The so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead

Rita Lucarelli
The numbering system of the spells and vignettes of the Book of the Dead is sometimes misleading since made on the basis of individual documents whose layout varies consistently. Moreover, the physical closeness of a spell + vignette does not automatically mean that the latter illustrates the former. In this paper I am going to show that this is also the case for a peculiar mortuary representation, which is generally indicated as the vignette of Spell 182. Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead is attested on papyrus since the beginning of the New Kingdom, while in the Ramesside Period a few passages of the text occur also on stelas1 and tomb walls.2 All in all, the text of this spell has been found copied on six papyri of Theban origin, the latest ones dating to the Third Intermediate Period:       P.Vatican 38600 / 1–2 (Vatikan 63), Hieroglyphic, 18th Dynasty, Thebes3 P.TT 99, Hieroglyphic (fragm.), 18th Dynasty, Thebes4 P.TT 61, Hieroglyphic (fragm.), 18th Dynasty, Thebes5 P.London BM EA 10554 (P.Greenfield), Hieratic, 21st/22nd Dynasty, Thebes6 P.Cairo CG 58026, Hieratic, 21st Dynasty, Thebes7 P.London BM EA 10010 (from the Murray collection), Hieratic, 21st Dynasty, Thebes8

* This article has developed from the subject of a paper presented to the conference “Ancient Egyptian Demonology. A comparative perspective” held in Bonn on February 28, 2011, and entitled: “Apotropaic gods, protective genii or malevolent creatures? Issues of classifications in the world of demons: the vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead”. 1 Brussels E 3056, which is a limestone slab from Memphis dated to the 19th Dynasty. See L. SPEELERS, Recueil des inscriptions égyptiennes des Musées Royaux du Cinquantenaire à Bruxelles, Bruxelles 1923, 61. See also M.A. STADLER, Weiser und Wesir, ORA 1, Tübingen 2009, 229, according to whom Spell 182 occurs also on a stela: Nationalmuseum Stockolm No. 37. Cf. M. MOGENS, Stèles égyptiennes, Copenhague 1919, 27f. 2 TT 296: E. FEUCHT, Das Grab des Nefersecheru (TT 296), Theben 2, Mainz 1985, Pl. XVI. Only the first few passages of the spell are attested as caption of a scene depicting Thoth preceding the deceased in front of Osiris. On the same wall the scene of the funeral procession occurs, which recalls the vignette of Spell 1 of the Book of the Dead and suggests that Thoth plays the role of protector of Osiris during his cycle of death and rebirth. 3 Published by A. GASSE, Les papyrus hiératiques et hiéroglyphiques du Museo Gregoriano Egizio, Città del Vaticano 1993, 15–16, Pls. I–III. 4 www.newton.cam.ac.uk/egypt/tt99/finds/papyri.html. The complete publication is in preparation by I. Munro. See also: N. STRUDWICK, The Tomb of Senneferi at Thebes, in: Egyptian Archaeology 18, 2001, 6–8. 5 E. DZIOBEK, Die Gräber des Vezirs User-Amun. Theben Nr. 61 und 131, AV 84, Mainz 1994, 42, No. 9, Pl. 27d. 6 E.A.W. BUDGE, The Greenfield Papyrus in the British Museum, London 1912, 45 and Pls. LXVII. The title of the spell is omitted. 7 W. GOLÉNISCHEFF, Papyrus hiératiques, CG Nos. 58001–58036, Le Caire 1927, 103–113. 8 Naville’s Af. A. NIWIŃSKI, Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C., OBO 86, Freiburg/Göttingen 1989, 328 (London 31, Pl. 7bn); J.H. TAYLOR (ed.), Journey through the Afterlife. Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, London 2010, 198f., no. 94, with further bibliography. The dating of the document to the Third Intermediate Period is however debated. A. NIWIŃSKI, 21st Dynasty Coffins from Thebes, Theben 5, Mainz 1988, 153, no. 269 lists a coffin of the 21st Dynasty (BM EA 29579) belonging to the same owner, although ST. QUIRKE, Owners of Funerary Papyri in the British Museum, BMOP 92, London 1993, 77 suggests that such a coffin may have belonged to a different burial. In a previous study, I. MUNRO, Untersuchungen zu den Totenbuch-Papyri der 18. Dynastie, London/New York 1988, 272 (Liste 29 a1) has dated this papyrus to the Ramesside Period on the basis of her owner’s title (nb.t pr Sma.t n

