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A. Sigmund Freud’s
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is probably the most well known theorist when it comes to the development of personality. Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development are, like other stage theories, completed in a predetermined sequence and can result in either successful completion or a healthy personality or can result in failure, leading to an unhealthy personality. This theory is probably the most well known as well as the most controversial, as Freud believed that we develop through stages based upon a particular erogenous zone. During each stage, an unsuccessful completion means that a child becomes fixated on that particular erogenous zone and either over – or under-indulges once he or she becomes an adult. Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months). During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures (sucking). Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails. Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others. Anal Stage (18 months to three years). The child‘s focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces. Through society‘s pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation. In terms of personality, after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive). On the opposite end of the spectrum, they may become messy and disorganized (anal expulsive). Phallic Stage (ages three to six). The pleasure zone switches to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boy develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother. Because of this, he becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mother‘s affection. During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, suc h as by castrating them. This group of feelings is known as Oedipus Complex ( after the Greek Mythology figure who accidentally killed his father and married his mother). Later it was added that girls go through a similar situation, developing unconscious sexual attraction to their father. Although Freud Strongly disagreed with this, it has been termed the Electra Complex by more recent psychoanalysts. According to Freud, out of fear of castration and due to the strong competition of his father, boys eventually decide to identify with him rather than fight him. By identifying with his father, the boy develops masculine characteristics and identifies himself as a male, and represses his sexual feelings toward his mother. A fixation at this stage could result in sexual deviancies (both overindulging and avoidance) and weak or confused sexual identity according to psychoanalysts. Latency Stage (age six to puberty). It‘s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers. Genital Stage (puberty on). The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals.
B. Carl Jung’s
Carl Jung, the Swiss psychoanalyst, like Erikson (unlike Freud), thought that adults continue to develop throughout their life spans. He formulated four stages of development:
Success leads to strong relationships. Ego Integrity vs. resulting in a sense of guilt. If you desperately try to cling to your youth. Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval. and despair. Old Age: (60 and over) Consciousness is reduced. and affection. C. Basic Conflict Important Events Infancy (birth to Trust vs. loving relationships with other people. Toilet Training (2 to 3 years) Shame and Doubt Preschool (3 to 5 Initiative vs. The ego starts to develop. Isolation Generativity vs. Erik Erikson’s Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. Success leads to feelings of autonomy. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. Inferiority Identity vs. Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yrs) During this first stage. people will not face death with fear. Jean Piaget’s Jean Piaget was a developmental psychologist best known for his theory of cognitive development. and raise a family. bitterness. Middle Life: (40-60) The realization that you will not live forever creates tension. Role Confusion Intimacy vs. Youth: (puberty until 35 – 40) Maturing Sexuality. growing consciousness. find a mate. Stagnation School Social Relationships Relationships Work and Parenthood Outcome Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty. Despair Reflection on Life D. while failure results in regret.Childhood: (birth to puberty) Childhood has two substages. Feeding 18 months) Mistrust Early Childhood Autonomy vs. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. you will fail in the process of self-realization. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. children learn entirely through the movements they make . Jung thought that death is the ultimate goal of life. Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them. while failure results in loneliness and isolation. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. and a realization that the care free days of childhood are gone forever. Success leads to a sense of competence. failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. but with a hope for rebirth. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself. Introverted tendencies are now be explored and people often become religious during this period. People strive to gain independence. Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. while the monarchic stage represents the beginning of logical and abstract thinking. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom. while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. care. while failure results in feelings of inferiority. often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Exploration years) Guilt Stage School Age (6 to 11 years) Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Maturity(65 to death) Industry vs. Piaget's stages deal with the nature of knowledge (epistemology) and how humans come to gradually acquire it. Young adults need to form intimate. Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. The archaic stage is characterized by sporadic consciousness. while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. By realizing this.
