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.Coking Coking is a thermal process for the conversion of heavy low grade oil to lighter products (mainly gasoline related). It can be considered as an improved version of thermal crackers. The first delayed coker was built by Standard Oil of Indiana at Whiting. More than 50 cokers are in operation only in US. Removal of the coke deposit on the reactor wall was a major challenge. As a result of thermal cracking. Indiana in 1929. coke is formed in the reactor. The development of hydraulic decoking was an important achievement after which a number of commercial cokers were built.
Coking The feed stock can be: Straight run residue Cracked residue Vacuum distillation bottom product The products are: Gases Naphta Fuel oil Gasoil (major product. feedstock for catalytic cracking operations) Coke .
. which must be removed before further treatment for environment consideration Coking is a preferred process for oil from tar sand. etc. The coke contains sulfur compounds and metal impurities. providing products with less sulfur which facilitate the downstream operations.Coking The coke obtained is usually used as fuel or further treated to marketable products such as electrodes. metallurgical coke. Majority of sulfur in oil is concentrated on coke.
Coke forms a thick solid layer over the reactor inner wall. Coking reactors are relatively large in size due to relatively large residence time. (to be explained in class).Coking Coking is a semi-continuous operation as the solid coke should be removed from the reactor at certain times. The reactor needs decoking upon completion of the process. . Two or more reactors are used for continuous operation. One reactor is decoked while the other one is in operation.
coking of the feed is thereby delayed until it reaches large coking drums which provides long residence time to allow the cracking reactions to proceed to completion. The temperature in the drum ranges from 415 to 450 C at pressures from 15 – 90 psig. The cracked products leave as overheads and coke deposits form on the inner surface of the drum. With short residence time in the furnace.Delayed Coking Delayed coking is a process in which the feed is sent through a fired heater (480 – 515 C) with horizontal tubes. .
The bottom product of the fractionator is recycled back to the reactor after combined with the preheated feed. where naphta and heating oil fractions are recovered. Coke is removed in three steps Cooling the coke with water spray Drilling a hole through the center of the deposit (opening the central top section of the drum) Cutting the deposit with hydraulic devices (high pressure water jets) . The coke drum is usually on stream for 24 hours before becoming filled with coke.Coking Overhead products are sent to a fractionator.
Coking Coke removal and cleaning operations usually takes less than 24 hours. vapors are continuously condensed. where the drum is heated (to about 350 C) and the vapors are condensed and removed continuously. cracked and coke is gradually built up on the inner wall of the drum. . Hot vapors from the online drum are recirculated in the cold cleaned drum. The drum should be heated before receiving the hot feed. Different types of coke may be formed depending on the type of the feed and the operating conditions. During the operation.
The cracking reactions and the operation of cokers are very complex and requires advanced control systems for optimum results. Steam stripping also serves to transfer heat from the hot bottom to the unconverted feed on top of the coke drum.Coking Steam must be used before the switch and immediately after the switch for stripping the unconverted liquid feed to avoid feed solidification during the cooling process which creates major problems in the operation. .
Multiple steam injection points are installed for proper control and maintenance of the heater tubes. Symmetrical piping arrangement within the furnace enclosure is critical to achieve optimum results. .Coking furnace The furnace is the heart of the delayed coking process and provides all the heat required for the process. The temperature should be uniform (minimum maldistribution). especially above the cracking temperature to prevent coke formation. The velocity inside the tubes is very high to maximize heat transfer The residence time is kept at the minimum.
which may lead to explosion during the cutting operation.Coking Cutting High pressure water is used to cut the coke out of drum. Water pressure ranges from 1250 to 4000 psig and flow rates range from 750 GPM to 1250 GPM. Special structure is built on top of the drum to hold the drill stem and cables. . making a hole at the center of the drum (top to the bottom). Cutting nozzles are moving vertically and high pressure jets cut the coke deposit. The drill bit size is approximately 1 meter. Presence of hot spots in the coke layer may result in excessive production of steam.
Fluid coking Fluid coking is a continuous process in which coking occur is a fluidized bed. Due to the nature of Fluidized beds. . Coke particles are circulated between the reactor and the furnace to transfer heat generated by burning a portion of the coke. More valuable products and less coke are formed in Fluid coking. reactor and furnace. Fluid coking consists of two units. coking will be carried out at a more uniform and higher temperature and shorter contact time compared to delayed coking. The feed is continuously sprayed over a fluidized bed of hot coke particles.
The coke is withdrawn from the reactor to control the inventory. The preheated feed is injected directly into the reactor at 250-350 C and atmospheric pressure.Fluid Coking Steam is used to fluidize coke particles inside the reactor. . cracked or deposited on the coke particles. The feed is partially vaporized. which thermally cracks at high temperature leaving a residue that dries to form coke. Air added to the burner to combust coke and control the temperature. Cyclones are used to separate the entrained coke particles with the vapors (products). The temperature inside the reactor is between 480-570 C.
majority of the coking plants have employed the delayed coking process. More valuable products will be obtained from gasification of coke. Delayed coking is practiced by Suncor Canada plant. . using the same configuration but has a gasification unit in which the excess coke can be gasified.Fexicoking Flexicoking is a direct descendent of fluid coking. however Syncrude employs a fluid coking process. In spite of advantages of fluid coking.