Printed on 21 April, 2009
Version 5.20 CAESAR II Technical
Reference Manual
Copyright 19852009 COADE, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 11
Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 12
Program Support / User Assistance .......................................................................................................... 13
COADE Technical Support ...................................................................................................................... 14
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 21
Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File.................................................................................... 22
Computational Control ............................................................................................................................. 23
Alpha Tolerance ............................................................................................................................ 23
Bend Axial Shape .......................................................................................................................... 23
Coefficient of Friction (Mu) .......................................................................................................... 24
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ........................................................................................... 24
Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness ........................................................................................... 24
Default Translational Restraint Stiffness....................................................................................... 24
Friction Angle Variation................................................................................................................ 24
Friction Normal Force Variation ................................................................................................... 24
Friction Slide Multiplier ................................................................................................................ 24
Friction Stiffness ........................................................................................................................... 24
Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness ................................................................................................ 25
Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness ..................................................................................................... 25
Include Insulation in Hydrotest ..................................................................................................... 25
Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases.................................................................. 25
Incore Numerical Check................................................................................................................ 25
Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%)............................................................................................... 25
Missing Mass ZPA........................................................................................................................ 26
New Job Ambient Temperature..................................................................................................... 26
New Job Bourdon Pressure............................................................................................................ 26
Rod Increment (Degrees)............................................................................................................... 26
Rod Tolerance (degrees)................................................................................................................ 26
Use Pressure Stiffening on Bends.................................................................................................. 26
WRC107 Interpolation Method.................................................................................................... 27
WRC107 Version......................................................................................................................... 27
Database Definitions................................................................................................................................. 28
Append Reruns to Existing Data ................................................................................................... 28
Default Spring Hanger Table......................................................................................................... 28
Enable Data Export to ODBCCompliant Databases .................................................................... 28
Expansion Joints............................................................................................................................ 29
Load Case Template ...................................................................................................................... 29
ODBC Compliant Database Name ................................................................................................ 29
Piping Size Specification (ANSI/JIS/DIN/BS).............................................................................. 29
Structural Database........................................................................................................................ 29
System Directory Name................................................................................................................. 29
Units File Name........................................................................................................................... 210
Valves and Flanges...................................................................................................................... 210
Valve / Flange Data File Location............................................................................................... 210
FRP Pipe Properties................................................................................................................................ 211
Axial Modulus of Elasticity......................................................................................................... 211
Axial Strain: Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a) ..................................................................................... 211
2 Contents
BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening........................................................................................................ 212
Exclude f2 from UKOOA Bending Stress................................................................................... 212
FRP Alpha (xe06) ...................................................................................................................... 212
FRP Density................................................................................................................................. 212
FRP Laminate Type..................................................................................................................... 212
FRP Property Data File................................................................................................................ 212
Ratio Shear Modulus: Elastic Modulus ....................................................................................... 213
Use FRP Flexibilities................................................................................................................... 213
Use FRP SIF................................................................................................................................ 213
Geometry Directives ............................................................................................................................... 214
Auto Node Number Increment .................................................................................................... 214
Bend Length Attachment Percent ................................................................................................ 214
Connect Geometry Through CNodes .......................................................................................... 215
Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance ....................................................................................... 215
Loop Closure Tolerance .............................................................................................................. 215
Maximum Allowable Bend Angle............................................................................................... 215
Minimum Allowable Bend Angle ............................................................................................... 215
Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend.............................................................................................. 215
ZAxis Vertical ............................................................................................................................ 215
Graphic Settings...................................................................................................................................... 216
Advanced Options ....................................................................................................................... 216
Background Colors...................................................................................................................... 216
Component Color ........................................................................................................................ 217
Miscellaneous Options ................................................................................................................ 217
Output Colors .............................................................................................................................. 219
Text Options ................................................................................................................................ 219
Miscellaneous Options............................................................................................................................ 220
Autosave Time Interval ............................................................................................................... 220
Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail..................................................................................... 220
Disable Undo/Redo Ability ......................................................................................................... 220
Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes ...................................................................................... 221
Dynamic Example Input Text...................................................................................................... 221
Enable Autosave.......................................................................................................................... 221
Memory Allocated (Mb):............................................................................................................. 221
Output Reports by Load Case...................................................................................................... 221
Output Table of Contents ............................................................................................................ 221
Prompted Autosave ..................................................................................................................... 221
Time History Animation.............................................................................................................. 221
User ID........................................................................................................................................ 222
SIFs and Stresses .................................................................................................................................... 223
Add F/A in Stresses ..................................................................................................................... 223
Add Torsion in SL Stress............................................................................................................. 223
All Cases Corroded...................................................................................................................... 224
Allow User's SIF at Bend ............................................................................................................ 224
B31.1 Reduced Z Fix................................................................................................................... 224
B31.3 Paragraph 319.2.3(c) ......................................................................................................... 224
B31.3 Sustained SIF Multiplier ................................................................................................... 224
B31.3 Welding and Contour Tees Meet B16.9............................................................................ 225
Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lam) ............................................................................... 225
Class 1 Branch Flexibility ........................................................................................................... 225
Default Piping Code .................................................................................................................... 225
EN13480  Use InPlane/OutPlane SIF..................................................................................... 225
Ignore B31.3 Wc Factor .............................................................................................................. 226
Implement B31.3 Appendix P ..................................................................................................... 226
Implement B31.3 Code Case 178................................................................................................ 226
New Job Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable............................................................................. 226
No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs ....................................................................................... 226
Contents 3
Occasional Load Factor ............................................................................................................... 226
Pressure Variation in EXP Case .................................................................................................. 227
Reduced Intersection ................................................................................................................... 227
Use PD/4t .................................................................................................................................... 228
Use Schneider .............................................................................................................................. 228
Use WRC 329.............................................................................................................................. 228
Yield Stress Criterion .................................................................................................................. 228
Set/Change Password.............................................................................................................................. 230
New Password ............................................................................................................................. 230
Access Protected Data ................................................................................................................. 230
Change Password......................................................................................................................... 230
Remove Password ....................................................................................................................... 230
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 31
Piping Spreadsheet Data ........................................................................................................................... 32
Help Screens and Units.................................................................................................................. 32
Auxiliary Fields  Component Information ............................................................................................ 313
Bends ........................................................................................................................................... 313
Rigid Elements ............................................................................................................................ 316
Flanges......................................................................................................................................... 317
Expansion Joints.......................................................................................................................... 320
Reducers ...................................................................................................................................... 321
SIFs & Tees ................................................................................................................................. 323
Auxiliary Fields  Boundary Conditions................................................................................................. 339
Restraints ..................................................................................................................................... 339
Hangers........................................................................................................................................ 344
Nozzles ........................................................................................................................................ 352
Displacements.............................................................................................................................. 360
Auxiliary Fields  Imposed Loads........................................................................................................... 361
Forces and Moments.................................................................................................................... 361
Uniform Loads............................................................................................................................. 362
Wind / Wave Loads ..................................................................................................................... 363
Static Seismic Wizard.................................................................................................................. 365
Auxiliary Fields  Piping Code Data....................................................................................................... 371
Allowable Stresses....................................................................................................................... 371
Available Commands.............................................................................................................................. 393
Break Command.......................................................................................................................... 393
Valve/Flange Database ................................................................................................................ 394
Find Distance............................................................................................................................... 397
Find Element ............................................................................................................................... 398
Global Coordinates...................................................................................................................... 398
Insert Element.............................................................................................................................. 398
Node Increment ........................................................................................................................... 398
Show Informational Messages..................................................................................................... 398
Tee SIF Scratchpad...................................................................................................................... 398
Bend SIF Scratchpad ................................................................................................................. 3103
Expansion Joint Modeler ........................................................................................................... 3106
Expansion Joint Modeler Notes................................................................................................. 3109
Expansion Joint Design Notes ................................................................................................... 3110
Torsional Spring Rates .............................................................................................................. 3110
Bellows Application Notes........................................................................................................ 3110
Available Expansion Joint EndTypes....................................................................................... 3111
Pressure Rating.......................................................................................................................... 3111
Expansion Joint Styles............................................................................................................... 3111
Materials.................................................................................................................................... 3113
4 Contents
Title Page................................................................................................................................... 3113
Hanger Data............................................................................................................................... 3114
Special Execution Parameters.................................................................................................... 3118
Combining Independent Piping Systems................................................................................... 3128
List/ Edit Facility....................................................................................................................... 3130
Block Operations ....................................................................................................................... 3131
Printing an Input Listing............................................................................................................ 3133
Import / Export Displacements.................................................................................................. 3134
Loop Optimization Wizard........................................................................................................ 3134
Loop Optimization Wizard ................................................................................................................... 3137
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 41
Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 42
The Structural Steel Property Editor......................................................................................................... 43
New File ........................................................................................................................................ 43
Units File ....................................................................................................................................... 43
Vertical Axis.................................................................................................................................. 44
Material Properties ........................................................................................................................ 45
Cross Section (Section ID) ............................................................................................................ 46
Model Definition Method.............................................................................................................. 48
General Properties................................................................................................................................... 410
Add .............................................................................................................................................. 410
Insert ............................................................................................................................................ 410
Replace ........................................................................................................................................ 410
Delete........................................................................................................................................... 410
UNITS Specification  UNIT.................................................................................................................. 411
Axis Orientation Vertical........................................................................................................................ 412
Material Identification  MATID............................................................................................................ 413
MATID........................................................................................................................................ 413
YM............................................................................................................................................... 413
POIS ............................................................................................................................................ 414
G.................................................................................................................................................. 414
YS................................................................................................................................................ 414
DENS........................................................................................................................................... 414
ALPHA........................................................................................................................................ 414
Section Identification  SECID............................................................................................................... 415
Section ID.................................................................................................................................... 415
SECID ......................................................................................................................................... 415
Name ........................................................................................................................................... 415
UserDefined ............................................................................................................................... 415
Setting Defaults  DEFAULT................................................................................................................. 417
Setting Nodes in Space  NODE, NFILL, NGEN................................................................................... 418
NODE.......................................................................................................................................... 418
NFILL.......................................................................................................................................... 419
NGEN.......................................................................................................................................... 420
Building Elements  ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM............................................................................... 422
ELEM.......................................................................................................................................... 422
EFILL.......................................................................................................................................... 423
EGEN.......................................................................................................................................... 425
EDIM........................................................................................................................................... 427
Resetting Element Strong Axis  ANGLE, ORIENT.............................................................................. 429
ANGLE ....................................................................................................................................... 429
ORIENT ...................................................................................................................................... 430
End Connection Information................................................................................................................... 432
Free End Connections  FREE..................................................................................................... 432
Standard Structural Element Connections  BEAMS, BRACES, COLUMNS ........................... 434
Contents 5
Defining Global Restraints  FIX............................................................................................................ 440
Examples ..................................................................................................................................... 440
Loads ...................................................................................................................................................... 442
Point Loads  LOAD.................................................................................................................... 442
Uniform Loads  UNIF................................................................................................................ 443
Gravity Loads  GLOADS........................................................................................................... 445
Wind Loads  WIND................................................................................................................... 446
Utilities ................................................................................................................................................... 448
LIST............................................................................................................................................. 448
Structural Databases ............................................................................................................................... 449
AISC 1977 Database ................................................................................................................... 450
AISC 1989 Database ................................................................................................................... 456
German 1991 Database................................................................................................................ 462
Australian 1990 Database............................................................................................................ 464
South African 1992 Database ...................................................................................................... 466
Korean 1990 Database................................................................................................................. 467
UK 1993 Database....................................................................................................................... 468
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 51
Dynamic Analysis Input ........................................................................................................................... 52
Dynamic Analysis Overview.................................................................................................................... 53
Random ......................................................................................................................................... 53
Harmonic ....................................................................................................................................... 53
Impulse .......................................................................................................................................... 55
Harmonic Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 57
Input Excitation Frequencies ......................................................................................................... 57
Harmonic Forces and Displacements ............................................................................................ 59
Harmonic Displacements............................................................................................................. 511
Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles ..................................................................................... 513
Response Spectrum / Time History Profile Data Point Input ...................................................... 516
Force Response Spectrum Definitions......................................................................................... 517
Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ...................................................................................... 519
Spectrum /Time History Profile................................................................................................... 519
Factor........................................................................................................................................... 519
Direction...................................................................................................................................... 519
Combining Static and Dynamic Results ...................................................................................... 526
Spectrum Time History........................................................................................................................... 531
Force............................................................................................................................................ 531
Direction...................................................................................................................................... 531
Node ............................................................................................................................................ 531
Force Set #................................................................................................................................... 531
Lumped Masses ...................................................................................................................................... 535
Mass............................................................................................................................................. 535
Direction...................................................................................................................................... 535
Start Node.................................................................................................................................... 535
Stop Node.................................................................................................................................... 536
Increment ..................................................................................................................................... 536
Snubbers ...................................................................................................................................... 537
Dynamic Control Parameters.................................................................................................................. 539
Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/TimeHistory) ....................................................... 540
Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status.......................................................................... 549
Stiffness Factor for Friction (0.0  Not Used).............................................................................. 550
Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (0Not used) ...................................................................... 551
Frequency Cutoff (HZ) ................................................................................................................ 553
Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) ..................................................... 554
6 Contents
Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS Method) (Sec.)............................................................ 555
Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (Ratio of Critical) .............................................................. 555
ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC G's)/# Time History Output Cases ............................................... 556
Reuse Last Eigensolution........................................................................................................... 557
Spatial or Modal Combination First ............................................................................................ 558
Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ................................................................................. 558
Modal Combination Method (GROUP/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS).............................................. 559
Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N) ................................................... 561
Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N) .................................................................................. 562
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS)................................................. 562
Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ...................................................................... 562
Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) .......................................................................... 562
Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues (Y/N)........................................................... 563
Advanced Parameters ............................................................................................................................. 564
Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues ........................................................... 564
Jacobi Sweep Tolerance .............................................................................................................. 564
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ......................................................................................... 565
Subspace Size (0Not Used) ........................................................................................................ 565
No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0  Not Used) ............................................................... 565
No. of Iterations Per Shift (0  Pgm computed) ........................................................................... 565
Percent of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization............................................................ 566
Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) .................................................................... 566
Use OutOfCore Eigensolver (Y/N)........................................................................................... 566
Frequency Array Spaces.............................................................................................................. 566
Pulsation Loads....................................................................................................................................... 567
Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis......................................................................................................... 569
Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig............................................................... 569
Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids ............................................................................................... 574
Output From the Liquid Relief Load Synthesizer........................................................................ 576
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 61
Rigid Element Application ....................................................................................................................... 62
Rigid Material Weight ................................................................................................................... 62
Rigid Fluid Weight ........................................................................................................................ 62
Rigid Insulation Weight................................................................................................................. 62
Inline Flange Evaluation.......................................................................................................................... 63
Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method ............................................................................................ 63
ASME NC3658.3 Calculation for B16.5 Flanged Joints with High Strength Bolting Method.... 63
Cold Spring............................................................................................................................................... 65
Expansion Joints ....................................................................................................................................... 67
Hanger Sizing Algorithm.......................................................................................................................... 69
Spring Design Requirements ......................................................................................................... 69
Restrained Weight Case................................................................................................................. 69
Operating Case .............................................................................................................................. 69
Installed Load Case ..................................................................................................................... 610
Setting Up the Spring Load Cases ............................................................................................... 610
Constant Effort Support............................................................................................................... 611
Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm................................................. 611
Other Notes on Hanger Sizing..................................................................................................... 611
Class 1 Branch Flexibilities .................................................................................................................... 612
Modeling Friction Effects....................................................................................................................... 615
Nonlinear Code Compliance................................................................................................................... 616
Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints .......................................................................................... 617
Notes on Occasional Load Cases................................................................................................. 618
Contents 7
Static Seismic Loads............................................................................................................................... 620
Wind Loads............................................................................................................................................. 622
Elevation...................................................................................................................................... 624
Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading ......................................................................................... 625
Ocean Wave Particulars............................................................................................................... 625
Applicable Wave Theory Determination..................................................................................... 626
PseudoStatic Hydrodynamic Loading........................................................................................ 626
AIRY Wave Theory Implementation .......................................................................................... 627
STOKES Wave Theory Implementation..................................................................................... 628
Stream Function Wave Theory Implementation.......................................................................... 628
Ocean Currents ............................................................................................................................ 628
Technical Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading........................................................... 629
Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR II ..................................................... 632
Current Data ................................................................................................................................ 632
Wave Data ................................................................................................................................... 633
Seawater Data.............................................................................................................................. 634
Piping Element Data.................................................................................................................... 634
References ................................................................................................................................... 634
Evaluating Vessel Stresses...................................................................................................................... 636
ASME Section VIII Division 2  Elastic Analysis of Nozzle ...................................................... 636
Procedure to Perform Elastic Analyses of Nozzles ..................................................................... 637
Description of Alternate Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Nozzle Analysis.......................... 638
Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Elastic Nozzle Analysis...................................................... 639
Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction.................................................................................................... 640
References ................................................................................................................................... 643
Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II....................................................................................................... 644
Fatigue Basics.............................................................................................................................. 644
Fatigue Analysis of Piping Systems ............................................................................................ 645
Static Analysis Fatigue Example................................................................................................. 646
Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis................................................................................... 655
Creating the .FAT Files ............................................................................................................... 657
Calculation of Fatigue Stresses.................................................................................................... 658
Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping........................................................................................................ 660
Underlying Theory ...................................................................................................................... 660
FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II ................................................................................................ 673
Code Compliance Considerations........................................................................................................... 681
General Notes for All Codes ....................................................................................................... 681
CodeSpecific Notes .................................................................................................................... 684
Local Coordinates ................................................................................................................................. 6112
Other Global Coordinate Systems ............................................................................................. 6113
The Right Hand Rule................................................................................................................. 6113
Pipe Stress Analysis Coordinate Systems.................................................................................. 6115
Defining a Model....................................................................................................................... 6118
Using Local Coordinates ........................................................................................................... 6120
CAESAR II Local Coordinate Definitions ................................................................................ 6121
Applications  Utilizing Global and Local Coordinates............................................................. 6123
Transforming from Global to Local .......................................................................................... 6129
Frequently Asked Questions...................................................................................................... 6130
Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Processors 71
Accounting................................................................................................................................................ 72
Accounting File Structure.............................................................................................................. 76
8 Contents
Batch Stream Processing .......................................................................................................................... 78
CAESAR II Fatal Error Processing ........................................................................................................ 710
Units File Operations .............................................................................................................................. 711
Make Units File ........................................................................................................................... 711
Convert Input to New Units.................................................................................................................... 714
Name of the Input File to Convert ............................................................................................... 714
Name of the Units File to Use ..................................................................................................... 714
Name of the Converted File......................................................................................................... 714
Material Database ................................................................................................................................... 715
Material  Add ............................................................................................................................. 715
Material  Delete.......................................................................................................................... 715
Material  Edit.............................................................................................................................. 716
Chapter 8 Interfaces 81
Overview of CAESAR II Interfaces ......................................................................................................... 82
CAD Interfaces ......................................................................................................................................... 84
CADWorx Plant Link.................................................................................................................... 84
DXF AutoCAD Interface............................................................................................................... 84
CADPIPE Interface ....................................................................................................................... 85
ComputerVision Interface ........................................................................................................... 822
Intergraph Interface ..................................................................................................................... 824
PROISO Interface ...................................................................................................................... 856
PCF Interface............................................................................................................................... 863
Generic Neutral Files .............................................................................................................................. 865
CAESAR II Neutral File Interface .............................................................................................. 865
Data Matrix Interface................................................................................................................... 886
Computational Interfaces........................................................................................................................ 888
LIQT Interface............................................................................................................................. 888
PIPENET Interface...................................................................................................................... 892
Data Export to ODBC Compliant Databases .......................................................................................... 894
DSN Setup................................................................................................................................... 894
Controlling the Data Export ........................................................................................................ 897
Data Export Wizard..................................................................................................................... 898
Chapter 9 File Sets 91
CAESAR II File Guide ............................................................................................................................. 92
Required for Execution............................................................................................................................. 93
Required Error Data.................................................................................................................................. 95
Required Data Set ..................................................................................................................................... 96
Required Printer/ Listing Files.................................................................................................................. 99
Dynamics ................................................................................................................................................ 911
Auxiliary................................................................................................................................................. 912
Structural Data ........................................................................................................................................ 913
External Interfaces .................................................................................................................................. 914
Examples ................................................................................................................................................ 915
CAESAR II Operational (Job) Data Files............................................................................................... 916
Contents 9
Chapter 10 Update History 101
CAESAR II Initial Capabilities (12/84).................................................................................................. 102
CAESAR II Version 1.1S Features (2/86) .............................................................................................. 103
CAESAR II Version 2.0A Features (10/86) ........................................................................................... 104
CAESAR II Version 2.1C Features (6/87).............................................................................................. 105
CAESAR II Version 2.2B Features (9/88).............................................................................................. 106
CAESAR II Version 3.0 Features (4/90) ................................................................................................ 107
CAESAR II Version 3.1 Features (11/90) .............................................................................................. 108
Graphical Updates ....................................................................................................................... 108
Rotating Equipment Report Updates ........................................................................................... 108
WRC 107 Updates....................................................................................................................... 108
Miscellaneous Modifications....................................................................................................... 108
CAESAR II Version 3.15 Features (9/91) .............................................................................................. 109
Flange Leakage and Stress Calculations...................................................................................... 109
WRC 297 Local Stress Calculations............................................................................................ 109
Stress Intensification Factor Scratchpad...................................................................................... 109
Miscellaneous .............................................................................................................................. 109
CAESAR II Version 3.16 Features (12/91) .......................................................................................... 1010
CAESAR II Version 3.17 Features (3/92) ............................................................................................ 1011
CAESAR II Version 3.18 Features (9/92) ............................................................................................ 1012
Codes and Databases ................................................................................................................. 1012
Interfaces Added........................................................................................................................ 1012
Miscellaneous Changes ............................................................................................................. 1012
CAESAR II Version 3.19 Features (3/93) ............................................................................................ 1013
CAESAR II Version 3.20 Features (10/93) .......................................................................................... 1014
CAESAR II Version 3.21 Changes and Enhancements (7/94) ............................................................. 1015
CAESAR II Version 3.22 Changes & Enhancements (4/95)................................................................ 1017
CAESAR II Version 3.23 Changes (3/96) ............................................................................................ 1018
CAESAR II Version 3.24 Changes & Enhancements (3/97)................................................................ 1019
CAESAR II Version 4.00 Changes and Enhancements (1/98) ............................................................. 1021
CAESAR II Version 4.10 Changes and Enhancements (1/99) ............................................................. 1022
CAESAR II Version 4.20 Changes and Enhancements (2/00) ............................................................. 1023
CAESAR II Version 4.30 Changes and Enhancements (3/01) ............................................................. 1024
CAESAR II Version 4.40 Changes and Enhancements (5/02) ............................................................. 1025
CAESAR II Version 4.50 Changes and Enhancements (11/03) ........................................................... 1026
CAESAR II Version 5.00 Changes and Enhancements (11/05) ........................................................... 1027
CAESAR II Version 5.10 Changes and Enhancements ( 9/07) ............................................................ 1028
Chapter 1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the organization of the manual and important information regarding user assistance.
In This Chapter
Overview ................................................................................................. 12
Program Support / User Assistance ......................................................... 13
COADE Technical Support ..................................................................... 14
C H A P T E R 1
12 Introduction
Overview
This CAESAR II Technical Reference Guide is the reference manual for CAESAR II. It presents the theory behind CAESAR II
operations, and explains why certain tasks are performed. Users are urged to review the background material contained in
this manual, especially when applying CAESAR II to unfamiliar types of analysis.
Chapter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 21) discusses the configuration of CAESAR II and the resulting
environment. This includes language support and program customization. In addition to the COADE supplied routines,
several thirdparty diagnostic packages are also mentioned.
Chapter 3 (see "Piping Screen Reference" on page 31), Piping Input Reference, contains images of programgenerated
screens, and explains each input cell, menu option, and toolbar button. Also discussed in detail is the Plot Screen, which
displays the input model graphically.
Chapter 4 (see "Structural Steel Modeler" on page 41) examines the Structural Steel Modeler and describes all commands,
toolbar buttons, menu items, and input fields.
Chapter 5 (see "Controlling the Dynamic Solution" on page 51) discusses the Dynamic Input and Control Parameters: each
input cell, toolbar button, and menu item is examined. The purpose and effects of the various Dynamic Control Parameters
are detailed.
Chapter 6 (see "Technical Discussions" on page 61) contains theoretical overviews of various technical methods used in
CAESAR II. Both common and advanced modeling techniques are covered.
Chapter 7 (see "Miscellaneous Processors" on page 71) provides information regarding a few miscellaneous auxiliary
processors.
Chapter 8 (see "Interfaces" on page 81) details interfaces between CAESAR II and other programs.
Chapter 9 (see "File Sets" on page 91) presents a list of files associated with CAESAR II.
Chapter 10 (see "Update History" on page 101) lists the CAESAR II update history.
Chapter 1 Introduction 13
Program Support / User Assistance
COADEs staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also, at times, an elaborate processone
that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our documentation is intended to address questions regarding piping
analysis, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all the answers can be quickly found in these volumes.
COADE understands the engineers need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To that end, COADE has
a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II and piping issues raised by users. CAESAR II support is
available by telephone, email, fax, and the Internet; literally hundreds of support calls are answered every week. COADE
provides this service at no additional charge to the user. It is expected, however, that questions focus on the current version
of the program.
Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. COADE schedules regular training
classes in Houston and provides inhouse and open attendance training around the world. These courses focus on the
expertise available at COADE modeling, analysis, and design.
14 Introduction
COADE Technical Support
Phone: 2818904566 Email: techsupport@coade.com
Fax: 2818903301 WEB: www.coade.com
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment
This chapter discusses the configuration options that are available.
In This Chapter
Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File................................... 22
Computational Control ............................................................................ 23
Database Definitions................................................................................ 28
FRP Pipe Properties................................................................................. 211
Geometry Directives................................................................................ 214
Graphic Settings ...................................................................................... 216
Miscellaneous Options............................................................................. 220
SIFs and Stresses ..................................................................................... 223
Set/Change Password............................................................................... 230
C H A P T E R 2
22 Configuration and Environment
Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File
Each time CAESAR II starts, the configuration file caesar.cfg is read from the current data directory. If this file is not found
in the current data directory, the installation directory is searched for the configuration file. If the configuration file is not
found, a fatal error will be generated and CAESAR II will terminate. To generate the caesar.cfg file select
Tools/Configure/Setup (or the Configure button from the toolbar) from the CAESAR II Main Menu.
