2 C . The griffins. and testify to their Byzantine origin. chalices. such as eagles. — The names also of sacred vessels. Tyre. was carried on through the various Greek ports in Italy. II. Golden crucifixes were stiff with gems. and unicorns. while universal vases. the Temple of Solomon. resplendent with chased and beaten workmanship. both of material and mode of execution. The words used to specify the different draperies or vela are Greek. furnish a long list of enigmatical names. The names of these embroidered draperies and coverings betray an immense variety. blazed with inlaid silver and enamel. so largely demanded by the Church.

and close to the Via Latina. in the carta Coj-nutiana. Museum in the Vatican gives but a feeble idea of this ancient . emerged un- harmed from the and the astonished judges. de blatta ornata in sc. 1880). Latin tradition. alythina^ or de stauracin (from storax or from aravpSs. in Cornuta in Tivoli. Maria . : from which the colour was derived was known and vestes are frequently called after their colour or material holoserica alba. Legend relates that the beloved Apostle. the deed of the donation made by the Gothic Count Valila to the church of S. rosata. embroidered with crosses). hlattyn. ''Regesto della chies. cu77i de historia (with gold buttons or dots). di Storia e Diritto. and thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil. aut serico. This is the church of S.). Moreover. its mediaeval tower overlooking a wilderness of gardens. word for word. The prophet. to dwell in the solitude of Patmos. For beaten metal work we find the word anaglyphus or sculptilis. He left Rome uninjured. auro texta. Within the city walls. quadrapola (according to Ducange. in the year 471. prasina. after having overthrown the Temple of Diana in Ephesus. remarkable churches owe an Porta added interest to Adrian's liberahty. these technical expressions are very ancient. They were chrysoclavo called cum periclysi (with borders). as blatta. from c^Aos and verus. Stands a Latina. however. where the spirit of God revealed to him the secrets of the Greek legend removes the scene of the universe.402 HISTORY OF ROME ancient and Two S. d. The Christian art. martyrdom to Ephesus. They are already found. acu pictd). vel tabulis aura clavatis) fundata (that is to say. however. Rome. Eutropius uses blatteus^ and Sidonius speaks of the Senate as blattifer. was brought to Rome in the time of Domitian. auro texta. bath.Giovanni 3. rubea." ed. now deserted basilica. sentenced him to banishment on an island. TivoH. circuitu de olovero (entirely purple. not venturing to inflict any further torture. color. L. John the Evangelist. Brazza {Studi e Docum. pallia. The The insect vela. at the four comers.

however. a building of the year 1509. . is already in the list in the Liber Sacranientalis of Gregory the First and. it is thought that the church existed on the ruins of the Temple of Diana Crescimbeni. the first to speak of John's martyrdom in Rome. The words used is. Vistoria della chiesa di S. Rome. too. and the chapel of S. are : ante Portarn Latina?n in ferventis olei doliujn t?iissus est expression. to whose ancient worship the district is Tertullian . or a Porta Latina. the church Johannis juxta portain Latinam already existed. in the Lib. we not at what time. form is clearly due to the eleventh or twelfth century. Below the Aventine. juxta . and. at the spot where the Forum Boarium adjoins the Tiber. 403 Rome. . and in the neighbourhood of the Circus Maximus. exact Martyrolog. i. The district between the Latina and the Appia is marked by the Tombs of the Scipios and the most celebrated of the Roman Columbaria. Pont. on this account. The changed into ante. in the Mirabilia. c. Giovanni avanti Porta Latina.IN places it THE MIDDLE AGES. an oratory had been erected. In Adrian's time. did in not exist in the time of Domitian) was pointed out as the scene of the Apostle's suffering. and the church is still known as S. a P. stood a temple to Pudicitia Patricia to ^ and several sanctuaries dedicated Hercules. however. 6 Maii. 1716. a spot beyond the Latin Gate (the gate.^ There. still occupies the spot. Crescimbeni. and are known respectively as the Temples of Vesta and Fortuna Virilis. G. Giovanni in Oleo. Portam Latinam^ Latina.^ At this period several Pagan temples still remained in the eighth region. so. as early as the fifth century. ii. 2 The festival of the saint on the 6th May . The date of the earliest foundation of the basilica is know uncertain but its present 6^. and this church was restored by the Pope. as early as the fourth century. Two standing beside the river and the Palatine Bridge still exist.

in Ara Maxima of the demigod. who had been settled in the immediate neighbourhood since ancient times.404 HISTORY OF ROME Here was situated the was peculiarly consecrated. The temples remained closed. however. Temple of Pudicitia Patricia Temple of Hercules Victor and the An Vara Massima ed il tetnplo d Ercole nel Fon building the . We this basilica arose. while eight of the fluted columns belonging to the front have been the facade of the church itself. the ^ Was it this ancient Behind BoariOy stood the circular Maxima. Although the churches of Theodore. had early made its dwelling it in the presence of the Palatine and Forum. De Rossi. bearing GrcBca. To the Greel< community belonged not only the diaconate. Maria in Schola of The name had been derived from a company Greeks. and Anastasia. had as yet scarcely reached this side of the Forum Boarium. Lorenzo in Miranda) which has in like as the manner cella arisen within still it. in the same way columns of the ancient Temple of Faustina stand outside and apart from the church (that of S. constructed within the temple in such wise that the pillars of the ancient peristyle remained partly unenclosed.^ built into do not know at what period At the end of the sixth century diaconate. and the adjacent Circus Maximus. still retained the imposing characteristics of ancient times. of one of the splendid buildings of antiquity a little church had arisen. in spite of repeated sacks. celebrated Christianity. George. 1854. The remains of the ancient may be recognised in a building adjoining the church on the Aventine. In the ruins. Roma. it was already a the title of vS.





surrounding district bore the name of the Schola GrcBcorum^ and, down to the tenth century, the adjoining bank of the river was called Ripa Grceca} The

name may, perhaps, have been

given to the basilica to

from the church of vS. Maria antiqua {nova^ after the days of Leo the Fourth), which stood near the Arch of Titus.^ In the eighth century the designation in Schola GrcBca was alone used, and not until after the date of Adrian's alterations were the words in Cosmedin added. The Pope's biographer explains the adjunct by telling us that the church became, by virtue of its splendid restoration, a true


ever, the title

is to say, ornamented).^ Since, howwas bestowed on a church dedicated to Mary in Ravenna and on another in Naples, it was in all likelihood derived from some place in Constantinople the Greeks settled in Italy having, probably












The Anon,
to S.

of Einsiedeln makes the following distinction on the



Inde per scholani Grcscortwi,

ibi in




In the Itinerary of the same author, Schola Greca in Via


Marini, Pap.^ n. cxx. 185.

In Ravenna there was a Schola Gi'ceca about the year 572. In Nerini, De Templo S. Bonif., Sec, App. Diploma of Otto the Third sezi in ripa Grcsca, vel in Aventino.



della Basil, di S.


in Cos?;iedin (Rome, 17 15), a

work which
Chiesa di S.


custodian of the Arcadia completed by the Stato della
in Cosni.,

M. The Anon,


17 19.

of Salzburg cites, as

churches dedicated to



Maria Major (the name by which the church of S. Maria ad Pra^sepe was already known), Maria antiqua, Maria rotunda, Maria transtyberim. He does not mention the Schola Gmca, because he wrote probably
before the date of Adrian's building.


this Notitia fact



century, I gather from


the writer

was compiled was

acquainted with the chapel of Petronilla at S. Peter's.

— veram

Cosmedin amplissimam a novo reparavit.

Vita, n. 341.

familiar to

in their

ancient home.


Maria in Blachernis, in memory of a church of like name, built by the Empress Pulcheria in Byzantium, and even in Rome a spot on the Aventine was known as ad Balcernas or Blanalso possessed a S.


Adrian found the church a ruined oratory, with the remains of an ancient temple still towering above it. Removing the huge blocks of travertine,^ he built a basilica with three naves and a portico. This church was restored by Nicholas the First in the latter half of the ninth century, and afterwards endured various alterations at the hands of Calixtus the Second and other Popes.^ Probably the beautiful bell-tower
alone belongs to the eighth century.

Square, and,
Monast. S. qui dicitur correspond in



Cccnob. SS. Bonif. et Alex., pp. 33,




—quod ponitzir






The words


in Blachernis


Apollinaris in Classe,




Giorgio in

Velabro, &c.

Although the word "in"
it is


Lttcina, in Da7?iaso, &c.,

used to denote a place or also used at times to denote

Some churches in Italy are called in Ccelo Aureo from Ara Coeli. their roofs one, in Rome, from an altar, was called Charles the Great himself named his palace in Aachen in Lateranis, in memory of Rome. ^ Maximum m.onumentum de Tiburtino tufo super eam dependens per anni circulu^n plurimam multitudinem populi congregans demolitus est. The stones were probably made use of for the building of


S. Peter's.


ancient piece of sculpture
It represents



be seen,

built into the wall

of the portico.

a facade of eight arches, with the inscription, as explained by Crescimbeni


Dei et sancta Dei Genitricis Maries Domini Adriani Papce ego Gregorius Notarius.



simply to have been an ornamental arabesque.

like all ancient





towers, of the

tions from base to summit,

two palms

in height,



same proporis a hundred and sixtydivided by seven rows

of windows, each row consisting of three windows, separated one from the other by a tiny column.^ The
vestibule contains
characters, dating


curious inscriptions in rough

from the eighth century




of the


Eustathius, and of a certain

Gregory, both of
several estates.

whom endowed the Among them we hear

church with of vineyards

on Monte Testaccio, and the mention of the celebrated hill, which here occurs for the first time, is our sole
object in alluding to these inscriptions.^

mention of


Rising be-

tween the Aventine, the city walls and the river, the hill, an artificial pyramid of broken amphorae, thirtyfive metres in height, forms a fitting symbol of the

splendour of






what period this accumulation of broken fragments began, and we are equally ignorant as to


the length of time occupied in




large earthen vessels, out of the sherds of which


clearly have

been used

for the trans-

The mount, which had not apparently arisen prior to the second
port of products from beyond the seas.



the towers of S.

Maria Nova (the present Francesca

Romana) and

of Giovanni e Paolo are of similar construction to that of

Maria in Cosmedin. Item Bineas Tabularum^ 115, qui sunt in Testacio. Hills with vineyards in the campus Testaceus. Tabula are measures of land. These
inscriptions are valuable

monuments of the barbarous Latin of the Monte Testaccio is at present surrounded with wine-shops, above which tower the potsherds a profound picture of human life,

which would have inspired the genius of a Horace or a Hafiz.



undoubtedly owed both its origin and growth to the neighbouring emporium of the Tiber, in the magazines of which countless amphorae must have been given to destruction. The
century of the Christian

Romans named

the gradually rising




or "hill

of potsherds/' and



ingeniously attributes
the vases used
their gold

origin to the fragments of

by the

tributary peoples in bringing


silver to the city.^


Condition of Learning in the time of Adrian Ignorance of the Romans Culture of the Lombards Adalberga Paul Diaconus Schools in Rome Sacred Music Disappearance of Poetry Epitaphs Decadence of the Latin Tongue Rise of the New Roman Tongue. ^


energies of

Rome seem

at this period to


been so entirely absorbed by
Nardini, JRom. ant.,

ecclesiastical affairs that

iii. p. 320, derived Testaccio from a guild of dwelt there Fulvius and Faunus were assumed, who, as he potters, Ficoroni believed that it was formed out of of the same opinion. Nibby {Roma nel 1838, i. the accumulated remains of Columbaria. earlier than the fourth century. of date believed that it not was 32), Reifferscheid {Bull. delV Instit., 1865) placed it about the third, and held it to be formed out of the amphorae which filled the magazines of the emporium of the Tiber. P. Bruzza {Bull., 1872, p. 138) agrees H. Dressel ("Ricerche sul Monte Testaccio," Annali d. with him. Inst., 1878) has confirmed the view that it arose on a spot set apart by the city authorities for the reception of broken amphorae. From the manufactory-stamps on the pottery, he was enabled to perceive The that the trade in this ware was chiefly carried on with Baetica. fragments bore the dates of consuls ranging from 140 to 255, p. Ch. Monte Testaccio must, therefore, have arisen slowly and gradually. How far beyond the year 140 its origin may date, we shall only be able to discover when we have penetrated to its lowest strata.







the pursuit of intellectual










least, is veiled in utter



learning of the


clergy had undoubtedly long been

put to

shame by that of foreigners, and the monks of distant England and Ireland might, in their turn, have instructed Rome, out of whose cloisters their own monasteries had only a short time before been called
into existence.

After the time of Gregory the Great

not a single scholar remained


could have ventured

Bede or an Alcuin, Orleans, with an Theodulf of with Aldhelm and No Pope any longer Isidore or Paul Diaconus. strove to emulate the fame of a Gregory or a Leo by the production of theological works Zacharias's translation of Gregory's Dialogues into Greek having, as we have already seen, been regarded as a remarkto hold a learned discourse with a

able achievement.

not attempt to compete in learning with their brethren of Bobbio
in the

The monks


cloisters did

The Lombards, treated by the Popes as the offscourings of the human race, avenged themselves on the Romans by their cultivation of all

Monte Casino.



Previous to the


of the kingdom,

Pavia was renowned for her learning; the grammarian Felix handed down the treasures of his knowledge to
the celebrated Flavian, who, in his turn, directed the







Diaconus, a

scholar who, as poet and historian, acquired a high



downfall of the

Lombard kingdom was

not described by the naive pen of Warnefried, but


graced by his intellect


and the

fate of the unfortunate




Desiderlus was alleviated by the genius of his daughter. Adalberga, wife of Arichis of Benevento, a woman possessed of lofty intellect and a sincere love of learning,

the second Italian



shines con-

Ages by her influence on culture. She is also the more deserving of renown, from the fact that she was only succeeded by women of equal endowments in long after ages. While the
spicuous in the Middle

four centuries succeeding the
are lighted


of the



up by two women of German

Paul Diaconus.

(Amalasuntha, daughter of Theodoric, and Adalberga), the barbarism of the age is but the more clearly revealed by the absence of other women of eminence. Paul Diaconus, formerly secretary to Desiderius, enjoyed the friendship of Arichis, either at Benevento or Monte Casino, and, at the instigation of Adalberga, wrote the Historia Miscella, an amplification and continuation of Eutropius. Amid the tumults which convulsed Italy, rhetoric and the study of history were cultivated at the wealthy courts of Salerno and Benevento, the Lombard princess having mastered " the golden sentences of the philosophers as well as the pearls of the poets," and being as familiar with the history of nations as with that of the




and jurisprudence were taught

Paul celebrates the genius of Adalberga in the dedication of the ipsa quoque subtili ingenio sagacissimo Hist. Miscella to the Princess

studio prudentium arcana rimeris,


ut philosophorum aurata eloquia
historiis etiam seu coni-

poetarum gemmea

tibi dicta in

mentis tarn divinis inhcarens,

promptu sint : quajn mundanis.


sarcophagi of the





Benevento, Milan, and Pavia. And since, in 787, Charles the Great took grammarians and arithmeticians from Rome back with him to France, it follows that institutions for learning must also have still
existed in Rome.i

Rome, although no longer


ing any native talent, was

regarded as the mother Sacred music still of the seven humane arts. flourished in the school, founded by Gregory, at the Lateran ; the Carolingians here procured teachers of
singing and of the organ, or sent Prankish



be educated in the Lateran.

carry off

Adrian allowed Charles two celebrated singers, Theodore and





as teachers of

Church music, the one at Metz, the other at Soissons. Both men, however, lamented that they could not coax a trill from the throats of the croaking barbarian

Music flourished



under the protection of

princes of Benevento were adorned with lengthy verses.
sings in praise of Arichis

Quod logos

et physis,

moderans quod ethica pangit^

Om7iia condiderat mentis in arce

Of Romuald :—
Grammatica pollens^ mundana lege These epitaphs are given in Pellegrini, ad loc.











under the







geometry, music, astronomy, medicine. They are taken from a Codex of the tenth century, which contains Latin poetry of the eighth. Since in one of them (n. xxi.) Boethius is
dialectics, arithmetic,

spoken of as noster, it follows that these inscriptions on scholastic buildings were due to Roman teachers. In Tours verses of Alcuin were to be read in the Hall of the Copyists, enjoining the writers to carefulness in their work. J. J. Ampere, Hist. Litic'raire de la France, iii. 74.

TremulaSf vel vinnulas^ sive

collisibiles vel secabiles voces in


S. Cecilia,


but the muse of poetry had been hushed. Knowledge of the profane poets and orators, which was partially revived in the eleventh century, had

disappeared after the fall of the Gothic kingdom. True, even after the fifth century some mythographers

who compiled and explained

the fables of the





doubtful whether they wrote in

and Horace were more studied at the Prankish court than in Rome, and while Angilbert (" the Homer " of Charles) and Alcuin wrote poetry, in which they emulated, not altogether unsuccessfully,

Rome.^ Homer,

After Arator no poet of renown appeared

the splendid
cised in


of Virgil, the only traces


proof that the poetic art of antiquity was



are to be found in the funeral epitaphs.

led a sort of subterranean life in this city of the dead, and, themselves dying, dedicated their

The muses

sighs to the grave.


species of verse, originating in

the custom of Christian sepulchral inscriptions, had thus arisen, and had reached maturity soon after the

middle of the fourth century, when the talent of Pope Damasus, a Portuguese, enriched the catacombs with graceful verses in heroic metres. These verses, still here and there remaining in their original sites, awaken even now a feeling of sympathy. The most melancholy of all forms of poetry was thus the only one which survived in Rome, the monasteries, churches,
noti poterant perfecta exprimere Francis naturali voce barbarica frangentes in giitture voces: Annales Lauriss.^ A. 7^7' Man. Germ., i. 1 Mai edited {Classic. Auctor.^ iii.) three Vatican mythographers.

Martinus, Bishop of Braga in Portugal, wrote de origine idolorum as
late as the sixth century.





and cemeteries of the
epitaphs, of which

city yielding a vast collection

of poetic tributes to the muse of the dead.


Roman monks

or priests were, as



but not invariably, the authors, belong to

periods down to the end of the fifteenth century, and during the sixth are, in truth, sufficiently barbarous both in language and metre. When, on the death of the English Cadwalla, it was desired to frame an epitaph in his honour, no Roman of ability equal to the task was apparently forthcoming, and the inscription had therefore to be entrusted to Benedict Crispus, Bishop of Milan, who strung together the exaggerated lines with which we are already acquainted.^ Even the long inscription to Pope Adrian, one of the best of the period, was not of Roman authorship for these verses, which boast some elegance of diction and more warmth of feeling, were conceived by Charles the Great, and corrected and improved by


branches of learning, but instructed in grammar, to the province of which metre and poetry belong, by Peter of Pisa, himself delighted occasionally in writing letters to his friends in verse. Such letters he addressed to Adrian, and the Pope, in his capacity of benevolent " I have," he critic, never failed to extol his efforts.
Charles, the


of Alcuin in


Benedict (who died 725) also composed a libellus medicin<2 conof epigrams on the treatment of various forms of illness. Angelo Mai, v. 391. Especially worthy of mark in this age is the


epitaph written by the youthful Ccesarius of Naples, in
father, first consul


of his

and then bishop of the

city (788)



Poet, Latinor. niedii avi.,




and elegant, the mellifluous verses of your royal, illustrious, and consecrated genius, read every verse, and joyfully inhaled its vigorous spirit."^ Adrian himself, in talent and education the foremost man in Rome, sometimes replied to these courtesies in verse and
writes to Charles, " received the excellent

specimens of these poetic effusions still remain. Written in acrostics, they are neither in expression nor metre below the level of their time.^ Throughout every department of literature the Decay of and forma- utter decadence of the Latin language in the eighth tion of the century stands revealed. The letters of the Popes to vulgar the Carolingians, quoted so often as historic docutongue. ments, afford ample illustration of our assertion. Issuing from the Chancery of the Lateran, edited by the officials of the Scrinium or Archives, they lay claim to the purest Latinity of which Rome was capable at the time. There is, however, a wide distance between the pompous eloquence of the Rescripts of Cassiodorus and the style of the papal is any letters, where neither grammar nor logic

longer evident.



others, the writings of
for their inflated

Stephen the Third are remarkable
to a thought being only rivalled

phraseology, his incapacity of giving clear expression

by the barbarism of

Pracellentissimos atque nitidisshnos


regalis prcecelscs


mellifluos suscepimus







eorum robur cum

ajnplectimur amore.

Cod. Carol., Ixxxi., in Cenni, Ixxxviii. 473, of the year 787.
2 This poetic letter is given by Dom. Bouquet, v. 403, and Labbe, Concil., viii. 584, as preface to the Cod. Canomim, presented by the Pope to Charles in Rome ; also in Diimmler's edition, Poet.

Latinor. viedii xvi.,




415 with the And when this is the case Liber Ponlificalis and the Liber Diurnus^ where we have a right to look for the best Roman Latin of the time. SiilV origine della lingua Italiana. however. on a the nativity . or even of a later age. 1865. and that it differed from the official Latin of the notaries. in the celebrated oaths of Lewis and Charles the Bald. xxiii. THE MIDDLE AGES. afford us some insight into the ancient its condition. sepulchral or other inscriptions. and while the Germans and French retain. Neither is there any indication that the Romans had the sermons of their priests or the documents of notaries translated ^ seeks to prove that the Italian language the ancient Latin. NapoH. Rome. be in some degree restricted. judicial acts.). we may easily imagine what must have been the character of the language of ordinary life. home large scale. This opinion must. since the Latin tongue could nowhere have popular dialect Roman survived in the mouth of the people longer than of its in a city where no hostile invasion. Everywhere we recognise. The documents of the period. nor any incursion of Germans. had ever taken place.IN the language. whether deeds of gift. a priceless document of the lingua Romana and the German language in the year 842. no similar witness has survived of the lingua volgare of the Romans of that. arising as from the worn-out vestments of Latin. . Cesare Cantu. the new Roman the language. justified in believing that such a dialect did exist.^ awkward beginnings of the Not a single fragment of has remained to us. however. We are. is a natural development of This view would be supported by Lyell's theory of transformation (see his book on the AntiquHy of Man^ chap.

The already corrupt Latin of the notaries must. 2 I may refer to the The mingling of the Latin with the German race cannot be regarded as anything more than a co-operating factor. or even of the time of the Hohenstaufens. therefore. lib. and lastly. as was the case Gaul.4l6 HISTORY OF ROME in from Latin into the vulgar tongue. . and palaces.^ The proud structure of the Latin tongue sank inwardly to decay. In reading the archives of the eighth century. theatres. had suffered a transformation under the influence of time. phirivii forsan ex Ulis oriundi sunius {Elegant. as did Rome and other cities. from the first century of Imperial times onwards. obedient to the laws of nature. It is. the continual intercourse with the emancipated slaves and natives of other countries.). iii. the speech of our forefathers of his age. ^ we have before us the ruin of the tongue of thirty-second dissertation of Muratori.^ praef. in the absence of long preparatory study. have become yet more corrupt in the mouth of the people. Various causes had. the decay of literature and schools. Laurentins Valla traces the corruption of the Latin tongue to the Goths and Vandals (he probably meant the Lombards) semel. a mistake to lay this corruption of the ancient Latin . iterunique Italics influentes ita : nam postquam hce gentes Roniam ceperunt ut imperium eoruni et lingiiam quoqtie {quomodo aliqui putant) accepiimis. or as we. contributed to the ruin of the rural and city populathis result tions. entirely to the score of the invasion of Goths and Lombards. instead of explaining it by the natural process of history.^ Roman of the time of Tacitus could as little have understood the language A of the people as Charles the Great the German of to-day. The language of the Romans. with their temples. however.

