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Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi by Mark Boda

Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi by Mark Boda

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Journal for the Study of the Old Testament

Vol 32.1 (2007): 113-131 g 2007 SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapore) DOI: 10.1177/0309089207083768 http://JSOT.sagepub.com

Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi
MARK J. BODA
McMaster Divinity College, McMaster University, Divinity Room 233, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada

Abstract Recent work on the Book of the Twelve has consistently identified various sections of Haggai-Malachi as a corpus that existed prior to its incorporation into the Book of the Twelve. Many see Haggai/Zechariah 1-8 as an initial collection to which Malachi and Zechariah 9-14 were later added (prior to and/or after inclusion in the Book of the Twelve). This study investigates this corpus by interacting with past research and the text of these prophetic sections to argue that although each section in the corpus (Haggai, Zech. 1-8, Zech. 9-14, Malachi) displays an integrity of its own, the corpus as a whole is witness to a developing tradition, the resulting literature of which has been unified through a 'messenger' leitmotif. This leitmotif, however, rather than signalling the end of prophecy (as argued by some), identifies the importance of prophetic, priestly and royal streams to the emerging hope for a heavenly visitation. Keywords: Messengers, angels, Haggai, Zechariah. Malachi, Book of the Twelve, redaction criticism, messianism.

Book of the Twelve There is general consensus among those working on the redaction of the Book of the Twelve that Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi are related to the later phases of the compilation of this prophetic corpus. Nearly all have

114

Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32.1 (2007)

assumed that at least Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 comprised a pre-existent collection that then entered into the Book of the Twelve. This position is often based on the work of Eric and Carol Meyers in their Anchor Bible Commentary, in which they argued that Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 were composed prior to and possibly for the dedication of the temple.1 Their argument is based upon striking similarities on literary (especially super­ scriptions) and thematic (especially temple rebuilding) grounds between Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 along with the absence of any mention of the completion of the temple in these books. Positions have diverged over the issue of what followed Zechariah 8, either in the pre-Book of the Twelve phase or in later redactional activity on the Book of the Twelve. For many, some form of Malachi followed immediately after Zechariah 8, evidence for which is provided in, for example, Nogalski's list of catch words {Stichwortverkettung) linking Zechariah 8 and Malachi 1 as well as Bosshard and Kratz's list of con­ nections between the Haggai/Zechariah 1-8 corpus and Malachi.2 In a later phase, Zechariah 9-14 was inserted between Zechariah 8 and Malachi 1 and, according to Redditi, with its ubiquitous intertextual allusions to earlier prophetic literature, Zechariah 9-14 represented a reflection on the Book of the Twelve as a whole and was intended to shape one's reading of the book of Malachi.3 One possible reason it was
1. C.L. Meyers and E.M. Meyers, Haggai, Zechariah 1-8: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB, 25B; Garden City: Doubleday. 1987). pp. xliv-xlv. 2. For catchwords (e.g. 'loveV'hate* in Zech. 8.17 and Mai. 1.2-3; 'entreat the face of YHWH' in Zech. 8.22 and Mai. 1.9), see especially J.D. Nogalski, Literary Precursors to the Book of the Twelve (BZAW, 217; Berlin: W. de Gruyter. 1993), pp. 53-56; J.D. Nogalski. Redactional Processes in the Book of the Twelve (BZAW, 218; Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1993), p. 187 η. 21, where he lists 12 words or phrases common to Zech. 8.9-23 and Mai. 1.1-14. For Nogalski, Haggai/Zech. 1-8 entered the Bookfirst,then came Malachi and finally Zech. 9-14. For the connections between Malachi and the larger corpus of Haggai-Zech. 1-8, see E. Bosshard and R.G. Kratz, 'Maleachi im Zwölfprophetenbuch\ BN 52 (1990), pp. 27-46. who see Malachi as originally the continuation of Zech. 7-8, although later expanded in two phases. See the criticism of using the catchword phenomenon for redaction theory in B.A. Jones. The Formation of the Book of the Twelve- A Study in Text and Canon (SBLDS, 149: Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995), pp. 175-91; E. Ben Zvi, 'Twelve Prophetic Books or "The Twelve": A Few Preliminary Considerations', in J.W. Watts and P.R. House (eds.). Forming Prophetic Literature: Essays on Isaiah and the Twelve in Honor of John D. W. Watts (JSOTSup. 235; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996). pp. 126-56. 3. See especially Nogalski. Literary Precursors; ideim Redactional Processes', T. Collins, The Mantle of Elijah: The Redaction Criticism of the Prophetical Books (The

in Boda and Floyd (eds. Zech.1-21 was added. and then 14. Bringing Out the Treasure: Inner Biblical Allusion and Zechariah 9-14 (JSOTSup. 'Capstone'. For Schart it was a pre-existent corpus of Hag. the addition of Malachi occurred after Zechariah 9-14 had been incorporated into the Book of the Twelve5 and helped put the eschatological visions of Biblical Seminar. and expanded to include the connection to 'one' in Mai. Redactional Processes. 14. relocating at the same time 13. 2003).H.4 For Schart.10. 196-98. in M. the table in Redditi. 317. Since Zech. Boda and M. 8. for instance. 20. 14 (and Zech. pp. 12. see A. 'Capstone'. and in the mid-fifth century BCE Malachi (with Joel. 305-32. the emphasis on the holiness of the house of Yahweh in Zech. 1-8 entering near the time of the temple reconstruction. Forming Prophetic Literature.). The scholarly consensus. Habakkuk. Zech. 1-8 (possibly with Zech. pp. 9-13) thatfirstjoined the book that became the Book of the Twelve. Die Entstehung des Zwölfprophetenbuchs (BZAW. 3. 245-68. Nogalski argued that Zech.).9 echoes Hos. 'Zechariah 9-14: The Capstone of the Book of the Twelve'. 1-Zech. after which then there was a slow accretion of parts of Zech. Nogalski. 14. 17. 'Zechariah 9-14.L. 2. 292-305. O. 2. P.2 (3-6) was added to correct chs. pp. 4.7-9 as a Transitional Text: An Appreciation and Réévaluation of the Work of Rex Mason'.9. 14 'drew upon Malachi's thought'. 9-11 with a more positive attitude toward Jerusalem.9 and Mai. which open and close the Book of the Twelve. 13. Schart. has Haggai/Zech. Sheffield: JSOT Press.20-21 and the emphasis on temple and priesthood in Mai. and the Redaction of the Book of the Twelve'. and finally Zech. 370. Schart's catchwords and themes include the superscription KCC.25 and Mai. 14. p. Schart. the catchword 'king' in Zech. 234-36. First. 1. Berlin: .245-46. 9-14 and Mai.14. 6364.2 and adding superscriptions in 9. Steck argues that the foundational layer of Malachi was added to Zech. 8 and Malachi. Redditi.1 and 12. Steck. This evidence is cited by Redditi. Collins. 1993). Mantle. 1991). but it is turned around to mean that Zech. cf. 1. pp. Der Abschluss der Prophétie im Alten Testament: Ein Versuch zur Frage der Vorgeschichte des Kanons (BTS. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag. 13. pp. 80-81. 9-14 until finally Malachi was distinguished from Zechariah in the Greek period. pp.1. 'Zechariah 13.BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 115 inserted prior to the end of Malachi was that the editors did not want to exceed the number twelve for the corpus.1-13. Bringing Out the Treasure.). has not been unanimous on this issue. idem. pp. 9-11 was added first to smooth the transition between Zech. 15.J.7-9 to function as a transition to the remnant motif in Zech.L. Redditi. 80-81. 315-32.4-6. P.2-3. 9-13 if not already there) and subsequently Malachi were added in later redactional phases. 1. questions Nogalski's claims for catchwords linking Zechariah 8 and Malachi 1 and finds evidence of catchwords and themes which link Zechariah 14 to Malachi 1. before Malachi was added to the collection. 260. pp.9 was added it assumed a book of the Twelve that began with Hosea and ended with Malachi. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Floyd (eds. and additions to Zephaniah). 5. and so for others a substantial portion of Zechariah 9-14 was already in place after Zechariah 8. in Watts and House (eds. however. 4. when Zech. Malachi.

Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.D. 2000).D. Bringing Out the Treasure.G. 'Social Location and Redaction History in the Haggai-ZechariahMalachi Corpus' (unpublished paper delivered to the Society of Biblical Literature. pp. pp. Entstehung. Wolfe. 9-14) and Malachi entering in the last phase of the Book. 6.297-303. who suggests the inclusion of Haggai-Malachi in the fifth century.]. but provides little argumentation for how these two were fused together. who was responsible for the corpus and what was its significance? Redactional Conclusions My own work has challenged the Meyers' consensus that Haggai and Zecnariah 1-8 were composed for the dedication of the temple. Schneider. with thanks to the presenter for a written copy of the paper. . DC. in Boda and Floyd [eds. 1-8 on the one side and Zech. Sweeney (eds. Reading and Hearing the Book of the Twelve (Symposium. pp. If so. in Nogalski and Sw eeney (eds. idem.A. 'The Unity of the Book of the Twelve' (Ph. Reading and Hearing the Book of the Twelve. pp. On the one hand. 333-43 [339]) notes: Ί do not think that Zechariah and Malachi formed a literary stratum from the very beginning.8 The concern of the work at hand is to highlight any evidence within Haggai-Malachi that would suggest that at some point it formed a unified corpus with its own integrity apart from the Book of the Twelve. Nogalski and M. 'The Daughter of Zion Oracles and the Appendices to Malachi: Evidence on the Later Redactors and redaction of the Book of the Twelve'. esp. Schart ('Putting the Eschatological Visions of Zechariah in Their Place: Malachi as a Hermeneutical Guide for the Last Section of the Book of the Twelve'. has argued that Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi (which had undergone 'a com­ posite unifying redaction'") were fused to an original Haggai-Zechariah 1-8 corpus. Washington. 2 which has far more in common with Zeph. 90-129 (117-25).6 Curtis.E. The Steep and Stony Road: The Book of Zechariah in Social Location Analysis (Academia Biblica. Haggai as a book shows strong connections to the structure of W.14-20 than with Zech. Zechariah (including chs. pp. but what I question is lack of focus on the oracle in Zech. pp. 3. 252-60. 166-84: see now idem. B. 34-48 (42).1 (2007) Zechariah 9-14 in proper perspective. in J. 115-52.A. idem. Yale University.). and D.116 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32. Curtis. 1993). The evidence is too weak/ 7. 9-14 and Malachi on the other. Curtis argues for commonality between Haggai and Zech.). 9. prior to incorporation into the Book of the Twelve. SBLSP 37 (1998). "The Zion-Daughter Oracles: Evidence on the Identity and Ideology of the Late Redactors of the Book of the Twelve". pp. Curtis. ZAW 53 (1935). dissertation. Atlanta: Scholars Press. A. de Gruyter. 2006). idem* 'Reconstructing the Redaction History of the Twelve Prophets: Problems and Models'. 872-92: idem.1-10. See also the earlier view of R. on the other hand. 'Social Location'. 8. 'Editing of the Book of the Twelve'. Curtis' focus on the Daughter-Zion oracles is important. 1998). who saw Haggai. 1979).

). M. 2. Zechariah 1-8 represents an expansion of the vision of restoration far beyond the rebuilding of the temple. one finds emphasis on penitential renewal rather than temple reconstruction. 334 n. B. 1-2). 'The Ritual Background of Zechariah's Temple Song'. 49-69.23). in contrast to the Meyers.10 More importantly. 1-8 'seamlessly combines the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah'. 12. Boda. Boda. 3-4). Floyd (eds. Boda. 5). 167-90. 'Eschatological Visions'. On the other hand. Ben Zvi and M.1-8.9 Its abrupt ending is related to the fact that it represents a copy of a text that was created not for the dedication of the temple. 'Terrifying the Horns: Persia and Babylon in Zechariah 1. 390-407. for instance.11 the vision of restoration clearly exceeds the temple focus to include the restoration of the entire city and province on a physical and economic level (Zech.). Halpern. M. 10. CBQ 65 (2003).BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 117 temple rebuilding ceremonies and texts. Assen: Van Gorcum. 11. 7. but rather for its foundation laying.J. Utopia and Dystopia in Prophetic Texts (Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society. Becking and R. in B. I . Schart. CBQ 67 (2005). pp. 2003). Moving beyond the night visions and investigating the prose-sermon sections that now bracket the entire collection (Zech. who claims that the 'narrative framework' (a term he prefers to 'superscription') in Haggai and Zech. 13. 'Zechariah: Master Mason or Penitential Prophet?'. Albertz (eds. 'From Dystopia to Myopia: Utopian (Re)Visions in Haggai and Zechariah 1-8'.J. that those responsible were suggesting that the completion of the temple was not the sign of the much-anticipated restoration.1-6. Winona Lake. M. CBQ 40 (1978). The reason for this is linked explicitly to the way in which the early Persian period community was replicating the behavioral patterns that had brought about 9. 22-41. pp. pp. 'From Fasts to Feasts: The Literary Function of Zechariah 7-8 '. M. 2). Boda. p. 2006). Even if Halpern's evidence for the temple restoration character of every pericope in the night visions sequence can be accepted (and at times it seems to be a stretch). in E.7-6. Yahwism After the Exile: Perspectives on Israelite Religion in the Persian Era (Studies in Theology and Religion.J. the superscriptions in Haggai/Zechariah 1-8 are not as common in character as one would expect in a unified corpus (such as Ezekiel).15'. 1. IN: Eisenbrauns. contra.11 the return of the exilic community (Zech.13 The influential role that this penitential inclus io plays in the final shape of Zechariah 1-8 leads one to conclude. the renewal of the leadership of the community (Zech. Helsinki: Finnish Exegetical Society/University of Helsinki. and the cleansing of the community from impure religious practices (Zech. the punishment of the nations who have abused the people {passini).J. pp.