The configuration or setup file contains directives that dictate how CAESAR II will operate on a particular computer and how
it will perform a particular analysis. Users must click the Save and Exit button at the top left of the Configure/Setup
window to create a new configuration file or to save changes to the existing configuration file. The configuration program
produces the OK window. Click the title in the list to navigate to the appropriate configuration spreadsheets.
Important: The caesar.cfg file may vary from machine to machine and many of the setup directives modify the analysis. Do
not expect the same input file to produce identical results between machines unless the setup files are identical. It is advised
that a copy of the setup file be archived with input and output data so that identical reruns can be made. The units' file, if
modified by the user, would also need to be identical if the same results are to be produced.
The following section explains the CAESAR II setup file options. They are grouped as they appear when chosen from the tabs
on the Configure window.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 23
Computational Control
Computation Control Configuration Settings
Alpha Tolerance
The breakpoint at which CAESAR II decides that the entry in the Temp fields on the input spreadsheet is a thermal expansion
coefficient or a temperature. The default is 0.05. This means that any entry in the Temp fields whose absolute magnitude is
less than 0.05 is taken to be a thermal expansion coefficient in terms of inches per inch (dimensionless). Use of this field
provides some interesting modeling tools. If an Alpha Tolerance of 1.1 is set, then an entry in the Temp 2 field of 1 causes
the element defined by this expansion coefficient to shrink to zero length. This alternate method of specifying cold spring is
quite useful in jobs having hanger design with cold spring (see chapter 6 (see "Technical Discussions" on page 61) for
more details regarding Cold Spring).
Bend Axial Shape
For bends 45 degrees or smaller, a major contributor to deformation can be the axial displacement of the shortarched pipe.
With the axial shape function disabled this displacement mode is ignored and the bend will be stiffer.
24 Configuration and Environment
Coefficient of Friction (Mu)
The value specified here is applied by default as the coefficient of friction to all translational restraints. Specifying a value
of zero, the default, means that no friction is applied.
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance
The default value is 1.0 e
+10
. CAESAR II checks the ratio of offdiagonal coefficients to the ondiagonal coefficient in the
row. If this ratio is greater than the decomposition singularity tolerance, then a numerical error may occur. This problem
does not have to be associated with a system singularity. This condition can exist when very small, and/or long pipes are
connected to very short, and/or large pipes. The outofcore solution will, however, stop with a singularity message. This
solution abort will prevent any possibility of an errant solution. These solutions have several general characteristics:
When machine precision errors of this type occur they are very local in nature, affecting only a single element or very
small part of the model, and are readily noticeable upon inspection.
The 1E
10
limit can be increased to 1E
11
or 1E
12
and still provide a reasonable check on solution accuracy. Any solution
computed after this limit has been increased should always be checked closely for reasonableness. At 1E
11
or 1E
12
the
number of significant figures in the local solution has been reduced to two or three.
The 1E
10
limit can be increased to 1E
20
or 1E
30
to get the job to run, but the user should remember that the possibility
for a locally errant solution exists when stiffness ratios are allowed to get this high. Solutions should be carefully
checked.
Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness
This directive defines the value used for nonspecified rotational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value is assumed to be
(1.0E12 inlb/deg).
Default Translational Restraint Stiffness
This directive defines the value used for nonspecified translational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value is assumed to
be (1.0E12 lb./in).
Friction Angle Variation
This field displays the friction sliding angle variation. The default is 15 degrees. This parameter had more significance in
versions prior to 2.1. This parameter is currently only used in the first iteration when a restraint goes from the nonsliding to
sliding state. All subsequent iterations compensate for the angle variation automatically.
Friction Normal Force Variation
This tolerance, default of 0.15, or 15 percent, is the amount of variation in the normal force that is permitted before an
adjustment will be made in the sliding friction force. This value normally should not be adjusted.
Friction Slide Multiplier
This is an internal friction sliding force multiplier and should never be adjusted by the user unless so directed by a member
of the COADE/CAESAR II support staff.
Friction Stiffness
The default value for the friction restraint stiffness is 0.175120E+016.
If the structural load normal to a friction restraint is less than the restraint load times the coefficient of friction, the pipe will
not move at this support this restraint node is "nonsliding." To model the "nonsliding" state, stiffnesses are inserted in
the two directions perpendicular to the restraint's line of action to oppose any sliding motion.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 25
Nonlinear convergence problems may be alleviated by reducing the friction restraint stiffness. Lower friction stiffness will
morereadily distribute friction loads throughout the system and speed or allow nonlinear convergence but this lower
stiffness will also affect the accuracy of the results. Lower stiffness values permit more "nonsliding" movement, but given
the indeterminate nature of the friction problem in general, this error may not be crucial.
Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness
Where hangers are adjacent to other supports or are themselves very close (for example where there are two hangers on
either side of a trunnion support), the CAESAR II hanger design algorithm may generate poorly distributed hot hanger loads
in the vicinity of the close hangers. Using a more flexible support for computing the hanger restrained weight loads often
allows the design algorithm to more effectively distribute the systems weight. A typical entry is 50,000; the default value is
(1.0E12 lb/in).
Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness
Enabling this option causes CAESAR II to ignore the stiffness of spring hangers in the analysis. This option is consistent with
hand computation methods of spring hanger design, which ignored the effects of the springs.
Important: COADE recommends that this value never be changed.
Include Insulation in Hydrotest
This checkbox controls whether or not the weight of any insulation will be considered in the hydrotest case. If this box is
left unchecked, the default, then insulation will be ignored in the hydrotest case. If this box is checked, then the weight of
insulation will be included in the hydrotest case.
Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases
Enabling this option defaults CAESAR II to place the designed spring stiffness into the Hanger Operating Travel Case and
iterate until the system balances. This iteration scheme therefore considers the effect of the spring hanger stiffness on the
thermal growth of the system (vertical travel of the spring). If this option is used, it is very important that the hanger load in
the cold case (in the physical system) be adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold Load.
Disabling this option defaults the program to design spring hangers the traditional way.
Incore Numerical Check
This option enables the incore solution module to test the stability of the solution for the current model and loadings. This
option, if enabled, adds the solution of an extra load case to the job stream.
Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%)
Use this directive is to specify the default percentage of wall thickness allowed for mill and other mechanical tolerances.
Note: For most piping codes, this value is only used during the "minimum wall thickness" computation. Mill tolerance is
usually not considered in the flexibility analysis.
By default this value is 12.5, corresponding to a 12.5% tolerance. To eliminate mill tolerance consideration, set this
directive to 0.0.
26 Configuration and Environment
Missing Mass ZPA
The default for this option is extracted, which means that CAESAR II will use the spectrum value at the last extracted
mode. Changing this value to SPECTRUM instructs CAESAR II to use the last spectrum value as the ZPA for the missing
mass computations.
New Job Ambient Temperature
The default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is 70F/21C.If this does not accurately represent the
installed, or zero expansion strain state, then enter a different value in this field. Note, this value is only used to initialize
the ambient temperature input field for new jobs. Changing this configuration value will not affect existing jobs. To change
the ambient temperature for an existing job, use the Ambient Temperature (on page 3121) field on the Special Execution
Options dialog, in the Piping Input.
New Job Bourdon Pressure
Select BOURDON PRESSURE EFFECT from the drop list. The BOURDON EFFECT causes straight pipe to elongate, and
bends to OPEN UP translationally along a line connecting the curvature end points. If the BOURDON EFFECT is disabled
there will be no global displacements due to pressure.
Bourdon Pressure Option #1 (TRANSLATION ONLY) includes only translational effects.
Bourdon Pressure Option #2 (TRANSLATION & ROTATION) includes translational and rotational effects on bends.
OPTION #2 may apply for bends that are formed or rolled from straight pipe, where the bendcross section will be slightly
oval due to the bending process.
Note: For straight pipe, OPTION #1 is the same as OPTION #2. For elbows, OPTION #1 should apply for forged and
welded fittings where the bend crosssection can be considered essentially circular.
Note: The BOURDON EFFECT (translation only) is always considered when FRP pipe is used, regardless of the actual
setting of the BOURDON FLAG.
Rod Increment (Degrees)
This field displays the maximum amount of angular change that any one support can experience between iterations. For
difficulttoconverge problems, values of 0.1 have proven effective here. When small values are used, however, the user
should be prepared for a large number of iterations. The total number of iterations can be estimated from:
Est. No. Iterations = 1.5(x)/(r)/(Rod Increment)
Where:
x  maximum horizontal displacement at any one rod
r  rod length at that support
Rod Tolerance (degrees)
The angular plusorminus permitted convergence error. Unless the change from iteration n to iteration n+1 is less this
value, the rod will NOT be converged. The default of CAESAR II is 1.0 degree. For systems subject to large horizontal
displacements, values of 5.0 degrees for convergence tolerances have been used successfully.
Use Pressure Stiffening on Bends
This flag enables CAESAR II to include pressurestiffening effects in those codes that do not explicitly require its use. In
these cases pressurestiffening effects will apply to all bends, elbows, and both miter types. In all cases, the pressure used is
the maximum of all pressures defined for the element.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 27
Pressure Stiffening effects are defined in Appendix D of B31.1 and B31.3.
When this Directive is set to "Default", CAESAR II considers the pressure stiffening of bends according to the active Piping
Code.
WRC107 Interpolation Method
The curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover essentially all applications of nozzles in vessels or piping; however, should any of
the interpolation parameters i.e., U, Beta, etc. fall outside the limits of the available curves then some extension of the WRC
method must be used.
The default is to use the last value in the particular WRC table. Alternatively, the user may control this extensions
methodology interactively. This causes the program to prompt the user for curve values when necessary.
WRC107 Version
This directive sets the Version of the WRC107 bulletin used in the computations. Valid options are:
August 1965
March 1979
March 1979 with the 1B11 and 2B1 off axis curves (default)
28 Configuration and Environment
Database Definitions
Database Definitions Configuration Settings
Append Reruns to Existing Data
The default of NO (unchecked) causes a rerun to overwrite data from previous runs in the ODBC database. Turning this
directive on (checked) causes a rerun to add new data to the database, thus storing multiple runs of the same job in the
database.
Default Spring Hanger Table
This directive is used to set the value of the default spring hanger table, referenced during the spring hanger design stage of
the solution. CAESAR II includes tables from more than 20 different vendors.
Enable Data Export to ODBCCompliant Databases
This directive turns on the capability to create ODBCcompliant databases for static output.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 29
Expansion Joints
This directive enables the user to specify which Expansion Joint database should be referenced by CAESAR II during
subsequent input sessions. The databases provided include Pathway, Senior Flexonics, IWK, Piping Technology, and China.
Load Case Template
This directive allows the user to scroll through the available load case templates and select the one to be active. Since the
CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to reference different
template files.
Template files are searched for first in the local data directory, and then in the "active SYSTEM" directory. The active
template file is used to "recommend" load cases.
ODBC Compliant Database Name
This field contains the name of the ODBC project database. All jobs run in this data directory will write their output to the
database specified here.
Piping Size Specification (ANSI/JIS/DIN/BS)
By default, CAESAR II uses the ANSI pipe size and schedule tables in the input processor. Users may optionally select the
standard tables of another piping specification using this directive. The available tables are
American National Standard (ANSI)
Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS)
German Standard (DIN)
Structural Database
This directive specifies which database file is to be used to acquire the structural steel shape labels and cross section
properties from. The structural databases provided include AISC 1977, AISC 1989, German 1991, South African 1991,
Korean 1990, Australian 1990, United Kingdom, and China.
System Directory Name
This directive enables a user to select which SYSTEM directory is used by CAESAR II. All of the various system
directories contain formatting files, units' files, text files, and other user configurable data files. Some of these formatting
files are language specific or Code specific. Therefore, users may want to switch between system directories depending on
the current job. The directive allows the user to scroll through the available system directories and select one to be
ACTIVE. Since the CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to
reference different system directories.
All system directory names must be of the form: SYSTEM.???, where the .???, is a threecharacter suffix identifying the
directory. Users can create system directories as needed below the CAESAR II installation folder (i.e. "sister folders to the
default SYSTEM), following this required naming convention. Any folders so named and located will appear in this drop
list. The CAESAR II distribution CD contains language files for English, French, German, and Spanish. These formatting
files can be installed in separate system directories, with an appropriate suffix, to allow switching between languages.
Note that there must be a primary system directory, named system; for the program to place accounting, version, and
diagnostic files that it creates during execution. The secondary system directories are only referenced for language and
formatting files.
210 Configuration and Environment
Units File Name
This directive allows the user to scroll through the available units files and select one to activate. Since the CAESAR.CFG
file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to reference different units' files.
Units' files are searched for first in the local data directory, and then in the active SYSTEM directory. The active units file
is used for new job creation and all output generation.
Valves and Flanges
This directive enables the user to specify which Valve/Flange database should be referenced by CAESAR II during
subsequent input sessions. The databases provided include the following: a generic database, the Crane database, a database
(generic) without attached flanges, and the CADWorx Plant database.
Valve / Flange Data File Location
This directive defines where CAESAR II is to look for the valve/flange data files. The possible settings for this directive are:
CAESAR II Directory: This setting instructs the program to look for the valve/flange data files in the CAESAR II
folders below %allusersprofile%.
Specifications in CAESAR II, Data in CADWorx: This setting instructs the program to look for the Specification
files in the CAESAR II folders below %allusersprofile%, but look for the actual data files in the CADWorx directories.
All in CADWorx: This setting instructs the program to look for the valve/flange data files in the CADWorx folders.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 211
FRP Pipe Properties
FRP Properties Configuration Settings
Axial Modulus of Elasticity
This field displays the Axial Elastic Modulus of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic pipe. This is the default value used to set the
data in the input processor. The user may override this value in the input when necessary.
Axial Strain: Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a)
The product of the ratio of the axial to the hoop elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio, which relates the strain in the axial
direction to a stress in the hoop direction.
Ea  Elastic modulus in the axial direction.
Eh  Elastic modulus in the hoop direction.
Vh/a  Poisson's ratio relating the strain in the axial direction due to a stress in the hoop direction.
212 Configuration and Environment
BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening
The BS 7159 code explicitly requires that the effect of pressure stiffening on the bend SIFs be calculated using the Design
Strain (this is based upon the assumption that the FRP piping is fully pressurized to its design limit). This is the default
method for CAESAR II.
When the piping is pressurized to a value much lower than its design pressure, it may be more accurate to calculate pressure
stiffening based on the Actual Pressure stress, rather than its design strain. Note that this alternative method is a deviation
from the explicit instructions of the BS 7159 code.
Exclude f2 from UKOOA Bending Stress
Some sources, such as Shell's DEP 31.40.10.19Gen. (December 1998) and ISO/DIS 14692 suggest that, when using the
UKOOA code, the axial bending stress should not be multiplied by the Part Factor f2 (the System Factor of Safety) prior to
combination with the longitudinal pressure stress. Users wishing to modify the UKOOA requirements in this way should
enable this check box. Users wishing to use UKOOA exactly as written should disable this check box.
FRP Alpha (xe06)
In this field, the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used (multiplied by 1,000,000)
should be entered. For example, if the value is: 8.5E6 in/in/deg, then the user would enter 8.5 in this field. The exponent
(E6) is implied.
If a single expansion coefficient is too limiting for the users application, the actual thermal expansion may always be
calculated at temperature in inches per inch (or mm per mm) and entered directly into the Temperature field on the Pipe
spreadsheet.
FRP Density
This field displays the weight of the pipe material on a per unit volume basis. This field is used to set the default weight
density of FRP materials in the piping input module.
FRP Laminate Type
The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be entered.
Valid laminate types are
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer.
All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends; therefore this default entry may be
overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets.
FRP Property Data File
Standard FRP material properties may be read in from files. The user may select the available files. Once selected, the
program will give the user the option of reading in from that file.
Users may create FRP material files as text files with the .frp extension; these files should be stored in the
CAESAR\SYSTEM subdirectory. The format of the files must adhere to the following format:
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 213
Sample FRP Data File
Note: The data lines must follow exactly the order shown above. The four data lines defining the UKOOA envelope are
intended for future use and may be omitted.
Ratio Shear Modulus: Elastic Modulus
In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in the axial direction) of the fiberglass reinforced
plastic pipe used should be entered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity (axial) is 3.2E6 psi, and the shear
modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be entered here.
Use FRP Flexibilities
By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting flexibility factor to 1.0. Some users have
requested that the standard code flexibility factor be used.
By disabling this directive, the standard code flexibility factor equations will be applied to all FRP fittings.
If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code flexibility factors will always be used, regardless of the setting of this
directive.
Use FRP SIF
By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting SIF to 2.3. Some users have requested that
the standard code SIF be used, others have requested the ability to specify this value manually.
By disabling this directive, the standard code SIF equations will be applied to all FRP fittings. This also allows manual
specification of these values by the user.
If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code SIFs will always be used, regardless of the setting of this directive.
214 Configuration and Environment
Geometry Directives
Geometry Directives Configuration Settings
Auto Node Number Increment
This directive sets the value for the Automatic Node Numbering routine. Any nonzero, positive value in this data cell is
used to automatically assume the TO NODE value on the piping input spreadsheets. The new (TO) node number is
determined as:
To Node = From Node + Auto Node Number Increment.
If this value is set to 0.0, automatic node numbering is disabled.
Bend Length Attachment Percent
Whenever the element leaving the tangent intersection of a bend is within (n)% of the bend radius on either side of the
weldline, CAESAR II inserts an element from the bend weldline to the TO node of the element leaving the bend. The
inserted element has a length equal to exactly (n)% of the bend radius. The user may adjust this percentage to reduce the
error due to the inserted element; however, the length tolerance for elements leaving the bend will also be reduced. To
obtain more accurate results the user must include less slop in the system dimensions around bends. The default
attachment is 1.0 percent.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 215
Connect Geometry Through CNodes
Restraints, flexible nozzles, and spring hangers may be defined with connecting nodes. By default CAESAR II ignores the
position of the restraint node and the connecting node. They may be at the same point or they may be hundreds of feet apart.
This directive allows the user to insist that each restraint, nozzle, or hanger exists at the same point in space as its
connecting node. In many cases, enabling this option will cause plotwise disconnected parts of the system to be re
connected and to appear as expected in both input and output plots.
Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance
This directive enables the user to specify the maximum slope of a straight pipe element for which thermal bowing effects
will be considered. Thermal bowing is usually associated with fluid carrying horizontal pipes in which the fluid does not fill
the cross section. In these cases, there is a temperature differential across the cross section. This directive allows the user to
define the interpretation of horizontal. By default, the program uses a value of 0.0001 as the horizontal threshold value. If
a pipe elements pitch is less than this tolerance, the element is considered to be horizontal, and thermal bowing loads can
be applied to it. An elements pitch is computed from: PITCH =  DY  / ( DX
2
+ DY
2
+ DZ
2
)
1/2
Loop Closure Tolerance
The loop closure tolerance used by CAESAR II for error checking can be set interactively by the user for each job analyzed,
or the user can enter the desired loop closure tolerance via this directive and override without distraction the program
default value of 1.0 in. See the following section for a discussion of the CAESAR II units file.
Maximum Allowable Bend Angle
Very large angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When the user has a reasonable radius
and a large angle there is usually no problems. However, if the large angle bend plots compared reasonably well to the
surrounding elements then the bend can probably be used without difficulty. Wellproportioned bends up to 135 degrees
have been tested without a problem. Enabling this directive allows the user to reset the maximum angle CAESAR II will
accept for a bend. The default is 95 degrees.
Minimum Allowable Bend Angle
Very small angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When the user has a reasonable radius
and a small angle there is usually no problems. However, if the small angle bend is grossly small compared to the
surrounding elements then the bend should probably not be used and a different modeling approach employed. Enabling this
directive allows the user to reset the minimum angle CAESAR II will accept for a bend angle. The default is 5.0 degrees.
Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend
Nodes on a bend curvature that are too close together can cause numerical problems during solution. Where the radius of the
bend is large, such as in a crosscountry pipeline, it is not uncommon to find nodes on a bend curvature closer than 5
degrees. In these situations the user may enable this directive to change the CAESAR II error checking tolerance for the
closeness of points on the bend curvature. The default is 5.0 degrees.
ZAxis Vertical
By default CAESAR II assumes the Yaxis is vertical with the X and Zaxes in the horizontal plane. If desired, the Zaxis can
be made vertical by checking this box. In this case, the X and Yaxes will be in the horizontal plane.
216 Configuration and Environment
Graphic Settings
The directives in this tab are used to set the different plot option colors, font characteristics, and the view options. To
change a color, click it once and then click the ellipses dots button that appears to the right. Select a color from the dialog
box that appears and then click OK. Dont forget to press the Exit w/Save button when leaving Configuration Setup to
save the color settings.
Advanced Options
These settings should only be used by graphics experts or those who are experiencing difficulties with their graphics, in
which case the User is encouraged to contact COADE for assistance.
Background Colors
Use Background Color
Check this box if you want the plot background to be one uniform color instead of blending between the top and bottom
colors.
Bottom
Sets the color for the bottom of the plot window.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 217
Top
Sets the color for the top of the plot window.
Component Color
The following directives are used to define the color for various components in the plot.
Anchors
Used to set the color of anchors when displayed in the graphics.
Expansion Joints
Sets the color of Expansion Joints when displayed in the graphics.
Hangers
Sets the color of the Spring Hangers (and Spring Cans) when displayed in the graphics.
Legend Text
All legends such as Displacements, Temperatures, etc. use this color text when displayed in the graphics.
Node Text
Determines the color of node numbers and node names when displayed in the graphics.
Nozzles
Sets the color of all nozzles when displayed in the graphics.
Pipes
Sets the color of all pipe elements when displayed in the graphics.
Restraints
Sets the color of all restraints (except for anchors and hangers) when displayed in the graphics.
Rigids
Sets the color of all rigid elements when displayed in the graphics.
SIFs/Tees
Sets the color of all Tees when displayed in the graphics.
Steel
Sets the color of all structural steel elements in both the structural steel plot and the piping plot when structural steel is
included.
Miscellaneous Options
These options determine how the graphics are displayed by default or upon using the Reset Plot option while in the
graphics.
218 Configuration and Environment
Bounding Box Visibility
When a model is being manipulated such as rotated or panned with the mouse a bounding box appears around the model.
This directive enables or disables this bounding box.
Default Operator
By default CAESAR II will start graphics with this selected as Zoom to Window. Other options include Annotate, Orbit,
Pan, Restore Previous, Select, and Zoom with Mouse. To see a full description of these operators see the CAESAR II
Users Guide.
Default Projection
CAESAR II begins with a default projection of Orthographic. Other options include Perspective, and Stretched.
Default Render Mode
CAESAR II begins with a default render mode of Phong Shading. Other options include Centerline, Flat, Gouraud
Shading, Silhouette, Triangulated, and Wireframe either with or without hidden lines. The Centerline and Silhouette
views are the fastest render modes and less memory intensive for the users computer graphics card.
Default View
CAESAR II begins with a default view of SE Isometric. Other options include SW Isometric, NW Isometric, NE Isometric,
Top, Bottom, Front, Back, Left, Right, and Restore Previous.
Enabling this directive hides node text that is overwritten by other text. This makes reading the plot easier, but eliminates
some node text.
Marker Settings
Sets the color and size of the nodes shown in the graphics.
Optimal Frame Rate
Determines how many times per second CAESAR II will redraw the piping display when it is being manipulated such as
zooming, panning, and rotating. Lower this number if you experience graphics problems such as sluggishness during
operations or large boxes being drawn instead of the piping system display.
Shadow Mode
Determines the shadow mode, either Hard, Soft, or None can be selected here. The CAESAR II default is None.
Smooth Transitions
Turn this option on or off to enable the graphics to have a smooth transition when the view is changed. Turning this
directive off will change views instantly and will reduce the video card memory requirements.
Video Driver
Determines the video driver used in plotting. OpenGL, Direct 3D, or Windows Basic Video can be selected here.
Visibility %
Determines the percentage of incident light that passes through an element volume when using the Translucent Objects or
Hidden Lines option in the graphics. Setting this to zero makes all elements completely opaque while a setting of 100%
renders all elements transparent. The default setting is 50%.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 219
Output Colors
When plotting code stress in output the program colors the elements in terms of either actual stress or percent of code
allowable. The levels are currently set as follows:
Level Actual Stress Percent (of Code Allowable) Stress
Level 1 <10,000 psi < 20%
Level 2 10,000 to 15,000 psi 20 to 40%
Level 3 15,000 to 20,000 psi 40 to 60%
Level 4 20,000 to 25,000 psi 60 to 80%
Level 5 25,000 to 30,000 psi 80 to 100%
Level 6 > 30,000 psi >100%
Select the colors desired for the various levels here in Configuration Setup.
Displaced Shape
Sets the color of the Displaced Shape option when displayed in output graphics.
Text Options
Here you can select Font, Font Style, and Font Size and color. Scripts are supported. The different plot texts are Node
Numbers and Names, Annotation, and Legends.
220 Configuration and Environment
Miscellaneous Options
Miscellaneous Configuration Settings
Autosave Time Interval
This value (in minutes) is the time interval used to perform the autosave function. Autosave will be initiated every "X"
minutes, where the value of "X" is specified in this edit box.
Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail
This directive disables the graphic thumbnail plot in the File Open dialog boxes. The graphics thumbnail plots a small
image of the model as a single line drawing. On some slower, memory limited processors, or when scanning very large
models, this thumbnail graphic may take a few seconds to plot the model. To prevent this delay check this box to turn off
the graphics.
Disable Undo/Redo Ability
It may be desirable on some installations to disable the UNDO/REDO feature of the input module. With UNDO/REDO
enabled, CAESAR II can process a job approximately onehalf the size of that which can be processed when UNDO/REDO is
disabled (for similar memory settings). Likewise, with UNDO/REDO enabled, the input module speed may be reduced.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 221
Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes
By default CAESAR II sorts the nodes in ascending order during the force/stress computations. This produces a displacement
output report in which the nodes are ordered in increasing magnitude. This directive can be turned off to disable this nodal
sort. The resulting displacement reports will be produced in the order the nodes were entered during model building.