It to flow as a vivifying stream. by the mingling of the vowels. The transition into the new vulgar idiom was gradually effected by the mutilation of endings. 2 D .). with the fall of the Pagan religion. The official and literary language of the eighth century. ceased. in the tenth and eleventh.^ in ^ The diplomas va. and. and the adoption of the article.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and in Rome In documents of the time I find Porta Majore in the nominative were already VOL. The incapacity of maintaining the forms of either gender or case thus already produced. the Italian sounding forms. the exchange of the consonants. &c. which had already become difficult to the tongue and harsh to the ear. the language of heroes and of later times. II. is of older date. The exchange of b and Names of cities have already assumed an Italian sound. attained complete ascendency. in which Lombard influence ) is but occasionally detected (as gttaldus. The logical laws of language of the ancient Romans had been infringed. burda. of the contradictions between her transform itself in architecture and forms of still life : the majestic mask of antiquity everywhere towers above the creations Grammatical decay arose from the contradiction of dead and living. which alone is accessible to us. appears the perfect image of the city of Rome herself. slowly transformed laws. in general. of Farfa and Subiaco already present a rich collec- tion of barbarisms. ad Salerno. 417 Cicero and Virgil. itself — one became torpid and and created new of the most remarkable transformations of in the history human civilisation. by the rejection of final consonants. the literary language of the eighth century. V {bictoria^ cavalli. guadia. and the ancient Latin. statesmen. &c. decayed. and see the language of Christianity- accordance with the new conditions of life. which.

From the eighth century onwards. VI. the cases ending in a vowel were readily adopted as . De Rossi. and populace. at times ranked together under the head of judices and optimates. belongs to an : epitaph of the year 391 PITZINNINA IN PACE. The classes : division of the Roman people into three the people. . has long been known to Clergy and nobles. or. Christian. frequently The expression in the vulgar tongue. and that of the lower ranks of the citizens. Frisians. Greeks. the military. as casale. 404. Germano — regno tendentes Francorujn — Leonem religioso et angelico of meo^ mio was already used earliest . Lombards. in general terms. with which I acquainted in a document. Inscription. customaiy. instead of ire. Saxons. . — — — — — — : We The three attempt in the present chapter to give some account of the civic institutions of the city in shall the eighth century.41 HISTORY OF ROME CHAPTER I. into clergy. Internal Condition of Rome and the Roman People The Three Classes Organisation of the Militia The Exercitus Romanus The System of Scholle Universal Character of the Corporations System Scholz of Foreigners Jews. nominatives and accusatives abbate for instance stio : —per Sabtirrum vel am faciens quotidiana niissa — instead irt. Franks. urbis n. quod dicitur castro majore. however. nobles.^ i. Rom. the sacerdotal. in the same way that the armed citizens ranked in the a force headed by men conspicuous for their militia us.

secular elements. which had remained outside the sphere of Lombard jurisdiction. in the towns of Italy conquered by the Lombards. as well as the neces- sity for military organisation (now become the fore- most consideration) resulted in the ruin of the ancient autonomy of the city and of her Curia. which remained quite apart from those of the The city continued to retain possession of her city. The fall of Gothic rule and the terrible misery of succeeding times. who stood at the head of all municipal affairs but the darkness in which the concerns of the government are wrapped . classes To describe organisation of the city. the code of Justinian. lingered in the Exarchate and the Roman duchy. During the period of Byzantine rule it had been Imperial duces and judices. was restricted to her own affairs. . institutions. municipal constitution and autonomy. Church. without violently putting an end to Roman While. to be governed In the time of the Goths the Roman by the Senate and old-established magistracies. and judicially administered by the Prefect. 419 the internal wealth or illustrious descent. effected their practical destruction. appointed by the Exarch. like every other episcopate. the ancient municipal constitution either perished or was transformed through the influence of German elements. with respect to these great by whom the Pope was elected. together with the remains of the ancient municipal forms.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. is for the most questionable undertaking and the difficulty of the task is further increased by the confusion which prevailed between the spiritual and historian a . But the ruin of the citizen class.

The weakness of the Byzantine government showed itself in nothing more plainly than in the entire neglect of the organisation of the army. and obeyed the dux or leader In the first half of the set over them by the Exarch. occasionally of comites and chartularii. of officials as magistri militum. they nevertheless received pay from the Emperor. and to thus permanently avert the separation of the ancient The Byzantines. Circumstances meanwhile were productive of great changes. and. satisfied with the capital. left the provinces to their fate. and we have been able to disfor the most part.420 at this HISTORY OF ROME period. collection of the taxes. ecclesiastical tions. during a period of nearly two hundred years. at Rome secular bore the institu- character of a city divided into two systems.obliged again to take up the arms which they had Although in the service mercenaries. however. fortunately for them- selves. The Roman so long left to citizens were. does not allow us to do more than all ascertain the gradual extinction of almost institutions those which lingered down to the time of Cassiodorus. All least. simply those of duces. partook of a military character. seventh century the Pope exercised no influence on . tribunes. Had the Exarchs been capable of maintaining troops devoted to the Emperor in Rome and other cities. the and the military. The militia. such titles cover are. and. the Greek Emperor would have been able to suppress the aspirations of the Papacy. of the State or Republic. Pressure from the Lombards called forth a system of military defence. in which nobles and burghers united in a civic militia.

in support of the establishment of the temporal This Roman militia propertied class of citizens. and aided power. according to ancient Roman inferior custom. but have reason to suppose that. had the right of appointing the Divided according to the regions. Mauricius sequestrated and by the rebellion of the same Byzantine officials against the Exarch. its discover a national feeling in the army. had received the support of Roman we army. the in the beginning. After this time the purely municipal character of the militia developed further. these commanders were appointed. to attach importance to however. in the first movements of the iconoclastic ing the to the . The avarice and weakness of the Byzantines left the cost of maintain- and the continued contests of the Popes with the heresies of the Emperors strengthened its national spirit. later and that the elected. and represented the political rights of Rome. the more important nominations were made by the Pope. the army appeared in the Pope. and tribunes. We have already seen how.IN the Exercitus THE MIDDLE as is AGES. and separated into . Rome. army Church controversy. shown by the later. who. 42 revolt in Romanus. comprised within it the merely excluding from its ranks the working people and populace. when the Chartular the ecclesiastical treasury . Its leaders (after the middle of the eighth century it was no longer commanded by a Greek dux) were Romans of position. In the time of Martin the First. officers. after the time of Adrian. and the Exarchs beginning disposition. who continued to bear the titles of duces and bequeathed these titles to We do not know in what manner their families.

c. The scholae..^ city possessed ^ The military scholae of the property in common. Procop. it endured and underwent further development during the period of political decline. who served as defenders and advocates of their rights against the government. Tertius. beyond its military organisation. 2 Med. iv. in addition. a wholly civic character. The schools. . which gradually served as a foundation for the constitution of the city.Tiov (pv\aK7)5 reTay/xevuv k6x<iov. The idea of the scholae existed in the time of Diocletian. or scholars. The word scholae was originally used to signify houses where people of the same occupation assembled to attend to affairs of common interest. and could rent Goth. In the customary expression of the Lib. . xiv. Ajtt.422 HISTORY OF ROME regiments {nuineri\ this militia possessed. {De hello 27) thus expresses himself: Tm> cttI ToG iraiKa. ovffirep cxoAoy ouojxd^ovcriv. Diss. according watched over the affairs of the society. owned protectors called Patrons. to statute. 7 . Resting on the system of corporations or scholcB^ a system borrowed from Roman traditions. : sckolce patronis.^ These scholars formed a society. and Quartus of the Schola. 75. under their officials. and Muratori. I explain the patroni of the militia as honorary cum members in the above sense. endowed with all the rights of civic association. influential persons. Pont. and from the place of meeting the term became transferred to the members of the corporation. who. when the officials of the Imperial palace. such as the bodyguard (3500 men in seven scholae). yEv. vi. See Valesius's explanation of Ammianus lib. The chief of these officials was called Primicerius or Prior following him came the Secundus. were divided according to this arrangement..

^ of corporations extended through Rom an citizens. as early as the eighth century. Register of Subiaco. num. class. title and. •^ Bethmann-Hollweg. 191. the Numeri signified the civic militia. 1S2. and Marini. The Deusdedit Collection calls the Roman citizens milites : Charles the Great himself was miles of the Church. 137. to pp. The same system classes of the Roman although in the guilds. p. is: The barbarous formula locis qui si filiis^ aut nepote?u ininime fuerint^ duobus etiam extraneis Galletti. It is to be observed in diplomas the expression picblicus numerus milituin seu bando {bandus) is used for the corporation of the that militia. at the same time. viilituni seu bandus is placed along1 side the loca pia in the sense of corporation. vi. The predicate publicus belongs : mwierus. 423 property on lease. The Exercitus Romanus. n.. publ. documents of the period of which we treat no special mention is made of other associations beyond those In documents of the convent of S. and. represented the political rights of the citizens.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Pap. 189. the use as the honourable distinction of the this period. composed of all the citizens capable of bearing arms. and in this capacity exercised great importance all in the papal elections. numero ynilitwn seu bando. . Del Fri??nc. Erasmus. 140 . soon became identical with the Senatus Populusque Romanus.^ citizen Each was in who served in the militia was called miles. which.. These estates of the publicus numerus militum were probably already 191 . as the following sentence shows Dipl. therefore. Städte-freiheit ^ Bonn. while numerus or bandus denotes in itself the division of the city according to regiments. belonging to the ninth and tenth centuries. Ursprung der Lombardischeti p. 1846.^ At and more especially in towns not subject to the Lombards. 136. personis cui voluerint relinquendi habeant licentianiy excepto piis vel publicis 179. vel publico numero militiun seu bände.. equivalent to civic 2 communal property.

Under . and. Such societies. Every guild possessed its own church and churchyard. watched over the maintenance of the statutes. and defrayed the expenses of the banquets. A prior or pi'iniicerius conducted the association. 179 and 343. scholse of the piscatores and negotiatores. the cantores with their prior (Ep. as in former times. as in ancient times. and handicraftsmen of every description. vestararii : — — ßrmatum. In Ep.). given documents and Hegel. 26 of Gregory. and swore to observe the laws of the society. besides the and cubicularii. 256. The guilds of the eighth century must thus in general have closely resembled the ancient associations. Ind. members on their entrance paid a prescribed sum. to which it paid a tribute for its Privilegium. by mentioned. for the burial of those who died. 2. we find saponarii of Classe. yet such associations undoubtedly existed. merchants. Fantuzzi. is Sic.424 HISTORY OF ROME Papal of the Militia and Peregrini. In Ep. the colleges of the ancient Romans had each its peculiar divinity. called also. and represented the society in its relation towards the State. of physicians. complain that the Greek official appropriates the entrance fees paid by the members of the guild. i. Notaries and singers. pp. Carol. ^r/^i".^ ^ Papal scholae are alone mentioned at this period . so each guild also boasted its special heavenly protector. 102. Cod. ix. x. in 2 The Roman system of corporations is ascribed to Numa.^ The coffers of the society provided for the sick and poor. time associations of the notaries or tabelliones {schola forensiuin in Ravenna). after There were at the the handicraft. the ars pistoria in Hydruntum In Marini. had their the own statutes or Pacta. the soap-boilers of Naples 35. of Ravenna of the tenth and eleventh centuries. artisans. and burdens the ars (now arte) with innovaadjiciens quoque pactum hiter se de quibusdam rationabilibus tions atque id sacramento artis su(2 capitulis juxta priscam consuetudinem notaries.

195) this. sufores. as we learn from the book of ritual. aurifices^ fabri tignarii. founded the Republic there were eight recognised guilds : the collegia of the fabi'i cerarii. 311 The Jews first appear as a schola in the twelfth century {Ordo Roman. In the time of the Ottos the Jews sang the Laudes of the Emperor. tinctores. coming to Rome in 727. there frequent mention of the Schola Grsecorum. ftillones. 372 cunctcB Scholcz PerepHnoruin. who protected it. Mommsen. it continued to exist is in Trastevere. shrouded for centuries in dark. ßgult. ^ The oldest of these founda. time . Graphia Aurea Romce : Dofninator hebraice^ grcece et latine fausta acclaviantibus. Lombards and Frisians having all founded scholae in the Vatican.Greeks. tions was the Schola of the Anglo-Saxons. xii. does not prove that ^ . the history ^^^ and however. . III. these corporations of burghers the Scholae {scholcß Foreigners peregrinorimt) remained Representing.. n. in a barbarous age the cosmopolitan character of Rome through the life Church. De Collegiis et p. their 2 Vita Leon. collegia funeraria. they constitute a significant feature in the of the city. as they do. in addition to which institution there were also other Greek convents in Rome. ttbicines. The oldest of all existing corpora- Scholae of tions of foreigners was that of the Jews. in Mabillon. ii.. Besides these. Schoise of saxons. Greeks and : Jews are not specified with these. Four colonies of Peregrin! of the German nation had also settled in the Trastevere the Saxons and Franks.. synagogue did not exist at this period. the Sodaliciis Rovianor. From the time of Theodoric. ness. nevertheless. Capitolium aureum conscendat. videlicet FrancortuHy Frisomtin^ Saxonu7Hy atque Langobardorum. who. however. established by King Ina.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 425 Among of the isolated.^ On the other hand. to which the pistores were later added. it remains absolutely unnoticed for a long space of of which is.

at Alfred's request. 727 in civitate fecit domum. and built a church for the benefit of English pilgrims. Ina had established the Rome-scot. this schola exempted 2 from tribute. Spiritus : quce schola propter peregrinoru7n conßuxu77i ibide77t solatia suscipientiu7n. Petri — Ad quod co7icessit. ad Ann. dedit ibi singulos Matthew of Westminster. and died in Rome. through wild and hostile countries.D. on every house within his kingdom (Wessex). in the life of Willegod. amid difficulties indescribable. in Rome. . ad Ann.^ tribute of Peter's Pence. 1031.426 HISTORY OF ROME there an institution for the instruction of English princes and clergy in the Catholic faith. 794 The same author. quod s. qui dicitur S. enlarged the foundation. followed the example of his predecessor. This church was also destined to serve as a place of burial for any of his countrymen who died for its site. p. rivers. pilgrims became greater with every succeed- These wanderers from the north journeyed over seas. Franz Pagi.^ ^ The voluntary gift of a : Matthew of Westminster.. until they reached S. or a tax of a denarius to S. versa est in — xenodochiu77i. chronicles the foundation of the Xenodochium S. : in A. 137) papce. John the Nineteenth. Peter. and for its further support imposed the support of his institution. Ad Ann. argenteos de fa77iiliis singulis. 330. Brev. when their remains found burial in the sacred soil of the Vatican. 883. coming to Rome in 794 to expiate his crimes. scholam Marice. p. hon. he relates that Marinus the First. and mountains. Many fell victims to fatigue change of climate and mode of life. quam virg. Offa of Mercia. for the and privation. b. consensu Angloru77i appellari fecit— fecit — ecclesiain and — Gregorii in that (edition of 1601. Spiritus dicitur. and of the sacred precincts of the Vatican had consequently been purposely chosen The throng German ing year. exhibendu7n Rex Offa —denariu77i. Peter's.

Roman. the church being called Eccl. in the Middle Ages. German Saxons. der ersten Carolinger. Ann. out of which. but more especially on the inhabitants of northern lands. stood upon a hill which. the Frisians preponderated. p. of the year 854. Alarice Schoia Saxonum. as Panciroli {l^esori. inheriting its name from the church built by the English King. coming to Rome. same district stood the church of the Frisians. Szc. Spirito. but no mention is made of any colony being established in Rome. The Martyrol. in "SS. 34.^ Schoia of the Frisians. in 1204. levied for centuries by the Popes on every house in Christendom. 151) According to the Annal. The church. Finanzwesen der Päpste^ 1878. in the Middle Ages. Michaelis quce a Scola . Sassia. Dei Gen. p. Charles congratulated King Offa. 58. Michele in Sassia. and together founded a hospice. In the or.. The order of the S. united with the baptised Saxons. Reg. p. Ruspicio et Nympha. Charles dispersed the Saxons over various countries. * The title is more probably derived from the Anglo-Saxon quarter attributes the church to Charles's than from Charles's assumes. 2 Qiuc vacatur Scola Saxonum.^ Offa also founded a Xenodochium.The entire quarter in which it stood was. and assured him that the pilgrims should journey unmolested to Rome.. received the name Palatiolus. f. 297) erroneously Saxon followers. Saxonia. Lauresham. In any case. S. Wocher. in June 796. Marini. on his Christian disposition. Pilgrims of the race converted by Willibrod and Boniface.* ^ 2 P. the Hospital of Santo Spirito took its rise. Ina's church was known originally as S. Tryphone. xiii. instead of to the Anglo-Saxons. Pap. 427 and guilt-laden King grew with time into an oppressive tax. is not earlier than the beginning of the thirteenth century. however. 799. Das kirchl. which was built in the ninth century under Leo the Fourth.IN superstitious THE MIDDLE AGES. Sickel. still known as S. n. in the mouth of the people. Severano {Le 7 Chiese^ p. called Vicus or Burgus Saxonum." says in Saxonia.

del Torrione. Saxonum. belonging to the end of the thirteenth century.428 Schoia of tliG Franks ' HISTORY OF ROME The foundation of the Franks seems to belong to — the same period. however. A mythical palace of Nero was supposed to have stood on the Mons Palatiolus this Palatium Neronis was. Langobardorum domos. It also formed a place of burial for . Thus in the barbarous Ixxi. belonging to the year 1053..). who are here represented It is more likely. . An inscription there. The remains Inquisition. n. Marini. xiii. and spurious diploma of the eleventh The title "in Macello" is doubtlessly still erroneously derived from the Christians put to death in Nero's gardens. N. or only after the fall of Desiderius. however. when a destroyed the Saxon quarter. the church is. which was situated on the same side of the Vatican quarter. 505. n. Salvatoris quce vacatur Francorum {Bullar. either also had their dwelling in Vatican from ancient times. that Leo the Fourth to the honour of the Frisians who fell in the attack of the Saracens in 846. from a great round tower near the present Porta de Cavalleggieri. the Vatican Circus. ^ Ita est autem ipsa Eccla propter tradendi sepulturas paupej'es et niontanis partibus venturi divites nobiles et innobiles quos de ultra cernunter. porticum concre7nans. Vita Leonis IV. built it Leo the Fourth and Charles the Great. Dipl. at 23 and 25). Their church. The Frankish colony must already have been very numerous the close alliance with the Frankish monarchs inducing various pilgrims and settlers to leave their native country in favour of Rome. The schoia is mentioned for the first time in the life of Leo the Third the house : for fire pilgrims in that of Leo the Fourth. on the other hand. was known as S. later. called Ecclesia D.^ The church of Frisonoruni about the year 854. Salvator in Macello.^ The Lombards territory. or. of this church may be seen behind the palace of the In a Bull of Leo the Ninth. pilgrims. Vatican^ 2 i.. ascribes the building to as contemporaries. . century (Marini.

S. year 579. 429 Lombards was undoubtedly was that it that ot S. the ancient Curia had become ^ Severano. the chief offered a place of burial feature of which within Vatican territory. nature. The ancient Roman Senate no longer existed. and the silence shows that. Vatican^ iii. or S. and the information which they furnish. at first called S. 14. p.^ 2.IN the THE MIDDLE AGES. church belonged to the According to Panvinius. Salvator de Ossibus. our information with regard to the municipal constitution and the civil government of the city is still more Few documents remain to us of the uncertain. together with the casual observations of chroniclers. Justini. and was however. as Agnellus of Ravenna asserts.. says that this Lombards. 294. century succeeding the days of Gregory the Great. If our the Papal knowledge of the conditions of the of Roman people during this age be restricted in general to the a military as also of a municipal organisation on the basis of corporations. Civil Administration of the City OF the Senate— The Consuls — The City Officials —The Nobility — Administration of Justice —The City Prefect — The Papal Court — The Seven — Non-existence Ministers and other Officials of Palace. rather than a positive. Maria in Campo Santo. It recognition is Extinction mentioned by no Greek or Roman author after the senate. set apart by Leo the Fourth as a place of . leads to results of a negative. Justini in De basil. a church named Monte Saccorum had been burial for the Italians. c. &c.

and adopt the ancient formula Senatus Populusq. et universo nostra populo . Letter xvi. optimatum et universi populi congregatio. which corresponds to procerum. n. cum nostris epispopulo Francorum. Comes. again stood forth definitely as an aristocracy dangerous to the Pope and it was these optimates or Judices de Militia alone who laid claim to the illustrious name . The Romans themselves here use the name of the Senate.^ ^ Cod. Paul atque diversi populi congregatio. ^ sacerdotibus clero atque senatu^ et universo nostro populo. its members invested with the titles of Dux. xxvi. senatu^ et Moreover. Carol. however. but also (Ep. xxxvi. senatti. It is first again dis- covered in letters written by the Roman people to Pipin on the election of Paul the First. distinguishes between universi Episcopi : presbyteri etiam et cunctus clericorum ordo. xv.) universo copiSy — pro cunctis Episcopis^ diversis sacerdotibus. Hence may be explained the passage in the Vita Adriani.. when the city. lix.. Romanus^ in a sense so altered. in Cenni. 339. shaking off Byzantine dominion. however. HISTORY OF ROME After 757. . No period. was more calculated to revive the remembrance of the ancient institution than the present. Ixiii. ) : CU771 cuncto clero. the time-honoured name Senatus frequently reappears. Adrian writes significance oi — — (Ep. p.. began to regard herThe Senate thus self as head of some provinces. 369. again arose. The powerful patrician families. explains the omnis senatus: salutant vos et cunctus procerum senatus In Ep. Tribune. it is true. in Cenni. xl. and Consul. of Senate. in possession of the chief posts in the Church. ^ Ep. that the passage affords but a very superficial support to such writers as seek to prove the continued existence of the Senate through succeeding centuries. There are many such parallels. although only as a recollection and a name. the army. and municipal administration.430 extinct.

