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Zerubbabel, Joshua, And the Night Visions of Zechariah by Paul L. Reddit

Zerubbabel, Joshua, And the Night Visions of Zechariah by Paul L. Reddit

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Zerubbabel, Joshua, and the Night Visions of Zechariah

Georgetown College Georgetown, KY 40324

THE SECOND, AND BY FAR THE LONGEST, section of First Zechariah (1:76:15) contains the night visions seen ostensibly on the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month of the second year of the Persian king Darius I. The unity of this material has recently been discussed. A. Petitjean has shown that the oracular material of Zechariah 1-8 (1:1-6,[14],16-17; 2:10-17; 3:8-10; 4:6b10a; 6:9-15; 7:4-14; and chap. 8) can be interpreted apart from its larger context,1 though scholars have been slow to follow his lead. L. G. Rignell, on the opposite extreme, has argued that all the materials must be interpreted in their present context, though even he conceded that some of the materials (e.g., 1:16; 2:10-11; 3:8-10) seem to have derived from an earlier period in Zechariah's career and that 2:10-11 might have been quoted from some other source.2 Most scholars fall somewhere between these two positions, debating whether this or that passage is original. Much of the discussion has concentrated on three passages: 4:6b-10a, which is usually held to interrupt its context; 6:9-15, which many scholars see as an addition; and 3:1-10 (in whole or in part), which is sometimes held to exhibit sufficiently different characteristics from the other seven visions to deny it to the original sequence or
1 Les oracles du Proto-Zacharie: Un programme de restauration pour la communauté juive après l'exil (EBib; Paris: Gabalda; Louvain: Orientaliste, 1969) viii. 2 Die Nachtgesichte des Sacharja: Eine exegetische Studie (Lund: Gleerup, 1950) 58,81, 135-42.


7.g. Sellin." ZAW 54 [1936] 56-59) and Halpern ("Ritual Background." BR 20 (1975) 40-42.250 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY I 54. Leipzig: Deichert. Driver. The originality of 4:6b-10a. Sinclair. E. Halpern. The Minor Prophets (Century Bible. This investigation will argue that all three passages were added to the night visions and that they transformed those visions from a document addressed to Babylonian Jews summoning them to Judah into a politico-theological treatise for Judah and Jerusalem for the year 520 B. they are much shorter and a decision about them carries less significance than about the three listed above. and 3:1-10 are the only passages in the night visions (or the whole Book of Zechariah for that matter) that mention Zerubbabel or Joshua. who claim a close connection between 3:1-10 and 4:6b10a. Suggestions to move the verses elsewhere4 flounder. The place for the insertion was probably suggested by the lampstand in the vision. and the seven lamps were identified as "the eyes of the Lord. none of which has any obvious connection with the vision of the lampstand and olive trees. In ν 11 Zechariah asks about the olive trees standing on either side of the lampstand and is told in ν 14 that they are two "sons of oil. NRSV). 6:9-15. 1906) 2. B.203." 169)." Most scholars interpret the phrase to mean "anointed ones" (NRSV). Schmidt ("Das vierte Nachtgesicht des Propheten Sacharja. but the Hebrew word yishär is nowhere else 3 For example. presumably based on arguments like those of H. The insertion includes a series of oracles to or about Zerubbabel (4:6b. In view of the fact that the originality of all three passages has been questioned. The conclusion that 4:6b-10a is a secondary. 1992 even to Zechariah himself. That interpretation resumes in 4:10b. 3 .C. redactional composition has implications for understanding the rest of the vision.8-10a). which range through the whole earth" (v 10b. on the lack of evidence that the verses ever appeared anywhere else. Das Zwölfprophetenbuch übersetzt und erklärt (ΚΑΤ 12/2. While other verses might sometimes be consid­ ered secondary (e. of course. It is important to notice that 4:6b-10a. A. "The Ritual Background of Zechariah's Temple Song. Edinburgh: Jack. "Redaction of Zechariah 1-8. S.. 4 NEB and JB drastically rearrange the text. The lampstand would have symbolized God." CBQ4Q (1978) 169-70. L. 1:16-17). one is justified in examining the passages for the light they might shed on the theology and redaction of Zechariah 1-8.]) 469. and 3:1-10 The place to begin is 4:6b-10a. 6:9-15. R. which at least resembled the menorah in the temple. The better conclusion would seem to be that the verses were composed for their present context for redactional purposes. which is widely recognized as an inter­ ruption or secondary expansion of the interpretation of the lampstand and olive trees Zechariah had seen. I. 1930 [2d-3d ed.