Dynamic Example Input Text
This directive allows the user to control how much example text is placed in new dynamic input files. By default,
CAESAR II places example text and spectrum definitions in the input stream of new dynamic input files. Once a user is
familiar with the input, this example text may be undesirable. This directive allows the user to vary how much of this
example text is incorporated in the input.
MAX  This setting is the default and instructs CAESAR II to place all of the examples and spectrum definitions in the input
stream of new dynamic input files.
NONE This directive eliminates all the example text and all the built in spectrum definitions. This setting is intended for
experienced users.
SPEC This setting eliminates all of the example text, but leaves the predefined spectrum definition. This means that the
built in spectrum definitions (El Centro etc.) will still be defined, and available for use.
Enable Autosave
When this option is checked, CAESAR II will automatically save the piping input at specified intervals.
Memory Allocated (Mb):
This setting modifies the Windows registry to increase the amount of RAM available to CAESAR II. Setting this directive to
a number greater than the available RAM will cause Windows to use Virtual Memory (Hard Disk Space to be used as
RAM) to be used. This may slow the program, however, and is normally recommended only for very large piping models.
Output Reports by Load Case
By default, CAESAR II generates output reports sorted by load case. As an option, this directive may be turned off, which
will cause the output reports to be sorted by type. For reports by type, all displacement reports will be generated, then all
restraint reports, then all force reports, etc.
Output Table of Contents
This directive allows the user to control the generation of a Table of Contents, normally produced after a static or a dynamic
output session.
By default this directive is turned on, which causes the output processors to generate a Table of Contents upon exit. Turning
this directive off disables the generation of the Table of Contents.
Prompted Autosave
When this option is checked, CAESAR II will prompt the user, at the specified time interval, to save the input. If this option is
not checked, the input will be saved automatically at the specified time intervals (assuming autosave is enabled).
Time History Animation
This directive allows the user to disable the creation of the file used to animate the time history displacement of the piping
system. By default this directive is turned on, which instructs CAESAR II to generate a file of displacements,
<jobname>.XYT, for every time step. This file is used in subsequent interactive animation sessions by the user. Note,
222 Configuration and Environment
however, that the size of this file is dependent on the size of the model and the number of time steps analyzed. It may
therefore be advantageous from a disk usage point of view not to create this file. To instruct CAESAR II not to create this
file, turn this setting off.
User ID
When more than one workstation attempts to the CAESAR II data in the same directory at the same time it causes a
corruption of the control file in the data directory, which may cause abnormal program execution. Therefore, in situations
where there may be more than one concurrent user running CAESAR II in a given data directory each user (or more exactly,
each workstation) should enter a threecharacter User ID in this field. This creates a separate control file for each User ID to
allow simultaneous access of the CAESAR II data within the same directory.
Note: This User ID is not a password and is specific to the computer requiring access and not to the user.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 223
SIFs and Stresses
SIFs and Stresses Configuration Settings
Add F/A in Stresses
This option determines whether or not the axial stress term is included in the code stress computation. Setting this directive
to Default causes CAESAR II to use whatever the currently active piping code recommends. Only the B31.3type piping
codes (i.e. codes where the sustained stress equation is not explicitly given) have the F/A stresses included in the sustained
and occasional stress equations. The B31.1type codes do not include the F/A stresses because the equations given explicitly
in the code do not include it. The F/A stresses discussed here are not due to longitudinal pressure. These are the F/A stresses
due to structural loads in the piping system itself.
Add Torsion in SL Stress
Some piping codes include torsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by explicitly including it in the stress equation
(i.e. B31.1), and some dont include torsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by implicitly calling for longitudinal
stresses only (i.e. B31.3). Setting the Add Torsion in SL Stress directive to Yes forces CAESAR II to include the torsion
term in those codes that dont include it already by default. Setting this directive to Default causes CAESAR II to use
whatever the currently active piping code implies. In a sustained stress analysis of a very hot piping system subject to creep,
it is recommended that the user include torsion in the sustained stress calculation via this parameter in the setup file.
224 Configuration and Environment
All Cases Corroded
A recent version of the B31.3 piping code mentioned reducing the section modulus for sustained or occasional stress
calculations by the reduction in wall thickness due to corrosion. Several users have interpreted this to mean that the reduced
section modulus should be used for all stress calculations, including expansion. This directive allows those users to apply
this conservative interpretation of the code. Enabling All Cases Corroded causes CAESAR II to use the corroded section
modulus for the calculation of all stress types. This method is recommended as conservative, and probably more realistic as
corrosion can significantly affect fatigue life, i.e., expansion. Disabling this directive causes CAESAR II to strictly follow the
piping code recommendations, i.e. depending on the active piping code, some load cases will consider corrosion and some
will not.
Allow User's SIF at Bend
This feature was added for those users that wished to change the stress intensification factor for bends. Previously this was
not permitted, and the code defined SIF was always used. If the user enables this directive, he may override the codes
calculated SIF for bends. The user entered SIF acts over the entire bend curvature and must be specified at the TO end of
the bend element. The default is off.
B31.1 Reduced Z Fix
This directive is used in conjunction with B31.1, and makes the correction to the reduced branch stress calculation that
existed in the 1980 through 1989 versions of B31.1. This error was corrected in the 1989 version of B31.1, and the B31.1
Reduced Z Fix is on by default in CAESAR II.
B31.3 Paragraph 319.2.3(c)
Activating this directive permits the software to include axial terms in the expansion stress according to Paragraph
319.2.3(c) of B31.3. This directive has three possible settings, as discussed below.
No (default)
When this setting is selected CAESAR II behaves as it always has, and axial stresses are not included in the (Expansion)
Displacement Stress Range value. (This is Se in Eq. (17) of B31.3.)
Sa + Se
When this option is selected, the absolute value of the axial stress is added to the (Expansion) Displacement Stress Range,
and the sum is reported as the (Expansion) Displacement Stress Range, Se. This selection is more conservative than (
Sa + Sb ) ** 2.
( Sa + Sb ) ** 2
When this option is selected, the absolute value fo the axial stress is added to the bending term in the (Expansion)
Displacement Stress Range equation (Se, Eq (17) in B31.3). This selection is less conservative than Sa + Se. This
option is more nearly theoretically correct, and consistent with Appendix P Eqs (P17a) and (P17b).
B31.3 Sustained SIF Multiplier
B31.3 Code Interpretation 134 dated February 23, 1981 File: 14701 states that for sustained and occasional loads an SIF of
0.75i, but not less than 1.0 may be used. This setup directive allows the user to enter their desired coefficient.
The default is 1.0. To comply with this interpretation (134) the user would enter 0.75.
B31.3 Code Interpretation 603 dated December 14, 1987 permitted users to ignore the stress intensification for sustained
and occasional loads. To comply with this interpretation (603), the user would enter 0.0001.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 225
B31.3 Welding and Contour Tees Meet B16.9
This flag controls the "assumption" that the geometry of B31.3 welding and contour insert tees (sweepolets) meets the
dimensional requirements of the code, and can be classified as B16.9 tees. The default setting for this directive is "NO",
which causes the program to use a flexibility characteristic of 3.1*T/r, as per the A01 addendum.
Selecting this check box, allows the program to assume that the fitting geometry meets the requirements of Note 11,
introduced in the A01 addendum, and a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r will be used.
Note: In order to match runs made with CAESAR II prior to Version 4.40, this checkbox must be selected. Prior to
Version 4.40, CAESAR II always used a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r.
Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lam)
This directive is used to indicate how the value of hoop stress should be calculated. The default is to use the ID of the pipe.
Most piping codes consider the effects of pressure in the longitudinal component of the CODE stress. Usually, the value of
the hoop stress has no bearing on the CODE stress, so changing this directive does not affect the acceptability of the piping
system.
If desired, the user may change the way CAESAR II computes the hoop stress value. This directive has the following options:
IDHoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where d is the internal diameter of the pipe.
ODHoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where d is the outer diameter of the pipe.
MeanHoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where d is the average or mean diameter of the pipe.
LamMaximum Hoop stress is computed according to Lam's solution, o = P(Ro
2
+Ri
2
)/(Ro
2
Ri
2
).
Class 1 Branch Flexibility
Activates the Class 1 flexibility calculations. The appearance of this parameter in the setup file will completely change the
modeling of intersections in the analysis. For intersections not satisfying the reduced branch rules that d/D s 0.5 and that
D/T s100, the branch will start at the surface of the header pipe. A perfectly rigid junction between the centerline of the
header and surface will be formed automatically by CAESAR II using the element offset calculations. SIFs act at the surface
point for the branch. When the reduced branch rules are satisfied, the local flexibility of the header is also inserted at this
surface point. Intersections not satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be stiffer and carry more loads, while
intersections satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be more flexible and will carry less load. All changes to the model
are completely transparent to the user. In systems where the intersection flexibility is a major component of the overall
system stiffness, the user is urged to run the analysis both with and without the Class 1 Branch Flexibility active to
determine the effect this modeling on the analysis. For more technical discussion, refer to Class 1 Branch Flexibilities (on
page 612).
Default Piping Code
The piping code the user designs to most often should go here. This code will be used as the default if no code is specified
in the problem input. The default piping code is B31.3, the chemical plant and petroleum refinery code. Valid entries are
B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.5, B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII, B31.11, ASMENC(Class 2), ASMEND(Class
3), NAVY505, Z662, Z662 Chapter 11, BS806, SWEDISH1, SWEDISH2, B31.11967, STOOMWEZEN, RCCMC,
RCCMD, CODETI, Norwegian, FDBR, BS7159, UKOOA, IGE/TD/12, DNV, EN13480, and GPTC/Z380, PD 80101,
PD 80102, ISO14692, HPGSL, JPI.
EN13480  Use InPlane/OutPlane SIF
The EN13480 piping code (and other European piping codes) defaults to the use of a single SIF, applied to the SRSS of all
three bending moments. Optionally, an analyst can utilize distinct inplane and outofplane SIF values for inplane and
outofplane moments.
226 Configuration and Environment
Enable this check box to use distinct inplane and outofplane SIFs.
Ignore B31.3 Wc Factor
The circumferential weld strength reduction factor is now an option in B31.3.
Setting this directive to TRUE means that CAESAR II will not apply a weld strength reduction factor. If this directive is set to
FALSE, the weld strength reduction factor will be applied at all bends, tees, and reducers for temperatures greater than 950
F (510 C).
Implement B31.3 Appendix P
Activating this option implements the alternate rules in B31.3 Appendix P. This option produces a "code compliance
operating load case", with allowable stress values.
Implement B31.3 Code Case 178
Activating this option causes the program to compute the Sustained stresses according to B31.3 Code Case 178. The
reference document is posted on the ASME web site at:
ASME Website Code Case 178. Activating this option overrides the directives for "F/A" and "torsion", since the Code
Case explicitly defines how to make the Sustained Case stress calculation.
New Job Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable
Activate this check box in order to cause CAESAR II to default new jobs to use the Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable
to add the difference between the hot allowable stress and the sustained stress to the allowable expansion stress range (if
permitted by the particular code in use). Deactivating this option causes new jobs to default to not using this allowable.
No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs
There has been considerable concern involving the SIFs for reduced fittings. Part of the discussion centers around just what
should be considered a reduced fitting. The CAESAR II default is to assume that welding tees and reinforced fabricated tees
are covered by the reduced fitting expressions, even though the reduced fitting expressions do not explicitly cover these
intersection types. Users wishing to leave welding tees and reinforced tees out of this definition should enable this directive.
Occasional Load Factor
The default value of 0.0 tells CAESAR II to use the value that the active piping code recommends. B31.1 states that the
calculated stress may exceed the maximum allowable stress from Appendix A, (Sh), by 15% if the event duration occurs
less than 10% of any 24 hour operating period, and by 20% if the event duration occurs less than 1% of any 24 hour
operating period. The default for B31.1 applications is 15%. If 20% is more suitable for the system being analyzed then this
directive can be used to enter the 20%.
B31.3 states, The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight, and other sustained loadings (S1) and of the
stresses produced by occasional loads such as wind or earthquake may be as much as 1.33 times the allowable stress given
in Appendix A. Where the allowable stress value exceeds 2/3 of yield strength at temperature, the allowable stress value
must be reduced as specified in Note 3 in 302.3.2. The default for B31.3 applications is 33%. If this is too high for the
material and temperature specified then a smaller occasional load factor could be input.
Note that this Configuration Directive is used to "seed" new job files. Once the static load cases have been defined,
changing this directive will have no effect for static analysis. For existing static load case definitions, the occasional load
multiplier can be changed on the Load Case Options tab. Dynamic analyses will always reference this Configuration
Directive.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 227
Pressure Variation in EXP Case
This directive controls whether or not any pressure variation between the referenced load cases will be considered in the
resulting expansion case. When this Directive is set to "Default", CAESAR II considers the pressure variation according to
the active Piping Code.
Reduced Intersection
Available options are B31.1(Pre 1980), B31.1(Post 1980), WRC329, ASME SEC III, and Schneider:
B31.1 (Pre 1980)
Allows the B31.1 code user to have the pre1980 code rules used for reduced intersection. These rules didnot define a
separate branch SIF for the reduced branch end. The branch stress intensification factor will be the same as the header
stress intensification factor regardless of the branchtoheader diameter ratio.
B31.1 (Post 1980)
Allows the B31.1 code user to employ the post1980 code rules for reduced intersections. The reduced intersection SIF
equations in B31.1 from 1980 through 1989 generated unnecessarily high SIFs because of a mistake made in the
implementation. (This is as per WRC329.) For this reason many users opted for the Pre 1980 B31.1 SIF calculation
discussed above. CAESAR II corrects this mistake by the automatic activation of the flag: B31.1 Reduced Z Fix = On.
Users can vary the status of this flag in the CAESAR II setup file to generate any interpretation of B31.1 desired. The
default for a new job is for B31.1(Post 1980) and for the B31.1 Reduced Z Fix = On.
The No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs flag also affects the SIF calculations at reduced intersections and is also
available in this release.
WRC 329
Allows the user to use the recommendations of WRC329 for reduced intersections. A reduced intersection is any
intersection where the d/D ratio is less than 0.975. The WRC329 recommendations result in more conservative stress
calculations in some instances and less conservative stress calculations in others. In all cases the WRC329 values
should be more accurate, and more truly inline with the respective codes intent.
ASME Sect. III
Allows the user to use the 1985 ASME Section III NC and ND rules for reduced intersections.
228 Configuration and Environment
Schneider
Activates the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor multiplication. Has the same effect as the Use
Schneider option.
Use PD/4t
Enabling this directive causes CAESAR II to use the simplified form of the longitudinal stress term when computing
sustained stresses. Some codes permit this simplified form when the pipe wall thickness is thin. This option is used most
often when users are comparing CAESAR II results to those from an older pipe stress program. The more comprehensive
calculation, i.e. the Default, is recommended.
Use Schneider
This directive activates the Schneider reduced intersection assumptions. It was because of observations by Schneider that
much of the work on WRC 329 was started. Schneider pointed out that the code SIFs could be in error when the d/D ratio at
the intersection was less than 1.0 and greater than 0.5. In this d/D range the SIFs could be in error by a factor as high as 2.0.
Using the Schneider option in CAESAR II results in a multiplication of the out of plane branch stress intensification by a
number between 1 and 2 when the d/D ratio for the intersection is between 0.5 and 1.0. For B31.1 and other codes that do
not differentiate between in and outofplane SIFs the multiplication will be used for the single stress intensification given.
Use WRC 329
Activates the WRC329 guidelines for all intersections, (not just for reduced intersections). The recommendations made by
Rodabaugh in section 5.0 of WRC329 will be followed exactly in making the stress calculations for intersections. Every
attempt has been made to improve the stress calculations for all codes, not just the four discussed in Rodabaughs paper.
Throughout this document WRC330 and WRC329 are used synonymously (330 was the draft version of 329). When finally
published, the official WRC designation was 329.
Yield Stress Criterion
The 132column stress report produced by CAESAR II contains a value representative of the maximum stress state through
the cross section, computed per the indicated yield criteria theory.
CAESAR II can compute this maximum stress (note, this is not a Code stress) according to either Von Mises Theory or the
Maximum Shear Theory. The selected stress is computed at four points along the axis normal to the plane of bending
(outside top, inside top, inside bottom, outside bottom), and the maximum value is printed in the stress report. The equations
used for each of these yield criteria are listed below. If the Von Mises Theory is used, CAESAR II computes the octahedral
shear stress, which differs from the Von Mises stress by a constant factor.
(For B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8 Chapter VIII, and DnV this setting controls which equation is used to compute the
"equivalent stress". For these three codes, the equations shown in the code are used to determine the yield criterion, not the
standard mechanical stress equations shown below. These standard mechanical stress equations are used for the other codes
addressed by CAESAR II. )
3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (Default)
SI = Maximum of:
S1OT  S3OT
S1OB  S3OB
Max(S1IT,RPS)  Min(S3IT,RPS)
Max(S1IB,RPS)  Min(S3IB,RPS)
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 229
Octahedral (Von Mises Stress)
CAESAR II computes and displays the Octahedral Shear Stress, defined as:
OCT = 1/3 sqrt[(S1S2)(S1S2) + (S2S3)(S2S3) + (S3S1)(S3S1)]. These terms are
defined below as:
OCT = Maximum of:
(S3OB
2
+S1OB
2
+(S3OBS1OB)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
((S3IBRPS)
2
+(S3IBS1IB)
2
+(RPSS1IB)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
(S3OT
2
+S1OT
2
+(S1OTS3OT)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
((S3ITRPS)
2
+(S3ITS1IT)
2
+(RPSS1IT)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
Where:
S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
= (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)
1/2
S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0 (((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)
1/2
S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0 (((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0+ (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)
1/2
S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bottom
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0 (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)
1/2
S1IB=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
S3IB=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0 (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
RPS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside
HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, from Lames Equation)
HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lames Equation)
SLOT=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Top
SLIT=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Top
SLOB=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Bottom
SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom
TSI=Torsional Stress, Inside
TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside
230 Configuration and Environment
Set/Change Password
The Security button provides the user with the option of providing a password protection scheme for the configuration file.
By setting a password on the primary configuration file (done by setting the default data directory to the CAESAR II program
directory), a corporate standard can be enforced throughout the network. Subsequent use of the configuration module in
other data directories will allow modification only of display or other environment directives (i.e., those that do not affect
calculated results).
When this button is clicked, a menu displays with four possible selections:
New Password
Access Protected Data
Change Password
Remove Password
New Password
Initially this is the only option available. After entering a password, the user has the ability to change configuration settings
from the program directory, or alter or remove the password. When entering a new password the user is prompted for the
new password a second time to ensure the password was typed as expected by the user the first time.
Access Protected Data
This option is accessible once a password exists. Assuming the correct password is given for access, the user is then allowed
to modify protected directives. The use of this option is not necessary if there is no previously specified password. If no
password has been set, the user can modify all directives.
Change Password
The current password may be changed at any time by a user who has authorization (users must enter the correct existing
password for access to this directive).
Once a password has been set, all computation controls, stress directives, and any other directives, which could affect the
CAESAR II computations are disabled and cannot be changed by the user. All protected directive labels, edit boxes, and
default buttons are grayed out when disabled.
Remove Password
Users with authorization can remove the current password by entering the correct existing password for this directive. Once
a password is removed, all directives in CONFIGURE/SETUP are modifiable by the user from any directory where he/she has
read/write access rights.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference
This chapter illustrates how to enter job parameters through the program's menus, fields, and commands.
In This Chapter
Piping Spreadsheet Data .......................................................................... 32
Auxiliary Fields  Component Information ............................................. 313
Auxiliary Fields  Boundary Conditions.................................................. 339
Auxiliary Fields  Imposed Loads ........................................................... 361
Auxiliary Fields  Piping Code Data........................................................ 371
Available Commands............................................................................... 393
Loop Optimization Wizard...................................................................... 3137
C H A P T E R 3
32 Piping Screen Reference
Piping Spreadsheet Data
Help Screens and Units
The question mark key <?> or the <F1> function key if pressed while in any of the input data cells, will produce interactive
help text for that particular input item. Additionally, while resting the cursor on a field, a tool tip indicating the current units
will appear.
From
The FROM node number defines the starting end of the element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging from 1 to 32000.
Normally, the FROM node number is duplicated forward by CAESAR II from the preceding element. The node numbers
may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the same node number more than once in the model.
To
The TO NODE number defines the end of the current element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging from 1 to 32,000.
The node numbers may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the same node number more than once in
the model.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 33
Name
This check box is used to assign nonnumeric names to node points. Doubleclicking this check box activates an auxiliary
spreadsheet where names, of up to 10 characters, can be assigned to the FROM and/or TO nodes. These names will show
up in place of the node numbers in graphic plots and reports (possibly truncated in 80 column reports).
DX
Delta X (DX) defines the element's projected length along the global X direction.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length][length][fraction] formats (such as feet  inch  fraction or meter  decimal 
centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication, and division may be used as well
as exponential format.
Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.
Note that a "tic mark" ( ' ) can be used in place of the first dash (  ), to indicate feet in this field.
DY
Delta Y (DY) defines the element's projected length along the global Y direction.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length][length][fraction] formats (such as feet  inch  fraction or meter  decimal 
centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication, and division may be used as well
as exponential format.
Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.
Note that a "tic mark" ( ' ) can be used in place of the first dash (  ), to indicate feet in this field..
DZ
Delta Z (DZ) defines the element's projected length along the global Z direction.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length][length][fraction] formats (such as feet  inch  fraction or meter  decimal 
centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication, and division may be used as well
as exponential format.
Enter the DISTANCE between the TO and the FROM node along the direction specified.
Note that a "tic mark" ( ' ) can be used in place of the first dash (  ), to indicate feet in this field.
34 Piping Screen Reference
Examples for DX, DY, DZ Fields
Element Cosines
Element Length
Enter the distance between the TO and the FROM node.
Note that a "tic mark" ( ' ) can be used in place of the first dash (  ), to indicate feet in the above examples.
Element Direction Cosines
Direction vector or direction cosines, which define the centerline of the element.
For an element aligned with the "X" axis,
Cos X ..... 1.0
Cos Y ..... <Blank>
Cos Z ..... <Blank>
For an element aligned with the "Y" axis,
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 35
Cos X ..... <Blank>
Cos Y ..... 1.0
Cos Z ..... <Blank>
For an element aligned with the "Z" axis,
Cos X ..... <Blank>
Cos Y ..... <Blank>
Cos Z ..... 1.0
Element Offsets
Element Offsets are used to correct an element's modeled dimensions back to its actual dimensions.
1 Activate by doubleclicking the Offsets check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking a
second time.
2 Specify the distances from the TO node's position in 3D space to the actual TO end of the element.
3 Specify the distances from the FROM nodes position in 3D space to the actual FROM end of the element.
Note: Any offset direction distances left blank default to zero.
Thermal expansion is 0 for the offset portion of an offset element. No element flexibility is generated for the offset
portion of the element. A common usage for the offset element is shown in the following figure:
Pipe Section Data
Diameter
The Diameter field is used to specify the pipe diameter. Normally, the nominal diameter is entered, and CAESAR II converts
it to the actual outer diameter necessary for the analysis. There are two ways to prevent this conversion: use a modified
UNITS file with the Nominal Pipe Schedules turned off, or enter diameters whose values are off slightly from a nominal
size (in English units the tolerance on diameter is 0.063 in.). Use <F1> to obtain additional information and the current units
for this input field. Available nominal diameters are determined by the active pipe size specification, set via the
configuration program. The following are the available nominal diameters.
36 Piping Screen Reference
ANSI Nominal Pipe ODs, in inches (file ap.bin)
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14
16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42
JIS Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file jp.bin)
15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 200 250 300
350 400 450 500 550 600 650
DIN Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file dp.bin)
15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300 350
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 37
Wt/Sch
The Wall Thickness/Schedule field is used to specify the thickness of the pipe. Normal input consists of a schedule
indicator (such as S, XS, or 40), which will be converted to the proper wall thickness by CAESAR II. If actual thickness is
entered, CAESAR II will accept it as entered. Available schedule indicators are determined by the active piping specification,
set via the configuration program. The available schedules are listed below.
ANSI B36.10 Steel Nominal Wall Thickness Designation:
S  Standard
XS  Extra Strong
XXS  Double Extra Strong
ANSI B36.10 Steel Pipe Numbers:
10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Schedules:
5S 10S 40S 80S
JIS PIPE SCHEDULES
1990 Steel Schedules:
10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
1990 Stainless Steel Schedules:
5S 10S 40S
DIN PIPE SCHEDULES
none
Note: Only the s (standard) schedule applies to wall thickness calculations for DIN.
+Mill Tol %; Wl
The Positive Mill Tolerance is only enabled when IGE/TD/12 is active, and is used when the Base Stress/Flexibility On
directive of the Special Execution Options is set to Plus Mill Tolerance. In that case, piping stiffness and section modulus
is based on the nominal wall thickness, increased by this percentage. The user may change this value on an elementby
element basis.
If the B31.3 piping code is activated, this field is used to specify the weld strength reduction factor (W
l
), to be used in the
minimum wall calculation for straight pipe.
Mill Tol %
The Negative Mill Tolerance is read in from the configuration file for use in minimum wall thickness calculations. Also, for
IGE/TD/12, this value is used when the Base Stress/Flexibility On directive of the Special Execution Options is set to
Plus Mill Tolerance. In that case, piping stiffness and section modulus is based on the nominal wall thickness, decreased by
this percentage. The user may change this value on an elementbyelement basis.
SeamWelded
B31.3
38 Piping Screen Reference
If the B31.3 piping code is active, use the Seamwelded check box to activate the Wl field. Wl the weld strength
reduction factor is used to determine the minimum wall thickness of the element.
IGE/TD/12
Used to indicate when straight pipes are seam welded and affects the Stress Intensification Factor calculations for that pipe
section due to Seam Welded fabrication.
Corrosion
Enter the corrosion allowance to be used order to calculate a reduced section modulus. A setup file directive is available
to consider all stress cases as corroded.