. its super­ scription contains vocabulary encountered in Zechariah 9-14.4-16 in its Literary Con­ texts'. chs. The two references to KCC at the beginning of chs. 631-42. CBQ 51 (1989).1). followed by a preposition (Mai.14 At the center of this sequence is the prophetic sign-act of Zech.1 (2007) the exile in the first place. Montreal: Médiaspaul. 13 and its attendant ramifications for their flock.4-16.E.J. Traduire le Bible hébraïque. Jinbachian and R. represents a unified literary complex. This evidence suggests that the Book of the Twelve ends with four collections. Zechariah 9-14 in its present form. Beyond this is a radically different literary style (with its question-answer) and gone are the carefully designed redactional shepherd pieces. The redactional shepherd pieces represent a subtle trajectory that results ultimately in the destruction of the shepherd in ch. 15. a feature missing in the previous two superscriptions. Boda. each of which displays its own integrity: Haggai 1-2. Thus. Bringing Out the Treasure. 215-54.). 'Reading Between the Lines: Zechariah 11. the superb work of P. M. Zechariah 9-14 itself is clearly comprised of disparate oracular materi­ als. M. cf. pp. *Literature to the Third Degree: Prophecy in Zechariah 9-14 and the Passion of Christ'. pp. Indeed.1 have argued elsewhere that Zechariah 7-8 appears to prepare the reader for the more negative 14. however.L. 12-14) and may indeed have functioned to mark the beginning of two originally separate collections. 11. 277-91. the missing reference to the temple's completion is evidence of a sober evaluation of the significance of this project for the community. De la Septante à la Nouvelle Bible Segond/Translating the Hebrew Bible: From the Septuagint to the Nouvelle Bible Segond (Sciences bibliques. Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi 1-3. Redditi. 9 and 12 appear at the beginning of these two disparate oracular sections (chs. to this is added the phrase 'through (TU) Malachi'. in Boda and Floyd (eds. David (eds.). Porter. unified by redac­ tional pieces containing the leitmotif of sheep and shepherd. the phrase ΓΠΓΓ~Ί«"Τ KCE.118 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32. that is. the content of which helps transition the reader from the positive JudahEphraim vision of the oracles in Zechariah 9-10 to the negative JudahJerusalem vision of the oracles in Zechariah 12-14. Boda and S. 'Israel's Shepherds: Hope and Pessimism in Zechariah 9-14'. in M. 910 vs. 1. but these have been drawn together into a whole. Zechariah 1-8. With Malachi one enters a different literary world. the theory of a pre-existing Haggai/Zechariah 1-8 collection is difficult to sustain. However. pp. Rather than being evidence for the setting for which Haggai/Zechariah 1-8 was compiled. 2005).J.

1-8 that for him indicate unity for Haggai/Zech. 1-8 with many books in the Hebrew Bible. Zech. pp. 201-204. pp. see also K. Boda. Malachi). is there any evidence for unity in the Haggai-Malachi corpus as a whole? Unity in Haggai-Malachi? A key early attempt to argue for unity in Haggai-Malachi was that of Pierce who highlighted a series of literary styles as evidence of a unified corpus. In light of the negative tone of Malachi 1.). Some of the categories he uses are not convincing and even if they were accepted. a unified message of salvation. 'Interrogatives in Haggai-Zechariah: A Literary Thread?'. pp. 1-8. 'Literary Connectors and a Haggai-Zechariah-Malachi Corpus'. kA Thematic Development of the Haggai-ZechariahMalachi Corpus'. Craig. Recent work by Curtis has bolstered my position on this. 'Social Location'. pp.18 15. and Steep and Stony Road. 390-407. one wonders whether this would lead us to argue for the unity of Haggai/Zech. JETS 27 (1984).W. 401-11. Although the traditional units in Haggai-Malachi each betray internal evidence of integrity as independent units (Haggai. 16. Malachi could just as easily have followed Zechariah 8 at the outset. who argues more precisely for different types of questions in Haggai and Zech. and a sobering charge to covenant fidelity. 224-44. and (3) Zechariah 914 and Malachi are linked through the common superscription KCC. Pierce. 9-14 stands apart. in Watts and House (eds.BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 119 tone of Zechariah 9-14. 1-8. . pp. (2) Zechariah 1-8 and 9-14 are linked through mutual literary dependency on the pre-exilic prophets. Curtis. rather than necessary. 'Fasts to Feasts'.16 However.M. Further evidence of unity is culled from the regular use of interrogatives throughout the corpus and the employment of narrative units. Redactional Processes. JETS27 (1984). idem. demonstrating on a sociological level that prophetic groups can move from centre to periphery or vice versa within one generation. this evidence only makes the theory that Zechariah 9-14 was part of a larger complex called Zechariah 1-14 conceivable. Forming Prophetic Literature. 18. Zech. 277-89. 17. 914.17 Pierce notes that (1) Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 are linked through a common historical framework communicated through the superscriptions. even though Nogalski shows that Zech.15 challenging that earlier dominant position of Hanson and Plöger that Zechariah 9-14 arose from a completely different tradition group than Zechariah 1-8. R. See how much of Pierce's work was embraced by Nogalski.

