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Knowledge Management – An Insight

A PROJECT REPORT ON

“CORPORATE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT – AN INSIGHT”

SUBMITTED BY “MERAJ AHMED” FOR THE DEGREE OF

TY.BMS
THE BACHELOR OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF “MRS VAISHALI SINGH”

DNYANSADHANA COLLEGE THANE ( W ) , MUMBAI – 400604 ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013

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Knowledge Management – An Insight

DECLARATION
I, MERAJ AHMED OF THE DNYANSADHANA COLLEGE THANE ( W) , HEREBY DECLARE THAT I HAVE COMPLETED THE PROJECT ENTITLED “CORPORATE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT – AN INSIGHT” IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE THIRD YEAR OF THE BACHELOR OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES COURSE FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013 I FURTHER DECLARE THAT INFORMATION SUBMITTED BY ME IS TRUE AND ORIGINAL TO THE BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE.

DATED:

MERAJ AHMED Name of the student

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Knowledge Management – An Insight

ACKNOWLEDEGEMENT
I EXPRESS MY SINCERE THANKS TO PROF VAISHALI SINGH FOR HER VALUABLE GUIDANCE IN DOING THIS PROJECT. I WISH TO TAKE THE OPPORTUNITY TO EXPRESS MY DEEP SENCE OF GRATITUDE TO PRINCIPAL N.S SANE and PROF. (Mrs.) VAISHALI SINGH FOR THEIR INVALUABLE GUIDANCE AND SUPPORT IN THIS ENDEAVOUR. THEY HAVE BEEN A CONSTANT SOURCE OF INSPIRATION. FINALLY IT IS THE FOREMOST DUTY TO THANK ALL MY RESPONDENTS, FAMILY & FRIENDS WHO HAVE HELPED ME DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY IN COMPLETING MY FIELD WORK, WITHOUT WHICH THIS PROJECT WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL.

MERAJ AHMED Name of the student

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either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice. create.Knowledge Management – An Insight TABLE OF CONTENTS Sr. distribute and enable adoption of insights and experiences. An -4- . No 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE MGMT? SUDDEN INTERST IN KM KM-A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE RPG KM-THAT CREATES VALUE THE ROADBLOCKS COMPANIES IMPLEMENTING KM TECHNOLOGY ROLE IN KM KM & TRAINING PROFESSIONAL KM & HRM RECOMMENDATION & FINDINGS ICICI Page no EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used in an organization to identify. represent. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge.

KM efforts can help individuals and groups to share valuable organizational insights. and public policy. and to adapt to changing environments and markets. public health. management. and may be distinguished from by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the exchange of knowledge. to reduce redundant work. KM efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance. also have started contributing to KM research. innovation. competitive advantage. often as a part of their 'Business Strategy'. to reduce training time for new employees. computer science. information systems. KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration. Several consulting companies also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding KM to these organizations.Knowledge Management – An Insight established discipline since 1995. More recently. or 'Human Resource Management' departments. Especially companies in industrialized countries with high wages can only compete on the global market when offering products that are based on -5- . the sharing of lessons learned. to retain intellectual capital as employee’s turnover in an organization. 'Information Technology'. and continuous improvement. to avoid reinventing the wheel per se. Through this report I have tried to explain the concept of knowledge management and tried to gain an insight of the same. other fields. KM efforts overlap. Chapter 1 An Introduction to “Knowledge” It is widely acknowledged that knowledge is one of the most important assets of organizations. Many large companies and non-profit organizations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts. to include those focused on information and media. and library and information sciences.

Peter F.Knowledge Management – An Insight advanced technology or when trading the technology itself. either by becoming grounds for actions. Drucker in The New Realities The major issue about knowledge is that it is: Vital to the continued operation and development of organizations and their plans. thus having an advantage over companies in countries with low salaries. -6- ." . "Knowledge is information that changes something or somebody. share and protect: difficult to manage. Expensive to acquire and valuable once you have acquired it. assess. retain. But intractable: difficult to understand. These companies depend on highly educated and skilled employees as well as on short innovation cycles. One of the prerequisites to achieving this is a systematic management of the key success factor "knowledge". or by making an individual (or an institution) capable of different or more effective action. high flexibility and creativity. obtain.

The interaction between these two forms of knowledge is the key dynamics of knowledge creation in the business administration. and tacit knowledge. generate. which involves conversion from explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. groupware. While IT in the form of e-mail. As a general rule of thumb. which involves conversion from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge. Combination.Included are assets such as patents. explicit knowledge consists of anything that can be documented. business plans. often with the help of IT. instant messaging and related technologies can help facilitate the dissemination of tacit knowledge. Externalization.Knowledge Management – An Insight Kinds of Knowledge There are two kinds of knowledge: Explicit . archived and codified. share and manage it. identifying tacit knowledge in the first place is a major hurdle for most organizations. perspective. or the knowhow contained in people's heads. Tacit . and values. which involves conversion from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. trademarks.Much harder to grasp is the concept of tacit knowledge. and Internalization. Explicit knowledge can be articulated in formal language and transmitted among individuals. -7- . Knowledge is created through four different modes: Socialization. The challenge inherent with tacit knowledge is figuring out how to recognize. which involves conversion from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge. is the personal knowledge embedded in individual experience and involving such intangible factors as personal belief. marketing research and customer lists.

This knowledge resides in many different places such as: Databases. Enterprises are realizing how important it is to "know what they know" and be able to make maximum use of the knowledge. Filing cabinets and Peoples’ heads And are distributed right across the enterprise. This utility is however restricted by its ability to support dialogue or collective reflection. is necessary for developing a richer conceptualization of knowledge management. values. Knowledge bases. manuals and stories. All too often one part of an enterprise repeats work of another part simply because it is impossible to keep track of. and internalization. which involves combining different bodies of explicit knowledge. may have greater role in combination. The current model of inquiring systems. such as ideals. What is internal must be articulated and made explicit. apparently. or emotions. It may. in order to become an organizational resource and not just individual proficiency. Enterprises need to know: -8- . made formal.Knowledge Management – An Insight The dominant model of inquiring systems is limited in its ability to foster shared experience necessary for relating to others' thinking processes thus limiting its utility in socialization. which involves knowledge transfer through verbalizing or diagramming into documents. knowledge in other parts." Tacit knowledge. Another way to think of it is that tacit knowledge implies a period of "apprenticeship. have some utility in externalization. and make use of. analogies and models. The close connection between this viewpoint and the interpretation of knowledge as action is clear. by virtue of its ability to convert tacit knowledge into explicit forms such as metaphors. must be recorded. A more explicit recognition of tacit knowledge and related human aspects.

it's up to individual companies to determine what information qualifies as intellectual and knowledge-based assets Knowledge assets are the knowledge regarding markets. means putting a value on people. both as individuals and more importantly on their collective capability. These processes include: developing knowledge. It is some combination of context sensing. but 'knowing' a skill.Knowledge Management – An Insight What their knowledge assets are and How to manage and make use of these assets to get maximum return. therefore. preserving knowledge. Most traditional company policies and controls focus on the tangible assets of the company and leave unmanaged their important knowledge assets. add value. knowledge is less tangible depends on human cognition and awareness. personal memory and cognitive processes. that despite attempts of knowledge engineers to codify such knowledge. has an important human dimension. technologies and organizations. and sharing knowledge. and 'information'. products.'knowing' a fact is little different from Unlike information. that a business owns or needs to own and which enable its business processes to generate profits. or 'knowing' that something might affect market conditions is something. using knowledge. and other factors such as the embedded intelligence in an organization’s computer systems. Measuring the knowledge asset. There are several types of knowledge . etc. -9- . Knowledge management is not only about managing these knowledge assets but also managing the processes that act upon the assets. Knowledge assets Not all information is valuable. Therefore.

marketing etc. and the subsequent planning and control of actions to develop both the assets and the processes so as to fulfill organizational objectives. new technology. so that knowledge must evolve and be assimilated at an ever-faster rate. planning. Corporations are organizing their businesses to be focused on creating customer value. new science. as are management structures. There is a need to manage increasing complexity as small operating companies a re trans-national sourcing operations. A change in strategic direction may result in the . Likewise product development requires knowledge of consumer requirements.Knowledge Management – An Insight Therefore. Staff functions are being reduced. which holds this knowledge. leading to loss of knowledge. Competitive pressures are reducing the size of the workforce. Knowledge management involves the identification and analysis of available and required knowledge assets and knowledge asset related processes. manufacturing and distribution. There is a need to replace the informal knowledge management of the staff function with formal methods in customer aligned business processes. There are trends for employees to retire earlier and for increasing mobility. Knowledge takes time to experience and acquire. Employees have less and less time for this. Success in an increasingly competitive marketplace depends critically on the quality of knowledge. For example the supply chain depends on knowledge of diverse areas including raw materials.10 - . which organizations apply to their key business processes. The challenge of deploying the knowledge assets of an organization to create competitive advantage becomes more crucial as: The marketplace is increasingly competitive and the rate of innovation is rising.