Insul Thk
Enter the thickness of the insulation to be applied to the piping. Insulation applied to the outside of the pipe will be included
in the dead weight of the system, and in the projected pipe area used for wind load computations. If a negative value is
entered for the insulation thickness, the program will model refractory lined pipe. The thickness will be assumed to be the
thickness of the refractory, inside the pipe.
Propagate Properties
If this checkbox is left "unchecked", then property changes will only affect the selected elements. If this checkbox is
checked, then property changes will be propagated (duplicated) just as if the change was made on the main input
spreadsheet.
Temperatures
There are nine temperature fields, to allow up to nine different operating cases. Temperature values are checked (by the
error checker) to insure they are within the code allowed ranges. Users can exceed the code ranges by entering the
expansion coefficient in the temperature field in units of length/length. The expansion coefficient can be a useful method of
modeling cold spring effects. Also when material 21(userdefined material) enter temperature *expansion coefficient as in
the example below.
Values entered in the temperature field whose absolute values are less than the Alpha Tolerance are taken to be thermal
expansion coefficients, where the Alpha Tolerance is a configuration file parameter and is taken to be 0.05 by default. For
example, if the user wanted to enter the thermal expansion coefficient equivalent to 11.37in./100ft., the calculation would
be:
11.37in./100ft. * 1 ft./ 12in. = .009475 in./in.
This would be entered into the appropriate Temperature field.
Note: A cut short is no more than reducing a pipe element's length to zero (for example; if we wanted 8.5 cm of cold
spring we could put in an 8.5 cm long element and then thermally shrink its length to zero). This allows the cold spring to
be manipulated as an individual thermal case rather than as a concentrated force.
Access to operating conditions 4 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input screen, accessible
via the "chevron" button in the upper right corner of the frame surrounding the standard Temperature and Pressure input
fields. This dialog box may be kept open or closed for the convenience of the user.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 39
CAESAR II will automatically suggest load cases as per IGE/TD/12 Appendix 7, but in order to be correct, the following
convention must be adhered to with respect to specification of the Operating Conditions:
T1 Max temp
T2 Min temp
T3 Min summer temp
T4 Max winter temp
T5 Max temp (flow induced) (optional)
T6 Min temp (flow induced) (optional)
P1 MIP
P2 MOP
P3 Compressor operation
P4 Demand pressure
HP Hydrotest pressure
Pressures
There are ten pressure fields, to allow up to nine operating, and one hydrotest, pressure cases. When multiple pressures are
entered, the user should be particularly careful with the set up of the analysis load cases, and should inspect CAESAR II's
recommendations carefully before proceeding.
Access to operating pressures 3 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input screen, accessible
via the "chevron" button in the upper right corner of the frame surrounding the standard Temperature and Pressure input
fields. This dialog box may be retained open or closed at the convenience of the user.
Entering a value in the HydroPress field signals CAESAR II to recommend a Hydrotest load case.
Enter the design gage pressure (i.e. the difference between the internal and external pressures).
310 Piping Screen Reference
Note: The BOURDON (pressure elongation) EFFECT is disabled by default. (It is assumed to be nonconservative.) Users
wishing to enable the BOURDON EFFECT may do so via the Special Execution Options.
The BOURDON EFFECT is ALWAYS considered in the analysis of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic pipe, Material id=20.
CAESAR II will automatically suggest load cases as per IGE/TD/12 Appendix 7, but in order to be correct, the following
convention must be adhered to with respect to specification of the Operating Conditions:
T1 Max temp
T2 Min temp
T3 Min summer temp
T4 Max winter temp
T5 Max temp (flow induced) (optional)
T6 Min temp (flow induced) (optional)
P1 MIP
P2 MOP
P3 Compressor operation
P4 Demand pressure
HP Hydrotest pressure
Piping Materials
Material Name
Materials are entered either by name or number. All available material names and their CAESAR II material numbers are
displayed in the drop list. Since this list is quite long, entering a partial material name (such as A106) allows the user to
select from matching materials. Numbers 117 corresponds to the generic materials, without code allowable stresses.
Material 18 represents the cold spring element for cut short and material 19 represents the cold spring element for cut
long. Material 20 is used to define Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe. FRP Pipe requires slightly different material
modeling and the spreadsheet changes to accommodate the difference. Analysis of fiberglass pipe is described in greater
detail in Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.
When a material has been selected from the database, the physical properties as well as the allowable stresses are obtained
and placed on the spreadsheet. At any later time, if the temperature or piping code is changed, these allowable stress values
are automatically updated.
Material Properties
The Modulus of Elasticity, Poisson's Ratio, and Pipe Density fields are automatically filled in when a material number is
entered. If the user wishes to override any material property extracted from the database, simply change the value to be
modified after the material number has been entered.
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
The CAESAR II FRP pipe element models an orthotropic material whose properties can be defined by:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 311
E
a
 Axial Modulus of Elasticity
E
h
 Hoop Modulus of Elasticity
v
h/a
 Poisson's ratio of the strain in the axial direction resulting from a stress in the hoop direction.
G  Shear Modulus (Not related to the Elastic Modulus and Poissons ratio in the conventional manner.)
FRP pipe is invoked from the CAESAR II element spreadsheet with a material type 20. The material name will be
immediately printed and FRP properties from the configuration file will be input on the spreadsheet.
Some of the material parameters are renamed when the FRP material is selected: Elastic Modulus changes to Elastic
Modulus/axial and Poisson's Ratio changes to E
a
/E
h
*n
h/a
. The latter entry requires the value of the expression: (E
a
*n
h/a)
/
E
h
(which happens to be equal to n
a/h
, Poisson's ratio of the strain in the hoop direction resulting from a stress in the axial
direction). The shear modulus G can be defined by entering the ratio of G/E
a
(shear modulus to axial modulus) on the
special execution parameters screen. Only one ratio can be entered per job.
Because the hoop modulus is usually considerably higher than the axial modulus for FRP pipe, the decrease in flexural
stiffness at bends and intersections due to changes in the circular crosssection is typically negligible, and so a default
flexibility factor of 1 is used for these components. Similarly, since the fatigue tests performed by Markl on steel pipe will
likely have no bearing on FRP design, an SIF of 2.3 is applied for all fittings. CAESAR II uses these recommendations for all
FRP fittings unless specifically overridden by the user. This can be overridden on a pointbypoint basis, or by forcing all
calculations to adhere to the requirements of the governing code (through a CAESAR II configuration parameter). Note that if
the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, all SIFs and flexibility factors will be calculated as per that code regardless of
the configuration parameter settings.
Densities
Pipe Density
The appropriate pipe density is filled in automatically when a proper material number is input. This value may be
overridden by the user at any time. It will then be the users value that gets columnduplicated through the remainder of the
input.
Fluid Density
When the internal fluid the piping system transports would significantly affect the weight loads, the fluid density should be
specified. When the specific gravity of the fluid is known, it can be entered here instead of the density, e.g. .85SG. Specific
gravities are converted to the appropriate densities immediately on input. Note that to enter specific gravity, follow the
numeric value with the letters SG (no spaces); this value will then be converted to density.
Note: In the default ENGLISH units system, densities are entered in pounds per cubic inch.
Insulation Density
Enter the weight density (or select from the drop list) of the insulation on a per unit volume basis. (If the insulation
thickness specified above is negative, this field is the weight of the refractory lining, on a per unit volume basis.) If a
selection is made from the drop list, the numeric value will replace the material name when the field is registered.
Insure that this "assumed" value is appropriate for the current application. Refractory densities are much higher than
insulation densities and could lead to under sized restraints. Sample density values for both insulation and refractory
materials are listed below.
MATERIAL DENSITY
AMOSITE ASBESTOS .009259
CALCIUM SILICATE .006655
CAREYTEMP .005787
312 Piping Screen Reference
MATERIAL DENSITY
FIBERGLASS (OWEN/CORNING) .004051
FOAMGLASS/CELLULAR GLASS .004630
HIGH TEMP .01389
KAYLO 10 (TM) .007234
MINERAL WOOL .004919
PERLITE / CELOTEMP 1500 007523
POLY URETHANE 001273
STYRO FOAM 001042
SUPER X .01447
Densities for some typical refractory materials display below:
MATERIAL DENSITY
A.P. GREEN GREENCAST 94 .09433
A.P. GREEN KRUZITE CASTABLE .08391
A.P. GREEN MC30 .08391
A.P. GREEN MC22 .07234
A.P. GREEN KASTSET .06655
A.P. GREEN KASTOLITE 25 .05208
A.P. GREEN VSL35AST 94 .02257
B & W KAOCRETE B .05787
B & W KAOCRETE 32C .08333
B & W KAOTAB 95 .09549
B & W KAOLITE 2200 .03241
B & W KAOLITE 2200HS .04745
B & W KAOLITE 2500LI. .03472
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 313
Auxiliary Fields  Component Information
Bends
Activate by doubleclicking the Bend check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second
time.
Radius
CAESAR II makes the long radius bend calculation whenever a bend is input. If the user wishes to use some other bend
radius the new bend radius can be entered in this field. Alternatively, the "drop list" can be used to select:
short radius bends
3D (3 times the nominal diameter) bends
5D (5 times the nominal diameter) bends
314 Piping Screen Reference
Type
For most codes, this refers to the number of attached flanges, and can be selected from the drop list. If there are no flanges
on the bend then leave the Type field blank. A bend should be considered flanged if there is any heavy/rigid body within
2 diameters of the bend that will significantly restrict the bends ability to ovalize.
When using the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes with Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe, this entry refers to the material
laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate types are
All chopped strand mat (CSM) constructing with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer.
The Laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for the BS 7159 and
UKOOA Codes only.
For ISO 14692 only type 3 filament  wound laminate is considered.
Angle
The angle to a point on the bend curvature. The user may place additional nodes at any point on the bend curvature provided
the added nodes are not within 5degrees of each other. (The 5 nodespacing limit may be changed via the configuration
file if necessary.) Note that the element TO node is always physically located at the far end of the bend. By default
CAESAR II places a node at the midpoint of the bend (Designated by the letter M in this field), as well as at the 0degree
position (start) of the bend if possible.
Node
Node number to be associated with the extra point on the bend. CAESAR II places unique node numbers in these fields
whenever a bend is initiated. New, unique node numbers must be assigned to the points whenever the user adds points on
the bend curvature. If numbering by 5s and the TO node number for the bend element is 35, a logical choice for the node
number for an added node at 30 degrees on the bend would be 34. The added nodes on the bend can be treated like any
other nodes in the piping system. Nodes on the bend curvature may be restrained, displaced, or placed at the intersection of
more than two pipes. Nodes on a bend curvature are most commonly used as an intersection for a dummy leg, or for the
location of a restraint. All nodes defined in this manner will be plotted at the tangent intersection point for the bend.
Miter Points
Number of cuts in the bend if mitered.
The bend SIF scratch pad may be invoked from the pipe spreadsheet by choosing Environment  Review SIFs at Bend
Nodes. When the user enters a valid mitered bend node number, CAESAR II tells the user if the mitered bend input is closely
or widely spaced. If the bend is determined to be widely spaced and the number of miter cuts is greater than 1, then it is
recommended that the bend be broken down into n single cut widely spaced miters, where n is the total number of cuts
in the bend. The number of cuts and the radius of the bend are all that is required to calculate the SIFs and flexibilities for
the bend as defined in the B31 codes. The bend radius and the bend miter spacing are related by the following equations:
Closely Spaced Miters
R = S / (2 tan u)
q = Bend Angle / (2 n) where n =
number of miter cuts
Widely Spaced Miters
R = r
2
(1.0 + cot q) / 2.0
r
2
= (ri + ro) / 2.0
u = Bend Angle / 2.0
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 315
Fitting Thickness
Enter the thickness of the bend if different than the thickness of the matching pipe. If the entered thickness is greater than
the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside diameter of the bend will be smaller than the inside diameter of the
matching pipe. Section modulus calculations for stress computations are made based on the properties of the matching pipe
as defined by the codes.
The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors  once as Tn, and once when determining the
mean crosssectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility characteristic (h):
h = (Tn)(R) / (r2)
Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting
R = Bend radius
r = Mean crosssectional radius of matching pipe
= (OD  WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe
WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe
Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the matching pipe for the
calculation of the mean crosssectional radius of the pipe (the WT value). More specifically, the individual codes use the
two wall thicknesses as follows:
Code For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:
B31.1 Fitting Fitting
B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe
Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe
NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting
B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting
SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe
BS 806 N/A N/A
STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A
RCCM C/D Matching Pipe Matching Pipe
CODETI Fitting Fitting
NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting
FDBR Fitting Fitting
316 Piping Screen Reference
Code For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:
BS 7159 Fitting Fitting
UKOOA Fitting Fitting
IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting
EN13480 Fitting Matching Pipe
GPTC/Z380 Fitting Matching Pipe
The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix calculations; however, note
that the thickness of the matching pipe (WT) is always used in the bend stress calculations.
KFactor
Normally the bend flexibility factor is calculated as per the requirements of the active code. The user can override this
calculation by entering a value in this field.
SeamWelded
B31.3
If the B31.3 piping code is active, the "seamwelded" check box is used to activate the W
l
field for bends. The W
l
field is
the "weld strength reduction factor" used to determine the minimum wall thickness of the bend element.
IGE/TD/12
Used by IGE/TD/12 to calculate the stress intensification factors due to seam welded elbow fabrication as opposed to
extruded elbow fabrication. This directive is only available when IGE/TD/12 is active.
Wl for Bends
B31.3  This field is used to define the weld strength reduction factor (W
l
) for bend elements. This value is used in the
minimum wall thickness calculations.
ISO 14692  This code replaces this field with E
P
T
p
/(E
b
T
b
) where E
p
and E
b
are the axial modulus of the attached pipe and
the bend respectively, T
p
and T
b
are the average wall thickness of the attached pipe and the bend respectively. If omitted a
default value of 1.0 is used. This value will affect the calculation of the flexibility factor for bends.
Rigid Elements
Activate by doubleclicking the Rigid check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second
time.
Enter the rigid element weight. This value should always be zero or positive and should not include the weight of any
insulation or fluid.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 317
CAESAR II automatically includes 1.0 times the fluid weight of equivalent straight pipe.
CAESAR II automatically includes 1.75 times the insulation weight of equivalent straight pipe.
Rigid elements with zero weight are considered to be modeling constructs and do not have fluid or insulation weight added.
The rigid element stiffness is proportional to the matching pipe, i.e. a 13 in. long 12 in. diameter rigid element is stiffer than
a 13 in. long 2 in. diameter rigid element. This fact should be observed when modeling rigid elements that are part of a
small pipe/large vessel, or small pipe/heavy equipment model. The stiffness properties are computed using 10 times the
entered thickness of the rigid element. For additional details see Chapter 6 of this manual.
The length must be entered in the Delta Length field (DX, DY, and DZ).
See the discussion of the Valve And Flange Database (see "Valve/Flange Database" on page 394) for automatic input of
these types of components.
Flanges
Activate by doubleclicking the Flange check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking again.
Note: Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges in a model, use the Load
Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify which operating temperature the flanges should be evaluated
to.
From/To/Both
Specify whether the flange is on the element's "FROM" end, the element's "TO" end, or both ends.
Peq/NC3658.3 Selection
Specify whether to evaluate the flanges using the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method or the ASME B&PVC Section
III Subsection NC3658.3 method.
Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method:
P
eq
= 16M/(pi)G
3
+ 4F/(pi)G
2
+ P
D
@ Pressure Rating
Where:
P
eq
= equivalent pressure (for checking against flange rating)
M = bending moment on flange
G = diameter of effective gasket reaction
F = axial force on flange
P
D
= design pressure
NC3658.3 Method:
318 Piping Screen Reference
S = 36,000 * Mfs / (CAb * 3125) @ Min(Sy, 36000) nonOcc Load Case
S = 36,000 * Mfd / (CAb * 3125) @ 2.0 * Min(Sy, 36000) Occ Load Case
Where (note that the constants 36,000 and 3125 should be 248.22 and 21.6 in standard SI units):
S = flange stress
M
fs
= bending or torsional moment (whichever is greater) acting on the flange, developed during a non
Occasional Load Case
Mfd = bending or torsional moment (whichever is greater) acting on the flange, developed during an
Occasional Load Case
Sy = yield strength of flange material at design temperature; (where Sy, given in psi, shall not be taken
as greater than 36,000 psi)
C = bolt circle diameter
Ab = total cross sectional area of bolts
PD = design pressure
Flange Class & Material Grade
Enter the name of the flange type for easy identification of similar flanges. Typically flanges are identified by Pressure
Class and Material Grade, but anything may be entered here.
If the flange TemperaturePressure Rating data is read in from a file, then CAESAR II automatically builds a flange name
made up of the File Name, the Pressure Class, and the Material Class.
Gasket Diameter, G / Bolt Circle
This field does double duty, depending on which analysis technique is active.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 319
Peq Method:
Specify the diameter at the location of the gasket load reaction. From ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 2, (except
as noted in sketch (1) of Fig 24), G is defined as (see Table 25.2):
 when b
0
is less than or equal to 1/4, G = mean diameter of the gasket contact face
 when b
0
is greater than 1/4, G = outside diameter of gasket contact face less 2b.
NOTE: When using the "Peq Method" with the Stoomwezen Piping Code it is suggested that the "bolt circle diameter" be
used instead of the "gasket load reaction diameter" (see chapter D0701 of the Code RToD). Also note that the results of this
"Peq Method" are considered by Stoomwezen to be conservative.
NC3658 Method:
Specify the bolt circle diameter. This value is the diameter of the circle passing through the bolt centers.
NOTE: Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges in a model, use the Load
Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify which operating temperature the flanges should be evaluated
to.
Read from Flange File
Click this button to read TemperaturePressure Rating data from a file (ASME and DIN flanges are shipped with
CAESAR II).
As an alternative to reading from a file, the data can be entered directly into the table below.
Note that users may create their own data files by following the format described in the CAESAR II documentation.
Pressure / Temperature Grid
This table can be used to define the flange TemperaturePressure rating as a function of temperature for a particular material
grade. Up to 24 temperaturepressure pairs may be entered; they must be entered in ascending temperature order.
Note: Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges in a model, use the Load
Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify which operating temperature the flanges should be evaluated
to.
Bolt Area (Ab)
Specify the total crosssectional area of the bolts at the root of thread or section of least diameter under stress.
SYC, SY1SY9
Specify the flange yield stress at the cold (Ambient) temperature and at each of the operating temperatures, for use in
calculating the flange allowable stress.
Note: Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges in a model, use the Load
Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify which operating temperature the flanges should be evaluated
to.
320 Piping Screen Reference
Expansion Joints
Activate by doubleclicking the Expansion Joint check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double
clicking a second time.
Zero Length Expansion Joints
Used to model hinged and gimballed joints. Leave the DX, DY, and DZ fields blank or zero. Define completely flexible
stiffnesses as 1.0, and completely rigid stiffness as 1.0E12. All stiffnesses must be entered.
Finite Length Expansion Joints
The DX, DY, and DZ fields should describe the change in dimensions required to get from one end of the flexible bellows
connection to the other. The transverse and bending stiffnesses are directly related for finite length joints. The user should
input only one of these stiffnesses. CAESAR II will calculate the other stiffness automatically based on flexible length,
effective ID, and the other stiffness. It is recommended that the user enter the transverse stiffness and leave the bending
stiffness blank.
Bellows Stiffness Properties
If the element length is zero then the user should define all stiffnesses. If the element length is not zero then either the
bending or the transverse stiffness should be left blank. CAESAR II will automatically calculate the stiffness not entered.
(For rubber expansion joints, all stiffnesses may be entered.)
If the torsional stiffness value is not specified, CAESAR II will use a default value of .
Bending "STIFFNESSES" from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are to be used in a finite length
expansion joint model should be multiplied by (4) before being used in any piping program. Bending "STIFFNESSES"
from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are to be used in a ZERO length expansion joint model
should be used without modification.
Use (1.0) for bellows stiffnesses that are completely flexible.
Use (1.0E12) for rigid bellows stiffnesses.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 321
Zero Length expansion joints can be used in many modeling applications to define struts, hinged ends, etc. The orientation
of zero length expansion joints is taken from the element that precedes the expansion joint providing the "TO" node of the
preceding element is equal to the "FROM" node on the expansion joint element. If the preceding element does not go
"INTO" the expansion joint, then the orientation will be taken from the element that follows the expansion joint providing it
properly "LEAVES" the joint.
Effective ID
The effective inside diameter for pressure thrust (from the manufacturers catalog). For all load cases including pressure
CAESAR II will calculate the pressure thrust force tending to blow the bellows apart. If left blank, or zero, then no axial
thrust force due to pressure will be calculated. Many manufacturers give the effective area of the expansion joint: A
eff
. The
Effective ID is calculated from the effective area by:
Effective ID = (4A
eff
/ t)
1/2
Reducers
Activate or deactivate this option by doubleclicking the Reducer check box on the piping element spreadsheet.
Optionally, enter the TO END Diameter 2, Thickness 2, and Alpha values of the reducer. The FROM END diameter and
wall thickness of the reducer element will be taken from the current piping element spreadsheet.
CAESAR II will construct a concentric reducer element made of ten pipe cylinders, each of a successively larger (or smaller)
diameter and wall thickness over the element length. CAESAR II will calculate SIFs according to the current piping code
(see Code Compliance Considerations in the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for more information) and apply these
internally to the Code Stress Calculations. These SIFs are dependent on the slope of the reducer transition (among other
codespecific considerations), labeled Alpha in the figure above. If Alpha is left blank the program will calculate this value
based on the change in pipe diameter over 60% of the entered element length. If entered, Diameter 2 and Thickness 2 will
be carried forward when the next pipe element is created as Diameter and Wt/Sch. If not specified, Diameter 2 and
Thickness 2 will be assumed equal to those values entered as Diameter and Wt/Sch on the following element spreadsheet.
322 Piping Screen Reference
The Piping Error Checker will report the value of alpha used by CAESAR II (see above picture) if no value for alpha is
entered on the input spreadsheet.
Diameter 2
Optionally enter the diameter of the TO END of the reducer element. (The FROM END diameter is obtained from the
Diameter field of the piping spreadsheet.) The value entered will carry forward as the diameter of the following element.
Nominal values are converted to actual values if that feature is active. If left blank, the program will calculate "Alpha" using
the diameter from the following element as Diameter 2.
Thickness 2
Enter the wall thickness of the TO END of the reducer element. (The FROM END thickness is obtained from the Wall
Thickness/Schedule field of the piping spreadsheet.) The entered value will carry forward as the wall thickness of the
following element. Nominal values are converted to actual values if that feature is active.
Alpha
Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an estimated slope equal to
the arc tangent [ 1/2(the change in diameters) / (length of sloped portion of reducer)].
TD/12. This entry is a required input for IGE/TD/12.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 323
Since all reducers are different, the actual length of sloped portion of reducer is unknown, unless the user defines it. So,
if alpha is not entered, CAESAR II makes an assumption that the length of sloped portion of reducer is equal to 60% of the
total reducer length. So if the "Alpha" value is left blank, CAESAR II defaults to arc tangent [ 1/2(the change in diameters) /
(0.60 * element length)].
R1
Enter the transition radius for the large end of the reducer, as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8 of IGE/TD/12 Code (enabled
only when IGE/TD/12 is active).
R2
Enter the transition radius for the small end of the reducer, as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8 of IGE/TD/12 (enabled only
when IGE/TD/12 is active).
SIFs & Tees
Activate by doubleclicking the SIFs and Tees check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking
a second time.
324 Piping Screen Reference
There are two basic component types:
Three element intersection components, and
Two element joint components.
A fully defined intersection model requires that three pipes frame into the intersection node, and that two of them are co
linear. Partial intersection assumptions are made for junctions where the user has coded one or two pipes into the
intersection node, but these models are not recommended. Two element joint components can be formed equally well
with one or two elements framing into the node.
As usual, the intersection or joint type and properties need only be entered on one of the elements going to the junction.
CAESAR II duplicates the intersection characteristics for all other pipes framing into the intersection. Users are urged to fully
review the WARNING messages coming from CAESAR II during error checking. These messages detail to the user any
assumptions made during the assembly and calculation of the intersection SIFs.
The available intersections and joint types are shown in the table that follows, along with the other parameters that can
affect the stress intensification factors for the respective component.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 325
Input Items Optionally Effecting SIF Calculations
1 REINFORCED FABRICATED TEE PAD THK FTG RO CROTCH
2 UNREINFORCED FABRICATED TEE
FTG RO CROTCH
3 WELDING TEE
FTG RO CROTCH
4 SWEEPOLET
CROTCH
5 WELDOLET
CROTCH
6 EXTRUDED WELDING TEE
FTG RO CROTCH
7 GIRTH BUTT WELD
WELD D OR ID
8 SOCKET WELD (NO UNDERCUT)
FILLET
9 SOCKET WELD (AS WELDED)
FILLET
10 TAPERED TRANSITION
WELD D
11 THREADED JOINT
12 DOUBLE WELDED SLIPON
13 LAP JOINT FLANGE (B16.9)
14 BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLET
15 BONNEY FORGE LATROLET
WELD ID
16 BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLET
17 FULL ENCIRCLEMENT TEE
FTG RO
WELD ID
Node Number
Enter the node number where the Stress Intensification exists. This may be any node in the system, but is most often at a
pipe intersection or joint.
If the node is at an Intersection, stress intensification factors will be automatically calculated for all pipes going to the
intersection providing the intersection "TYPE" is specified. The intersection type needs to only be entered once. CAESAR II
will find all other pipes framing into the intersection and apply the appropriate SIFs accordingly.
If the node is at a twopipe Joint, i.e. a butt weld, stress intensification factors will be calculated for the two pipes going to
the joint node providing the joint "TYPE" is specified. The joint type needs to only be entered once. CAESAR II will find
the other pipe completing the joint.
If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then the Type field should be left BLANK and the "USER DEFINED" SIFs
entered in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields. User entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields only apply to the element on which they
are defined.
User defined stress intensification factors, must be greater then or equal to one.
