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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Friction Braking of Vehicles and Its Disadvantages

Road, rail, and air vehicles all rely mainly or solely on mechanical friction brakes.
These brakes are composed of two functional parts: a rotor connected to the wheels and a
stator fixed to the chassis of the vehicle. The rotor is either a drum or a disc generally
made of cast iron for road and rail vehicles, and carbon fiber for aircraft. The stator
comprises shoes (drum brakes) or pads (disc brakes) made of a soft friction material and
an actuator, generally a hydraulic piston.

Although the principle is the same for drum and disc brakes, the terminology used
from there on refers to disc brakes. The contact between the soft material of the pads and
the surface of the rotor is characterized by a high friction coefficient. When braking is
commanded by the driver, the actuator presses the pads against the rotor, thus inducing a
friction force tangential to the surface of the rotor, which opposes the motion of the
vehicle (Fig. 1). The braking force is proportional to the normal force developed by the
actuator pressing the pads against the rotor and the coefficient of friction:
F (braking) = f. N (actuator)

Fig. 1.1: Forces involved in friction braking

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Friction braking is dissipative: the vehicles kinetic energy is dissipated as heat at
the contact surface between the pads and the disc. Kinetic energy dissipation results in a
very significant increase of the disc and pads temperatures. Although most of the heat is
ultimately dissipated through forced convection by the discs cooling fins, during a
braking phase the temperature of the disc and pads may rise to several hundreds of
Celsius degrees. The friction coefficient between the pads and the disc, and therefore the
maximum braking force obtainable depends on temperature, increasing slightly from
room temperature to a maximum, and decreasing rapidly beyond a certain point (Fig. 2).
The decrease in braking force at high temperature is a phenomenon called fading. It is
usually encountered when a vehicle is driven downhill because of the supplementary
force due to the grade and the weight of the vehicle. In some dramatic cases, the brakes
can lose all braking capability and the vehicle is totally brakeless. Another effect of
temperature is disc warping, which occurs as a result of very high disc temperature
during heavy braking. This phenomenon is rarely encountered in road or rail vehicles,
but has prompted the replacement of cast iron discs by carbon fiber discs on aircraft.

Fig. 1.2: Temperature dependence of friction coefficient
The combined effects of friction, heat, exposure to water and dirt result in the abrasion of
the pads. Consequently, the pads must be changed regularly, whereas the rotors
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sometimes need to be resurfaced. The cost of new pads and maintenance personnel costs
are significant for heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and buses). Furthermore, the dust from the
pads may be harmful to the environment and the health of populations.
Heavy and/or fast vehicles require very large braking forces to bring them to a
complete stop. Such forces are usually beyond the capabilities of a human operator,
which has prompted the installation of power assistance on nearly all road, rail and air
vehicles. The assistance mechanism is usually pneumatic for gasoline vehicles and trains
or hydraulic for diesel vehicles and aircraft. The assistance mechanism requires many
parts, which are often redundant for safety reasons. There is therefore a significant
increase in complexity due to this additional hardware. Furthermore, the pumps required
on diesel vehicles and aircraft take their toll on the fuel economy of the vehicle. It is
worth noting that hybrid vehicles would also require an assistance pump to guarantee
assistance even when the engine is shut down.

There is also a propagation time associated with the assistance mechanism, which
delays the application of braking from the time the driver pushes the pedals. This delay is
significant in buses, trucks, and trains where the brake fluid lines are long. Delays in
brake application result in significant increases in braking distances and increased
control complexity. Brake controls are required to balance the braking forces between
the rear and front axles depending on vehicle load, speed and road conditions, but also to
prevent wheel-lock. Anti-lock controls, know as ABS are an important safety feature of
modern road vehicles. In addition, the latest generation of automobiles incorporates
dynamic stability control systems that correct the drivers mistakes to a certain point and
maintain the vehicle on a safe trajectory even under harsh road conditions. The interface
between the electronic controls and the hydraulic circuit is ensured by electrically 5
actuated valves that operate in a switching mode, either open or shut. There are
additional nonlinearities in the brake system due to delays in fluid ducts, nonlinear
contact between pads and discs, etc, which render brake control delicate.

In conclusion, although friction brakes are compact and effective, they suffer from
several disadvantages, some a mere annoyance and some a real burden on users and
owners, whether private or commercial. While these problems are being dealt with
currently, it is at a cost, which it would be beneficial to reduce.
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1.2 Project plan

The purpose of the present report is to design an electromagnetic brake for a given
braking torque and speed, validate it experimentally, provide a conceptual design, and
study its integration in automobiles. The project plan is decomposed as follows:

- Theoretical analysis: An analytical model is derived for the electromagnetic brake and
its fundamental physics are investigated. The model provides a preliminary sizing of the
brake and critical information about the sensitivity to design parameters.

- Experimental validation: A test bed has been built based on specifications from
numerical data calculated and data has been gathered and compared to the numerical
analysis data. The objective is to validate the accuracy of numerical analysis and to
explain potential divergences. This validation is necessary to establish the ability of
numerical analysis to model electromagnetic brakes.

- Expansion of the concept: Several additional innovations are analyzed and incorporated
in the integrated brake in order to make the concept more complete and more relevant to
real world applications.

- Integration study: The use of the integrated brake in conventional and hybrid
automobiles is investigated. Specifications for the respective sizing of the friction,
regenerative and eddy-current brake are derived through an optimization study and the
gains achieved are analyzed.









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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

General principle of electromagnetic brakes

2.1. Introduction

Electromagnetic brakes have been used as supplementary retardation equipment in
addition to the regular friction brakes on heavy vehicles. The working principle and
characteristics of electromagnetic brakes are given below.

2.2. General Principle of Brake System

The principle of braking in road vehicles involves the conversion of kinetic
energy into thermal energy (heat). When stepping on the brakes, the driver commands a
stopping force several times as powerful as the force that puts the car in motion and
dissipates the associated kinetic energy as heat. Brakes must be able to arrest the speed
of a vehicle in short periods of time regardless how fast the speed is. As a result, the
brakes are required to have the ability to generating high torque and absorbing energy at
extremely high rates for short periods of time. Brakes may be applied for a prolonged
periods of time in some applications such as a heavy vehicle descending a long gradient
at high speed. Brakes have to have the mechanism to keep the heat absorption capability
for prolonged periods of time.

2.3. Conventional Friction Brake

The conventional friction brake system is composed of the following basic
components: the master cylinder which is located under the hood is directly connected
to the brake pedal, and converts the drivers foot pressure into hydraulic pressure. Steel
brake hoses connect the master cylinder to the slave cylinders located at each wheel.
Brake fluid, specially designed to work in extreme temperature conditions, fills the
system. Shoes or pads are pushed by the slave cylinders to contact the drums or
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rotors, thus causing drag, which slows the car. Two major kinds of friction brakes are
disc brakes and drum brakes;

Disc brakes use a clamping action to produce friction between the rotor and the
pads mounted in the caliper attached to the suspension members (see Figure 2.1).
Disc brakes work using the same basic principle as the brakes on a bicycle: as the caliper
pinches the wheel with pads on both sides, it slows the vehicle (Limpert 1992).