^ Ann. of a papal election. : . which speak of optimates. 308).. no mention of senators is made. never mention If. among the plenipotentiaries appointed to receive the surrender of cities. — senatu Frankish poets frequently make use of the title thus Frodoard. 561 {A/on. Germ. cunctoque senatu. Bouquet. or had served the Pope as a consulting college in political matters. however. De Tuffi Rex cuvi regni Satrapis Stcphano IL {Dom. the senators would have appeared whenever any question of importance concerning the city had to be dealt with on occasion. In the time of Gregory. Chron. the chief officials of the palace. as a committee of senators. the title senator would undoubtedly also have survived to this period. Such a title is not. ii. Frankish senators are thus spoken of in Vita VValce IL. or to determine the limitations of frontiers. however. the Sacellarius and Nomenculator. necnon et Romanorum coronam i77ipostiit. tells us that the Pope consecrated Capracorum cum : cuncto clero sett senatuque Romano. : . ii. Had papal envoys to foreign courts. or in business connected with the courts of Pavia.) The .. Germ. France. . for instance. or now and then a Dux. the aristocracy. 43 Senate as a college enjoyed continued existence. we find abbots and bishops. as also in the eighth century.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. moreover. Germ. and the papal letters. a Senate. Äloissiacen. ii. Among the the . and Constantinople. in Domus Carolhigia genealogia {Mon. 440) or Ermoldus Nigellus {Mon. v. but in no single instance is there mention of a senator. to be found in any docunaent. Regibus et Francis coram. Neither amid the retinue which accompanied the Pope on journeys of importance do we hear of any which suo. had represented the entire body. 801 Francorum. 500) claroque Senatu^ &c. such as the Primicerius of the Notaries..

form of a municipal Curia. that is to say. or directors of the Senate. no mention of it whatever is recorded. Even this profound student. must undoubtedly have borne a part. 2. he distinguishes them from the Senate. 191) likewise maintains that the decuriones were now called consuls. however. 369) at the same time. 641) Uli per omnia confirmavit. Where the word occurs in Chronicles. p. from which were appointed the judges of the various districts. had it existed. tion over the citizens. or as a body of Decuriones down to the eighth century. it is invariably synonymous with the Senatus Francorum. Carolum coronavit et una cum omni senatu Ro77iano imperium. J?. Thus the Chronicle of Farfa (Muratori. {Gesc/i. and still more in later centuries. has induced distinguished scholars to discover in these officials the Decuriones. only comes to The uncertainty which prevails in Savigny's negative conclusions. nor even among the suppliants who appeared before him. is there any record of the Senate. believes " that these consuls are nothing more than decuriones" {RÖ7?i.432 official HISTORY OF ROME beside the clergy and optimates of the militia. — earlier than the twelfth. He holds that the Leo Senate still endured a shadow of the ancient Imperial Senate. who maintains the survival of the ancient Curia. and it the opinion of such writers as assert that in the survived Consuls. . Italiens. that on an occasion when the Senate. which he describes as a college for the administration of the city. on Charles's election to the Imperial throne. i. : — ^ Savigny. 1 15) holds the same opinion. is not supported by any evidence.. Hegel refutes it. be regarded as completely extinct. in the Roman archives. and that they formed a Collegium (Consulare) for the administration of civic property and of criminal and civil jurisdicPapencordt (p. a civic college to which they gave the name of " consular. work is increased by the fact that he groups together all the centuries . i. The great number of consuls mentioned in the eighth.^ The Roman Senate therefore. while I here exclude everything outside the eighth. as representatives of every class in Rome. to in its ancient signification is." ^ ^ We shall see. ii.

. 192. in the Synod of 732: cum cuncto nobilibus etiain consulibus et reliquis decrevit. it awarded by the Pope. 433 The It title Consul. Naples. which we find to their sons. conferred the government of the city and. In the time of Gregory is Second. as well as in Naples. a memorable survival of the honorary consulate. and. for the Emperor to bestow the title as a favour. II. and probably transmitted it The dignity of Dux. in Stephen of in the Second's letter to Pipin (Cenni.^ The title Consul was also . We see it bestowed for the last time in 743 on the Dux Stephanus. 142. however. however. n. last of all. was a general custom not only here. retained the consular title as an ancestral tradition the nobles assumed it with the customary adjunct eminentissimus. but also in Ravenna. 2 E . however. p. In proportion as the title of Patricius sank into disuse. The Romans. VOL. it was borne exclusively by Pipin and Charles. apparently. . that of Consul became common. and at length worthless. Venice. in the sixth and seventh centuries. title Dux the latter conferring cleroy Vita Gregor. kypati. they would have been mentioned viii. in nowise justifies the in- ference of the existence of such an active institution. . an 12) : ex-Consul Stephanus spoken Rome (Deusdedit. omnesque inclyti. and even Istria. on whom Zacharias. after the middle of the eighth century. before setting forth to meet Liutprand. or in return for money.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. and their position of supreme jurisdiction. appears frequently in conjunction with ^ in Rome. Christianis plebibtis astantibus designated In the Vita Agatkonis. to denote their authority as patrons. n. the nobility of Byzantium are Patricii. generally adopted by the Roman nobility. seems likewise to have become hereditary. Had the Consuls in formed a college the Rome.). ///.

and the military leaders. ^ cannot for an instant be doubted. the title very frequently appears in diplomas of Farfa and Subiaco. however. 291). the more exalted rank. the city prefect. It further became an so that censi. consul et dux {Ibid. but more especially of the judicial." Among these functionaries. If. we find consul et tabellio^ consul et magister consul ex memorialis. for this century. That the Popes further appointed the chief magistrates in Rome. pp. consul et When We find. see a series of them in Del Primicer. the that. consul et tabellio urhis appears (Coppi. to the Prefect of Italy. 353.^rv. a /ok. century. in the case of ultimate appeal.434 HISTORY OF ROME Meanwhile. 356. Theodatus. devolved). or. to Ravenna and the (on the judicial power Pentapolis. we cannot doubt that already in the eighth century tabelliones called themselves 2 consuls. subject to the Dux. 332 . For the ninth and tenth centuries. we are given to understand. people of every rank. in Dei nam. p. . in the ninth century. about the year 828. under various titles. in the ninth however. Discorso sul consiglio e Senato.^ consular title became so general it. Tkeodorus. and also his Judices "to administer the affairs of the city. sending their actores. even consul et negotiator? The city During the Byzantine period the highest judicial offices and the chief government appointments were in the hands of the Exarch. dux et In the ninth century consul {Cod. of the Ex- whom. the judices. n. Carol. &c. they themselves appointed these officials. and. 385).. 12). began to adopt official title. or administrators When.. there were special judges as officials of finance. who sent his Dux as general of the army and regent of Rome and the duchy. dux Leoninus in the Vita Adr. in Cenni. the Popes later became rulers archate and of Rome. Galletti.

IN the office of THE MIDDLE an AGES. associated with the militia and the hierarchy of public officials. who yielded obedience to the Pope. no traces of the noble families prominent during the later Middle Ages class of the optimates does not The . and The ^ ' wealth. if not politically independent. . the scholae. observe. an aristocratic rule. after the time of Pipin the civil government was conducted by judges and officials. more clearly than aught else. Emperor. appear as a hereditary corporation of patrician families. and these no longer to be found. had become Pope looked on himself is as Rector of the city. All influence in Rome centred in their hands so that the history of the city reveals. A Dux tioned in Duces. governed army and people. distinguished by office. family. as authorities. which extinct. We The nobility. as patrons. to be regarded in the light of municipal Generally speaking. under the sovereign authority of the Pope. that. although several Romans could point with pride to a line of consular or ducal ancestors. though therefore officials not always. destined to bear fruit in the future. we the find existing in the year 743. and. "° ^* and officers. office. however. Rome remained a municipality. she had preserved seeds. and the guilds. which perished in the fall of the Empire. From amid the elements of her civic constitution. they had previously yielded senting the it to the still Exarchs repre- however. only (who are sometimes menthe eighth century) are frequently. at least self-governing. in the militia. judges. 435 Roman Dux. the most important institutions of that period of transition in the municipal constitution of the Middle Ages.

and tribunes in the militia. and senatorial families had died out other families were now coming to the front and. For. duces. as in the case of Toto. in spite of the extinction of the Senate. While appropriatthemselves all the most important posts. while they constituted. the organisation of which alone gave a feeling of power and the consciousness of a common political existence and rights to the citizens. at the same time. they are important solely through their of their office in Church or State. to the city from nor Rome existed without elected. the civic council. however. not by virtue Their importance as judices of militia was undoubtedly strengthened when. after the seventh century the maintenance of her independence rested solely with the civic militia. and that who administered the wealth accruing property and taxes . judices in justice. this militia it followed that the leaders of formed the heads of the municipality. The municipal constitution of Rome can. therefore.436 are as HISTORY OF ROME yet discoverable. conthemselves ministers at the papal court. . they were also wealthy landowners and family. a communal which she herself As. optimates are mentioned. devolved. they also conducted the civic administration perhaps under the presidency of the City Prefect. in possession of ing to numerous farms. at this period be regarded as nothing more than a military-oligarchical organisation. in every case where old The consular . atque felicissimus Romanus .^ ^ The schola militicz or the florentiss. stituting patrons. scarcely suppose the we can on city devoid of magistrates whom the conduct of the affairs of the community imagine council.

^ I have already expressed the conjecture that the estates of the publicus numerus seu bando were equivalent to communal property. divisions. and only some archives reveal indications the the existence of state-notaries and titles chancellors. sees in this of the Chancery . 192. being : — 2 Galletti. . Chartularius magister censi tirb. The first 186. 326. 355)> where the city property is distinguished from the papal congregans. the City Prefect. ex memorialis urbis RomcB. . 190. belongs to the year 822. the compulsory labour in the building of the city walls). That the city owned such property is evident from the Vita Adriani (n..IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the numeri or militia regiments ment. Rom. of Subiaco. who upholds .^ The titles of Defensor^ Curator^ Principalis^ and Pater Civitatis are isolated unknown in in Rome. official the President the accounts Galletti. in writing must also be regarded from the seventh century as the political foundation of the Roman itself. Such ancient Roman are : cJiartu- larius et magister^ also consul et magister censi urbis. According to . et pp. who kept of the taxes. Del Primicer. a communal official. municipal constitution. 437 As to the manner in which the civic magistrates were appointed. the heads of which. miacuf/i popnlo Romano^ ejusqiie totas civitates Tuscice suburbaiiiSf nee non et toto Ecclesiastico patrimonio (namely. 198. were divided according to regions the military. the continued existence of the Senate. like the municipal connected with the territorial divisions of the city. After 1356 the In much later times an analogy offers : Romans instituted a society for defence felix societas balestrarioru77i et pavesatoriwi. and had charge of the archives of the city. the latter author the ex metnorialis was also custodian of the archives . the bariderenses. 179. sat in the supreme council of governIn Rome. as in Ravenna. scriniarius et tabellio^ consul et tabellio urbis Romce?' exercitus Stephen. according to an instrument Bethmann-HoUweg. we are entirely ignorant while the administration of the census and the communal property remain as completely hidden from our knowledge as the institution of the aedilician system and this probably always belonged to the province of .

held in high consideration in the East. and we only know that the City Prefect still remained the supreme criminal judge in Rome. hahens stationem in porticum de Subora ^ reg. 26." words which seem to imply that he rose from the lower office to the higher. and who wore the gold were viii. quarta. are signed as early as the sixth or seventh century. also frequently papal ^ judges in Rome. n. and that the gravest offences were referred Documents of Marini. officials of the civic administration. according them precedence over the comites to that of duces.^ .D. 192.^ n. and a rank second only They were Pope. 136. one of the influential most men in Rome was Gratiosus. Annal. consul ex A tabellio of the city (Marini. S. 92) is found Meinorialis urbis Rome. mation is equally uncertain with regard to the consti- tution of the ordinary tribunal at this period. of whom we "was then chartular and afterwards dux. that he corresponded to the Consularis in Ravenna. urbis quarters : Ego Theudosius Rom. however. p. Ravenna In the Vita Adr. apparently mentioned the chartularii with respect. Tabell. he terms himself in Dei nom. the : better reading is civitatis Romance.^ Our inforare told that he System of justice.438 HISTORY OF ROME to Pipin. n. Scriniarius Memoriali hujus Rome. The judicial system consequently appears involved in utter confusion. custodians of the public deeds. who occasionally also acted as judges in the service of the In the days of Stephen the Third. while officials of the most diverse nature could be arbitrarily chosen by the Pope to act as magistrates. in by Stefanus. appears a chartular sent by the Pope to Anualdi Chartularii tutic ibi existentis civis Romani . Maria in Trast. 879. the provinces of administration and justice encroaching on each other. and tribunes. with the statement of his vh. although naturally Charto- phy laces p. in Galletti. Baronius. 302. The chartularii^ who were ring.. in the text. A.

the ecclesiastical affairs of the whole of Christendom were conducted. consuls and duces. beggars were fed. justice was adThe conception ministered. become the real centre of Rome. comes. in The judices dativi are met with Rome in the tenth century.^ It is. however. The Lateran palace had. All referred to the eighth century. We find. the severe order of precedence of the officials ^ and the ceremonial. Within the same precincts. chartularii. and with the Papal Court the affairs of the city were closely interwoven. and formed in itself a symbol of the contrasts contained in the Papacy. which were evidently the growth of a later date. in adjoining buildings. undoubted that the ancient system of jurisdiction had fallen with the ancient civic constitution. first ecclesiastically modified. the seat of ecclesiastical administration. We have. and tribute collected. 439 by the Pope himself to his tribunal. . with which that of the administrative was frequently united. or tribune was at the same time also judex in his own sphere. in the course of time. however.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. so that the dux. and judices of the palace now and then commissioned by the Pope. and rules of the Imperial palace had been transferred to the Lateran. . moreover. however. since institutions of justice. that the judicial office. clearer information respecting The Papal the government of the Papal Court. was now in the appointment of the Pope but the judicial authority was the natural concomitant of certain dignities and offices. remains uncertain. more especially those of the twofold nature of the Imperial and papal palaces. cannot be else.

i ' ^ potent influence. had been allotted to The ministers of the the seven ecclesiastical regions. Ihey consisted of the Primicerius and the Secundicerius of the notaries. surpassed that of all bishops and cardinals. rj^-. and on them the papal elections chiefly depended. surrounded by a formal ministry. • . on him. but remained in the rank of sub-deacons. had devolved the charge of the Scrinium or Chancery. in conjunc- . In accordance with his office. although its importance only dates from the establishment of the ecclesiastical state. where all the court officials were divided into schools. the papal ministers appear as heads of the corporations of notaries. the beginnings of which may be traced back to the sixth century.440 HISTORY OF ROME had been borrowed from the Byzantine court. on account of their secular appointments. Saccellarius. the Primus Defensor. Their influence upon all classes of people gave them omnii . since the days of Constantine. in their hands lay the executive power. in the eighth century. he was the first papal minister or secretary of state. The Pope was. Analogously to the notaries and deacons. and. Protoscriniarius. Their importance. According to the system of the Byzantine palace. these officials could not. who. were also seven m number. whose office mentioned as Originally early as the middle of the fourth century. First among them is stands the Primicerius Notariorum. the Arcarius. head of the seven regionary notaries. rise to ecclesiastical dignities. however. and the Nomenculator. . and in the vacancy of the sacred chair. in ancient times. i r . Although clerics. the papal ministers papal palace. as they were the chief ministers of the Pope.

Jurispr. edited by Mabillon. Mus. of under-secretary rank came the Secundicerius or state. they even appear to rule with the Emperor himself. attributed to Joh. .^ v. Galletti's well-known work deals with the Primicerius. and Eustathius Dux in that of S. which treats of the judices of the palace. in a description of the Ita/. . and we even find nephews of pontiffs candidates for the post. he not only filled the vacant seat. therefore. and these two ministers were regarded as the most influential dignitaries in the city. such as processions. According to a fragmentary notice of later times. they led the Pope by the hand. Gesch. On all solemn occasions. The first Primicerius whose name is recorded is Surgentius. Maria del Secondicerio in Rome in the twelfth century. 2 Thus. nothing of any importance being undertaken without their co-operation. The financial authorities occacivic sionally encroached ^ on the administration of the Fragment.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the The Saccellarius or paymaster defrayed from the public treasury the pay of the alms to the poor. Diaconus (in the twelfth century). Judicum alii sunt Palatini^ &c. There was a church named first Secundicerius Mena. Consul et Dux in the inscription in S. i..^ The Arcarius or treasurer may be regarded as Minister of Finance. taking precedence of the bishops. der deutschen Kaiser- This notice also belongs to the time of Otto III. also in Giesebrecht. Rhein. für. the S. who filled the office about 544 . 44I tion with the arch-presbyter and arch-deacon. Theodatus. but also actually stood for Next in the time at the head of the government. Mus. Lateran. in such demand as to be coveted by the leading nobles. and see consuls and duces raised to the Primiceriate as to the highest dignity. ii. afterwards by Blume. troops. about 536. and donations {presby- teria) to the clergy. 570. Angelo in Pescaria.^ The office was. . Maria in Cosmedin. 129 zeit.

2 Quintus est Protoscriniarius qui liones vocamus. Ibid. &c. Saccus was the name of the Thesaurus fisci . 124. by the arcarius in the Area. quos Tabel- .442 property . Galletti. Tertius est Arcarius qui prceest et Quartus Saccellarius qui stipendia erogat militibus^ Rojhcb sabbato scrzitinioruni dat eleemosyi' nam. The head to of the schola was the Protoscriniar. After the time of Gregory the Great these clergy also in Next constituted a regionary college. Saccellarius that of the paymaster of the money kept p. beside which the scrinarii took up their posts. since and not Minister of Agriculture alone. everything that concerned the rights of the Church towards the State. ^ and all that regarded the condition of the tribiitis. the head of the body. and him the decrees were handed. The administration of the patrimonies lay also in the hands of their president. Originally proctors of the poor.^ rank followed the Primus Defensor or Primicerius of the Defensors. were. and since on them de- volved the task of writing the letters and decrees of the Popes. and. employed as administrators of ecclesiastical property. HISTORY OF ROME the entire tribute to the fiscus. they became the advocates of the Church. who might be regarded as Minister of Agriculture. The fragment quoted above. together with the notaries and sub-deacons. the taxes of the gates and bridges being under the management the of the Arcarius and claimed by the papal treasury. .^ The Protoscriniar derived his name from scrinium or the archives in the Lateran. prceest scriniariis. as early as Gregory's days. and of reading over the acts of the synods. before being passed to the Primicerius for ratification. they acted as the papal secretaries or tabelliones. the bishops and private persons.

. They principally served as diplotheir *• Sextus priimis defensor. by which title they were distin- guished from the Judices de chartularii. the papal palace. consuls. qiios advocatos nommamus. 3 The fragment is of great importance with regard to the judicial competence of the judices palatini. duces. and tribunes. magistri militum. According to Niebuhr's conjecture. widows. or Minister of Grace.IN coloni. i. intercedens pro pupillis et viduis. rising to the dignity of an Imperial Palatinate. 225). Militia. THE MIDDLE through the AGES. Imperial ministers. 381. ^ Septimus adminiculator. pro afflictis et captivis. in the eighth century. but were nevertheless summoned by the Pope to the execution of various affairs.^ The general name for these seven highest officials of the ecclesiastical state was.^ The in the series is the Nomenculator or Adminiculator. Stadtb. they the could not act in the capacity of criminal judges.^ In the eighth century they possessed no jurisdiction outside own special departments. moreover. being clergy. of which we shall hear more later. and Judices Ordinarii. judices constdares et pedanei. and oppressed. the special proctor of wards. Rövi. titles Judices Palatini. qui prceest defensoribus . they assumed. Judges of the Palatinate. defensors into 443 his passed last hands. Judices de Clero. these officials appeared in the twofold capacity of papal and Since their jurisdiction was united with their sphere of activity. . To prisoners. favour who had a the Nomenculator everyone turned to ask of the Pope. After the restoration of the Empire. the number of the judices (seven) served as a precedent for that of the later Cardinal-bishops and German Electors (Savigny. comites. although.

pars. and the Saccellarius filling part of envoys. officials Galletti With reference to the office of Vestiarius. p. in Muratori. pp. 3. Del Vestarario. (Galletti. Next to the seven mentioned. the Vestiarium or the From a Bull of Adrian. . Far/. De Secretariis.) Del . a curious accumulation of titles. the special officers of the papal household. 346. 5. with whom were associated various subordinate Vestiarius. and Cancellieri. i. the Cubicularius or Chamberlain. 38. 25. ii. the Arcarius and Protoscriniarius are never to our knowledge similarly employed." whether the latter were inhabitants of Rome or of other cities. but while the we find the Primicerlus and the Secundicerius of the notaries.i Not only had already the Vestiarius. p. he was also custodian in and the jewels deposited sacristy. The contained in the Exc. Beside these seven ministers. office 2 was already Bull is extinct in the eleventh century. there were yet other officials of importance. the Pope conferring on the Prior of the Vestiarium perpetual jurisdiction in the disputes which reigned between the abbey of Farfa and the subjects of " the Roman Republic. 2. guardianship of the valuable wardrobe of the Church property . whether freemen or slaves. the Primus Defensor. 46) speaks of a Theodora vesterarissa. Chron. c.444 HISTORY OF ROME matic agents.^ We further ^ In a diploma of the year 847 a Pipinus signs himself Consul et DtiXy atque Vestiarius. clergy or soldiers. the Vestiarius was the most influential nobles bearing the title of Consul or Dux not disdaining to accept the ofifice. see Rome. Galletti. 1758. The title was also extended to the wives of the The (p. officials in scholae : thus the Vice-dominus or Major-domo. it would appear that he was also a judge. Nomenculator. Vestarario. of the year 772. t. Del Vestarario. . as head of a numerous schola. and in Galletti. the and the Librarian.

