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54251188 Super Critical Details

54251188 Super Critical Details

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Published by: Surendar Perumal on Aug 02, 2013
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Ultra Super Critical Pressure Coal Fired Boiler

- State of the Art Technology Applications -

Yoshio Shimogori


1. Improvement of Steam Conditions 2. Improvement of Material and Manufacturing Technology 3. 1000MW Hitachi-Naka No.1 4. Next-Generation USC Boiler


Fig.1 What is Super Critical
Super Critical means no distinction between water and steam
3,500 600





Critical (22.06MPa)


Mix. Of Steam & Water



Saturated line


Water Sub-Critical


Super Critical
30 100


* Thermodynamic quantity

20 Pressure(MPa)

Temp.(oC )



4 .1MPa/ 538℃ or 566℃ Critical Point of Water 22.) USC Condition USC Over SC Condition Example 25.Fig.0MPa/ 600℃/600℃ Super Critical 24.06MPa/ 374℃ * Steam Condition shows Turbine inlet BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K.2 Ultra Super Critical (USC) Technology Purpose High Plant Efficiency High Efficiency Coal Utilization Low Emission (CO2 etc.

3 Steam Conditions of Coal Fired Boiler Improvement by BHK Hitachinaka No.K.1 (1000MW) Takehara No.1 (1000MW) Noshiro No.2 (1000MW) Matsuura No.3 (700MW) 24. .1MPa/566/593oC Ultra Super Critical Super Critical 2005 2010 Canada (495MW) USA (870MW) 2000 BABCOCK-HITACHI K.2 (700MW) Matsuura No.5MPa/600/600oC 24.1MPa/593/593oC 24.0MPa/600/610oC 24.1 (1000MW) Tachibanawan No.1 (500MW) Shinchi No.2 (1050MW) Haramachi No.Fig.1MPa/538/566oC 1985 1990 1995 Year 5 25.2 (1000MW) Nanao-Ohta No.1 (600MW) Hekinan No.

Fig.6MPa 16.1MPa 24.K.1MPa 24.1MPa 24.6MPa 24.5MPa 538/538OC 538/566OC 538/566OC 566/566OC 566/593OC 593/593OC 600/600OC BABCOCK-HITACHI K.4 Improvement of Plant Efficiency 45 Gross Plant efficiency (%) HHV base Sub critical Super critical USC 44 43 42 41 40 16.1MPa 24. 6 .

38.1 1.8 . Load (%) Load Change Rate Start-up Time (min. 7 .050 MW Notes NC:Natural Circulation OT:Once-Through Circ.K.35 (OT Mode) 15 (Circ.5 600 MW Sub-Critical to Supercritical Region (Sliding Pressure) Supercritical & Subcritical Much Better 100% YES (Wide Range) 25 .Table 1 Boiler Type and Furnace Construction NC Boiler (Vertical Type) Steam DRUM Feed Water Benson Boiler(Spiral Type) Down Comer Furnace Construction Feed Water Operating Pressure Applicable Steam Pressure Through Furnace Enclosure Tubes Temperature Uniformity Mass Flow Rate Sliding Pressure Operation ? Allowable Min.0 . Unit Capacity in Operation Sub-Critical (Constant or Sliding) Subcritical Better Approx. 13% YES 15 Base 120 – 150 with TB By-pass Vertical 57. Mode) Higher 120 – 150 with TB By-pass Spiral 31.63.:Circulation O/D:Outside Diameter BABCOCK-HITACHI K.) (Hot start) Furnace Enclosure Construction Tube O/D (mm) Max.

Supercritical Up to 580 PCF PCF (Opposed)(Opposed) Bituminous. Tangential). Anthracite Notes NC:Natural Circulation Supplied by BBPS (Babcock Borsig Power Systems) BABCOCK-HITACHI K. (oC) Coal combustion method Coal kind 50 ~ 600 Subcritical Up to 571 350 ~ 1000 Subcritical.K. Slag tap Bituminous.5 Boiler Types Supplied by BHK Group NC UP BENSON (Two Pass Type) BENSON (Tower Type) Boiler type Capacity (MW) Pressure Steam temp.Fig. Sub-bituminous. 8 . Lignite. Supercritical Up to 571 75 ~ 1050 Subcritical. Sub-bituminous UP : Universal Pressure PCF (Opposed. Supercritical Up to 613 ~ 930 Subcritical.

9 .K.6 Wide Range of Coal Qualities Fired Volatile Matter (dry ash free). MJ/kg 30 40 BABCOCK-HITACHI K.Fig. % 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Lignite Sub Bituminous BItuminous Anthracite 10 20 Net calorific value.

.1 4. Improvement of Material and Manufacturing Technology 3.1. 1000MW Hitachi-Naka No. Improvement of Steam Conditions 2.K. Next-Generation USC Boiler 10 BABCOCK-HITACHI K.

