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anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including both Karl Marx and Frederich Engels. Feuerbach was the fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, brother of mathematician Karl Wilhelm Feuerbach and uncle of painter Anselm Feuerbach. An associate of Left Hegelian circles, Feuerbach advocated for liberalism, atheism and materialism. Many of his philosophical writings off ered a critical analysis of religion. His thought was influential in the develop ment of dialectical materialism, where he is often recognized as a bridge bet ween Hegel and Marx. Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Education 1.2 Early writings 1.3 Das Wesen des Christentums (The Essence of Christianity) 1.4 After "1848" 1.5 Philosophy 1.6 Influence 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Biography Education Feuerbach matriculated in the University of Heidelberg with the intention of pur suing a career in the church. Through the influence of Prof. Ka rl Daub he was led to an interest in the then predominant philosophy of Hegel an d, in spite of his father's opposition, enrolled in the University of Berlin in order to study under the master himself. After 22 years, the Hegelian influence began to slacken. Feuerbach became associated with a group known as the Young He gelians, alternately known as the Left Hegelians, who synthesized a radical offs hoot of Hegelian philosophy, interpreting Hegel's dialectic march of spirit thro ugh history to mean that existing Western culture and institutional forms and, in particular, Christianity would be superseded. "Theology," he wrote to a friend, "I can bring myself to study no more. I long to take nature to my heart, that natu re before whose depth the faint-hearted theologian shrinks back; and with nature man, man in his entire quality." These words are a key to Feuerbach's developme nt. He completed his education at Erlangen, at the Friedrich-Alexander-Universit y, Erlangen-Nuremberg with the study of natural science. Early writings His first book, published anonymously, Gedanken ?ber Tod und Unsterblichkeit (18 30), contains an attack on personal immortality and an advocacy of the Spinozist ic immortality of reabsorption in nature. These principles, combined with his em barrassed manner of public speaking, debarred him from academic advancement. Aft er some years of struggling, during which he published his Geschichte der neuere n Philosophie (2 vols., 1833 1837, 2nd ed. 1844), and Abelard und Heloise (1834, 3 rd ed. 1877), he married in 1837 and lived a rural existence at Bruckberg near N uremberg, supported by his wife's share in a small porcelain factory. In two works of this period, Pierre Bayle (1838) and Philosophie und Christentum (1839), which deal largely with theology, he held that he had proven "that Chri stianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea."
e." he claims. the outward projection of a human's inward nature. Feuerbach says. when humans remove all qualities from God. and Stirner's counter-reply form an instructive polemics. In his bo ok Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (The Ego and His Own)." "as a moral being or law." "as love" and so on. Feuerbach shows th at in every aspect God corresponds to some feature or need of human nature. such as the belief in revelation which he be lieves not only injures the moral sense. God is a part of a human through the invention of a God. Feuerbach's theme was a derivation of Hegel's speculative theology in which the Creation remains a part of the Creator. When the student Feuerbach presented his own theory to professor He gel. The force of this attraction to religion though. "he must find himself in God. Das Wesen des Christentums (1841). the di vinest feeling in man. its importance would become obsolete. giving divinity to a figure lik e God. Feuerbach states that. which is to him a piece of religious materialism of which "t he necessary consequences are superstition and immorality. and continues to say that qualities are not suddenly denoted as divine b ecause of their godly association. It appeals to humankind to give qualities to the idol of their religion because without the se qualities a figure such as God would become merely an object. not wise. The qualities themselves are divine therefore making God divine. indicating that humans are capable of understanding and appl ying meanings of divinity to religion and not that religion makes a human divine . The pertinent portions of the books." Instead. is the principle of [man's] salvation.Das Wesen des Christentums (The Essence of Christianity) His most important work. was translated by Ge orge Eliot into English as The Essence of Christianity. Humans contemplate many t hings and in doing so they become acquainted with themselves. not just. he attacked Feuerbach as inconsistent in his atheism. In part I of his book Feuerbach developed what he calls the "true or anthropolog ical essence of religion. Feuerbach's r eply. a God who is not benevolent." i. because humans are imaginative. is explained by Feuerbach as God is a being that acts throughout humans i n all forms. He nce arise various mistaken beliefs. This projection is dubbed as a chimaera by Feuerbach . so to speak. Feuerbach t alks of how humankind is equally a conscious being. but also "poisons. As h e states. God is n o longer anything more to him than a negative being. Feuerbach concludes. the view which regards God as having a separate existence over against humankind." and the belief in sacraments such as the Lord's Supper. "If man is to find contentment in God. the sense of truth. God alone is the being who acts of himself. more so than God because hum ans have placed upon God the ability of understanding. is no God. Additionally. there would no longer be a feeling of an existence for Go d. humans are repulsed b y God because. of [man's] good disposit ions and actions." Treating of God in his various aspects "as a being of the understanding. the conscious subject has for h is object the infinity of his own nature. God is given traits and there holds the appeal. "In the consciousness of the infinite." Thus God is nothing else than human: he is. (see External Li nks) After "1848" During the troubles of 1848-1849 Feuerbach's attack upon orthodoxy made him some . In part 2 he discusses the "false or theological essence of religion. consequently [man's] own good principle and nature. that God and the idea of a higher being is dependent upon the aspect of benevo lence." A caustic criticism of Feuerbach was delivered in 1844 by Max Stirner. Hegel refused to reply positively to it. Therefore. God. nay destroys. while the Creator remains greater than t he Creation. Equally though.