Cf. in: RecTrav 40. but a later date is actually preferred in its most recent British Museum publication. although Naville’s first edition of this papyrus more awkwardly described it as “Kapitel 182 mit einer funerären Darstellung”. It is interesting to note that Papyrus Greenfield has a depiction of Thot in front of Ra-Harachte nearby the text of Spell 182. See STADLER. P. 178–179. 2 above). pointing to the clear central role that he plays in it. See also E. which is commonly called Chapter 182”. a priestess of Amon of the 21st Dynasty: it is only on the basis of this document that this illustration has been labelled as the vignette of Spell 182. A photo of the same vignette has been published a few years later by FAULKNER. Le Chapitre CLXXXII du Livre des Morts. who comes yonder in his appearances. From P. vignettes and texts of a same spell are rarely placed in correspondence to each other in this papyrus. 103–113. The Book of the Dead. The Greenfield Papyrus. only translates and comments the text of the spell but does not mention the existence of a related vignette. Chicago 1974.9 The prominent role of Thoth in Spell 182 is evident also from the longest version of its title: “Book for the permanence of Osiris. 302. FAULKNER.bis XX.80 Rita Lucarelli The subject of Spell 182 is the magical protection and rebirth of Osiris on behalf of Thoth. with whom the deceased identifies himself. Transcription of the text in STADLER. giving breath to the Inert One in the presence of Thoth. where the sequence of spells in the papyrus of Mut-hetepti is described but without mention of the vignette in question: “A hymn to Osiris. 181. n.12 The papyrus of Mut-hetepti belongs to a very well attested tradition for the Theban Book of the Dead production of the 21st Dynasty. XV. Weiser und Wesir. L. which Thoth himself made. Berlin 1886. Das aegyptische Todtenbuch der XVIII. only mentions the vignette in TT 296 showing Thoth leading the deceased in front of Osiris (see n. London 1898. 220. ALLEN. NAVILLE. 196. also translation in T.London BM EA 10010 belonging to Mut-hetepti. I find the peculiar selection of spells and vignettes in this papyrus typical of the 21st Dynasty illustrated scrolls generally presenting a mix of solar and Osirian motives and the introduction of mythological scenes among the canonical Book of the Dead.A. Pl. sheltering and guarding in the necropolis. 59.London BM EA 10010. which is written between the vignettes of Spell 153A and B. Moreover.O. Among the other five papyri. SAOC 37. GOLÉNISCHEFF. Martin Stadler has suggested that this spell is a listing of all the virtues of this god (“aretology”). protecting. in particular 228–234. see also STADLER. Dynastie – Einleitung. The Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. Weiser und Wesir. the illustration which is generally considered its vignette has an awkward origin and tradition. In the 21st Dynasty a shorter version of this title is attested in CG 58026: “Spell for opening the two doors of the place of secrets by Thoth”. 234. and containing a mix of solar and Osirian Imn). only one has an illustration following the text. This would be indeed the appropriate scene for the textual contents of the spell.10 While the meaning and function of the text of this spell is therefore easy to grasp thanks to explicit mention of its actors. Papyrus hiératiques. Cf. 86–104. it must be noted that among the six Book of the Dead papyri on which Spell 182 is attested. 196 and R. Le Livre des Morts des anciens Égyptiens. LAPO 1. so that the light of the sun rests on him every day”. SPELEERS. In his extensive study on this god. two are very fragmentary so that it is not possible to understand if a vignette was attached to the spell (these are the papyri found in TT 61 and 99) and three have actually only a textual redaction of the spell without vignette. ALLEN. Book of the Dead. warding off the enemy of Osiris. LXV. New York 1972. Weiser und Wesir. Book of the Dead.W.G. See BUDGE. First of all. BARGUET. 1923. which recalls the Ramesside style of illustrated papyri written in cursive retrograde hieroglyphs. The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day.11 The only case where an illustration directly follows to the spell is in P. However. 9 10 11 12 . 268 is probably the first publication where a sketch of the vignette occurring in the papyrus of Mut-hetepti is attached to Spell 182. É. BUDGE. 220. Paris 1967.