40MPa 2.25Cr1.6WVNb SA335P23 (HCM2S) 9Cr2Mo JIS:STPA27 (HCM9M) 9Cr1MoVNb SA335P91 (Mod.5Mo1.4Mo2WCuVNb SA335P122 (HCM12A) 12Cr1MoV X20CrMoV121 :Conventional :Advanced BABCOCK-HITACHI K.9Cr1Mo) 12Cr1Mo1WVNb JIS:SUS410J2TP (HCM12) 9Cr0.7 Development Progress of Ferritic CrMo Steel Pipes Creep Rupture Strength (600oC/105h) 30 .K.8WVNb SA335P92 (NF616) 11Cr0. 11 .Fig.25Cr1Mo SA335P22 9Cr1Mo SA335P9 60MPa 100MPa 140MPa 2.

Fig.K. 12 .25%Cr) 50 SA335P22 (2.25%Cr) 0 500 550 600 650 700 SA335P92 (9%Cr) SA335P122 (11%Cr) Temperature (oC) BABCOCK-HITACHI K.8 Allowable Stresses of Ferritic CrMo Steel Pipes 150 Allowable stress (MPa) SA335P91 (9%Cr) 100 SA335P23 (2.

.9 Development Progress of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube Creep Rupture Strength (650oC/105h) 55 .60MPa 18Cr8Ni SA213TP304H 18Cr10NiTi SA213TP321H 18Cr10NiNb SA213TP347H 21Cr32NiTiAl Alloy800H 25Cr20Ni JIS:SUS310TB : Conventional : Advanced 13 90MPa 18Cr10NiNbTi JIS:SUS321J1HTB (Tempaloy A-1) 110 .Fig.120MPa 18Cr9Ni3CuNbN SA213-UNS30432 (SUPER304H) 20Cr25Ni1.K.5MoNbTi JIS:SUS310J2TB (NF709) 25Cr20NiNbN SA213TP310HCbN (HR3C) BABCOCK-HITACHI K.

Fig. 14 .10 Allowable Stresses Advanced Stainless Steel Tubes 150 Allowable stress (MPa) SA213TP310HCbN (25%Cr:HR3C) SA213UNS S304 32 (18%Cr:Super 304H ) JIS:SUS310J2TB (20%Cr:NF709) 100 50 JIS:SUS321J1TB (18%Cr:Tempaloy A1) 0 550 600 SA213TP321H (18%Cr) 650 700 750 Temperature (oC) BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K.

SA213UNS30332 SUS310J2TB SA335P92 SA335P122 SA213TP310HCbN Fig.11 Macro Structures of TIG Weld of Tube Materials BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K.12 Macro Structures of Narrow Gap TIG Weld Fig. 15 .

000h 40 SA213UNS S304 32 (18%Cr:Super 304H) JIS:SUS310J2TB (20%Cr:NF709) SA213TP347HFG (18%Cr:Fine Grain) A213TP310HCbN (25%Cr:HR3C) Shotblasted A213UNS S304 32 (18%Cr:Super 304H) 30 20 10 0 550 600 650 700 750 800 Temperature (oC) BABCOCK-HITACHI K.13 Steam Oxide Scale of Stainless Steel Tubes Inner scale thickness (micro m) 50 Time:1. 16 .Fig.K.

8 Nitrogen:1.ppm) 300 200 100 0 Dual Burner (Conventional) NR Burner NR2 Burner 175 ppm(60%) 150 ppm(50%) Coal property Fuel Ratio : 2.C.Fig. Concentrator P.C.K. 17 .14 Improvement Trend of Hitachi NR Series Burners Guide sleeve Air register Guide sleeve Flame Stabilizing Ring Space Creator Flame Stabilizing Ring Flame Stabilizing Ring+Baffle Plate Spin Vane Swirler P.8% Two Stage Combustion 125 ppm(40%) (100 ppm(33%)) NR3 Burner Coal property Fuel Ratio:1.5% Two Stage Combustion 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 BABCOCK-HITACHI K.2 Nitrogen : 1. Concentrator Dual Burner Delayed Combustion NR Burner NR2 Burner NR3 Burner Rapid ignition(In Flame NOx Reduction) 300 ppm(100%) 400 NOx (6%O2.

1000MW Hitachi-Naka No.1.K. Improvement of Material and Manufacturing Technology 3. . Next-Generation USC Boiler 18 BABCOCK-HITACHI K. Improvement of Steam Conditions 2.1 4.

K.15 Side View of Hitachi-Naka No.Fig.1 Boiler Secondary Superheater Tertiary Superheater Steam Separator Reheater Primary Superheater Economizer Coal Bunker NO Ports Burners Coal Feeders DeNOx System Air Heaters Mills Boiler Circulation Forced Draft Pump Fans Primary Air Fans 19 BABCOCK-HITACHI K. .

. Combustion System Draught System BABCOCK-HITACHI K.9 oC Pulverised Coal Fired Balanced Draught System Main Steam Temperature Control System Reheat Water Fuel Ratio Control and Staged Spray Attemperation Parallel Gas Dampering and Spray Attemperation 20 Economiser Inlet Feedwater Temp.K.Table 2 Main Specification of Hitachi-Naka No.5 MPa(g) 600 oC 600 oC 286.1 Generator Output Boiler Type MCR Steam Pressure Steam Temperature Main Main Reheat 1000 MW Babcock Hitachi Supercritical Sliding Pressure Operation Benson Boiler 24.

