This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ELT Methodology : Principles and Practice CHAPTER 5 Chitravelu, N. Sithaparam
Contents: 1.Four stages in reading 2.Areas of concern in the selection of texts 3.Role of texts in the L2 classroom 4.Simplified vs. authentic texts 5.Channel conversion 6.Implications for L2 teachers
Reading Materials – Stages in Reading
In general, there are 4 stages in reading:
Learning to read Reading to learn
Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005
Suitability of language. Source: Chitravelu et al. 2.Content. 3.Concepts in the text.Pedagogic suitability. and 6. 5.Reading Materials – Selection of Texts Major areas of concern in the selection of texts: 1.Level of reasoning required..Balance. 4. 2005 .
Selection of Texts Teacher need to skillfully exploit texts to help students acquire new reading skills or become fluent in using the skills: Learning to read stage .Reading Materials . Texts should contain pedagogic as well as real reading purposes. Source: Chitravelu et al..Outcome of reading is to acquire the skills required when reading to learn. 2005 .
Reading Materials .Students tend to read slowly in order to understand & remember what they have read. 2005 . . Source: Chitravelu et al.Selection of Texts Reading to learn stage .Texts should be information-rich. Students read text to learn from the content. Outcome of reading is to gain knowledge..
Texts which teach language through reading. 2. Source: Wallace.Reading Materials – Role of Texts Role of text in the L2 classroom: 1. 2003 . 3.Texts which offer high-interest content.Text as a vehicle for teaching language structure & vocabulary.
Reading solely to learn a language – not for information or interest (Williams. 1984). Text-focused activities – focus on sentence patterns text & to highlight cohesive features.Reading Materials – Role of Texts 1. Source: Wallace. 1978). Text as a vehicle for teaching language structure & vocabulary Language-focused texts. Lack of communicative function as texts aim at reinforcing sentence patterns. 2003 . “Usage” rather than “use” (Widdowson.
2003 contained in the text. Select texts that can develop reading strategies. Texts which teach language through reading Select texts to promote reading .Reading Materials – Role of Texts 2.learners develop language awareness through reading. To motivate L2 learners to read widely in the L2. .1984). the overall content of the selected text is more important than the linguistic features Source: Wallace. Wide access to meaningful written language is effective in reinforcing English structures as well as learning new ones (Elley.
Texts which offer high-interest content Text must be interesting for the learner to read.Reading Materials – Role of Texts 3.g. select texts that are inherently motivating – something about the content that makes learners interested to read. in narratives that can stimulate readers’ schema. 2003 . Therefore. E. However. Source: Wallace. difficult to address the issue of interest (individual differences and preferences).
Her schedule is Tuesday through Saturday from 8 o’clock to 5 pm. Her lunch time is 12. …………………………………………………………………. There are two shifts in the Lincoln Company. Joanne works the day shift. many years ago there was a very rich landlord who Source: Wallace. Joanne works for the Lincoln Company. Many. 2003 owned a lot of land and houses. …………………………………………………………………. .00 noon to1.00 pm.Reading Materials – Role of Texts Activity Which opening lines might be of the greatest general interest to secondary level students? …………………………………………………………………. a day shift and a night shift.
2003 . something about the content in T2 make students more interested in reading.Reading Materials – Role of Texts Activity . events are unexceptional. Why? T2 begins with a recognizable kind of narrative and students engage with the text by activating a relevant schema. However. Source: Wallace. T1 is not what we perceive as a “story”.Discussion Both texts are linguistically simple.
authentic text (Young 1999). and . Advantages of simplified texts: .Reading Materials . Source: Crossley & McNamara. 2008 .contains increased redundancy & amplified explanation (Kuo 1993).Simplified Texts Texts are simplified for L2 learners for easy comprehension and to help prepare them for more advanced.excludes unnecessary & distracting. idiosyncratic styles without suffering a loss of valuable communication features & concepts (Allen & Widdowson 1979).