teachers.and the sensations that result. which emphasises the fact there is a requirement for a more knowledgable other person or ‗teacher‘. This describes what the child is capable of doing without any help from others. the child can be taught this from other people via language. friends and computers. coaches. Lev Vygotsky’s Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. MKO‘s can be parents.4 = 3 understand that a red square can belong to both the 'red' category and the 'square' category understand that a short wide cup can hold the same amount of liquid as a tall thin cup However. and past-present-future but generally they are still focused primarily on the present and on the concrete. Their thinking is still very egocentric though -. Some organized. He referred to them as just that: the More Knowledgable Other (MKO). children are able to see things from different points of view and to imagine events that occur outside their own lives. There is a much greater focus on possibilities and on ideological issues. They learn: that they exist separately from the objects and people around them that they can cause things to happen that things continue to exist even when they can't see them Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs) Once children acquire language. understand that if 3 + 4 = 7 then 7 . adults. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs) At this stage. Vygotsky believed children‘s thinking is affected by their knowledge of the social community (which is learn t from either technical or psychological cultural tools). logical thought processes are now evident and they are able to: order objects by size. etc. children are able to reason in much more abstract ways and to test hypotheses using systematic logic. classifying according to similarity. such as children. As stated above. There are two levels of attainment for the ZPD: Level 1 – the ‗present level of development‘. .they assume that everyone else sees things from the same viewpoint as they do. He also suggested that language is the most important tool for gaining this social knowledge. color gradient. He defined intelligence as ―the capacity to learn from instruction‖. they are able to use symbols (such as words or pictures) to represent objects. They are able to understand concepts like counting. rather than the abstract. E. experts/professionals – but also things you might not first expect. thinking still tends to be tied to concrete reality Formal Operational Stage (11+ yrs) Around the onset of puberty. which is a key feature of his theory. He described something known as the zone of proximal development (ZPD).
street smarts. video conferencing. making things. time and attention from the instructor. musical thinking. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences . Musical . At first. or motor skills where words alone are inefficient. Very aware of their environments. They can be taught through drawings. ask cosmic questions. and lecture. A review of the literature shows that a variety of decisions must be made when choosing media that is appropriate to learning style. radio. toward logical-quantitative modes as well. audio conferencing. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics. do jigsaw puzzles. This means what the child could potentially be capable of with help from other people or ‗teachers‘. this shift occurs and the child can continue learning more complex. they have wisdom. interacting with others. Tools include books. investigations. to a somewhat lesser degree.would be better served if disciplines could be presented in a numbers of ways and learning could be assessed through a variety of means. Intrapersonal . They like to draw." according to Gardner (1991). confidence and opinions. daydream. 3-D modeling. graphics. the child can potentially gain knowledge already held by them. Tools include equipment and real objects. diaries. However.show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. He believed that through help from other. They like to experiment. Visuals: Visual media help students acquire concrete concepts. When a child does attain their potential. touching. role playing. privacy and time. Students learn in ways that are identifiably distinctive. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words. These learners tend to shy away from others. Level 2 – the ‗potential level of development‘. an understanding of other individuals. They like reading. television. Interpersonal . read maps. verbal and physical imagery.using words effectively. tape recorders. Linguistic . the use of the body to solve problems or to make things. F. The broad spectrum of students . These students learn through interaction. "we are all able to know the world through language. logical-mathematical analysis. computer conferencing. Tools include models. it becomes apparent why multimedia appeals to learners and why a mix of media is more effective. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. multimedia. more knowledgable people. tapping out time. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity." Gardner argues that "a contrasting set of assumptions is more likely to be educationally effective. intuition and motivation. universal measure suffices to test student learning. it becomes easier. and understand in different ways. abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They're in tune with their inner feelings. but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments.reasoning.think in terms of physical space. They can be taught through group activities. mysteries. charts. solve puzzles. E-mail. texts with pictures/charts/graphs. The gap between level 1 and 2 (the present and potential development) is what Vygotsky described as this zone of proximal development. Bodily-kinesthetic . empathy for others. . spatial representation. as we move into using a mix of media or multimedia. videoconferencing. Tools include computers. Indeed. Tools include musical instruments. video. our educational system is heavily biased toward linguistic modes of instruction and assessment and. CD-ROM. playing word games. They can be taught through logic games. Logical -Mathematical . speaking rhythmically." The learning styles are as follows: Visual-Spatial . making up poetry or stories. They are the most independent of the learners. Howard Gardners Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct intelligences. the knowledge must be appropriate for the child‘s level of comprehension." Gardner says that these differences "challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform. goals. as do architects and sailors. They have many friends. music. such as object identification. hands-on learning.and perhaps the society as a whole .understanding. and progress in various domains. like a dancer or a surgeon. seminars. They like movement.understanding one's own interests. and an understanding of ourselves. multimedia. as well as a strong will. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details. Keen sense of body awareness. spatial relationship. photographs. Tools include the telephone.the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks. as currently constituted. According to this theory. read books together. They may study better with music in the background. It satisfies the many types of learning preferences that one person may embody or that a class embodies. games. drawings. They love music.use the body effectively. As we understand learning styles. This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn. acting out. solve diverse problems. Anything that is too complicated for the child to learn that isn‘t in their ZPD cannot be learnt at all until there is a shift in the ZPD. remember. books. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. However. it may seem impossible to teach to all learning styles. dialogues. stereo. calculating. Think conceptually. multimedia. writing. perform. higher level material. creative materials.