What is important to remember about KM is that it's not just one initiative. How exactly this is done is unique to each organization. but the employees with that knowledge may no longer be there. For this reason. a profession or other interests. there's no universal definition of KM.Knowledge Management – An Insight loss of knowledge in a specific area. The second views knowledge as a process that is unique to each individual. The first led to the development of systems that encourage the efficient collection and dissemination of knowledge. just as there's no agreement as to what constitutes knowledge in the first place. Unfortunately. Most often. A subsequent reversal in policy may then lead to a renewed requirement for this knowledge. it's the integration of many initiatives working together to ensure that knowledge is created and shared throughout organizations. Chapter 2 What is Knowledge Management? There are essentially two perspectives on Knowledge Management. it's best to think of KM in the broadest context." or groups of individuals who communicate because they share work practices. generating value from such assets involves sharing them among employees. The second led to the creation of "communities of practice. Each perspective contributes to the possibilities. Succinctly put.11 - . It's important to note that . The first views knowledge as an object that can be captured and transferred. KM is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. departments and even with other companies in an effort to devise best practices.

often confuse the topic of Knowledge Management with Information Management and Data Management. How would KM work to make this happen? The caddie master may decide to reward caddies for sharing their tips by offering them credits for pro shop merchandise. Good caddies do more than carry clubs and track down wayward balls. while KM is often facilitated by IT.12 - . In this case. institutional and governmental systems for managing knowledge. These are related but different topics! Unless the fundamental problems related to assumptions and paradigms underlying the disciplines and practices of Information Management and Data Management are not systematically addressed. golfers play better because they benefit from the collective experience of caddies.Knowledge Management – An Insight the definition says nothing about technology. The end result of a well-designed KM program is that everyone wins. a good caddie will give advice to golfers. "The wind makes the ninth hole play 15 yards longer. Once the best advice is collected. then they all may eventually earn bigger tips. organizational. Think of a golf caddie as a simplified example of a knowledge worker. technology by itself is not KM. and the course owners win because better scores lead to more repeat business. often driven by a technology-centric focus. The trade publications. caddies get bigger tips and deals on merchandise. On the flip side. the golfer — having derived a benefit from the caddie's advice — may be more likely to play that course again. If a good caddie is willing to share what he knows with other caddies. and distribute them to all the caddies. such as. these would continue to hobble substantive research and practice contributions critical for sustained growth and competence of individual." Accurate advice may lead to a bigger tip at the end of the day. When asked. the course manager would publish the information in notebooks (or make it available on PDAs). .

a consulting firm based in Cambridge. North Carolina's senior adviser to the governor for science and technology. First. Companies that find knowledge and use it to their advantage compete better in the marketplace. "There's a lot of turmoil and turnover. the workers who help create that wealth are no longer the loyal employees of yesterday. "That's how you create wealth today." said Jane Patterson. They switch jobs more frequently than their parents ever "During the past 10 years. . "If you look at the Standard and Poor Index. But what of the data if the people are not capable of translating it into useful products or services? We rely on technology to solve problems without acknowledging the necessity of human and technological resources working in concert to this end. Chapter 3 Sudden interest in knowledge and KM Why the sudden emphasis on knowledge? Three reasons stand out. you'll find that 70 percent of companies' value is in intangible assets. companies are turning to knowledge management to capture worker knowledge. Companies can no longer rely on their intellectual resources to stay. such as steel.13 - .Knowledge Management – An Insight Human beings are capable of locating and accessing large amounts of data in the service of the organization. the private sector has found it can no longer count on people staying for 25 years. senior analyst with Delphi Group." As a result. Mass." said Mark Tucker. the nation's economy is shifting away from the production of tangible products." Second. toward such intangibles as services and software. did. such as knowledge and intellectual property. cars and soap.

growing from $1. knowledge management services will become an $8 billion market in 2003. Companies are being to realize the need to leverage that knowledge for competitive advantage in their area of business. Ranbaxy Laboratories. The IDC report too gives credence to the view that knowledge management isn’t a passing fancy. among others. Why is there so much interest in knowledge management suddenly? With most business being connected to the World Wide Web. BP Amoco. "and not enough emphasis on individual enterprise. compiling and distributing information. Kodak. a recent KPMG study states that 81 per cent of surveyed executives already have or were considering a knowledge management programme. What's absent is worker creativity and innovation fueled by knowledge. According to a recent IDC report. In fact. Dell . They join an exclusive global club comprising. organizations are moving from the command-driven approach used by information systems to a more knowledge-based approach of finding." he said. It has been predicted that enterprises lacking a KM programme will be way by as much as 30 to 40 per cent compared to those who have a programme in place.Knowledge Management – An Insight Third.4 billion in 2004.14 - .4 billion in 1999 to a substantial $5. RPG. Madura Garments are a just few of the companies trying to bring some method to the knowledge madness. "There's been too much emphasis on treating people as passive recipients of technology. there's been a growing realization that investments in information technology haven't paid off in performance. AFL. Piramal Enterprises. there’s an information overload that needs software-based knowledge management solutions." To reverse this syndrome and to keep pace with the rapid change in the world today. The knowledge management software market alone is estimated to grow from $1.3 billion in 1999.

15 - . McKinsey which are trying to create what Bill Gates called "a digital nervous system". names and addresses of people everyone knows all in one place -. employees spend fewer years in each job. Microsoft. Also. Information can now be collected.even simple tools like putting all the visiting cards. which the business dearly requires but can't access. By harnessing the knowledge of experience. experience. and more importantly. But knowledge. Two. Project Diamond at Ranbaxy aims to create a ubiquitous digital backbone." emphasises Vasant Kumar. Andersen Consulting. BP Amoco shaved about $300 million off costs through its own version of KM. analyzed and distributed in ways not previously possible. as technology and capital are available to almost everybody at the same price. . How is KM different from what has been done before? New technologies have changed the way organizations view and use knowledge. and thus often leave companies with knowledge in their heads. KM is merely a fancy name for putting in place a formal system for capturing what your organization. they are no longer barriers to entry.to share crucial business insights and data across functions and processes. you need to link them. Didn't everybody keep knowledge somewhere and access it whenever needed? So why indulge in formal KM? There are two reasons One: "Knowledge tends to reside in pockets. is. director (strategic planning) and chief information officer at Ranbaxy.Knowledge Management – An Insight Computers. people and systems have learnt over the years .

now knowledge (using.Knowledge Management – An Insight Database programs help collect. But it's not just technology that is driving the excitement around Knowledge Management. analyzed and distributed in ways not previously possible. KM is exciting because it makes sense to executives. Employees are everywhere and often on their own because they are mobile or the only person in a remote location. knowledge and innovation. the bulk of the work that needs to get done falls under the umbrella of "knowledge work. sharing and creating) has become the work. Organizations are leaner and there are fewer middle managers to coordinate the flow of information. KM helps people and ideas reach each other. They want access to those resources and to hold onto them as the organization and its personnel change. or Yahoo! are less about selling products or services and more about providing services. Groupware allows communities of practice to grow beyond the limits of time and place." Leading businesses. like Microsoft. Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) can be used to support cognitive skills and provide technical expertise. What's different is that while people have always needed knowledge to do their work. Intel. At the same time. Intranets and the Internet make it possible to disseminate information to millions simultaneously. They know that there are rich resources nestled in the minds and hearts of their organizations. Information can now be collected.16 - . filter and make sense of this information. . Geography and management are also fueling the interest in KM.

which is constant. Building on Porter’s notion of competitive advantage." We are living in an economy of kaleidoscopic change where the only element. is change. they can position themselves strategically on the basis of these resources and capabilities. the resource based view of strategy argues that the resources and capabilities of an organization can be a source of competitive advantage if they possess certain characteristics of being rare.Knowledge Management – An Insight Chapter 4 Knowledge Management – A Strategic Perspective "In the emerging economy. durable and difficult to imitate and flexible and durable. If firms have resources with these characteristics. Porter’s model focused on defining a firm’s strategy in terms of it’s product/ market positioning. multiple changes reducing the period for which organizations can hold on to a competitive advantage. Many authors have stressed on the strategic importance of intangible assets for firms to achieve competitive advantage . a firm's only advantage is its ability to leverage and utilize its knowledge. The industry environment is being influenced by unexpected. Strategy concepts and frameworks Strategy is a method/plan adopted by a firm to balance its external environment (opportunities and threats) and the internal capabilities (strengths and weaknesses) Various management consultants and thinkers have defined the process of strategy in various ways. Every sector of industry in every corner of the globe has been affected by this change. Most of the tangible resources may not have these characteristics and hence organizations have to focus on intangible assets to be a source of competitive advantage.17 - .

The emphasis. the pace of innovation is accelerating and the nature of future competition and markets is difficult to determine. which emphasizes building. The importance of integration of knowledge available in the organization is also stressed upon by authors like Huff. And hence any strategy based on market and product mix or resources and capabilities may not provide the firm with a sustainable competitive advantage. is on adapting to the changing environment.18 - . The term ‘capabilities’ emphasizes the key role of strategic management in appropriately adapting. from this definition. through organizational learning and innovation. integrating. resources and functional competencies toward changing environment". and sustaining competitive advantage on the basis of the knowledge resources and capabilities of a firm has gained currency due to the following reasons Market is in a state of flux and going through a string of realignments Resources and capabilities are easily replicable The unprecedented growth of information superhighway has accelerated the spread of explicit knowledge and consequently the speed of replicability Tacit knowledge gained through years of experience is not easily replicable.Knowledge Management – An Insight They define the term dynamic capabilities as follows: The term ‘dynamic’ refers to the shifting character of the environment. who. for which knowledge is the base. argue that managers look upon collective . and re-configuring internal and external organizational skills. This knowledge based view of strategy. certain strategic responses are required when time-to-market and timing is critical.

This is possible through creative thinking and innovation. an organization does not enjoy sustainable competitive advantage. Any organization that aims to create a knowledge management system should have to follow these general knowledge management initiatives. merely by possessing resources and capabilities. through years of experience.Knowledge Management – An Insight knowledge and experience in constructing mental models of strategic issues and terms this as ‘strategic frames’ AProcess of knowledge creation and dissemination There are many ways in which knowledge can be created and disseminated across organization. They should be able to combine these resources in new and different ways or develop new capabilities to gain sustainable competitive advantage. Creativity. Creation of knowledge teams Sharing of best practices Development of knowledge databases Creation of knowledge centers Selection and use of collaborative technologies Creation of Intellectual capital teams Specifically. . In the present industry scenario. Innovation and knowledge strategy Creativity and innovation play a very important role in designing and driving the business strategy of any present day organization. organizations could create knowledge portal in the organizational intranet.19 - . establish communities of practice and harness the knowledge gained by persons in an organization. through the processes of debriefing and mentoring.