The user can get CAESAR II to calculate and display code defined SIFs while in the SIF scratchpad. This scratchpad is
accessed via the KAux option on the pipe spreadsheet. Parameters used in the scratchpad may be modified so that the
effects of different geometries and thicknesses can be observed. Most changes made in the scratchpad may be automatically
transferred back into the input, if desired.
326 Piping Screen Reference
If the node is on any part of a bend's curvature then the following applies:
1 User defined SIFs won't override code calculated SIFs for bends, although a SETUP file directive exists to override this
default, i.e. ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES. If this parameter appears in the setup file then users may specify SIFs
for bend "to" nodes. The SIFs so specified will apply for the entire bend curvature.
2 User defined SIFs will apply to straight pipe going to points on a bend curvature regardless of any parameter in the
setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify injector tieins at bends, or dummy legs, or other bend
attachmenttype of supports.
PAD THK
Thickness of the reinforcing pad for reinforced fabricated or full encirclement tees, intersection type #1 and #17
respectively. The pad thickness is only valid for these intersection types. Note that in most piping codes the beneficial effect
of the pads thickness is limited to 1.5 times the nominal thickness of the header. This factor does not apply in BS 806 or
Z184, and is 2.5 in the Swedish piping code. If the thickness of a type 1or type 17 intersection is left blank or zero the SIFs
for an unreinforced fabricated tee are used.
FTG RO
Fitting outside radius for branch connections. Used for reduced branch connections in the ASME and B31.1 piping codes,
Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets, and for WRC 329 intersection SIF calculations. Setup file directives exist to invoke the
WRC 329 calculations, and to limit the application of the reduced branch connection rules to unreinforced fabricated tees,
sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded welding tees. If omitted, FTG ro defaults to the outside radius of the branch pipe.
CROTCH R
The crotch radius of the formed lip on an extruded welding tee, intersection type 6. This is also the intersection weld crotch
radius for WRC329 calculations. Specifying this value when it is known can result in a 50% reduction in the stress
intensification at the WRC 329 intersection. Basically, if the user makes an attempt to reduce the stress riser at a fabricated
intersection, by guaranteeing that there will be a smooth transition radius from the header to the branch pipe, then he may
reduce the resulting stress intensification by a factor of 2.0.
WELD (D)
Defines the average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the pipe. Used for Butt Welds and
Tapered transitions. Note that this is the average, and not the maximum mismatch. Users must themselves verify that any
maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied for their particular code.
FILLET
The fillet leg length, and is used only in conjunction with a socket weld component. For an unequal leg fillet weld, this
value is the length of the shorter leg. Note that if a fillet leg is given, both socket weld types result in the same SIF. See
appendix D of the B31 piping codes for further clarification.
Weld ID
The following are valid Weld ID values.
Values:
0 or BLANK  As Welded
1  Finished/Ground Flush
Used for:
BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS
BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS
BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE
If entered as 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the SIF is taken as 1.0.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 327
Refer to the help on Weld Mismatch (Weld d) for more detail on how input parameters are used to compute SIFs for girth
butt welds.
B1; Wc
ASME Class 2 and ASME Class 3
For ASME Class 2 and Class 3, this entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current
element.
For ASME Class 2 and Class 3 piping. Unless otherwise overridden by the user the following values are applied as:
Straight Pipe: B1 = 0.5 B2 = 1.0
Curved Pipe: B1 = 0.1 + 0.4h; but not <0 or >0.5
B2 = 1.30/h**2/3 but not <1.0; h = tR/ rm**2
Intersections: B1 = 0.5
Butt Welded Tees: B2b = 0.4(R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0
B2r = 0.5(R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0
Branch Connections: (r < 0.5R)
B2b = 0.50 C2b but not < 1.0
B2r = 0.75 C2r but not < 1.0
C2b = 3(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (t/T)(r/FTG ro) but not < 1.5
C2r = 1.15(r/t)**1/4 but not < 1.5
B31.3
For B31.3, this field is used to specify the weld strength reduction factor (W
c
), used to reduce the allowables stress for the
Sustained load case.
BS7159 and UKOOA
For the BS 7159 and UKOOA codes, the B1 field is used to enter the pressure stress multiplier (m), if other than as per the
code requirements. For straight pipe, m = 1.0; for bends and tees, m is defined in Figures 7.1 and 7.12 of the BS 7159 Code.
IGE/TD/12
For IGE/TD/12 this field is used to override the cyclic pressure Stress Intensification Factor Ip(Cyc), if other than as per the
code calculations (calculated as per Table 9, Figure 5, and Figure 7 of the code).
B2
This entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current element. This entry is only
applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping.
328 Piping Screen Reference
If omitted, B1 and B2 are defaulted as shown as follows:
Straight Pipe: B1=0.5 B2=1.0
Curved Pipe: B1=0.1+0.4h; but not <0 or >0.5
B2=1.30/h
2/3
; but not <1.0; h=tR/rm
2
Intersections: B1=0.5
ButtWelded Tees: B2b=0.4(R/T)
2/3
but not <1.0
B2r=0.5(R/T)
2/3
but not <1.0
Branch Connections: (r<0.5R)
B2b=0.50 C2b but not <1.0
B2r=0.75 C2r but not <1.0
C2b=3(R/T)
2/3
(r/R)
1/2
(t/T)(r/FTG ro) but not <1.5
C2r=1.15(r/t)
1/4
but not <1.5
The SIF(IN) and SIF(OUT) fields may be used to override the CAESAR II calculated values for any intersection. Override
values only apply for the single element they are defined on. SIFs may be calculated for partial intersections and dummy
legs.
Note: When IGE/TD/12 is active, the SIF/TEE spreadsheet changes its appearance to accommodate specialized SIF
parameters. Refer to supplementary IGE/TD/12 documentation for further information.
Code Options (B31.1 & B31.8)
B31.1:
Enabling this check box indicates that the tee meets the dimensional criteria of Figure D1 as well as Notes 6a, 6c, 6d, 6e,
and 6f. This allows the use of the "branch equation" when determining the SIF value for the tee. Note that this option relies
on the setting of the Configuration Directives Reduced Intersection and No RFT / WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs.
B31.8:
Enabling this check box indicates that B31.8 Notes 6, 9, or 10 (as applicable) should be used when determining the SIF
value for the tee.
ASME NC and ND:
Enabling this check box indicates that the tee meets the dimensional criteria of Figure 3673.2(b)2 as well as Notes 10 and
11. This allows the use of the "branch equation" when determining the SIF value for the tee. Note that this option relies on
the setting of the Configuration Directives Reduced Intersection and No RFT / WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs.
ASME NC/ND 3673.2(b)1 Note 3
Checking this check box indicates that the material for this tee is ferrous, which enables the "Y" value to be computed based
on the highest temperature value specified.
Input Items Optionally Effecting SIF Calculations For ISO 14692
1 TEES
2 JOINTS
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 329
UserDefined SIFs Anywhere in the Piping System
Unless the piping element is a bend, SIFs for nonintersection points are normally taken to be 1.0. If for some reason the SIF
should be greater than (1.0) the user may enter the nonunity SIF in the Intersection Auxiliary field without specifying the
intersection type. Note that a user defined SIF only acts at the node on the current element.
Stress Intensification Factors Details
Stress intensification factors are calculated automatically for bends and defined intersections as specified by the applicable
piping code. Users may enter specific stress intensification factor for any point in the piping system by activating the SIFs
and Tees check box on the pipe spreadsheet. The node number where the stress is to be intensified is entered in the first
available Node field, and the inplane and outplane stress intensification factors are entered in the SIF(i) and the SIF(o)
fields, respectively. The only exception is that users cannot specify SIFs for bend elements (unless the Allow User's Bend
SIF directive is activated in the configuration file). Code defined SIFs always apply.
CAESAR II will not allow userdefined stress intensification factors to be less than 1.0.
The node to be intensified must be the TO or the FROM node on the current element.
Stresses are only intensified at the element end going to the specified node. For example, if two pipes frame into node 10,
one going from 5 to 10, and the other from 10 to 15; and a stress intensification factor of 2.0 for node 10 is defined on the
element from 5 to 10, then the 10 end of the element from 5 to 10 will have a stress intensification of 2.0, and the 10 end of
the element from 10 to 15 will have a stress intensification of 1.0.
User defined stress intensification factors can be used to override code calculated values for nodes at intersections. For
example, let node 40 be an intersection defined by an unreinforced fabricated tee. The header pipes framing into the
intersection go from 35 to 40 and from 40 to 45. The branch pipe framing into the intersection goes from 175 to 40. The
codecalculated values for the stress intensification factors in the header pipes are:
SIF(i) = 4.50
SIF(o) = 3.75
and in the branch pipe are
SIF(i) = 6.70
SIF(o) = 5.58
Also assume that finite element analysis of the intersection showed the header stress intensification factors to be 2.3 and
1.87, respectively, and the branch stress intensification factors to be equal to the code recommended values, i.e. 6.70 and
5.58. To properly override the codecalculated stress intensification factors for the header pipes, two pipe elements will
have to be modified:
35 to 40 Node 40
Type:
SIF(i): 2.3
SIF(o): 1.87
40 to 15 Node 40
Type:
SIF(i): 2.3
SIF(o): 1.87
The stress intensification for the branch pipes can be calculated according to the code; so part of the branch pipe spreadsheet
might appear:
175 to 40 NODE 40
330 Piping Screen Reference
Type: 2  Unreinforced
SIF(i):
SIF(o):
If either of the SIF fields for the header elements going to 40 were left blank, the codecalculated value would be used in its
place. This is only true where codecalculated values exist along with userspecified values.
If the element from 110 to 115 needs the stress intensification factors for each of its ends is 2.0, then a part of that element's
spreadsheet might appear:
110 to 115 Node 110
Type:
SIF(i): 2.0
SIF(o):
Node: 115
Type:
SIF(i): 2.0
SIF(o):
Leaving the outofplane stress intensification factor blank implies that it is equal to the inplane stress intensification factor.
There are no codecalculated values to override these userinput values.
The user is not permitted to override codecalculated stress intensification factors for bend elements (unless the Allow
User's Bend SIF directive is activated in the configuration file). Additionally, bend stress intensification factors will
supersede any codecalculated intersection stress intensification factors for the same node. This characteristic allows the
user to apply codecalculated intersection stress intensification factors to dummy legs without disturbing the normal bend
stress intensification factors. The node on the dummy leg, which is also on the bend curvature, is defined as an intersection
on the Intersection SIF Scratchpad. The intersection stress intensification factors will be calculated and can be applied to the
dummy leg end that connects to the bend. Bend stress intensification factors are unchanged.
Stress intensification factors can be calculated for intersections having one, two, or three pipes framing into it. Where two
pipes form a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the larger pipe is the header and the smaller the branch.
Where one pipe forms a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the intersection is full sized.
CAESAR II will not calculate stress intensification factors for intersections having more than three pipes framing into it.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 331
SIF Scratchpad
The stress intensification factors calculated by CAESAR II can be viewed interactively from the pipe spreadsheet by selecting
either the ENVIRIONMENT  REVIEW SIFS AT INTERSECTION NODES menu item or the KAUX  REVIEW SIFS AT BEND NODES menu item.
One of the following SIF scratchpads will appear after typing in the node number to review when prompted. Note that the
Node must be a valid Bend node when Reviewing SIFs at Bends.
At this point the user may interactively change any of the spreadsheet data and recalculate the SIFs. This feature allows the
user to see the effect that changing geometries and properties have on code stress intensification factors.
Note: CAESAR II gives the user the opportunity to transfer back to the actual model any data, which might be changed in
the scratchpad.
IGE\TD\12 Requirements
IGE\TD\12 requires different information than the other codes used in CAESAR II. When IGE/TD/12 is active, the
SIFs/Tees spreadsheet changes its appearance to accommodate specialized SIF parameters. For more information regarding
the specialized parameters refer to the text and figures at the end of this section.
332 Piping Screen Reference
Node Number
Enter the node number where the Stress Intensification exists. This may be any node in the system, but is most often at a
pipe intersection or joint.
If the node is at an Intersection, stress intensification factors will be automatically calculated for all pipes going to the
intersection providing the intersection "TYPE" is specified. The intersection type needs to only be entered once. CAESAR II
will find all other pipes framing into the intersection and apply the appropriate SIFs accordingly.
If the node is at a twopipe Joint, i.e. a butt weld, stress intensification factors will be calculated for the two pipes going to
the joint node providing the joint "TYPE" is specified. The joint type needs to only be entered once. CAESAR II will find
the other pipe completing the joint.
If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then the Type field should be left BLANK and the "USER DEFINED" SIFs
entered in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields. User entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields only apply to the element on which they
are defined.
User defined stress intensification factors, must be greater then or equal to one.
The user can get CAESAR II to calculate and display code defined SIFs while in the SIF scratchpad. This scratchpad is
accessed via the KAux option on the pipe spreadsheet. Parameters used in the scratchpad may be modified so that the
effects of different geometries and thicknesses can be observed. Most changes made in the scratchpad may be automatically
transferred back into the input, if desired.
If the node is on any part of a bend's curvature then the following applies:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 333
1 User defined SIFs won't override code calculated SIFs for bends, although a SETUP file directive exists to override this
default, i.e. ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES. If this parameter appears in the setup file then users may specify SIFs
for bend "to" nodes. The SIFs so specified will apply for the entire bend curvature.
2 User defined SIFs will apply to straight pipe going to points on a bend curvature regardless of any parameter in the
setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify injector tieins at bends, or dummy legs, or other bend
attachmenttype of supports.
Do/r3
This field corresponds to the following terms for each component type:
Forged Tee to BS 1640: For more information on Do refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldolet: For more information on r3 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Drawn/Extruded Tee: For more information on Do refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldoflange: For more information on r3 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
T/Th/T'b
This field corresponds to the following terms for each component type:
Forged Tee to BS 1640: For more information on T refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldolet: For more information on theta refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Drawn/Extruded Tee: For more information on T refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldoflange: For more information on theta refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Te/Tb
This field corresponds to the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee with Pad: For more information on Te refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Forged Tee to BS 1640: For more information on Tb refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldolet: For more information on Tb refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Drawn/Extruded Tee: For more information on Tb refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Full Encirclement Tee: For more information on Te refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Long Weldneck Flange: For more information on Tb refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldoflange: For more information on Tb refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
rp/do
This field corresponds to the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee: For more information on rp refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Forged Tee to BS 1640: For more information on do refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldolet: For more information on rp refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
334 Piping Screen Reference
Drawn/Extruded Tee: For more information on do refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Long Weldneck Flange: For more information on rp refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldoflange: For more information on rp refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
r2/rc
This field corresponds to the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee: For more information on r2 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Forged Tee to BS 1640: For more information on rc refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Sweepolet: For more information on rc refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldolet: For more information on r2 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Drawn/Extruded Tee: For more information on rc refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Long Weldneck Flange: For more information on r2 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section.
Weldoflange: For more information on r2 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
r1/Tc/Lh
This field corresponds to the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee: For more information on r1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Forged Tee to BS 1640: For more information on Tc refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Sweepolet: For more information on r1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Weldolet: For more information on r1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Drawn/Extruded Tee: For more information on Lh refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Long Weldneck Flange: For more information on r1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Weldoflange: For more information on r1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
L1/Lb
This field corresponds to the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee: For more information on L1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Weldolet: For more information on L1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Drawn/Extruded Tee: For more information on Lb refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Long Weldneck Flange: For more information on L1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Weldoflange: For more information on L1 refer to the figures (on page 334) at the end of this section
Use the figures below to identify the specialized parameters.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 335
Forged Tee
Weldolet
Drawn/Extruded Tee
336 Piping Screen Reference
Weldoflange
Full Encirclement Tee
Long Weldneck Flange
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 337
Sweepolet
Fabricated Tee
Fabricated Tee with Pad
Weld ID
The following are valid Weld ID values.
Values:
0 or BLANK  As Welded
1  Finished/Ground Flush
Used for:
BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS
BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS
BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE
338 Piping Screen Reference
If entered as 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the SIF is taken as 1.0.
Refer to the help on Weld Mismatch (Weld d) for more detail on how input parameters are used to compute SIFs for girth
butt welds.
Stress Concentration Factors
Entering Stress Concentration Factors here overrides those calculated according to the IGE/TD/12 Code equations. Note
that any values entered here will apply only to the element on which they have been entered (except when entered on a bend
node, they will apply throughout the bend).
Note that for branches of tees, any bending SCFs entered here must include the w term.
Fatigue Class
Selecting a fatigue class here overrides those calculated according to the IGE/TD/12 Code equations. Note that any values
selected here will apply only to the element on which they have been entered (except when entered on a bend node, they
will apply throughout the bend).
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 339
Auxiliary Fields  Boundary Conditions
Restraints
Activate the restraint auxiliary by doubleclicking on the check box. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second time.
If more than four restraints are to be specified on one element, the additional restraints may be placed on any other input
spreadsheet.
Note Do not use restraints in these three situations:
1) Imposed Displacements  Specify displacements for the point using the Displacement Auxiliary field.
2) Flexible Nozzles  Use the Nozzles check box to open the Nozzles Auxiliary Data field to input the vessel or tank
characteristics required by WRC 297, PD 5500, or API 650 to calculate local nozzle flexibilities. Once these flexibilities
have been calculated, CAESAR II automatically inserts the necessary restraints and flexibilities into the piping model.
3) Hangers program designed or predefined spring hangers
Use the Hangers check box to open the Hanger Auxiliary Data field.
340 Piping Screen Reference
Node
Node number where the restraint is to act.
Note: The node number does not have to be on the current element.
CNode
Optional connecting node. Restraints with connecting nodes can be used to tie one node in the piping system to any other
node in the system. If left blank then the restraint node is tied, via the restraint stiffness, to a fixed point in space. If the
connecting node is specified then the restraint node is tied, via the restraint stiffness, to the connecting node.
In all cases, CNodes associate nodal degrees of freedom. Additionally, CNodes can be used to geometrically connect
different parts of a model graphically. This option is controlled via the setup file directive Connect Geometry through
CNodes (on page 215). See Chapter 2 of this manual for additional information on this topic.
Type
The following restraints can be activated by selecting them from the drop list in the Restraint Auxiliary field. The use of
these restraints is detailed in Chapter 3 of the CAESAR II Applications Guide.
Restraint Type Abbreviation
Anchor ANC
Translational Double Acting X, Y, or Z
Rotational Double Acting RX, RY, or RZ
Guide, Double Acting GUIDE
Double Acting Limit Stop LIM
Translational Double Acting Snubber XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB
Translational Directional +X, X, +Y, Y, +Z, Z
Rotational Directional +RX, RX, +RY, etc.
Directional Limit Stop +LIM, LIM
Large Rotation Rod XROD, YROD, ZROD
Translational Double Acting Bilinear X2, Y2, Z2
Rotational Double Acting Bilinear RX2, RY2, RZ2
Translational Directional Bilinear X2, +X2, Y2, etc.
Rotational Directional Bilinear +RX2, RX2, +RY2, etc.
Bottom Out Spring XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR
Directional Snubber +XSNB, XSNB, +YSNB, etc.
Anchor
Restraint is defined for ALL degrees of freedom at the node.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 341
X, Y, or Z
Translational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed free
displacement along the specified degree of freedom. (i.e. a +Y restraint is restraint against movement in the minus Y
direction and is free to move in the plus Y direction).
RX, RY, or RZ
Rotational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed free
displacement along the specified degree of freedom.
Guide
Transverse restraint that may be skewed.
LIM
Limit stops are axial restraints that may be preceded by a (+) or (). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed
free displacement along the element longitudinal axis.
XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB
Snubbers are restraints that engage only during quick movements such as those induced by a shock. They only act on the
piping system in the Occasional load case. Snubbers may be preceded by a (+) or a ().
Because CAESAR II cannot perform "load stepping", static analysis with snubbers requires a manual "up front" analysis to
determine thermal movements. Here is the procedure.
1 Analyze a "hot operating" case, without your occasional loads.
2 Take the displacements from this analysis at the snubbers, and put them back into the input. At the location where the
snubbers are defined, define a CNODE and put these displacements on the CNODE.
3 For your "real" analysis, apply these displacements to all load cases. Because they are on the "far side" of the snubber,
they won't affect anything unless the load case is called "OCC", which activates the snubber stiffness.
So
When you run your standard OPE case (W+T1+P1+D1), the snubber node will displace as before. There will be no
restraint because the load case is OPE, not OCC.
When you run the operating + occasional case (W+T1+P1+D1+WIND1), the snubber node will displace along with its
CNODE. There will be a difference in these two displacements due to the WIND1 load and the snubber stiffness,
because the case is now set as "OCC".
X2, Y2, Z2
Bilinear supports are restraints that have two different stiffnesses associated with them. The stiffness is dependent upon the
loading on the support. Bilinear supports may be preceded by a (+) or a ().
K2
Posts yield stiffness of a bilinear restraint. When the load on the restraint exceeds Fy then the stiffness on the restraint
changes from K1 to K2. The value of K2 may be negative, modeling shallow trench or groovetype pipeline supports. K2
VALUES OF ZERO WILL BE TREATED AS RIGID. For very small stiffnesses enter a value of 1.0.
XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR
Spring supports that may be preceded by a (+) or a ().
342 Piping Screen Reference
"Bottom out" spring. Additional required input is the spring rate, allowed travel, and initial load. If the allowed travel in the
direction of support is exceeded, the spring "bottomsout".
X (cosx, cosy, cosz) or X (vecx, vecy, vecz)
Translational skewed restraints. May be preceded by a (+) or (). If a direction vector is entered, i.e. vecx, vecy, vecz,
CAESAR II will convert the direction vector into the corresponding cosines.
RX (cosx, cosy, cosz) or RX (vecx, vecy, vecz)
Rotational skewed restraints.
XROD, YROD, ZROD
Translational, large rotation, rod or hangertype restraints. May be preceded by a (+) or () sign to indicate the orientation of
the pivot point about which the rod swings. A (+) is assumed, and in the case of a YROD this implies that the pivot point is
above the pipe. Additional REQUIRED input is the rod or hanger length.
XROD (COSX, COSY, COSZ) or XROD (VECX, VECY, VECZ)
Translational skewed, large rotation rod or hanger type restraint.
Stif
Stiffness associated with any support, guide, limit stop, rod or spring that can be defined as a restraint. If left blank then the
defined restraint will be considered rigid. The default rigid restraint stiffness is 1.0E12.
K1 is the initial stiffness of a bilinear restraint (i.e. X2). Any positive stiffness may be entered if the restraint is not rigid.
Stiffnesses greatly in excess of 1.0E15 should be avoided. If a stiffness value is specified for an anchor, the entered
stiffness will apply for all (6) degrees of freedom at the anchored node.
Gap
This is a multiple use field defined as follows:
TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM RX RY RZ
GAP  Distance along the restraint line of action the restrained node may travel before resistance to movement begins. The
gap value must be positive. For rotational restraints the gap is given in degrees. If the translational restraint is not
preceded by a sign, then the restraint is double acting and the gap will be taken to exist for both positive and the negative
displacements along the line of action (i.e. if a 0.25 in. gap is specified at a +Y restraint, then the restrained node may move
freely 0.25 in. in the minus Y direction before restraint occurs. The gap specification does not affect the amount of free
displacement that can occur along the positive Y direction in this example).
When defining windows of allowed movement it is not uncommon to place two restraints having the same line of action,
but with different signs at the same node. This configuration is perfectly legal. The user is cautioned to remember to form
the window with signs on restraints rather than with signs on gaps. In CAESAR II a gap is a measure of length and is always
positive.
Examples:
TYPE GUI GAP 1/4 ... One quarter ^01 gap on either side of the "guided" restraint.
TYPE +Y GAP 3.0 ... Three ^01 gap BELOW the support that must be closed before the +Y support begins acting.
TYPE RX GAP 5.0 ... Five degree gap about the X axis about which the pipe may rotate freely before rotational restraint
occurs.
TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 343
Len  Swinging length of the rod or hanger. Distance along the restraint line of action from the restrained node to the pivot
point. The restraint swings about the pivot point. If a CNODE is defined then the restraint swings about the CNODE.
"Len" is a required entry.
TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2
K2  Post yield stiffness of a bilinear restraint. When the load on the restraint exceeds Fy then the stiffness on the restraint
changes from K1 to K2. The value of K2 may be negative, modeling shallow trench or groovetype pipeline supports. K2
VALUES OF ZERO WILL BE TREATED AS RIGID. For very small stiffnesses enter a value of 1.0.
TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR
"x"  Travel along the spring axis before "bottomout" occurs. In the case of a typical YSPR, this is the movement in the
negative "Y" direction before the spring bottoms out.
TYPE = XSNB YSNB ZSNB
Mu
This is a multiple use field defined as follows:
TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM
MU Static friction coefficient. Friction provides resistance to movement along the direction normal to the restraint line of
action. The magnitude of the friction force is equal to MU * Fn, where Fn is the normal force on the restraint. A friction
coefficient may be automatically assigned to every new translational restraint by assigning a value to the Coefficient of
Friction (see "Coefficient of Friction (Mu)" on page 24) field in the Configure/Setup module.
TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD
Fi  Initial spring load. This field should be left blank for a rigid YROD. If the YROD is modeling a spring hanger, then
the hanger stiffness should be entered into the STIF field, and the initial cold load on the hanger should be entered here.
TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2
Fy  Yield Load. If the load on the support is less than "Fy" then the initial stiffness K1 is used. If the load on the support is
greater than "Fy" then the second stiffness "K2" is used.
TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR
F  Initial spring cold load. This input is required, and is almost always positive.
TYPE = XSNB YSNB ZSNB
na  Not Applicable. This field is not used when the restraint TYPE is snubber.
344 Piping Screen Reference
Hangers
Activate the hangers auxiliary by doubleclicking on the check box. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second time.
Node
The node to which the hanger is connected.