Figure 2.1: Disc Brake (Limpert 1992)


Drum brakes consist of a heavy flat-topped cylinder, which is sandwiched between
the wheel rim and the wheel hub (see Figure 2.2). The inside surface of the drum is acted
upon by the linings of the brake shoes. When the brakes are applied, the brake shoes are
forced into contact with the inside surface of the brake drum to slow the rotation of the
wheels (Limpert 1992). Air brakes use standard hydraulic brake system components such
as braking lines, wheel cylinders and a slave cylinder similar to a master cylinder to
transmit the air-pressure-produced braking energy to the wheel brakes. Air brakes are
used frequently when greater braking capacity is required.

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Figure 2.2: Drum Brakes (Limpert 1992)

2.4. Brake Fading Effect

The conventional friction brake can absorb and convert enormous energy values
(25h.p. without self-destruction for an 5-axle truck, Reverdin 1974), but only if the
temperature rise of the friction contact materials is controlled. This high energy
conversion therefore demands an appropriate rate of heat dissipation if a reasonable
temperature and performance stability are to be maintained. Unfortunately, design,
construction, and location features all severely limit the heat dissipation function of the
friction brake to short and intermittent periods of application. This could lead to a brake
fade problem (reduction of the coefficient of friction, less friction force generated) due
to the high temperature caused by heavy brake demands. The main reasons why
conventional friction brakes fail to dissipate heat rapidly are as follows:
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- poor ventilation due to encapsulation in the road wheels,
- diameter restriction due to tire dimensions,
- width restrictions imposed by the vehicle spring designer;
- problems of drum distortion at widely varying temperatures.

It is common for friction-brake drums to exceed 500 C surface temperatures when
subject to heavy braking demands, and at temperatures of this order, a reduction in the
coefficient of friction (brake fade) suddenly occurs (Grimm, 1985). The potential
hazard of tire deterioration and bursts is perhaps also serious due to the close proximity
of overheated brake drums to the inner diameter of the tire.

2.5. Retarders

Retarders are means of overcoming the above problems by augmenting a vehicles
foundation brakes with a device capable of opposing vehicle motion at relatively low
levels of power dissipation for long periods. There are several retarder technologies
currently available. Two major kinds are the hydrokinetic brake and the exhaust brake.
Hydrokinetic brake uses fluid as the working medium to oppose rotary motion and
absorb energy (Packer 1974). Hydrodynamic brakes are often built into hydrodynamic
transmissions (Foster, 1974). Exhaust brakes use a valve which is fitted into the exhaust
pipe between the exhaust manifold and silencer. When this valve is closed air is
compressed against it through the open exhaust valve by the piston rising on the exhaust
stroke. In that way the engine becomes a low pressure single stage compressor driven by
the vehicles momentum, resulting in a retarding effect being transmitted through the
transmission to the driving road wheels. The power-producing engine is converted into a
power absorbing air compressor (Smith, 1974). This approach could put a lot of stress on
the cylinder and exhaust system. So it may require extra engineering efforts to
implement this system. As a brake applied to the engine, exhaust brakes can only absorb
as much power as the engine can deliver. But the power absorbed in braking is usually
greater than the power absorbed in driving. Compared with these retarders,
electromagnetic brakes have greater power capability, simplicity of installation and
controllability.

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2.6. General Principle and Advantage of Electromagnetic Brakes (retarders)
Installation location

Electromagnetic brakes work in a relatively cool condition and satisfy all the energy
requirements of braking at high speeds, completely without the use of friction. Due to its
specific installation location (transmission line of rigid vehicles), electromagnetic brakes
have better heat dissipation capability to avoid problems that friction brakes face as we
mentioned before. Typically, electromagnetic brakes have been mounted in the
transmission line of vehicles, as shown in figure 2.2. The propeller shaft is divided and
fitted with a sliding universal joint and is connected to the coupling flange on the brake.

The brake is fitted into the chassis of the vehicle by means of anti-vibration
mounting. The practical location of the retarder within the vehicle prevents the direct
impingement of air on the retarder caused by the motion of the vehicle. Any air flow
movement within the chassis of the vehicle is found to have a relatively insignificant
effect on the air flow around tire areas and hence on the temperature of both front and
rear discs. So the application of the retarder does not affect the temperature of the regular
brakes. In that way, the retarders help to extend the life span of the regular brakes and
keep the regular brakes cool for emergency situation.

Working Principle

The working principle of the electric retarder is based on the creation of eddy currents
within a metal disc rotating between two electromagnets, which sets up a force opposing
the rotation of the disc. If the electromagnet is not energized, the rotation of the disc is
free and accelerates uniformly under the action of the weight to which its shaft is
connected. When the electromagnet is energized, the rotation of the disc is retarded and
the energy absorbed appears as heating of the disc. If the current exciting the
electromagnet is varied by a rheostat, the braking torque varies in direct
proportion to the value of the current. It was the Frenchman Raoul Sarazin who made the
first vehicle application of eddy current brakes. The development of this invention began
when the French company Telma, associated with Raoul Sarazin, developed and
marketed several generations of electric brakes based on the functioning principles
described above (Reverdin, 1974).
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A typical retarder consists of stator and rotor. The stator holds 16 induction coils,
energized separately in groups of four. The coils are made up of varnished aluminum
wire mounded in epoxy resin. The stator assembly is supported resiliently through anti-
vibration mountings on the chassis frame of the vehicle. The rotor is made up of two
discs, which provide the braking force when subject to the electromagnetic influence
when the coils are excited. Careful design of the fins, which are integral to the disc,
permit independent cooling of the arrangement.

Characteristic of Electromagnetic Brakes

It was found that electromagnetic brakes can develop a negative power which represents
nearly twice the maximum power output of a typical engine, and at least three times the
braking power of an exhaust brake (Reverdin 1974). These performance of
electromagnetic brakes make them much more competitive candidate for alternative
retardation equipments compared with other retarders. By using the electromagnetic
brake as supplementary retardation equipment, the friction brakes can be used less
frequently, and therefore practically never reach high temperatures. The brake linings
would last considerably longer before requiring maintenance, and the potentially brake
fade problem could be avoided. In research conducted by a truck manufacturer, it was
proved that the electromagnetic brake assumed 80 percent of the duty which would
otherwise have been demanded of the regular service brake (Reverdin 1974).
Furthermore, the electromagnetic brake prevents the dangers that can arise from the
prolonged use of brakes beyond their capability to dissipate heat. This is most likely to
occur while a vehicle descending a long gradient at high speed. In a study with a vehicle
with 5 axles and weighing 40 tons powered by an engine of 310 b.h.p traveling down a
gradient of 6 percent at a steady speed between 35 and 40 m.p.h, it can be calculated that
the braking power necessary to maintain this speed is the order of 450 h.p. The braking
effect of the engine even with a fitted exhaust brake is approximately 150 h.p. The
brakes, therefore, would have to absorb 300 h.p, meaning that each brake in the 5 axles
must absorb 30 h.p, which is beyond the limit of 25 h.p. that a friction brake can
normally absorb without self-destruction.