I would propose to read the scroll from right to left. Illustrated papyri. 119.The so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead 81 motives and spells. M. 42f. and considering also the sequence of the spells.Nedjemet) the vignette of Spell 15 occurs on the left part of the scroll and the text of Spell 101 accompanying the scene is also facing right towards the illustration. Catalogue des manuscrits hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques et des dessins. The papyrus is opened indeed by a solar scene13 and a smaller scale representation of the deceased in worshipping attitude (fig. Journey through the Afterlife. Fig.1). for more variants. 59. the vignette at the right end of the scroll (vignette of Spell 15). see also FAULKNER. Book of the Dead. it is wrongly labelled as Spell 16 in older publications. proposes instead a reading from left to right.t hieroglyph) with arms holding a solar disk and Isis and Nephtys followed by four ba-birds on each side in adoration attitude. BELLION.14 As a matter of fact. . 14 NIWIŃSKI. 55. Paris 1987. See NAVILLE.London BM EA 10010 (BD 15). 15 See TAYLOR. Einleitung. 1: First part of P.London BM EA 10541 (P. In P.15 The peculiarity of this papyrus is however in a 13 The solar scene in questions is composed by the symbol of the West (imnt. Since the hieroglyphs face right and each spell starts on the right side as well. with the deceased in adoration attitude fits more at the beginning of the scroll than Spell 151 closing the papyrus on the left end. 234–235.

4). 90–95. 77–91. the vignettes and the placement of the main scenes (gods and adoration scenes) influence also the writing direction. 18 Funerary beds with containers. In her study of the chapel’s decoration Sylvie Cauville mentions indeed also “the vignette” of Spell 181 of the Book of the Dead. 151 and 154 of the Book of the Dead. in: RdE 57. on the upper register. 63–75. “the noble mummy”. seated a dog-headed figure holding two lizards. in: GM 226. and this is also maybe the reason why in the papyrus of Mut-hetepti the hieroglyphs face right. has the hieroglyphs facing left towards the vignette of Re-Horakhty.82 Rita Lucarelli double direction of reading: the first section of the left part of the scroll. six. namely the scene representing the sun disk uplifted by the West symbol placed on the right end. linen bags or canopic jars are depicted also in the vignettes of Spells 17. standing a dog-headed figure. 2010. seated a crocodile-headed figure holding a serpent staff 16 Among the many variants of Spell 15. 89. The function of both the canopic jars and the Horus sons is the protection of the mummy. which should be also the beginning and includes the text of Spell 15. The “gods of the caverns” (nTr. with the deceased and her husband looking in the same direction. Drei Götter unterm Totenbett. BE 118. S. The latter is protected by two rows of figures in the upper and lower registers. seven or nine objects as well.t) are also mentioned and represented together with the genii protecting the burial chamber of Osiris in the 3rd eastern osirian chapel in Dendera. protected on the right and left side by Isis. including a boat with a ram headed god. These are. WEBER. Dendara. Nephthys and the Four Sons of Horus. a boat with a scarab headed god. Les chapelles osiriennes. a boat with RaHorakhty and a seated Ra-Horakhty above which is a sky hieroglyph with a sun disk with arms embracing the seated god (fig. 2006. See the recent article of M. there is a caption: saH Sps. seated a ram-headed figure holding two lizards. Le Caire 1997. Generally their number is four but there are variants presenting three. Evidently. After the solar scene the following compositions follow:  a variant of spell 1516  an extract from the so-called Spell 168 (Naville) on the gods of the caverns of the netherworld (fig.y. Commentaire. Neue Quellen des Grüftebuchs (Tb 168). the scene in question has been inserted in between Spell 182 and Spell 151. the text of the papyrus of Mut-hetepti corresponds roughly to the version labelled as 15B III V. KOCKELMANN. Zu einem ungewöhnlichen Bildmotiv in einer späten Totenbuch-Handschrift. MÜLLER-ROTH /F. See H. 17 In fact the so-called Spell 168 (Naville) of the Book of the Dead is rather an independent composition depicting the caverns of the netherworld and belonging to the category of the “Guides of the Netherworld”. CAUVILLE. At the centre of the vignette is the funerary bed with the mummy of Osiris/the deceased lying on it and three containers under the bed. from the right to the left: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) a snake-headed figure holding a lizard. Cf.w qrr. five.18 Above the funerary bed. and in the Late Period they can be replaced by divine figures such as the sons of Horus. seated a hippo-headed figure holding two lizards. 2)17  a few solar scenes on the upper register running in parallel to the previous vignette. .w. Therefore. 2)  the text and vignette of spell 174 (Naville) on “letting an Ax going out from the great gate of the sky  the so-called vignette of Spell 182 followed by the text of Spell 182 (plate II)  the text and vignette of Spell 151 on the embalming ritual conducted by Anubis (fig.