It seems highly unlikely. and E. it is an exhortation commanding Zechariah to take gold and silver from the returned exiles Heldai. 1904) 420. and sons of wickedness in 2 Sam 3:34. Tübingen: Mohr. G. Tobijah. Studia Semitica Neerlandica 16. Ackroyd10 and Haggai. R. produce in general. but he points to the proper understanding of the olive trees in the vision: they mark access to God and indicate productivity/ fertility. S. 7 Ibid. 26:16. very fertile.9 Further. The second passage to examine is 6:9-15. Assen: Van Gorcum.g. L. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Haggai. Beek Festschrift. and Malachi (ICC. Contentwise. L. and K. and Jedaiah and make crowns... Petersen disagreed that only one crown was made and argued that they were for Joshua. In connection with ν 12. Van der Woude then proposes that the hapax legomenon santërôt in 4:12 means "mountains. fleece. P.g. 14:23.24) and which should be brought as tithes (Deut 12:17. Philadelphia: Westminster. 1987) 258. in which cases the meaning seems to be people sated with or full of something. V I I continues with no direct object: "and set upon the head of Joshua son of Jehozadak the high priest.g.]) 185. 9 Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 (OTL.. 1893 [2d ed. The closest parallel to Zech 4:14 occurs in Isa 5:1. son[s] of death in 1 Sam 20:31. it is always used in connection with wine. arguably at the entrance to heaven. 13:5. C. Joel 2:19. 1984) 275. And see H. Marti. 10 Exile and Restoration (OTL. Α. Mitchell. 267. and other agricultural products (e. who was the Branch addressed in w 12-13."7 Whether that interpretation is correct or not may remain open. ed. 1912) 185-86.THE NIGHT VISIONS OF ZECHARIAH 251 used in connection with anointing. Wellhausen emended the text to read "crown" in the singular and argued that it was intended for Zerubbabel. J. van der 6 Woude point to places where constructions with "son" occur (e.e.40.w Travels in the World of the Old Testament (Μ.. Reimer. For example. grain. Garden City. and in Sumerian myth two trees marked the eastern entrance to heaven.firstfruits. Zech 1:8 also speaks of an angel standing among myrtle trees (or mountains). 6 5 ." Many solutions have been offered for this problem. 1974) 265. Neh 10:38. "Die beiden Söhne des Öls: Messianische Gestalten?. the phrase "sons of oil" in Zech 4:14 seems to indicate that the olive trees are sated with oil. Edinburgh: Clark. NY: Doubleday. which designates a hill as "a son of oil" (Samen). but did not signify kingship. Hag 1:11) which signify God's blessing (e. i.8 D.. 8 Die kleinen Propheten (Berlin: G. then. Dos Dodekapropheten (KHAT 13. that the word means 5 "anointed ones" in Zech 4:14. 1968) 198. M. S. Deut 18:4. Num 18:12. Thus.. M. Instead. Zechariah.12). Zechariah 1-8 (AB 25B. Meyers and A. van der Woude notes that two mountains were depicted at the entrance to heaven in the Gilgamesh Epic. van Voss et al. 7:10). Philadelphia: Westminster.

