You are on page 1of 20



DEFINITION OF EDUCATION(BY: DON BERG) The definition of education in common usage, that education is merely the delivery of knowledge, skills and information from teachers to students, is inadequate to capture what is really important about being and becoming educated. The proper definition is basically the process of becoming an educated person, but that begs the question of what counts as an educated person. Being an educated person means you have access to optimal states of mind regardless of the situation you are in. You are able to perceive accurately, think clearly and act effectively to achieve self-selected goals and aspirations. Education, therefore, is more properly defined as a process of cognitive cartography, mapping your experiences and finding a variety of reliable routes to optimal states of mind when you find yourself in non-optimal states. Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. In its narrow, technical sense, education is the formal process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another, e.g. instruction in schools. TEACHING: By: Don Berg I take the literal core of teaching to be facilitating someone else's learning process. The literal core of a concept, if there is one, is the unquestioned aspect that everyone normally agrees is true about an idea. Most of the time a literal core is merely a conceptual skeleton that requires metaphoric flesh to be useful in thinking, about the complexities of the phenomena, we are trying to understand in the world. Our metaphors guide how we can, should, and do act on a concept within a particular learning context.


WHAT IS TEACHING? Teaching has been defined by Wells, G. (1982)1 as cluster of activities that are noted about teachers such as explaining, deducing, questioning, motivating, taking attendance, keeping record of works, students progress and students background information. The range of professional duties performed by teachers is wide and extensive. At the heart of a teacher's role is the promotion of learning for all pupils. PROFESSION: A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized high

educational training, the purpose of which is to supply objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain. Definition of a profession While there is no agreed definition of a profession, the Australian Council of Professions (Professions Australia) defines a profession as: 'A disciplined group of individuals who adhere to high ethical standards and uphold themselves to, and are accepted by, the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognised, organised body of learning derived from education and training at a high level, and who are prepared to exercise this knowledge and these skills in the interest of others. Goodson (2003) noted that Occupations that have attained professional status share the following characteristics: A high level of education and training based on a unique and

specialized body of knowledge. A strong ideal of public service with an enforced professional code of

conduct and high levels of respect from the public at large. Registration and regulation by the profession itself Trusted to act in the clients best interests within a framework of

accountability A supportive working environment


Similar levels of compensation as other professions. Inherent in this definition is the concept that the responsibility for the welfare, health and safety of the community shall take precedence over other considerations.' TEACHING PROFESSION IS TEACHING A PROFESSION: `Not every form of activity is work, even if it brings remuneration to the person engaged in it. It is work only when it produces something of value to others. The business of teachers is to help students to achieve higher standards of knowledge, ability, skills, and moral character. If teachers do their work well, then their work is of great value to others, not simply in a particular time, but also in the future What are the Important Characteristics of a Profession? The term 'Profession' stands for an occupation which requires some specialised study and training, and the purpose of which is generally to provide skilled services and guidance in lieu of a definite fee or remuneration. A profession is a calling and implies acquisition of a fond of knowledge, range skills and their application in service of humanity. They services rendered by a professional may be direct as will the case of teachers and doctors or indirect as is in the case of teacher educators i.e. teacher of a teacher. This service might be rendered for limited segment of the population or for a limited period of time or phase of life. This service is not rendered to the entire student population which gets graduation or post-graduation, but, it is rendered to those who have aptitude for the profession. Any professional provides professional service for a limited period of time when his/her clientele are in an institution or within the institutional framework. A profession can be practiced independently or within an institution or both. The following are the common characteristics of a profession: 1. It demands possession of a body of specialised knowledge and extended

practical training.


2. 3. 4. It renders an essential social service. It demands continuous in service training of its members. It has a clearly defined membership of a particular group with a view to profession.

safe- guarding the interests of the 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It involves a code of ethics.

It sets up its own professional organization. It assures its members a professional career. It has a truth and loyalty. It has a transparency of work. It gives instantaneous results.