CNode
The CNode, or connecting node number, is used only when the other end of the hanger is to be connected to another point in
the system, such as another pipe node.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 345
Hanger Table
The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:
1. Anvil 2. Bergen Power
3. Power Piping 4. NPS Industries
5. Lisega 6. Fronek
7. Piping Technology 8. Capitol
9. Piping Services 10. Basic Engineers
11. Inoflex 12. E. Myatt
13. SINOPEC 14. BHEL
15. Flexider 16. Carpenter & Paterson
17. Pipe Supports Ltd. 18. Witzenmann
19. Sarathi 20. Myricks
21. China Power 22. Pipe Supports USA
23. Quality Pipe Supports 24. PiHASA
25. Binder 26. Gradior
27. NHK
Additional design options are invoked by further use of the following checkboxes.
Extended Range
Cold Load Design
Hot load centered (if possible)
For example, to use Grinnell Springs and cold load design the user would check the "cold load design" checkbox.
To use Grinnell Extended Range springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot load centered in the middle of the
hanger table, if possible, the user would check all three checkboxes.
A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specified on the individual hanger spreadsheet, or
can be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 3114).
If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all subsequent
hangers defined. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet defaults to the hanger tablespecified in the configuration file.
The maximum load range was included in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable support hangers in
place of constant effort supports when the spring loads are just outside the manufacturers recommended range. Users should
make sure that the maximum load range is available from the manufacturer as a standard item.
Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table. Some
manufacturers build double spring supports to accommodate this range, and others adjust the top or bottom travel limits to
accommodate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges, the user should make sure that the
manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of the extended range often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort
support. Lisega springs do not support the "extended range" idea. A request for extended Lisega springs results in the
standard Lisega spring table and ranges.
346 Piping Screen Reference
Cold Load Spring Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the springs, whereby the hot
(or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of the piping. This method of spring design offers several
advantages over the more usual hot load design:
Hanger stops are easier to remove.
There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when the stops are removed.
Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.
Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.
In some system configurations, operating loads on connected equipment are lower. A typical configuration resulting in
this loadreduction is one where a hot vertical riser, anchored at the bottom, turns horizontally into a nozzle
connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the
difference between the hot and cold loads counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the
anchor.
The disadvantages to cold load design are
In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value proportional to the
spring rate times the travel.
Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.
The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user.
Middle of the Table Hanger Design (Hot Load Centered). Many designers prefer that the hot load be centered as close as
possible to the middle of the spring table. This is to provide as much variability either way before the spring bottoms out
when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effective computer modeling of piping systems, when
the weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or calculated by hand. Activating this option does not guarantee
that spring hot loads will be at the middle of the spring table, but CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this
position. The CAESAR II design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the
larger springs range, but will never switch spring types. This option can only result in a one size larger spring when it is
effective. CAESAR II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is within 10% of the maximum
travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not satisfactory then the old one will be used, even though its hot load is
within 10% of the high end of the table load range, to get a spring's hot load close to the middle of the table.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 347
Hanger/Can Available Space
This tells CAESAR II how much room, above or below the pipe, there is to install the hanger or can. If the value entered by
the user is negative, then CAESAR II will assume that a can is to be installed. If the value entered is positive then CAESAR II
will assume that a hanger is to be in installed. Hangers or cans will be selected for a particular location only if they can be
installed in the space allotted. The precise definition of available space varies with the manufacturer. Drawings and tables
for each manufacturer are shown at the end of this section.
This is the available vertical clearance for the hanger or can:
If the Available Space is not an important design criteria, then the field should be left blank or zero.
If the Available Space is positive, then the vertical clearance will be assumed to be above the pipe and a hanger will be
designed. If the Available Space is negative, then the vertical clearance will be assumed to be below the pipe and a can will
be designed.
When the Available Space is the governing factor in a hanger design, several smaller springs are typically chosen in place of
one large spring.
Allowable Load Variation (%)
This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If not specified, the only
limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is approximately 100% when the hot load is smaller than the
cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load. Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the
operating displacement in the Y direction is positive. The default value for the load variation is 25%. The user is advised to
enter this value in the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet before any hangers are defined.
348 Piping Screen Reference
The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage variation from the hot load:
( )  ( ) Cold Load Hot Load
Variation
Hot Load
=
or as may be more familiar:
( )( ) Travel Spring Rate
Variation
Hot Load
=
The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent would be entered 25.0. The Allowable Load
Variation can have different values for different hanger locations if necessary by entering the chosen value on the individual
hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.
Rigid Support Displacement Criteria
This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support Displacement
Criteria is a cost saving feature that replaces springs that are not needed with rigid rods.
The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to be supported by
the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the hanger design load is known, an operating case is run with the
hot hanger load installed to determine the travel at the hanger location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid
Support Displacement Criteria then a rigid Y support is selected for the location instead of a spring.
If the Rigid Support Displacement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied.
The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or on each individual
hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the default for all hangers not
having it defined explicitly.
A typical value to be used is 0.1 in.
Important: In some cases a Single directional restraint should be inserted instead of a rigid rod. Rigid rods are double
acting restraints which can in some cases develop large hold down forces that dont really exist because the support has
lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed slightly. When this condition develops the user should rerun the hanger design
inserting single directional restraints where rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.
Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system that are usually associated
with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.
Maximum Allowed Travel Limit
To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo, specify the limit in this field. The
specification of a maximum travel limit will cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support if the design operating travel
exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer table would have been satisfactory in every other
respect.
Constant effort hangers can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed Travel Limit. A value
of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a constant effort support for a particular location.
No. Hangers at Location
If left blank, CAESAR II will attempt to find a single hanger that suits all design requirements at the location. If a single
hanger cannot be found, then CAESAR II will try to find a double hanger (two spring hangers, sidebyside) that satisfies all
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 349
design requirements. If a double hanger (two spring hangers, sidebyside) cannot be found, then CAESAR II will
recommend a constant effort support hanger for the location.
If the user wants to use a different upper limit on the number of springs that CAESAR II will consider for a location, then the
negative of that number should be entered in this field. For example, if the user wants to use as few springs as possible, yet
is willing to use as many as 5 springs if necessary, 5 should be entered in the No. of Hangers field.
To directly specify the number of springs to be designed at a location, enter that number in the No. of Hangers field.
Note: Enter only positive numbers in the No of Hangers field.
Allow Short Range Springs
CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the selection algorithms. In
some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used unless their shorter length is required for
clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared by the user.
If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a midrange spring over a shortrange spring, assuming they are more
standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their shortrange counterparts.
If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the Hanger Design
Control Spreadsheet.
Operating Load
To override the operating load that CAESAR II is calculating, enter the desired value in the Operating Load field. This value
is normally entered when the user thinks that loads on a piece of equipment will be reduced if a hanger in the vicinity of the
equipment is artificially caused to carry a proportionately larger part of the total load. This operating load is the hot load the
hanger is designed to support after it undergoes any travel due to the thermal expansion of the piping. CAESAR IIs
calculated hanger operating loads may be read from the hanger table printed in the output processor. The column title is
HOT LOAD. The users entered value will similarly show up in this table if defined. The total desired operating load at
the location should be entered. If there are two hangers specified at the location and each should carry 500 lb., then the
operating load specified should be 1,000 lb.
Multiple Load Case Design
The spring selection algorithm can be based on one or more operating conditions. A twopump installation, where only one
pump operates at a time, is a good application for multiple load case hanger design.
There are currently thirteen different multiple load case design algorithms available:
Design spring per operating case #1.
Design spring per operating case #2.
Design spring per operating case #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9.
Design spring for maximum operating load.
Design spring for maximum travel.
Design spring for average load and average travel.
Design spring for maximum load and maximum travel.
The Multiple Load Case Design option can be specified at the global level in the Hanger Design Control Data
Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 3114). The globally specified option will apply for all hanger design locations
unless overridden in a specific hanger design spreadsheet.
350 Piping Screen Reference
Enter the number of operating thermal cases to be considered when sizing springs for this system in the Hanger Design
Control Spreadsheet. This value defaults to 1.0. Also enter the Multiple Load Case Design option to be the default value
(unless the design option is to be specified individually for each hanger to be designed in the system).
Example Problem: Multiple Load  Case Spring  Hanger Design
This example illustrates the different hanger designs that can result from the use of different multiple load case design
options.
Free Anchor/Restraint at Node
Anchors, or restraints, simulating equipment connections that are in the immediate vicinity of the hanger are usually freed
during the hanger design restrained weight run, so that loads normally going to the equipment nozzle are carried by the
hanger. The user should enter the node number for the equipment where the restraint to be freed acts. The corresponding
free code may also be specified to tell CAESAR II which of the restraint/anchor directions to be freed. For nozzles that are
further removed from the hanger usually only the Y direction should be freed.
Hangers are commonly used around equipment nozzles to support the weight of the pipe as it thermally expands away from
the nozzle. The hanger can usually be designed to take almost the full weight of the pipe between the anchor and the hanger
if the anchor is freed when making the restrained weight calculation. The anchor is freed by entering its node number in
the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field. The pipe going to the anchor will be treated just like a free end (for the hanger
weight calculation only!!!). The Free Code field works with the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field to limit the actual
degrees of freedom at an anchor that are released.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 351
The Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field works in conjunction with the Free Code field. If the Free Code is not specified
for an anchor, the anchor is assumed to be completely free for the restrained weight run.
The Restrained Weight hanger design pass is the first analysis step in the hanger design, and is run automatically by
CAESAR II. The following steps comprise the Restrained Weight run:
1 Putting rigid Y restraints at each hanger location.
2 Removing anchors and restraints that are to be freed.
3 Running the weight analysis to find the hot hanger loads.
Note: Nonlinear restraints may not be freed during hanger design.
Free Code
Whenever an anchor or restraint should be released for the restrained weight run, that anchors node number should be put
in the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field, and the Free Code describing the directions to be released should be put in the
Free Code field on the same hanger spreadsheet. Free Codes are
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y direction only.
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and X directions only.
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and Z directions only.
Free all translational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X,Y and Z)
Free all translational and rotational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X, Y, Z, RX, RY, and RZ)
The last option usually results in the highest adjacent hanger loads, but should only be used when the horizontal distance
between the hanger and the anchor is within about 4 pipe diameters.
Predefined Hanger Data
When using the Predefined Hanger Data fields on the hanger spreadsheet, and there is more than one hanger at the
location, use the Number of Hangers field to specify the number of hangers. Then enter the spring rate and preload
applicable to a single hanger. There is no reason to try to compute the equivalent spring rates or theoretical loads.
Predefined hanger data can be entered in one of two ways:
All information for the hanger can be input.
Only the spring rate for the hanger can be input.
If all information is input, the restraint configuration for the node is completely defined and it will not be included in the
hanger design algorithm. For a position to be completely predefined, one of the following conditions must apply:
spring rate and theoretical cold load
constant effort support load
Spring Rate and Cold Load
The spring rate and the theoretical cold load effectively define a hanger location. If the user enters both, then the hanger
location will be completely predefined by the user and no analysis level design for the hanger will take place.
Resetting Loads on Existing Spring Hangers
If only the spring rate is given, CAESAR II will assume that the user wants to rerate the spring at the given location. The old
spring rate should be read from the existing hanger and input directly to CAESAR II. The Theoretical Cold Load field
should be left blank for the rerate. If more than a single spring exists at the location, then the total number of springs should
352 Piping Screen Reference
be entered in the No. of Hangers field (CAESAR II assumes that the load is distributed evenly among multiple springs at the
same point).
CAESAR II will go through its normal hanger design procedure to calculate the load and travel for all proposed hanger
locations including the location with springs to be reset. The stiffness of the reset springs will not be used for this re
design. Once CAESAR II sizes the springs, a comparison will be made with the userentered spring rates. If the program's
selected spring rate is within 5% of the user's existing spring rate, CAESAR II will list the spring's figure number and size in
the output report. If the selected spring rate is more than 5% of the user's value, no manufacturer's data will be listed. In
either case, CAESAR II will use the userentered spring rate in all following analyses. It is up to the user to confirm that the
new hot and cold loads are within the existing spring's working range.
The major use of the rerate capability is to find new installed loads for old springs. Springs might be rerated after the
shutdown of a unit that has been operating continuously for a long period, or after mechanical or process changes have been
made to a piping system.
Nozzles
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the appropriate radio
button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second time.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 353
Nozzle Flexibility  WRC 297
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the WRC 297 radio
button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second time.
When a nozzle node number is input, CAESAR II scans the current input data for the node and loads its diameter and wall
thickness and enters it in the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field.
Current nozzle flexibility calculations are in accordance with the Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 297, issued
August 1984 for cylinder to cylinder intersections.
A valid nozzle node has the following properties:
Only a single element connects to the nozzle node.
The nozzle node is not restrained and does not have displacements specified for any of its degrees of freedom.
Computed nozzle flexibilities are automatically included in the piping system analysis via program generated restraints.
This generation is completely transparent to the user. Six restraints are established for each flexible nozzle input.
If a vessel node number is defined, then the vessel node acts like a connecting node for each of the six restraints. Vessel
nodes are subject to the same restrictions shown above for nozzle nodes.
354 Piping Screen Reference
Note: The user should not put a restrainer on an element between the nozzle node and any specified vessel node.
CAESAR II creates the required connectivity from the nozzle flexibility data and any user generated stiffnesses between these
two points will add erroneously to the nozzle stiffnesses.
During the error checking of the nozzle flexibilities, all useful WRC curve data is displayed on the terminal. These values
may be used to enter the illustrated nozzles in the WRC 297 bulletin. It is sometimes helpful to know just how close a
particular nozzle is to one of the several asymptotic limits, or to a curve boundary.
Note: The user will only be able to see the WRC 297 computed data during the error checking process with warning
messages activated.
Each input item on the nozzle spreadsheet is discussed in detail in the following sections.
Nozzle Node Number
Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping element
connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular
to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very short) nozzle
element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The
second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true centerline of the nozzle.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 355
Vessel Node Number (Optional)
Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank node is optional,
and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If the vessel node is given,
the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node. Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to
model through the vessel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation.
Nozzle Diameter
Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.)
Nozzle Wall Thickness
Wall thickness of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the wall thickness of the pipe element used to model the nozzle.)
Vessel Diameter
Outside diameter of the vessel.
Vessel Wall Thickness
Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the thickness of any
reinforcing pad.
Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness
Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before nozzle stiffness
calculations are performed.
Distance to Stiffener or Head
Distance along the vessel centerline, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head
in the vessel that significantly stiffens the crosssection of the vessel against local deformation normal to the shell surface.
Distance to OppositeSide Stiffener or Head
Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel on the other
side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.
Vessel centerline direction vector X, Y, Z
Direction vector or direction cosines which define the centerline of the vessel. For a vertical vessel this entry would read:
Vessel centerline direction vector X:<blank>
Vessel centerline direction vector Y: 1.0
Vessel centerline direction vector Z:<blank>
Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be collinear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error.
Vessel Temperature (Optional)
Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temperature must be paired with a valid vessel
material number. The estimated temperature is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity.
Vessel Material No. (Optional)
If input, the vessel material number must be paired with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel material number can
be any valid material number from the material database and corresponds to the pipe materials used in the spreadsheet. If
the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank or zero, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used.
356 Piping Screen Reference
API 650 NOZZLES
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the API 650 radio
button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking the check box a second time.
CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to appendix P of API 650, "Design of Carbon Steel Atmospheric
Oil Storage Tanks."
Nozzle Node Number
Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping element
connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular
to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very short) nozzle
element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The
second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true centerline of the nozzle.
Tank Node Number
Node on the tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel/tank shell.
The tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the API stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in
space. If the tank node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the API stiffnesses to the tank node.
Tank nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the tank from the nozzle connection to the foundation.
Nozzle Diameter
Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.)
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 357
Nozzle Wall Thickness
Wall Thickness of the nozzle. May be different than the attached pipe wall thickness
API650 Tank Diameter
Outside Diameter of the Vessel or API 650 storage tank. Note that API 650 Addendum 1 does not recommend these
computations for diameters less than 120 feet.
API650 Tank Wall Thickness
Wall Thickness of the Vessel at the point where the Nozzle connects to the vessel. DO NOT include the thickness of any
reinforcing pad.
API 650 Reinforcing 1 or 2
For API tanks, if the reinforcing is on the shell, then enter 1. If it is on the nozzle, enter a 2.
API 650 Nozzle Height
For API 650 applications, enter the height from the centerline of the nozzle to the base of the tank.
API 650 Fluid Height
Enter the liquid level of the fluid in the storage tank. This fluid level must be greater than the nozzle height.
API 650 Specific Gravity
Enter the specific gravity of the stored liquid. This value is unitless.
API650 Tank Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Enter the coefficient of thermal expansion of the plate material of the tank is constructed. Values are listed in engineering
handbooks or the appropriate section of the API 650, App P. If this value is left blank, zero will be assumed.
API 650 Delta T
Enter the change in temperature from ambient to its maximum that the tank normally experiences. For example: If the
maximum summertime temperature is 107F. The delta T would be 107  70 = 37F. If this value is left blank, zero will be
assumed.
API650 Tank Modulus of Elasticity
For API 650 nozzles, the hot modulus of elasticity of the tank must be entered directly. If this value is left blank, will be
assumed.
358 Piping Screen Reference
PD 5500 Nozzles
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the PD 5500 radio button
from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking the check box a second time.
CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to Appendix G of the PD 5500 Specification for Unfired Fusion
Welded Pressure Vessels. The input requirements for these nozzles are:
Nozzle Node Number
Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping element
connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular
to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very short) nozzle
element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The
second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true centerline of the nozzle.
Vessel Node Number (Optional)
Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank node is optional,
and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If the vessel node is given,
the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node. Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to
model through the vessel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 359
Vessel Type  Cylinder (0) or Sphere (1)
If the vessel is cylindrical, enter a 0. For cylinders, the distances to stiffeners/heads and the vessel direction cosines are
required. If the vessel is spherical, enter a 1. For spheres, the fields for the distances to stiffeners/heads and vessel direction
cosines are both ignored.
Nozzle Diameter
Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.)
Vessel Diameter
Outside diameter of the vessel.
Vessel Wall Thickness
Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the thickness of any
reinforcing pad.
Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness
Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before nozzle stiffness
calculations are performed.
Distance to Stiffener or Head
Distance along the vessel centerline, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head
in the vessel that significantly stiffens the crosssection of the vessel against local deformation normal to the shell surface.
Distance to OppositeSide Stiffener or Head
Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel on the other
side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosines
These are direction vectors or direction cosines that define the centerline of the vessel. For a horizontal vessel aligned with
the X axis, this entry would read:
Vessel centerline direction vector X ..... 1.0
Vessel centerline direction vector Y ..... <Blank>
Vessel centerline direction vector Z ..... <Blank>
Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be colinear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error. This entry is
ignored for spherical vessels.
Vessel Temperature (Optional)
Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temperature must be paired with a valid vessel
material number. The estimated temperature is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity.
Vessel Material No. (Optional)
If input, the vessel material number must be paired with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel material number can
be any valid material number from the material database and corresponds to the pipe materials used in the spreadsheet. If
the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank or zero, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used.
360 Piping Screen Reference
Displacements
Activate by doubleclicking the Displacements check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double
clicking the Displacements check box a second time.
Enter the node number where the displacement is to be specified. There must not be a restraint at this node.
Enter the displacements at the node. Any displacement direction not specified for any displacement vector will be free.
To specify an anchor at Node 50 with a displacement of 0.25 in. in the +X , 0.10 in. in the +Y , and 0.08 in. in the Z , for
displacement vector #1, enter data as shown in the Figure above.
The displacements at a node can be specified for up to 9 different vectors, intended to correspond to the 9 temperature cases.
Note: If an imposed displacement is specified for a specific degreeoffreedom, that degreeoffreedom will be considered
restrained for all load cases whether or not they contain that displacement set.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 361
Auxiliary Fields  Imposed Loads
Forces and Moments
Activate by doubleclicking the Forces/Moments check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double
clicking the check box a second time.
Enter the node number where the forces and/or moments are to act.
Enter the magnitudes of the forces and/or moments. Up to 9 different force vectors can be defined at each node point.
362 Piping Screen Reference
Uniform Loads
Activate by doubleclicking the Uniform Loads check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double
clicking the check box a second time.
The uniform load specification is distributive, and will act on all following elements until zeroed or changed. A snow load
of 8.0 pounds per foot (assuming units of pounds per inch) could be entered:
Vector 1 Vector 2 Vector 3
UX
UY 8/12
UZ
or may be entered:
UX
UY .6667
UZ
UX, UY, and UZ can be changed to GX, GY, and GZ so that uniform loads can be entered as a fraction of the total pipe
weight through the Environment Special Execution Parameters (see "Uniform Load in G's" on page 3121) command.
GX, GY, and GZ are used most frequently for defining static earthquake loadings.
Note: Up to 3 uniform load vectors can be defined.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 363
Wind / Wave Loads
This check box activates the wind/wave dialog for the specification of environmental loads.
Wind Loads
Activate by doubleclicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking
the check box a second time.
This is a shape factor as defined in ASCE #7. A value of 0.5 to 0.65 is typically used for cylindrical sections. Activating the
wind directive will enable the Wind Load Input Spreadsheets, which are accessed from the Load Case Editor during the
Static Analysis. This auxiliary is used to define the presence of wind loads (via the wind shape factor as defined in ASCE
#7) or wave loads (with associated coefficients). The load type may be enabled or disabled via the radio button.
Important: This value is distributive, and will act on all following elements until changed or disabled.
Wind Shape Factor
This coefficient is defined in ASCE#7 in Figure 621 for chimneys, tanks, and similar structure. A value of 0.5 to 0.65 is
typically used for cylindrical sections. Activating the wind directive will turn on the Wind Load Input Spreadsheets, which
are accessed from the Load Case Editor during Static Analysis.
Activate by double clicking the Wind / Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double clicking
the check box a second time.
364 Piping Screen Reference
Wave Loads
Activate by doubleclicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking
the check box a second time.
Important: These values are distributive, and will act on all following elements until changed or disabled.
Drag Coefficient, Cd
Coefficient as recommended by API RP2A. Typical values range from 0.6 to 1.20. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to
calculate the drag coefficient based on particle velocities.
Added Mass Coefficient, Ca
This coefficient accounts for the added mass of fluid entrained into the pipe. Typical values range from 0.5 to 1.0. Entering
a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added mass coefficient based on particle velocities.
Lift Coefficient, Cl
This coefficient accounts for wave lift, which is the force perpendicular to both the element axis and the particle velocity
vector. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added lift coefficient based on particle velocities.
Marine Growth
The thickness of any marine growth adhering to the external pipe wall. This will increase the pipe diameter experiencing
wave loading by twice this value.
Marine Growth Density
An entry in this field designates the density to be used if including the weight of the marine growth in the pipe weight. If left
blank, the weight of the marine growth will be ignored.
Off
This selection turns off both wind and / or wave loads from this point forward in the model.
372 Piping Screen Reference
Static Seismic Wizard
This facility permits the selection of a particular Seismic Code, and its associated data. When activated, the wizard
computes the applicable g factor and fills in the appropriate data cells.
ASCE Static Seismic Wizard
This wizard computes the static g factor based on the ASCE 72005 (IBC 2006) methodology.
ASCE Seismic Wizard
CAESAR II will display the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.
Uniform Loads Tab
Importance Factor Ip (ASCE)
Component importance factor, from ASCE #7 Section 13.1.3 ( 1.5 for lifesafety components, components containing
hazardous material, or components that are required for continuous operation; 1.0 for all others).
Response Factor Rp (ASCE)
Component response modification factor, from ASCE #7 Table 13.61, = 12.0 for Piping in accordance with ASME B31
with joints made by welding or brazing; value range as low as 3.0 for other joints and for less ductile materials.
Maximum Mapped Response Acceleration Ss (ASCE)
Mapped MCE spectral response acceleration at short periods in accordance with Section 11.4.1, Chapter 22 Seismic
Ground Motion and Longperiod Transition Maps provide values for Ss.
366 Piping Screen Reference
Site Class (ASCE)
Based on the soil properties, the site shall be classified as Site Class A, B, C, D, E, or F in accordance with Chapter 20.
Where the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site class, Site Class D shall be used.
Component Elevation Ratio z/h (ASCE)
The ratio of height in structure at point of attachment over average height of the supporting structure.
Component Amplification Factor ap (ASCE)
Component amplification factor, from Table 13.61, equals 2.5 for distribution system, such as piping. This term reflects
the relationship of the piping response to the structure response.
ASCE Example Problem
For further information on the Seismic Wizard see the example below.
The Importance Factor I
E
= 1
The Component Response Modification Factor R
P
= 12.0, from Table 13.61 for Piping in accordance with ASME
B31,
The Mapped MCE Spectral Response Acceleration S
s
= 1.552, Mapped MCE Spectral Response Acceleration at short
periods in accordance with section 11.4.1.
The Site Coefficient (F
a
) = 1.0 for Site Class D, according to Table 11.41.
The Maximum Considered Earthquake MCE S
MS
 The MCE is adjusted for site class effects as defined in Section 11.4.3,
S
MS
= F
a
S
S
= 1.552
S
DS 
Design elastic response acceleration at short period (0.2 sec), from Section 11.4.4.
S
DS
= 2/3 S
MS
= 2/3 * 1.552 = 1.0347
The appropriate seismic acceleration is a
H
= [ (0.4a
P
S
DS
) / ( R
P
/ I
P
)] ( 1 + 2z/h)
= [(0.4 x 2.5 x 1.0347)/(12.0/1.0)](1 + 2 * 0.5)
= 0.17245
Check limits on a
H
:
a
H
<= 1.6 * S
DS
* I
P
= 1.6 * 1.0347 * 1.0 = 1.65552
a
H
>= 0.3 * S
DS
* I
P
= 0.3 * 1.0347 * 1.0 = 0.31041
a
H
= 0.31041
a
H
= 0.2 S
DS
= 0.2 * 1.0347 = 0.20694,
Section 13.1.7 states, The earthquake loads determined in accordance with Section 13.3.1 shall be multiplied by a factor of
0.7.
a
H
= 0.7 * 0.31041 = 0.2173
a
v
= 0.7 * 0.20694 = 0.1149
CAESAR II will display the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 367
CFE Sismo Static Seismic Wizard
This wizard computes the static g factor based on the Manual De Diseno por Sismo (Seismic Design Manual) 1993
methodology.
CFE Sismo Seismic Wizard
CAESAR II will display the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.