1080) notes that the LXX treats all of these names except Josiah as titles. 14 Admittedly. In that case the number of people in the party might well have been greater than four. For whom were the crowns to be made? Scholars have debated so long between Joshua. and Lam 5:16. 6. it is difficult to account for the plural form if it was not original. but that would affect the position being argued here no more than it would any other. gray hair (Prov 16:31).. 12 GKC 464 §k. at least one purpose of the zikkäron was to stake a claim to a share in Yahweh's favor (Neh 2:20). gold taken in plunder and given to God (Num 31:54).. and make the crowns. 1967) 275-82. Jer 13:18." IB. the verb in ν 14 is singular. stones on the high priest's ephod (Exod 28:12. Cant 3:11 offers a special case. 1 Chr 20:2)." "memorial. God is said to have adorned her with jewelry. Ps 21:4. or grandchildren (Prov 17:6). 23:42). but "Plurals of names and animals or things. Thomas ("The Book of Zechariah. A. 11 . . atonement money (Exod 30:16).29.18). the Haggai-Sachar ja 1-8: Studien zur Überlieferungsgeschichte der frühnachexilischen Prophétie (Studia Semitica Neerlandica 10. and Hen. grain for use in a trial by ordeal (Num 5:15. are frequently construed with the feminine singular of the verbal predicate. In ν 14 we read that the crowns would be in the temple as a memorial13 to the same four people." It often designates something material: phylacteries (Exod 13:9). In Zech 6:14 the memorials seem to be crowns or wreaths." "remembrance. In many of these cases.14 Seen from this perspective. Zerubbabel. two of the names in ν 10 (Heldai and Josiah) differ in ν 14. that the passage spoke of crowns. burnt offerings and peace offerings (Num 10:10). In Isa 28:3 and Esth 8:15 cäfära designates a crown worn by a person or persons other than a king. whether they be masculine or feminine. son of Zephaniah. Petersen is correct that the crown(s) need not have been royal. bronze censers hammered into an altar overlay (Num 17:5 [Eng."12 Further. then. 1992 W. or both that they have failed to consider other possibilities. We should notice that 6:9-15 opens with a command to take silver and gold from the three returned exiles to Josiah. It would appear. D. Assen: Van Gorcum. Beuken11 contended that Zechariah addressed Joshua and Zerubbabel alternatively. The word is also used symbolically to refer to God himself (Isa 28:5). Both ν 11 and ν 14 employ the plural form cä(ärot. 39:7). and of abstracts. 13 The term zikkäron means "reminder. The Hebrew word cä\ära is one of three words designating a royal crown and is used with that meaning in 2 Sam 12:30 (cf. In the allegory of Israel in Ezek 16:12. W. To be sure. wisdom (Prov 4:9). and twelve stones in the Jordan River (Josh 4:7). including a crown for her head (cf.252 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY I 54. the son of Zephaniah. M. since the reference is to a crown placed on the head of King Solomon by his mother on his wedding day. son of Zephaniah. and it is clearly a logical assumption that Josiah. Ezek 21:31 (probably). 16:40]). intended to stake the claims of the four men to a portion in Yahweh's temple. are the same person (cf. but scholars routinely emend Helem to Heldai. NRSV).