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF TEACHING PROFESSION It has well said that "teaching" mean "causing to learn". Nothing has been given until it has been taken; nothing has been thought until it has been learnt. Teaching is more than the efficient delivery of thoroughly prepared lectures, and a clear realization of this simple fact will have many beginners in the art of teaching from much disappointment. Knowledge of how children learn is the first essential for success in teaching and that is why teaching at present is considered as a profession. Let us not forget that teaching is a noble profession which counts amongst its members the greatest and noblest figures of human history. All the great religious leaders and reformers of the ages were teachers of mankind in the truest sense of the word. Teachers of our age, too, can work as the architects of a better future for the race if they follow their examples and try to achieve happiness, not by concentrating on petty and selfish interests but by serving some cause greater than themselves, the cause of building up a better type of human being and a better social order than that in which it has been their lot to live. Are our teachers prepared to accept this challenge and equip themselves for the great task?


Modem society is full of professional men and women like the Doctors, Engineers, Weavers, Oilmen, Cobbler, Barber, Sweeper, Washer man, etc. A doctor's profession is concerned with the physical side of man's personality, and the engineer looks after physical side of social like in building roads, bridges, dams, houses in devising new methods and machines. He enriches national life and adds to the comfort and convenience of the common man. A weaver makes cloths, a tailor stitches cloths, a cobbler makes shoes and in the same way the washer man, sweeper, the carpenter, the oilmen, the barber, etc. serve mankind by their own profession. Though their profession is useful for the society, it is limited to physical side of human life. But the highest good consists in all-around development of individual physical, social, intellectual, moral, spiritual and aesthetic aspects. It is the teaching profession, which helps an individual for his growth fully, in his body, mind, spirit, intellectual emotion and with moral values and artistic sensitivity. Therefore, teaching has been accepted as the noblest profession. RIGHTS OF A TEACHER: The Alberta Teachers' Association holds that

teachers are entitled to the following rights and must accept the corresponding responsibilities. 1. Teachers have the right to base diagnosis, planning, methodology and evaluation

on professional knowledge and skills, and have the responsibility to review constantly their own level of competence and effectiveness and to seek necessary improvements as part of a continuing process of professional development. 2. Teachers have the right to expect standards of pupil behavior necessary for

maintaining an optimal learning environment and have the responsibility to use reasonable methods to achieve such standards. 3. Teachers have the right to a voice in all decisions of a professional nature which

affect them and have the responsibility to seek the most effective means of consultation and of collaboration with their professional colleagues.


4. Teachers have the right to criticize educational programs and have the responsibility to do so in a professional manner. 5. Teachers have the right to work in surroundings that are sanitary, healthful and

conducive to teaching and learning, and have the responsibility to assess conditions encountered and to seek improvement of unacceptable conditions. 6. Teachers have the right to a reasonable allotment of resources, materials and

services of support staff and have the responsibility to use them in an efficient manner. 7. Teachers have the right to fair and reasonable evaluation of professional

performance and have the responsibility to give sincere consideration to any suggestions for improvement. 8. Teachers have the right to protest and in extreme cases to refuse the assignment of

teaching duties when they believe their qualifications and experience will not provide adequate service and safety to pupils and have the responsibility to consider any special circumstances under which the duties were assigned. 9. Teachers have the right to be protected against discrimination on the basis of

prejudice as to race, religious beliefs, colour, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, physical characteristics, disability, marital status, family status, age, ancestry, place of origin, place of residence, socioeconomic background or linguistic background and have the responsibility to refrain from practising these forms of discrimination in their professional duties. 10. Teachers, collectively and collegially, have the right to:

a) be members of the organization representing their professional, economic and contractual concerns b) Serve the organization and be represented by it. c) Adhere to and to expect other members to adhere to the organization's code of professional conduct. d) Have a voice in determining criteria and procedures for the evaluation of professional performance of teachers. e) be protected under provisions outlined in contracts of employment with the employer.