The electromagnetic brake is well suited to such conditions since it will independently
absorb more than 300 h.p (Reverdin 1974). It therefore can exceed the requirements of
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continuous uninterrupted braking, leaving the friction brakes cool and ready for
emergency braking in total safety. The installation of an electromagnetic brake is not
very difficult if there is enough space between the gearbox and the rear axle. It does not
need a subsidiary cooling system. It does not rely on the efficiency of engine components
for its use, as do exhaust and hydrokinetic brakes. The electromagnetic brake also has
better controllability. The exhaust brake is an on/off device and hydrokinetic brakes have
very complex control system. The electromagnetic brake control system is an electric
switching system which gives it superior controllability.
From the foregoing, it is apparent that the electromagnetic brake is an attractive
complement to the safe braking of heavy vehicles.


Electric Control System

The electric wiring diagram of the installation is shown in figure 2.4. The energization of
the retarder is operated by a hand control mounted on the steering column of the vehicle.
This control has five positions: the first is off, and the four remaining positions increase
the braking power in sequence. This hand-control system can be replaced by an
automatic type that can operate mechanically through the brake pedal. In this case, the
contacts are switched on successively over the slack movement of the brake pedal. The
use of an automatic control must be coupled with a cut-off system operating at very low
vehicle speed in order to prevent energization of the retarder while the vehicle is
stationary with the driver maintaining pressure on the brake pedal.
Both the manual control and the automatic control activate four solenoid contractors in
the relay box, which in turn close the four groups of coil circuits within the electric brake
at either 24 volts or 12 volts, as appropriate (Reverdin 1974 and Omega Technologies).

. Characteristic of Electromagnetic Brakes

It was found that electromagnetic brakes can develop a negative power which
represents nearly twice the maximum power output of a typical engine, and at least three
times the braking power of an exhaust brake (Reverdin 1974). These performance of
electromagnetic brakes make them much more competitive candidate for alternative
retardation equipments compared with other retarders. By using the electromagnetic
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brake as supplementary retardation equipment, the friction brakes can be used less
frequently, and therefore practically never reach high temperatures. The brake linings
would last considerably longer before requiring maintenance, and the potentially brake
fade problem could be avoided. In research conducted by a truck manufacturer, it was
proved that the electromagnetic brake assumed 80 percent of the duty which would
otherwise have been demanded of the regular service brake (Reverdin1974).
Furthermore, the electromagnetic brake prevents the dangers that can arise from the
prolonged use of brakes beyond their capability to dissipate heat. This is most likely to
occur while a vehicle descending a long gradient at high speed. In a study with a vehicle
with 5 axles and weighing 40 tons powered by an engine of 310 b.h.p traveling down a
gradient of 6 percent at a steady speed between 35 and 40 m.p.h, it can be
calculated that the braking power necessary to maintain this speed is the order of 450 h.p.
The braking effect of the engine even with a fitted exhaust brake is approximately 150
h.p. The brakes, therefore, would have to absorb 300 h.p, meaning that each brake in the
5 axles must absorb 30 h.p, which is beyond the limit of 25 h.p. that a friction brake can
normally absorb without self-destruction. The electromagnetic brake is well suited to
such conditions since it will independently absorb more than 300 h.p (Reverdin 1974). It
therefore can exceed the requirements of continuous uninterrupted braking, leaving the
friction brakes cool and ready for emergency braking in total safety.

The installation of an electromagnetic brake is not very difficult if there is enough
space between the gearbox and the rear axle. It does not need a subsidiary cooling
system. It does not rely on the efficiency of engine components for its use, as do exhaust
and hydrokinetic brakes. The electromagnetic brake also has better controllability. The
exhaust brake is an on/off device and hydrokinetic brakes have very complex control
system. The electromagnetic brake control system is an electric switching system which
gives it superior controllability. From the foregoing, it is apparent that the
electromagnetic brake is an attractive complement to the safe braking of heavy vehicles.






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Thermal Dynamics

Thermal stability of the electromagnetic brakes is achieved by means of the
convection and radiation of the heat energy at high temperature. The major part of the
heat energy is imparted to the ventilation air which is circulating vigorously through the
fan of the heated disc. The value of the energy dissipated by the fan can be calculated by
the following expression:

Q M Cp = D q (2.1)
Where:
M = Mass of air circulated;
Cp = Calorific value of air;
Dq = Difference in temperature between the air entering and the air leaving the fan;

The electromagnetic brakes has excellent heat dissipation efficiency owing to the high
temperature of the surface of the disc which is being cooled and also because the flow of
air through the centrifugal fan is very rapid. Therefore, the curie temperature of the disc
material could never been reached (Reverdin 1974). The practical location of the
electromagnetic brakes prevents the direct impingement of air on the brakes caused by
the motion of the vehicle. Any air flow movement within the chassis of the vehicle is
found to have a relatively insignificant effect on the air flow and hence temperature of
both front and rear discs. Due to its special mounting location and heat dissipation
mechanism, electromagnetic brakes have better thermal dynamic performance than
regular friction brakes.

2.7 Review of existing electromagnetic brake

Electromagnetic brakes operate electrically, but transmit torque mechanically.
This is why they are used to be referred to as electro-mechanical brakes. Over the years,
EM brakes became known as electromagnetic, referring to their actuation method.
There are three parts in an electromagnetic brake: field, armature and hub (which
is the input on a brake). Usually the magnetic field is bolted to the machine frame (or
uses a torque arm that can handle the torque of the brake). So when the armature is
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attracted to the field the stopping torque is transferred into the field housing and into the
machine frame decelerating the load. This can happen very fast (0.1-3sec).
`Disengagement is very simple. Once the field starts to degrade flux falls rapidly
and the armature separates. A spring holds the armature away from its corresponding
contact surface at a predetermined air gap.

Fig 2.3: Electromagnetic brake


Concept: Voltage/Current - And the Magnetic Field


Fig 2.4: Right hand rule
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If a piece of copper wire was wound, around the nail and then connected to a
battery, it would create an electro magnet. The magnetic field that is generated in the
wire, from the current, is known as the right hand thumb rule. (V-1) The strength of
the magnetic field can be changed by changing both wire size and the amount of wire
(turns). EM clutches are similar; they use a copper wire coil (sometimes aluminum) to
create a magnetic field.
The fields of EM brakes can be made to operate at almost any DC voltage and the
torque produced by the brake will be the same as long as the correct operating voltage
and current is used with the correct brake. If a 90 volt brake had 48 volts applied to it,
this would get about half of the correct torque output of that brake. This is because
voltage/current is almost linear to torque in DC electromagnetic brakes.
A constant current power supply is ideal for accurate and maximum torque from
a brake. If a non regulated power supply is used the magnetic flux will degrade as the
resistance of the coil goes up. Basically, the hotter the coil gets the lower the torque will
be produced by about an average of 8% for every 20C. If the temperature is fairly
constant, and there is a question of enough service factor in the design for minor
temperature fluctuation, by slightly over sizing the brake can compensate for
degradation. This will allow the use of a rectified power supply, which is far less
expensive than a constant current supply.
Based on V = I R, as resistance increases available current falls. An increase in
resistance, often results from rising temperature as the coil heats up, according to: Rf =
Ri [1 + Cu (Tf - Ti)] Where Rf = final resistance, Ri = initial resistance, Cu =
copper wires temperature coefficient of resistance, 0.0039 C-1, Tf = final temperature,
and Ti = initial temperature.
An electromagnetic brake is a new revolutionary concept. They work on the
principle of electromagnetism. These are totally frictionless.