He offers synchronic reflection on the 19. Finally. See M. 3. arguing that Zechariah 9-14 was never related to this collection apart from the Book of the Twelve. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Bauer. and Malachi were drawn together in the Ptolemaic period in a collection with a chiastic design emanating from the central pericope in Zechariah 7-8. which highlights a key theme and rhetori­ cal structure. Ι­ ό.120 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32.1 (2007) The weakness of his argument. 1. pairing Zechariah 1-6 and 9-14 and then Haggai and Malachi. L. identifying obedience to social justice as key to prosperity for the Jewish community. is the diverse character of each of the supposed strategies of linkage. Of course. and the theme of social justice is present but certainly not dominant in these books. Zur sozio-ökonomischen Konzeption im Haggai-Sacharja-Maleachi-Korpus (BEATAJ. Pierce.J. and the differences in the superscriptions are ignored in favor of the similarities. 7. 'Literary Connectors'. 31 . House's reading of the Book of the Twelve represents a third attempt at unity for Haggai-Malachi.1-8. While it is true that there is an increased use of interrogatives in Haggai-Malachi. pp. interrogatives do not appear in Zechariah 9-14. 21. 287-88. Others may explain the anomaly differently. Pierce's presentation focuses on the lowest common denominator with little sensitivity to the uniqueness of each corpus in their respective use of interrogatives. Zeit des zweiten Tempels-Zeit der Gerechtigkeit. the arguments for commonality between Zechariah 1-8 and 9-14 are too general (prophetic material often does speak of salvation and warning). but beyond that there is little similarity in narrative use.23). but Pierce uses this as evidence that Zechariah 11 is the focal point of the corpus. Pierce must reduce his definition of narrative to 'third-party objectivity'.20 in order to classify Hag.1. however. The themes that unified these books are all socio-economic. 1992).21 Bauer concluded that Haggai. his rhetorical design runs roughshod over the superscriptions of Zechariah 1-8 and the bracketing character of the prose sermon inclusio (Zech 1. pp. 295-304. Boda. . Pierce's examples of narrative can be affirmed in comparing Haggai and Zechariah 1-8. Zechariah. TynBul 51 (2000). A second attempt to establish rhetorical unity in Haggai-Malachi is displayed in Bauer's approach. 'Haggai: Master Rhetorician'.12-15 with Mai. let alone try to com­ pare these with the visionary dialogues of the night visions of Zechariah 1-8. 20. However. In addition.19 It is difficult enough to compare the rhetorical and priestly torah questions of Haggai with the question-answer format in Malachi. highlighting more the disunity than the unity.

Redactor and Audience: Reforming the Notion of Isaiah's Formation'. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. New Visions of Isaiah (JSOTSup. 214.25 Conrad capitalizes on the use of 'messenger' terminology in Haggai-Malachi and argues for the key role that Haggai-Malachi play in the Book of the Twelve and possibly also the Latter Prophets as a whole. 27. Reading the Latter Prophets (JSOTSup. 24. 65-79. Lescow. cf. ÄV68 (1993). with Haggai-Malachi developing the theme of'restoration' as the resolution to a plot that began in Hosea-Micah as 'sin' and developed into 'punishment' in Nahum-Zephaniah. London: T&T Clark International. 1996). 'Sacharja 1-8: Verkündigung und Komposition'.1-6 and Zechariah 7 about the 'former prophets' who are now quoted. such hope is soon dashed in light of the realities of the Persian-period Yehudite community. A fourth proposal for unity was provided by Lescow who used the theme of Torah as the unifying principle of his leaner Haggai.bookreviews. pp. 376. pp.BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 121 character of Haggai-Malachi within the book of the Twelve. available online at <http:// www. JSOT9Ì (2000). 25. 75. Lescow. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.22 The difficulty with this approach has already become obvious in my reading of the various sections of HaggaiMalachi. RBL (2005).org/pdf/4227_4163 . 16-18. The Unity of the Twelve (Bible and Literature Series. although certainly not concerned with redactional history and levels. 'The End of Prophecy and the Appearance of Angels/Messengers in the Book of the Twelve'.24 Finally. Malachi corpus. Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag. 'Twelve'. Das Buch Malächi: Texttheorie-Auslegung-Kanontheorie (Arbeiten zur Theologie. esp. Melugin (eds. . 23. coupled with Conrad's appro22. pp. Statements in Zech. 'Prophet. Zechariah. 1. T. 12-20. Sheffield: Almond Press.26 The use of messenger terminology is evidence of a clear break between an earlier age of prophetic witness when there was confusion over the identification of prophets and the later age of Haggai-Malachi which clarifies this issue. cf. 1991). in M. pp. P. 22-42. 1993).23 This has been challenged as being too simplistic. 247-48. Conrad. pp. Cf. As seen in Conrad's works: Reading Isaiah (OBT. Redditi. See my review. 1999). 247-48. pp. Although the collection begins with great hope. E. Zechariah (Readings. Sweeney and R. JSOT 73 (1997). 186-87. House.R.W. Zechariah 1-8. 27.F. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 26.pdf>. 83-97.A. 2003). pp. 'Messengers in Isaiah and the Twelve: Implications for Reading Prophetic Books'. especially in view of the light treatment of this theme in Haggai and Zechariah 1-8. 1990). 75-99. 'Review of Conrad: Reading the Latter Prophets (2003)'. 'Twelve'. 306-25. Redditi. T.). pp.

Zech. Conrad assumes that Haggai-Malachi is consumed by the theme of temple rebuilding. 13. that sacred space which blurs the distinction between earth and heaven. 261. Judg. Prophecy in the Twelve is valued as a past institution that is coming to an end. For Conrad. 1.122 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32. 29.1 (2007) priation of the traditional critical interpretation of Zech. Conrad's inter­ pretation of Zech. especially in light of the fact that we have extant witnesses to the speeches of both Haggai (Hag. where he cites texts like Gen. Latter Prophets. 'Messengers'. Conrad.2-6. Zechariah is never called a "[K^E.2-6 does not claim that prophecy has ceased. 13. Fourthly. 2. that it is a reference to the reading of prophetic scrolls on the day of foundation laying.17.28 Conrad closely associates this focus on IITîK^C with the emphasis on the rebuilding of the temple. that all prophecy had ceased. First. a point that cannot be sustained for Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi and the majority of Zechariah 1-8.10-23) and Zechariah (Zech.1. is Haggai. even though Conrad's argumentation has been found lacking. p. p. 6. Conrad's theory on the messenger theme in Haggai-Malachi is insufficient. 78) weakly tries to anticipate this criticism by claiming that Haggai as both prophet and messenger 'represents a transition point in the literature'.24. 8. who appears. as Conrad says in 'End of Prophecy'. 30. leads him to argue that the 'prophets are portrayed as being from former times' . For this see especially Conrad.9-13.6b-10a) on that day. 260. displayed by the reference to Haggai in Hag. 28. but rather focuses on the eradication of false prophecy linked to idolatry.30 Secondly.2T Conrad claims that in their place now are found messengers.29 The problem with this approach is that it does not comport with the evidence in the book. both Haggai and Zechariah are explicitly referred to as 8*2:Π in the superscriptions and are portrayed in roles where they deliver prophetic-like speech (ΓΠΓΓΊΕΚΓΉ). 24. p. Conrad. 21. is Zechariah. discounting the theory that Haggai was a transition figure from prophet to messenger.18. Conrad ('End of Prophecy'. Latter Prophets. Thirdly. 1 Chron. 22. 94-97.13. for instance. the evidence he has culled from the corpus provides a way forward for our discussion. 2 Sam. the Γ Π Γ Γ "[K^E. that is. Never­ theless. 67: 'The Twelve as a collage pictures the rise and fall of a prophetic past and the reinstitution of an angelic/messenger presence. and the figure "ZDK^C ('my mes­ senger') in the book traditionally called Malachi. p. pp. 4.' 28. Finally. 27. is a stretch. In light of this. . 22. in Zechariah 3. not some heavenly figure.