Subsequent visions invariably employ the phrase wtfeiiä* *et cênay wâ^ëre wëhinnëh 2:1. Κ. 1964 [3d ed. Jeremias. 1969) 73. Paris: Lecoffre. Halpern. . he is fully cognizant of the action of the vision. Siebeneck. Baldwin.9. "Zion as Primeval Stone in Zechariah 3 and 4." ZTK 70 (1973) 25. Stuttgart: KBW. Fensham (JSOTSup 48. Seybold. D." CBQ19 (1957) 319-20. C. dargestellt am Sacharjabuch.]wëhinnëh. R. in the third vision (2:7) the interpreting angel leaves Zechariah and is told in ν 8 to return and tell the prophet that God "will be a wall offirearound Jerusalem a n d . Zechariah. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. no interpreting angel. 1988) 237. indeed. T. Das Buch der Zwölf Propheten II (ATD 25. the glory within it" (NRSVv 5). ed. The first consideration is the formulaic language concerned with seeing. except to say that it arose before the rebuilding of the temple was finished in S16. It is not possible to date this addition with real precision. K. "The Messianism of Aggeus and Proto-Zacharias. Sheffield: JSOT. Petersen. Bilder zum Tempelbau (SBS 70. by contrast. Some scholars15 conclude that these differences indicate the secondary nature of 3:1-10. Two further considerations tilt the decision in the direction of calling the vision secondary. Aggèe-lacharie-Malachie (SB. W. Harrelson.THE NIGHT VISIONS OF ZECHARIAH 253 reference to Joshua and the following address about the Branch ( w 12-13) appear as intrusive as 4:6b-10a and should likewise be treated as an addition. The third passage to examine is 3:1-10. Chary.g.5. T. "Anfang und Ende der Apokalyptik. idem. and no explanation. 1974) 109. A." Studies in Prophecy (VTSup 26. F. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 202-3. W. In 3:1-10. "The Trial of the High Priest Joshua: Zechariah 3. Horst. Second.]) 210.M Text and Context: Festschrift for E C. The original admonition would have included the command to make the crowns and to place them in the temple (6:9-1 la. London: Tyndale. 6:1). R. Leiden: Brill. 1972) 112-18. . Elliger. esp. Die Nachtgesichte des Sacharja (FRLANT 117. a vision of the cleansing of the high priest Joshua before the angel of the Lord and the iäfän. That instruction is not carried out in 3:1-10. 1967) 103. 15 E." Er Isr 16 (1982) 118. Die zwölf kleinen Propheten Nahum bis Maleachi (HAT 14. . H. Haggai and Zechariah. Here the first question is whether the entire vision belonged originally with the other seven. ed. In the others Zechariah does not understand what he sees and learns their meaning from an interpreting angel. and there is no introduction to the vision. G. . S. T." 170. The visions beginning with 1:8 and 4:1 both describe the coming of the interpreting angel and employ identical formulae: rä W [ . 1975) 201-25. pp. 16 Scholars retaining 3:1-10 include J. 14) and a summons (v IS) to people far off (presumably in Babylon) to come and help to build the temple. 1974) 92. "Ritual Back­ ground. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. L. Gese. The addition of 6:1 lb-13 would have been suggested by the mention of the temple in w 14 and IS. while others16 deny their significance for the issue. 1984) 198-99. "Die Bildmotiven der Visionen des Propheten Sacharja. Smith. Waco: Word. Haggai. .. Micah-Malachi(WBC 32. 5:1. except for 3:1-10. Lys et al. van der Woude. Claassen.. Malachi (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries 24. 112-15.

w 6-7. return to Zion. It draws out the implications of those visions for its readers. It would appear. formed an addition to the original seven visions.7).254 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY I 54. and experience the presence of God. then. none of which made any reference to Joshua or Zerubbabel." JBL 95 (1976) 353-65. II. w 8 and 10 from a pro-Zerubbabel perspective. then. In the next four visions. 18 B. An analysis of 3:1-10 shows that the vision itself is not a unity.17 Since visions can include oracles. in the subsequent vision. 202-14. and was itself sec­ ondarily expanded by means of w 8. but w 8 and 10 do seem to be intrusive and messianic." 320. and God's rest in light of all he had done to correct the evil conditions Zechariah complained about in the first vision (6:1-8). It is carried out. that 3:1-7. 6:1 lb-13. that the vision of the lampstand came next in the sequence of visions. and the rebuilding of Jerusalem (with God as its protecting wall of fire and glory within). 1992 the angel does not even appear in 3:1-10.9 interpreting the cleansing of Joshua in a positive manner. O. 17 . 3:1-10) in which Joshua or Zerubbabel is found. The exhortation in 2:10-17 calls upon the exiles to flee Babylon. Zechariah depicts God's compassionate turn toward Jerusalem and the rebuilding of the tem­ ple. Further. however. while w 6-10 are comprised of oracles.18 it hardly seems necessary to call w 6-7. "Reports of Visions Among the Prophets. In the first three visions. on w 8. Vv 1-5 describe the vision. 121. Zechariah depicts the presence of God by means of the image of the lampstand. Long.10. Petersen argues that all of the oracles are added. 14-15. The visions commence again with 4:l-6a.10b-14 (minus ν 12?).10. If that is true. his punishment of those who had exiled God's people. That series also would have included the admonitions in 2:10-17 and 6:9-1 la. the associates of Joshua are introduced in ν 8 without previous mention. This Haggai and Zechariah. The first ad­ monition appears after the first three visions and before the interpreting angel is said to return and "awaken" Zechariah. the banishment of sin and sinners from Judah (5:1-4) to Babylonia (5:5-11). See earlier Siebeneck. "Aggeus and ProtoZacharias. the original series of visions numbered seven. 4:1 specifically notes that the angel came again to Zecha­ riah. and should not be equated with the celestial beings in attendance ( w 4. The Redaction and Theology of the Night Visions This investigation has shown good reason for considering secondary all three passages (4:6b-10a.9 an addition in support of Joshua. One may conclude.9 comprised the vision.