.London BM EA 10010 (BD 168). 2: Part two of P.The so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead 83 Fig.

standing19 a Bes-headed figure holding two serpent staffs. a “musician of Amon” named &A-nt-wsrt-n-pr-nswt. and the dog-headed seated figure holding lizards of the upper register in Mut-hetepti (fig. PINCH. standing a frontal donkey-headed figure holding two knives. Leiden 2006. 23 E. 160f. the only close parallel that I could find to this vignette is on a funerary papyrus of the same period from Thebes. “the fearsome one”. 248. 19 In Y. First of all. 52. ROMANO. 20 There are no known parallels for this figure.F. VOLOKHINE. See also R. LÜSCHER. 25 P. See NIWIŃSKI. which is an epithet occurring no earlier than in the Ramesside Period (in the Book of the Gates) and starting from the Third Intermediate Period also on coffins. previously kept in Cairo and labelled as P. CSEG 6. Untersuchungen zu Totenbuch Spruch 151. London 1994. Magic in Ancient Egypt. there has been no serious attempt to really define the nature of these figures and to give them a more precise place within the categories of supernatural beings populating the ancient Egyptian Underworld.26 What follows. LUCARELLI. Cf.25 This scroll. with only three out of the twelve figures depicted in the papyrus of Mut-hetepti. J. The Book of the Dead of Gatseshen. Illustrated papyri. Studien zur spätägyptischen Religion 3. SAT 2.Luxor J.5 cm long. it gives more emphasis to the vignettes than to the texts. the scene is preceded by the depiction of the deceased greeting Osiris. although the donkey/Seth animal seems to me the most probable animal represented. EU 21. It also occurs in the Ptolemaic temple texts of Edfu and Dendera. 67–69. The Luxor Museum of Ancient Egyptian Art. fig. Der Sarg des Panehemisis in Wien. NIWIŃSKI. Ancient Funerary Religion in the 10th Century BC. No. 97ff.. Journey through the Afterlife. Die Bibliothek der Alten Welt. Zürich/München 1979. n. Journey through the Afterlife. 24. However. standing a human figure with a duck on his head and holding a serpent staff and a knife20 a ram-headed figure holding a knife and a serpent staff. HORNUNG. Illustrated papyri. from right to left: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Rita Lucarelli a falcon-headed figure. presently kept in Luxor and belonging to another woman. seated. where a similar solar scene is placed (vignette of Spell 15). which is the most typical opening of the Book of the Dead papyri in the 21st Dynasty. Das Totenbuch der Ägypter. Book of the Dead.London BM EA 10010. 136 and 341 (Luxor 1. compared to P. the shape of the pointy ears does not help an exact classification of this being.R. See G. 87. See also FAULKNER. and in C. it is suggested that this may be the head of a mouse or a kind of mustelide. 199. 22 FAULKNER.Cairo S. 82 and n. fig. LEITZ. The duck on his head is probably an ideogram for snD.London BM EA 10010. Genève 2000. 135. 402f. As a matter of fact.21 these are indicated as “protective deities”. La frontalité dans l'iconographie de l'Egypte ancienne. the beginning of the scroll must be seen at the right-hand end. type BD III 1a). VII 10253.84 On the lower register. Cf. after a short solar text. 178f.24 because of their clear function as defenders of the burial chamber represented in the middle. Similar to P. Book of the Dead. is an abridged version of the same illustration as in our papyrus. standing a baboon figure holding a knife. 224f. Wiesbaden 2011. for instance the donkey heads with similar ears on some magical wands such as on British Museum EA 24426. namely the human figure with a duck on his head and the Bes-headed figure of the lower register in Mut-hetepti. as a matter of fact.22 “Schutzmachten”23 or “protectors”. 26 Niwiński calls it “Etiquette”. which is only 121. 21 The most recent is TAYLOR. Mainz 1979. B. is also a typical product of the 21st Dynasty although. Nr. 24 TAYLOR. In the descriptions of this vignette found in Book of the Dead catalogues and studies. 70. . we should look for parallels to this scene and in particular to the figures of protectors. See the references in LGG VI. 3). 494. However. 520. 199. 7. Wiesbaden 1998. 131.

