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Science Form 3

Chapter 5 Growth

Unit 5 Growth 5.1 Human Growth Pattern
Growth Pertumbuhan
Defination Definasi Human Growth Pattern Corak Pertumbuhan Manusia Growth rate Kadar Pertumbuhan Stages of Growth Peringkat Pertumbuhan

Increase in the number of cells Pertambahan dalam bilangan sel Increase in size Pertambahan saiz Change in shape and function Perubahan bentuk dan fungsi

Growth curve Lengkung Pertumbuhan Infancy Peringkat bayi Childhood Peringkat kanakkanak

Effects of nutrition Kesan nutrisi

Adolescence Peringkat remaja Adulthood Peringkat dewasa Old age Peringkat tua

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
1. Growth is a life process that occurs in all types of life form. 2. Growth can be defined as
a. b. c. d. e. Increase in Increase in Increase in Changes in Changes in

A. Growth
body size , number of cells , weight , body shape , function of an organism .

3. The growth of an unicellular organism involves:
a. b.
a. b. c. d. e.

Increase in size of a cell. Increase in mass of a cell.
Increase in the number of cells. Increase in the size of the organism especially in:
i. ii.
Height . Weight .

4. The growth of a multicellular organism involves:

Changes in appearance . Changes in physical characteristics. Develop the complexity and function of the organism.

5. The process of growth in an organism is permanent and irreversible .

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
1. The human growth pattern is a sigmoid curve. 2. It is divided into five stages of growth:
a. b. c. d. e. . Infancy Childhood . Adolescence . Adulthood . . Old age

B. The Characteristics of Human Growth.

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
1. The human growth curve is obtained by plotting the height or weight against time . 2. Figure 5.1 is a weight against time graph showing the human growth curve. 3. The rate of growth is the difference in weight at suitable intervals over a period of time. 4. Therefore, the gradient of the curve indicates the rate of growth at that particular period.

Height and weight are common characteristics used to measure growth rate.

5.1

Human Growth Pattern

adolescence
childhood

adulthood old age

infancy

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
adolescence
adulthood old age

Weight (kg)

childhood

minimal growth very rapid growth

negative growth

infancy

slow growth rapid growth birth
age (year)

0

4

12

18
Figure 5.1

65

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
7. The rate of growth in human is the
a. b.

fastest , during:

the development of foetus in the uterus . the first six months after birth .

8. An infant grows very quickly in the first three years of infancy. 9. Childhood is a period of slow growth .

10. The adolescence is a period of very quick growth .
a. b. Sexual maturity or puberty is achieved during adolescence. The teen years are adolescent period.

11. Adulthood covers the early 20s until about 65. It is a period of minimal growth . 12. Old age is the period of negative growth .
a. b. Negative growth means loss in weight . Tissues in the body break downs more quickly than they can be repaired .

Stages Infancy (early stage)

Growth pattern •0 to 3 years •Rapid growth until three years of age •Weight doubles after six months •Weight triples after one year •3 to 12 year of age •Slow growth until adolescent stage •12 to 20 years of age •Teen years •Growth rate increase •Sexual maturity or puberty achieved during this stage •Starts from about 20 years of age •Growth rate slows down •Maximum growth achieved and growth stops •Growth rate becomes negative •Height and weight decrease slightly •Death at old age

Childhood Adolescence

Adulthood

Old age

Table 5.1 Summary of human growth pattern

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
1. The rate of growth in humans differ according to gender . 2. Figure 5.2 shows the comparison between the growth curves of boys and of girls based on their height and weight. 3. Table 5.2 shows the comparison between the growth rates of boys and girls at different stages.

C. Comparing the Growth Rates of Boys and Girls

height (cm)
170 150 130 infancy adulthood 70 adolescence Boys Girls

50

childhood

age (years) 0 4 12 18 20

Figure 5.2 (a) Growth curves of boys and girls based on height

weight (kg) 64 Boys

Girls 52

adulthood 32 infancy adolescence 12 childhood

4 0 4 10 12 18

age (years)

Figure 5.2 (b) Growth curves of boys and girls based on weight

Stages Infancy (early stage) Childhood

Comparison • Growth rates for baby boys and girls are generally the same. • From four years old a boys growth rates is faster than a girl, especially in terms of weight.

Adolescence • Girls reach puberty at the age of 12, one or two years earlier than boys. • Girls are usually taller and grow faster during early adolescence.
Adulthood • Growth rate for girls slows down at about the age of 17 and stops altogether at the age of 21. • Growth rate for boys slows down at about the age of 18 and stops altogether at the age of 24. • After the respective points, there is no further increase in height in both boys and girls. • A person’s weight may increase or decrease according to his lifestyle, genes, metabolic rate and health condition. • Female will become shorter if osteoporosis sets in. • Both males and females may lose weight and decrease slightly in height. • The efficiency of nervous system, metabolic rate and sensory organs will deteriorate.

Old age

Table 5.2

Comparison between the growth rates of boys and girls at different stages.

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
D. Effects of Nutrition on Human Growth
1. The growth of an individual depends on:
a. b. c. d. Genetic factors . Health . Eating habits . Daily activities .

2. A balanced diet is important to ensure healthy physical growth and mental development of an individual at all stages of growth. 3. All the different classes of food are required in the appropriate quantities and proportions .
a. b. c. d. Carbohydrates are the source of energy . Proteins are body-building foods crucial for _______ growth and repair damaged tissues. Vitamins are important to ensure good health . Minerals are required for strong bones and _____. teeth

4. An excessive intake of carbohydrates and fat will lead to obesity . 5. Keeping a healthy lifestyle with balanced diet will maintain healthy growth in all stages.