Some of these strategies are Strategy Codification strategy Personalization strategy Strategic Enterprise strategy management Intellectual capital Focus Automation and application of IT Building a learning strategy of Building. termed as ‘architectural innovation’ and ‘ combinative capabilities’ Approach to competitive advantage Organizations pursue different strategies to align their KM strategies with the business strategies. Illustraton 2 effectiveness Applying all the available knowledge . managing.20 - .Knowledge Management – An Insight Experience & New ways of combining existing resources Develop new capabilities Creativit y& Competiti ve advantage Illustraton 1 Some of the innovations brought out by organizations are a result of application of new knowledge and the others are a result of working with and recasting existing knowledge. and exploiting knowledge-related assets in the best interest of the firm.

they also need to create new knowledge through creative methods and build new capabilities to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. by pursuing just a product-market based strategy or a resource based strategy. . organizations cannot achieve sustainable competitive advantage. They need to appreciate the importance of the knowledge existing in the organization and harness the knowledge through appropriate knowledge management strategies and align this strategy with the business strategy.Knowledge Management – An Insight Conclusion In the current industry scenario of flux and uncertainty.21 - . Moreover.

Except for consultancies -. telecom. And the list goes on. RPG has an intranet in place." points out Krishnan. the tea and rubber businesses have already saved over a crore of rupees. propel its growth and fertilize cross learning. At a typical KIPs session. As a result of exchanging best practices at KIPs session.6 billion in sales from scores of companies across industries like power. In the beginning of the year. supply chain management (SCM). are decided on. which will capture historical facts and processes.where capturing very rich. among others are the intranet and a host of other initiatives. Krishnan. What will you do? That is a question V. the CEOs and functional heads of all the businesses move to an off-site location. retailing. tyres. it was very important to create fora for horizontal dissemination of information. tea. to save costs. president of group strategic planning at RPG Enterprises. they sit around and exchange notes. From 8 am to 6 pm.Knowledge Management – An Insight Example 1 RPG Imagine you are RPG Enterprises. In the cable business. Now you want to capture the knowledge that each business has. music. he's put together Knowledge Integration Process Systems (KIPs). For starters. intangible insights and data could make the difference between keeping and losing a client -. half a dozen key issues. KIPs are just one part of the KM programme. Y2K. cables. is grappling with as he tries to put in place a 'formal' knowledge management (KM) system at RPG Enterprises. like infotech.22 - .processes to capture. "But for us to leverage our multi-industry presence. rubber and so on. share and organically grow from the knowledge collected are not in place in most industries. You gross $1. thanks to the session on SCM. Chapter 5 .S. KIPs represent roughly what the top end of a good KM system should look like. RPG is working towards shaving Rs 5 crore off supply chain costs.

it is portrayed simplistically. with new concepts emerging constantly. Researchers at the Andersen Consulting Institute for Strategic Change have been exploring the roots of the problem and have developed a method to help executives make effective knowledge management a reality in their organizations. . A firm that had invested millions of dollars in a state-of-the-art intranet intended to improve knowledge sharing got some bad news: Employees were using it most often to retrieve the daily menu from the company cafeteria. Often. There are numerous examples of knowledge-management programs intended to improve innovation. discussions typically revolve around blanket principles that are intended to work across the organization. responsiveness and adaptability that fell short of expectations. For example.23 - . Knowledge management is still a relatively young field. Few executives would argue with the premise that knowledge management is critical —but few know precisely what to do about it. And most knowledge-management initiatives have focused almost entirely on changes in tools and technologies. The system was barely used in day-to-day business activities. such as intranets and Lotus Notes. Much of the problem with knowledge management today lies in the way the subject has been approached by vendors and the press. companies must focus on how knowledge is used to build critical capabilities.Knowledge Management – An Insight KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT THAT CREATE VALUE STRATEGIES There is no one-size-fits-all way to effectively tap a firm's intellectual capital. To create value. companies are urged to emulate knowledge-management leaders such as British Petroleum and Skandia.

Identifying what knowledge assets a company possesses . largely ignoring the complex cultural issues that influence the way people behave around knowledge. companies implement state-of-the-art technology and then discover that culture and behavior are slow to change. In short. Knowledge management is complex and multifaceted. applying incentives to motivate employees and forging alliances to infuse the business with new knowledge. simplistic solutions and "one.size-fits-all" approaches leave executives with little in the way of practical advice about how to transform the entire knowledgemanagement system. By and large. human resource practices. Too often. common repositories and other systems. organizational structure and culture—in order to ensure that the right knowledge is brought to bear at the right time. those companies have seen little improvement in their ability to manage knowledge. a framework has been developed that associates specific knowledge-management strategies with specific challenges that companies face. such as embedding key information in systems and processes. Effective knowledge management requires a combination of many organizational elements—technology. What's more. To help executives. it encompasses everything the organization does to make knowledge available to the business. Many companies have implemented sophisticated intranets.24 - . this fuzziness makes it difficult for executives to see a clear link between their knowledge-management investments and business value.Knowledge Management – An Insight These approaches have little relevance for executives contending with the day-to-day reality of running a company.

25 - . .Knowledge Management – An Insight Where is the knowledge asset? What does it contain? What is its use? What form is it in? How accessible is it? Analyzing how the knowledge can add value What are the opportunities for using the knowledge asset? What would be the effect of its use? What are the current obstacles to its use? What would be its increased value to the company? Specifying what actions are necessary to achieve better usability & added value How to plan the actions to use the knowledge asset? How to enact actions? How to monitor actions? Reviewing the use of the knowledge to ensure added value Did the use of it produce the desired added value? How can the knowledge asset be maintained for this use? Did the use create new opportunities? This Knowledge Management Framework is based on the premise that the focus should be placed on the way knowledge is used to build the critical capabilities a company needs in order to succeed—on the core processes and activities that enable it to compete.

Using these two factors. the Institute has identified four distinct categories of work. improving a consumer products company's understanding of customer preferences should increase its percentage of successful new products. Integration model. Work can be evaluated along two dimensions. Work involves improvisation and learning by doing. The framework begins by assessing and categorizing the way work is done in the core process. in which there is low interdependence and high complexity. . Work is typically routine. Second is the complexity of work involved—the degree to which employees need to apply their judgment and interpret a variety of information. in which there is a high degree of both interdependence and complexity.26 - . Work requires judgment and is dependent on "star performers." Collaboration model. and depends on a workforce that exercises little discretion. in which there is a high degree of interdependence and a low degree of complexity. in which there is a low degree of both interdependence and complexity. or "work models": Transaction model. First is the level of interdependence involved—that is. methodologies and standards. and relies on deep expertise across functions and the use of flexible teams. procedures and training. the degree to which individuals and organizations need to collaborate and interact. Expert model. should result in reduced loan losses. Work is systematic and repeatable. and depends on tight integration across functional boundaries. highly reliant on formal rules.Knowledge Management – An Insight For example. relies on formal processes. Enhancing a bank's know-how in evaluating credit risk.

In comparison. it is important to note that there are no hard-and-fast connections between a certain core process and a work model. for example.Knowledge Management – An Insight The characteristics of the type of work will help determine which model works best Collaborativ e group Integration model Systematic repeatable work Highly reliant on formal processes. marketing and financial management tend to be expert model work. However. methodologies and standards Dependant on tight integration across functional boundaries Level of interdependence Knowledge Management Framework: Work Models Collaboration model Improvisational work Highly reliant on deep expertise across multiple functions Dependant on fluid deployment of flexible teams Transactional model Routine work Highly reliant on formal rules. can refer to individuals covering their respective territories (expert model) or to a supplier's multifunctional team working closely with a customer to maintain retail inventories (integration model). and activities generally span multiple functions and organizations. For example. procedures and training Dependant on lowdiscretion workforce or automation Expert model Judgment-oriented work Highly reliant on individual expertise and experience Dependant on star performers Individual actors Routine Complexity of work Interpreta tion/ judgment Illustraton 3 In general.27 - . So the key . requiring individuals in one functional area to apply their judgment to solve unanticipated problems. Sales. supply-chain management and procurement tend to fit into the integration model. the work in these processes is often routine. because the same process can be performed in different ways. a given core process can be mapped to one of these four categories.

it is the nature of the work that determines the appropriate knowledge-management approach. To do so. marketing and manufacturing. companies must contend with issues such as attracting and motivating talented individuals and overcoming "silos" of information. To drive such innovation. a key challenge is the achievement of breakthrough innovation. the organization usually needs to focus on getting results from its star performers. Every point in the chain needs to know not just what the links above and below are. In one product area. In essence. on the other hand. for example. product development. at one expert model company studied by the Institute. but each person rarely knew what the others were doing. Importance of knowing the work model Knowing the work model that's associated with the core process is important because each model presents its own distinct set of knowledge-management challenges. In the collaboration model. individuals had a tremendous amount of knowledge about products. a company needs to encourage risk-taking and bring together a variety of knowledge domains.Knowledge Management – An Insight is to understand how work is performed. but also needs to have some idea of what the whole continuum is.28 - . At one biotech company. the Institute found that increasingly complicated projects and the need for a growing number of scientific disciplines was making it harder to integrate activities into a coherent whole. the framework allows executives to gain a better understanding of their current knowledge-management practices—which in most companies have evolved . For example. such as research. in order to solve complex problems. managers discovered seven redundant research projects. In the expert model.

it is a short step to prescribing specific remedies. For example. unconscious manner—and to identify the knowledge-management challenges associated with their core processes. From that specific diagnosis. because each set of challenges points to a handful of potential knowledge-management strategies.Knowledge Management – An Insight in an ad hoc.29 - . the challenges in the transaction model are centered on the need to codify knowledge and ensure consistent performance. Each work process can be aligned with a specific model Collaborative group Supply chain management Knowledge Management Framework: process mapping Sourcing/ procurement Customer service / call center Design and engineering R&D Exploratio n Level of Interdependence IM dependence New Product Developmen t Account Planning Marketing /advertisi ng Brand/produ ction management Supply chain management Retail Operation s Telemarketing TM Routine Fabrication / Assembly Individual actors EM Complexity of work Interpreta tion/ judgment Illustraton 4 .