5). while the lower register includes at least three elements of the already mentioned vignette of Spell 168 (Naville). ERT 6. BS XL.The so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead 85 Fig. dealing with the “Gods of the Caverns”:27     a bull on a standard28 a mummy on a funerary bed. Beside Anubis a caption is inserted. see A. 24. a female figures holding an anx30 on the left. St# (no. 28 This can be one of the three bulls occurring in the 9th cavern. to be read am or aS (?). The Wandering of the Soul. 3: Part of P.t tp. 9). called either Imn (no. PIANKOFF. 31 Also this figure should belong to the group of gods of the 9th cavern (no. I wish to thank M. 29 Corresponding to the group of gods in the 11th Cavern (no. 14). This triad occupies only the upper register of the scene. 30 Such a figure does not find an exact parallel in the vignette of Spell 168 (Naville). it recalls another awkward caption occurring in the . 6/7) or st# (no. Princeton 1974. 20) and it is called Wsjr-Inpw. a jackal-headed god holding an wsr-scepter and a papyrus stem. 49ff.31 27 For a detailed description of this vignette. Müller-Roth for further insights and suggestions on the vignette of Spell 168 (Naville).Luxor J.29attended by: on the right. called Dr.

Pls. described by scholars as demons. 51–82. namely serpent staffs and lizards. ASSMANN. and it became a serpent”. in ancient Egyptian religious art. 1949. opened by the dwA (adoring)-formula which is typical of the solar texts and especially of the many variants of Spell 15 of the Book of the Dead. W.London BM EA 10010. either of human. Spells 144–147 of the Book of the Dead and their numerous variants occurring in tombs. WAITKUS. The fact that the excerpt of our scene has been placed near a representation of the mummy on the funerary bed confirms the nature of guardians of the burial chamber of these demons. in: JNES 8. Edfu und Philae. 7:11 “Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt. hybrid or animal form.33 This papyrus is therefore a sort of shortened version of that one of Mut-hetepti. J. 18. and before his servants. 3–5 for the names of these gods. See LEITZ. following Jan Assmann’s theory. Zur Deutung einiger apotropäischer Götter in den Gräbern im Tal der Königinnen und im Grabe Ramses III. See PINCH. 57. Sonnenhymnen in thebanischen Gräbern. JUNKER. 14 and n. For a comprehensive study of this vignette see my forthcoming article “The Inhabitants of the 14th Hill of Spell 149 of the Book of the Dead”. genii or apotropaic gods. See also H. AV 13. A famous lion-headed statue.G. This boat representation may be seen as a shortened version of the solar scenes occupying the upper register above the vignette of Spell 168 (Naville) in P. 7:10: “And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh. with a major focus on iconography. between the two. Wien 1910. Journey through the Afterlife. Exd. in: GM 99.38 The Old Testament story of the pharaoh’s magicians who transform their staffs into living snakes is probably a reflection of such a custom. to Osiris and to the gods of the netherworld. as represented in temples36 and on coffins. Mainz 1977. probably representing Beset and holding two serpent staffs was found in a tomb dated to the 13th Dynasty near the Ramesseum. representing a jackal headed figure. 182–183 and 211–212. The fact that they are exactly twelve certainly recalls the traditional twelve hours of the night as represented in the Stundenwachen. Theben 1. description above.39 vignette of the 14th hill of Spell 149 of the Book of the Dead. we have plenty of figures.37 The other two distinctive attributes held by the protective figures of our vignette. The text in between the vignettes is composed by a series of short invocations to the sun god. See T. snakes were the most spread out symbols of magic and serpent staffs were also traditionally used in daily rituals by magicians. 1987. Grabung im Asasif 1963–1970 VI. represented with a raised arm and the hieroglyphs for aS “to summon”(?) on it. Panehemisis.35 has proposed to connect them to the gods of the hours in the nightly vigil (Stundenwachen). one of the supernatural inhabitants of the hills. Das Grab der Mutirdis. It must be also noted that supernatural beings holding serpent staffs or rods are more often depicted than those holding lizards. and in particular in funerary contexts. coffins and temples are the most popular example. ALLEN. 351–360. are instead less frequent amongst the guardians of the doors of the netherworld and occur instead in other sources.London BM EA 10010: cf. As a matter of fact.32 worshipped by the deceased. Some Egyptian Sun Hymns. Die Stundenwachen in den Osirismysterien nach den Inschriften von Dendera. ASSMANN. mentioning the vignette of Spell 182. Snakes and lizards are both strong apotropaic symbols but. See example of bronze serpent staff in TAYLOR. 349–355 and J. See Dendera X. Exd. These gods would then be the protectors of the twelve night hours. Mainz 1983. who hold knives and are represented as guardians of the burial chamber. constitutes the closing illustration of this scroll. and they did so as the LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh. Wolfgang Waitkus34 has been studying them in depth and. Magic in Ancient Egypt.86 Rita Lucarelli A solar boat with a ram-headed sun god and a scarab in it. 40. as presented more extensively in the vignette of P. they also 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 .