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Types of Electromagnetic Brakes
1. Electromagnetic Power off Brake:

Fig 2.5: Electromagnetic power off brake spring set
Introduction - Power off brakes stop or hold a load when electrical power is either
accidentally lost or intentionally disconnected. In the past, some companies have referred
to these as "fail safe" brakes. These brakes are typically used on or near an electric
motor. Typical applications include robotics, holding brakes for Z axis ball screws and
servo motor brakes. Brakes are available in multiple voltages and can have either
standard backlash or zero backlash hubs. Multiple disks can also be used to increase
brake torque, without increasing brake diameter. There are 2 main types of holding
brakes. The first is spring applied brakes. The second is permanent magnet brakes.
How It Works:
Spring Type - When no electricity is applied to the brake, a spring pushes against a
pressure plate, squeezing the friction disk between the inner pressure plate and the outer
cover plate. This frictional clamping force is transferred to the hub, which is mounted to
a shaft.
Permanent Magnet Type A permanent magnet holding brake looks very similar to a
standard power applied electromagnetic brake. Instead of squeezing a friction disk, via
springs, it uses permanent magnets to attract a single face armature. When the brake is
engaged, the permanent magnets create magnetic lines of flux, which can turn attract the
armature to the brake housing. To disengage the brake, power is applied to the coil which
sets up an alternate magnetic field that cancels out the magnetic flux of the permanent
magnets.
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Both power off brakes are considered to be engaged when no power is applied to
them. They are typically required to hold or to stop alone in the event of a loss of power
or when power is not available in a machine circuit. Permanent magnet brakes have a
very high torque for their size, but also require a constant current control to offset the
permanent magnetic field. Spring applied brakes do not require a constant current
control, they can use a simple rectifier, but are larger in diameter or would need stacked
friction disks to increase the torque.

2 . Electromagnetic Particle Brake:


Fig 2.6: Electromagnetic Particle Brake
Introduction : Magnetic particle brakes are unique in their design from other electro-
mechanical brakes because of the wide operating torque range available. Like an electro-
mechanical brake, torque to voltage is almost linear; however, in a magnetic particle
brake, torque can be controlled very accurately (within the operating RPM range of the
unit). This makes these units ideally suited for tension control applications, such as wire
winding, foil, film, and tape tension control. Because of their fast response, they can also
be used in high cycle applications, such as magnetic card readers, sorting machines and
labeling equipment.

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How It Works:
Magnetic particles (very similar to iron filings) are located in the powder cavity.
When electricity is applied to the coil, the resulting magnetic flux tries to bind the
particles together, almost like a magnetic particle slush. As the electric current is
increased, the binding of the particles becomes stronger. The brake rotor passes through
these bound particles. The output of the housing is rigidly attached to some portion of the
machine. As the particles start to bind together, a resistant force is created on the rotor,
slowing, and eventually stopping the output shaft.
When electricity is removed from the brake, the input is free to turn with the shaft.
Since magnetic particle powder is in the cavity, all magnetic particle units have some
type of minimum drag associated with them.
3. Electromagnetic Hysteresis Power Brake:


Fig 2.7: Electromagnetic Hysteresis Power Brake
Introduction: Electrical hysteresis units have an extremely wide torque range. Since these
units can be controlled remotely, they are ideal for test stand applications where varying
torque is required. Since drag torque is minimal, these units offer the widest available
torque range of any of the hysteresis products. Most applications involving powered
hysteresis units are in test stand requirements.
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How It Works:
When electricity is applied to the field, it creates an internal magnetic flux. That flux
is then transferred into a hysteresis disk passing through the field. The hysteresis disk is
attached to the brake shaft. A magnetic drag on the hysteresis disk allows for a constant
drag, or eventual stoppage of the output shaft.
When electricity is removed from the brake, the hysteresis disk is free to turn, and no
relative force is transmitted between either member. Therefore, the only torque seen
between the input and the output is bearing drag.
4 Multiple Disk Brakes:
Introduction:
Multiple disk brakes are used to deliver extremely high torque within a small space.
These brakes can be used either wet or dry, which makes them ideal to run in multi speed
gear box applications, machine tool applications, or in off road equipment.

Fig 2.8: Electromagnetic Multiple Disk Brake

How It Works:
Electro-mechanical disk brakes operate via electrical actuation, but transmit torque
mechanically. When electricity is applied to the coil of an electromagnet, the magnetic
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flux attracts the armature to the face of the brake. As it does so, it squeezes the inner and
outer friction disks together. The hub is normally mounted on the shaft that is rotating.
The brake housing is mounted solidly to the machine frame. As the disks are squeezed,
torque is transmitted from the hub into the machine frame, stopping and holding the
shaft.
When electricity is removed from the brake, the armature is free to turn with the
shaft. Springs keep the friction disk and armature away from each other. There is no
contact between breaking surfaces and minimal drag. Particle brakes are unique in their
design from other electro-mechanical brakes because of the wide operating torque range
available. Like an electro-mechanical brake, torque to voltage is almost linear; however,
in a magnetic particle brake, torque can be controlled very accurately (within the
operating RPM range of the unit). This makes these units ideally suited for tension
control applications, such as wire winding, foil, film, and tape tension control. Because
of their fast response, they can also be used in high cycle applications, such as magnetic
card readers, sorting machines and labeling equipment.
How It Works:
Magnetic particles (very similar to iron filings) are located in the powder cavity. When
electricity is applied to the coil, the resulting magnetic flux tries to bind the particles
together, almost like a magnetic particle slush. As the electric current is increased, the
binding of the particles becomes stronger. The brake rotor passes through these bound
particles. The output of the housing is rigidly attached to some portion of the machine.
As the particles start to bind together, a resistant force is created on the rotor, slowing,
and eventually stopping the output shaft.
When electricity is removed from the brake, the input is free to turn with the
shaft. Since magnetic particle powder is in the cavity, all magnetic particle units have
some type of minimum drag associated with them.
2.8 Engagement Time
There are actually two engagement times to consider in an electromagnetic brake.
The first one is the time it takes for a coil to develop a magnetic field, strong enough to
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pull in an armature. Within this, there are two factors to consider. The first one is the
amount of ampere turns in a coil, which will determine the strength of a magnetic field.
The second one is air gap, which is the space between the armature and the coil shell.
Magnetic lines of flux diminish quickly in the air. The further away the attractive piece is
from the coil, the longer it will take for that piece to actually develop enough magnetic
force to be attracted and pull in to overcome the air gap. For very high cycle
applications, floating armatures can be used that rest lightly against the coil shell. In this
case, the air gap is zero; but, more importantly the response time is very consistent since
there is no air gap to overcome. Air gap is an important consideration especially with a
fixed armature design because as the unit wears over many cycles of engagement the
armature and the coil shell will create a larger air gap which will change the engagement
time of the brakes. In high cycle applications, where registration is important, even the
difference of 10 to 15 milliseconds can make a difference, in registration of a machine.
Even in a normal cycle application, this is important because a new machine that has
accurate timing can eventually see a drift in its accuracy as the machine gets older.
The second factor in figuring out response time of a brake is actually much more
important than the magnet wire or the air gap. It involves calculating the amount of
inertia that the brake needs to decelerate. This is referred to as time to stop. In reality,
this is what the end-user is most concerned with. Once it is known how much inertia is
present for the brake to stop then the torque can be calculated and the appropriate size of
brake can be chosen.
Most CAD systems can automatically calculate component inertia, but the key to
sizing a brake is calculating how much inertia is reflected back to the brake. To do this,
engineers use the formula: T = (WK2 N) / (308 t) Where T = required torque in lb-
ft, WK2 = total inertia in lb-ft2, N = change in the rotational speed in rpm, and t = time
during which the acceleration or deceleration must take place.
Inertia Calculator There are also online sites that can help confirm how much torque
is required to decelerate a given amount of inertia over a specific time. Remember to
make sure that the torque chosen, for the brake, should be after the brake has been
burnished.

