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Case (a): Transient response with the fault clearing time equal to 0.

07 s

Computed using the Gill's version of fourth order R-K integration method with a time step of 0.02 s. With constant Efd, the system is transiently stable
however, the level of damping of oscillations is low

With a fast acting AVR and a high exciter ceiling voltage, the first rotor angle swing is significantly reduced
however, the subsequent swings are negatively damped post-fault system small-signal unstable

With the PSS, the rotor oscillations are very well damped without compromising the first swing stability

Fig. E13.7(a) Rotor angle response with fault cleared in 0.07 s

Fig. E13.7(b) Active power response with fault cleared in 0.07 s

Fig. E13.7(c) Terminal voltage response with fault cleared in 0.07 s

Fig. E13.7(d) Exciter output voltage response with fault cleared in 0.07 s

Case (b): Transient response with the fault clearing time tc equal to 0.1 s

Responses of rotor angle with the three alternative forms of excitation control are computed With constant Efd, the generator is first swing unstable of a fast exciter having a high ceiling voltage and equipped Use With a fast acting exciter and AVR, the with a PSS contributes significantly to the enhancement of the overall system stability! generator maintains first swing stability, but loses synchronism during the second swing The addition of PSS contributes to the

Fig. E13.8 Rotor angle response with fault cleared in 0.1 s

5. Representation of Faults in Stability Studies


Positive-sequence network is represented in detail Negative- and zero-sequence voltages and currents throughout the system are usually not of interest in stability studies
unnecessary to simulate the complete negative- and zero-sequence networks in system stability simulations effects represented by equivalent impedances (Z2 and Z0) as viewed at the fault point F