family. covert. Simply put. neighborhood relations between microsystems. may be handled by electronic media. Urie Bronfenbrenner Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917 – 2005) was a Russian. friends. self-directed good readers can control the pace. Visual media which portray motion are best to show psychomotor or cognitive domain expectations by showing the skill as a model against which students can measure their performance. limited movement. attitudes. Realia may be used to present information realistically but it may be equally important that the presentation corresponds with the way learner's represent information internally. Media should be selected which is best able to elicit these responses and the response frequency.born American psychologist who is renowned for hisecological systems theory. and media capable of presenting the stimuli. several models do not recommend verbal sound if it is not part of the task to be learned. plans instructional events to teach objectives. and cognitive strategies. ethnicity. Events of Instruction: The external events which support internal learning processes are called events of instruction. affect the individual‘s growth and development . see below) and which he first described in his 1979 book The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Motion is used to depict human performance so that learners can copy the movement. the way in which environmental effects develop over time. Realia are appropriate for use with individuals or groups and may be situation based. an interactive medium might be chosen. and print allows easier review. and full movement visuals. Testing which traditionally is accomplished through print.Printed words: There is disagreement about audio's superiority to print for affective objectives. Performance: Many models discuss eliciting performance where the student practices the task which sets the stage for reinforcement. between one‘s family members and school personnel relations between a microsystem and a system in which the individual is not directly involved the culture in which somebody lives— nation. These ―layers‖ may be defined as follows: an individual‘s immediate environment. Realia: Realia are tangible. Reading ability: Pictures facilitate learning for poor readers who benefit more from speaking than from writing because they understand spoken words. Learner Characteristics: Most models consider learner characteristics as media may be differentially effective for different learners. economic or social class. Audio narration is recommended for poor readers. Sound media are necessary to present a stimulus for recall or sound recognition. Categories of Learning Outcomes: Categories ranged from three to eleven and most include some or all of Gagne's (1977) learning categories. G. Several models suggest a procedure which categorizes learning outcomes. real objects which are not models and are useful to teach motor and cognitive skills involving unfamiliar objects. such as divorce. also the way transitions. Color: Decisions on color display are required if an object's color is relevant to what is being learned. i. but any medium can provide feedback. intellectual skills. or ―layers of environment. school. overt.‖ which can thus be divided into five subsystems. which is also known as ―human ecological theory‖ and ―development in context‖ (and sometimes the bio. Several models indicate that the elicited performance should be categorized by type. verbal information. identifies the type of stimuli to present events. motor. Instructional Setting: Design should cover whether the materials are to be used in a home or instructional setting and consider the size what is to be learned. &c. e. this theory views human development in terms of an ―ecological system. religious group. One model advocates a behavioral approach so that media is chosen to elicit responses for practice. and select. Several models assert that motion may be unnecessary and provides decision aid questions based upon objectives. Although research has had limited success in identifying the media most suitable for types of learners several models are based on this method. constructed. church. Learner characteristics such as error proneness and anxiety should influence media selection.g. Media are better able to assess learners' visual skills than are print media and can be used to assess learner performance in realistic situations.‖ which he regarded as important in understanding the development of the human being from childhood to adulthood. with individual biology being considered a sixth system. Sound: A distinction is drawn between verbal sound and non-verbal sound such as music. e. To provide feedback about the student's response. The ability to provide corrective feedback for individual learners is important but any medium can provide corrective feedback by stating the correct answer to allow comparison of the two answers. verbal. Print instruction should be delivered in an individualized mode which allows the learner to set the learning pace.ecological systems theory. motor skills. The events of instruction are planned before selecting the media to present it. Motion: Models force decisions among still.