But. p. who united to officials. 445 find the title Superista of the Palace.. corresponding perhaps to that of a curopalata in the ancient sense. Pont. in the time of Adrian. together with the seven (the list not only as judices. sub-deacons. . united to the functions of the Cubicularius. The of the secular Galletti. belonged to the judices de ^ clero. et . and. Giesebrecht. the Cottian Sicily. Paulus Afiarta. Pont. having regard to the extended and the actual jurisdiction of the various officials. (Trial judices de — — of the Abbot Potho. this view is certainly mistaken. and in that of Leo the Fourth to those of a magister militum . Neither cardinals nor bishops. 554.) .^ On of returning to Sardinia.^ other offices the supervision of the household All these palace ministers. as previously from Calabria and the judices made their entry with no less pomp and circumstance than the praetors and praesides.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Rome from the distant patrimonies or Corsica. cubicularius superistam ac et superista : Lib. n. 18. some passages in Papencordt. see also 2 Romani palatii Coitsiliarium : Lib. or of a sacristan.. p. 78. in Cenni. 294 and Gratianum eminentissimutn magistrum militum^ egregium magnates. 72. and other authorities regard these seven 2iS ministers alone significance of this idea clero. and the regionary notaries. that of the Vestiaritis. Carol. for instance. 147. whence it appears the office was purely- secular. however. and to the praelature of the same we may also add the Defensor. counted officials. for the ninth century. 805. first Superista later appears to be regarded as the n. p. Alps. They associated by right with the primates of the Church. Adrian once speaks of all the palace officials as servitia nostra. Cod. who in former days had administered the provinces for ancient Rome. but also as cleri primates and proceres present day). and looked for their reward in promotion to one of the palace appointments. Del Primic.

therefore. tribuni. at times.i The ancient curial system had perished. associated same time with both the Church and the class of secular optimates.440 HISTORY OF ROME officials the already-mentioned of the palace alone have. and. We us a clerical nobility of a hybrid nature. the better part of the citizen class had formed themselves into a militia. CoMiTES The Duchy of Rome and Frontiers — Roman Tuscany— Campania—Sabina—Umbria. as with the may observe that the influence from its derived hierarchical 3. however. Frangipani. variable. at the institutions of other we must cast a glance towns subject to the Pope. is mentioned in one of the deeds of Farfa in the year 769. and the papal officials are also called by the general name of actores. And here also. In smaller as in larger places. an appellation bestowed even upon Frankish . Civitavecchia. xii. military organisation the governors of cities and fortresses bore by preference military titles titles which had originally denoted grades in the army. comites. and more especially at the extension of the Roman duchy. such as duces. Istoria deW aritichissima Citta di Rome. Tribuni. Institutions — Duces. of administration and the army were either made or Under the prevailing confirmed by the Pope. n. purely secular class. and appointments to the higher offices of justice. in other Cities its Before closing this chapter. These designations are. . ^ A Numerus Centumcellarum 1761. before coming under that at the title. we of the nobility was officialism.

was the money paid on admission to office. duces undoubtedly governed in the greater cities. 472 petimus ut per comites vestros (the Frankish). duces. suffragitwi The sale of offices. in Fermo. ibidem actores.^ THE MIDDLE AGES. cotistituity —EmylicB — detinens. writing to Charles. Ancona. noster prcsdecessor cunctas : — in Italia sunt actores. on the authority of a letter of Leo the Third. ^ In the same letter : judices ad facietidas justitias — direxit. found themselves invested is also with judicial authority. him his predecessor had sent the presbyter Philip and the Dux Eustachius as judges to Ravenna " to render justice to those who had suffered violence. therefore. 212. qui a nobis erat constitutus per distractionem causarum tollere et nobis more solito annue tribuere for — unde ipsi Duces minime possunt suffragium nobis plenissime prcesentare. : point there civitates in Cenni. still continued. projicere visus actiones ejusdem Exarchatus distribuebat. et nostros. . the smaller by comites.. Hegel (i. Osimo. belonging to the year 808 {Monum. that the larger towns were governed by duces. to say nothing of Spoleto and Benevento. Adrian.. in the eighth century. simulque et Eustachium quondam ducem. illo in tempore presbyterum. and. still appear in Venice and Naples. &c.IN counts. and Ferrara. liv. nevertheless. quos voluit est. their diplomas). actionu7n accipiebant (that is to say. Philippum ^ vid. 447 included the Among these actores were judges in the proper sense. ^ For this li. at the same time. but cannot be substantiated. of Cenni. Under Greek and Lombard rule. quos ibidem ordinavimus. 5) solebat dux. et omnes actores ab hac Romana urbe prcecepta earundem Ep. 213) opposes Savigny's opinion that the duces exercised merely militai-y jurisdiction. Carol. ii. is a significant passage.^ The belief current. Ixxxvii. Cod. in Cennij p. ep.. These duces were. qui Further."^ This division of government between a priest and a layman is evidence that the layman was alone charged with military affairs the significantly tells : Duces.

although we have no proof that he did. This dux is called habitator provincicB Campanice^ a customary formula 2 i ' in documents of succeeding times. A. yEv. since otherwise a new organisation of the now papal provinces must have taken place upon the extinction of the Byzantine duchy.44^ HISTORY OF ROME rectors of the entire territory belonging to the city. duces are frequently mentioned.ber of duces. He cannot. title of Dux. Gregorius undoubtedly governed the entire province of Campania for the Church. since ment as we cannot quote instance in the eighth century of any one designated Roman territory.^ The title dux being no less frequently encountered than that of in consul. particularly after the eighth century. as later into those of the In Rome. and an attempt has therefore been made to distinguish them as 7najores from the minores^ who did not possess a Hke degree of authority. Toto. may have ruled as dux in Nepi. Med. 1 : In the Acts of the Council of the year 769. renders impossible the supposition that a dux must a single every case have been entrusted with the governof a city.^ I. 1012 Roffredo. and with regard to Gregorius.^ who opposed his his Muratori dedicates an entire dissertation to this subject. V. In this : . it is true. Consul et Ditx Canipanice^ habitator civitatis VerulancB. however. death by Under the fact that Gregorius lived in Latium. the dux dux of a city within usurpation. de ducibus atque principibus antiquis Italice. and who was put to we know nothing beyond the means. and. dispose of the immense num. we are told that the Dux Gregorius was murdered after the usurpation of Constantine. for instance.D. the opinion only were governed by duces that the larger cities seems on the whole justifiable. Antiq. The Pope also sent duces into the districts of Campania. Sabina.

92. may. combined with the predicate Gloriosus^ may either have been bought from the Pope or bestowed by him as a distinction. and by the rulers of Venice and Naples. them in Alatri and Anagni but in their case also : We it is impossible to ascertain whether they presided over the government of the city. 496). have been hereditary in families. n. the city : Theodatus. Toto's murderer {Vita Hadr. et The Consul Dux was transformed into that of Conies Campatiice. brother of Stephen Adrian's nephew. it being flattering to every age it bear a dignity already borne by the most powerful princes in Spoleto and Benevento. with the solitary Eustachius. finally. has gratified the vanity of Romans to assume. Adrianus. Among the VOL. were leaders of the militia. in Cenni. ep.IN but in no case do a city. or bore the title in some other capacity .^ Gregorius office of ^ I already recognise a papal dux of the Campagna. 449 we recognise them as governors of nor do we know whether. nostrique servitium. 94. Theodorus. even in the eighth century. p. Eustathius. p. and. Among the titles which in or judges. It might likewise be usurped.^ exception of any such had existed. that of dux was the most coveted. 297).. registers of leases of Gregory the Second are several 2 F . have found times mentioned in provincial towns... The following are named as duces in . Tribunes bearing the title of Magnificus are some- Tribunes. Duces may officials as probably have been generals as palace and have been made use of in The title. delegates for Benevento {Cod. and in which they still find satisfaction. THE MIDDLE AGES. Crescens and Carol. Gratiosus. Johannes. Constantinus and Paulus {Cod. Accused to Charles. equally with that of consul. ep. Petri Apostolorum principis vestri. II. the'last-named men were recom- mended 2 to him by the Pope as duces nostri vestrique Tcsx^ßdeles erga B. 501). in Cenni. political various affairs. Carol.

prceceptum ejus civitatis (that Uli tribuentes. appointed by Adrian. militia. Comites. in Cenni. although.^ This : instance. 2 is. Vita Hadr. Deusd. Philicarius Comites. which proves that in certain districts the government was in the hands of a tribune. fortresses. together with the clergy. We : found Gracilis as tribune in Alatri .. have been equivalent to a Gas- Cod. Comes of the insignificant town of Gabellum. to bring the Acts of the papal election to the Exarch. is mentioned among ^ the cities of the Emilia. they were restricted to their military duties. 297 .. &c. p.. Vita Stephanie n. Anagni Carol. the appointment) may. together with civil and was entrusted to other comites. Comites are sometimes mentioned as owners of estates. or as tenants of patrimonies.. il fundi were Anastasius. p.^ n. in 775. a Tribunatus decimus Leonatus in In the Cod. p.y n. Within the city tribunes as a rule were the seventh century.450 HISTORY OF ROME occasion of importance does a tribune seem to On no have been employed by the Pope as envoy or commissioner. . The later combination of Consul ei tribunus is not forthcoming in documents of the eighth century.^ in to belong to Campania or Tuscany and one instance appears to have been borne by a woman : Studiosce TribuncB seu Petro jugalibus (Collect. liv. 335.. lo). 273. Carol. and in the Collect. however. Cenni. allows us to infer that the govern- ment of other military powers. to whom on lease. therefore. 333 let alias sex uncias : a Petro Comite.. in occasionally sent to Ravenna as representatives of the army. y Vita Hadr. liv. and may probably have been which seem the title officers of the Roman . This was Dominicus. Equal uncertainty prevails with regard to the Comites one single instance alone showing that a Comes was entrusted with the government of a town. taldus. Deusd. : in qtiandam brevissi77iam civi- tatem Gabellensem. Dominicuni — cojnitein constituimus He li. ep.

" We have hitherto delayed making the survey.^ orui7t. Roughly speaking. and together extended from about the mouth of the river Marta to the further side of the river Astura. be determined with any degree of accuracy. because its boundaries varied from time to time.. towards the middle of the eighth century.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Both divisions are bounded by the sea. the most learned work on the subject. or of that duchy. further. 45 We close our investigations with a glance at the The geographical limits of the Roman " territory. comprising part of Umbria and the Sabina. Campania on the left. therefore. until middle of the eighth century. . The Geographia Sacra of Carolo a S. cum notis Lncce Hohteinii^ Amsteld. Paulo. : 1 I have followed the Tabula Chorographica of Joh. On the north-east side extended a third tract of territory. The Roman territory is still divided by the Tiber into two great halves Tuscany on the right. and. Barretta. are of more use in the case of single towns than in ascertaining the boundaries of provinces. and Ughelli's Italia Sacra. for the reason that no fixed date can be assigned for the formation of the duchy. as also Cluver's Italia Ant. towards the Cape of Circe. the rest of Tuscany {ducalis as well as regalis). and cannot. the boundaries were the sea. Although this territory is mentioned in the deeds of gift of Lewis the Pious under the name of Ducatus. 1704. . gives but little information. claimed in after the its behalf the title of Respublica Roniana or Roman- and the territory was consequently regarded as that on which the Western Empire based its title. the Popes. nevertheless. and the duchies of Benevento and Spoleto. which was still known as the Ducatus Romanus.

879. stretched from Portus on the right arm of the Tiber to the mouth of boundary line can be drawn through Tolfa. " Delia Campagna . On 7) the other side of Centumcellae the Via Aurelia in this century. ^ Recent research has proved that the Claudia started from about the third milestone on the Via Flaminia behind the Ponte Molle. p. Garrucci in Dejardins. terra Aureliana^ Aurelianutn. this point the From Emilia at a further point. A. RoTJiana. Tomassetti. having passed Careiae (Galeria) and Foro Clodio. therefore. Arch. d. &c. The Via Flaminia.D. I find the Via Flaminiea que vocatur Camarchives of a document belonging to the n. Maria in Trastevere. casale Aureliamim. 1881.^ The Flaminia appears thus early to have been known as the Via Campana. 136. d. while from the Janiculum the Aurelia followed the line of the coast. of Ravenna determines almost the of Tuscany. the Cassia and Claudia intersected the province northwards. like that on the Cassia. 359). Via Aurelia.452 Roman luscany. n. xxxvi.^ The names which these ancient Roman roads preserve unaltered are frequently to be met with. in Marini. The Claudia. This author quotes forum Aurelii. G. vi^hole is brought into [circa special prominence scBc. By it the Anon. La table de Peutinger. . immediately after having passed the Ponte Molle. although the Claudia is already frequently spoken of as the Clodia. Caere ^ The property of the Church on the Aurelia. soc. formed a part of the patrii>ionium Tusdce. Tomassetti. iii. Bleda. Roman Tuscany 111 bounded on 1 the west by the sea. 149. a mistake to speak of the road as the Cassia. HISTORY OF ROME consisted of the territory which. and that the Cassia branched off from it near la Storta. and Viterbo to PoHmartium (Bomarzo) to meet the Tiber. pana for the first time in S. ^ Romana" {Arch. joined the Aureliathe Marta. Centumcellae. Romana. is the natural limit of Tuscany. It is. soc. Itein juxta Romam. which.^ The Tuscan lands were Portus. iv. flowing from this point in a bend to the sea. 132 f.

Marturanum. Lang. In the eighth century Centumcellae appears as a harbour. Sutrium on the right side of the Tiber. Sutrium. id est jnajorem et minorem Piilvensim. Narnia. Leo of Castellum (Civita Castellana or Portum. Cast. believe that. 77 and. Camill. was known in ancient times. Nepet. Hortam. There is no doubt in the eighth century the ancient Latium was named Campania. which stretched from the city as far as Capuana with Capua as its capital. to which are added the four towns lying on the other side of the Tiber. De antiq. 2 The Acts of the Council of 769 are signed by Petrus of Caere. Potho of Nepi. Bleda. vii.^ Viterbo formed the frontier town of Lombard Tuscany. Marturanum. Polimartium. following him. Polimartium . . Peregrinus. p. c. Vegentum (in ruins). Ado of Horta. De gest. Tarquinii. 1722). ii. Gregorius of Silva Candida.^ In a narrower sense. Nepe. the Bishop of Centumcelte. and Perugia a separate duchy. by Campania. Diaconus.^ The Tiber separated Tuscany from Campania. Almost all these places were Castellum-Gallesii (Fescennia). Italia Metropolibics (Rome. Oriolum {yetus Forum Claudii)^ Bracenum. Maurinus of Poli Martium. and Otriculum. Capuce.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Aquaviva. which locally belonged to Umbria and Sabina further. Vetralla. from the time of Gregory the First. Bonus of Manturianum. and Cidonatus of Portus. Cornietum. into Domin. Georgius.. Ameria. Antiq. Campania was divided Terracina. and Nepe as a country town. c. Centumcellae. Todi. ^ This is the explanation of Paul. Horta. and Silva Candida. Castellum Amerinum or Gallesii ?). Bleda. which general name the territory which extended from Rome to the river Silaris in Lucania. 88. 453 (now Cervetri) Neopyrgi. bishoprics. and of which Capua was the capital. and that two parts: Romana. Pertisia cum tribus insulis sins. Gallisem. the Roman Campania only extended to the river Liris and the ^ The diploma of Lewis the Pious enumerates in Tuscice partibus: Ceere. Faleria. 17. Orchianum. . . . however.

Sarnum. Ravenn. and 502. Clostris. The Volscian and Alban Mountains divided it into two parts. The second great road. it was. such.^ The smaller Roman roads. Of the ancient cities in the southern many had become deserted even in the eighth century. remained. .454 HISTORY OF ROME Circe. . Hermes. the district had assumed the name by which it is often mentioned in the Liber Pontificalis^ that of Campania. This highway. 382. Turres Albas. he makes use of the ancient geographers. but hencepart of Campania. Pompeii. still survived. strictly speaking. the northern of which was intersected by the Via Labicana. Laurentum (now Torre Paterno). from the time of Constantine the Great onwards. which absorbed the Latina beside Compitum at the fortieth milestone. Ostia. Aphrodisium. and Astura is found : : again in a diploma of the tenth century. gave its name to the whole of the surrounding patrimony. S. Oplontis. Latium. traversed and also bestowed its name on the southern of the Cape of two still districts bounded by the sea. Herculanum.^ With the exception of Ostia. and Antium. App. in Nerini. Antium survived with its principal church. Lavinium (Prattica) Ardea. Asturas. Antium. which means as much for that time as when he names Stabium. Ostia Tiberina. pervenitur ad Albanam civitatem. which is represented by its bishop in the Roman Councils of 499. although remaining unnoticed during this period. quotes CircelHs. 2 When the Anon. such as the Ostiensis and Ardeatina. Astura also. no bishop is mentioned in connection with any of these places. the present Maritima. for example. the Appia. * The Book of the Pilgrims at the end of the Opera Alcuini says that by the Via Appia. vanished or forward disappears from history until the eighth century. 501. Lavinium. Although.

. in accordance with which Procopius asserts the Roman Campania properly speaking to have stretched as far as Terracina.^ It is a striking fact that neither in the later diploma of Lewis the Pious. nor Trestabernae are named. however. Hke Caieta. (499). A. Ep. Topo- 2 Tres Tabernc^ was an ancient bishopric in the Ads of the Synod Decitis Trium Taberof Synimachus. nor in that of Otto. Goth. . de Bell. however. : . had remained in the possession of the Patriciate of Sicily. and it is only from the established idea. 455 The boundary of the duchy was at Terracina. Cori. jueö' K-i]vr\v 8)7 oZ 'Pci/xTjs '6poi ots Kafx-rravol ^XP* iK^exovTaL. while neither the episcopal city of Albano. Thiel. nor Velletri. i. Such conflicts are already known to us at Terracina. it is never in connection with political matters.. Pont. ots i.^ And although these cities are frequently mentioned in the history of the bishoprics after the time of Gregory. The Roman frontiers are. i. which. Arce.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. This silence is explicable with regard to the greater number with others it is probably merely accidental. 15 . The northern district between the Volscian Mountains and the Apennines is alone spoken of as Campania. quite impossible that either the Duke of Benevento or of Spoleto or the Patricius of Sicily could have extended his dominions as far as Albano without conflicts having arisen during the iconoclastic struggle between these cities and Rome. It is. 642. is there the slightest mention of any single place in the present Maritima. there is mentioned naruui. as also further north at Sora. R. ttSAlv oIkovctiv.. here very uncertain. and other places ^'^ ^ Procopius. that we conclude the duchy must also have extended to this point.

Ferentinum. nor yet Setia is mentioned. 288 sq. Sulmo (Sermoneta). 2 Hence in the Dipl. . and was called by preference Campania. Patricum. ^ Borgia is the first to express surprise at the silence maintained Breve Istoria.. but not the Maritima . Ferentinum. Alatrum^ Patricum. but neither Cora. the state of decay into which they had fallen. and Frusino. Jordanus of Signia.! HISTORY OF ROME The absence of history in these cen- turies with regard to the present Maritima is accounted by the insignificance of its towns. is silent regarding Ostia. where. an unknown place and . Alatrium.456 on the for frontier. The diploma of Lewis the Pious. owing to the importance of its towns and the vigour of its sturdy mountain population. and the donation of Norma and Ninfa seems to strengthen his supposition. however. which nevertheless belonged to the duchy. ^ The following bishops subscribed their names in 769 Sergius of : Ferentinum. p. concerning these places. On the other hand. in modern times. and yet more by the desertion of the coast and the Pontine marshes from Velletri to Terracina. In the Council of 769 we find the names of Eustathius of Albano and Pinus of Tres Tabernas (the latter bishopric had previously been united with that of Velletri by Gregory the First) also Bonifacius.^ Beyond the Liris the duchy seems further to have stretched to Horrea. . Bishop of Privernum in the Volscian Mountains . Anagniam. and comprised within it the now considerable episcopal cities of Praeneste. together with the fact that the Via Appia had become useless as a military road. Ludovici Pii: in partibus CampanicB Signiam. and an un- named bishop of Alatri. Nirgotius of Anagnia. Signia. Verola.2 It extended as far as the Liris. Anagnia. the Latin territory had attained a greater prominence. &c. Ceprano marked the boundary of the ecclesiastical state. He is of opinion that the Roman duchy comprised the present Campania. Frisilinam {Frosinone) cu?n omnibus ßnibur Campania.

of the dioceses. ma Longobardica. The greater part of the province was the property of the Duke of Spoleto. The Sabine territory was bounded westwards by the Tiber.. ii. the land which lay between this river and the Tiber was divided into the Sabina and Umbria. formerly the Sabine capital. on the other side of the pp. however. lib. The Sabina therefore adjoined Roman Tuscany. Sora. the Anio. southwards by the Anio. {in Curium Sabinorum territorid). richest i. 71011 Romana. Fidenae. 130.^ While the limits of the Roman Campania were marked on the north by the Anio. whose territory stretched from the brook Allia at the fourteenth milestone beyond the Salarian Gate over Monte Rotondo (Eretum). and the Nar respectively. is merely a hypothesis. 2 Fatteschi {Meviorie^ &c. and on the east by Abrutium Ulterius. this. Nomentum. We may hold with Barretta that the frontier was formed by the river Melphis. Liris . and Umbria. is still mentioned by Gregory (Ep. it is nevertheless impossible to define the boundaries on this side with any degree of accuracy. and Aquinum.^ To the Roman duchy belonged the following celebrated Sabine towns ^ : Sabina. Gabii. ) to decay. It had already fallen and the Pope therefore united the bishopric with that of Nomentum. Latium or Campania. Malliano (Manlianum) is now the chief town of the 20. but claimed by Adrian as frontier towns. 156. province. Cures. towns occupied by the Lombard Duke of Benevento.IN although THE MIDDLE AGES. 131) asserts that the actual Sabina began at the brook Allia. The fifty diocese of the Sabina. Asperia. 457 we have already in the seventh century spoken of Arpinum. Arx. Farfa and the ancient Cures to the territory of Rieti. the places. comprises enumerated by Ughelli. being separated from them by the Tiber. towards the north by the rivers Nar and Velinus. .

1545^. Ughelli. n.^ Even ancient and renowned Cures. although remaining the seat of a bishop. no . afforded me but gives a but little Gabii. Ficulea. for the last time in 680. which was joined by the Nomentana at Nomentum. The limits of the Narni by the . A bishop of Fidenae is mentioned Nibby's Analisi. Metnorie de' dtichi di Spoleto. 229 . had. Valeria. Fidenae. as early as 741. assistance. on these places." Nomentum at Umbria. The industrious Fatteschi. gradually sank and disappeared. Anio as far as Alba the Nomentana. i. and Narnia. Sac. 127-159 . or only endured as ruins. Gabii. the Salara. Antemnse. the birthplace of Numa and Ancus Martius. on the whole. Crustmeria. Del Agro Romano^ p. even neighbourhood of Rome. perished in surviving merely in the Lombard times. p.^ in the immediate perished under the successive incursions of the Lom- bard dukes. which. its memory name of the hamlet " Correse. pp. Eretum. sunk to the level of a fundus. and thirdly. Three main roads. Sperandio's Sabina Sacra has. and here. . followed the course of the .458 HISTORY OF ROME Other Sabine towns. alone existed as a bishopric until the tenth century. still bearing their ancient names. had Ocricolum. as we have already towns of Ameria and Tuder (Todi) were Umbria the politically reckoned as belonging to Roman Tuscany. Ital. led through the Sabine territory the Tiburtina. ^ Barretta. river. duchy were formed on the other side of which lay seen. which ' in olden days had given the word Quirites to the Romans. 2 description of the Sabina. Eschinardi. known from the twentieth milestone onwards as .

and in the Triclinium of Leo the — Third. 795. Susanna. interdependence of Church and State. Adrian The news of his death affected Charles profoundly.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. at the head of which stood the Prankish memory of his honoured the friend by the solemnisation of masses King. had made friends of the two men. the First died on Christmas Day. after a glorious reign of more than twenty-three years. the mutual time in the West. 459 CHAPTER I. The Roman Church. their time. Charles . —the two most striking for the first figures of In the relations which existed between them was manifested. had been at open enmity with each other. powers which. Long intercourse. 795 Leo the Third — His Embassy — TO Charles Charles's Treaty with the Church — Symbolical Significance of the Keys of the Apostle's Grave and the Roman Banner — Supreme Jurisdiction exercised by Charles as Patricius — Representation of the Harmony between the Spiritual and Temporal Power Mosaics in S. under the Greek Empire. having shaken off the yoke of Byzantine Imperialism. and the consciousness of the task which destiny had laid upon them. VII. could now unite as an independent power with the growing Western Empire. Death of Adrian.

is built into the wall on the left of the main entrance in the vestibule of the basilica. whose consent. The man No letter been lost. 795 say postquam a plandu cessavit epitaffium aureis Uteris in mamiore ^ Eginhard : sic ßevii. and by an inscription in gold letters on black marble. has. Lauresham ad Ann. 19). Susanna. at a time so momentous. Peter's. utßlium aut sifratreni amisisset carissinium The Annal. .^ The unanimous choice of the Romans fell on the Cardinal-presbyter of S. HISTORY OF ROME by the distribution of alms in every province of his kingdom. was preLeo accompanied the scribed as a patrician right. Were it but it would set our minds at rest with regard to some of the perplexed questions respecting the attitude of the Patricius in the papal election. The Acts concerning it. This inscription. {Vita Karoli M. the son of Azuppius. ought indeed to have been a Leo the 816. sooner was Leo raised to the apostolic chair than he notified to the Patricius of the Romans the death of his predecessor and his own elevation. Leo the Third on December The which the election was accomplished shows it to have been the independent and uninfluenced work of the clergy. : — conscriptum jussit in Francia fieri^ ut teret ad sepulturam summi pontificis eum partibus Romce transmitAdriani ornandam. secration as who received con27.'^ '^^ ~ of no ordinary mould. The election had been free. however. forthcoming. unfortunately. had been sent to the King. had been brought up from childhood in the Lateran. The successor of Adrian. and had risen to haste with the highest offices of the Church.^ c. was a Roman by birth. The new Pope. at least in this form of official recognition. which still exists. which he placed over Adrian's tomb in S.400 for his soul.