Knowledge Management – An Insight Possible knowledge-management strategies would therefore include "automation" that embeds knowledge in systems. technology." in which knowledge is built into policies and procedures. They have a manageable number of targeted options. The framework also makes it possible to address all elements of the knowledgemanagement system as a whole—technology. apprenticeships. or "knowledge-linking" strategies that focus on learning through consortia and alliances. In the expert model. from which to choose. where the challenges revolve around creating breakthrough innovations. the choices may include "action-learning" strategies that encourage discovery through "skunkworks" and pilots. . In the integration model. organization and culture—because it focuses executives' attention on the capabilities their organizations need rather than on component solutions. attention is shifted from broad. human resources and the work culture. mentoring and training. knowledgeable individuals are key. which makes it easier to formulate an integrated approach to changing organizational structure.30 - . shared goals and feedback systems. Here. where the challenge is to orchestrate activity across various parts of the organization. Also. and training is aimed at standardizing workers' behavior. or perhaps "routinization. Or they might use softer measures that focus on the use of cross-functional teams. And in the collaboration model. vague issues to a well-defined set of challenges that are specific to their business. or may choose to focus on programs that develop stars internally through long-term career-progression programs. executives may recruit star performers away from other companies. human resource practices. executives might consider the adoption of standard processes or methodologies that integrate performance across functions.

technology and competition are always changing. with most personal computers selling for less than $1. executives can use the framework to understand the knowledge-management systems that new capabilities will require. chipmakers need to move to lower-cost approaches—and to an . companies must change over time as well. Markets. In the silicon-chip industry.000.Knowledge Management – An Insight Level of interdependence Knowledge Management Framework: challenges The barriers to success will vary with each model Collaborativ e group Integration model “Orchestrating across functions” Collaboration model “Achieving Learning through trial and error Knowledge linking across complex disciplines Sense making and decision making under uncertainty Creating a common big picture Riving toward standard methods based on best practices Balancing functional objectives against the good of the whole breakthrough innovations” Transactional model “Consistent low-cost performance” Expert model Attracting and motivating stars Decreasing individual learning curves Reducing vulnerability to turnovers Overcoming expert tunnel Interpreta vision Individual actors Routine Standardizing the inputs (people). To thrive.31 - . however. the design of new microchip manufacturing processes has always been considered something of an art—a collaborative model type of effort involving a small cadre of experts. customers. or their core capabilities may well become core rigidities that lead to obsolescence. the framework can also be used to help companies evolve and adapt to new conditions. Now. outputs and processes Creating clear operating guidelines to control behaviors Overcoming low worker morale “Getting results from stars” Complexity of work tion/ judgment Illustraton 5 In addition to guiding improvements in today's core processes. As they strive to move in new directions. extensive experimentation and rapid learning to get it right. for example.

Currently. The framework can help companies envision what their new knowledge-management approach should look like under their new strategy. where the focus is on standardization. at the same time. but they also recognize that they will need to take a different approach if the company is to maintain product leadership in its industry. and plot out a path that will take them there. the company is considering a move toward the collaboration model and the use of a skunkworks-style operation that relies on multidisciplinary teams and team incentives. Using the framework as a guide. At one highly successful financial services company. develop a sense of how it can manage knowledge to forge new capabilities for the long term. Although this model has been appropriate for incremental product development—essentially.32 - . the company has been able to gain a sophisticated understanding of how to improve its current knowledge-management systems and. executives are using the framework to help identify today's knowledge-management challenges and constraints in the area of product development. . The company believes that it may be falling behind in terms of bringing true breakthrough products to market. and to help shape the company's approach to tomorrow's products. repeatable work and continuous improvement. So in the creation of electronic commerce products. particularly in the area of e-Commerce. rather than individual experts. enhancements and extensions of existing offerings—it has rarely produced a real product innovation. Executives are also beginning to experiment with external alliances as a way to bring new knowledge into the company. Executives want to build on traditional strengths to keep improving existing products. with knowledgeable individuals driving the process. the company develops products under an expert model.Knowledge Management – An Insight integration model of knowledge management.

33 - . . as the demands of new markets and new competitors drive continuing shifts in corporate strategies.Knowledge Management – An Insight Collaborativ e group Level of interdependence Knowledge Management Framework: strategies Each model suggests specific strategies to follow to help achieve success Integration model Integrated process Integrated teams Best practice benchmarking Collaboration model Strategic linking Knowledge linking Action learning Transactional model Expert model Experienced hiring Apprenticeship /development Capability protection That Individual actors Routine Routinization Automation Productization Illustraton 6 kind of evolutionary ability will Complexity of work Interpreta tion/ judgment become increasingly important in the coming years. companies will have to build new capabilities more and more rapidly—and so the ability to manage knowledge to support that change will be critical. To support those strategies.

The organization is exposed to many kinds of risk. Sub-optimal decision-making: the best knowledge available fails to be applied correctly leading to sub-optimal decision-making.Knowledge Management – An Insight Chapter 6 The roadblocks Knowledge Management is a new concept and one. Problems with knowledge Organizations suffer from specific characteristic problems associated with knowledge: Knowledge bottleneck: a particular skill or expertise is in short supply causing a bottleneck that restricts the operations that compete for that supply. . it fails to capitalize on potential new initiatives. Wasted resources: since the organization does not really know what knowledge resources it has. The people who had the knowledge leave and no retrievable record remains. which is not easily defined. Some knowledge resources are over-stretched.34 - . This makes its implementation and success a not so easy task. There are various problems and difficulties while dealing with the intangible asset “knowledge” and its management. The growth and development of the organization is restricted. Corporate amnesia: organizations fail to retain knowledge acquired and lessons learned in the past. In business terms: Some knowledge resources are under-utilized or wasted completely.

in the past. model and explicitly represent their knowledge. To be able to identify. its apparent intractability has meant that it has not. received the direct attention of management that it deserves and needs.35 - . Why is Knowledge Management Difficult? All these issues regarding knowledge and many problems associated with identifying these knowledge assets and being able to use them and manage them in an efficient and cost-effective manner make knowledge management difficult. To share and re-use their knowledge among differing applications for various types of users. this implies being able to share existing knowledge sources and also future ones. They provide disciplined approaches to designing and building knowledge-based applications. Knowledge has usually been only indirectly managed through human resources and information technology initiatives. .Knowledge Management – An Insight Despite the vital nature and value of knowledge. Knowledge engineering methods and tools have come a long way towards addressing the use of a company's knowledge assets. modeling. There are tools to support the capture. Enterprises need: To have an enterprise-wide vocabulary to ensure that the knowledge is correctly understood. verification and maintenance of the knowledge in these applications. However these tools do not extend to supporting the processes for managing knowledge at all levels within the organization. To create a culture that encourages knowledge sharing. validation.

then there's the danger that employees will participate solely to earn incentives. in many cases employees are being asked to surrender their knowledge and experience — the very traits that make them valuable as individuals. However. establishing a culture that recognizes tacit knowledge and encourages employees to share it is critical. in the right location. after all. The need to sell the KM concept to employees shouldn't be underestimated. acquiring new knowledge for future use. without regard to the quality or relevance of the information they contribute. At the tactical level the organization is concerned with identifying and formalizing existing knowledge. The following are some of the challenges facing Knowledge Management 1. . at the right time. Getting Employees on Board The major problems that occur in KM usually result because companies ignore the people and cultural issues.36 - . In an environment where an individual's knowledge is valued and rewarded. At the operational level knowledge is used in everyday practice by professional personnel who need access to the right knowledge. archiving it in organizational memories and creating systems that enable effective and efficient application of the knowledge within the organization. One way companies motivate employees to participate in KM is by creating an incentive program.Knowledge Management – An Insight At the strategic level the organization needs to be able to analyze and plan its business in terms of the knowledge it currently has and the knowledge it needs for future business processes.

Allowing Technology to Dictate KM KM is not a technology-based concept. amended and deleted. While technology can support KM. Make KM decisions based on who (people). 5. Not Having a Specific Business Goal A KM program should not be divorced from a business goal.37 - . KM is a constantly evolving business practice. While sharing best practices is a commendable idea. Ideally. there is no endpoint to a KM program.Knowledge Management – An Insight The best KM efforts are as transparent to employees' workflow as possible. 3. KM Is Not Static As with many physical assets. as do the skills of employees. Companies that implement a centralized database system. Like product development. Don't be duped by software vendors touting their all-inclusive KM solutions. the relevance of knowledge at any given time changes. Not All Information Is Knowledge . there must be an underlying business reason to do so. Without a solid business case. KM is a futile exercise. what (knowledge) and why (business objectives). Web portal or any other collaborative tool in the hope that they've established a KM program are wasting both their time and money. participation in KM should be its own reward. Therefore. marketing and R&D. If KM doesn't make life easier for employees. the value of knowledge can erode over time. 2. Save the how (technology) for last. What's more. it's not the starting point of a KM program. 4. Since knowledge can get stale fast. it will fail. the content in a KM program should be constantly updated. electronic message board.

Generally. synchronous interaction tools.) Some companies have dedicated KM staff headed by a chief knowledge officer or other high-profile executive. Other companies rely on an executive sponsor in the functional area where KM is implemented. and search and data mining tools. (The CIO is a suitable choice to lead KM efforts within the IT department.38 - . expertise access tools. enterprise wide KM efforts should not be lead by the CIO. off-the-shelf e-mail packages to sophisticated collaboration tools designed specifically to support community building and identity. 7. . Quantity rarely equals quality. and KM is no exception. What technologies can support KM? KM tools run the gamut from standard. the point of a KM program is to identify and disseminate knowledge gems from a sea of information.Knowledge Management – An Insight Companies diligently need to be on the lookout for information overload. e-learning applications. Who should lead KM efforts? Since KM is not a technology-based concept but a business practice. tools fall into one or more of the following categories: knowledge repositories. 6. however. discussion and chat technologies. Indeed.

and tacit knowledge. Conn. organizations and governments are taking it seriously. Lower-level workers may spend 10 percent of their time "Organizations want to shorten the seek time through knowledge management. according to the Gartner Group. innovation and improved performance within the workplace. Some experts call this structured and unstructured knowledge.39 - . One organization discovered that its workers spend a day per week searching for knowledge. The trick is coming up with an effective way to capture the raw materials of knowledge -. which is elusive and held in the minds of experienced workers. turning the process into a self-generating system that doesn't sputter out. information and experience -. but there's plenty of evidence that companies. knowledge can spawn creativity.5 billion for knowledge management advice in 1996 and will spend $5 billion annually by 2001. What they are spending the money on is finding ways to share knowledge among workers.Knowledge Management – An Insight Chapter 7 Companies implementing knowledge management Knowledge management has been dismissed by some as a fad. U. a research and consulting firm based in Stamford. They want to capture both explicit knowledge. businesses paid $1. But that number rises to as high as 30 percent for some executives.data.S. Even trickier is devising a method of giving workers the incentive to share their knowledge with others." searching for knowledge about their job. Many organizations don't realize how much time is spent trying to "know what they don't know". .transforming them into knowledge and passing it on to the workers who need it. If it works. which has been categorized and stored online in databases and electronic documents.