Apparently some kind of founding ceremony was held on the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month of the second 19 Meyers and Meyers. regardless of whether he was the Zechariah mentioned in Neh 12:16. 2:1-4). commanding Zechariah to make the crowns for people recently returned from exile and predicting that those far off (namely. Reconstruction of the events between 539 and 520 in Palestine is tenuous. Indeed.C. It is nevertheless possible to suggest that Sheshbazzar had originally begun rebuilding the temple (Ezra 5:16). If so. V 6b says that the rebuilding of the temple would be accomplished through divine. but that the project had not been finished. Zechariah 1-8. The addition of the Joshua/Zerubbabel materials (4:6b-10a. Hence. Zechariah depicts Judah overflowing with prosperity (1:17) and Jerusalem teeming with people (2:8). the nations who had exceeded God's plan to use them to punish the forefathers would not participate. 6:llb-13.THE NIGHT VISIONS OF ZECHARIAH 255 second sequence also concludes with an exhortation (6:9-1 la. This exhortation seems to fit perfectly well at the end of the visions. This initial tract envisioned restoration on a grand scale. it would seem likely that Zechariah himself was a returned exile. 3:1-10) provided the visions with new contents and directed them to a new audience. Zechariah even predicts (2:13) that the Babylonians would become plunder for the enslaved exiles (as they prepared to leave?).14-15). . Haggai. a notion perhaps borrowed from the plundering of the Egyptians at the time of the exodus (Exod 3:21-2. the human agent through whom God would work was Zerubbabel. To be sure. 12:35-36). the exiles) would return to help build the temple. The new focus was the events of 520 B. The night visions were composed for Jews still in Babylon to urge them to return home and participate in God's new order. 251. Judah would be the home for Jew and Gentile alike (2:15). The subject of 4:6b-10a was Zerubbabel and the rebuilding of the temple. Purged of sin (5:1-11) and safe from the punishment coming upon Babylon (1:14-15. given the ambiguity of Ezra 1-6. Nevertheless. 11:2-3. These exhortations identify both the recipient of the collection and their purpose. God had already moved into the midst of the exiles (called Zion in 2:11) and would resettle them at home around his temple (1:16). not human power. V 9 insists strongly that Zerubbabel had founded19 the temple and would finish the work. it seems safe to conclude that the night visions included one exhortation in the middle and one at the end. and the future those events were inaugurating. 228.