796 Leo mox. who does them into verse. {ad Ann. and enjoining him at the same time In his to confirm the relations. qui populum Romanufu ad suam fidem atque subjectionem per firmaret. Einhardi. . to S. Chron.IN THE MIDDLE gift AGES. in order that Leo he says " We we may come to a mutual agreement as to what you esteem requisite for the advancement of the Holy Church of God. ut in locum ejus misit legatos cum muneribus ad regem. ^ Rogavit ut aliquem de suis optifuatibus Romam ?nitteret. with God's the seat Roman Church may be defended through our : successzt. Laurissens ad Ann. your honour. Einhardi. in order that of the ^ I may obtain the apostolic blessing will. as envoy Angilben to the Pope. too. stipulated by treaty. already existing with letter to Rome and : the Church. Annal. Tiliani. claves etiam confeS' Similarly. I desire also to conclude the inviolable compact of the same faith and love with you. and that. as a further symbol.^ Charles sent Angilbert. own have entrusted Angilbert with everything which appears desirable to us or necessary to you. For as I contracted a treaty of sacred paternity with your predecessor. Annal. Reginon. Richar.^ document by the At the same time. Abbot of S. which is a transcript of those annals thus. he summoned Charles to send one of his chief nobles to receive the oath of from the Roman people a decisive proof that the Pope looked on the Frankish King as fidelity — sovereign of Rome. 796. or the strengthening of our Patriciate. Annal. scLcramenta Annal. entrusting the messenger with costly gifts Rome. of your Holiness. Petri. 46 of the keys of S. et vexillu77i Roma^ice urbis eidem direxit. sionis S. Peter. to which he added. the banner of the city. and the poet Saxo. Bertiniani . 796). Peter's grave. ad Ann. .

ii. belongs It is to be observed that only the honor of the Pope is spoken of. Papain apud Alcuin. that through your intercession. S." 1 It does not follow from this letter that Charles. militiam. with the help of the Holy Church of Christ may be guarded against heathens and unbelievers from without. denoted a positive right. During the later Middle Ages. HISTORY OF ROME And may it follow. implored the Pope to Through his envoys he ratify his title of Patricius. as Moses to God. oh most Holy Father with hands uplifted. vel vobis Stabilitätem honoris vestri. however.462 devotion. the limits of their rights are not defined. ad Leon. and the name of our Lord be glorified throughout the world. and inwardly protected by the maintenance of the Catholic faith. s. with regard to the exercise of such rights over the city and the provinces bestowed upon S. the letter explains the relations between the Pope and the Patricius. therefore. from the side of their duties. in the language of feudalism. which had its Although legitimate expression in the Patriciate. . received the keys of the giave and the banner of divine love. had already been explained He had in his verbal instructions to his minister. that the ! ^ Ep. His Holy name may obtain the victory. ed Froben. as has stupidly been asserted. pars. quidquid ad exaltationeni Patriciatus est. It behoves you. Peter. App. and all that the King had to say. Dei Ecdesioe^ vel nostri firmitatem necessarium intelligeretis . to express the idea of militia. and under God's guidance. vestrum Pater^ elevatis I ad Dewn cum Moyse manibus nostram adjuvare have used the word knighthood. . to a later age. in general. which. vel . congratulated Leo. and desired a fresh adjustment of the treaty (still by right existing). . however. : . honor. 559 illique oinnia injunxmius^ qua ad vel nobis voluntaria. to support our knighthood. 2. . necessaria esse videbantur^ ut ex collatione niutua conferatis.

concerning the keys of the city. in token of bless- ing " to the King. it is supposed. Calvary. . the Dominium was surrendered to his keeping. They asserted that two friars from the Mount of Olives and S. Chroniclers relate that in the year 800. sent by the Patriarch of that sacred city. 463 symbols by which. Haroun. meaning of these symbols. the Patriarch sent the banner of the Church of ^ The Anna/. and it therefore becomes necessary to try and explain the Rome. before the East had any knowledge of monks had brought him the like symbols from Jerusalem.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. ut illius potestati adscriberetur^ ^ concessit. et montis according to the Chron. their compiler and continuator. in consequence of the compact thus formed. Britann. himself invested the celebrated hero of the West with the guardianship of the holy places of Christendom. 800 montis cm?i vexillo detulerunt say. together with the banner. however. and had brought the keys of the Saviour's grave and of the place of Calvary. Charles's coronation. Saba. claves etiam civitatis et Moissiacense ad Ann. —de Mount reb. it is true : qui bene- dictio7tis causa claves sepulcri dominici ac loci calvarice. had accompanied the presbyter Zacharias (Charles's legate to al " The keys Apostle's s^^"^^- Haroun Raschid) on his return to Rome. Carolo sacrum ilium et salutarem locum.^ rule of the The patriarch of a city under the Caliphs could scarcely have conceived the the idea of transferring the dominion over Jerusalem into the hands of Frank. 801) in the fourteenth century relates that the Patriarch of Jerusalem sent Charles a silver vexillum and the keys of the holy places {claves locorum sanctissimoriun dominiccs resurrectionis). Sion cum vexillo cruets). (or. Laurissens ad Ann. c. and speaks only of those of the grave and of Matthew of Westminster {Flares Historiar. 16) says of Haroun merely that he. Egin- hard {Vita Carol. ad Ann. 801. is silent Einhard. and. however.

^ He was. ^ quibus templi Vaticani aptabantur fores vel 14. says : parietinis. and all that was comprehended by the shrine (and numerous deeds of gift were contained within it). clerum. regis ejus opes. Tu Tu regis Ecclesicß^ nam regit ilk poli. quibus Petri monumenti adyta et penetralia servabantur. Petrus) claves. These symbols serve to explain the keys of the grave of the Prince of Apostles and the Roman banner. 11). in his hands. 95). c. but Charles accepted the symbols as guardian protector .464 HISTORY OF ROME Jerusalem and the keys of the holy places to Charles. who believes that these keys were the amulets customary in ancient times. Both denote the armed guardianship of the Defender of the Christian faith. not as gifts of blessing merely. populumque gubernas. n. proprias tejussit habere. ^ I reject the opinion of Le Cointe {Annal. 796. p. who says to King Charles: Coeli habet hie (sc. of the sacred city. 421). As S. . of the Apostle's grave. But if Charles could be nothing more for the Church of Jerusalem than the Advocate in partibus infideliuin^ his position with regard to Rome was widely different. but signs of duties and rights in relation to the Roman Church and its possessions. Francor. v. That this was the view held by contemporaries is clear from Theodulf of Orleans who {Dom. The golden keys were. and agree with Alemanni {De Lateran. so in political affairs Charles was henceforth guardian of the keys and Defender of the Palladium of the Roman Church. but also as symbols of guardianship thus putting these places under the protection of the Western monarch. Eccl. Peter and the Pope bore the keys in dogmatic matters. Bouquet. The idea of a Patricius of Jerusalem had not been conceived. Ann. no mere miraculous gifts of honour.

Peter's. The inscription on an altar slab in S.brought by Angilbert. the Pope as his subject. The royal letters. n." . and Ann. Roman the office of military leader. while the Senate remains shrouded in impenetrable darkness. the Vexillum in his hand announcing that the "Militia" of Rome was fitly entrusted to his care. xi.^ The banner belonged .. allows us to infer that Adrian had already sent the Vexillum to the Patricius Charles and that the presentation of the symbol was not unprecedented. and from the tenth century onwards the custom of sending such banners had become common. . Pagi. 5. neither the Meanwhile. iv. of Charles bearer of ^^^ <^^^'^^^- which we have already spoken. 740. Even earlier than this. were addressed The city obeyed the Pope its to the Pope alone. n. Critic. Historians. we hear of official army nor the nobles taking any part in investing Charles with these symbols. name this Vexillum "Banner and thereby allow it to be understood that in this purely military symbol the voice of the Roman army and people was expressed the two bodies thus uniting in transferring to Charles of the City. Ann. as 465 of represented Standard-bearer the Church.IN therefore. And the poet Saxo in the ninth century (vers. 796) to'bis : Confestim claves. VOL. convents had presented banners to their defenders as symbols of armed advocacy. 4. 796. to Charles in his capacity of Patricius or Dux of the Romans . A^m. IL 2 G . quibus est confessio saticti Conservata Petri^ vexillaque miserat Romulea — The Frankish bishops the whole ^ already regarded Charles as head and ruler of Church . THE MIDDLE AGES. therefore. has been already shown by the case of the banner of Jerusalem.

S. he also made good his right placed over ^ Pagi calls this banner vexilhun s.466 HISTORY OF ROME . but even of the Empire. were temporal affairs. to confirm the supreme military and judicial authority of the protector. the Papacy remained After the usurpation of Toto. Rome. these rights on the basis of a treaty that Angilbert had been sent Charles's office to the Pope. ßu|^-j^g . so the Vexillum of the city becomes that not only of the Church and Christendom. . and accompanied was important. recognised that they could remain rulers neither of the city nor the patrimony. Peter himself is represented as entrusting it to the hands of the King. . the Popes defenceless. unless an Imperial power. like the Labarum of Constantine. in Charles Overlord of Rome.^ Charles was thus at the same time General of the Church (what in later times was called Confalonerius EcclesicB)^ and also supreme judge . The Patricius now came more prominently forward. in the absence of whose supreme power to judge and to punish. to which the Romans would yield obedience. Patriciate by positive rights. Petri or Ecclesia^ and Alemanni says not only vexillwn urbis^ but also patriciatus. Besides the duty of defending the Church. the It was in virtue of to that Pope required him despatch one of his nobles to receive the oath of The Pope hastened fidelity from the Roman people. /^ ^ and it was to discuss and settle ' ^ . Both secular and spiritual ideas were somewhat confused at this period and as the word respublica has a twofold sense. army stood at the service of the Apostle its verybanner was confided by the Pope to the Miles and Defensor of the Church and in mosaics of the time .

was for the first he had never made time claimed by Charles. the second at that of Leo. and .. n. he arrayed himself in the long tunic and chlamis and in the Roman shoes. to the crown of which that of the Franks was united. viii. standing between ^ De Marca. Ann. Rome obeyed the Greek Francorum. n.^ After the fall of the Lombard kingdom. ii. only the Defensor ^x\(S. Francor. Ann. iv. i. together with the consciousness of all its rights. p. after this date. Ro7n. Eccl. 467 of exercising supreme jurisdiction in the territory which had been bestowed upon it. clad as a Roman Patricius. De Patricii nomen Concordia^ &c. vir inluster. In this attire he is represented in an ancient picture. Bouquet. : consensu Pontificis et pop. 64).^ On the occasion of his first visit to Rome he was received with all the honours which had previously been rendered to an Exarch. the title of Patricius. v. he only twice wore. according to the significant remark of his biographer. quam 740. p. the " Diplomata Caroli Magni " in Dom. n. 57. 15). Mabillon. ^ Charles had previously signed himself Carolus gratia Dei Rex Ann. De re diplom. c. 73. If use of this title in diplomas before 774. n. at least.. he began to adopt it. et protectionefu . 796. seu dcfensionem Pagi. Ecclesice polliciti erant he is followed by Le Cointe strives to maintain his opinion that Emperor until the time of Leo the Third. c. xii. and showed himself to the people. Alemanni recognises in the Patricius 754.filius adoptiwis {De Lateran parietin. He himself yielded to Adrian's wish. duo qucedam complectebantur^ et jurisdictionem qua Reges in tirbe ex . and throughout the duchy which had been silently subjugated by it. Romani potiebantur.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. unwillingly renouncing his Frankish attire in favour of the vestments which. and in Charles's Patriciate sees merely \heprotectio {A?inal. 3. The first time at the request of Adrian. which are described by Cassiodorus as being part of the dress of the Patricius.

rested essentially on the episcopal immunity. Romce sejnel^ Adriano pontifice petente. calceis qtwque Ro7?iano more for?fiatis utebatur. had to yield obedience to Charles as overlord.468 his HISTORY OF ROME two chancellors. ix. possessed territorial authority in the provinces subject to his rule. n. on his . of Paul Petavius. Leo the Third had simply to renew these relations by and Pope and King to confirm them by a mutual oath. life. xi. instance of episcopal immunity. The Pope. the duchy. or the greatest. Mabillon. This authority. lasted for did not require fresh confirmation. the exemption from the jurisdiction of the Dux. ^ This is also the view of de Marca. We most of the cities and bishoprics may. c.^ The Patriciate being an office which treaty. c. 8 ßdes : ilia et subjectio populi Romani jure patriciatus debebatur Carolo . developed in in Italy. iii. quam novis sacramentis adhibitis confirmari Leo cupiebat. and side. his clearly with regard to an extension of his He the supreme jurisdiction Angilbert. and Leo acknowledged that Rome. Stipple7n. therefore. iii. the oath of fidelity from the Romans. in the course of time. Vita. et iterum Leone successore ejus supplicante^ longa tunica et chlamide amictus.^ The limits of the authority exercised by Charles as Patricius had already been determined by Adrian and himself as early as 774. new Pope recognition of in Rome. however. consider the Roman ecclesiastical state as a great. taken from a Cod. his accepted Exarchate in name. ^ The idea of a *' State of the Church " is utterly incongruous with . c. gives a portrait of Charles in the dress of the Patricius..^ ^ Eginhard. de re diplo?7i. and even he himself. 39. 23. but his the King commissioned received from the envoy to express himself powers. and consisted in a condition similar to that which.

after a long process of evolution. ecclesiastical and political. the Prankish monarchy had arisen. Amid the German provinces on the other side of the Alps. Gregory the Great had already announced that the spiritual power of the Church had reached maturity. two powers. 469 The commanding in position which Charles assumed Rome and the West. In Rome the Papacy. as other bishops the Comes {Comitatus). had developed as a spiritual power. In Rome the Pope acquired the acquired those of rights of the Dux {Ducatus). Out of the chaos following the overthrow of the Roman Empire. the requirements of the Church. . the important question became how to exhibit to mankind the new alliance which the Church had formed with the newly-arisen power in the spirit of the age. his successors on the papal chair had established the claims by which it was rendered independent of the temporal power of the Empire. had arisen. After it had won its freedom from the Byzantine Empire.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. One and the same necessity united the representatives of the two powers. and. and whose mighty head was about to unite the greater portion of the West in his Empire. concentrating within it the great system of the Church throughout all the provinces of the West. powers which were thenceforth to rule the European world. resting upon Latin foundations. and the ideas of the time led at length to the restoration of the Western Empire. during the Iconoclastic controversy. which extended its dominion as far as Rome. the necessity of strengthening one another and giving a permanent form to the newly-arisen system of the world.

The exhibition of this union to full between tuaiTnd* temporai powers depicted in occupation to Leo ^^^ Third. was accorded to a king. 7. xlii. his predecessors. Ugonio. ii. It is true that. ii. For the figures of Charles and Leo.^ fashion round his legs up to the Thus. and wearing a fillet in the tribune of S. his were encased shoes with tibialia or ribbons wound Roman knees. . in the sixth century. has been preserved. . covered in his head. Vitale ^ but in Rome neither Justinian. wore a Roman tunic.470 The relations HISTORY OF ROME the German West. each on a mountain-like peak. . See illustration in Ciampini. the tinian people of Ravenna had depicted the Emperor Jusand his wife in the tribune of S. tab. ending ^ in a lily. and above it a sion to his idcas . which he caused to be executed in the Roman churches after 796. While Alemanni only gives Charles mustachios. In year 1600. p. Pariei. Susanna were destroyed about the however. De Lateran. as Patricius. Some mosaics. .. by side with saints and apostles. his successors ^ had ever received a like honour. Susanna. to the year 800.. who saw this mosaic. . xxii. see Alemanni. tab. dignified figure with beardless face and tonsured head. . Ciampini represents him with a beard. Already he had had himself represented with Charles Pope and the Great in the Basilica of S.. attributes it. side for the first time. Veter. gave expresthe eyes of the world afforded of^th^°tim? and to the requirements 01 the time. King here stood at the two ends of a row of nine The Pope. r i ^• long mantle with richly-embroidered border. held in his hands a model of the building Charles. nor . Veier. encircled feet by a crown.. . beneath which the sheath of his sword showed itself A berretta. a place in a Roman church. . The mosaics A copy. and Ciampini. although without any reason. Mon. . a figures. Mon.

their mantles gathered over their arms. triclinium minus. about 1743. with is eleven tribunes. Christ holds a book. was expressed in a manner entirely distinct and personal. which bears on its open page the words Pax vobis. from which issue four streams. The facsimile of the mosaic stands in . ^ Lib.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Triclinium majus super omnia triclinia nomine magnitudinis decoratum. Rome. to the earlier of these triclinia. devoted his work. tribunes. preserved in a fac-simile of meet the gaze of the beholder stands by the Lateran basilica. through its two heads. De Lateranensibus Parietinis restitutis (Rome. The Alemanni. work was written at the instance of Cardinal Francesco Barberini. 1625 with an appendix. He instructs the listening who. stand at each side. Pont. and enclosed three later times. in the Triclinium of the ^^^^^^"• supported on pillars of porphyry and white marble. . . 1756). standing on the pinnacle of a mountain. built by Leo the Third in the Lateran. caused an exact copy to be made by the aid of the drawings in the Vatican library.^ In the middle the Saviour. It was panelled with marble. ready to go forth in obedience to " Go their instructions. A dining-hall. the nephew of Urban the Eighth. who restored Leo's tribunes. still Of these the mosaics as he is in the principal tribune. as shown in the words below. on the destruction of the tribune. named by This custodian of the Vatican. n. ornamented with reliefs. With right hand uplifted. 367.. baptising them in the name of disciples. Between the years 796 and 799 Leo the Third iiT-'i'» -n»i enlarged the Inclmium of the Lateran Palace by a 1 riT magnificent building called the Triclinium majus. the open air in a niche of the chapel Sancta Sanctorum Benedict the Fourteenth having. by whom the Historia Arcana of Procopius was brought to light and edited. 47 another celebrated mosaic the harmonious government of the world. and teach all nations. in Leone sua: III.

" second inscription on the arch bears the words Glory be to God in the Highest. Leo with Charles the Great. and the divine investiture of their representatives. the conqueror of so many heathen tribes. &c. and on the earth am peace to men of good will. The most Italy powerful ruler of the West. although rude in execution. In the picture Christ 1 sits enthroned at the right. The mosaic was a work of the art of his age. On one side is Pope Sylvester with Constantine the Great. .. had already been termed the new Constantine by the priests. and Gloria in excelsis Deo. Recollections of Constantine. constituted the greatest artistic achievement of a long course of centuries.472 HISTORY OF ROME Holy Ghost. the first founder of the Imperial Church. even to the end of the world. the Frankish King affording of itself the parallel. the King of and Patricius of the Romans." ^ To the right and left of this picture are depicted two scenes representing the harmony of the two powers. et in terra In the middle of the tribune the name Leo is entwined with the monogram of Christ. pax hominibus of bonce voluntatis. were rife at this period the relation which Sylvester's successor had recently formed by his alliance with . and lo the Father. on the other. at Etintes docete omnes gentes baptizantes eos in nomine Patris. it yet. and of the I A " with you alway. et Filii et Spiritus sancti. the Son. to whom was attributed the donation of Rome and Italy to the Pope. and so clearly expressed the historic conditions of the time that. with respect to the idea repre- sented. and had surpassed the ancient Emperor in the extent of his actual and not merely imaginary donations.

CONSTANTINUS. encircled S. except that in the latter Peter takes the place of Christ.. Imag.i To mosaic on the left entirely corresponds. Alemanni argues that the chief and the parallelism makes this evident. (the the the picture ^ itself: No inscription marks the figure of the Pope. I have adopted the explanation given by Alemanni. over Rex — translation of the word Basileus. united by The Saviour hands the Pope the ties of friendship. Still more indefensible is the view of Assemanni. and rejected that of Muratori {ad 798). and. we assume it here and elsewhere figure represents Sylvester.. Ann. the keys. N. Is Pope would at this period accord a Byzantine Emperor a place in a mosaic in the Lateran ? The square frame round the head of Constantine is to be explained by opposition to the glory round that of Sylvester. D. that Adrian and Charles are here depicted {Excerpta de sacr. LEO. with the left knees . the banner on Charles in token of temporal supre- macy. CARVLO. his The Apostle holds three keys upon with the right hand he bestows the stole on Leo as the symbol of papal dignity. REGI. N. according to legend. 473 one side kneels Sylvester. and Constantine. with Alemanni.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. who holds the papal figure to represent Peter. on the other Under King's) D. Constantinus appropriately explained by Pagi as signifying The R. which ConstanBeside him is written grasps with his right hand. this picture the other R. at the other Constantine contemporaries. Appendix in Alemanni). unless. by a crown. and in form and dress the two portraits closely resemble one another. which signifies autocracy. . it credible that a to be an allegory is of the four cardinal virtues. as in the mosaic in Susanna. P. P. the tine Emperor the Labarum. The King wears a berretta. Upon the square setting which surrounds head of the Pope are inscribed the letters SCSSIMVS. Constantine the Fifth.

DONA. they bear VICTORIA DNN.. 265) Romanos prceterea. themselves In earlier mosaics the Popes had simply styled " Bishops and servants of Christ. however. Turin. like the ancient Emperors. 2 finally. HADRIAN US PAPA. LEONI. a title which. Gesta Episcop." was also awarded to Charles. they began to adopt the title Dominus. CONOB. {Mon.474 HISTORY OF ROME BEATE. PETRE. with the keys hanging over his shoulder. Le Monete de* Papi descritle. ipsamque urbem Romuleam. they did not as yet engrave upon their coins. P.P. Germ. Monete del Romani Pontefici avanti il Milk. Leoni Pape. 1848. chroniclers and poets had celebrated his praises. et tunc a Langobardis . Fermo.C.N. See Cinagli. also the work 1858. Beside the bust of the Pope and the legend : inscription. CARVLO. DN. however. on the reverse the bust of Peter. the title. VITA." but towards the end of the eighth century. ii. REGI. The earliest papal silver denarii which have come down to us belong to Adrian the First. and &.^ The Romans were accustomed on solemn occasions to shout " Life to our Lord the Pope " as in Byzantine times they had shouted " Life and victory to our Lord the Emperor Although the Pope had become ruler in Rome. not accepted by Angelo Cinagli in The coin is doubtful. Before the times of the Carolingians there was no papal coinage. wrongly attributed by Baronius to Leo the First. quce aliquando mundi totius domina fuerat. ET BICTO RIA. is more complete than those of Vignolius or Fioravanti and Promis. " Our Lord. I here collect the most important utterances : : Pauli (Diaconi). Meiens. jam pridem ejus prcesentiam desiderantem.^ ^ A is coin. inscription. Even ! ! before his elevation to the Imperial throne. bears the D. DONA. saying that he had united the city of Romulus with the empire of his ancestors. whose .. the coins of Gregory the Third and of Zacharias being merely Tesserae.