13.7 as the adopted son of deity. 2. 98. 55. 12. 1.3. Glazier-McDonald. 4. cf. 2. Boda. p. which then affords the people the same semi-divine status as the royal house. 19. Malachi.BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 123 miT l^bù in Haggai-Zechariah-Malachi The greatest concentration of the term "[N^C in Haggai-Malachi is the Zechariah 1-8 corpus where. The Word of God in Transition: From Prophet to Exegete in the Second Temple Period (JSOTSup. KY: Westminster/John Knox Press.33 However.10. Schniedewind.1. Crowns and . and ÎT. often identified as evidence that the priests had taken over prophetic prerogatives. 1995). it does appear in Hag. however. There three individuals are called iphto: -ΠΊΠΠ yàìlZ (Zech.7 has drawn much attention from scholarship.M. besides the fact that the traditional translation of Zech.7.8 where. This transition. in that he says the verse gives David divine status and then democratizes David as the people (cf.4. D. Isa. in a comparison between TIT ΓΓΖ and C^CIT 2CT. 6. pp.6). Sheffield: JSOT Press. This final reference in Mai.34 what has been 31.7).L.9.1. 2) and among whom God holds court (vision 4). See M. Louisville. however. 197. Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi: A Commentary (OTL. Conrad. pp. on Zech.27). As noted by Conrad. The Divine Messenger (SBLDS. pp.12.13. Petersen's view.8 is rather odd.13 in the phrase miT "[K^Q in reference to the prophet Haggai. notes: 'The use of angels to mediate the prophetic word then is characteristic of post-exilic prophecy'. 29. 'End of Prophecy'. 1995).2.31 Outside this section. 71-72. 'Freeing the Burden of Prophecy: Massa' and the Legitimacy of Prophecy in Zechariah 9-14\ Bib 86 (2006). in the night vision sequence. 1987).4. was foreshadowed in the reference in Zech. 2. the prophet is taken on a journey to be given insight.3). 13. Ί Π Κ . p. 3. Petersen. it is claimed. 119. See also my 'Oil. 12. the house of David is compared to both deity (ΓΠ^Α) and Π^Π" "Jfcbc and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to David. 34. the term "[K^C is rarely used.32 Thefinalappear­ ance is in Mai. 3.^ Ε (2. Atlanta: Scholars Press.14.5). see Job 1. 338-57.2-6. 1.2-6 can no longer be sustained (in my opinion). 33. For the traditional position on this. 65-79. For the royal figure to be identified or compared to a "¡fc^C of God is not surprising and can be found at three places in the Former Prophets (1 Sam. 2.7 in which the "¡ΓΏ is identified as ΓΓιΓΓ "[K^C. W. The next appearance is in Zech.IV ipbtl (1. 14.11.7b to Joshua the high priest being given 'a way of access' to the divine council and a transition necessitated by the crisis in prophecy depicted in Zech.5. 5.17. 32.9.5. see Β. These passages offer us insights into the heavenly realm and the workings of the heavenly host whom God sends out to patrol the earth (vision 1. 62. The comparison to 'God' is also not odd.J. in light of the fact that the king is described in Ps.7b and the traditional interpretation of Zech. 2 Sam. 3.

4). but also the priest is emphasized in the night vision sequence. in Ehud Ben Zvi (ed.35): cf. both to have access into God's presence (Zech.20 the comparison of David with a Γ Γ ^ " " ^ ^ is related to his wisdom and omniscience.19) and to the angel who defended Jerusalem against Sennacherib (2 Kgs 19. one discovers out­ side of Zechariah 1-8 one reference to a ΙΤΓ* "[fc^C in each of the three corpora and each reference links this identity with one of the three key socio-functionaries in ancient Israel: prophet (Hag. which is recognized as authoritative by the com­ munity.). in the gift to the priestly caste of prophets who will have access to the divine council) and to serve as a conduit for God's presence into the community (Zech. NJ: Gorgias Press. 3. 1994).H. the royal figure in Zech. the night visions emphasize the role of the prophet. first in the reinstatement and reclothing of Joshua in Zechariah 3. Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures (Piscataway.7 is seen as one who is to preserve knowledge as he instructs the people. 2. 2. Of course. 1968). G. and that counsel is a decision which determines the future. where miT "[K^C appears to be limited to a heavenly rather than human figure.8 is linked to the Γ 7 Ί Γ Μ "[K^C in the 35 role of leadership of the people going into battle. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf. The Eschatology of Second Zechariah: A Study of the Formation of a Mantological Wisdom Anthology (CBET. This final link is inappro­ priate since in this context. 12. 12. then. pp. and that mrV'fK^Q is used in Hag. Jérusalem. 49. p. these three sociofunctionaries all enter into the scene at one point or another. the word of the prophet or of the priest". K.7). 1. In Zechariah 1-8.8) and priest (Mai.13 to refer to a prophet and in Zech. Priest and King in Zechariah 1:7-6:15'. the rv-JK'TE is specifically leading the people. on the phrase ΓΤΊΙΤ "[S^C.1 (2007) missed is that the term "[K^C is used to refer to prophets in a book as late as Chronicles. Focusing attention. 6: Kampen: Kok. the prophetic figure Haggai is seen as one who brings the message of God. 126-27. but also Thrones: Prophet. pp.J. 159. It may even be considered as synony­ mous with an oracle. . 42-71 [57]) who 'notes that "security. voici ton roi: Commentaire du Zacharie 9-14 (LD. rather than wise counsel. In similar fashion. 1. Not only the prophet.124 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32. victory. citing then P. As 7T~r "[K^C. pp. In contrast. king (Zech. 379-404. Gaide.8 to refer to a royal figure. Larkin. however.13).A. a prophetic figure is evident throughout the night vision sequence and the enduring importance of prophecy is clear from the fact that the prophet is consistently given messages to declare to the people. which suggests military leadership. however. 14. links the image here to that of the angelic presence leading the people in the Exodus (Exod. 14. however. 2006). VTSup 3 [1955]. does note that in 2 Sam. 12. At two points. the priestly figure in Mai. She also. recovery and salvation are the effects aimed at by counsel'". 35. de Boer ('The Counsellor'.