22


2.9 Torque
When considering torque, the question of using dynamic or static torque for the
application is key? For example, if running a machine at relatively low rpm (5 50
depending upon size) there is minimal concern with dynamic torque since the static torque
rating of the brake will come closest to where it is running. However, when running a
machine at 3,000rpm and applying the brake at its catalog torque, at that rpm, is misleading.
Almost all manufacturers put the static rated torque for their brakes in their catalog. So,
when trying to determine a specific response rate for a particular brake, the dynamic torque
rating is needed. In many cases this can be significantly lower. It can be less than half of the
static torque rating. Most manufacturers publish torque curves showing the relationship
between dynamic and static torque for a given series of brake.
2.10 Over Excitation
Over-excitation is used to achieve a faster response time. It is when a coil
momentarily receives a higher voltage than its nominal rating. To be effective, the over-
excitation voltage must be significantly, but not to the point of diminishing returns,
higher than the normal coil voltage. Three times the voltage typically gives around 1/3
faster response. Fifteen times the normal coil voltage will produce a 3 times faster
response time.
With over-excitation, the in-rush voltage is momentary. Although it would depend
upon the size of the coil, the actual time is usually only a few milliseconds. The theory
is, for the coil to generate as much of a magnetic field as quickly as possible to attract the
armature and start the process of deceleration. Once the over-excitation is no longer
required, the power supply to the brake would return to its normal operating voltage.
This process can be repeated a number of times as long as the high voltage does not stay
in the coil long enough to cause the coil wire to overheat.



23


2.11 Summary

With all the advantages of electromagnetic brakes over friction brakes, they have been
widely used on heavy vehicles where the brake fading problem is serious. The same
concept is being developed for application on lighter vehicles.




























24

CHAPTER 3

EXPERIMENTAL SET UP AND METHODOLOGY USED

3.1 Objective and experimental procedure

The objective of the experiment is to establish the ability of the theoretical analysis to
model the performance and behavior of electromagnetic brake excited by electromagnet
and using a disc made of ferromagnetic material. Therefore, the theoretically modeled
brake and the experimentally tested brake must be as similar as possible. Because of
some constraints imposed by the assumptions taken, there will be some error arose.

Most soft magnetic materials applications require a combination of a high relative
permeability with an electrical conductivity as low as possible. Such is the case for
transformers, inductor cores, and electric motors. Therefore, magnetic properties are
listed only for useful materials, which have a high relative permeability. However,
theoretical analysis indicates that electromagnetic brakes require low permeability soft
magnetic materials with a high electrical conductivity. There are indications that cast
iron and some steels do possess these properties. So mild steel, which has the
magnetization saturation of 23T is chosen as the disc material.

3.2 Methodology - electromagnetic brake system

How does a magnetic brake system work?
Magnetic resistance works by passing a spinning metallic disk through a
magnetic field. The magnetic field provides resistance to the spinning disk thus slowing
its rotation. The amount of resistance can be increased or decreased by varying the
strength of the magnetic field. Field strength is controlled by changing either the power
of the magnet or the distance between the magnet and the spinning disk.

Resistance Formula: Resistance is determined by three factors:
Disk RPM, MAGNET POWER and the DISTANCE between the magnet and disk.

25


The three factors are expressed as a ratio of one to one to one squared:

RPM : MAGNET POWER : DISTANCE = RESISTANCE

The distance value is the most important part of the formula because its value is
squared. This means that very small changes in DISTANCE make very large changes in
the resistance level.


Because distance is such an important part of the resistance formula small variations can
make large differences in the amount of resistance. This can make it difficult to adjust
the resistance level by useful amount.

26

Many systems place the magnets at the edge of the flywheel. As the distance between the
flywheel and magnets increases the resistance level quickly decreases. This makes fine
adjustment of the resistance level difficult to achieve resulting in an uneven resistance
curve. Users can feel this as resistance that varies little at lower settings but then spikes
suddenly at high resistance settings.






The MForce difference
By placing magnets on the sides of the Eddy Current disk the patented MForce
magnetic brake system maintains a consistent distance between the disk and magnets at
all times. Maintaining a consistent distance allow for fine adjustment of the resistance
27

level simply by adjusting the magnetic field power. This results in a smooth resistance
curve. Users can feel resistance that increases evenly from low to high settings.
3.3 Test bed design
The test bed general architecture is shown on Fig. 3.1. It includes a motor drive, a
torque meter, the electromagnetic brake, a handheld ammeter and two regulators. The
operation of the electromagnet brake will only be investigated at steady state. Therefore,
a three phase AC motor with the stabilizer is provided to provide torque to the test bed.
The characteristics of the AC motor are summarized in TABLE 3.1 below:

TABLE 3.1
AC motor characteristics
PARAMETER VALUE
Nominal armature voltage 220 V

Nominal armature current 6 A
Armature resistance 285

Maximum speed 2800 rpm
Nominal shaft power 18 w

Maximum torque 0.0614 N.m
Torque constant 0.0.0102 N.m/A

The eddy-current brake is designed to fit the characteristics (maximum torque and speed)
of the ac motor drive. TABLE 3.2 gives the geometric characteristics of the test eddy-
current brake. The geometry is the same as that shown on Fig. 3.1
. TABLE 3.2
Test electromagnetic brake characteristics

PARAMETER SYMBOL VALUE
electromagnet residual flux B 10.4 T
Number of turns of coil n 1900
Resistivity of disc material 1068 m.
Number of electromagnet
used
p 4
Arc between north and south
pole
80 degree
Airgap width g 2.5 mm
Disc thickness e 3.5 mm
Disc inner radius Rinner 5.5 cm
Disc outer radius R outer 9 cm
28



Fig 3.1: Experimental set up

3.4 Disc Material Evaluation

The braking disc for an electromagnetic brake must be made of a highly conductive
material in order to efficiently host Eddy currents with the least amount of resistance
possible and also should have good magnetic properties. For the application of our
project we will also need an extremely strong material that can withstand the stresses
produced by the high rate of rotation, described in the constraints. We feel the main
challenge in finding a disc material is finding a conductor that can withstand those
stresses due to the high rate of rotation. We investigated the strengths, electrical
resistivity, along with statement of other mechanical properties required in each metal for
design and analysis.