: 305) imperii tenebat . Moissiac. instead of Rex. Cumque vir ar??iipotens sceptris junxisset avitis Cigniferuviqus Paduni Romuleumque Tybrim. imperatorem ipsum Carolum nominare debuissent qui ipsam : ut — regem Romam 381). according to the definite statements of the time. and. The great event undoubtedly hovered in the air. and the mosaic in the Lateran perhaps pointed a year beforehand to bestowed the depressa gemebat. recognise the monument of the restoration of do not the Empire at the end of the year 800. the i. quia ipsam Vita S. {Mon. after the confirmation of the treaty through Angilbert They were the monument of this treaty. according to Leo's biographer. the Prankish monarch was greeted Carolo piissiino Angus to a Deo coronato magno. but we may reasonably ask why. Annal. Germ. . it is true. If begun in 796. pacifico hnperatori. if the picture were not executed until after the Imperial coronation. the finished before the Christmas consequently before Charles's coronaThe title Rex or tion as Emperor had taken place. : ^ Victoria ! Even title at a later date the Byzantines.) — suz's addidit sceptris. the more appropriate title was not accorded him the title with which. by order of the Pope. . Vita et . not incompatible with the Imperial dignity. the dining- was already in use mosaics were probably hall festival of 800. Hildegardis regina {Ibid. tenebat. 801 Francortim. Chron. Laureshavt. ad Ann. never Imperator upon them. copying him.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. in 799. Romam 77iatrein Willehadi (ii. King was. and.. duris angustiis eximejiSy Paul's Epitaph. but merelj'' In this mosaic we consequently that of Riga or Rex. 475 These mosaics were executed in the triclinium. regarding the Western Emperors as usurpers.

) terms the mosaic the monument of he. TAKES PROCEEDINGS AGAINST THE Accused. asserts erroneously that the consortium dominii lasted until 800. 24. servilely adopts these the Patriciate . and Meeting with Charles Rome in THE Power of the Nobility Alcuin's Advice to Charles Leo's return to Rome. lead us Leo dreaded some hostile movement to take possession of among the people. however. THROUGH his EnVOYS. In the course of the eighth cen- tury a government by the clerical aristocracy had developed. and assumes a consortium imperii.). iv. the Proceres or Judices de Clero having obtained a preponderating influence in Rome.^ 2. literally. n. c. Alexand. the urgency with which the Pope had An summoned him to suppose that Rome. it is unnecessary to accept the idea of Dominus so . Translatio imperii. Journey to Germany. Meanwhile. 799 Charles. The close alliance of Leo with Charles. The seven ministers of the palace conducted ^ all business Alemanni seeks to prove that the mosaics are later than the year 800. but of the vi. Natal. Eccles. . agree with Pagi {Ann. views.^ iii. and the monument not only I of Leo's restoration. torn.^ diss. who says Charles was called Dominus as Patricius and Supreme Judge of Rome. De Marca {De Co7icor.. Conspiracy of Adrian's Nephews and other Nobles AGAINST Leo the Third Attempt upon the Life OF the Pope His Flight to Spoleto.47^ Charles's HISTORY OF ROME inevitable elevation to the throne of the Western Empire. the recognition of the authority of the Frankish monarch in the city. 796. xi. — — — — — unexpected occurrence was destined to be the immediate cause of the restoration of the Roman Empire. Hist.

it was retained by Paschalis lessened by their fall . exemplified in the case of Christophorus and Sergius. and we find his nearest relations entrusted with the most important affairs and filling the highest offices of state. : : .IN affairs. eminentiss. 477 century the Primicerius of the notaries had. and several times acted as Adrian's ambassador. relations to the highest with sullen rage. Cenni. and. His relations and clients. his and had accustomed dignities. To the personal by Adrian's family (necessarily deprived by the new Pope of the influence they had hitherto possessed) was united the hostility of the enmity cherished ^ Theodorus was Dux Cod. Adrian's conspire '^he Third!° after the who death of his uncle.^ The latter he raised to the Primiceriate. Theodore and Paschalis. possessed immense influence in the city. one of the most prominent amongst the nobility. the government pass into the hands of an upstart of another family. through him. listened to the promptings of his hatred. et Dzccem. 356. His uncle. the first Pope to whose account the charge of nepotism can be laid. become more powerful. was appointed Consul. Theodatus. Theodorum nostrum nepotem (thus begins the system of nepotism in Theodorum efiiiuentiss. creatures of Adrian. trui7ique nepotem. been the most important man in Rome. 385 P. THE MIDDLE AGES. P. Consulem. nosRome). His power. already Primicerius of the Church. His nephews. pp.. 353. His family. et Consul. The nephew of a Pope had reigned with renown for twenty-three years. had. Carol. beheld. 358 Paschalem 7iostrum nepotem. 359. since this office was not affected by any change in the Papacy. it had perhaps received further development under the rule of Adrian. had not been and for nearly half a on the contrary. next to the Pope. and several optimates of the clergy and militia.

where. and Campulus following him. (Tuyy€vc7s rod fiaKapiov iraira 'ASpiavov (TuyKivnaavres rhv Xa6v. has not ended even now. the CoUecta. and note 5» ?• 427).^ The occasion of a procession was to furnish the desired opportunity. before the Pope. p. Paschalis formed the scheme of depriving the Pope of the government. Ep. This resistance dated from the hour that gave birth to the temporal power of the Popes. accompanied by his court. Attempt on Leo the Third. or one so unchanged in motive. Campulus (apparently his brother). Campulus was notary of the Church to in 784 and Cenni believes him have been the brother of Paschalis {Cod.478 HISTORY OF ROME to papal supremacy. "j^ alias 72. Mark. &c. Their confederates awaited them at the monastery of S. .. or Thither the Pope was universal prayer. whose Saccellarius kingdom ought not In to have been of this world. continuing through a long series of revolutions. accustomed to proceed on horseback. Lorenzo in Lucina. Carol. Paschalis approached to take rode. and here rushed with drawn ^ also That Adrian's nephews were the chief agents in the revolt. and the attempt was made amid scenes of tumult. the festival of S. in presence of the assembled people. as the struggle of the Romans Romans and Italians against the Dominium temporale of the Popes. Sylvester in Capite. The procession advanced from the Lateran to S. Chronogr. was conjunction with the ^j^g didX^ appointed. the day on which the great procession annually took place. was recited. 399: ol iv rij 'PcofxTj . As Leo left the Lateran. The whole history of the human race affords no example of a struggle of such long duration. and of seizing the authority by force. and. his place in the procession. The 25th of April. we are informed by Theophanes..

Peter's entreaty. i. . At length he was left lying by the door of the church Paschalis and Campulus dragged him inside the building.. compescuit Diaconus. tine cruelty. lit aliquibus visum quoque amputata. oculos est. cacare conati stmt. et ejus pracisa est. . and ^ Vita Leonis. at S. Romani —absciderunt ipsum penitus Annal. Chron. Peter's. and presented a ilhtminati. lingtiai7t. 400. 368 : crudeliter oculos ei evellere. : Alcuin (Ep. never been deprived of either. The conspirators were numerous. his assailants sought to deprive him of eyes and tongue. ad Regem) contented himself with saying deus mantis impias volentes lumen ejus extinguere. 479 swords on the cavalcade.. and the Pope. where the bloody scenes of the days of the usurper Constantine seemed about to be renewed. Einhardi : erutis oculis. ordered the Greek monks to shut him up in a cell. custody. habetitem historiam resurrectionem {Vita Leon. fortu- Profound terror reigned in the city. Et 2 celeram abscindunt lacerato corpore — Mon. of the ninth century — — 2. Na?u lingua Ann. n. and. et piece of tapestry to S. ii. voluerunt eruere linguain ejus. and there kept in strict .^ and the miracle proves that the ill-used Pope had. n. dragged from his horse. 799. ejus.^ In the night he was removed to S. Priests relate that. et lingua : Annal. 379). Angilbert says with quaint Carnifices elegance geminas traxerunt fronte fenestras. Neap.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. God immediately restored his eyes and tongue nately. S. xiii.. fell amid the swords of the enraged aristocrats. Erasmus on the Coelian. 312) . His with Byzanpapal vestments were torn from him . throwing him down before the altar. Episcop. &c. est IcBsus. (Murat. The procession was put to rout. Lauresham. Germ. Joh. cum vellent oculos eruere — tnius ei oculus paululu/n cceci The Pope upheld the belief in a miracle. EccL.

Winichus. and conducted Rome.! the rebel A by a band of armed But the outrage had either deprived the forces insurgents of their powers of reflection. On receiving the news of these events. appears to have supported Tuscans. Albinus. The entire city now Flight of found itself in the hands of the insurgents. 370. Pont. against the Dominus of Rome. although they sacked the houses of Leo and Albinus. et Camputus saccettarius. Leo's wounds healed. had brought him unharmed to S. habitatores nobiles. baron of the Campagna. Annal. or else they from the populace the support on which they had reckoned for their ill-arranged schemes. et multi alii Romance tirbis So. 801 say hujus factionis fuere principes Paschalis nomenclator. Maurus Nepesinus as one of the and Campulus. lowering him from the wall of the monastery by a rope. Maurus of Nepi. had effected the Pope's deliverance and. . the Duke of Spoleto. Meanwhile. too. the Frankish envoy and Abbot of Stablo. . speaks of leaders of the party beside Paschalis : Einhardi ad Ann. the conspirators dared not attempt to drag him away from the tomb of the Apostle. at the head of a military force and accompanied by Wirundus.^ n. clergy and people rallying round the Part of the fugitive. they could not prevent the further flight of the Pope.480 HISTORY OF ROME belonged to the highest rank. and. They put forward no anti-Pope a proof that the people had risen not against the Bishop. Bertinian. and other faithful followers. effected Leo's him safely to Spoleto. Peter's. but failed to receive . and Paschalis was one day startled by the news of his escape. a compatriot of Toto. his courageous chamberlain. and a member perhaps of the same family. had hastened to escape. The Annates ^ The Lib.

and. When.^ Leo. had bishop possessing neither territory nor territorial power but the Pope who fled to Pipin's son in 799 was ruler not only of Rome but of spiritual gone as a several cities and provinces. Groszen. accompanied by some of his Roman clergy. 1883). he cessor Stephen had journeyed to meet . having sent Plildibald. in his poem of Charles the Great. Archbishop of Cologne." and the circumstances of his flight sufficed to reveal to Charles the consequences entailed by the alliance of temporal dominion with spiritual priesthood. The poet was apparently Angilbert. II. " the second ^ Jahrb. After having. forty years before. has an interesting picture of the event. ii. borrowing some colours from the then '^^' of the at The meeting two men existing school left — Virgil — to describe the scene. 172 f.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. described Aachen. 2 H . He came wounded and banished by the very Romans who "belonged to him. proceeded to Paderborn. Reichs unter Karl Simson. awaited there the arrival of the fugitive. and under the conduct of his illustrious escort. and King Pipin to meet the Pope. Paderborn formed He meets an event in the history of the world. crossed the Rhine at Lippeham. his predePipin. VOL. d. set up his He at camp Paderborn. p. Count Ansarich. 48 of the Pope's fate spread rapidly abroad. the point of The King was on making war upon the Saxons when the news of Leo's immediate approach reached him. who in 796 had undertaken the embassy to Leo. vol. and emissaries of Winichus intimated to Charles that The news Leo desired a personal interview. (by B. des Frank. A poet and Paderborn eye-witness.

Charles accompanied the Pope to the cathedral. 58 f. his Rome. the greatest monarch of the fugitive in his arms. the Saxons of Germany on many a bloody field.482 HISTORY OF ROME glorified the royal court. . ascribed certainly on insufficient grounds to ii. deprived of eyes and tongue. and Charles immediately sends three messengers to Rome to inform himself of Leo's fate. muse soars according to the style of antiquity. according to the expression of Virgil's imitator. At sight of Leo. however. RomcB : ^ Optatique vident legati a monte theatrum. West folded the ill-used Warriors and paladins who had overcome the Saracens of Spain. The fragment times." namely. Germ. the A Pope. " sad portent and a dreadful monster. where. the goblets The envoys beheld Rome from Monte Mario Culmina jam cernunt Urbis procul ardua. Allgem. der Liter. and his arrival at Paderborn. escorted by who had gone to meet him with ten thousand men Charles. Leo's journey. and.. appears before the King in a dream. is one of the best poems of Caroline Ebert. lande. Angilbert {Mon. saluted the two heads of Christendom with shouts that rent the air." and in a vision. and the solemn mass was followed by a banquet. des Mittelalters im Abend- ii.^ The hymns of priests mingled with the clash of arms. Gesch. The Pope came. ^ of the poem. the army sank three times on its knees to King Pipin.i The poet describes with rapid touches the circumstances there existing. Exoritur cla7nor vox ardua pulsat Olympum. the Avars of the Ister. remained in his camp to await the arrival of his guest. 393). deeply moved. . receive the papal benediction.

Damoetas.): mitis ab athei'io dementer Christus o/yvipo. however. No greater contrast can be found than exists between the Charles of the books of romance and the Charles of history. atque bibunt^ateris spu77iantia vina. the power . the property belonging to S. and contained among other charges those of adultery and perjury. enjoying these Rome in -. to the Church. of Paschalis. indulged in many acts of most probably. The poets of Charles's time called themselves Mopsus. merely informing us that the usurpers sacked and laid waste . honours and discussing matters of weightiest import. God is frequently called Tonans by Angilbert and Theodulf. ix. Leo's biographer bestows but a hasty glance upon it. were unsparing in their criticisms of the immense property which had fallen They drew up a deed of accusation. si??iul et Rex Post Carolus summus Leo prcesul in orbe Vescitur.-•':. Peter. Flaccus. Candidus. of the Rome remained in the power of the faction which "^^^^^^yhad driven him forth. to the Roman Arcadia. Alcuin writes (Ep. The followers more to especially people from the country.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. This justificait revealed the ^ Atirea namque tument per mensas vasafalerno. and. Icetas epulas et dulcia pocula Bacchi Multa plus magno Carolus dat dona Leoni. to whom is due this. The medley of Christian and Pagan ideas repeats itself in all ages. Homerus.i While Leo lins^ered with Charles. the first renaissance of Paganism. 483 of ancient Bacchus foamed with the sweet Falernian wine. As in the days of Arator. in that motives that instigated the rising against Leo the Third. the loss of which is the more to be regretted. . Our knowledge. who had come violence. Corydon. of the state of the city is more than obscure. as if they belonged Charles himself bore the name of David. Rome. ..

ew)i ad prcBdictum 77iittere Regem.484 HISTORY OF ROME Rome. . Charles has been appointed ruler of alone. moribus de quasdam habentem burnt a letter querimonias ^ Alcuini. nor did they seek by flight to escape their trial. III. " There had hitherto been. who has now been so impiously treated." he said. setting forth on an expedi- had informed Alcuin of the occurrences in Rome. who had been on the point of tion against the Saxons. the King. that the obdurate do not escape. A letter of Alcuin to the King shows ill-treated Romans who had the importance attached to this revolt. the other two In him who surpasses dignities in power. the Christian nations. if it be possible. Peter. who no less and lastly.. Let threats be put aside a little. the Emperor and ruler of the second Rome." no wise is the salvation of the head (Rome) to be It were more endurable that the feet neglected. and had requested his counsel. Charles. ed. with the suffer. Ep. They made no preparations for an armed defence. base people. and Alcuin replied. and (as he adds with independent judgment) also in wisdom. n. 127. Jafife.i tion they sent to the Patrlcius of ceedings of the rebels are worthy of note. The proThe same and expelled the Pope calmly awaited Charles's sentence. and in the kingly office con- ferred by Christ. nor any opposition to Leo's return. apostolici.. barbarously has been hurled from his throne. resides He goes on to say: " In the welfare of Christianity. 372. but let them be mainFalsa adversus sanctissimian Pontißcevi imponere crimina et post Alcuin Vita Leon. (Saxons) should ache than that the head should Let peace be made. " three people supreme in the universe the Vicar : of S.

undoubtedly. judgment of the cause. Servetur ovile proprium. quod habetur^ ne propter adquisitionem minoris. Jahrbuch für 1865). . the foreign territory of This has been shown by Döllinger. " Das Kaisertum Carl's der Groszenund seiner Nachfolger" {Münchner Histor. The complaints of the nobles against Leo must have been serious. and had Adrian's nephews with their followers been simply regarded as murderers." ^ Charles determined to exercise his supreme authority with impartial severity. not. ut in propriis damnuTn non est patiatur. ainittatur. and more probably referred to his temporal position and his government in Rome. ne lupus rapax Ita in alienis sudetur. Charles's rights over Rome. We may assume that the insurgents were convinced of the justice of their and that they rested it on the ancient majesty and freedom of the Roman people. Op. fugiant centur. 485 tained in hope. Had it been otherwise. Saxony. ad domnum Regent : Componaturpax cum poptdo Relinquatitur aliquantulu)n niince^ ne obdurati nefando si fieri potest. that the ravenous wolf may not lay it waste. xi. and the aliena the affairs of the hitherto unsubjugated Saxons. as Leo probably may conducting the fugitive without further to the Lateran by force of arms but in summoning him and his Roman opponents before his tribunal. Ep. namely. ^ Alcuin. until salutary counsels recall peace. in order that we may be upheld. Our own hearth must be guarded. Patricius. not suffer loss in our own.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. . rather than to any personal offences.. Thus we must act in foreign matters. : sed in spe retineantur^ donee salubri consilio ad pacejti revo- Tenenduvi quod fjiajus est devastet illud. in ceremony back . they would never have subjected themselves to the have hoped. them to That which we would possess (Rome) must in order that we lose not the greater to acquire the less. The propria are.

Rotgar. Accompanying his progress militia. Leo left Germany and returned to the city with a numerous retinue. Peter's. ^^^' 29. A the^Frank. the Bishops Cunibert. Romans his mtention of sendmg his envoys to pronounce sentence according to regular procedure.486 Leo returns to Rome. the scholse of the foreigners.. He was accompanied by ten legates of Charles. . 29th).after. Hatto. Campulus. 372 tajji Proceres clericoruin cum omnibus quamque Optimates et Senatus. ranged under their respective banners. n. and Counts Helmgot. Bernhard. Archbishop of Cologne. Nov. Arno .^ He beside The trial passed the night in one of the episcopal palaces S. with song. of Salzburg. and accorded an honourable reception the provinces and towns through which he passed and the greeting which awaited him in Rome showed that. cunctaque Militia. protected by his escort. Peter. he had no cause for fear. municipal guilds. Charles's ish envoys. places before the most important clericis. where he read mass and administered the communion. et universus Populus Romanus connexi ad pontem Milvium suscepermtt. they conducted him to the Basilica of S. since „ We may . trial and companions took Frankish legates and the . HISTORY OF ROME I suDposc that Charles sis^nified to the ^^ ^ . . nobles. their Paschalis. . ^ Vita : — — . and Jeffe. Leonis. awaited his approach. envoys assembled their for the in ^j^g Triclinium built by Leo. he in all : German He was found all classes of the people assembled to greet him at the the Milvian Bridge. who came to institute proceedings by Hildebald. and it was not until the followshort time trial ing day that he entered the Lateran. Flaccus. The clergy. On approaching the city (Nov. .

in Cenni. Abbot of S. as the trial concerned the Pope and the Romans. were it but the proceedings against the usurper Constantine. nobility. Ixxii. the Dux Theodore. Vincentius on the Vulturnus. the tribunal was formed of the Frankish envoy and Arch- bishop Possessor. able to establish their accusations against priest. we may assume such to have been the case.. Cod. the Librarian. Hildebrand. would have been of priceless historic value.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. even under Paul the First. The acts of the trial. . Although Adrian's nephews were un. and the papal officials of the Palace. Dux of Spoleto. have not come down to us they would in all probability have proved the assertions of Leo's biographer.. the same who himself now stood at the bar. but sentence was referred to the decision of Charles. Ixxviii. that the aristocrats had no grievances against . The recent sovereignty of the Pope had. Leo as they bore at least strong witness against his temporal relations towards the city.the Pope. Ep. 487 which Rome had witnessed for centuries occupied the judges for several weeks. and the notary Campulus.^ The accused were apparently pronounced guilty. to be altogether unfounded. four abbots. the slightest fragment of which. We have no definite information as to how the tribunal was composed. Carol. Saccellarius. Nevertheless. ^ In the trial for treason of Potho. nor do we know whether to the ten Frankish envoys were added as magistrates any members of the Roman nobility. Adrian's nephew. excited the violent opposition of the Roman and been the cause of Constantine's usurpation.

sent future.^ ^ lastly. but illness or love of his monastery (that of S. inspired with of the announced that Rome. the fount of the highest honours. Martin. will.. sentence. Before leaving France he invited Alcuin to accompany him. Martin of Tours) detained the scholar. his muse to his King. He went in August to Mainz. These important which announce the Emperor. to restore and foretold up his tribunal. Charles's Journey to Rome Parliament in S. to the Pope by his judicial as Patron. awaited Charles as ruler of the that he Empire and was called thither to set establish peace. 800 Opinions concerning THE Legal Origin and the Conception of the new Imperium. and the King playfully reproached him with preferring the smoke-blackened huts of Tours to Rome's glittering palaces. 2 Alcuin. the treasure-chamber of the saints. are found . tecta auratis Ro7Ttanorum arcibus prcEponere^ &c. and. Ep. explaining which called him to Italy and Rome. verses.^ The to his nobles the duties Abbot of accompany visions S. Peter's His Judgment on the Romans and the Pope Leo's Oath of Purgation Charles elected Emperor by the Romans Restoration of the — — Great crowned Western Emperor by the Pope.488 HISTORY OF ROME 3. announced his approaching departure. the capital of the world. and the muse. Charles had promised the Pope to — — Empire Charles the — — come to Rome himself to celebrate the Christmas festival of the year 800. under God's to rule the Me fumo sordentia Turonorum xiii. and universe. however.





Ravenna, there remained seven days, proceeded to Ancona, and, having despatched Pipin with a part of his troops against Grimoald, the recalcitrant Duke of Benevento, continued on his way.^ The approach of the most powerful man of the time, behind whose shield Rome and the Church stood protected, roused the city to the highest pitch of excitement, and while to some he appeared in the light of a dreaded avenger, and to others in that of a saviour, all expected
Charles advanced with his



unusual events. Ancient Nomentum, as early as the fourth century the seat of a bishop, still stood on the Nomentan

from the city. Here and populace, waited to accord a solemn reception to the King. It was the 23rd November.^ Charles halted and dined with the
at the fourteenth milestone


Leo, with the clergy,











Latinor. medii

i, p.



caput mündig primi quoque culmen honoris. In qua gazarum munera sancta latent, Qu(B modo dirupto plangit sua viscera ^cetu Per te sanabit saucia membra cito.



Ta/ia compescat


rex^ veneranda potestas,

Rectorem regni
Ipsa caput








spectat te

Roma patronum

Cum patre

et populo

pads amore pio.



Ecclesia per

te^ 7'ex,

rite regatur,



juagnipotens dextra regat Domini.
lato regnator in orbe,

Ut felix vivas

Proficiens facias cuncta

Deo placita.