An organization is 95 percent people and 5 percent tools and technology. Considering a simplistic example. according to Delphi's Tucker. "We're not telling organizations to spend millions of dollars on systems they don't really need.40 - . "We look for the problems and where the opportunities are in the organization. We try to leverage what they already have.Knowledge Management – An Insight Knowledge management has taken hold most strongly in several key industries: automobiles. To remain aligned with the dynamically changing needs of the business environment." Knowledge management is necessary for companies because what worked yesterday "It's important to remember that knowledge management is about culture and behavior. and so forth. The same holds for assumptions about the optimal organization structure. health care and consulting. companies that were manufacturing the best quality of buggy whips became obsolete regardless of the efficiency of their processes since their product definition didn't keep up with the changing needs of the market. petrochemicals. the motivation and incentive schemes." may or may not work tomorrow." he said. the control and coordination systems. it doesn't take a lot of money to get started. While many firms in these industries sank major investments into knowledge management. That is the only viable means for ensuring that today's 'core competencies' do not become 'core rigidities' of tomorrow. organizations need to continuously assess their internal theories of business for ongoing effectiveness. .

are going in for a people-centric platform in their second stage of KM implementation. human resources. companies uncover the most opportunities — and ultimately derive the most value — from intellectual rather than physical assets. KM practitioners maintain that knowledge must be shared and serve as the foundation for collaboration. customer relationship management. What benefits can companies expect from KM? Some benefits of KM correlate directly to bottom-line savings. Yet better collaboration is not an end in itself. but are companies ready to invest in it? Many companies in India too realize that a lot of the knowledge. To get the most value from a company's intellectual assets.41 - . expertise and experiences that employees gather reside in their mind and the company stands to lose all that knowledge when the employee leaves. Consequently. In today's information-driven economy. without an overarching business context.Knowledge Management – An Insight There’s been a lot of talk about the need to tap the tacit knowledge. an effective KM program should help a company do one or more of the following: Foster innovation by encouraging the free flow of ideas Improve customer service by streamlining response time Boost revenues by getting products and services to market faster . Many companies who have already used knowledge management tools to manage such enterprise-wide issues as enterprise resource planning. while others are more difficult to quantify. KM is meaningless at best and harmful at worst. Companies are beginning to realize the need to unleash and leverage all that knowledge to meet business objectives.

checks and balances need to be built into the organizational processes to ensure that such 'programs' are continuously updated in alignment with the dynamically changing external environment. The human sensors that are interacting continuously on the front lines with the external environment have a rich understanding of the complexity of the phenomena and the changes that are occurring therein. What is the most important for the companies to do in knowledge management? The most important issue for companies is to ensure that they focus on the synergy of data and information processing capacity of information technologies. The tightening is in the reinforcing linkage between the archived organizational 'best practices' and the actions taken by organizational .) with the external reality of the business environment.42 - .Knowledge Management – An Insight Enhance employee retention rates by recognizing the value of employees' knowledge and rewarding them for it Streamline operations and reduce costs by eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes These are the most prevalent examples. it can be delegated to information technology in one form or another. The information and control systems in organizations are intended to achieve the 'programming' for optimization and efficiency. If a procedure can be programmed. organizational processes need to implement 'loose tight' knowledge management systems. However. A creative approach to KM can result in improved efficiency. higher productivity and increased revenues in practically any business function. Such sensors can help the organization synchronize its programmed routines ('best practices'. and the creative and innovative capacity of their human members. etc. Hence. Advanced information technologies can increasingly accomplish 'programmable' tasks traditionally done by humans.

They are more effective than teams since members of these communities organize themselves and focus on value addition and hence the commitment towards this is higher. The latest organizational form created for this purpose is the Communities of practice (Cop).43 - . Some of the organizational forms created for this purpose are cross-functional teams. Communities of practice are groups of people informally bound together by shared expertise and passion for a joint enterprise. They can be formal or informal groups within an organization or across organizations.Knowledge Management – An Insight members based on that information. Communities of practice The focus on knowledge as a source of competitive advantage has necessitated organizations to embark on a change in structures. The characteristics of knowledge creation which are focused on making tacit knowledge explicit are To express the inexpressible through metaphor and analogy . work groups etc. The loosening is in the reverse unravelling linkage between actions taken by organizational members [and their consequences] that serve as a continuous check for renewing the archived 'best practices. but it is important to focus on garnering the knowledge acquired through the discussions within this group.' This is where human creativity and innovation comes into the picture. They help create a bank of best practices and thus help develop the critical capabilities. which are essential for organizational success and to sustain competitive advantage. which would facilitate knowledge sharing and dissemination.

Tracking and measurement tools enable organizations to reward those who are ready to share the knowledge they have acquired. business leaders today generally acknowledge that the Internet Age has unleashed a “torrent of content” not just on the World Wide Web but on organizational Intranets as well. which offers the entire span of knowledge management features and functionalities. information.44 - . knowledge and wisdom. . These tools enable organizations to recognize positive behavior and also provide insights to help track and steer the knowledge management endeavor. While much academic discussion has focused on the fine distinctions between data.Knowledge Management – An Insight To disseminate knowledge converting individual knowledge to organizational knowledge Ambiguity and redundancy as factors in the process of knowledge creation How successful has the implementation of people-centric tools been and how long does it take before one can actually see results? Some companies have already reported tangible results within 60 days of implementation. A team from Max Ateev works with the companies concerned in key business areas to implement and customize our applications.

45 - . This field of knowledge management is now overlapping with other constituent fields like digital asset management.Knowledge Management – An Insight Instead of succumbing to prospects of “data junkyards.B. according Stacie Capshaw. but also to encourage practices of thought leadership among its employees. according to K. knowledge officers were considered crucial to the cause of knowledge management. a senior analyst at the Delphi Group. and decision-making support. KM initiatives must also be geared up to codify knowledge from contractors and consultants. and groupware. CTO of Sun Microsystems. But that kind of centralized control of organizational knowledge has not gone . document management. ‘digital gauges. Sun has used its EIP not just for savings of an estimated $52 million over five years. It can also be difficult to measure financial benefits of such KM systems Then there is the danger of info-glut. Png. Both factors are also considered somewhat controversial. They were executives who could bring a top-down approach to knowledge sharing. e learning.” smart CIOs are leveraging Web-based content. content flow systems. A well-designed enterprise information portal can come to the rescue here. With steady increases in business velocity. with drill-down capabilities.’ exception reporting. or too much information and too little knowledge. As many as 800 firms worldwide have someone designated as a chief knowledge officer. Technology and leaders in KM Leadership and technology are two critical factors in the drive for organizational knowledge. Asia South. communication and collaboration technologies for turning some of this information into actionable knowledge. especially when the requirements of supply chain optimization require gathering of data from multiple operational systems. Originally.

software vendors have jumped on the knowledge management bandwagon by offering so-called knowledge management solutions in shrinkwrapped packages. people at the business-unit level who represent the knowledge for that particular department. Fulcrum. These leaders fall into two categories: Brokers who connect people looking for knowledge to those who have the knowledge. In knowledge management. S Chapter 8 Technology's role in knowledge management Technology's role in knowledge management is also complex. . the burden is on the individuals and how they can use technology effectively. technology. The key is not the technology but what people make of it. has stunted worker performance rather than advancing it. At the same time. Unfortunately. GrapeVine Technologies. Knowledge experts emphasize technology as a tool or facilitator. The chief knowledge officer has been perceived as a command-andcontrol answer to a diffuse problem. organizations cannot compete in today's economy without technology.46 . capable of processing explicit and tacit knowledge and presenting them in a format that workers can effectively use. So organizations are turning to knowledge leaders. Intraspect.Knowledge Management – An Insight over well. and Analysts who set up knowledge systems and requirements for the system so knowledge can be captured and analyzed.software technology for taken the lead in providing knowledge management: Excalibur. Microsoft and Verity. KnowledgeX. Some familiar and not-so-familiar software vendors have . Lotus. As a result. This approach to leadership is considered more organic and conducive to nurturing knowledge within an organization. when misapplied. however. Technology in business and government has pacified workers and reduced their performance.

What technologies are used in KM systems? Many different technologies may be used for Knowledge Management. Allows groups to track ideas and build communities of practice. Can provide an employee directory that includes contact information. For example. One technology has done much to make knowledge sharing more viable: the Internet. Workers who once struggled to find information now can access documents at the click of a mouse. search and retrieval. an electronic yellow pages listing workers by job category or expertise. push technologies and intelligent agents. Allows organizations to store key documents.Knowledge Management – An Insight Often. record "lessons learned" and best Intranets Databases / practices. Allows teams to discuss ideas across the traditional boundaries of space and Groupware time. . special skills and current/previous projects. data mining. Communications are more dynamic thanks to e-mail. As the Internet has rapidly matured. Contact Management Software Allows organizations and individuals to document relationships. the best tool is the simplest. messaging. commitments and interactions with customers and suppliers. Web browsers. so have technologies supporting knowledge management: groupware.47 - . document management. The following table contains some of the most popular technologies and their uses. Data Warehouse Allows "data mining" to research market and customer trends. allows other workers to easily track down the person with the best knowledge in a particular subject.