‖ H. with regard to macrosystems. where such models as the ecological onion. A symbolic model. it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll. films. For instance.class families. 3. The systems are so intricately intwined that conflict in one adversely affects all the others. Known as observational learning (or modeling). Intrinsic Reinforcement . The first of these ―…reflects an ecological perspective. they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed. First is the idea that people can learn through observation. which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books. cube. poor inner. Basic Social Learning Concepts There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. The children in Bandura‘s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. Bronfenbrenner‘s ecological systems theory has influenced the thinking of psychologists throughout the world ever since the scientist first put it forth. or online media. 2. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory. A verbal instructional model. television programs. wherein consideration is given to the reciprocal interactions between human development and the multiple environments in which it occurs. Albert Bandura The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. Let's explore each of these concepts in greater depth. Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. particularly in the field of child and youth care. His theory added a social element. A live model. Mental states are important to learning. Next is the idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior. this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned. this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors. and umbrella models have been based on Bronfenbrenner‘s theory. Observational Learning In his famous Bobo doll experiment. arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning: 1. 2. People can learn through observation. 1. Finally.city families experience more social problems than rural or urban middle.Each of these systems influences the individual‘s psychological development in its own way.
in order for observational learning to be successful. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories. Final Thoughts In addition to influencing other psychologists. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. For example. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement. observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors. and a sense of accomplishment. Retention: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. such as pride. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time.' 3. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process: Attention: In order to learn. .Bandura noted that external. so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory. you need to be paying attention. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective. Motivation: Finally. The Modeling Process Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward. Bandura's social learning theory has had important implication in the field of eduction. both teachers and parents recognize the importance of modeling appropriate behaviors. Bandura himself describes his approach as a 'social cognitive theory. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation. Retention can be affected by a number of factors. Reproduction: Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information. satisfaction. you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning. While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior. you might start to show up a few minutes early each day. Today. but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.
In late adolescence. and involves resolving the complex interplay between the dynamisms of lust. both adult and child. the psychologically strong interest in members of opposite sex. someone who becomes as important as oneself. For Sullivan. In pre-adolescence. he or she needs to develop a relationship with at least one caregiver. the need for chumship. it was the first developmental stage where family limitations and peculiarities were open to substantial modification. They become even more attached to them during times when they are scared and stressed. . Also. is the central developmental event. security. How the adults reacts will have a profound effect on the child later in life. the person begins to integrate the partially developed aspects of the personality into an age-appropriate. The juvenile era begins with the child's entrance into school and continues until the child finds a chum. Harry Stack Sullivan Sullivan defined infancy as the period from birth until the development of articulate speech. John Bowlby John Bowlby's attachment theory states that in order for a child to develop normally. and intimacy. but is. an intimate relationship with a compeer.I. Early adolescence begins with puberty and genital sexuality. Childhood marks the appearance of the need for playmates. early adult identity. this adult intimacy is ―not the primary business of life. loss of a person the child is attached to is normal and the child is able to develop coping behaviors. a person of comparable age and status. The task ofadulthood is to establish a relationship of love with another person. they use these relationships as a template for other relationships. perhaps the principal source of satisfactions in life‖ J. and is the first step in developing interpersonal communication through language. Most importantly. When they grow up. Children become attached to people who are loving and caring.
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