Frank. Reichs unter Karl d. Gr.^ ii. 220. 2 Annal. Lauriss. ad A. 800 occurrit ei pridie Leo papa et Romani cum eo apud Nomaitum, duodecimo ab urbe lapide. The ancient Latin town still bore the name by which it was known to Virgil, vi. 773. It
B. Simson,





Pope, and after Leo, in an introductory conversation, had assured himself as to the prospect of events in Rome, the Pope returned to the city, to receive his judge the following day. The King passed the night

Nomentum, and on the 24th advanced to the city. Instead of entering by the Nomentan Gate, he made
circuit of the walls


and crossed the Milvian Bridge, in order first to reach S. Peter's. The Pope awaited him on the steps of the Basilica, and led him into the

up his



a meeting of clergy, nobles,

s. Peter's,

This parliament, a synod in the form of a tribunal, assembled in S. Peter's on the ist December. The King, clad in the toga and chlamis of the Patricius, took his seat beside the Pope. Archbishops, bishops, and clergy were ranged around, while the inferior clergy and the united Roman and Prankish nobles remained standing.^ Charles, addressing the assembly, announced that he had come to Rome to restore the disturbed discipline of the Church, to punish the outrage committed on its Head, and to pronounce judgment between the Romans the Before the accusers, and the Pope the accused.
^.nd citizens. was later called Castrum Nomentanse, afterwards corrupted into Lamentana or Mentana. The place became celebrated through the family of the Crescentii, the champions of Roman freedom against the Papacy and Empire. After a long interval of obscurity, it again became historic through the battle fought there between Garibaldi and the papal and French troops on the 3rd Nov. 1867 a continuation of the ancient struggle against the temporal power of the Popes founded by Charles the Great. I wrote this in Rome, three days after the How strange are the links that unite dates so far battle of Mentana. asunder as the 23rd November 800 and the 3rd November 1867



Vita Leonis, n. 374.





would be heard the complaints which the rebellious Romans had to bring against the Pope, and sentence of guilty or not guilty would be pronounced. Charles's judicial authority was
tribunal of the Patricius

the universal

him the Frankish bishops recognised head of the Church and the Pope, who

had submitted himself to the enquiry of
potentiaries, was, like every other

his pleni-


his subject,

and as such appeared before the tribunal of his judges. There can be no doubt that Leo subjected himself to The Frankish chroniclers assert the this tribunal. fact in plain terms the Liber Pontificalis, however, conceals the proceedings of the enquiry, and asserts that the bishops unanimously rose and declared " We should never presume to judge the apostolic chair, which is the Head of the Church of God since we ourselves are judged by it and by His Vicar over it there is no judge. Our conduct is in accordance with the custom of ancient times. In conformity with the canon we submit to that which the
; ;

chief priest considers
further goes


The same


on to say that the Pope replied " I follow the example of my predecessors in the pontificate, and am ready to purge myself from the false accusations which malice has brought against me."^ Leo might have appealed, among other examples, to the case of Pelagius. Accused by some of the

Qui universi dixerunt


nos sedem Ap.




caput omn. dei
et vicario
et anti-

Ecdesiar.^ judicare non audemus.


ab ipsa nos omties,

suo Judica??iur, ipsa autem a neniine judicature quemadmod.

quitus mos fuit.
vestigia sequor.

Sed sicud


sunimus pant,



obediemus. Venerab. vero prcesul inquit
Vita Leonis, n. 374.

prcedecessorum meor. pontif.


of complicity in the death of Vigilius, his


predecessor, Pelagius, had publicly exculpated him-

The Pope
oath of

by an oath in S. Peter's and the ceremony had taken place under the eyes of Narses, who at the time as Patricius represented the majesty of the Emperor. Leo followed the example of his predecessor, although not until after the observance of judicial procedure had been fulfilled, that is to say, until Charles had accorded a second hearing to his accusers. The plaintiffs brought forward their charges they were, however, unable to substantiate them, and Charles gave his verdict in favour of the bishops, who, declining to pronounce sentence, left it to the Pope to take the oath of purgation.^ The ceremony took place a few days after the opening of the parliament.^ In presence of the King, the bishops S-fid optimates of the city assembled in S. Peter's, ^^^ jj^ sight of the populace, who, in closely serried masses, filled the nave of the Church, the Pope
; ;

mounted the steps of the same chancel that Pelagius had formerly ascended, and, the gospels in his hand,
pronounced the formula as follows " It is known, beloved brethren, that evil-doers have risen up and have injured my life with their grievous Charles, the most gracious and illustrious accusations.

Annal. Lauresham. ad Ann. 800 (or Lambeciani in Muratori, ii. apostolicum condemnare et venerunt in pmsentia qui ipautn 2) voluerunty et cum cognovisset rex, quia non propter Justitiam, sed per

invidiam eum condemnare volebant, &c. Leo's biographer is purposely postquam nullus silent ; the Annal. Lauriss, and Einhardi say potuit) se criminibus probator crifuinum esse voluit (better read



According to Mühlbacher, not

until the

23rd December.





King, has come to the city with priests and nobles to judge these men. Therefore I, Leo, Pontifex of the Holy Roman Church, judged by no man, nor forced by any, but of my own free will, purge myself in your presence, before God, who knows the conscience, before His angels, and before S. Peter, Prince of the I maintain that Apostles, in whose sight we stand. I have neither committed the sins whereof I am accused, nor have ordered them to be committed, and I call God, before whose tribunal we shall one day appear, and before whose eyes we here stand, as witness of my innocence. This I do, not compelled by any law, nor because I desire to impose any custom or decree on my successors or my brother bishops, but in order the more surely to free your

minds from unjust suspicion." After Leo had confirmed this assurance by an oath, Condemnaand the clergy had sung the Te Deum, the accused gSlity. Pope again sat spotless on the apostolic chair, and his opponents, or the nobles who had previously been condemned to death, Paschalis, Campulus, and their confederates, were surrendered to the executioner. The Pope, however, decided to pardon them, justly fearing that the execution of Adrian's relatives, and men so well known, would increase the hatred with which he was already regarded. Upon his interces^ For this universal formula, taken from the Ordo Romamis, see Rasponius de Basilica et Patriarch, Lateran,^ lib. iv. Appendix to Alemanni, p. 120 Sigonius, Baronius, Labbe, &c. The account of the Annal. Lauriss. the act itself is given in the Vita Leonis, n. 375 and Einhardi, ad Ann. 800. The Annal. Lauriss. minor. however, place the date of Leo's purification on the third day before Christmas, and Döllinger, Jaffe, and Simson believe this date to be correct.





P^ Imperium

banished them to France, where prisoners under sentence of exile were now sent, instead of to Byzantium as in former days.^ These proceedinp;s were closed by one of the most
, .





the records of






crown of the Roman Empire on the head of the Frankish King. Three hundred and twentyfour years had rolled away since representatives of the Roman Senate had appeared before Zeno, to lay the insignia of Empire in his hands, and explain that Rome and the West no longer had need of an Emperor of their own. During this long period of changing fortune and ever increasing decay the Byzantine Emperors had continued to govern Italy as
a province.



sentiment of mankind

clung firmly to the idea of the Roman Empire, and, even as late as the end of the eighth century, emancipated Italy and the West revered its shadow The instiin the title of the Byzantine Emperor. tutions of antiquity, on which the throne of the



had vanished


the idea

of the

Empire, however, still survived. It was the consecrated form in which the republic of mankind and
tunc illos comprehendentes Vita Leonis, n. 374, merely says Franciam, The Annal. emiserunt in magni Regis, pr<2dicti missi


Lauriss. and Einhardi represent the
of Charles's coronation,

trial as

taking place after the date

and say


ut majesiatis,



sunt — exilio

deportati sunt.


sentence was passed at the end of

The condemned

appealed, and, after the Pope's oath of purga-

were sentenced to exile. The little work, de impei-atoria Potestate in urbe Roj?ia {Mon. Gerjn., v. 719), it is true, relates other things of Charles uno die in Campo Latteranensi fecit trecentos decollari ; no chronicler, however, repeats this fable.





the visible Church had, for centuries, found

The Germans, who had destroyed


Western Empire, now, after having been received into Roman civiHsation and the bosom of the Church, And the Church, whose effected its restoration. laws controlled the West, created anew from within herself the Roman Empire, as the political form of her cosmopolitan principle, and that spiritual unity within which the Popes had embraced so many Her supremacy over all churches of the nations. West could, moreover, only attain complete recogniThe tion through the Emperor and the Empire. restoration of the Empire was rendered necessary by the formidable power of Islam, which not only harassed Byzantium, but, from the side of Sicily and The Greek Emperors Spain, also threatened Rome.
could rule the
as the


together with the East so long

Roman Church was

weak, so long as Italy

lay sunk in lethargy, and the

German West swarmed

with lawless barbarians.

It was no longer possible to do so when the Church attained independence, Italy consciousness of her nationality, and Europe had become united in the powerful Frankish Empire, at the head of which stood a great monarch. Thus the idea of proclaiming Charles Emperor arose, and thus was carried out the scheme with which the irate Italians had threatened Leo the Isaurian at the







West now demanded

the occupation of the Imperial

True, the Byzantine

Empire had,


course of time, acquired a legal sanction.


however, was

but the daughter of





Imperium had proceeded here the Csesars had had their seat. The illustrious mother of the Empire now resumed her rights, when, as in ancient times, she offered the Imperial crown to the most powerful ruler of the West. Contemporary
chroniclers, looking at the state of the world at the


time, found that the Imperial power, which, since the

days of Constantine, had had its seat, first in part and then exclusively, with the Greeks at Byzantium, was no longer to be held by one man alone. Two years before the outrage on the Pope, the dignity of the Emperor had also been violated in the person of Constantine the Sixth. The Roman Republic was tyrannised over by Irene, an infamous woman, who had put out the eyes of her own son and this being

the case, the Imperial throne was considered vacant.^

The crown

of Constantine was therefore transferred

the Frankish

monarch, already


possession of


the capital of the realm, and of



seats of ancient empire.

A transaction so momentous,

and rendered necessary by the ideas of the time and the demands of the West, but which, nevertheless, bore the semblance of a revolt against the rights of Byzantium, could scarcely have been the work of the moment, but more probably was the result of a sequence of historic causes and resolutions consequent upon them. Can we doubt that the Imperial crown had long been the goal of Charles's ambition and
the ideal of such of his friends as cherished


^ Quia jam tunc cessebat a parte Grcecorum nomen imperatoris^ et femineum imperium apud se habebant, tunc visum est et ipso apostolico Annal, Laureshain. ad A. 80 1. Leoni










to take the crown, or, at least, to form resolution with regard to


it, and during his sojourn in France the Pope had declared himself ready to help The in the accomplishment of this great revolution.^ Popes had but hesitatingly renounced allegiance to the legitimate Imperial power of Byzantium, a power which, even after the Frankish princes had obtained supremacy in Italy, they had continued to recognise from impulses of tradition as well as policy. Necessity had forced them to throw themselves into the arms of France, and to bestow the dignity of Patricius on the Frankish princes the Popes, however, had received as a reward the State of the Church, and this State could only be protected by Frankish interThe expulsion of the Pope from Rome, vention. where he had become ruler, at length decided the Leo the Third found himself obliged to question. allow the possession of the Imperial power to pass into the hands of a Western dynasty, that of the staunchly Catholic line of Pipin, a line which had received consecration at the hands of his predecessor



zeal for the faith displayed

by Pipin


Church, and the

promised protection for the Latin Frankish power the defence of Christendom against heathens and barbarians, while from Byzantium nothing could be expected but dogmatic heresies and the continuation of the dehis successor



expressly told



us by Joh. Diaconus, Vita S. Athanasii 312): Hie autem fugiens ad Carolum JRegem, spo-



si de suis ilium defenderet ini?nicis,

Augustali eum diademate







rule of Justinian.

These parallel considerations had long since been weighed one against the

We may

suppose that Charles's



were the most zealous supporters of the scheme, which perhaps was not received by the Pope with
a like degree of enthusiasm.
that he, at least,

Alcuin's letter proves
initiated into the

had already been


by the Romans.

and the Prankish envoys, after a year spent in Rome, had doubtless come to an understanding with the Romans, on whose vote the election mainly depended. The Romans it was who, exercising the ancient suffrages of the Senate and people, had elected Charles their Patricius, and who now, in virtue of the same rights, elected him Emperor. And only Emperor the Romans and of Rome did as of he beidea

come Emperor of

the entire State.^


decree of the

^ Besides the letter already quoted, see also Ep. 103, p. 153, where Alcuin accompanies his Christmas gift of a Codex of the Bible to

Charles with the words




Imperialis potentice,


I lay more stress on the presence Lorentz, Alcuin's Leben, p. 235 sq. According to two of Charles's son than on the consecrated gifts.

diplomas, of the years 780 and 781 respectively, the title Imperator had been given to Charles before he had any claim to it. The validity Diplo7jiatica of these documents is, however, doubted by Muratori. Pontif. of Marino Marini, p. 50. 2 This is expressly asserted by the Emperor Lewis in his letter to Nisi Ro7nanorum Imperator essemus, the Emperor Basilius in 871 utique nee Francortim. A Romanis enim hoc notnen et dignitatem assumsimus. Anon. Salernit., c. 102. The Romans always maintained that Charles had received the crown from the Senate and


In the eleventh century the chronicler of

Carolum coronavit et una cum omni senatu Ro7nano imperiutn illi per omnia confirmavit (Mur., ii. 2, p. 641). In the year 1328 the suas esse pa^'tes Imperium Parliament of the Romans proclaimed

Farfa wrote


i. selves say that election Rome. he made a feint of reluctance to accept the supreme dignity. electio is Germ. constitiitus est initicrator Romanoriim.^ The resolution of the to Charles Romans and Franks waswasthe ^^0^°"^". but the act of God Himself. quote the united of the parliament of the two nations. The Lib. Are we to believe that. which extinguished the ancient rights of the Byzantines was not to appear the arbitrary deed of either King or Pope. form of a request. Roman Emperor (in strict accordance with the plan of a papal election) was effected by the three traditional elective bodies. and not acclamatio.IN THE MIDDLE AGES.) per eiectioneni Romani ii. Moissiacense {ibid. . 1328. until it was forced upon him as an accom- announced in the expected conferre^ Pontificis antem consecrare. the entire assembly of bishops. clergy. Pontif. as expressed by the voice of the great revolution The Roman people. and enumerate the list members who took part in the parliament the : Pope. 305). and citizens assembled in as well as Latins. Chron.. Germans The Frankish chroniclers themCharles was made Emperor by the of the Roman people. says briefly ab oinnib.y postqtiani Popuhis Ronianus ezvn imperare jussisset. 381) : populi. Vita Villehadi {Mon.^ Burgiuidus ad A. the Frankish senate. of the parliament of the united clergy. here appears to denote all Romans who were capable of voting. : Caroluni eniiii magnwn ^ tunc demuvi coronattim {^'icoi. optimates. Omnes majores natu Roinanor. and abbots. iisdem aiispiciis esse. and the rest of the Christian people. 499 and people had undoubtedly preceded the coronation and Charles's nomination as Roman nobility . and therefore the legal transaction of Christendom. the Roman optimates. like Augustus in former days.

therefore. with regard to the time chosen. however.500 plished fact that ? HISTORY OF ROME Are we to receive as hypocritical the heroic. Such was indeed the object of the Pope. and. and his friends looked forward with certainty to the event. and had sought by negotiations to gain the recognition of the Greeks to the election really did take . 28. Pipin. assurance of a asserts man so pious and when he crown came upon him wholly as a surprise. been purposely recalled from the war against Benevento. Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte the treatise already quoted on the iii. c. Peter's had he known of Leo's intention?^ Had not Charles's son. intended.^ This view is supported by reasons of probability. who maintains that Charles's hesitation was dictated by respect for Byzantium that he had not yet assented to the scheme. and Döllinger Empire of Charles the Great. In order to put an end to act itself all further hesitation the was performed without preparation and without pomp. of his visit to The ceremony had been fixed to take place on the occasion Rome. and adds that he would not have entered S. ^ Waitz. the coronation him by surprise. seemed inopportune. since the occasion chosen for the coronahis elevation to to the Imperial throne Charles had already long given his consent. in order to witness the Imperial the Imperial coronation ? An explanation of these conflicting statements has been sought in the state- ment of Eginhard. 175. that. anxious to appear the leading figure in the transaction. solely concern tion. and the invihis Papa ^ cogente of the poet Saxo. by means of the coronation ^ Eginhard. which. in . who.

made the church resound with the shout which had formerly hailed the eleva" Life and victory to Charles the tion of a Caesar most pious Augustus. Laiwesham. Leo. having knelt before the high altar of S. 501 and consecration. «Sec. like another being carried away in a transport of enthusiasm. 399) says with malicious exaggeration that from head to foot anointed Charles was xp^o'«^ iKaXt^ a-jrh «e^aATjs ews : iroduu Kol irepißaXwv ßaaiKiK^y ecorjro Koi (rrecpov.IN THE MIDDLE AGES. act of universally-historic importance. magno. the most : eventful turies. Peter's on Christmas Day. rose from his knees.. has been classed among the spuria. Manasse {Dom. who awaited the signal and understood the significance of the act.^ Leo ^ Carolo piissimo Augusto. now making Emperor the man elected by the Romans and Franks. 397) repeats his account in some verses. d. in which the Greek schismatic seems to deride . The charter of Leo the Third for the monastery of Centulum. crowned by God. great and peace-giving Emperor of the Romans. than this . anointed the new Cossar of the West and his son Pipin. at the same moment. Samuel. Deo coronato. Annal. v. 457. 781. and the chroniclers. As Charles. p. 2 Theophanes {Chronogr. 1913). a et Victoria. to acquire for the Church a position of supreme authority he. Vita Lib. dated on the day of coronation (Jaffe. and. the supreme head of the Church. moment that Rome was to witness for cen- while the Pope. moved as it were by divine inspiration. Bouquet. Pont. the multitude in this.."^ Twice was the shout repeated. Kirche von Leo /. placed a golden diadem on The act his head. Nothing could have been more simple. a fact which Langen. pacifico Imperatori..D. nothing more unimposing. A. The first coronation of a monarch at the hands of a bishop was that of the Emperor Leo the Thracian by the Patriarch of Byzantium. R. The Chronica Synopsis of Constant. n. and Moissiacen. ought not to have overlooked. the assembled üon?^°"^* multitude. Gesch.

Chron. the German Empire came into conflict with the S. . placing him before the world in the " God-given " dignity of a Caesar a dignity with which he had been invested in Rome. for Byzantines only anointed the head of their Emperors 'Ek Kf(pa\ris IJ-^XP'- toSoDi/ iXaica rovrou XP'^'» OuK olSa ^ t'ktl Koyi(T^Jio7s ^ iroiais iirivoiais. Paul's similar gifts. set with precious stones.^ The ceremony ended with the mass. on the other hand. Papacy. It expressed. claiming henceforward that of Emperor and Augustus. the formal recognition of his absolute dominion. and gifts no less valuable to S.502 invested HISTORY OF ROME Charles with the Imperial mantle. to the Lateran basilica. . They presented a gold cross. adored the head of the Roman Empire. however. On Peter's . doctors of canon law advanced the theory received the crown solely by favour and traced the investiture to Charles's of the Pope. and. kneeling before him. in later times. A Pontifice more antiquorum Principuni adoratus est. The new title could not increase the power of a prince who had long been ruler of the West. Charles thus renounced the title of Patricius of the Romans. The Emperors. coronation at the hands of Leo the Third. Moissiac. they bestowed a silver table with valuable vessels in gold and on S. when Charles and Pipin offered the gifts already prepared for the various churches. seat of universal monarchy. Maria Maggiore. crowned of God by his hand. the chief sanctuary of the Church and the ancient When. appealed to the shout of that the the waste Emperor of : oil .

regarded himself as the Caesars." and asserted that they " Life ^ga/"^ ^jj^^^^e^*^ derived the crown. of referring the world of facts back to a rudimentary right by which power becomes legalised. derived his had. the inaHenable heritage of the from God alone. If the . 503 views re- and victory to the Emperor of the Romans. . Frankish King . as Charles did to claim it. The elective right of the Romans. and in no later Imperial election could it have been of so decisive legal significance. while exercising no actual change in the world's history. and and Romans. The dispute as to the actual source of Empire continued throughout the entire Middle Ages. he possessed the power of accomplishing that revolution which. in year declared the themselves opposed to Charles's election. however. still more as the recognised spiritual overseer of the Christian republic. without the aid of the Church. which was not his. representative of the Empire and of Romanism . maintained that Charles owed the crown entirely to the majesty of the Roman Senate and people. would have been impossible. undoubtedly. revealed an indwelling need of mankind the necessity. on their side. The Pope. Pope Leo the Third as little possessed the right to bestow the crown of Empire. whom the the new Augustus 800. The Romans. crowned by God. was uncontested. Mankind at large regarded him as the sacred intercessor between the world and the Divinity and it was only through his coronation and unction at the papal hands that the Empire of Charles received divine sanction in the eyes of men. and. as the head of Latin nationality. in whatever form it may appear. on the other hand. namely.IN the people : THE MIDDLE AGES. from title.

represented in Rome by the scholae of the foreigners. namely. been made over from the Greeks to the Franks by means of the Pope. ^ The question of the translation has been widely disputed.504 HISTORY OF ROME either never have become Emperor. lost its significance now that the power of the State rested in the German nation. as the champions i rl asserted. were now associated and the elective right. or else his Imperial authority would. " Translation of the Empire." contains merely When the design of making Charles a half truth. which had originally belonged exclusively to the Senate and people of Rome. . whether the Roman of the i papal investiture Empire had. however. With the Romans. alike elected. opinions the^transfation of the Another question. Goldast {De transl. as a usurpation.i itself. Baronius and Bellarmin {De translatione imp. imperii). the Franks and other German races. Romani adv. never recognised by Charles. a right. Roju. ( Ueber das Kaiserttmi Carl's des Groszen) has strikingly demonstrated the inaccuracy of the idea of the translation. Charles could not therefore be regarded as Emperor in the absence would Pope or the Romans. Imp. Conrigius {De imperio Romano. Were it the case that Leo possessed neither the exclusive power nor the right as Pope to bestow the crown of the Empire on the Frankish King. moreover. by which Frankish and German kings were of the consent of either the . Illyricuni) have upheld the doctrine of papal authority . a Gracis ad Francos)^ and others have mainDöllinger tained views contrary to those of the doctors of Canon law. have lacked the last semblance of legality. See also James Bryce. at the same Imperium from the the^Franks. The very phrase. it follows that he could not transmit it from the Greeks to the Franks. time presented ' fruitful of dispute.Germanicd)^ Spanheim {De ficta transl.

IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 34. not Emperor. 120. OwToj Koi dvyarphs /xeaou Aix<^Cov(ra Koi Tijxvovcra. and that Rome's more beautiful daughter. Constantinople. The new Empire remained Western. had been separated for ever from her aged mother. The Empire was to be transferred. like that of the Church. /iera dvfxov pojuLcpalas "Ntavip t))V evTTpocrwTrop. Matiasse. the doctrine of the universal nature of the Imperial monarchy. But the hope proved a dream. well calls Charles's relation to the Empire a personal union.T]Tpbs 7iiundi. . ^ De dominio iJ. A The Holy Roman Empire^ p. not to the people of the Franks. r-^u vewTcpau Pcifx-qu.^ deep said was even that . p. — Constant. that the Roman Empire was transferred to the Franks and Germans. 164. It is more than probable that Charles. arose another error. Specimen juris publici et gentium Medii avi^ Gcetting. p. The offended Greeks continued to regard it as a usurpation they complained that the ancient ties between Rome and Byzantium had been severed by the ponderous sword of the Franks. but to a new dynasty. that the separation of the West from fall the East was never even the dreamt of therefore. he contemplated marriage with Irene. 505 Emperor still arose. as well as Leo. From the mistaken belief. Charles occupied throne considered essentially vacant. the idea of the unity of the Empire existed so powerfully as a dogma. After the as rival of Constantine the Sixth. Pütter. but as Emperor and successor of Constantine and It Justinian. believed in the possibility of preserving its indivisibility. 1784. and never again attained that connection with the East possessed by the ancient State in the time of Honorius and his successors. eTreTTTTj aTrddTj. to the Frankish Kings. Ek TTJs ßvaaTJs koI iraKauis Kal rpt Tre^uTreAou Pc^/atjs.

it soon claimed to be. and remained sunk in numb rigidity during six hundred sad. years while the Roman attained an unexpected degree of life in vigour in the development of national the West. even recollections of the past were severed from one another. appeared as the vital principle of which it was itself the civil form. The Church. . and made them a Christian Commonwealth. The restoration of the Empire was represented on a leaden the reverse bearing Charles's portrait and the words Dominus Noster city Karlus Pins Felix Perpetuus Augustus . the short that nations possessed ^ Roman language. customs and ways of life. formed the structure and bonds that united the Western nations. The civilisation of antiquity. by . . p. surmounted by a cross below the word Vita Roma. the obverse the gate of a between two towers. but the restoration was merely apparent for the life Not only was the political principle of this life essentially Teutonic the Empire itself. the calendar. science and art. the Catholic body. everything in as common : property. though honourable. the fief of which. the moral law. the priesthood. representing itself as a theocracy. a bold stroke. seal.506 HISTORY OF ROME chasm henceforward lay between East and West. within was new. The Greek Empire became orientalised. the festivals. Thus the Roman Empire was revived. 254.^ To the minds of men an ancient form seemed to be restored. the religion. : Leonis III. civil institutions. and around the inscription Renovatio Romani Imp. had been removed from the sphere of merely political causes and made dependent on the Divine Will. the Kingdom of God on earth. No longer Roman laws. Without the Church the Empire was impossible. but the institutions of the Church. Church. . .

recognised his Imperial relation as authority. willingly was head and patron. The mystic way of looking at the actual world. possessed neither territorial power nor state authority his Imperial majesty rested rather on a dogma derived from the laws of nations than on any the in .IN THE MIDDLE AGES. the human and divine. the Spiritual Vicar of Christ. 50/ idea of they derived from the Church. its The Emperor promoter and governor. ideal and devoid of all practical The appearance of the theocratic principle in the West. and who. To the nations and peoples who were united under his Empire. which prevailed throughout the Middle Ages. the Church itself or the Pope. . like man. Pope had stood international right. operated with such effect that. It was a power of altogether basis. of the union of soul and body. authority. in the course of time. or unwillingly. The new Caesar of the West. soul. conceived the universe as formed. and which now appears to us as a purely sophistic toying with symbols. he stood in identically the same towards the national churches and metropolitans before he had succeeded in establishing the complete centralisation of the Church. as of the unity of mankind. since the Church was the merely the body of Christendom . and made the long contested dogma of the two natures in Christ. the State This theory redounded to the the advantage of the Pope. its The Roman a universal repubh'c. became the sole dominating power. distinct from the ancient Roman idea of the State. after the time of Charles the Great. found only visible form its in the Church. applicable also to the political conception of mankind. the secular Vicar of Christ.

showed itself in the contrast which divided Latinism and Teutonism a contrast which has influenced and still influences the whole history of Europe. while beside them and out of the union of the two races other prosperous sation. who had knelt adoration before him. the moon which irradiated the darkness of earth's night. was his subject. . in transient and earthly things the former the life. The dualism existing between Emperor and Pope became a contest of principle. and by so strong . Before his Imperial majesty. and out of this system sprang the common civilisation of the West. These differences were. giving sun . as before that of the ancient Emperors. and who. now the German. which arose in the year 800. and the new Western power. scarcely apparent. like every other bishop in the State. Germany and Italy henceforward remained the supporters of civili- upon the other during long centuries. element preponderated. the latter merely the lesser light. All the life of became henceforward bound together in a great concentric system of Church and Empire. even in their germs. paled the splendour of the Bishop of in Rome. This dualism held humanity enthralled during so long a course of centuries. at the time of Charles the Great. the Latin and the German world. the alliance between ancient and modern. After the long tumult caused by the migrations of races. in which nations now the Latin.508 HISTORY OF ROME Pope the Vicar of Christ in all divine and eternal relations the Emperor Vicar only in the State. . however. They continued reciprocally acting one nations arose. Charles's coronation sealed the reconciliation of the Germans with Rome.

509 the political organisation of antiquity can it not be compared to Periods rarely inspire the either in power or in duration. Thus it happened with regard From the to the coronation of Charles the Great. a firm continent arises. . moved less by mechanical laws of force than by an essentially spiritual power. standpoint of after ages scarcely any moment in the annals of the human race attains so high importance. It is a moment of historic creation when. on which the history of Europe centres. momentous in the history of the universe wonder of contemporaries. and only full succeed in obtaining recognition from the minds of a later generation. that THE MIDDLE AGES.IN a spell. out of the chaos consequent on the dissolution of antiquity and the deluge of wandering tribes.

54. 363 enters Rome. Adrian the First. 359. Flavianum. 385-8. 84-7. lands in Italy. 396-406 his aqueducts. by Adrian . 17. 359-69 . Pope. Alta Semita. I. 236-8. 133. . I. . . IL. see to Totila. 170-2. . . 403. 385-7.INDEX. I. 371-88 it viobanishes Silverius. IL. I. . I. Pope. 448 his recall. . I. 451Benedict. 416.. . 322.. 438 . I. 95. Amalasuntha. 334-6. 137-47. . Amphitheatrum . 349 .. IL 244.. 333 Procopius s account of. her rule.. Arichis. his acquisitions. his death. death. L. . . Athalaric. I. 375. Castle of. 429 letter . 295 his death. . I. Aqueducts. Arians. Basilica. . makes . 382. I. 443 . 133. First. 35. 351. sieges Rome. I. goes to Southern Italy. 345-6. 50. Agathon. 412. 193-9. S. 377 294 by Gregory by Belisarius. and restores the walls. Angelo. Roman. Colosseum. 396-7 goes to Conlates truce.. IL. I. ancient. . 130 quers Portus. 380. 354 . Attila. 427-33. Bridges. 350-2. 183. restored destroyed. returns to Italy. I. 378. 273-4. I. demands walls Charles's aid Benevento. 459. . Agilulf. Augustine. Attains. re-enters Rome . 128 . IL . 165. . 40. 384-8 his Domus cultce. 152. Art in Rome. 333. 369 defends against the Goths.. 376 . 44. 195. 351-4. Region. IL. L. 500 II. Boethius. S. Boniface. . Astolf. L. Ager Romanus. . 5-1 1Benevento. . . 420 occupies Portus. 60. ^tius. IL. 51-2. Alboin. I. 277. 415. restores against the . IL. IL. 374-6. 441. be. 408 I. . Region. Alaric. IL. 170. I. General. Paul. conextorts ransom. 330 . .. besieges Rome. 117. 383 the Great. and submission to . Belisarius. Anthemius. 132. ancient. L. Bessas. stantinople.. 416. 338. Afiarta. . 323-8. . IL. 288-94 Pipin. Arvandus. I. . 202-3. Antonina. 174. 391-6 restores churches. 375. . 166-7.. S. . 330. 380. 302. I. Emperor. 400. I. 64. . Aventinus. 120. IL. Athaulf. origin of. L. Adelchis. 343-4 summons Charles the Great. 265. Aristocracy. 26-7 note. 183. 383 attacked by Vitiges. 287. 335. 39. L. 232.. 396.

II. visits the West. Conductores. Rome. 184. . 393-6. 273Exarchate. 267-79 281. 18. IL. Capracorum. 377 fresh donation on the Pope.. 217. . IL. I. IL. . 281 note. Church. I. . 158. 356 as Patricius. I. brother of 'I'oto. 243. . her wealth. 207 builds S. II. Pope. 348 surrenders to Charles the 350 Great. . 88 his donation to the Church. Christianity proclaimed religion of the State. . II. IL. Comes Comites. 355. Civita Vecchia. . 465 coronation. 300... 182 and note. I. II.. II. . titular. Dux — Duces. Pope. 209. .INDEX. Dodo. I. . I.. 298. 46. Dux. Constantius. retreats. I. . Primicerius of the Notaries. Charles the Great anointed by the Pope. 166-7. 165. 94-6. sacked by the Vandals. 498-504. . 279 succeeds to the marries Desiderata. Eudoxia. rise of.. . . 270-1. II. Constantine. .. 511 453-7. . 238. . 391-6. 329 summoned by the Pope. . 200. 486. sacked. 188. II. 324-33. 46. 351 . Eutychius. 209. 369 bestows returns to Italy. . 273. her power. 242-3. IL. see Civita Vecchia. 50. 82. IL. Region. IL. Donius cult(X. IL. I. IL. . oldest Roman. Constans the Second. 153 sacks the his monuments. 342.. comes to Rome. 447. Campania. extinction of. I. 302-3 . 289-94. . Esquilias.. 362-9. . 359. Desiderius. seven principal. Constantine. 214-15. 334 marches against Rome. splendour of. . Dukes.D. 12. 484. I. 76.. Centumcellae. 464 . I. 57. 34. his attitude . . . 31. . Catacombs. — 243.. crown. I. . 461 his bearer of the Church.. . 176. 450. Eudocia. IL. IL 454. Carolingian donation. 334-6. L. Constantine Copronymus. 389. Emperor. 22. II. 174. 261. I. . Rome. . 290. Damasus. 329.. confirms Pipin's . 340 . . II. 39.. 432-3Council of Ephesus. IL... Consuls Consulship. enters Italy. 192. I. Cassiodorus. 359-62. 160 death. . 373Coloni. 504-5. Lateran. 336. Campus Capitol. . — I. 505 .. 322-30. car- 280 and note Cardinals. Circus. 249-54.. 212. Christophorus. II. 178-235 249. 141. 214. 37. 353 . Carloman. II. Constantine Pogonatus. 433 . I. Region. 310 Stephen . 150-1 141 comes to Rome. I. of A. IL. Colosseum. Martius. General. L. 229. 731. 336. Pietro in Vincoli. Circus Flaminius. IL. I. 379 standardletter to Adrian. I. 349 to . I. 145-6 of Trullan. 352. 238-9.. Churches. 204 summons the Vandals. 301 IL. 57. 246. towards towards Ducatus Romanus. Christophorus. . Constantine. donation. . Constantine the Great. I. Exarch. II.. 71 degenerate character of. 201-2. 3oandnote. 337-40. passion for. 45. 248. 502 . . IL. Roman. Lombard. 23. I. Charles Martel. 325 Third. II. of 209. 254. comes . I. dinal bishops. I. . . II. 162. 11. II.

IL 194-6. 237. Gregory the Great. Lateran Basilica.. spoils of. 402 churches of. his death. 215. 23. 188. 408. Jupiter. edict against. their forbearance. 35. 145. become Romanised. IL. 213. 354.. Forum Trajanum. II. 192-4. Pope. 88 mosaics in.. 380. 376.. 210-13. 185-95.. Greek possessions in Italy. Iconoclasts. Honoria. Gladiatorial contests. Judices.512 INDEX. Franks. 21. his rule. Jerome. .. 471-5 Synod. Byzantine general. 272-3. traffic in slaves.. Temple of. 241 Gregory the Third. 229-30. 225 restored. IL. 207-15. Forum Romanum. Honorius. statue. . encouragement to learning. IL. .. II. 254. 328. First. S. 38. conception of. of Ravenna. 183. enter retreat from their 337 467 character . IL. . Jews John. letters his the Isaurian. I. 89. 160. of their rule. . . II. . church I. S. 116. Giorgio. 182.. Jerusalem. 290. influence over Liutprand. I. ancient. 118. 119-24. his buildings. 114. 279 . . 481. 245 forms alliance with Spoleto and Benevento. S. 36-41.. 336 the Senate. Baptistery. 114. Isaac. I. I. II. Image-worship. 58. 199. Gates. Honorius. 328-9. Gregory the Second.. 152. 70. 248 appeals to Charles Martel. influence. John the First. returns to Ravenna. order of succession. their influence on papal ii6. IL. 67. 210. 394 his Pragmatic Sanction. 178. . . Irene. S. II. 118. council. II. 142.. . his death. 80. 380. entry into Rome. in Rome. I. I. his sermons. de Clero.. de Militias. 494-6.. IL. his death. 447. I.. Exarch. 22. 97. Justinian the Second. 136 . 179. officials. Emperor. IL. 174.. . his death. Rome. 25 and note. . Genseric. see Giovanni. 164. 53-9 . 168. II. . 322 goes to Constantinople. 366. II. I. 54. 207. founds 242 summons churches. S. IL. 409. . 172. IL. 312. S. Justinian the . 178. Hadrian's Mausoleum. I. 177. 243-4. IL . Giovanni 268-9 . political 62-4. 43.. I. 469-75. 83. IL.. Emperor. I. 43-4. 419. 241. George. 135. 119. IL. I. 249. 99. 405.. I. I. 116.. IL. to . Pope. 63 . Imperium. of Rome. Goths. IL. II. Janiculum. 123. 329. see Angelo. elected Pope. I. 504-8.. II. takes Athaulf into his service. 218. see Palace. 38-9.. John the Seventh. I. Region. John. Empress. activity.. administration. 231-3. returns to Exarchs. I. Leo Jupiter. 375 and note. Italy. elections. 503. I. Gratiosus.. 325-6. of. see S. 47. . . . . 158. I. 301-2.

368. Maurice. his letter to Gregory. . defeats barbarian hordes. Majorian.. I. IL. . 301. Pope. — VOL. Lombards. . their condition . Emperor. see I. . — 263. 140. . Martin First. I.. . Pope. 505 I. 135. IL.INDEX. 409-10. Patriciate. IL. Laurentius.. 257 his death. 239 negotiates with withdraws. 73. . ing power. 85-9. 329. . 57-60 I.. 459. his victory at Taginas. I. 228. L.. 211. 104 see S. regulations con- 180. Antipope. conquered by Beli363 L. 8-20. L. 130. 1^0 the Third. IL. IL.. 108-9. . . I. Paganism in fourth century. 117. L. 260. 61. I. I. captivity. 318. cerning. 505. IL. 106-13. I. 476-9 his .. Monasticism. origin of. Exarch. 29. Militia. sarius. 19. 144. in . IL.. 222-7.. 480-3 trial in S. IL. 460 relations towards Charles the Great. see S. Palatine. Patricius . 331. L. Ostrogoths. Exarch. its grow337-8. 297. surrenders the Exarchate. IL. 399-401.worship. Liberius. . Liber Pontificalis. . Learning in Rome in tury. 317-19. II. 192-3 . . Papal elections.. 236 encamps before Rome. IL. Patriciate. edict against image . 355. II. Goths.. Maria. 264. I. 179. 439-46. Narses. 495-8. with Monte Testaccio. I. 189 195 . 72. receives the 244 247 character of his rule. . Maurice. 478 477 days. 234. Lupercal Lupercalia.. Naples. 15. Maria. 229. I. 79. 455. L. 238. 499. 1-2. Laurence. 48. 83 note . Sutri. 21. 258 his death. Pantheon. I. become Catholics. 281-3. Monte Casino. II. edicts for their protection. 2 K . Papacy. seizes the ecclesiastical revenues. Peter's. Olympias. . 500. supremacy. in the Genseric. his his grave. makes fresh 256 donation to the Pope. . . IL. 224. . Monuments. 407. 145-6. Notitia ecclesiarzim lo'bis RoincB. II. 485. Longinus. 364. I. 116. seventh ceneighth. churches of. 260. 462 latter his triumph. fifth century. 24. 228. 46-50. Paderborn. . 17 . I. I. 114. 417. 360-1 Papal IL. 12-15. 45 his . 145. he enters Rome. 410. Leo the Isaurian.. 102. . . Magister Militum. 218. 349. 240 Zacharias. Emperor. II. his rebellion. 179. S.. IL.. 226 flight to . 148 Matasuntha. 174. Lorenzo.. 253-4. IL. 209 his character.. L. Court. Odoacer. 460-3 conspiracy against. by Totila. IL. 267. IL. 63-79. 408inter- 13- Roman. Attila. IL. Region. 382. 49.. Mariolatry. 258-9 note. Palatine palace. 43.. 513 Chartularius. 490-3. . M^ith Pope. Leo the view First. S. 420-2. 116. their zeal for learning. I. 16. I. note II. Diurnus. churches.. . 149. Liutprand. . 64. revolt in. Ostia. II. I. 497. Mxirus ruptus. 215 . .. death. I. I. 96.

20. . 286 his donation to the Church. 221. 157. II. Regions. IL. Romanus. 479- 46. . of. Pope. character of his rule. . 88. 259-61 conquered by Belisarius. II. 84. I. 204. 500 besieged by Charles the Great. I. IL. 236 by the Venetians. 73S. IL. 247. appointed Patricius. Agnese. . I. SS. see S. Ecclesiastical. 107. XL. 50.. Pestilence. 128. IL. 173. 1 1 1 her prestige. . 61-2. chair. 18. in fifth 182. Patricius. Paolo. Maria in Cosmedin. Adriano. 125.. 183. 27-9. 40. Rome and Venus. 119. sojourn in Rome. Cosma and Damiano. 4 the eternal. S. Galla. 9 her twofold character. I. Paul.. Praefectus Urbis. 370. 167. I. 199. Lorenzo in Lucina. L. 28. of Odoacer. 122. 88. 183. 184-7. . Placidia. 141-3- Croce in Gerusalemme. Maria Maggiore. 292. 404-5. 400-8.. 134. 28-51. Giovanni in Laterano... INDEX. Sabina. Romulus Augustulus.. 241. 47. Maria 109. his marriage. Pelagius First.. Relics. . II. 33. Emperor. Peter. .. 47. Prefects. S. II. 201-2. — Patrimonies I. of the 178. 365. . I.SH Patrimony Church. . S. 194... Rome cen- 148. 129. I. IL. L. IL.. 26. 59. Emperor. 364. 16 notes. 108. in Trastevere. 358-9. in Vatican©. 230-3 239 revolts . I. I.. S. I. . Pelagius Second. L. Temple of. L. 281. 50. worship . S. his column. IL. S. IL.. I. Peter. 105. 190-2. 171. Region. 339S. II. 204-8. II. IL. I. 254. I. I. residence of Honorius. Lorenzo fuori le Mura. II. . Imperial. 67. Pentapolis. Basilica of. 132 occupied by Vitiges. Giovanni in Oleo. 186.. 433. his statue. IL . Roma Felix. Piscina Publica. 227. 73-7. 500 in. 260. . Emperor. I.. 295. Exarch. 275. 206-7 conquered by Liutprand. Pavia. L. 47. IL. . . 61. Regions. 95. 252. 326. Pipin.. 251-8. 412 seat of the Exarchate.. 104. 281 enters Italy. Ricimer. Portus conquered by Alaric. 224-5. S. 75. Petronius Maximus.. I. 286-8. I. 351-2. 281 II. her cosmopolitan importance. 29. Pipin. . Rachis. summoned by the Pope. . 264-5. I. II. I. 310. 104. IL. S. Ravenna. by Astolf. . 39. 105-6. . S. Region. Phocas. Rome. Praefectus Italicas. Pyrrhus. IL. I. 64. insurrection in. II.. I. 14. 25-32. as . IL. S. his Pietro his death.. its punishment. 483. 222 deposes him. 218. 251. . Philip. I. 281 Lorenzo in Damaso. 488. . 402. 243-4- I. Population of tury. church of. worship of. 457-8. . 15. besieges Rome. his letter to . his growing import316 note . . S. IL. Porta Capena. ance. I. 425-6. 173-6. 273 its resist238 ance to papal rule. besieged by Theodoric. 80-2. IL. 115. Pope.. Pope. IL. places Majorian on the throne. see S. Saints. 120. 302. 363-6. . .

258 Kmg of Italy. 141. IL. 304. 181. SS. Stephen the Second. 214-15. battle of. Spoleto. 451. Taginas. their revenues confiscated. L. 213. 336. deposed. . 281 decorated by Honorius. 123. IL.. 279. besieges Rome. I. negotiates with Byzantium. Stephen the Third. 291. . 369. Via Appia. Pietro in Vincoli. 446. .. 296.. 6. Paolo. I. 323-7- Patrician. 42932. . I. their decay. Silverius.. 320. 288. Transtiberim. I. 315-16.. 336. IL. 414. I. 184-5. Theodore Kalliopa. Synagogue. 260 283-6 comes to Rome. 504. S. 180-3. 94 carried away by Constans. care of monuments. . 51. I. Symmachus. 343. IL. 434 . church. IL. takes Benevento and Naples. . 12. . 231. 52. II. Tuscany. Valentinian the Third. palace of. Stilicho. 272journeys to Astolf. 126. II. 70 . Teodoro. 90-5. I. . Exarch. off by by 76. 202-6.. S. 197. extinction. at Spoleto. 111- 73. 337. 332. 457. 53. 461. I. I.. 417. his death. 308. Roman. II. IL. 365. IL. IL. Symmachus. the Lateran. Pope. 318. his tolerance. L. letter to Justinian. 436 462-3 further mention of. of Chalcedon. 515 Maria Rotondo. I. 160. Theodore. Serena. 278 to 5 France. 115-6. Sebastiane. visits Totila. Trasamund. Pope. 338 death. S. 324. . IL. in time of Procopius. . L. I. 349. IL. 352. IL.. 418. 452-3. letter to the Franks. L. 327 turns to the Franks. 329. 314-16. 228 of Symmachus. 3239 his death. 395-8. Pietro in Vaticano. I. 286. under Julian. 404. I. 437. IL. . 358 . his death. 290. Sacellarius. 420. I. 459-60. writes to the Senate. II. Genseric.INDEX. again closed. Tibur (Tivoli).. besieges Rome a second time. 327. 182-3. I. sacks the destroys the walls. Benedict. 311. 284. legend of.. Pope.. 82. Pope. 190. Toto. 317-21. 326. . Pancrazio. IL. under Theodoric. S. .. S. embassy to the Emperor Zeno. Synod S. S. 363. 40. I. Sergius the First. 246. .. Pope.. attitude towards Ricimer. Vaticanum. his rule. 209-13. 267.. Towers. Quattro Coronati. 366. 111-12. 460. its under Totila. 13g. 100-2. 70.. 321-2. 88. number of. . Temples in fifth century. 326-7 letter to Charles. 455 reported destruction of. Pudenziana. Vatican palace. 5. Senate. 415.. . 208. II. Veronica. . 256. Statues in Rome. 18. 132. . 200. IL.. 124-6. S. 128. I. 282. 63-5. I. I. . 200. Theodoric. 76-80 carried Constantine. of the people. S. 118-19. 326. IL.. 314. transformed into churches. 119. Theodatus. 465-6. 57-8. 363-5. Tejas. its decree against simony. Sergius. . 482.. a third time. Sixtus the Third. I. I. I. 420. 356. I. city. II. . 168. 128. II. Subiaco. 248.. S. 444. I. 345-6- Pope. Vandals.. 281. . share in death of Christophorus and Sergius. Region. I. . .. latter days. I. of Palmaris. . see Pantheon. II.

his end. 410. IL. Pope. 405 from Rome. Walls of Aurelian. II. Region. . 372 Portus and Ostia. I. 246 by Adrian First. 150-5. IL. . L 366 occupies besieges Rome. . PRINTERS. repaired by 293 Belisarius... .. by Gregory Second. note. Pope.. 398. ^4-5 and restored by 55 and noi Theodoric. Vitiges proclaimed King. 412. 371. INDEX. I. 424. 66-8. t r NEILL AND COMPANY.5i6 Via Lata. Waldipert. . . restored by Belisarius. 37. 487. Vitalian. statue Vigilius. 325. . EDINBURGH. by Gregory Third. I. . 437. 384. . destroyed by Totila. 216. 401-2 treats retreats with Belisarius. Victory. of. 448.



2 IMS GregoroviuS/ Ferdinand History of the city of Rome in It'nt middle ages DG 811 i*7083724 I .G8413 189^1 :v..