is that the three references to Γ Π Γ Γ "[N^E outside the night vision series all appear in verses whose 'authenticity' has been debated on text-critical and literary grounds. the night vision sequence portrays prophetic. it is not represented in some of the Septuagint textual traditions where one finds only: ò ayyeÀos κυρίου. 1-13. 22. van der Woude. pp.G. The BooL· of Haggai and Malachi (NICOT. Sinaiticus.P. J. What is interesting.12).S.36 Elsewhere in the book of Haggai.M. 55.1. 6. 210-17. he and his associates are to serve a significant function within the restoration community. 37. Finally. H. Aggeé-Zacharie. Venetus (cf. 57. 1943). 12.6). and cites the argument of T.1. the royal figure is not only prophesied in the night vision sequence as the divine court looks for the expected figure called Ut2± (Zech.8 reads as intrusive to the text. 5). Although the priest is to respect the role of the coming royal figure (Πΰ*). cf. 14'. even though reference has just been made to Haggai as the prophet (1. . Brewer. J. 1. p. one that was glossed at some point by a phrase which sought to play down the explicit reference to Haggai as a ΜΊΓΓ "[fc^C? The reference to ΠΙΓ" "]Κ*7Ε in Zech. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. but in Hag. Thus. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. that space between earth and heaven (Zech.n. 83-84. There are challenges within 1. See W. namely. cf.A. & T. pp. 'De Malak Jahweh: EenGodsbode'. 10). but present in Vaticanus. Gabalda.13. Armenian. 'Zu Malächi und Haggai'. Duodecim prophetae (Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum.A. he is given another title in this very next verse. Malachie (Paris: J. Ziegler. 12. Clark. 3. but a royal figure is addressed directly and given the promise that he will be responsible for the completion of the temple (Zech. 1969). who sees 'il conviendrait mieux comme confusion du v.3" Is it possible that the confusion on the text-critical level can be traced to the intrusive character of this phrase in this text. However. pp. 3. Haggai is called *rz:rr (1.BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 125 in the provision of a crown and throne to the priest in Zech. Zechariah. Verhoef notes Keil's observation that this interpolation emphasizes Haggai's position as extraordinary messenger. Malachi and Jonah (ICC. Not only is the lead word in the second phrase ΓηίΤ ΠΌΚ^ΰΞ a hapax legomena in the Hebrew Bible. see the vigorous denial of these arguments by P. 1987).9-15. Chary. m Π" "¡K^C. This verse claims that even the feeblest among the inhabitants of Jerusa­ lem will be 'like David'. pp. C-68. Smith and J. A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Haggai.T. 4). royal and priestly figures in intimate contact with the realm where CDK^C dwell. ZAW1 (1887).13 itself with what appears to be a dittography in the phrases: ΓΛΠ* HID^C:: mir "fate ". 1912). 2. ΑΤΓ18 (1963-64). Cyril). While the inhabitants of Jerusalem are compared to only 36. Verhoef. however. The phrase is missing in Alexandrinus and Marchalianus. Mitchell. Böhme. and David will be 'like God. Edinburgh: T. like the ¡Ti IT ipbn before them'.

654.5-6 then unpacks the character of this covenant. p. p. Malachi 2. R.7 stands out in this flow as it 38. For the link between these two texts. At the end ofthat section.126 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32. and the house of David as the house of God. Haggai. 331-32. no gloss is introduced into the text. 22. Mason. Buttrick (ed. . Mitchell.). as Böhme observed nearly 120 years ago. it is odd that David is compared to both 'God' and 'the ΠΓΓ "]&*?£:'. Smith and Brewer. 'The Use of Earlier Biblical Material in Zechariah 9-14: A Study in Inner Biblical Exegesis'. 2. 156. 25C. P. see the list of earlier scholars in R. Rowley (eds. the reference to "171** ~\$hll in Mai. The New Peake's Bible Commentary (London: Thomas Nelson. 210-17. p. 'Zechariah 9-14\ in G. Black and H. as the angel of the Lord before them' (και εσται ó ασθενών εν αυτοί^ έν εκείνη τη ήμερα cos οι KOS Δαυισ. 1107.41 Malachi 2. 40. 1956). The Interpreter 's Bible (New York: Abingdon. in Boda and Floyd (eds. pp. Haggai. 'Use'. cos άγγελο$ κυρίου ενώπιον αυτών). 1 40 1 C'M^K ?). pp. 156: C. is not accepted by everyone. Again. speaking about God's relationship with Levi. 2. see the rebuttals by J. Ackroyd. immediately the word 'God' is glossed as "jK^C Γ Η Γ Γ to lessen the comparison. YHWH reveals his desire that the covenant with Levi continue.1 (2007) one individual ('David'). 'Malachi'. Haggai. . could the intrusive character of this phrase be traced at least in part to a redactional agenda related to the status of the royal house? Finally. Bringing Out the Treasure.A. Mason. p. 249.M.). Smith and Brewer.L. New York: Doubleday. 'Haggai/Zechariah\ in M. This extra text has often been attributed to the uncomfortability of later Jewish scribes to grant David even indirect attri­ bution of deity (what Mitchell called 'a gloss by some one "very jealous for Yahweh'"). p.M. p. 326. p. p. Meyers and E. 329.P. The Targum translates 'the house of David shall be like princes (™~Ζ~Ξ) and shall flourish like kings'. 41.H. 1962). 41: Verhoef. 156 n. continuing God's speech still in the first person. Meyers. p. 4. see Mason. However. the LXX reads 'the weakest among them in that day as the house of David.16 (:^π'~"Γ. There is no question that there is great discomfort with this phrase as attested in the ancient versions. Smith and Brewer.C.38 thus. Dentan. this.^Γΐ·:^"[^"ΓΊΜ^ΊΓΓ:^ .). Böhme. Haggai. See Mitchell.A.R. ó δε OÌKOS Δαυίδ eos óteos θεού.7 also has been noted as secondary to its context. and expressing it in a way that personalizes the covenant as if with an individual. while God is still speaking in the first person. 1993). it is interesting that when a similar comparative structure is used to explain the relationship between Moses and Aaron in Exod. Zechariah 9-14: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB. In 2. warning them about the seriousness of action that YHWH will take against them if they do not heed his word. of course.39 However. 39. "Use*.8-9.1-4 addresses the priests directly ('you'). the speech then returns to address the priests directly with the 'you'. Smith in Mitchell.