f) bargain for salaries and working conditions which include fair and equitable grievance procedures. g) receive an adequate income while teaching and upon retirement, and have the responsibility to support actively their professional organization in its objectives to regulate relations between teachers and their employers and to improve the quality of education, the status of teachers and the status of the teaching profession. DUTIES OF A TEACHER There are many duties and responsibilities a teacher has. The following is a general overview. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. prepare lessons, making them as interesting as possible prepare homework, assignments and assessment research information to ensure the knowledge they impart is current mark homework and pieces of assessment identify the needs of individual students in their classes, and work to help each child develop his or her own potential 6. 7. 8. 9. prepare resources for the classroom confer with students over their work assist children to learn, not judge their inability to learn identify emotional, intellectual, physical, etc issues which may be hindering the student from learning to his/her best potential, and research and recommend courses of action 10. conduct parent-teacher interviews 11. provide a sounding board (for both students and teachers) and allow for open discussion 12. attend professional development sessions to improve his/her own teaching methods and curriculum 13. present a professional but caring persona at all times 14. Treat students with respect, and teach them to treat others with respect.



To be a teacher out of choice, and not by default. To acquire relevant professional education and training to get the right concepts of teaching.

Honesty and sincerity towards the profession. Accept that being a teacher does not make you a 'know-it-all'; so it's important to become a partner in the learning cycle with the students.

Accept that no two students will think, act and react alike, and respect that diversity.

Upgrade knowledge and learn new ways of teaching. Avoid indulging in unethical behavior, and at all times maintain the dignity of a teacher-student relationship.


Inculcate model behavior and mannerisms by self example. Prepare long-term teaching programs and daily lessons in accordance with the guidelines of the school's education system.

Provide activities and materials that engage and challenge the students intellectually.

Understand and implement the use of information technology in lesson preparation and teaching.

Shift between formal and informal methods of teaching, like debates, discussions, practical activities, experiments, projects and excursions.

Plan, set and evaluate grade test, exams and assignments. Supervise student conduct during class, lunchtime and other breaks. Understand the diverse background students come from, their strengths, weaknesses and areas of interest.

Be honest in student appraisal and avoid favoritism.


Enforce discipline by firmly setting classroom rules. Resolve conflict among students by encouraging positive debate. Be ready to adjust teaching styles to meet individual needs of students.


Keep parents well-informed about their ward's progress. Take time out to discuss an issue, or a problematic behavior. Encourage parents to promote various diverse interests of their children. Inform parents about after-school activities like excursions, meetings, as well as detention.

Keep the parent feedback journal updated. Encourage parent participation in parent-teacher meets. Finally, work with parents for the betterment of their child's future.


Actively involve in staff meetings, educational conferences, and school programs.

Voluntarily participate in organizing sporting events, and other excursions like camping trips, picnics, educational tours, etc.

Maintain a healthy relationship with all teaching and non-teaching staff members.

Help out in formulating school policies. Carry out administrative duties relevant to your position in the school.

In an emerging world, responsibilities of an educator have increased several folds. From being a person who just imparts bookish knowledge, an educator now has the power to shape a better world for the students and empower them with knowledge to take on the world! MORE


Teachers need to impart knowledge of their subject matter to students. This goes beyond simply stating the knowledge that they have gained through their own education. Instead, teachers must possess an aptitude to teach the material through different methods based on the needs of the students. Many teachers who are finishing up their degree do not see much more than this as their main responsibility. However, this is just the tip of the iceberg.

Teachers need to be able to meet the needs of students of varying

abilities within the same classroom. Even though many teachers would like to be able to teach a class of students with similar background knowledge and motivation, this rarely if ever happens. Therefore, teachers have the responsibility to vary instruction and enable all students an opportunity to learn.

Teachers need to have common sense. As a teacher you are required

to make numerous decisions everyday. A good decision making ability grounded in common sense will lead to a more successful teaching experience. But more importantly, teachers who do not use their common sense and make judgment errors are more likely to create difficulties for themselves and the profession. Pick up any newspaper across the nation, and you will read about a teacher who made a stupid decision causing them their job and the profession of teaching an embarrassing situation.