on some of those wands these figures are called explicitly sA. mentioning also Spell 182 on the function of the “serpent carriers” as protectors of the body of Osiris. WILLEMS. A Hermopolitan Composition on the Otherworld. ALTENMÜLLER.48 These statuettes were painted in black. Leuven 1996. we may say that the earliest antecedent of our serpent and lizard carriers of the Book of the Dead vignette can be found in the amuletic ivory wands which carry depictions of rows of mostly anonymous supernatural beings and fantastic animals.44 Such a composition contains a section dealing with the protection of the mummy by various hybrid beings. knives. where further new information on these beings is given. Cf. 46 N. lizards or serpent – staffs as attributes and the frontality42 of certain beings are the same. “protectors”. 48 British Museum EA 2018. 11–12 (no. Journey through the Afterlife. Paris 1986.” 40 See P. 76ff. 1077 and P. LAPO 12. Paris 2005. These are protectors of doorways of the place that contains the dead body of Osiris. REEVES/R. I wish to thank Fred Vink who has kindly provided me useful information. 43 See for instance an ivory wand kept in Berlin: Berlin Ägyptisches Museum 14207. SHERBINY. thesis. . 200. 132–135 and 169.45 A later interesting parallel to the squatting figures mentioned in the CT is given instead by some New Kingdom statuettes. Die Apotropaia und die Götter Mittelägyptens. WILKINSON. La frontalité dans l’iconographie. It has to be noted that..w. Apotropaia. the “squatting ones” and their representation on the coffins mirrors indeed a squatting posture.43 To the Middle Kingdom belong also the coffins illustrating the so-called Book of the Two Ways of the Coffin Texts corpus.j. 42 On the frontality as apotropaic posture in the figures of guardian demons. Ramesses I. 128ff. the lizard is held up by the tail in an upward position. Bestiaire des pharaons.46 In particular. the colour of death and did in like manner with their enchantments. Les texts des sarcophages égyptiens du Moyen Empire. 334–336. which is part of his Ph.w.London BM EA 10010. Vol. VERNUS/J. H. cf. bibliographical and photographical material concerning amuetic wands and scarabs. The Coffin of Heqata. “the kneeling ones” or mAst. Journey through the Afterlife. which have been found in some of the royal tombs of the 18th and 19th Dynasty (Horemheb. some of the iconographic models – hybrid or animal appearance. BARGUET.47 A wooden lizard belonging to one of these statues is kept in the BM. a donkey-headed figure found in the tomb of Horemheb resembles the third protector of the lower row (starting from right) in our vignette.w. although there are no traces of horns on the head. 201 this is described as ram-headed figure.41 Although there is not an exact parallel to our vignette. TAYLOR. 47 In TAYLOR. 200f.40 This reptile was also a symbol of regeneration and new life because of being able to regrow limbs and tail. In general. 10). many of them holding snakes and lizards as our later examples on P. I wish to thank W. In CT Spell 1073.The so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead 87 In medicine it was used indeed to prepare unguents to cure such a kind of bites. YOYOTTE. 1079 and 1081 they are called mAs. Documentation and Analysis of the So-Called Book of the Two Ways in Ancient Egypt. when used as apotropaic attributes of demons.D. aggressive attitude of both the reptile and those who carry them. TAYLOR. 637. which suggests a living. 44 Cf. See ALTENMÜLLER. 2. Sety I and Ramesses IX). Sherbiny for sharing with me the still unpublished information on these beings. W. including new epithets and iconographic parallels overlooked in the earlier editions of the Book of the Two Ways. The Complete Valley of the Kings. Dissertation Leuven 2008 (in print). 41 See various examples listed and represented in the catalogue of H. similar to the snake which could shed its skin and symbolically gain a new life. OLA 70. VOLOKHINE. Also. Dissertation München 1965. Journey through the Afterlife. 45 See depictions in CT 1076.