Illustraton 7 .Knowledge Management – An Insight Systems that allow organizations to electronically store documents for future Document Management reference and share documents across multiple geographic locations.48 - .

they must shift to a more flexible "anticipation-of-surprise" model. Technologies such as databases and groupware applications store bits and pixels of data. MYTH 2: Information technologies can store human intelligence and experience. Thus. . Businesses can't plan long-term. But unless you can scan a person's mind and store it directly into a database. however. it's impossible to build a system that predicts who the right person at the right time even is.49 - . The reason this is important is that many information textbooks say that while people come and go their experience can be stored in databases. not incremental. The new business model of the Information Age. Information systems in the old industrial model mirror the notion that businesses will change incrementally in an inherently stable market.how and what you'll need to do and that IS can simplify this and do it efficiently. Moreover. information is context-sensitive. MYTH 3: Information technologies can distribute human intelligence. you cannot put bits into a database and assume that somebody else can get back the experience of the first person. The same assemblage of data can evoke different responses from different people. instead.Knowledge Management – An Insight The following are some of the myths doing their rounds in corporate circles MYTH 1: Knowledge management technologies deliver the right information to the right person at the right time. But they can't store the rich schemas that people possess for making sense of data bits. This idea applies to an outdated business model. is marked by fundamental. let alone what constitutes the right information. The basic premise is that you can predict . change. and executives can foresee change by examining the past.

50 - . . So when you next hear that KM is an IT-based activity. do not account for renewal of existing knowledge and creation of new knowledge. capitalize the “ I” and lowercase the “t”. this assumes that companies can predict the right information to distribute and the right people to distribute it to. Most of our knowledge management technology concentrates on efficiency and creating a consensus-oriented view. The data therein is rational. And such systems. he adds.Knowledge Management – An Insight Again. static and without context. The fact of information in a database doesn't ensure that people will see or use the information. And bypassing the distribution issue by compiling a central repository of data for people to access doesn't solve the problem either.

organizational culture. develop models for valuing intellectual capital. it is possible to develop a broader perspective of the applicable technologies available for KM. measurement of intellectual capital and learning organizations.Knowledge Management – An Insight Chapter 9 Exploring the KM toolbox With a plethora of KM tools and portals products on the market. The second stream is represented by the work on corporate memories (aka organizational memory and organizational memory information systems) for enhanced decision-making. These researchers tackle the theoretical aspects of knowledge management. contributions from.51 - . By tracking relevant academic publications in these fields. marketing. the general consensus is that to tackle knowledge management well. three dominant streams of research into Knowledge Management can be identified: The first stream focuses primarily on research into the theory of knowledge. human resources. While there is still no one universally accepted definition for KM. it is increasingly necessary to define a framework to categorize. Knowledge Management Research People have disparate interpretations of the term Knowledge Management. the knowledge of the firm. artificial intelligence and knowledge modeling are needed. diversified areas spanning management. decision science. among others. whether formally encoded within the current information systems. A corporate memory embraces all forms of institutional knowledge. or tacit (informal) knowledge used by individuals in professional . By identifying the dominant fields of KM. better appreciate the power of these tools and to relate them to common types of KM applications.

ontologies (taxonomies). Capture. The third stream. This group has a strong focus on knowledge sharing and on practical applications of knowledge management in a corporate-wide perspective. Categorization of KM tools All the research in KM.Knowledge Management – An Insight practice. organizing. tackles the areas of intelligent agents. with a strong contribution from computer scientists and artificial intelligence (AI) researchers in particular. In a wider sense. the objectives of developing and deploying a KM system are Generally speaking. create and share knowledge assets Locate relevant information knowledge Provide an environment for knowledge exchange Connect people with relevant interest and/or skills Facilitate intelligent problem solving . encoding. data mining. a KM system is any computer system that integrates various knowledge processes in one or more organizations to solve specific business problems. distributing and measuring. especially so for the third stream. The product of using these tools (and more) to develop an application is a (technical) KM system.g.52 - . knowledge modeling. capturing. has spawned the development of tools for supporting various knowledge processes e. and computer-mediated collaborations. searching.

nearly all the tools in this category are stand-alone products. expand. there is no reason why email messages. Intelligent Search . That is. contract. Collaborative filtering also allow search patterns. Business processes can also be defined and modelled. There are two key challenges to future tools in this category. One of the challenges in conducting searches is to properly synergise the result gathered from inside as well as external to an organisation.These tools provide a visual environment for ideas to be captured and shared. challenges and their respective trend are increasingly becoming evident in the market: 1.) of concept maps need to be defined. Process Modelling & Mind Mapping . However.By far. 2. Search can range from simple keyword match.53 - . which is mostly text in nature.g. Secondly. superimpose. one can issue a goal statement (instead of keywords) to the search engine that translates the goal to a list of specific search probes. role type. set operations (e. the ability to automate the conversion of the defined business processes to operable business objects for simulation allowing versatile questions to be posed. attribute-based input to context-sensitive search (i. cannot be replaced in future by concept or knowledge maps so that . progressively. the majority of tools offer search capabilities. More sophisticated tools are emerging and these will. taking into consideration what the user's interest. ideas and results to be shared (& reused) among a group of interested parties.e. Such tools greatly the conceptualisation of procedural and factual knowledge. For instance. Firstly. Some tools also make extensive use of a word taxonomy or an ontology (which can either be manually created or automatically discovered with user guidance) to navigate the search space so that results are contained and are highly aligned to the user's need(s).Knowledge Management – An Insight The following categorization of KM tools. conflict resolution etc. and the very activities he or she is conducting just prior to issuing the search). incorporate collaborative filtering techniques. join.

from data gathering to data mining. CBR tools will remain a dominant AI technique in the KM arena. . matching of customer profiles to product services.g. With the increasing popularity of Customer Knowledge Management. They form part of a KM solution as many developers and researchers consider data & text mining to be a type of "micro" knowledge strategies (as opposed to Knowledge Program Management as a suite of "macro" knowledge strategies) for an organization.Knowledge Management – An Insight knowledge workers can define and communicate visual information in synchronization with a pre-defined corporate framework.CBR is an AI technique that enables past cases (i.This category of tools. Data & text mining systems are being used extensively in business intelligence. encoding of business rules. though remain a strong technical component. to be reused for unseen cases. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) . As most organizations only have a small group of data miners. On the research side. 4. 3. software development and CRM applications. problems and solutions). campaign management and the incorporation of feedback). Data & Text Mining .e. capturing of decision making criteria. such tools will be gradually aligned with other tools to support key tasks in the above types of applications (e. it is doubtful that data & text mining tools.54 - . the relationship and synergy between CBR and Organizational Memory are actively being studied. will be accessed via an enterprise wide corporate portal. direct marketing and customer relationship management applications. Many CBR systems have been developed for the help desk. has been around for more than a decade. which enables meaningful patterns and associations of data (words & phrases) to be identified from one or more large databases. with appropriate modifications. In the near future.

7. The above categorization of tools is functional and techniques-based. voice. Measurement & Reporting .Some organizations tackle KM with a strong human resources focus and device criteria to measure the benefits of their KM program. Raven.e. . track and report on the value of intellectual capital (i. Tools are now available to measure. video etc. Intelligent features like this and others will continue to be introduced by product vendors to gain differentiation and competitive advantage over their competitors. Most noticeably. 6. Among others applications. Data is not limited to texts and numerals but often in multimedia i.The two most dominant platforms are Intranet and Lotus Notes. the latest entrant from Lotus. non-financial assets) in an organization. graphics. A common characteristics of Web crawler tools is the ability to place "hooks" on numerous locations on the Web.These are Web-based tools that facilitate intelligent searching with extensive use of meta-data and indexing. such tools are especially suited for performing research on the Web and gathering competitive intelligence. While the intranet concept is extremely popular.e. By tracking user interest (and expertise). has a very unique feature. these tools are based on the Balanced Scorecard method or the Intellectual Asset Monitor (ICM). online self-paced learning. generally more economical and compatible with nearly all of the tools on the market. Other categorizations also exist. Tools on tracking and reporting professional development. Raven assists in the location of relevant information as well as connecting certain employees in an organization. Detail compare and contrast of these two platforms has been widely reported and is not the focus of this article. Web Crawler . Groupware .Knowledge Management – An Insight 5. monitor the content and activities on these pages and notify the user once there is change of content at those locations.55 - . and performance reviews for employees are also available.

it is the concept of an Enterprise Information Portal (EIP) that has gained immense popularity among business leaders in the last 12 months. cyber-stores.) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) (e. Portals are popular primarily because of the advance in e-Business models (e. it is important to understand that the fundamental technologies underpinning the composition and hosting of portals remain predominantly the same. This ideally works on the intranet and one of the major features by which tacit knowledge is captured and stored in through discussion forums from which knowledge can be mined and extracted. net markets. customers and partners to access and share information.56 - .g. However.g. collaboration and learning portals).e. many KM tool vendors have re-positioned their product offerings to align with portal market (e. procurement. and to carry out specific work tasks. Portals are seen as a one-stop entry point for staff. .Knowledge Management – An Insight Knowledge portal Knowledge portal is a single point reference for knowledge storage.e. E-Business has also impacted KM by gradually transitioning it from an internal focus (i. information.g. to perform transaction(s). While KM tools have been around for years. volume procurement etc. measurement of relationship capital and direct marketing). a corporate program) to an external focus (i. customer knowledge management. vertical integrators. As a result. search and dissemination within an organization. commerce/trading. addressing the flow of knowledge between/among suppliers and customers).

How can training professionals contribute to KM projects? Why do training professionals need Knowledge management? How can training professionals contribute to KM projects? Experienced human resources and training professionals have a number of skills that can be applied to KM initiatives.57 - . packaging and disseminating information. Converting individual knowledge into shared resources Conducting analyses that identify needs. filtering. . 1. including the hard issues related to recognition and security. Designing and developing systems that transfer ideas to actions at work.Knowledge Management – An Insight Chapter 11 KM and training professionals The relationship between training professionals and KM can be studied from two angles. including: Finding. 2. specify resources and anticipate barriers to participation and performance. Managing organizational change. Organizing information to have resonance for people at work. Finding people who know things and linking their knowledge to specific needs. including creating cultures and developing policies surrounding sharing. Facilitating the transfer of knowledge to on-the-job activities. mapping. Developing self-directed learning programs.