Teachers have the responsibility to be a good role model in and out of

the classroom. Believe it or not, this is somewhat of a controversial statement as there are teachers who do not believe that their private life at all impacts their professional life. However, a teacher who sidelines as a porn star and whose films are available on the internet will soon see their private life ruin their ability to teach. Students will find out about activities like this and any moral authority will be lost.

Teachers must be organized. Without a good system of organization

and daily procedures in place, the job of teaching not only becomes more difficult but the teacher themselves could also be in professional jeopardy. If a teacher


does not keep accurate attendance, grade, and behavioral records, this could result in administrative and legal problems.

Teachers are expected to keep student information private. This is

especially true when dealing with students who have learning disabilities. Personal information is deemed to be private. Teachers can not only get into professional problems by being indiscreet but can also lose the respect of their students which will ultimately affect their learning. It is not unreasonable to expect teachers to meet their professional obligations and responsibilities. Every career has its own level of responsibility. For example, doctors, lawyers, and other professionals have many similar responsibilities along with many others like patient and client privacy. The level of responsibility is commensurate with the amount of influence the professional teacher, doctor, lawyer, etc. have. If you expect to influence children and help them achieve their full potential, you must be a responsible adult who models excellent behavior for them. In conclusion, the following quote seems quite appropriate. It is from a book by Chauncey P. ColeGrove called The Teacher and the School. It was written in 1910, but the words still ring true today: No one can justly expect that all teachers, or any teacher, shall endlessly patient, free from mistakes, always perfectly just, a miracle of good temper, unfailingly tactful, and unerring in knowledge. But people have a right to expect that all teachers shall have fairly accurate scholarship, some professional training, average mental ability, moral character, some aptness to teach, and that they shall covet earnestly the best gifts. A TEACHER MUST: 1 Set high expectations which inspire, motivate and challenge pupils establish a safe and stimulating environment for pupils, rooted in mutual respect


set goals that stretch and challenge pupils of all backgrounds, abilities and dispositions demonstrate consistently the positive attitudes, values and behaviour which are expected of pupils. 2 Promote good progress and outcomes by pupils be accountable for pupils attainment, progress and outcomes be aware of pupils capabilities and their prior knowledge, and plan teaching to build on these guide pupils to reflect on the progress they have made and their emerging needs demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how pupils learn and how this impacts on teaching encourage pupils to take a responsible and conscientious attitude to their own work and study. 3 Demonstrate good subject and curriculum knowledge have a secure knowledge of the relevant subject(s) and curriculum areas, foster and maintain pupils interest in the subject, and address misunderstandings demonstrate a critical understanding of developments in the subject and curriculum areas, and promote the value of scholarship demonstrate an understanding of and take responsibility for promoting high standards of literacy, articulacy and the correct use of standard English, whatever the teachers specialist subject If teaching early reading, demonstrate a clear understanding of systematic synthetic phonics If teaching early mathematics, demonstrate a clear understanding of appropriate teaching strategies. 4 Plan and teach well structured lessons impart knowledge and develop understanding through effective use of lesson time


promote a love of learning and childrens intellectual curiosity set homework and plan other out-of-class activities to consolidate and extend the knowledge and understanding pupils have acquired reflect systematically on the effectiveness of lessons and approaches to teaching contribute to the design and provision of an engaging curriculum within the relevant subject area(s). 5 Adapt teaching to respond to the strengths and needs of all pupils know when and how to differentiate appropriately, using approaches which enable pupils to be taught effectively have a secure understanding of how a range of factors can inhibit pupils ability to learn, and how best to overcome these demonstrate an awareness of the physical, social and intellectual development of children, and know how to adapt teaching to support pupils education at different stages of development have a clear understanding of the needs of all pupils, including those with special educational needs; those of high ability; those with English as an additional language; those with disabilities; and be able to use and evaluate distinctive teaching approaches to engage and support them. 6 Make accurate and productive use of assessment know and understand how to assess the relevant subject and curriculum areas, including statutory assessment requirements make use of formative and summative assessment to secure pupils progress use relevant data to monitor progress, set targets, and plan subsequent lessons give pupils regular feedback, both orally and through accurate marking, and encourage pupils to respond to the feedback. 7 Manage behaviour effectively to ensure, good and safe learning environment