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (add)
There are clear stages that children pass through from birth to adult. These stages are the same for boys and girls, but girls generally mature before boys. This is clearly shown in the diagram below.

Both sexes are of a comparable shape and size during infancy and childhood. (add)

There are four characteristic stages of growth from birth to adult: ● Rapid growth in infancy and early childhood ● Slow, steady growth in middle childhood ● Rapid growth during puberty ● Gradual slowing down of growth in adolescence until adult height is reached

Patterns of Growth - Changes in Proportions (add)
The physical proportions of the body at birth are very different from those of the adult. Some body parts grow more than others during development to reach the final adult proportions.

Changes in the size and shape of the body are caused by different segments growing at different times.

Baby

adulthood

Growth of the skull

Nutrition (add)

A growing child who does not have sufficient protein may develop a dieses called kwashiorkor. Those suffering from kwashiorkor would be physically weak and show growth retardation.

ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 1
1 Growth results in A. death B. maturity and aging C. a decrease in cell mass D. a decrease in cell size Which of the following statements about growth is true? A. Growth is an irreversible process B. Humans grow only once C. Humans grow in stages D. Growth involves a change of sex Human growth can be measured in terms of A. height and weight B. mass and quantity of blood C. quantity of blood and the number of blood cells D. finger length

2

3

4

What is the main factor that influences growth pattern in humans? A. Gender B. Climate C. Environment D. State of health Which of the following graphs shows human growth? A C

5

B

D

6

S – Old age T – Infancy U – Adulthood V – Adolescence The above information is about the stages of human growth. Which of the following explains growth in the right sequence? A. V → T → S → U B. T → V → U → S C. S → V → U → T D. U → T → S → V Figure 5.1 shows the pattern of human growth. Which part A, B, C or D shows the highest rate of growth?

7

Figure 5.1 8 Puberty is the time when boys and girls start to change into A. Infants B. Toddlers C. Old people D. Adults

Figure 5.2

9.

Figure 5.2 shows the growth rate in both boys and girls. What conclusion can you make from the graph?
A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Both sexes have the same growth period. A boy has a longer growth period than a girl. A girl has a longer growth period than a boy. Individuals have different growth rates Puberty Childhood Adolescence Old age

10. A human being experiences negative growth when he reaches

Age (years) Girl Weight in (kg) Boy

2 12 12

4 16 16

6 18 22

8 30 28

10 32 34

12 39 38

14 50 49

16 52 58

18 53 64

20 53 65

22 53 65

Table 5.1 11. Table 5.1 shows the average body weight of boys and girls of the same age. What conclusion can you make from Table 5.1? A. The growth rate in a girl is always slower than the growth rate in a boy. B. A boy grows the fastest between the ages of 12 and 16. C. The period of growth in a boy is shorter than the period of growth in a girl. D. A girl reaches maturity faster than a boy.

Age (years) Weight (kg)

12 39

13 50

14 58

15 67

16 73

17 75

Table 5.2
12. Table 5.2 shows Susan's weight according to her age. Which of the following statements is true about Susan's eating habits? A. She eats too much carbohydrates. B. She eats too much protein. C. She drinks too much water. D. She does not exercise enough

Figure 5.3 13. Figure 5.3 shows the differences in the growth rates of males and females. What can you infer from the growth pattern? A. Males are usually taller than females. B. Males mature faster than females. C. Males usually die before females. D. Males always appear younger than females

14.

James is 8 years old. His daily diet consists of potato chips and instant noodles only. What does his diet lack? A. Proteins B. Fibre C. Carbohydrates D. Oils and fats Which of the following aspects are involved in human growth? I. Physical maturity II. Mental maturity III. Spiritual maturity A. B. C. D. I and II only I and III only II and III only I, II and III

15.

Alice and Ivy are identical twins. They were separated at birth and brought up by different families. They both display different rates of growth. 16. Based on the above information, which of the following factors caused this difference in growth? I. Genetics II. Food consumption III. Environment A. B. C. D. I and II only I and III only II and III only I, II and III

17.

Which of the following statements is/are true about human growth? I. A girl reaches puberty earlier than boys. II. A boy stops growing at about 24 years of age. III. A girl has a shorter lifespan than a boy A. B. C. D. I and II only I and III only II and III only I, II and III

Important for the growth and development of strong bones and teeth. 18. The above information describes the function of Q in human growth. Which of the following are Q? I. Calcium II. Vitamin D III. Iron A. B. C. D. I and II only I and III only II and III only I, II and III

ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 2

Figure 5.4

1.

The graph in Figure 5.4 compares the growth in terms of mass of a boy and a girl. a) Define growth. Growth is the increase in size and mass during the development of an organism over a period of time. (2 marks) b) The graph has divided the growth rate into four stages. Which stage shows the most rapid growth rate?
Adolescence

(1 mark)

ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 2
c) At what ages is the growth rate of a girl faster than a boy? From 12 to 14 years (1 mark) d) What is the cause of this difference in growth rate in (c)? Girls reach puberty faster than boys (1 mark) e) At what stage does the boy grow faster than the girl? From 14 years onward (1 mark) f) During the later part of adolescence, the boy grows faster than the girl. Why? The growth period of boys is longer than girls (1 mark) g) Which two classes of food are needed during childhood and adolescence to achieve maximum growth? Carbohydrates and protein (2 marks)

THE END