A major challenge in determining a disc material is the balance between strength
magnetic and conductivity properties. The three metals that will be discussed for trade-
off study have very low electrical resistivity to optimize eddy current flow. The different
magnetic and other properties are analyzed below.
29


TABLE 3.3 Disc Material Comparison

Material Ult.
Tensile
strength
Yield
Strength
Poissons
Ratio
Shear
Strength
Shear
Modulus
Electrical
Resistivity
1018
Mild steel
63.8 kpsi 53.7 kpsi 0.303 42.0 kpsi 14.2 kpsi 1.18 10
7
m
6061- T6
Aluminum
45.0 kpsi 40.0 kpsi 0.330 30.0 kpsi 3.77 kpsi 2.65 to 2.82
10-8 m
A36
Mild steel
59-79.8
kpsi
36.3 kpsi 0.300 40.0 kpsi 7.25 kpsi 7.2 10
-7
m


From the above we choose mild steel by comparing strength, magnetic and other
properties.

Disc Orientation

The disc will have only one orientation. It will mount perpendicularly to the drive
shaft and the electromagnets while mounted in the middle of the paired coils. One
major concern comes in the form of how we will fasten the disk to the drive shaft.
We will most likely pressure fit a collar around the drive shaft thereby attaching the
disc by way of a pressure fit collar. If this is not feasible, we will conduct further
review and brainstorming for a new way to fasten the disc to the drive shaft.


3.4 Electromagnet Design

The construction is having four and the pairs will be oriented with the polarities
aligning North to South and the disc spinning between the pairs. a change of
polarity in electromagnets applied to electromagnetic brakes will produce a higher
force than only one direction of polarity. The electromagnet is mounted at the
peripheral side of the disc as shown in fig 3.1: however upon testing it may conclude
that having the magnets closer together may create the maximum torque. Further
testing will either prove or disprove this concept.
30


The electromagnets generate the magnetic field needed. We will use standard
coated aluminum wire coiled around a ferrous metal core. Coating the aluminum wire
will prevent corrosion and increase the life of the electromagnets and maintain the
efficiency of the overall braking system. The number of turns of copper around our
ferrous material will determine the strength of the induced magnetic field. With the
theoretical calculation: it determines how many turns are needed per coil as well as
the amperage needed to provide the needed magnetic field, which determines the
force generated.

After researching electromagnet design we determined a ferrous material, such
as mild steel or iron, ideal for a metal core for electromagnets. When constructing the
electromagnet components, the aluminum wire is coated and exposed core with a
protective epoxy coating as to not leave the electromagnets exposed to the
environment. The electromagnet is mounted in pairs in series connection one after
another. By pairing the electromagnets and aligning north-south polarity it will direct
and concentrate the magnetic field to ensure a perpendicular magnetic field with
maximum possible magnitude. The magnetic pairs will produce a similar magnetic
field to the illustration in figure 3.4.


Figure 3.4: Magnetic field lines of Coil Pairs


31

Electromagnet Core Material

The electromagnet core material must have a high magnetic permeability which in
most cases calls for a low carbon content. In determining the ideal core material we
took into consideration two types of metals: Cast Iron and Iron Silicon magnetic soft
steel.

Iron Silicon magnetic soft steel
The soft steel in consideration is Kinetics MIM 2.5% Si-Fe Soft Magnetic Steel
with material properties given in table3.4. This material is commonly used in
Solenoid construction along other electromagnet applications such as armatures,
relays, and other applications where low core loss and high electrical resistivity in AC
and DC applications are required. We will also give property values for alternative
soft steels which will take the place of Kinetics MIM 2.5% Si-Fe Soft Magnetic Steel
if not available. The alternative soft steels are:
AISI type 430 F(Se)
AISI 434
AISI 435
AISI 436

Table 3.4: Electromagnet Core Material Properties
Material Composition Electrical
Resistivity
Permeability
AISI 430 F(Se) Carbon: <= 0.120 %
Chromium: 16.0%
Iron: 81%
Manganese: <1.25%
Molybdenum: <0.6%
Potassium: <0.6%
Silicon: 1.0%
Sulfur: 0.15%
2.4 E-4
Ohm-inch
600 - 1100
32

AISI 434 Carbon: <0.12%
Chromium: 16.0%
Iron: 81.0%
Manganese: <1.0%
Molybdenum:1.0%
Phosphorous: <0.04%
Silicon: 1.0%
Sulfur: 0.03%
2.36 E-4
Ohm-inch
600 1100
AISI 435 Carbon: <0.12%
Chromium: 16.0%
Iron: 81.0%
Manganese: <1.0%
Nb + Ta: 0.5%
Phosphorous: 0.04%
Silicon: <1.0%
Sulfur: <0.03%
2.36 E-4
Ohm-inch
600 1100
AISI 436 Carbon: <0.12%
Chromium: 16.0%
Iron: 81.0%
Manganese: <1.0%
Molybdenum: 1.0%
Nb + Ta: 0.5%
Phosphorous: <0.04%
Silicon: 0.0%
Sulfur: 0.03%
2.36 E-4
Ohm-inch
600 - 1100
Kinetics MIM Iron: 97.19 - 97.85 %
Silicon: 2.15 - 2.75 %
Carbon: <= 0.0600 %


.Cast Iron

Cast Iron is commonly used as a core in standard electromagnets because it is a
ferrous material. Like most other forms of Cast Irons, Class II Type E 20% Cr-Mo-
HC Martinsitic White Cast iron has a carbon content of three percent and an iron
content of approximately 70%.

Mild steel, 0.1% C

B/T for H/(A m
1
) = 1.46x1000.
Relative permeability = 800
33

As it is easily available and has low cost, mild steel is chosen as our magnetic core
material.

Others components

1. A variable 0220 V ac power source for the motor;
2. A variable 06 A dc power source for the coil;
3. Ammeters and voltmeters;
4. Digital tachometer to accurately measure the angular speed of the motor;
5. Electronic stopwatch.
6. Wooden base

Many changes in this list are possible. For instance, any of the dc variable power sources can
be replaced by a fixed source combined with a rheostat, the angular speed can be measured by
stroboscopic techniques, etc.