20 . Wellhausen seems correct that the name Zerubbabel originally stood in 6:11 instead of Joshua. where Joshua was on trial. The thrust of these salvation oracles was to contrast the past time of difficulty with the future time of deliverance. If the Hebrew text is correct.9 was the cleansing and commissioning of the high priest for his future role in the new temple." literally a stone of alloy or tin. and rule. saying that Zerubbabel would finish the task of rebuilding the temple. b). these verses appear to declare future roles or accomplishments of Zerubbabel.22 Zechariah predicted that Zerubbabel would build the temple. and ν 10a to a "plummet. Both include vague references. 22 Die kleinen Propheten. though many scholars. and predicts (w 12-13) that he would build the temple. and D. the passage speaks of the Branch. The safan was present to accuse Joshua." CBQ 36 [1974] 368-71. as the text now stands it is Joshua who receives the crowns. bear majesty. including Halpern ("Ritual Background. However. 185. 21 The last half of ν 9 apparently was addressed to Zerubbabel himself: "and you (sing. A. In 4:9 Zechariah carried Haggai's message one step further. Zerubbabel's completion of the task would be proof to him that Yahweh had sent Zechariah as a prophet to the people. and Haggai and Zechariah 1-8. The priest's role was delineated further in 3:7. L. In light of 4:6b-10a. ν 7 to a mountain (the difficulties facing Zerubbabel?) which would become level and to a head stone. a messianic title. Petersen ("Zerubbabel and Jerusalem Temple Reconstruction. 88-90) compare it to the Babylonian kalû ritual. Hag 2:18). reversing the prediction of Jeremiah that no descendant of Jehoiachin would ever rule Judah again (Jer 22:24-30). On that same day Haggai announced that Zerubbabel was God's new signet ring (2:23). The setting was apparently the council of Yahweh. pi.) shall know" (wëyâdacta). that person can only be Zerubbabel. n. it would be a mistake to lay too much emphasis on this difference. Zach 3:8-10.** 171-72). 1992 year of Darius (November/ December. to be gained through the completion of the temple by Zerub­ babel (Hag 2:19). Petitjean ("La mission de Zorobabel et la recon­ struction du temple. with whom he would dwell harmoniously. Hence. appears twice elsewhere in the night visions (2:13 and 6:15). The subject of 6:lib-13 was the future roles of Zerubbabel and (to a lesser extent) Joshua.256 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY I 54.21 Zechariah 4:7 and 10a are less clear." ETL 42 [1966] 40-71). 520. where the verb is 2d mase. (see BHS.20 during which Zerub­ babel may have played a role. In addition. Since it is quite possible that 4:9 should also be read as a pi. In both cases it is apparently the Jews in exile who will know that Yahweh had sent Zechariah. To be sure. there would be a priest beside him. The subject of 3:1-7. and the angel of the Lord was there to preside (though one may question whether the distinction between him and Yahweh should be The precise nature of this ceremony is unknown. however. Whatever the precise meaning. The whole phrase.

and 3:1-7. It is not difficult to see why the change was made. 33-36. R. Haggai-Sacharja 1-8. resulted (ironically) in the elevation of the priesthood. . 8:9). Whether the author thought in terms of a diarchy or merely the absence of strife between the two insti­ tutions may remain open. The redactor23 of those materials wanted to present Zechariah as the authentic successor to the preexilic prophets (1:1-6. Subsequent to that redaction. namely that Zerubbabel's name was eliminated out of fear of Persian reprisals for the messianic hope surrounding him. See P.THE NIGHT VISIONS OF ZECHARIAH 257 emphasized here). under Zerubbabel. The angel commanded the priest to keep the law. a task emphatically reserved to Zerubbabel in 4:9. Beuken. 6:llb-13." ΚΓ27 (1977) 413-21. Mason. The proceedings were cut short by the judge. The success of the building project. under the high priest Joshua. 519) given in 1:7 may well have been the date of this edition. where the name Joshua was simply substituted for the name Zerubbabel.w JJS 3 (1952) 152. The addition of 4:6b-10a. T h e Books of Haggai and Zechariah I-VIII. 38. chaps. who announced Yahweh's rebuke of the iäfän and called upon other angels to strip and reclothe (i. now aimed at the community in Jerusalem in the flush of the building of the temple under Zerubbabel and promising them a new day. 7 and 8). Haggai and Zechariah 1-8. Haggai and Zechariah. even though the Branch is told to build the temple. The engraved stone of ν 9 was apparently part of his priestly regalia (see Exod 28:36-38). That suggestion is not convincing if for no other reason than the name Zerubbabel was retained in 4:6b-10a. The cleansing of the priest anticipated God's future forgiveness of the iniquity of the whole land. R.. and granted him access to God's council (v 7). The night visions were ultimately surrounded by other material ascribed to Zechariah (1:1-6. Ackroyd. enlarged" edition of the night visions. thus carrying forward the office of prophecy. It advocated carrying forward two of the basic institutions of preexilic Judah: the priesthood. The substitution of the name Joshua for Zerub­ babel simply reflected that rise in priestly prestige. Scholars sometimes offer a different explanation. and the Davidic monarchy.e.10. The date of the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month of the second year of Darius (January/ February. The clearer case is 6:1 lb. sanctify) Joshua. 23 There is good reason to think that Haggai and Zechariah were ultimately edited by the same person. one last touch was added to the night visions. It is at least possible that the redactor was none other then Zechariah himself. placed him in charge of the temple. Meyers and Meyers. A. "The Purpose of the 'Editorial Frame­ work' of the Book of Haggai. and Petersen. namely the reinterpretation of the Branch in 6:1 lb-13 and 3:8. coupled with the failure of Judah to reestablish the monarchy. xliv-xlxiii.9 resulted in a "revised.