NYPL. universali. is the fancy. 2nd edition. Das Wesen des Christenthums (1841). 1849. University of Wisconsin. . Durin g the period of the Frankfurt Congress he had given public lectures on religion at Heidelberg. Das Wesen des Glaubens im Sinne Luther's (1844). In 1868 he read the firs t volume of Marx's Capital and joined the Social-Democratic Party. Philosophy Essentially the thought of Feuerbach consisted in a new interpretation of religi on's phenomena. Retrieved 2012-02-05. NYPL. Geschichte der neuern Philosophie von Bacon von Verulam bis Benedict Spinoza . 1849. 1833. Ludwig Feuerbach's s?mmtliche Werke (1846 1866). partly with the composition of his Theogonie (18 57). 1872. He is buried in Johannis-Fr iedhof Cemetery in Nuremberg. Kritik des Anti-Hegels (1835). 1851. After a lo ng period of decline. Volume 5. Ab?lard und Heloise. Darstellung.thing of a hero with the revolutionary party. Gottheit. 1848. Grunds?tze der Philosophie der Zukunft (1843). the true maker of projections of "Gods" and of the sacred in ge neral. 1876. Freiheit und Unsterblichkeit. beyond the feelin g. Oder Der Schriftsteller und der Mensch (1834). Gallica. but he never threw himself into th e political movement. When the diet closed he withdrew to Bruckberg and occupied himsel f partly with scientific study. NYPL. he died on September 13. Das Wesen des Christe ntums. 2nd edition. Following Schleiermacher s theses. Volume 2. and indeed lacked the qualities of a popular leader. Oxford. Stanford. 1848.[clarification needed] Geschichte der Neuern Philosophie. So the feeling breaks through all the limits of underst anding and manifests itself in several religious beliefs. 2nd edition. Gallica. Oxford. Mary 's. His last book. NYPL. Gallica. which is also where the artist Albrecht D?rer is i nterred. Feuerbach thought religion was principally a matter of feeling in its un restricted subjectivity. Volume 8.. Gallica. NYPL. Marian Evans. giving an anthropological explanation. Volume 7. though they criticised him for his inconsistent espousal of materialism. Das Wesen der Religion (1846). Gallica. ?ber Philosophie und Christenthum (1839). University of Michigan. Volume 3. Influence Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were strongly influenced by Feuerbach's atheism. Works De ratione una. Volume 4. 1890). 1881. NYPL. infinita (1828). Gallica. But. Entwicklung und Kritik der L eibniz'schen Philosophie (1837). Un iversity of Wisconsin. Oxford. 1848. St. Ghent. Volume 1. Br?gel. Gallica. In 1860 he was compelled by the failure of the porcelain factory to leave Bruckb erg. 1844. Tr. 1857. Volume 6. Harvard. 1847. Volume 9. 1846. (English) The Essence of Christianity (1854). 2nd edition. Oxford. Gedanken ?ber Tod und Unsterblichkeit (1830). Pierre Bayle (1838). Ansbach: C. 1847. Gallica. Gallica. University of California. Gallica. Vorl?ufige Thesen zur Reform der Philosophie (1843). Erl?uterungen und Erg?nzungen zum Wesen des Christenthums (1846). and he would have suffered the extremity of want but for the assistance of friends supplemented by a public subscription. appeared in 1866 (2nd ed. 1846.
Accessed October 2007 Warren Breckman. External links . 1997. "Feuerbach. See also Portal icon Atheism portal Theses on Feuerbach by Karl Marx (1845). Van A. http://plato.ed u/archives/win2008/entries/ludwig-feuerbach/.stanford. Edward N. et al. Section 1. Kulturteil p. The Stanford Encyclopedia of P hilosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). Edward N. 1. Harvard. New York: Cambridge University Press. ed. Zalta (ed. ed.  Ludwig Feuerbach. Vol. 2. (1911). NYPL. 8 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Ci vilization. Ludwig at marxists. Philosophical anthropology References ^ Harvey. ^ N?rnberger Nachrichten. Wikisource Chisholm. Ludwig Feuerbach's other brothers were almost all distinguished in scholarsh ip or science: Joseph Anselm Feuerbach (1798 1851). jurisprudence Friedrich Heinrich Feuerbach (1806 1880). Ludwig Andreas". Marx. looks at Feuerbach's influence on Marx and Engels. the Young Hegelians and the Origins of Social Theory: Dethroning the Self. Keith Michael Baker. 2004.). See also Van A.MIA. Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicag o Press. vol. Harvey.org Glossary. his son was the painter Anselm Feuerbach (1829 1880) Eduard August Feuerbach (1803 1843). The Essence of Christianity in Religion and Liberal Culture. NYPL.. Accessed October 2007. Wed. 1866. 323-336. Briefwechsel zwischen Ludwig Feuerbach und Christian Kapp (1876). "Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach". http://plato. Feuerbach and the Interpretation of Religion (Studies in Religion and Critical Thought). July 28.). Gallica.). ed. Encyclop ?dia Britannica (11th ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of P hilosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). O xford. Oxfo rd.. Zalta (ed. Vol.Volume 10. Marxism explained: materialism John Minns at Socialist Alternative.ed u/archives/win2008/entries/ludwig-feuerbach/. NYPL. archeology and philology. Van A. Ludwig Feuerbach in seinem Briefwechsel und Nachlass (1874). John W. 1987). 1. 1999. 2 volumes. ^ Harvey.stanford. Hugh. philology and philosophy He also had three sisters: Rebekka Magdalena "Helene" Feuerbach von Dobeneck (1808 1891) Leonore Feuerbach (1809 1885) Elise Feuerbach (1813 1883) ^ a b Feuerbach. "Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach". Cambridge University Press.
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