KM makes it easier for training professionals to situate learning and growth on the job where it's most effective. KM offers opportunities to direct skills to related and value-added activities. learning and professional growth. leaner organizations mean fewer opportunities to advance into management. Training used to be sold as "the way to the top" in an organization. Job satisfaction and rewards for knowledge workers must come from the ability to grow horizontally within a profession. KM also offers a career path for training professionals. this is not always the case.58 - .Knowledge Management – An Insight Why do training professionals need KM? Training Departments have been criticized for delivering content too soon or late to meet organizational needs. enhanced by opportunities to practice. If and when training buildings crumble. Just-in-time training may finally be realized through just-in-time KM. over time. workbooks. flexible alternatives to rigid experiences (classes. Knowledge Management fosters this continuous access. Flatter. receive coaching and participate in a longer term way. In a world that is fast changing. b ecause it mak es their roles in org anizatio ns all the m ore essent ial. . KM systems offer HR and training professionals viable. videos or even the web) and support independent learning. Formalized training assumes that best practices develop and retain their resonance K now led g e Manag ement is g ood new s for trainer s.

but will also improve work environments by making knowledge highly usable. develop and manage databases in addition to training classes and materials. as well as training schedules and curriculum. KM professionals will also manage organizational change and project plans.Knowledge Management – An Insight How does Knowledge Management change a trainer's role? Knowledge Management changes and expands the traditional role of HR and training professionals in important ways. but will also be tasked with improving access to organizational knowledge.59 - . Knowledge Management is good news for trainers. Trainers who become Knowledge Management professionals will design. They will still improve individual skills. They will re-purpose training materials and organizational wisdom from database to the Training Department and vice versa. Trainers will still be responsible for improving human performance. . because it makes their roles in organizations all the more essential.

dispersing authority and decision making. whereas knowledge management at a primary level. They have concluded that organizational change is the central route to competitive advantage. to create a competitive advantage and at a more advanced level focuses on increasing organizational learning. The primary focus of human resources management is to match the job profile with the skill set of the people.60 - . reducing layers of hierarchy. quality improvement and information technology. aims at harnessing the existing knowledge in the organization. in order the achieve the organization’s goals. and adopting a variety of practices associated with knowledge sharing. a considerable overlap between human resources and knowledge management since Knowledge creation is a human activity and managing humans is a HR activity. This is corroborated by researchers in the Center for Effective Organizations at the University of Southern California’s Marshall School of Business in Los Angeles who have conducted five surveys from 1987 to 1999 to determine changes in the management practices of Fortune 1000 corporations and have observed that large organizations have changed shape dramatically in that time. Organizations have been focusing on radical changes in the structure resulting in flatter and leaner organizations. There is understandably.Knowledge Management – An Insight Chapter 12 Knowledge Management and HRM The changes in the present industrial scenario have necessitated changes in the structure and functioning of organizations. . These changes with increased emphasis on knowledge management have resulted in significant shifts in the working environment and HR policies pursued by the organization.

there is a need for the integration between the knowledge management initiatives and the HR policies of the organization. The Resource based approach to strategic human resources (SHRM) described by Frank Muller recognizes the value of informal.g. E. Hence. on their own instead of depending on HR department for all the updation. In this era of knowledge . The knowledge management system could be used to set up self-service human resources systems in the organization which would facilitate employees to modify routine data like changing of address etc. The human resources management function has assumed strategic importance in recent times as against a traditional functional outlook. These knowledge management systems ensure proper sharing of data among individuals in the organization.Knowledge Management – An Insight Knowledge management is about management of intellectual capital and intangible assets and human resources management is about managing the sources of these assets. incidental learning in the workplace and stresses on the activation of this reservoir of skills and accumulated knowledge for competitive advantage which the area of emphasis of the knowledge management discipline. Knowledge management systems and HR Human resources department in most organizations handles high volumes of data and this data and updation can be managed better using efficient knowledge management systems. Recruitment The recruitment function in organizations has changed from the focus on pure functional expertise to the focus on the extent to which the knowledge processed by a person is inline with central strategy of the organization.61 - . Knowledge management and human resources management initiatives are focused on harnessing the available knowledge assets and to prevent knowledge from walking out of the door.

where knowledge transfer and sharing are critical for developing a competitive advantage. in the present scenario. Organization. Retention Traditionally. Senior management recognizes the sharing of knowledge. employees must understand the following: The benefits that sharing knowledge and experience provide to them as individuals. organizations retain only those people who add value to the organization through their experience. only encourage and retain those people who are willing to share knowledge and work towards the holistic improvement of the organization and just not solve problems localized around his personal expertise. Knowledge sharing has become an integral part of every employee’ s daily function. but need to share them with the others in the organization. But. To maximize the value of knowledge sharing. The advantages that will be gained to the organization as a whole. Reward system Research studies have clearly established that people are not willing to share data unless they are rewarded for it. it does not suffice if people possess knowledge. the function of the HR department is to select and recruit individuals who would subscribe to this culture of sharing information and knowledge dissemination.62 - . expertise and knowledge. A compensation/reward system is in place to recognize and promote employees who adopt that new behavior. This shared knowledge is stored in a central repository accessible to all in the organization. .Knowledge Management – An Insight economy.

the central layer. which are centrally stored. Performance management systems One of the most prominent shifts in performance measurement is that individuals are valued more for skills. Virtual corporations are extensively outsourced organizations focusing on adding more value to a selected number of core competencies. rather than seniority. KM and Organizational structure The phenomenal growth of the Internet has resulted in radical changes in the structure of organizations from the more traditional bureaucratic and matrix type of organizational structure to a more radical virtual corporation and hypertext organization and knowledge base is an essential part of these organizational types. in addition to storing existing knowledge. The hypertext organization structure. also emphasize on training and learning. the organizational know-how generated in the other two layers is categorized.Knowledge Management – An Insight The organization should consequently have appropriate reward and incentive system. . While describing this type of organization there has been stress on the accumulation and leveraging of knowledge for the success of this type of organization. on the other hand consists of three layers.63 - . Organizations attach significance to learning and acquiring knowledge and this is reflected in the performance measures set for individuals. competencies and performance than for loyalty. In this knowledge base layer. project team layer and the knowledge base layer. which would recognize performance and adequately reward persons who share knowledge with the others in the organization. The second-generation knowledge management initiatives. rearranged and re-contextualised. become the basis for rewards and incentives. and these measures.

and individuals who are willing to share this information. While people talk of sharing knowledge and team management. they are faced with traditional entrenched human traits of rugged individualism. in recent times have focused on secondgeneration schemes with emphasis on knowledge production in addition to the firstgeneration emphasis on knowledge codification and sharing. Effective knowledge creation depends upon the way in which people relate to each other in the organization. constant competition.64 - . they are also aware that knowledge is power and very few are willing to give up power. gained through years of experience and practice. The various tools and techniques available to convert tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge may prove ineffective in the absence of a culture. The activities of the human resources department should focus on creating an appropriate culture in the organization that facilitates sharing of information and motivating individuals to make their tacit knowledge.Knowledge Management – An Insight KM and Organization culture One of the main challenges in the implementation of knowledge management initiatives is to bring about a change in the attitude of people in the organization. The culture of the organization needs to change from one of hoarding information to sharing of information. explicit. Knowledge creation is a . Untrustworthy behavior. Training and organization learning Knowledge management initiatives. Inspite of the management consultants advocating team management and the spread of collaboration tools. ‘ that’s not my job’ attitude are impediments to proper knowledge transfer and sharing. which facilitates sharing.

may in effect may not result in the most effective performance or result in the absence of the inputs based on the tacit knowledge of the person who has left. since this would require re-inventing the wheel and going through the process of knowledge creation all over again. in addition to enhancing the existing knowledge. result in learning and development and these learnings should be captured into the knowledge base of the organization.65 - . . Exit The implementation of knowledge management initiatives is most crucial in this phase of human resources activity.Knowledge Management – An Insight continuous and dynamic process and involves the process of capture and conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. The exit of a key person without proper documentation and codification of his/her knowledge would result in a loss for the organization. the knowledge thus created. Hence. But. the training and development programs of initiated by the human resources department. should.

the conclusion is the same: manage it better or perish. which are non-industrial in mission. issues and opportunities. know-how.on a pre-competitive basis .is essential for establishing a solid foundation for the future of the industry. it isn't considered of value. There is minimal government funding and few consortia. The knowledge movement is pervasive. education and government are trying to tackle the same problems. A collaborative research base must be established There is minimal research activity for service functions or the services industry of the economy. interactive) capital of the firm. traditional financial accounting mechanisms fail to calculate/calibrate the most important resources of the firm . If it cannot be measured. The immeasurable must be measured. Whether it is defined in terms of learning. Initiatives in industry. However. knowledge assets. Enterprises are embarking upon individual R&D efforts when a collective degree of research .66 - . current mechanisms treat people as liabilities or expenses instead of assets. intelligence.Knowledge Management – An Insight Chapter 13 Recommendations and findings Some of the findings that have emerged from this study are: 1. 2. insight or wisdom. There is no equivalent to the Industrial Research Institute for the services industry . 3.its intellectual capacity.the fastest growing sector of the economy. The business case must be defined in order to justify necessary investment strategies in the human and social (i. .e.. Instead. intellectual capital.

the field has become sufficiently sophisticated to warrant the benchmarking of best practices for even further dissemination and leverage. New titles range from novel verbiage to relabeling of traditional functions. The variety of new titles and program initiatives vary company-to-company due to the uniqueness of each corporate culture. Initiatives must be designed as 'middle-up-down. Indeed. those closest to service delivery are not the people empowered in an organization. which are networked. Implementation takes many forms. Grass roots activities. What was theory yesterday is fundamental to business survival tomorrow. those who were deemed philosophers and futurists are being sought for counsel on business operations. Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce describes the strategy as middle-up-down as a way to balance and integrate the best of both methods. Hubert Saint-Onge. The future is far more exciting to create.' Top down leadership continues to be essential for management because traditional hierarchical structures will not disappear overnight. There are many ways to (re) configure the knowledge puzzle and leadership can come from any level.Knowledge Management – An Insight 4. For those who embrace change as reality. can have the insight for change validated by those closest to the point-ofsale. In each profession. . Insight is being gleaned rapidly. 5. There is a cumulative effect between and among disciplines as leaders seek to understand the principles and policies of one another.67 - . 6. function or position in the company. there is little time to be spent on barriers. Oftentimes.