12. Notice also D.[who.).6. As I neared the completion of this study I was delighted to find support for this link between "¡S'TE and redaction from the Meyers who suggested that the phrase P"! ¡K^E in Zech. Forming Prophetic Literature. 'his mouth') and refers to God in the third person ('the Lord Almighty').BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 127 speaks of the priesthood in abstract terms and not directly ('a priest'. 332). there are indications in Malachi that those responsible are seeking to create links not only with Zechariah 9-14 (KCC) but also with Haggai and Zechariah 1-8.. 12. 269-302 (282). in Watts and House (eds. Zechariah 9-14. then it is very likely it was the one(s) responsible for the Malachi section who accomplished this work. but remains focused on a coming messenger figure who 'mysteriously combines the roles of prophet and angel'. the resulting literature of which has been unified around the night vision series in Zechariah 1-8 through the insertion of the phrase Who. pp.7 also repeats the same theme already found in 2. then. Such a person might also be the one who redacted or influenced the redactor of the Book of Malachi. The self-identification as 'my messenger' ("DK^C). 1. Malachi 2. using similar vocabulary.1 and 3.1 were original to the corpus we now find in Malachi. Here again is evidence in a verse containing the phrase 7l'~* "[K^C of intrusion into the text. .8 in his discussion of Malachi and the oddity of the connection to the house of David. Conclusion and Implications This article has argued that although each section in the Haggai-Zecha­ riah-Malachi corpus displays an integrity of its own and thus possesses a unique redaction history. a conclusion that would mean that Zechariah 9-14 was part of the corpus from the outset.] in the reference to "Angel". who notes Zech. it is also possible that those respon­ sible shaped the final section (the book of Malachi) in a way that matched their agenda to emphasize their "[K^C ideals. p.42 Nevertheless. but recasting it in a style that stands out in the pas­ sage.K. the corpus as a whole is witness to a developing tradition. was responsible for this redaction? Who has taken these corpora and drawn them together into a unified whole? If Mai.8 'could well be the mark of a redactor or compiler of the Book of Zechariah. places these prophetic words squarely into the mainstream of the Haggai-Zechariah-Malachi corpus* (Meyers and Meyers. 'through' (ΤΞ) whom YHWH has communicated this KCÖ to Israel. However. a view that would leave open the possibility for a later inclusion of Zechariah 9-14. 'Malachi's Dual Design: The Close of the Canon and What Comes Afterward'. creates a nice link with the opening section of the Haggai section of the Haggai-Malachi collection where the word of YHWH comes 'through' 42. . Berry.

14) sections of Zechariah 1-8 contain the call 'return to me and I will return to you'. he was closely associated with deity. As the crisis darkens in the later period possibly associated with the texts now found in Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi.C. the Book of Watchers and Apocalyptic (OTS. 250). then. 'From Nabi to MaPak to "Ancient Figure" \ JJS 26 (1985). See the work of N. 1996). 2). has been drawn together through the use of the leitmotif of PuPP "[8^0. pp. Ezek.J. . The priest's association with the heavenly realms comes through his role in entering the sanctuary and the presence of God. 6. The prophet was always associated with the heavenly realms. Tigchelaar notes some of what he calls confusion over the 'question of human and angelic roles' (p.J. Brill. The association of these figures with the heavenly realm is not so shocking.9). 3 is not surprising (for the high priest was allowed to enter God's presence once a year). pp. but which could come from a common stream of prophetic tradition. 12-24.43 43. Prophets of Old and the Day of the End: Zechariah. since he is the one accused. the holy of holies being depicted as an entrance to if not the divine council. On Yom Kippur the high priest entered once a year. In his analysis of Zechariah and the Book of Watchers. 35. 3 it does not appear to be on the same level as membership.G.1 (2007) ( T I ) Haggai. The second half of the Haggai-Malachi complex (the sections using the ACQ superscriptions) offers a more sober vision of the future.128 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32. Tigchelaar. is the significance of this redaction? The first half of the Haggai-Malachi complex (the sections using the historical superscriptions) offers a positive view of the future of reinstated socio-functionaries in the restored Yehudite community. Jeremiah's comments about prophets in the council). This collection which represents the collation of four very different bodies of literature.2-3) and closing (8. hope shifts increasingly to an inbreaking of CDK^C associated with traditional Israelite socio-functionary roles. being called the adopted son of deity and functioning as vice-regent of God on earth (Ps. priestly and prophetic streams in the early Persian period. Through these echoes the ones responsible for this final section in Malachi identify themselves with the earlier Haggai-Zecharian tradition and further strengthen the integrity of the corpus. but in Zech. expressing concern over the present crisis in royal. which elevates roles originally associated with the earthly society of Yehud into the realm described in the night visions which is between 'earth and heaven' (Zech.7. yet with heavenly contact if not origins. What. Notice also the conclusions of E. the opening (1. Additionally. a phrase that is echoed in Mai. Although the king is never associated with the divine council. 250-52. especially as the one who had access to the divine council. 5. Cohen. 1-3 and 2 Kgs 20 (cf. 3. To find the high priest in the divine council in Zech. Leiden: E. who is called ΡΠΡ" ipftù. These figures are identified as real human figures who are linked to pre-exilic traditions. appearing in the divine realm in such passages as Isa.

So also Conrad. Jones. see GlazierMcDonald. pp. 23. As 'Dual Design'. In them Malachi brings together elements from his preaching into a sharper focus. Indeed. p. Similarly. 45. 302-303. thus kthe original literary horizon of Mai. However. O'Brien. However.M. who argued that '3. 282. 3. Curtis. 204. 22.I. 269-302 (281-82). The view that dominates scholarship is that Mai.23-24 as a later addition to explain Mai. 'Dual Design'. such as the Book of the Twelve or even the NevPim as a whole.22-24 to redactional processes related to the development of the Book of the Twelve or even the NevPim as a whole. pp. *ZionDaughter Oracles'. Although the majority of recent scholars have linked Mai.20-33. 267). pp.23.. Entstehung. cf. p. 244-70. says: 'This messenger mysteriously combines the roles of prophet and angel'. notes that 'The role of the prophet Elijah also involves the introduction or identification of the messenger . Malachi. a passage which Berry has argued lies behind the reference to "[K^E in Mal. sees 3. 3.44 Exodus 23. all the major themes of the prophecy are found in these final verses. Priest and Lévite in Malachi (SBLDS. 3.1). now with the purpose of cleansing the people (Mai.' (p.24. but whose voice must be carefully heeded. 323. 291. and suggests that these figures originally associated with the earthly roles of prophet. which he considers later) with the change from Elijah the Tishbite (LXX) to Elijah the prophet (MT) suggests that 'the prophet may indeed encompass a literary horizon that includes a corpus of Scriptures containing the Torah and a collection of prophetic writings'. 1990).BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 129 The two roles associated with these CDK^Q. Schart.22. messenger figure and military leader. pp. 121. p. Berry.. Berry. Redditi. 3. Nogalski.1.22-24 comprises the climax of the prophecy. J. Atlanta: Scholars Press. Zechariah. in recent years there 44. 3. p. Redactional Processes. 47. 236-37. Formation. p.22-24 was limited to the Book of Malachi'. 166-84. 185. 'Dual Design'. 3. are interestingly the two roles associated with the being called ^DK^C in Exod.45 This intertextual link draws in the only other references to CDK^C outside the night vision corpus. 'Capstone'. the expected return of a prophetic figure thus is that of one who literally had hovered between earth and heaven. it is possible that the present redactional theory may explain why Malachi ends with a vision of the return of Elijah. pp. 145.22-24 is a conclusion to larger canonical units. 46. 23 which he considers earlier) to its order in MT (3.46 It was Elijah whose earthly ministry ended with his direct transmission to heaven on a fiery chariot pulled by horses.47 Additionally. p. 3.20-21 describes a figure closely associated with deity ('my name is in him') who will not only guard and guide them in the conquest of the land. he then notes that the shift of this pericope from its order in the LXX (which was Mai. king and priest are possibly being likened to (or even assuming) the ancient role of the ipbu who led Israel into the conquest of the land.24.