have clear rules and routines for behaviour in classrooms, and take responsibility for promoting good and courteous behaviour both in classrooms and around the school, in accordance with the schools behaviour policy have high expectations of behaviour, and establish a framework for discipline with a range of strategies, using praise, sanctions and rewards consistently and fairly manage classes effectively, using approaches which are appropriate to pupils needs in order to involve and motivate them maintain good relationships with pupils, exercise appropriate authority, and act decisively when necessary. 8 Fulfill wider professional responsibilities make a positive contribution to the wider life and ethos of the s chool develop effective professional relationships with colleagues, knowing how and when to draw on advice and specialist support deploy support staff effectively take responsibility for improving teaching through appropriate professional development, responding to advice and feedback from colleagues communicate effectively with parents with regard to pupils achievements and well-being. PART TWO: PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT A teacher is expected to demonstrate consistently high standards of personal and professional conduct. The following statements define the behaviour and attitudes which set the required standard for conduct throughout a teachers career. Teachers uphold public trust in the profession and maintain high standards of ethics and behaviour, within and outside school, by: treating pupils with dignity, building relationships rooted in mutual respect, and at all times observing proper boundaries appropriate to a teachers professional position


having regard for the need to safeguard pupils well -being, in accordance with statutory provisions showing tolerance of and respect for the rights of others not undermining fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect, and tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs Ensuring that personal beliefs are not expressed in ways which exploit pupils vulnerability or might lead them to break the law. Teachers must have proper and professional regard for the ethos, policies and practices of the school in which they teach, and maintain high standards in their own attendance and punctuality. Teachers must have an understanding of, and always act within, the stat utory frameworks which set out their professional duties and responsibilities. HOW TEACHERS CAN FULFILL THEIR GREAT RESPONSIBILITIES Being a teacher is a profession that bears great responsibility. It's not enough that you know the subject you need to teach. A teacher needs to establish connection with her students and guide them in every way possible. The things you say or do often leave an indelible impression to the students. Thus it's crucial that you stay the role model they look up to in and out the school campus. Every aspiring teacher needs to become fully committed for the role he is eyeing. Anyone who wants to become a teacher is to serve and mold young minds. It's a lifetime responsibility with great rewards if you truly care about your work. Even if you love teaching, you might give up doing the job especially when you your preparation is not enough for the challenges that come with teaching.

First is patience. You are dealing with kids and not-so-little kids so patience, as they say, is a virtue that you must possess. Get a positive attitude. Always remember that you are dealing with people who want or need to learn. They need as much motivation as they can get from you. If you can't be positive for their sake, your students will feel down and unmotivated. A timely sense of humor is also


important, for it relieves tension in the class and makes learning more interesting. Not all teachers have sense of humor, but that's what separates good teachers from great ones. But of course, a teacher should know when everything must turn serious. Creativity is also a must for educators. If you lecture your students in the same boring manner everyday, you will surely lose their interest. And while it is the students responsibility to listen to obtain good grades, you should be able to mold them to become not just intellectual people but also sensible and caring individuals. It requires you to get your hands dirty and worm your way into your students' lives to help them learn and grow.


The Science Association of Pakistan (SAP) was formed on the 14th October 1998 as a voluntary non-governmental, non-political and nonprofitable organization by science teachers from all over Pakistan at the Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development (IED).