Uniform Loads Tab
Seismic Zone (CFE)
There are 4 different choices here, A, B, C, and D. Please review the Manual De Diseno por Sismo (Seismic Design
Manual). A map with different regions displays on page 1.3.29. Zone D is the zone of highest seismic activity, while zone
A is the least active.
Structural Group (CFE)
Select the appropriate structural group as defined in the following table:
Group A High Degree of Safety
Group B Intermediate Degree of Safety
Group C Low Degree of Safety
368 Piping Screen Reference
Soil Type (CFE)
Select the appropriate soil type from the table below:
I Hard Soil Ground deposits formed exclusively by layers with propagation velocity bo = 700 m/s or modulus of rigidity >= 85000 t/m2
II Med. Soil Ground deposits with fundamental period of vibration and effective velocity of propagation which meets the condition:
III Soft Soil Ground deposits with fundamental period of effective vibration of propagation which meets the conditions:
First Mode Period (CFE)
Enter the period of first natural mode of the piping system in seconds.
Increase Factor (CFE)
The Mexican Earthquake Code considers an SRSS type effect on the structure. Essentially, this value scales up the
earthquake loads in a linear (Scalar) fashion. This value is traditionally 1.118 and should always be greater or equal to 1.0.
CFE Sismo Example Problem
For further information on CFE Sismo see the example below.
For seismic zone D and soil type I, the following parameters are found in Table 3.1.
a
0
= 0.50
C = 0.50
T
a
(s) = 0.0
T
b
(s) = 0.0
r =
If T> T
b
, then
a = c ( T
a
/ T
b
)
r
= 0.50 * (0.6 / 1.15) ^ 0.5 = 0.3612
For a structure group of A High Safety, the acceleration will be multiplied by 1.5
a = 0.3612 * 1.5 = 0.5417
CAESAR II will display the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 369
NBC Static Seismic Wizard
This wizard computes the static g factor based on the NBC 2005 methodology.
NBC Seismic Wizard
Uniform Loads Tab
Importance Factor IE (NBC)
Select the Importance Factor as defined in Article 4.1.8.5, and shown in the table below:
Importance Category Importance Factor (IE)
Low 0.8
Normal 1.0
High 1.3
Postdisaster 1.5
Site Class (NBC)
Enter the Site classification for the seismic site response from Table 4.1.8.4.A.
370 Piping Screen Reference
Sa at 0.2 Seconds (NBC)
Define the Spectral response acceleration value at 0.2 seconds, as defined in Paragraph 4.1.8.4.(1).
Component Elevation Ratio [hx/hn] (NBC)
The values hx and hn are the height above the base to level n or x respectively, where the base of the structure is the level at
which horizontal earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the structure.
Component Amplification Factor Rp (NBC)
Enter the force amplification factor from Table 4.1.8.17.
Component Factor Cp (NBC)
Enter the component factor from Table 4.1.8.17.
Component Force Amplification Factor Ar (NBC)
Specify the appropriate component response modification factor from Table 4.1.8.17.
NBC Example
For further information on the use of the Static Seismic Wizard see the example below.
Importance Factor I
E
= 1.0 for a Normal category by Table 4.1.8.5.
The Site Class is C for Very dense soil and soft rock by Table 1.1.8.4.A.
S
a
(0.2)
= 0.55, spectral response acceleration value at 0.2 s, as defined in Sentence 4.1.8.4.(1).
According to Table 4.1.8.4.B.,F
a
= 1.0,
Sp = Cp Ar Ax / Rp = 1 * 1 * (1 + 2 * 0.5) / 3 = 0.6667
Cp = 1, Ar = 1 and Rp = 3 in accordance with Table 4.1.8.17.
The maximum value of Sp shall be taken as 4.0 and minimum value of Sp shall be taken as 0.7, hence
Sp = 0.7
a
H
= 0.3 * F
a
S
a
(0.2)I
E
Sp = 0.3 * 1.0 * 0.55 * 1.0 * 0.7 = 0.1155
CAESAR II will display the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 371
Auxiliary Fields  Piping Code Data
Allowable Stresses
Activate by doubleclicking the Allowable Stresses check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double
clicking the check box a second time.
The Allowable Stress Auxiliary field incorporates piping codes with their associated inputs. The help screens should be
used liberally to be sure that the proper interpretation of each new input data cell is made. A CAESAR II Piping Spreadsheet
illustrating the Allowable Stress field is shown above.
Note: Allowable stress data is distributive, and applies to all the following elements unless changed or zeroed.
Codes
The piping codes are listed in the following table. Their current publication dates can be found in the CAESAR II Quick
Reference Guide.
B31.1 Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 1)
B31.3 Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 2)
B31.4 B31.1  1967
B31.4, Chapter IX Stoomwezen
B31.5 RCCM C
372 Piping Screen Reference
B31.8 RCCM D
B31.8, Chapter VIII CODETI
B31.11 Norwegian TBK6
ASME Sect III NC (Class 2) FDBR
ASME Sect III ND (Class 3) BS 7159
Navy 505 UKOOA
CAN/CSA Z662 IGE/TD/12
CAN/CSA Z662, Chapter 11 DNV
BS 806 GPTC/Z380
EN13480 PD 80101
HPGSL PD 80102
ISO 14692 JPI
Each of the input data cells is discussed in general in the following section. For more information about code compliance
considerations see Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 373
SC
Typically the cold allowable stress for the specific material taken directly from the governing piping code. The value of SC
will usually be divided by the longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See the notes that follow for the specific
piping code.
B31.1. Allowable stress tables in Appendix A include the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies where applicable. These
efficiencies should not be used for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint efficiency (Eff) is given on this spreadsheet
CAESAR II will divide the entered SC by the joint efficiency before using it in the allowable stress equations.
B31.3. Values from tables in Appendix A dont include the joint efficiency. Eff should be zero, blank, or one. Note that the
1980 version of B31.3 included the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies as part of the tables in Appendix A. If this version of
the code is being used then Eff should be entered in the appropriate field on this spreadsheet.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31.4 is the yield stress taken from Table 1 in the
appendix. (See the Sy data field on this spreadsheet.)
B31.5. Values from tables in Appendix A dont include the joint efficiency. Eff should be zero, blank, or one.
B31.8. Su, the Specified Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength.
B31.8 Chapter VIII. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31.8 is the yield stress taken from Appendix D. (See the
Sy data field.)
B31.11. SC is not used!!! The only stress value used in B31.11 is the yield stress.
ASME NC and ND. SC is taken directly from Appendix I. Eff is not used, and is ignored if entered.
Navy 505. There is no mention of joint efficiency in the 505 specification; however, it is implied in Footnote 1 of Table
TIIA. If a joint efficiency is given CAESAR II will divide SC by the joint efficiency before using it in the allowable stress
equations. Eff should probably be zero, blank, or one.
CAN Z662. SC is not used. The only stress value in Z184 is the yield stress specified in the standards or specification under
which the pipe was purchased. (See the Sy data field.)
BS 806. 0.2% of the proof stress at room temperature from Appendix E. Eff is not used in BS 806 and is ignored if
entered.
Swedish Method 1. SC is not used. Method 1 only uses either the yield, or creep rupture stress at temperature, (SHn and Fn
respectively on this spreadsheet.) Eff is used, but is the Circumferential weld joint efficiency and has a completely
different meaning.
Swedish Method 2. SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from Appendix 2. Eff is not used, and is ignored if
entered.
B31.1 (1967). SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from the tables in Appendix A. These tables include the
Longitudinal Weld joint efficiencies where applicable. These efficiencies should not be used for flexibility stress
calculations. If the joint efficiency Eff is given CAESAR II will divide the entered SC by the joint efficiency before using it
in the allowable stress equations.
Stoomwezen (1989). SC is the yield stress at room temperature, referred to as Re in the code.
RCCM C, D. SC is taken from Appendix, Eff is not used, and is ignored if entered.
CODETI. This is "famb" from the code. Eff is not used, and is ignored if entered.
374 Piping Screen Reference
Norwegian. This is "f1" from the code. Eff is not used for longitudinal joint efficiency.
BS 7159. SC is not used. Design stress is entered in the SH fields.
UKOOA. SC is not used. Design stress (in the hoop direction) is entered in the SH fields.
IGE/TD/12. SC is not used.
DNV. SC is not used.
EN13480. SC is the basic allowable stress at minimum metal temperature, as defined in Section 12.1.3.
GPTC/Z380. SC is not used!!!
HPGSL. Values from JIS B 8265:2003 should be used for the cold allowable value.
JPI. Values from JIS B 8265:2003 should be used for the cold allowable value.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 375
SH
Typically the hot allowable stress for the specific material taken directly from the governing piping code. A value must be
entered for each defined temperature case. The value of SH will usually be divided by the longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff)
before being used. See the recommendations that follow for the specific piping code.
B31.1. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
B31.3. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . SH is not used.
B31.5. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. Temperature Reduction Factor, T (as per Table 841.116A )
B31.11. SH is not used.
ASME NC and ND. Allowable stress from Appendix I.
Navy 505. Allowable stress from Table XIIA. See SC above.
CAN Z662. SH is not used.
BS 806. SH is 0.2% of the proof stress at design temperature Appendix E. (Eff is not used.)
Swedish Method 1. SH is the yield stress at temperature from Appendix 1.
Swedish Method 2. SH is the allowable stress at temperature from Appendix 2.
B31.1 (1967). Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
Stoomwezen. SH is the yield stress at design temperature, referred to as Re (vm) in the code.
RCCM C, D. SH is taken from the Appendix.
CODETI. This is f from the code.
Norwegian. This is "f
2
from the code.
FDBR. The hot allowable defined in Section 3.2.
BS 7159. This is the design stress od, in the longitudinal direction, as defined in Section 4.3 of the code, i.e.: o
d
=E
d
*
Elam
x
. Design stress in the circumferential (hoop) direction should be specified by entering the ratio of the circumferential
design stress to the axial design stress in the Eff field below. (Note that since design strain should be the same for both
directions, the entry in the Eff field will also be ratio of Elam
f
(hoop) to Elam
x
(longitudinal).
UKOOA. This is the allowable design stress in the hoop direction, defined in the code as f1 * LTHS. The three HOT
ALLOWABLE STRESS fields correspond to the three possible temperature cases.
IGE/TD/12. Yield Stress is used here instead of a Hot Allowable Stress.
EN13480. SH is the allowable stress at maximum metal temperature.
GPTC/Z380. Temperature Reduction Factor, T (as per Par. 192.115 )
376 Piping Screen Reference
PD8010 (Part 1 & Part 2). SH is not used.
HPGSL. Values from JIS B 8265:2003 should be used for the hot allowable values.
JPI. Values from JIS B 8265:2003 should be used for the hot allowable values.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 377
Fn
Stress range reduction factor for most piping codes.
B31.1  the stress range reduction factor is taken from the following table.
B31.1
OPERATING
CYCLES
REDUCTION
FACTOR
7000 and less 1.0
7000  14000 0.9
14000  22000 0.8
22000  45000 0.7
45000  100000 0.6
100000  0.5
Where several thermal states exist and where the number of thermal cycles is high the user should consult the applicable
piping code for methods of combining cycle life data. If omitted a value of ONE will be used.
B31.3  the stress range reduction factor is obtained from equation (1c), corresponding to Fig 302.3.5. Note that if certain
criteria are met, the stress range reduction factor is allowed to exceed 1.0. Note also that for B31.3, the number of cycles
can be specified in this field, which allows CAESAR II to compute the cyclic reduction factor according to equation (1c).
B31.4  Not Used !!!!
B31.8  the stress range reduction factor is obtained from the equation given in Section 833.8(b). Note also that for B31.8,
the number of cycles can be specified in this field, which allows CAESAR II to compute the cyclic reduction factor according
to this equation.
B31.8 CHAPTER VIII  Not Used !!!!
CODETI  This term is called "U" in the code.
NORWEGIAN  This term is called "fr" in the code, and may be as high as 2.34.
DNV  This is the material ultimate tensile strength at temperature.
378 Piping Screen Reference
CAN Z662  F1 = L, the location factor, is obtained from Table 4.2
Application CLASS 1 CLASS 2 CLASS 3 CLASS 4
Gas (nonsour)
General & Cased crossings 1.000 0.900 0.700 0.550
Roads 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.500
Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Stations 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Other 0.750 0.750 0.625 0.500
Gas (sour service)
General & Cased crossings 0.900 0.750 0.625 0.500
Roads 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.500
Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Stations 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Other 0.750 0.750 0.625 0.500
HVP
General & Cased crossings 1.000 0.800 0.800 0.800
Roads 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800
Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625
Stations 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800
Other 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800
LVP
Uncased railway crossings 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625
All others 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Class 1  Location areas containing 10 or fewer dwelling units intended for human occupancy
Class 2  Location areas containing 11 to 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy OR
buildings with more than 20 persons
outside areas with more than 20 persons
industrial installations
Class 3  Location areas with more than 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy OR institutions where rapid
evacuation may be difficult
Class 4  Location areas where buildings intended for human occupancy have 4 or more stories.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 379
F2 = T, the temperature derating factor, is obtained from Table 4.4
Temperature Derating Factor T
up to 120 (C) 1.00
150 0.97
180 0.93
200 0.91
230 0.87
F3  F9, Not Used !!!!
CAN Z662 Chapter 11  F1, Not Used !!!!
F2 = T, the temperature derating factor, is obtained from Table 4.4
F3 = The design factor for "Condition A" from Table 11.1
F4 = The design factor for "Condition B" from Table 11.1
F5  F9, Not Used !!!!
BS 806  Mean Stress to Failure in design life at design temperature. F1, F2, ... F9 correspond to the upto nine possible
thermal states.
FDBR  Identical to B31.1, except: Note that if "expansion coefficients" are entered directly instead of temperatures, the
program cannot determine Ehot. In this case, a value of 1.0 should be entered in the FAC cell and these fields should be
used to specify the product of ( f * Ehot / Ecold ) for each temperature case.
SWEDISH METHOD 1  Creep Rupture Stress at temperature. F1, F2 ... F9 correspond to the upto nine possible thermal
states.
STOOMWEZEN  Creep related material properties as follows:
F1 = Rrg  average creep stress to produce 1% permanent set after 100,000 hours at temperature (vm).
F2 = Rmg  average creep tensile stress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at temperature (vm).
F3 = Rmmin  minimum creep tensile stress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at temperature (vm).
BS 7159. The term used in this code is the fatigue factor, Kn, and is used inversely compared to other codes (so its value is
greater than 1.0). Kn is calculated as:
Kn = 1 + 0.25(As/sn) (log10(n)  3)
Where:
A
s
= stress range during fatigue cycle
o
n
= Maximum stress during fatigue cycle
n = number of stress cycles during design life
UKOOA. This is the ratio r from the material UKOOA idealized allowable stress envelope. This ratio is defined as
sa(0:1)/sa(2:1) as shown on the figure below. One value should be given for each of the operating temperature cases.
IGE/TD/12. This is the UTS value.
380 Piping Screen Reference
EN13480  The stress range reduction factor should be taken from Table 12.1.31 (which matches the B31.1 table above),
or computed from equation 12.1.34. Note that for EN13480, the number of cycles can be specified in this field, which
allows CAESAR II to compute the cyclic reduction factor according to equation (12.1.34).
GPTC/Z380  Not Used !!!!
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 381
Eff
The longitudinal weld joint efficiency. The use of this parameter by CAESAR II varies with the piping code. Depending
upon code requirements, the allowable stress may be either divided by Eff for use in the flexibility calculations or
multiplied by Eff for use in the minimum wall calculations. The following describes the effect of the longitudinal joint
efficiency for each of the piping codes.
B31.1, B31.11967, B31.5. Allowable stress tables include Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiencies where applicable. If Eff is
entered, values for SC and SH will be divided by Eff before being used in the flexibility calculations. Eff will be ignored in
the minimum wall calculation.
B31.3, B31.4, B31.8, B31.11, NAVY 505, Z662 (J), BS 806 (e), CODETI (z), FDBR (vl), GPTC/Z380, HPGSL, JPI.
Allowable stress (or yield stress) tables do not include Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiencies, Eff will be ignored for the
flexibility calculations. SH will be multiplied by Eff when calculating the minimum wall thickness.
B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8 Chapter VIII, ASME NC, ASME ND, RCCMC, RCCMD. Eff is ignored for both
flexibility and minimum wall thickness calculations, and therefore the field is disabled for these codes.
Swedish Method 1, Swedish Method 2, Norwegian TBK 56. Eff is the circumferential joint factor z and is used in the
calculation of the code stresses, rather than in the calculation of the allowables (either for flexibility or minimum wall
thickness).
Stoomwezen. For this code, this Eff is the cyclic reduction factor, referred to as Cf in the code. Weld joint efficiency is
not considered for this code in CAESAR II.
BS 7159. This code replaces this field with Eh/Ea, the ratio of the hoop modulus to the axial modulus of elasticity. If
omitted, a default value of 1.0 is used, as though the material is isotropic.
UKOOA, IGE/TD/12. These codes replace this field with f2 and Dfac, respectively, the system design factor (typically
0.67).
DNV. This code replaces this field with usage factor Ns (pressure yielding) from Tables C1 or C2. The value must be
between 0.77 and 0.96.
EN13480. Eff will be ignored for the flexibility calculations. SH will be multiplied by Eff when calculating the minimum
wall thickness.
PD8010 Part 1. Eff is the weld joint factor used in determining the allowable hoop stress. See Section 6.4.3.1 for details.
PD8010 Part 2. Eff is not used.
Sy  Yield Stress at Temperature
This is Syt, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the pipe material at maximum temperature.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if available and
applicable.
UTS  Ultimate Tensile Strength of Material
This is the ultimate tensile strength of the material at design conditions.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if available and
applicable.
382 Piping Screen Reference
Design Factor (Unitless)
This is the system design factor (f), as described in Table 2 of the IGE/TD/12 code. Its value must be 0.3, 0.5 and 0.67.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the material database, if available and applicable.
Sy
This is a codespecific field, generally requiring input only for the transmission and nonUS piping codes. Codespecific
input requirements are described as follows:
B31.1. Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
B31.3. Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . Used for the allowable stress determination.
B31.5. Used to satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 523.2.2.f.4. This paragraph addresses ferrous materials in piping
systems between 20F and 150F. The value entered here should be the quantity (40% of the allowable) as detailed in the
Code. When Sy is defined, the OPE case will be considered a "stress case". The allowable reported in the output report will
be the value entered here. The computed operating stress will include all longitudinal components, and ignore torsion.
B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. Specified Minimum Yield Stress.
B31.11. Specified Minimum Yield Stress.
ASME Sect III Class 2 and 3. Basic Material Yield Strength at design temperature for use in Eqn. 9 for consideration of
Level A and B service limits. Level C and Level D service limits must be satisfied in separate runs by adjusting the value
for the occasional factor in the CAESAR II configuration file. If the occasional factor is set to 1.2, the allowable stress is the
minimum of 1.2 x 1.5 S
H
or 1.5 S
Y
. If the factor is 1.5, the allowable is the minimum of 1.5 x 1.5 S
H
or 1.8 S
Y
, while if the
factor is 2.0, the allowable is the minimum of 2.0 x 1.5 S
H
or 2.0 S
Y
. (Note, in order to satisfy the code S
H
should be
replaced by S
M
for the latter two.)
Navy 505. Not used.
CAN Z662. Specified Minimum Yield Strength taken from the standards or specifications under which the pipe was
purchased or as per clause 4.3.3.
BS 806. Sustained Stress Limit. The lower of 0.8 X 0.2% Proof stress value or the creep rupture design stress value defined
in Appendix A under cold or any other operating condition. See 17.2(c)
Swedish Method 1. Not Used. The yield stress at temperature is entered in the respective SHn fields for the up to nine
possible thermal states.
Swedish Method 2. Ultimate Tensile Strength at room temperature.
B31.1 (1967). Not used.
Stoomwezen (1989). SY is the tensile strength at room temperature, referred to as Rm in the code.
RCCM C, D. Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
CODETI. Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
Norwegian. This should be the allowable stress at 7000 load cycles, R
S
, from Code Table 10.2. If not entered, this factor is
not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 383
FDBR. Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
BS 7159. Not used.
UKOOA. Not used.
IGE/TD/12. Specified minimum yield stress (SMYS).
DnV: Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
EN13480: Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
GPTC/Z380: Specified Minimum Yield Stress.
PD8010 Part 1: Specified Minimum Yield Stress.
PD8010 Part 2: Specified Minimum Yield Stress.
HPGSL. Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
JPI. Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
Specified Minimum Yield Stress
This is SMYS, or Sy, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the pipe material at room temperature.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if available and
applicable.
384 Piping Screen Reference
Fac
A unitless multiplication factor used by some transmission and nonU.S. piping codes. The specific input required for each
piping code is discussed as follows:
B31.1. Not used.
B31.3. Not used.
B31.4. Amount the pipeline may be considered under complete axial restraint, i.e. long and buried. This option is used
primarily when the user is adding bending stresses to the stresses already developed in the pipeline due to its buried
restraint. This condition occurs when, for example a branch is tieing into a long buried header and the soil supports are not
modeled. The equation for stress in CAESAR II is:
Stress = (Fac) x abs[ Eo(T
2
T
1
) + (1v) S
hoop
] + (S
E
+ S
L
)(1Fac)
Where:
E = elastic modulus
o = thermal expansion coefficient per degree
T2 = operating temperature
T1 = ambient temperature
v = Poisson's ratio
S
hoop
= hoop stress in the pipe.
SE = expansion stress due to bending
SL = sustained stress due to pressure.
Fac should be a number between zero and one. One, when the pipe is fully restrained, i.e. buried for a long distance. Zero
when the pipe is subject to no buried axial restraint. The default value for Fac is 0.0. Note that when Fac is 0.001, this
indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This will cause the hoop stress
component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses, conforming to the spirit of the
restrained line stress calculation above.
B31.4 Chapter IX. This value is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A402.3.5(a) of B31.4. Appropriate values are
0.72 for Pipelines or 0.60 for Platform piping and Risers.
B31.5. Not used.
B31.8. Construction Design Factor, from Table 841.114B.
Construction type: (Descriptions are approx.) Factor
A (CLASS 1) Wasteland, Deserts, Mountains, Grazing Land,
Farmland, Sparsely Populated Areas.
0.72
B (CLASS 2) Fringe Areas Around Cities, Industrial Areas,
Ranch or Country Estates.
0.60
C (CLASS 3) Suburban Housing Developments, Shopping Centers,
Residential Areas.
0.50
D (CLASS 4) MultiStory Buildings are prevalent, Traffic is heavy
and where there may be numerous other utilities underground.
0.40 (0.4 is the default if not entered.)
B31.8 Chapter VIII. This value is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A842.22 of B31.8. Appropriate values are
0.72 for Pipelines or 0.50 for Platform piping and Risers.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 385
B31.11. Amount the pipeline may be considered to be under complete axial restraint (see discussion under B31.4 above).
ASME Sect III, Class 2 and 3. Not used.
B31.1 (1967). Not used.
Navy 505. Not used
CAN Z662. Indicates whether the pipe is restrained (i.e. long or buried) or unrestrained.
The equation for pipe under complete axial restraint is:
Stress = (Fac) x abs[ Eo(T
2
T
1
) + (1v) S
hoop
] + (S
E
+ S
L
)(1Fac)
Where:
E = elastic modulus
o = thermal expansion coefficient per degree
T2 = operating temperature
T1 = ambient temperature
v = Poisson's ratio
S
hoop
= hoop stress in the pipe.
SE = expansion stress due to bending
SL = sustained stress due to pressure.
Fac should be 1.0, 0.0, or 0.001. One, for pipe under complete axial restraint. One, when the pipe is fully restrained, i.e.
buried for a long distance. The default value for Fac is 0.0. Note that when Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that the
pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This causes the hoop stress component, rather than the
longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses if the axial stress is compressive.
BS806. Not used.
Swedish Power Code, Method 1. Sigma(tn) multiplier. Usually 1.5. For prestressed (cold sprung) piping this value should
be 1.35. The default used is 1.5.
Swedish Power Code, Method 2. Not used.
Stoomwezen. This is a constant whose value is either 0.44 or 0.5. Refer to Stoomwezen Section 5.2 for details.
RCCM C, D. Not used.
CODETI. Not used.
Norwegian. This should be the material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature, RM. If not entered, this factor is not
considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
FDBR. This cell can be used to override the ratio of E
hot
/E
cold
, which is automatically determined by CAESAR II.
The modulus ratio is used to compute the expansion case allowable stress, based on the material and temperature.
Normally, this field can be left blank. However, if desired, a value (greater than zero and less than one) can be entered in
this field to override the program determined ratio.
To correctly utilize FBDR, the user should enter the Hot Modulus in the Elastic Modulus cell of the spreadsheet. CAESAR II
will look up the Cold Modulus and compute this necessary ratio. Note that the use of the Hot Modulus in the flexibility
analysis is a deviation of FBDR from every other piping code in
CAESAR II.
386 Piping Screen Reference
Note that if expansion coefficients are entered directly instead of temperatures, the program cannot determine E
cold
. In this
case, a value of 1.0 should be entered in this cell and the cyclic reduction factor fields should be used to specify the product
of
( f * E
hot
/E
cold
) for each temperature case.
BS 7159. Mean temperature change multiplier k, as defined in Section 7.2.1 of the code. This should be 0.85 for liquids, 0.8
for gases, and 1.0 for ambient temperature changes. If left blank, this value will default to 1.0.
UKOOA. Mean temperature change multiplier k, as defined for the BS 7159 code above. If left blank, this value will
default to 1.0.
IGE/TD/12. Material shakedown factor K
sd
.
HPGSL. Not used.
JPI. Not used.
DNV. Usage factor Nu (pressure bursting) from Tables C1or C2. Values must be between 0.64 and 0.84.
EN13480. Not used.
GPTC/Z380. Construction Design Factor, from Table 192.111.
PD8010 Part 1. Same usage as B31.4 above.
PD8010 Part 2. Not used.