Petersen.J. Also see N. Β.). JSNT 24 (1985). Nickelsburg (eds. Angel Veneration and Christology: A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John (WUNT. notably the Rechabites. 1995). CA: Scholars Press. 45-70.C.. See especially J.C. pp. Fletcher-Louis. . For a Later Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel. could be portrayed as angels. Collins and G. others. this association seems to be severed emphatically in the \ision of the Lamb in chapter 5 \ See now idem.14-20. says that they 'point to a concept that seems to have been developing within Judaism prior to the second century CE. The Great Angel· A Study of Israel's Second God (Louisville.g. in R. 2004). 70. writes: 'The characterization of humans in such angelic terms has its roots in the biblical text. Tübingen: J. who. 1-6 and even 12. P. 1982): idem. 135-51 (145). 42: Leiden: Brill. Barker. from attributes shared with some of the angels (e. the Son of God.". who argues for angelic possession of John and Jesus.H. Sproston North (eds. The Open Heaven (London: SPCK. especially Adam and Jacob. 55. K. Carroll. Argali. pp. concluding: 'Angelology has influenced the christology of the Apocalypse in such a way that one of its important strands is an angelomorphic Christology which upholds monotheism while providing a means for Jesus to be presented in \isible. Cf.A. Finally. pp. speaking of documents in Judaism and Christianity in the first few centuries CE.P. pp.130 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32. 10. glorious form to his church*. 'The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev. pp.12-20. Sullivan. KY: Westminster/John Knox Press. 32. Wrestling with Angels: A Study of the Relationship between Angels and Humans in Ancient Jewish Literature and the New Testament (AGAJU. Jesus and the Angels: Angelology and the Christology of the Apocalypse of John (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. *: see C. Some Jews conceived of the possibility for the faithful—probably only a \ ery select few—to transcend humanity and become angels. 99-110.E. All the Gloiy of Adam: Liturgical Anthropology in the Dead Sea Scrolls (STD J. 1992). speaking of the book of Revelation. 'Elijah.C.6ff and Jewish angelology'. as they enter this space between earth and heaven to fulfil God's will on earth. Charlesworth..T. L. M. Figures in Israel's past.). "'Angels'' and "God": Exploring the Limits of Early Jewish Monotheism'. 263 . Stuckenbruck and W.1 (2007) has been much debate over the use of angelic motifs or theology for understanding Christology in the New Testament. Leiden: Brill. Early Judaism. Rowland.l3ff: The Debt of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology\ JTS (1980). 2004). see C. and especially from 14. highlighting the three figures of king. Mohr. draws Zech.B. 1997). Such chariots and horses also appear in Zech.E. "The Portrayal of the Righteous as an Angel'. PA: Trinity Press International.T.). Chico. i. 1-11. 2002) p. idem.R. who.. At the same time. Stuckenbruck. Early Jew ish and Christian Monotheism (JSNTSup. Bow and R.8 into the discussion. 1980). but it is clearly being de\eloped in material from the 3rd-2nd centuries B. 2000).W. 226. in J.48 It may be that the who acts in more of a divine than human role'. I thank Loren Stuckenbruck for our helpful con­ versation on this issue. could be thought of as 7 having been transformed into angels.T. in L. and Early Christianity (Harrisburg.S. p. and Jesus: Some Issues in the Anthropology of Characterization in Mark*. Ideal Figures in Ancient Judaism: Profiles and Paradigms (Septuagint and Cognate Studies. notes: 'That there is an analogy between Christology and angelology is apparent from 1.R.A. Ά Man Clothed in Linen: Daniel 10. Werline (eds.H. pp.1 and 15. London: T&T Clark International. 232-40.6). 1-6. Moses and priest. 271-72. 48.

priest and king. Porter (ed. see w . with its reference to the struggle between Jacob and the 'messenger' who is closely associated with 'God' ('the Lord God Almighty. If this 'messenger' redaction can be linked to the final redaction of the book of the Twelve.J.L. this time leveraging the Torah's theology of'messengers'. 35-74. Boda and M. 3-5.). London: T&T Clark International. Conrad. J.). Tradition in Transition (LHBOTS. the Lord is his name').D. Floyd (eds.BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 131 genesis of this development can be traced to the redactor responsible for the Haggai-Malachi corpus or even to the Book of the Twelve as a whole. cf. This may be further evidence of the role Hosea and Malachi play in the Book of the Twelve.H.49 In the wake of the exile and the failed restoration. it would suggest that greater attention needs to be given to the theme of future leadership hope in our reading of the Book of the Twelve. Latter Prophets. 50. Those responsible for this messenger redaction and its inclusion into the Book of the Twelve may be playing off of or even be responsible for the inclusion of sections of Hos. See further M. 13). pp. in M.W. Redditi. See now P. in Nogalski and Sweeney (eds. in S. 12 there is also reference to God's use of prophets to speak to the people (v. 10) as well as to lead the people (v.). .J. those responsible for the redaction of the Haggai-Malachi corpus do not lose hope in the promised renewal of prophet. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Boda. Ά Frame for the Book of the Twelve: Hosea 1-3 and Malachi'. 'Figuring the Future: The Prophets and the Messiah'. Reading and Hearing the Book of the Twelve.E. 12. 209-17. Watts. but now look for these as 'messengers of hope' with heavenly origins.50 49. Interestingly. Messiah (McMaster New Testament Studies. 2006). in Hos. forthcoming). pp. 'The King in Haggai-Zechariah 1-8 and the Book of the Twelve'.

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