SUPER304H Optimized heating surface arrangement Spiral wall with opposed firing Parallel gas damper with adequate heating surface BABCOCK-HITACHI K.Fig.15’ Side View of Hitachi-Naka No.K. 21 .1 Boiler High strength material SA335P122.

16 Steam and Water Temperature 30%ECR 50%ECR 75%ECR 100%ECR 650 Superheater Outlet 600 Steam and Water Temperature (oC) 550 500 450 Reheater Outlet Superheater Inlet 400 350 300 250 200 0 1000 2000 3000 Reheater Inlet Economizer Outlet Economizer Inlet Main Steam Flow (t/h) BABCOCK-HITACHI K.Fig. 22 .K.

Fig.1 without Gas Recirculation BABCOCK-HITACHI K. 23 .17 Reheater Outlet Steam Temperature during Load Change 650 3%/min 50% 100% Damper opening degree (Reheater side) Load Demand 550 (oC) 0 Reheater outlet steam temperature 30min.K. Hitachi-Naka No. Previous Design with Gas Recirculation 0 30min.

K.3 1.18 Combustion Test Results at 100% Load Unburned Carbon in Ash (%) 100%ECR 8 6 4 2 A Coal 0 100 120 140 160 180 200 Fuel Ratio = Fixed Carbon Volatile Matter Target Point B Coal Coal Country Fuel Ratio (-) Ash(dry%) N(dry%) A Coal Indonesia 1.Fig.99 7.3 B Coal Australia 1. 24 .8 NOx at Boiler Outlet (ppm 6%O2) BABCOCK-HITACHI K.00 9.4 1.

25 .Fig.19 Flame of Hitachi NR 3 Burner at Minimum Load Flame of Hitachi NR3 Burning B Coal at Minimum Load BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K.

1 4. 1000MW Hitachi-Naka No. Improvement of Material and Manufacturing Technology 3. Improvement of Steam Conditions 2.K.1. Next-Generation USC Boiler 26 BABCOCK-HITACHI K. .

Fig.20 Target Steam Conditions of Next-Generation USC Developing Project Main Steam Temperature (oC) USA/VISION21 750 EU/THERMIE AD700 ’98-’13 700 Germany/MARCKO DE2 ’99-’03 650 600 Existing USC Boiler Sub-Critical Boiler Target for next generation USC Boiler 550 15 20 25 30 35 Main Steam Pressure (MPa) BABCOCK-HITACHI K. 27 .K.

4Mo) 150 Pipe 100 Tube 50 0 600 650 700 750 800 850 Temperature (oC) 28 BABCOCK-HITACHI K.21 Creep Rupture Strength for Material of Next Generation USC Creep Rupture Strength (105hr. .N/mm2 ) 200 Alloy617 (52Ni22Cr) HR6W (40Ni23Cr) NF709 (25Ni20Cr) SA335P122(11Cr2W0.K.Fig.

600o starts commercial operation with advance technology such as low NOx.1. oC Investigation for next Generation USC 700o class is started.Summary Coal fired USC technology is established up to oC class steam condition 600o Improvement of material and manufacturing technology for boiler tubes and pipes increases steam conditions oC class USC Boiler .K. Hitachi-Naka unit No. 29 . high combustion efficiency and steam temperature control. BABCOCK-HITACHI K.

30 .K. a sliding type enables much improvement in plant efficiency under partial load operations. (Mpa ) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 20 Relative comparison of Heat Rate (%) improvement degradation 40 60 80 100 Turbine Load (%) Thermodynamic loss by falling in pressure A B C 20 40 60 80 100 Turbine Load (%) Improvement of Turbine Heat Rate due to Sliding Pressure Operation BABCOCK-HITACHI K. By the sliding pressure in proportion to the generator output.Feature of Supercritical Sliding Pressure Operation SLIDING PRESSURE OPERATION Unit output control method by sliding pressure is as follows. Main Steam Press. steam quantity at turbine inlet can be changed at a constant volume flow while keeping governing valve open. A smaller governing valve loss enables improvement of high pressure turbine internal efficiency : A Decrease of feed water pump throughput : B Boiler reheat steam temperature can be maintained at higher level because of higher temperature in high pressure turbine exhaust steam : C In comparison to constant pressure operations.

.K.5MPa 600/600oC USC 30.High Efficiency Coal Utilizations (HHV) 55 Net Plant Efficiency (%) PFBC : Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion IGFC : Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Coal Combined Cycle IGCC : Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle USC : Ultra Super Critical From : NEDO FORUM 2002 IGCC/IFGC 50 Next Generation USC 30MPa 700/700oC Hyper Coal PFBC Pulverized Coal Bed Fluidized 45 Pulverized Coal 40 24.6MPa 630/630oC Coal Gasification Hyper Coal 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 31 BABCOCK-HITACHI K.1MPa 538/538oC USC 24.

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