1992 The second case of reinterpreting the name Branch appears in 3:8. Here. 24 Siebeneck. (Zechariah's role was made explicit by the redactor of the third stage. The Book of the TWehe (2 vols. when was the original tract written? Several scholars25 have suggested dates between 539 and 520. The only three passages in the night visions to mention Joshua and Zerubbabel (4:6b-10a. even though it cannot be an­ swered very well. "Redaction of Zechariah 1-8." 120. "The Messianism of Aggeus and Proto-Zacharias. "The Trial of the High Priest Joshua: Zechariah 3. V 8 continues that pattern by addressing Joshua and his companions directly. One final question remains to be asked. but the visions make no clear references to datable events. The first edition depicted God turning in grace toward Jerusalem. dwelling in its midst. Κ. III. but in 3:9 speaks of Joshua to the heavenly council.) This second stage envisioned a cleansed priest (3:l-7. Galling. and cleansing Judah. "Die Exilswende in der Sicht des Propheten Sacharja. These visions led to a call to the exiles to seize the opportunity to return to Jerusalem and help with the restoration. then switching to the third person to proclaim him the Branch. New York/ London: Harper and Brothers. Conclusion The results of this study can be quickly summarized. only a promise of messianic bounty in 3:10. centered around the temple priesthood.M VT 2 (1952) 33. Sinclair.24 but in the context of the vision about Joshua an identification with the high priest himself seems more likely. with harmony between the two leaders (6:llb-13). ." 38-40. 255-56. 3:1-10) were additions to an original series of seven visions but­ tressed by two exhortations." 324-27. The second edition faced a new issue: how would the hope for a restored Judah and Jerusalem come about? The answer was that it would be accom­ plished by the combined efforts of the people and their traditional institu­ tions. The results of this study require a similar conclusion. Harrelson. ed. represented by Zerubbabel. It is possible. A.9a) leading a cleansed people (3:9b) to the temple rebuilt by a new king (4:6b10a). 6:llb-13.]) 2. though. 1928 [rev. In the original vision Yahweh addresses Joshua directly in 3:7. punishing Babylon.. Smith. Nor is it necessary that much time elapsed between the two editions since they were aimed at different audiences. If the second "revised and enlarged" edition of the night visions should be dated in January/ February 519. of course. 25 G. that the reference is to a future messiah.10. represented by Joshua.258 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY I 54. no task is assigned to the Branch. the monarchy. represented by Zechariah. and (implicitly) the office of prophecy.

" Nevertheless. but might have made much less impact than it apparently did. it made two minor alterations in the text (at 6:11 and 3:8.THE NIGHT VISIONS OF ZECHARIAH 259 Had Zechariah been content simply to name Zerubbabel as the one to rebuild the temple. he spoke of Zerubbabel as ruler and called him by the messianic title "Branch. naming Joshua the Branch to allow that hope to live on and that message to speak. Rather. Instead. the Jerusalem community did not dismiss Zechariah's message or the hope that inspired it.10). his message would have caused subsequent generations less concern. .

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