10.in order to capitalize upon new business opportunities coming from unserved markets and unarticulated needs. The process must be dynamic . there is confusion as to the appropriate role for the supporting technology. The combination is what is of most value. but should not be limiting. alliances. which are fundamental to the business. 8. The knowledge phenomenon must be managed and not left to serendipity. Management architectures are useful.. Attention must now focus upon the definition of the whole and the interconnections of the pieces. Technology is integral to the successful functioning of the knowledge enterprise . behavioral disconnects). Consider the kaleidoscope which when moved in small degrees changes the image. some influence and control is better than none at all.competitors. but there are the inevitable unexpected forces.not static . exploration of the factors leads to identification of new variables and interconnections. 9. artificial intelligence and the early renditions of groupware. As incomplete as the systems might be.Knowledge Management – An Insight 7. A frame of reference is essential in order to scrutinize and interconnect the variables. Enterprises are now defined as including multiple stakeholders: suppliers. The nature of 'the collective' must be understood and harnessed. but it does not provide a path forward for the ideal technical solutions. These infrastructures are a combination of evolving.68 - .e. However. The frame provides a way to organize the discussion and fuse the diverse values within the company culture.in some cases . which cause a major shift . partners. The 'productivity paradox' explains why there has not been a commensurate economic return for the investment on technology investments (i. ecological systems and carefully architected schemes for profitable growth. This will take some time and considerable trial-and-error.but how? Similar to the misconceptions of computer-based education. customers and .

it sent a clear.have produced what financial results are possible. As impure as this new science may be.' In the 1950's when Alfred Sloan divisionalized General Motors. Management must be understood as both a science and an art in order to reap optimal advantage. Considerable alignments are now needed in order to fulfill expectations of stakeholders. Creativity is being reborn in ways to contribute to the bottom-line of an enterprise. Dedicated expertise across all disciplines are exploring and defining new management practices fundamental to capitalizing upon the knowledge-based economy. consistent. it provides insights not easily discerned with traditional management methodologies. What began almost 10 years ago .Knowledge Innovation . forced to produce significantly more results to the consumer than can be provided with incremental improvements. Re-engineering and quality efforts along with massive restructuring .has now reached the stage of a critical mass of insight. Government agencies are also. Business schools have created interdisciplinary initiatives by necessity. Experimentation is rampant and people seek to learn from their mistakes as well as the successes and failures of others.Knowledge Management – An Insight in orientation. today driven by the acceleration of . This new focus upon knowledge as the foundation for a successful future has been embraced. the seminal cook-book (if there ever be such a thing) is only 'work-in-process. which were not likely to occur otherwise. It is inevitable. Industrial investments have forged connections. Although there has been a plethora of articles and books on the topic. The paradigm must shift. by necessity. However. concise message of the techniques necessary for large-scale business management.69 - . Conclusions The interest generated over the past year is significant.

human talent . those parties are playing catch-up trying to determine their own role in this emerging economy.70 - .Knowledge Management – An Insight computer/communications technology and the value of collaborative networks. dies or is reformed. human resources. These are fundamental shifts in the way we do business. sector.through knowledge management. In fact. indeed. how economies are developed and societies prosper. There is a realization that this is. there is an emerging 'community of practice’. This is a movement born within industry . The concurrent engineering.provides the enterprise advantage. a journey. information/internet technology and R&D/innovation strategy and more. quality/benchmarking. which transcends any function. and that no one has the answers. Participants include theorists and practitioners from education/learning systems. evolves and matures. Today.profit or not-forprofit . agile manufacturing and re-engineering initiatives are all coming to a common theme: transformation of the enterprise .not the academic corridors or even the consulting firms. The knowledge movement is shaking the very foundation of how an organization is created. . industry or geography. economics/finance. the real the competitive differentiator .

The Group consisted of Research Group (primary coordinator) HRD ICICI Infotech Library Staff Project Time Line .Knowledge Management – An Insight Example 2 KM at ICICI ICICI’s Knowledge Management Portal The NEED… felt in ICICI Competitive advantage of companies is moving away from physical assets to intellectual assets. Knowledge Management Coordination Group . promotes the creation and acquisition of knowledge. sell the concept of KM to the employees. with active support of senior management. The majority of leading companies in the US and Europe have already put in place a Knowledge Management (KM) system. to track and develop the Solution.71 - .The Beginning A coordination group was formed. generates the culture of knowledge sharing and ultimately enhances the competitive edge of the organization. A KM portal puts knowledge at the heart of the organization.

Knowledge Management – An Insight Concept initiated in April 2000 Dedicated team of software developers. developed using existing IT infrastructure First version made live on June 15th 2000 Second version made live on October 15th 2000 40000 hits in a week (November 2000) Knowledge Items on WiseGuy Discussions Queries Contributions Books (Library) Training Calendar Reports (External/Internal) Vendors Knowledge Leader Lecture Series Events WiseGuy Homepage-the look .72 - .

Knowledge Management – An Insight

The home page has the following features Automatic Login for Registered Users New on WiseGuy: Keeps track of all new articles, contributions, etc. Live News-feed Search Links to external sites Basic Search Engine, which Searches through all the knowledge items in the portal for the given text Special words “AND”, “OR” & “NOT” recognized (e.g. Management OR Finance) Advanced Search Engine: Used to narrow down search criteria Limit search to a particular (set of) Knowledge Items (e.g. by books, articles, reports etc.) Quick Links to fire the search query on Internet Search Engines e.g. Lycos, Yahoo, AltaVista, InfoSeek etc. Option of saving frequent searches to user’s personalized page Knowledge Leader Lecture Series This is a good way to capture tacit knowledge unavailable in any documented form. The knowledge grounded in the experience of people within and outside the organization is recorded. The Knowledge Lectures are captured as audio files and are available for download linked to the presentations. Knowledge Champion Scheme Contest to encourage participants to contribute and learn from the portal

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Knowledge Management – An Insight Knowledge-Cash (K-Cash): Points awarded for increasing the knowledge repository. This scheme has Fully parameterized set up procedures No human intervention required Administrator can view top ten winners list any time My Page Configurable page for every user Subscriptions to discussions, queries posted by user Shows the user’s points in the “K-Cash” contest Shows the user’s contacts, personal information etc. Saved searches and training schedule Discussion Board Users can discuss topics of interest Users can “subscribe” to their particular topics of discussion All message posts are moderated by an Administrator Once the discussion has reached a conclusion, it can be archived Queries A simple way for users to clear their doubts on various projects, procedures etc. Can be referred to by other users having similar queries All queries are moderated by an Administrator, and are fully searchable Contribution Users can contribute documents (presentations, project notes, reports) to a central repository Contribution Explorer allows sorting by title, author and contributor

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Knowledge Management – An Insight Details of each contribution Users can post comments on the site about the contribution All contributions are moderated by an Administrator and are searchable Training Calendar An interface between the HR (Training Coordination Cell) and all employees Employees can directly enroll for courses offered Programs are searchable Extensive Feedback system to capture training feedback Extensive Reporting facility to capture training history Integrated with mailing system Library Searchable Catalogue of all books available in the library New categories can be added by administrator Abstract of each book is available Library Explorer allows sorting by Title, Author, ID no. and Publisher Users can post comments and reviews about the book Events A listing of forthcoming events like seminars, conferences, lectures etc. Keyed in by an Administrator Contact person for the registration of events Vendor List Searchable list of all vendors to the organization Employees can add vendors and their experiences in dealing with the same All vendor additions are moderated by an Administrator

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Lectures.76 - IIS IIS SQL SQLServer Server 7. Javascript Javascript Third ThirdParty Party Components Components . Replies to queries. Articles. Java. Queries. Contributions.HTML.0 MS MSSearch: Search: ASP. etc.Knowledge Management – An Insight IJDB: ICICI Journal Abstracts and full texts of all articles in the journal for the last 2 years A downloadable copy of the journal for employees External Database Connection to web based corporate databases EBSCO ICRA Integrated Search Reports Internal Reports A systematic method to collect various reports generated by the different departments of the organization Classified according to source and topic External Reports Reports from External agencies Added by WiseGuy administrator Administrator Interface Moderate Discussions. Add Books. Events. HTML. Training Programs. Brows Archive/delete discussions and queries er Clients View “K-Cash” Contest winners WiseGuy Server Brows er Clients ICICI Intran et Brows er Clients . Java. ASP. Reports etc.0 7.

www.com 5.nabard. Mumbai (2008) 2. Mascarenhas. K Ravichandran M Ravathi Bala-CORPORATE KNOWEDGE– Abhijeet Publications. Johnson.Introduction to KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTHimalaya Publishing House.rbi. Chatterjee. R. www. Romeo S. www.in 3.com . Delhi (2008) 5. Mumbai (2006) 4. Thatte.yahoo. K.Knowledge Management – An Insight BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1.com 4. MascarenhasCORPORATE MANAGEMENT-Vipul Prakashan. Mumbai (sixth edition) 3.org.Developmental Issues of CORPORATE MANAGEMENT-Manan Prakashan.google. Prabhakar Rajkumar. www.sbi.77 - .org 2. Krishnamoorthy.CORPORATE KNOWEDGE in India New Century Publications. www. New Delhi (2008) WEBSITES: 1.

Knowledge Management – An Insight .78 - .