3.5 STRUCTURAL ANALYSES

Stress Analysis for Final Design

1. Stress Due to the Rotating Disc

The high rotation rate of the disc will cause enormous stresses within the disc. The
rotation is by far the source contributing the largest amount of stress in the disc.
According to Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design Eighth Edition by Richard G.
Bundynas and J. Keith Nisbett the equations that quantify these stresses act in both
the tangential and radial directions where tangential is defined as the direction tangent
to the outer edge of the circle created by the silhouette of the disc, and radial is
defined as the direction starting at the axis of rotation of the disc and moving outward
through the plane of the disc. Both the tangential and radial stresses are functions of
the interesting radius, r. The equations, listed on page 110 of the text book, are shown
below.
34


o
t
= e
2
3+v
8
|
\

|
.
| r
i
2
+ r
o
2
+
r
i
2
r
o
2
r
2

1+ 3v
3+v
r
2
|
\


|
.
|
|

o
r
= e
2
3+v
8
|
\

|
.
| r
i
2
+ r
o
2

r
i
2
r
o
2
r
2

1+ 3v
3+v
r
2
|
\


|
.
|
|

o
t
= tangential stress
o
r
= radial stress
r
i
= inner radius
r
o
= outer radius
v = Poissons ratio
= material density
= angular velocity [rad/s]
r = radius of interest
1 Stress Due to Imbalance

The customer provided a constraint for the imbalance of the disc. The disc should not
exceed 9 cm. To complete a stress analysis on the disc due to this imbalance a
definition for the term imbalance was decided. An imbalance 9 in would analytically
equivalent to additional mass of disc material in the amount of 0.005 oz (requiring no
additional volume), located in the disc a distance of 1 inch from the axis of rotation
and symmetric across the thickness of the disc. A more generic definition with an
imbalance of MR is depicted below.

Figure 3.5: Modeling of Imbalance Analysis
35


The magnitude of the stress caused by the imbalance was found to be very small and
insignificant compared to the stress caused by the angular velocity of the disc.


3.6.Stress Due to Eddy Currents

The Forces that the eddy currents cause on the disc oppose the direction of motion the
disc. In the image below the red arrows indicate the direction of rotation of the disc
and the E vectors represent the corresponding eddy-current-forces on the differential
ring element of the disc.


Figure 3.6: Differential Piece of Disc for Force Analysis








36

CHAPTER 4
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
4.1 Introduction
Electromagnetic brakes operate electrically, but transmit torque mechanically. This is why
they used to be referred to as electro-mechanical brakes. Over the years, EM brakes became
known as electromagnetic, referring to their actuation method. Since the brakes started
becoming popular over sixty years ago, the variety of applications and brake designs has
increased dramatically, but the basic operation remains the same.
Single face electromagnetic brakes make up approximately 80% of all of the power
applied brake applications.

4.2 Experimental results and discussion

This section describes several kinds of measurements that can be carried out with the
proposed experimental setup. In all cases typical results are included.

(a) Current verses magnetic field intensity

Sl.No. Current (mA) Magnetic field intensity (B) in telsa
01 90.5 2.59
02 130.5 3.74
03 172 4.93
04 210 6.01
05 250 7.16
06 270 7.73
07 320 9.172
08 370 10.60



37



Graph 4.1: Current verses magnetic field intensity

(b) Braking time of the disc

(i) Current= 90.5 mA

Voltage (v) rpm Braking time (s)
126.7 2250 2.3
144.1 2450 2.8
162.5 2600 3.15

(ii) Current= 130 mA

Voltage (v) rpm Braking time (s)
126.7 2250 0.9
144.1 2450 1.04
162.5 2600 1.13
38



(iii) Current=172 mA

Voltage (v) Rpm Braking time (s)
126.7 2250 0.64
144.1 2450 0.88
162.5 2600 .98

First of all, the time necessary for the disc to completely stop from a fixed initial angular speed
when the motor is turned off can be measured as a function of the excitation intensity.








0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650
Graph: braking vs speed
Current= 90.5 mA Current= 130 mA Current=172 mA
39

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Road, rail and air vehicles all rely mainly or solely on mechanical friction brakes.
These brakes are composed of two functional parts: a cast-iron rotor (disc or drum) and
pads pressed against the rotor to generate the braking force by friction. The pressure is
applied by a hydraulic or pneumatic circuit. Friction braking is dissipative: the vehicles
kinetic energy is dissipated as heat on the disc, which heats up to several hundred Celsius
degrees. Despite its tremendous advantages in compactness and effectiveness, friction
braking suffers from severe limitations:
- Loss of braking force with increasing temperature (fading phenomenon)
- Warping of discs
- Wear of pads and rotors
- Complexity and fuel consumption of power assistance
- Slow response time due to power assistance, especially in trucks, buses and trains
- Complexity of controlling each wheels braking independently
- Necessity of complex and costly anti-lock controls
- Risk of hydraulic fluid leak
- Risk of brake fluid contamination by water and subsequent loss of braking power
- Challenging integration with anti-lock, traction, and dynamic stability controls

The concept of integrated contactless magnetic brake was invented to remedy to these
problems. The integrated brake combines a conventional friction brake with a magnetic
brake. This novel concept has many advantages over friction brakes:
- Reduced wear
- Reduced sensitivity to fading
- Reduced fuel consumption of power assistance
- Faster control dynamics
- Easier integration with anti-lock, traction, and dynamic stability controls
- Easy individual wheel braking control
- Electric actuation, no fluid

40

The magnetic brake consists of a number of stationary magnets facing the friction
brakes rotor across an air gap. When the disc spins, eddy-currents are induced in the
disc and the interaction of these currents with the magnetic field creates the braking
force. The braking force is directly controlled by the intensity of the magnetic field.

Electromagnetic brakes are currently used as electromagnetic retarders for the secondary
and downhill braking of commercial trucks, buses, and light rail vehicles. A single brake
is mounted in the transmission aft of the differential gear underneath the chassis. The
brake is energized by electromagnets connected to the battery and controlled manually
by the driver. Electromagnetic retarders provide a large braking torque without contact
between the magnets and the rotor thereby alleviating the duty on the main braking
system. They however suffer shortcomings such as heavy weight, excessive power
consumption of the electromagnets, and vulnerability to power failure.





















41

CHAPTER 6
FURTHER DEVELOPMENT SCOPE

6.1 The concept of an integrated brake

In order to remedy to the disadvantages of friction brakes, the integrated brake
concept was developed as part of the present research (Fig. 3).

Fig6.1: Integrated braking system
The integrated brake combines a friction brake with an eddy-current brake on the
same caliper. This combination has several advantages:

- Reduced wear of friction pads: the eddy-current brake can provide a large fraction of the
braking force, thereby reducing the amount of kinetic energy dissipated at the pads and
consequently reducing their wear. The eddy-current brake is contactless and therefore
wear-free.

- Reduced sensitivity to fading: the eddy-current brake can assist the friction brake when the
rotor is hot. The combination of two sources of braking torque compensates for their
respective loss of effectiveness at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to
increase the effectiveness of the friction brake by keeping the pads cool. This is achieved
by relying as heavily as possible on the eddy-current brake.
42


- Reduced sensitivity to wheel lock: the eddy-current brake reacts faster to control inputs
than a friction brake. Therefore, the brakes control system can prevent wheel-lock more
easily than with friction brakes. Furthermore, the friction brake is mostly used at low
speeds. The effects of wheel lock are much less severe at low speed than at high speed.