2008 . denying learners the opportunity to learn natural forms of language (Long & Ross 1993). simplified texts contain simplified & frequent forms. Thus.Simplified Texts However. Widely criticized for removing authentic language.Reading Materials . Source: Crossley & McNamara.
Authenticity does not lie in the materials but is created by the reader’s response – congruence between the writer’s intention & reader’s interpretation(Widdowson. Authenticity is not a characteristic of the text in itself .the text can only be truly authentic in the context for which it was originally written (Hutchinson & Waters.1979).Authentic Texts Definitions of Authenticity: “genuine communicative acts” .written or spoken language between native speakers (Meinhof. 1987). 1987). .Reading Materials .
g. 1995) Advantages: introduces students to natural & contextualized language Use of authentic linguistic features (e. cohesive devices) – development of reading comprehension skills & information processing skills.Reading Materials .Authentic Texts Authentic text written to fulfill a social purpose for native speakers within a language community (Lee. 2008 reconstructing text & understanding unfamiliar . contain natural lexical redundancy – aids in Source: Crossley & McNamara.
2008 . and rhetorically less difficult than authentic text. Simplified text.Simplified vs. Authenti Simplified Vs. is thought to benefit L2 learners because it is lexically. thus increasing text readability. Authentic text? Authentic text is assumed to provide more natural language and more naturally occurring cohesion than simplified text. however. Simplified text is criticized as creating discourse that is unnatural and serves to reduce helpful redundancy. Source: Crossley & McNamara.Reading Materials . syntactically.
Explore critically the discourse in minimal texts such as the following advertisement. This is due to the lack of familiarity with culturespecific features of the discourses in the text (Wallace.Activity – Authentic Texts Readers from a different sociocultural background may find the meaning of a simple text difficult to comprehend. 2003). In what way are the discourses in it culturespecific? .
TITLE: "Sucky Vacations" BRAND: San Diego .
Discussion – Authentic Texts Message written to young parents who are considering where to take their children for a holiday.g. e. Message makes assumptions that are culture specific. Refer to a particular sociocultural practice – parents are sent to retirement homes when they get older. . The vacations are normally related to having fun at the beach.: Parents are expected to take their children on family vacations.
is converted into another medium. etc.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion Information transfer.. E. actions. Source: Chitravelu et al. materials.g. from words to graphics. 2005 . Information expressed in one medium.
.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) Why it is important? Whenever the receptive skill is higher than the productive skill. we might use non-verbal responses. etc. diagrams. Sometimes. is easier to remember. Some information is better presented using tables. graphs. information in graphs. etc.. 2005 . Source: Chitravelu et al.
it is important to teach students how to interpret them: . Source: Chitravelu et al..students learn how to relate these forms to the verbal texts they accompany.students learn how to make sense of the forms & the special way of presenting information. . graphs.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) Why it is important? Since many texts/textbooks include charts. etc. 2005 . .
Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) Commonly-used graphics in channel conversion 1. 2005 .. Maps – see relationships involving physical location Source: Chitravelu et al.
Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 2. Floor plans ..see relationships involving physical location Source: Chitravelu et al. 2005 .
.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 3. 2005 . Bus/train schedule – gather information from schedules & how best to use them Source: Chitravelu et al.
.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 4. Pictures/diagrams – form mental picture using information from the text P LAY LO AD BAY DO O RS P LAY LO AD BAY F L IG H T D E C K M A IN E N G IN E Source: Chitravelu et al. 2005 .
– present trends. Graphs/pie-charts/etc. 2005 .. Source: Chitravelu et al. information that is too complex to understand without the relationship being shown in written forms & hierarchical information. relationship of parts to whole.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 5.
. Time-lines & flow-charts – follow sequence of events Source: Chitravelu et al.Reading Reading Materials Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 6. 2005 .
Need to make reading lessons more enjoyable by introducing texts that are of interest to the learners. .Conclusion Implications for L2 teachers: Need to be aware of criteria involving the preparation & selection of material for teaching reading. Authentic reading is interactive – teachers need to facilitate interactions between readers and texts in the classroom.Reading Materials . Need to expose learners to authentic materials at earlier stage.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.