lizards-holding figures occur sporadically in the long procession of genii protecting the burial chamber of Osiris in the Osirian chapels of the Hathor temple in Dendera and on the late stone coffins. J. the iconography of the so-called Horus stelas. like during the liminal period of death and rebirth of Osiris as recalled in our vignette. GUTEKUNST. general called “apotropaic gods”. 131–143. the context relates to the protection of the body. 202f. Some of them squat on the ground and remind one of the “Squatting Ones” of the Book of the Two Ways. l’homme. Divinités égyptiennes sur des animaux dangereux. some of which still report similar images. 749ff. it constitutes an optimal starting point for our discussion. fig. but only one of many. Actes du Colloque de Cartigny 1981. The most stunning example is a coffin of the 22nd Dynasty from Thebes. Les chapelles osiriennes. 50 See bibliographical notes and description of coffin-decoration typologies in CAUVILLE. just as in our vignette in the papyrus of Mut-hetepti. 53 See above p. serpent and lizards carriers occur also on coffins. in a semi-sitting posture but with no seat (plate III). called Hpy: see CAUVILLE. 27: similar figure with the head of a ichneumon (?). 92 who links these and the other figures on this register to the series of similar protectors occurring on the Late Period coffins. fig. LUCARELLI. 2010. in: L’Animal.54 As a matter of fact. since that is the demons’ only aim within the specific context of the burial chamber. protection given by demons can result in a higher efficacy. 28: a human standing figure in a semi-squatting position.51 Finally. 87 for the reference to the Coffin Texts and to other beings designed as “protectors”. 51 For instance. . fits well in this discourse. however. 55 See W. cf. On the basis of the overview presented above it is easier to define and classify the beings appearing in our vignette of P. Demons (benevolent and malevolent). 54 See R. in: UEE. with footnotes. „Schutzgott.88 Rita Lucarelli rebirth in Egypt. Some of the already-mentioned figures on the magic wands of the Middle 49 British Museum EA 6666: TAYLOR.52 Here however.London BM EA 10010. which therefore gain an apotropaic function and become “benevolent genii”. 94. On the other hand. namely their role is strictly focused on the “protection” and “warding off” of certain dangers and enemies within specific contexts. lizards and knives appear. since the Middle Kingdom the epithet that occurs more often. Leuven 1985. more or less indirectly. 90ff. Journey through the Afterlife. we can say that all the gods can be “protectors” in certain occasions. probably with animal head. where the god Horus the Child grasps snakes and other dangerous animals in his hands and stands on crocodiles. In the Third Intermediate Period. QUAEGEBEUR. -göttin“. in general. Also in this case. belonging to the priest Horaawesheb:49 on the sides of the coffin many figures holding snakes. “protectors”:53 Despite this being a rather general and widely spread epithet for divine beings.w. issA. First of all. “protection” is never the only divine function for the “great gods” of the official pantheon. 1–10. who have the same function of protective demons. in: LÄ V. protection is provided also by demons. Pl. Pl. in particular the figures of the bedrock of the 3rd eastern chapel: Dendera X. “Providing protection” is.55 It is however important to remember that there is a subcategory of deities. however in situations of particular danger. 95. when dealing with snake and lizard-carriers.50 In the Greco-Roman period. This earlier sources have certainly been of inspiration for the decorators of the later stone and wooden coffins of the Late Period. a divine function. the magical context is changed – these healing stelas were not placed in tombs but in temple courtyards so that people could approach them and obtain help against animal bites. called imsty. Les chapelles osiriennes. le dieu dans le Proche-orient ancient. 52 Cf.