SAP was established in response to the need for a professional forum where science educators can meet and share their experiences to improve the quality of science education in Pakistan. Through this platform science teachers are acquainted with the most recent teaching / learning methodologies, theories and research findings in the field of science education. VISION OF SAP MISSION OF SAP Through dissemination and resource development, equip teachers with the most current trends and approaches in the teaching and learning of science. To improve the quality of Science Education in Pakistan

SAP aims to enhance the standards of science education in the country and to broaden the concept of science educators, to better prepare them to face the challenges of the 21st century


1. To acquaint the science teachers with the most recent teaching / learning methodologies, theories and research findings in the field of science education. 2. To impact the science classroom where the actual learning takes place. 3. To facilitate in the development and dissemination of appropriate science teaching and learning resources.


Monthly regular workshops: SAP organizes regular workshops on the second Saturday of every month from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. School-Based workshop: SAP also conducts school-based workshops for its member schools on request.

SAP organizes short courses on contemporary topics for teachers at AKU-IED. The duration of the courses is from two to six days.

1. SAP Symposium/Seminars: SAP celebrates its anniversary in the month of October by organizing symposiums, seminars, and conference. 2. Science Olympiad: SAP Science Olympiad is an event which provides children an opportunity to experience science through innovative science teaching and learning approaches. It involves activities such as quiz, puzzles, problem solving, poster making, construction tasks, etc.

To further facilitate the implementation of effective teaching- learning strategies in the science classroom, SAP conducts model lessons in the science classrooms in different school contexts on request.


SAP also takes short and long term projects in which it works with specific schools giving their teachers intensive and classroom support.


SAP worked in collaboration with AKU-EB in reviewing General Science, Chemistry and Biology curricula for grade IX and X. SAP was involved in the process of development of: 1. 2. VIII. 3. Currently SAP is involved in the development of National General Science National Science curricula 2006 for grade I III, and grade IV to VIII. National General Knowledge curriculum for grade I to III and grade IV to

curriculum for grade IX & X



SAP has been involved in reviewing and translating the Science text books of Sindh Text Book Board.

SAP focuses on the development of materials such as workshop package, activity sheets, lesson plans, etc. SAP was also involved in development of assessment units for AKU-EB.

To disseminate relevant knowledge and contemporary notions in science education To a wider community, SAP regularly publishes newsletter biannually. Other publications include teachers guides, handbooks, and booklets having innovative science activities. SAP FUTURE PLANS Classroom Based Research


SAP is planning to conduct a field-based course on Action Research for science teachers in March 2007 to understand the science teaching/learning approaches that are applicable and relevant to the context of developing countries. Science Day Every year SAP celebrates SCIENCE DAY on September 8, in which activities for both students and teachers are organized. MEMBERSHIP REGULATIONS 1. Teacher Members: Any science educator teaching at any educational level is eligible to become a member of SAP. 2. Associate Members: Persons not teaching science but interested in science can become associate members of SAP. 3. Institutional Members: Educational institutions / teachers training institutions or any other institution associated with improving the quality of science education or disseminating science knowledge can become an institutional member of SAP. SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS (SPELT) is a professional forum for practitioners teaching English as a foreign/second language to facilitate effective communication and improve the teaching/learning standards of English in Pakistan. Introduction The Society of Pakistan English Language Teachers SPELT was formed in 1984 in Karachi, Pakistan. It is dedicated to improving the standard of English language learning and teaching in Pakistan. SPELT enables maximum exploitation of the limited resources available in the country. It attempts to be well-informed about recent developments in teaching techniques, which invariably need to be modified in order to suit the needs and limitations of the Pakistan situation. It is affiliated with a number of international professional associations like Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and International Association of Teachers


of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and is supported by the British Council. Mission SPELT's mission is to provide a professional forum for practitioners teaching English as a foreign/second language to facilitate effective communication and improve the teaching/learning standards of English in Pakistan. Activities

Teacher development courses. Two hour academic session every month. International conference every year. Networking of teachers worldwide through courses and conferences. Publication of the journal SPELT Quarterly.

International conference This conference will provide a forum for teachers to understand and link teaching theories and practices in the classroom. It wills an excellent opportunity to see theory and practice as two sides of the same coin and to network. Papers, presentations and workshops will cover themes of classroom practices, learnercentered approach, research in language teaching/learning and the relationship between language teaching and language learning.