- Faster control dynamics: the eddy-current brake is directly controlled by its excitation
magnetic field. The response time of an eddy-current brake is counted in milliseconds,
whereas the response time of mechanical systems is counted in tenths of seconds. This is
particularly true of power assisted and pneumatic brake systems.

- Easier integration with vehicle electronic driving aids: ABS, traction control and dynamic
stability systems require fast response times for more precise and safer vehicle control.
The fast response time of eddy-current brakes makes them more suitable for interfacing
with these electronic driving aids.
- Reduced fuel consumption of power assistance: the primary reliance on eddy-current
braking reduces the maximum braking force required from friction brakes. The power
assistance requirement is consequently decreased, making it effective to replace the
hydraulic actuation and vacuum assistance by an electric actuation, which drains power
only when actuation is needed.

However, their requirement for a large excitation current is a major disadvantage. The
most significant drawback is the lack of failure safety. The excitation current may not be
available for a variety of reasons, in which case the retarder is totally useless.
Furthermore, the excitation current is necessarily supplied at a low voltage, which
induces high ohmic losses in conductors, diminished bus voltage, and renders electronic
control challenging. Additional resulting problems include heavy wiring from the battery
to the retarder, heating of the coils.

In order to palliate to these disadvantages, it is possible to replace the electromagnets
by permanent magnets. However, in gaining a loss-free, powerless permanent source of
excitation, controllability is lost. Indeed, permanent magnets cannot be turned off or
controlled directly. The magnetic flux crossing the airgap to excite the disc must be
43

controlled by a variable magnetic circuit on the stator. Most patents for permanent magnet
retarders revolve around variable magnetic circuit architectures.

One commonly encountered flux control scheme involves a drum brake exited by
permanent magnets facing the inner side of the drum and attached to a ring. The ring of
magnets is moved in an out of the volume inside the drum to modulate the surface area
of magnets facing the drum. Thus, the amount of flux crossing the airgap to excite the
rotor can be varied continuously. This scheme has been implemented and tested by Isuzu
in Japan [4]. There are several disadvantages to this architecture: the magnets are in the
airgap and thus exposed to the heat generated on the drum, the whole stator has to be
moved and when completely disengaged, nearly doubles the length of the retarder.

US Patent #6,237,728 relates to a drum brake, using two rows of permanent magnets.
Each magnet is included in a horseshoe ferromagnetic circuit. One row is attached to a
fixed stator inside the drum. The other row is attached to a stator, which can be rotated
slightly. The rotation brings the horseshoes from each row to present the same polarity to
the drum or gets the horseshoe of one row to short-circuit the horseshoes of the other
row. While this system is compact and does provide the ability to turn-on and off the flux
in the airgap, it doesnt provide the ability to control the flux linearly between the two
extreme positions. Furthermore, the magnets are only minimally preserved from the heat
generated on the rotor.

US Patent #6,209,688 and 5,944,149 relate to a drum brake with two rows of permanent
magnets. One row is mounted on a fixed stator, while the other is mounted on a stator
that can be rotated slightly. A ferromagnetic plate is between the magnets and the inner
surface of the drum brake. If two magnets with different polarities are paired, then the
flux shunts through the ferromagnetic plate. If the polarities are similar, the flux is
pushed towards the drum and braking is induced. This structure is no more capable of
linearly varying the flux between the on and off positions than that claimed in the
previous patent. The magnets are also located close to the heated rotor.




44


6.2 Novel eddy-current brake concepts

Existing eddy-current brake concepts all have several disadvantages that make it
difficult to integrate them with a friction brake in a same unit. We developed a novel
concept of eddy-current brake suitable for integration with friction brakes. The novel
eddy-current brake uses rare-earth permanent magnets instead of electromagnets to
generate the excitation magnetic field without dissipating energy. Rare-earth permanent
magnets are very compact sources of magnetic flux, much more than electromagnets.
TABLE 2 shows a comparison of rare-earth permanent magnet materials with
conventional permanent magnet materials.


Neodymium-Iron-Boron (NdFeB) magnets have a higher energy product than
Samarium-Cobalt (SmCo) magnets. They are also cheaper because neodymium is a
much more commonly occurring metal than samarium. NdFeB is thus the preferred
permanent magnet material for a low-cost, light, compact and powerful flux source.
However, it has a much lower curie temperature than either Alnico or SmCo.
Furthermore, neodymium magnets cannot practically be operated without a significant
loss of their magnetization beyond 100C.

There are therefore two challenges in using permanent magnets as flux sources in
eddy-current brakes: controlling the magnitude of the flux and preserving the magnets
from the high temperatures. Two variable-geometry magnetic circuit structures were
developed to control the flux from permanent magnets: the shunted magnet structure and
the rotated magnet structure. In the shunted magnet structure, a ferromagnetic bar is used
45

to bypass the airgap and short-circuit the permanent magnet. The flux density in the
airgap is varied from zero to a maximum by sliding the bar from a shunting position to a
non-shunting position. Fig. shows the shunted magnet structure in shunting position and
Fig. shows the same structure in non-shunting position.



Fig. : Shunted magnet structure, shunting position Shunted magnet structure, non-shunting
position

In the rotated magnet structure, the magnet is rotated from a position of alignment
with the magnetic circuit to a position in quadrature with the magnetic circuit. When
aligned with the magnetic circuit, the permanent magnet delivers all its flux through the
airgap. When the permanent magnet is in quadrature, its flux is short-circuited by the
magnetic circuit without ever reaching the air gap. Fig. shows the rotated magnet
structure in aligned and quadrature position.


:
Fig: Rotated magnet structure, aligned position Rotated magnet structure, quadrature position
46

Both structures provide thermal protection for the magnets by keeping them away
from the airgap and by providing some room to insert a heat shield. Additional thermal
protection is required to limit heat conduction from the poles of the magnetic circuit.

Variable-geometry magnetic circuits provide a simple, compact, cost-effective, and
fast way of controlling the flux from a permanent magnet over a broad dynamic range.
Only a small electric actuator is required to control the geometry of the circuit.



























47

REFERENCES

1. R. Limpert, Brake Design and Safety. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive
Engineers, 1999.

2. Telma. (2004, December). Nos Produits. [Online]. Available: www.telma.com.

3. H. Sakamoto, Design of permanent magnet type compact ECB retarder, Society of
Automotive Engineers #973228, pp. 19-25, 1997.

4. J. Bigeon and J.C. Sabonnadiere, Analysis of an electromagnetic brake, IEEE Journal
of Electric Machines and Power Systems, vol. 10, pp. 285-297, 1985.

5. . J.H. Wouterse, Critical torque and speed of eddy current brake with widely separated
soft iron poles, in IEE Proceedings-B, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 153-158, 1991.

6. wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddy_current_brake

7. wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_brake

8. Youtube : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TxYh6TodacM&feature=related
48