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Tripping can occur only for impedance between O1 and O2, and within M

Fig. 13.43 Reduction of mho relay angular range

Fig. 13.44 Shaped Relay

In an out-of-step tripping scheme, local breakers would be tripped. such a scheme could be used to
speed up tripping to voltage decline ensure tripping of a selected line, instead of other more critical circuits

In an out-of-step blocking scheme,


relays are prevented from initiating tripping of the line monitored, and transfer trip signals are sent to open circuits of a remote location objective is to cause system separation at

8. Transient Stability Enhancement


Objectives: Reduce the disturbing influence by minimizing the fault severity and duration Increase the restoring synchronizing forces Reduce accelerating torque through control of prime-mover mechanical

High-Speed Fault Clearing


Amount of kinetic energy gained by the generators during a fault is directly proportional to the fault duration
quicker the fault is cleared, the less disturbance it causes

Two-cycle breakers, together with high speed relays and communication, are now widely used in locations where rapid fault clearing is importance In special circumstances, even faster clearing may be desirable