60 See remarks at p. The proposed connection to the protectors of the nightly hours60 indeed fits in this context. Demons in the Book of the Dead. I would say that the so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead has nothing to do really with the text of this spell but is rather closer to Spell 151.w). LUCARELLI. a sound example is that of the wpwty. the easily identifiable iconography of apotropaic gods such as Bes. they do not have a sharply defined iconography and therefore cannot be identified to any of the most popular figures of the apotropaic gods. we could attempt to give a more precise definition of the beings represented in the vignette of P.London BM EA 10010 on the basis of the remarks above. 364ff. serpent staffs and lizards)? On this matter it is interesting to quote Hartwig Altenmüller’s definition of apotropaic gods: „In ihrem Wesen stehen sie (i. More in particular. 86. LUCARELLI. However. (SmAy. SAT 11. Among others.). TotenbuchForschungen.e. 58 See references in LGG II. very often. in particular 204f. ALTENMÜLLER. the dwarf god Bes is the most popular of these “minor” gods. 635. which occurs exactly after it and includes also a vignette representing the burial chamber of Osiris 56 H.w (slaughterers) – demons sent by angry goddesses such as Bastet or Sekhmet appearing in many funerary and magical texts. 57 For an in-depth discussion on the guardian demons see R. considering also that they generally hold the same kind of attributes (knives. On the other hand. how can one say if a protective figure is a demon or apotropaic god. the messengers and slaughterer demons. apotropäische” in: LÄ II. The guardian-demons of the Book of the Dead. 85–102. namely in order to protect or to serve them. Yet.w (messengers) and SmAy. although it is impossible to establish an unequivocal correspondence with these twelve protectors. 61 Idem. on the messenger demons. Altenmüller includes also the netherworld guardians within the category of apotropaic gods. for instance. 78ff. 59 Cf. in: B. . a perfect example is that of the guardian demons of the netherworld whose representations are subject to numerous variants.w) and LGG VII. they appear as demons protecting Osiris in his burial chamber. BACKES/I. play an absolutely malevolent role in spells of daily magic and often also in the funerary spells of the Book of the Dead. sind jedoch von diesen zumeist durch ihre schärfer konturierte Gestalt unterschieden. as always when dealing with the very creative ancient Egyptian religious iconography. which we have mentioned above. also when the vignette does not contain a textual caption individuating the represented beings. “the apotropaic gods”) den Dämonen nahe. in: BMSAES 15. namely coffins and temple walls.59 In conclusion. so that we may say that demons can be subordinated to the gods. (wpwty. Wiesbaden 2006. demons appear in their protective role especially in relation to the gods. They rather recall those demons acting as protectors of the gods. major evidence from the main corpora of ancient Egyptian magical and mortuary literature shows that. STÖHR (Hgg.57 Moreover. due to the lack of a fixed iconography of them in the other relevant sources where they appear. in the same LÄ entry quoted above.58 Demons who protect and serve the gods can however turn malevolent when dealing with humankind. without considering that they do not have a fixed iconography but only recurrent various forms of appearance. MUNRO/S.The so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead 89 Kingdom are a good example of such beings.61 Therefore. First of all. 2010. Tutu and Tueris stand as good examples for such an assumption. “Götter. the iconography of protective demons is more heterogeneous and not as easy to grasp. R. 203–212. that apotropaic gods are very well recognizable through their everrecurrent iconographies. although one has to consider the due variants and exceptions.“56 It is true indeed.

we have been facing one of the most difficult issues in the study of demons. The demons protecting the mummy in our scene take the place of the protective symbols depicted in Spell 151. objects. temple and tomb walls. is the same. Journey through the Afterlife.H.62 The element depicted at the centre of both vignettes. In relation to the “protectors” of the burial chamber.90 Rita Lucarelli Fig. Heqata. despite the inhabitants of the Egyptian netherworld being richly and variously depicted in a series of illustrations on funerary papyri. 62 See p. 63 See WILLEMS. 82.London BM EA 10010. many scenes show anonymous figures. 4: Part of P. 92ff. As a matter of fact. 199. Taylor in TAYLOR. as already mentioned above. . that is “classification”. Therefore. surrounded by protective figures and symbols. coffins. as in the case of our vignette attested only in P. we need to look at the specific context. In order to distinguish a demon from a god or an apotropaic god from a benevolent demon. to which the text attached to them does not help to identify either.London BM EA 10010 (BD 151). Nephthys and the Four Sons of Horus on the sides. The similarity among this scene and the vignette of Spell 151 has been suggested also J. I would consider this vignette as a special variant of the representation of the nightly vigil of the mummy of Osiris. namely the funerary bed with the mummy and Isis. as occurring on temple walls and coffins since the Middle Kingdom.63 and which has been especially re-adapted for a funerary papyrus.

Plate II: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. 1: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. 4: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. Plate III: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. Fig. 3: Drawing by Felicitas Weber. 2: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. . Fig.The so-called vignette of Spell 182 of the Book of the Dead 91 Note on the images Fig. Fig.

.II Farbtafeln Part four of Papyrus London BM EA 10010.

III .Farbtafeln Coffin BM EA 6666.

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