Ksd. (Factor) (Unitless)
This is the material shakedown factor described in Table 4 of the IGE/TD/12 code. Typical values are:
Carbon Steel: 1.8
Austenitic Steel: 2.0
UTSa  Ultimate Tensile Strength at Ambient Temperature  TD/12
This is the Ultimate Tensile Strength of the pipe material corresponding to the specified ambient temperature.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 387
Material Fatigue Curves
Material Fatigue Curve data may be entered here, permitting the evaluation of fatigue load cases and cumulative usage
scenarios. Cycle vs. Stress data may be entered for up to eight data points. (Note IGE/TD/12 provides the opportunity to
enter up to five fatigue curves, representing fatigue classes D,E, F, G, and W.) Fatigue evaluations are explicitly specified
by IGE/TD/12; CAESAR II offers them as extensions to other codes.
The user is also given the option of reading in fatigue curve data from a file, several of which are provided with CAESAR II.
Cycle/Stress pairs should be entered in ascending order (ascending by cycles). Stress values should be entered as the
allowable Stress Range rather than allowable Stress Amplitude. Fatigue Curves will be considered to be entered using a
logarithmic interpolation.
Note: Fatigue Curves may also be read in from files, using the Read From File button. Static FATigue cases will be
evaluated against the full range of the fatigue curve, while dynamic FATigue cases are assumed to represent amplitudes,
and are therefore evaluated against half of the range of the fatigue curve.
TD/12 Modulus Correction
IGE/TD/12 Section A5.6 requires that the allowable fatigue stress (as entered in the Fatigue Curves) be adjusted by the ratio
of the material modulus of elasticity divided by 209*103 N/mm2. Note that this divisor can be adjusted if need be, by
changing the entry in the Modulus Correction field.
"f" Allowed Maximum of 1.2
The 2004 edition of B31.3 permits the "cyclic reduction factor" (f) to exceed 1.0 under certain conditions. To permit "f" to
exceed 1.0, up to the limit of 1.2, enable the On button. To prohibit "f" from exceeding 1.0, enable the Off button.
Note, this setting is duplicated to subsequent elements, just like all of the other allowable stress data.
Restrained Piping per B31.8
B31.8 (2003) distinguishes between restrained and unrestrained piping for the purposes of stress computations. When
implementing the B31.8 piping code, it is necessary for the user to define which sections of the piping system are restrained,
as per Code Section 833.1.
For this set of radio buttons, "On" means the pipe is restrained while "Off" means the pipe is not restrained.
388 Piping Screen Reference
In general, restrained piping is piping in which the soil or supports prevent axial displacement of flexure at bends.
Conversely, unrestrained piping is piping that is free to displace axially or flex at bends. Additional details are provided in
Section 833.1, and users are urged to consult the Code directly.
Pvar
ASME and RCCM C, D. This is the variance in the pressure between operating and peak to be used as the component
in equation 9 above that found from B1 * P * Do / 2tn. Do not enter the peak pressure for Pvar, enter the difference between
the operating pressure and the peak pressure.
Swedish Power Code, Methods 1 & 2. This is BETA for the Seff calculation. If not given, beta defaults to 10%. Ten
percent would be entered as 10.0. Values entered must be between 0.1 and 25.0. Values entered outside of this range will be
automatically adjusted to the outer limit of the allowed range. The definition for beta, as given in the Swedish piping code
in section 5.6.2.1, is the maximum allowable minus the tolerance as a percentage of the nominal wall thickness.
Stoomwezen. PVAR is the Cm coefficient in the code whose value is usually 1.0.
Norwegian. PVAR is the difference between design pressure P (in equation 10.7) and peak pressure Pmaks (in equation
10.8).
The table that follows defines when each of these parameters is valid input for the piping code (V) or not required (N).
DNV. Usage factor N for equivalent stress check from Table C4. Values must be between 0.77 and 1.00.
PD8010 Part 1. This is the Design Factor as discussed in Section 6.4.1.2. Typical limits on this value are 0.3 and 0.72,
depending on categories and class locations. This Design Factor is used in determining the allowable hoop stress. (This
value has no units for PD8010 Part 1.)
PD8010 Part 2 This is the Design Factor as discussed in Section 6.4.1 Table 2. Enter the value of "fd" for the Hoop Stress
evaluation, which should be either 0.6 (riser/land fall) or 0.72 (seabed/tiein). CAESAR II will determine the appropriate "fd"
values for the equivalent stress from Table 2. (This value has no units for PD8010 Part 2.)
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if available.
al(0:1) Long Term Axial Stress at 0:1 Stress Ratio
Typically, o
al(0:1)
(hoop stress is 0 at this point) is lower than the axial stress o
al(2:1)
(hoop stress is double the axial stress at
this point). The ratio of these strength r, called biaxial stress ratio, can range between 0.5 and 0.75 for plain pipe,
depending on winding angle and specific pipe type.
al(1:1) Long Term Axial Stress at 1:1 Stress Ratio
Normally at this point, hoop stress will have the same as axial stresses, that is o
hl(1:1) =
o
al(1:1).
However, CAESAR II allows a
user to enter different values for o
al(1:1).
and
o
hl(1:1)
for a generalized failure profile, in which case, a warning message will
display in the error checker.
If both o
hl(1:1)
and o
al(1:1)
are left blank, CAESAR II will assume that a simplified envelope will be user for plain pipe.
hl(1:1) Long Term Hoop Stress at 1:1 Stress Ratio
According to the ISO 14692 specifications hoop stress will have the same value as the one for axial stresses at a 1:1 stress
ratio, that is o
hl(1:1)
= o
al(1:1).
However, CAESAR II allows a different value for o
hl(1:1)
from the one for o
al(1:1),
in which case, a
warning message will display in the error checker.
If o
hl(1:1)
is left blank and o
al(1:1)
is specified then CAESAR II will assume that o
hl(1:1)
is equal to o
al(1:1),
and the error checker
will display a warning message. For more information users may also refer to the help for o
al(1:1)
.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 389
al(2:1) Long Term Axial Stress at 2:1 Stress Ratio
Normally at this point, hoop stress is twice the axial stress, that is o
hl(2:1)
= 2 * o
al(2:1)
. This is a natural condition when a
pressurized pipe is enclosed at both ends. However CAESAR II allows a user to enter different values for o
hl(2:1)
= 2 * o
al(2:1)
,
in which case, a warning message displays in the error checker.
hl(2:1) Long Term Hoop Stress at 2:1 Stress Ratio
According to ISO 14692 specifications hoop stress will be twice the axial stress at 2:1 stress ratio, that is o
hl(2:1)
= 2*o
al(2:1).
However, CAESAR II allows o
hl(2:1)
to have a different value than twice of o
al(2:1)
in which case a warning message will be
displayed by the error checker.
If o
hl(2:1)
is left blank and
o
al(2:1)
is specified, then CAESAR II will assume that o
hl(2:1)
is equal to twice
o
al(2:1),
and the error
checker will display a warning message. For more information users may also refer to the help for o
al(2:1)
Qs  Qualified Stress for Joints, Bends and Tees
A qualified stress, o
qs
, provided by the manufacturer is defined as:
where:
is the qualified pressure;
is the average diameter of the pipe;
is the average reinforced wall thickness of the pipe.
The qualified stress,o
qs,
for fittings is calculated as:
In CAESAR II qualified stress joints o
qs
, for plain pipe is not directly required, although users should be aware that (o
qs
)
pipe
=
o
hl(2:1),
and o
hl(2:1)
is required input for plain pipe.
If a piping system has no qualified stress o
qs
should not be required. However, users still need to input a positive value say
1000.00 for o
qs
in order to get rid of the error message. The same is true for bends and tees.
Note: CAESAR II requires users to provide qualified stresses for fittings, bends, tees, and joints, although strictly speaking,
these stresses might not be applicable if the bends, tees or joints do not exist in a piping model. If there are no bends, tees or
joints in a model users should enter a dummy positive value to satisfy the Error Checker otherwise, the model will fail.
390 Piping Screen Reference
r  BiAxial Stress Ratio for Bends, Tees and Joints
The Biaxial stress, r, is defined as:
where:
o
sh(2:1)
is the shortterm hoop strength, under 2:1 stress conditions;
o
sa(0:1)
is the shortterm axial strength, under axial loading only.
In the absence of data from the manufacture, the default values should be used:
Fitting Component Shortterm Strength Biaxial Stress Ratio (r)*
Bends
Filamentwound unidirectional 90 and O
Filamentwound and handlay 1
100% handlay
0.45
1.0
1.9
Tees
Filamentwound and handlay 1 1.0
Other Hand
laminated
CSM/WR 1, 9 1.9
Joints Spigot/Socket Adhesive or Mechanical Connection
Threaded
Flange
Laminated
1.0
0.45
1.0
2.0
Note: A higher factor may be used for r if justified by testing in accordance with 6.2.6 ISO 1469222002.
In CAESAR II, the biaxial stress ratio r for tees is assumed to be 1.0 according to ISO 14692.
And a warning message will be given in the error checker if a value greater than 2.0 is inputted by the user for biaxial stress
ratio r for bends or joints, and a user might choose to ignore the warning message. For more information refer to the note at
the bottom of the table.
If a piping system has no joints or bends. the corresponding biaxial stress ratio r should not be required. However, a user
still need to input a positive values (say 1.0) for r in order to get rid of error messages.
Eh / Ea
Eh / Ea is the ratio of the hoop modulus to the axial modulus of elasticity. If omitted, a default value of 2.0 will be used.
Hand Lay
Enable this box if the bend is handlayed. If this box is not enabled, smooth bends are assumed. This will affect the
calculations of both the flexibility factor and the SIFs (for the bend).
A1  Partial Factor for Temperature
Since each operating temperature needs an A
1
factor, up to 9 factors may need to be specified if all 9 operating temperatures
are defined in a model.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 391
The following passage is quoted from ISO146923:2002(E) section 7.4.2 Design Temperature.
The effect of temperature on reduction of mechanical properties shall be accounted for by the partial factor A
1
, which is
determined according to Annex D in ISO 146922:2002.
The maximum operating temperature of the piping system shall not exceed the temperature used to calculate the partial
factor A
1
of the GRP components. If the operating temperature is less than or equal to 65 C, then A
1
will generally be equal
to 1.0
The effect of low temperatures on material properties and system performance shall be considered. For service temperatures
below 0 C, the principal should consider the need for additional testing, depending on the resin system. Both qualification
as well as additional mechanical tests should be considered.
Note: Glass Reinforced Plastic GRP materials do not undergo ductile/brittle transition within the temperature range of this
part of ISO 14692, hence, there is no significant abrupt change in mechanical properties at low temperatures. A concern is
that at temperatures lower than 35 C, internal residual stresses could become large enough to reduce the safe operating
envelope of the piping system.
A2  Partial Factor for Chemical Resistance
The following passage is from ISO 146923:2002(E) section 7.4.3 Chemical Degradation.
The effect of chemical degradation of all system components from either the transported medium or the external
environment shall be considered on both the pressure and temperature ratings. System components shall include adhesive
and elastomeric seals/locking rings, if used, as well as the basic glass fiber and resin materials.
The effect of chemical degradation shall be accounted for by the partial factor A
2
for chemical resistance, which is
determined in accordance with Annex D in ISO 146922:2002. If the normal service fluid is water, then A
2
= 1. Reference
shall be made to manufacturers' data if available.
Note 1: In general, the aqueous fluids specified in the qualification procedures of ISO 146922:2002 are among the more
aggressive environments likely to be encountered. However, strong acids, alkalis, hypochlorite, glycol, aromatics and
alcohol can also reduce the properties of Glass Reinforced Plastic(GRP) piping components; the effect depends on the
chemical concentration, temperature and resin type.
Note 2: The information from the manufacturers' tables are based on experience and laboratory tests at atmospheric
pressure, on published literature, raw material suppliers' data, etc. Chemical concentrations, wall stresses, reinforcement
type and resin have not always been taken into account. Therefore the tables only give an indication of the suitability of the
piping components to transport the listed chemicals. In addition, the mixing of chemicals may cause severe situations.
A3  Partial Factor for Cyclic Service
The following passage is from ISO 146923:2002(E) section 7.4.4 Fatigue and Cyclic Loading.
Cyclic loading is not necessarily limited to pressure loads. Thermal and other cyclic loads shall therefore be considered
when assessing cyclic severity.
If the predicted number of pressure or other loading cycle is less than 7000 over the design life, the service shall be
considered static. If required, the limited cyclic capability of the pipe system components can be demonstrated according to
6.4.5 of ISO 146922:2002.
392 Piping Screen Reference
If the predicted number of pressure or other loading cycles exceeds 7000 over the design life, then the designer shall
determine the design cyclic severity, Rc, of the piping system. R
c
is defined as:
where F
min
and F
max
are the minimum and maximum loads (or stresses) of the load (or stress) cycle.
The partial factor, A
3
, for cyclic service is given by:
where N is the total number of cycles during service life.
This equation is intended for cyclic internal pressure loading only, but may be applied with caution to axial loads provided
they remain tensile, i.e. it is not applicable for reversible loading.
System Design Factor
The System Design Factor (SDF) is multiplied by the Occasional Load Factor (k) to generate the value of f
2
, the Part
Factor for Loading. By default the SDF is 0.67.
The purpose of the System Design Factor is to define an acceptable margin of safety between the strength of the material
and the operating stresses for the three load cases, occasional, sustained including thermal loads and sustained excluding
thermal loads. The following table shows the relationship between the System Design Factor, the Occasional Load Factor
and f
2
, along with their default values.
Loading
Type
Load
Duration
System Design
Factor (SDF)
Occasional Load
Factor (k)
Part Factor For
Loading (f2)
Occasional Shortterm 0.67 1.33 0.89
Sustained Including
Thermal Loads
Longterm 0.67 1.24 0.83
Sustained Excluding
Thermal Loads
Longterm 0.67 1.00 0.67
Note: To determine the Part Factor For loading use the following equation f
2 =
SDF*k.
k  Thermal Factor
The Thermal Factor, is defined in Section 8.4 of ISO146923:2002(E). In the absence of further information, the thermal
factor k should be taken as 0.85 for liquids and 0.8 for gasses. If omitted, it is default to 1.0.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 393
Available Commands
Break Command
This command is initiated with the Model  Break command. This option is available from the Pipe Element Spreadsheet
and allows the user to break an element into two or more individual elements. The break option was designed for
situations where:
A straight run of pipe between two nodes needs to be broken to insert a restraint, or some other change in properties.
A long straight run of pipe needs to be broken into multiple, uniform lengths of pipe with similar support conditions on
each length, i.e. a long straight run of rack piping, or a buried run with multiple soil supports at each point in the run.
An example break screen is shown in the following figure:
The example above illustrates a single nodal insert between the nodes 100 and 110. The node to be inserted is 105 and is
6 ft. from the node 100. Alternatively we could insert node 105 an appropriate distance from the To Node 110. If there was
some other node in the model with a restraint (or imposed displacements) like the one to be put on the newly generated node
105, then the node identifying that restraint location could be filled in at the line Get Support From Node and the restraint
would be automatically placed at 105.
For multiple inserts in a rack piping system the prompts might appear as follows:
394 Piping Screen Reference
At the prompt for support condition if the user entered the node where a +Y restraint had already been defined, a +Y
restraint would be placed at all of the generated nodes, namely 110, 112, ... , 120. The multiple insert BREAK is used
primarily for three reasons:
Rack piping supports where the total length and node spacing is known and entered directly when requested at the
break prompts.
Underground pipe runs where the overall length of the run is known, and the lengths of the individual elements in the
run are known.
To add mass points in order to refine a model for dynamic analysis.
Note: There are two occasions when Break will not work when the element is an expansion joint, or the delta
dimensions in the DX, DY, and DZ fields are blank or zero.
Valve/Flange Database
The Valve and Flange database is accessed through the Model  Valve command or by clicking the .
There are four databases currently provided:
CRANE steel valves and total flange length
GENERIC valves and 2/3 flange length
Corner and Lada valves  no flanges
CADWorx Plant (this is the CAESAR II default)
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 395
The CRANE database contains all flanged and welded fittings in the CRANE steel valve catalog. The GENERIC database
contains information from a variety of sources. In some cases (i.e. weights for control valves) information from different
sources was found to vary considerably. In these cases the largest reasonable weight was selected for use in the database. In
other cases only the length of the fitting was available.
The default database, CADWorx Plant, is a subset of the full component database provided with CADWorx Plant, COADE's
piping design and drafting program. This database offers nine different component types (gate, globe, check, control, ball,
plug, and butterfly valves; flange pair and single flange) as well as four different end types (flanged, noflanged, threaded,
or socket). Selection of flangedend components or flanges themselves automatically provides for gaskets.
Note: Selecting flanged ends (FLG) for a valve simply adds the length and weight of two flanges and gaskets to the valve
length and weight. No FLG selects a valve without including the two mating flanges.
396 Piping Screen Reference
Adding an Element from the Valve Flange Database
1 Enter the node numbers for the rigid element in the FROM and TO fields on the pipe spreadsheet.
2 Click the Valve/Flange toolbar or select MODEL  VALVE from the menu.
3 Use the mouse to highlight blocks to select the particular fitting desired.
4 Select where to insert the new element.
5 Click OK to accept the selection. If the particular selection is valid for the current line size, the user will see that
CAESAR II enters the length of the element in the DX, DY, and/or DZ fields, designates the element as RIGID, and
inserts the weight in the appropriate slot in the Auxiliary field.
The assumed orientation of the rigid is taken from the preceding element. Users should note that CAESAR II is doing a table
lookup based on line size, and is inserting the selected table values into the spreadsheet. Should the line size change at a
later time, the user must come back and ask CAESAR II to perform another table lookup for the new size.
Use of the CADWorx Plant database offers several benefits over the use of other databases:
The CADWorx Plant database provides more accurate component lengths and weights than those typically available in
the GENERIC database.
Using the same component data for CAESAR II and CADWorx Plant modeling promotes the efficiency of the bi
directional interface between the two programs, for those who are using both programs. Total sharing of data files and
specifications between CAESAR II and CADWorx Plant occurs when the CADWorx installation directive is saved in the
registry. In that case, the third line of the CADWORX.VHD file should be edited to name the actual CADWorx
specifications (located in the CADWORX\SPEC subdirectory). For more information on editing this file, see below.
Users may more easily modify the CADWorx Plant Valve and Flange database, since the specification files and
component data files are ASCII text files. This process, which involves possibly editing the CADWORX.VHD,
specification, and data files, is described below.
The CADWORX.VHD file is structured as such:
CADWORX.DAT
0 7
150 300 600 800 900 1500 2500
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4
FLG NOFLG THREADSOCKET
9
GATE GLOBE CHECKCONTRL BALL PLUGBTRFLYFLG.PRFLANGE
0
The first line must read CADWORX.DAT, so it may not be changed.
The second line, which may be edited by the user, must begin with a zero; the second number on the line designates the
number of specifications to make available to the user. It can be a maximum of 7.
The third line, which may be edited by the user, lists the available specifications. Each specification name must consist
of 8 characters, padded by blanks on the right. The specification names designate files with extension .SPC, located in
the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR II or the CADWorx Plant specification directory (if the CADWORX directive is
set in the registry).
The fourth line, which may be edited by the user, designates whether each specification uses English or Metric nominal
pipe sizes. Seven blanks followed by a 1 indicate English nominals, while seven blanks followed by a 2 indicate metric
nominals.
The last five lines should not be changed by the user.
The specification files are located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR installation directory. They are designated by
the extension .SPC. The specification files correlate pipe size and component with the appropriate data file. Individual lines
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 397
in the file list the library (subdirectory to the LIB_I or LIB_M directory, depending on whether English or Metric units are
in effect), file name (with an extension equal to the library name), range of nominal pipe sizes for which the specified data
file applies. Any of these items may be edited by the user; the last item on the line is the component type number, and
should not be changed. Other items in the file pertain to CADWorx Plant and are not significant to the CAESAR II user.
The data files hold the dimensional and weight values. Data files for different types of components hold different types of
data; the data columns are labeled. The only data with significance to the CAESAR II user involves the weight and lengths
these may be changed by the user. The following is a typical component data file for weld neck flanges:
More extensive information on editing of these files can be found in the CADWorx Plant User Manual.
Find Distance
Click Origin and Current Node to calculate the distance between coordinate (0.0,0.0,0.0) and the TO node of the current
element.
Click Nodes, and then enter two node numbers to calculate the distance between those two nodes.
398 Piping Screen Reference
Find Element
Enter a single node number to find the next element containing that node number (either as a FROM or TO node).
Enter two node numbers to find the next element containing BOTH of those node numbers (in either order).
Global Coordinates
Enter absolute (global) coordinates for the start node of each discontiguous system segment. This may be required for three
reasons:
1  the user may wish to show nodal coordinates in absolute, rather than relative coordinates.
2  defining global coordinates for discontiguous segments allow the piping segments to plot in the correct locations, rather
than superimposed at the origin.
3  if WIND loading is present, it is important that the pipe be given the correct elevation.
Insert Element
Selecting BEFORE inserts a new element prior to the current element, with the FROM node equal to the FROM node of the
current element.
Selecting AFTER inserts a new element following the current element, with the FROM node equal to the TO node of the
current element.
Node Increment
When generating the FROM and TO nodes for new elements, CAESAR II uses the nodal increment set in CONFIGURE/SETUP.
This may be overridden by entering a different value here.
Show Informational Messages
Activate the check box to display informational messages upon the conversion of Nominal to Actual diameters, Schedule to
Wall Thickness, and Specific Gravity to Density.
Deactivate the check box to suppress these messages.
Tee SIF Scratchpad
Enter the number of the node where you want to evaluate the Stress Intensification Factors.
Allowed Intersection / Joint Types
ID Type sif calculations:

1  Reinforced Fabricated Tee PAD T, FTG ro, CROTCH ....
2  Unreinforced Fabricated Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....
3  Welding Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....
4  Sweepolet (Weldedin Contour) .... .... CROTCH ....
5  Weldolet (Branch Weldedon) .... .... CROTCH ....
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 399
6  Extruded Welding Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....
7  Girth Butt Weld .... .... .... WELD d
8  Socket Weld (No Undercut) .... .... .... FILLET
9  Socket Weld (As Welded) .... .... .... FILLET
10  Tapered Transition .... .... .... WELD d
11  Threaded Joint .... .... .... ....
12  Double Welded Slipon Flange .... .... .... ....
13  Lap Joint Flange (B16.9 Stub) .... .... .... ....
14  Bonney Forge Sweepolet .... .... .... WELD ID
15  Bonney Forge Latrolet .... .... .... ....
16  Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet .... FTG ro .... WELD ID
17  Full Encirclement Tee PAD T, FTG ro .... ....
The "TYPE" only needs to be entered once for each intersection or joint in the problem. Users CANNOT specify two
different SIFs at a single node and get an increased SIF. For example a socketweld TYPE and an intersection TYPE cannot
be specified at the same point.
Intersection SIFs can be calculated for one, two or three pipe junctions. Conservative assumptions are made with regard to
missing information and orientations. Warning messages are printed during error checking for each intersection where
assumptions must be made to apply code rules. For 2 element joints the largest diameter and the smallest thickness are used
when discrepancies exist between the two adjoining pipes, (unless the two element fitting is a socket weld, and then the
largest thickness is used). These selections are made to generate the largest SIFs and thus the most conservative stress
calculations.
Intersection SIFs can be calculated for dummy leg intersections on bend curvatures. This is a crude method for estimating
bend/dummy leg SIFs, but is often considered an improvement over an unintensified dummy leg.
Code calculated bend stress intensification factors will always take precedence over any other SIF that may be defined at
the bend node. (A setup file directive: ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES permits the user to override code SIFs at bends
if necessary.)
Pad Thickness
Thickness of the REINFORCING PAD for reinforced fabricated tees, Intersection type 1.
Note: In most piping codes this beneficial effect of the pad's thickness is limited to pads of a thickness less than 1.5 times
the nominal thickness of the fitting. This factor does not apply in BS806 or Z662, and is 2.5 in the Swedish piping code.
Crotch Thickness for B31.3 Welding Tees and Sweepolets (intersection types 3 and 4). The crotch thickness and radius are
necessary for CAESAR II to determine if the fitting meets B16.9 requirements.
3100 Piping Screen Reference
Fitting Outside Radius
The largest fitting outside radius for branch connections. Used for reduced branch connections in the ASME and B31.1
piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets, and for WRC329 intersection SIF calculations. SETUP file directions allow
these calculations to be incorporated into most piping codes as an option.
SETUP file directives also exist to limit the application of the reduced branch connection rules to UNREINFORCED
FABRICATED TEES, SWEEPOLETS, WELDOLETS and EXTRUDED WELDING TEES. (i.e. omitting REDUCED
WELDING TEES and REDUCED REINFORCED FABRICATED TEES.) If omitted, FTG ro defaults to the outside
radius of the branch connection if omitted.
Crotch Radius
CROTCH RADIUS for extruded welding tees, intersection type 6.
This is also the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC329.
Specifying this value when it is known can result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the intersection. This
reduction only applies when WRC329 intersection options are selected from the setup file, and for unreinforced fabricated
tees, sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded welding tees, i.e. intersection types 2, 4, 5, and 6.
This value must be larger than Tb/2 and Th/2 to be effective in reducing the stress intensification. (There is another value in
the code that must be checked by the user and that is (Tb'+y)/2 (y) is the largest thickness at the intersection. The crotch
radius must be larger than this value also.)
If this value is left blank, a value of zero will be used. This indicates no crotch, i.e. a corner.
Weld ID
The following are valid Weld ID values.
Values:
0 or BLANK  As Welded
1  Finished/Ground Flush
Used for:
BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS
BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS
BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE
If entered as 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the SIF is taken as 1.0.
Refer to the help on Weld Mismatch (Weld d) for more detail on how input parameters are used to compute SIFs for girth
butt welds.
Weld d (Mismatch)
Average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the pipe. Used for Butt Welds and Tapered
Transitions.
Note: This is the average, and not the maximum mismatch. Users must verify that any maximum mismatch requirements
are satisfied for their particular code.
This value is used in the SIF equations as follows:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3101
For B31.1:
IF( TR.GE. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.13 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE IF( TR .LT. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.33 ) THEN
S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR
IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9
IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0
ELSE IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN
S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR
IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9
IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0
ELSE
OUT OF THE RANGES FOR B31.1 USE THE MAX. SIF
S = 1.9
END IF
Where TR is the pipe thickness (inches), and DMIS is the entered weld mismatch. See Table D1 in the B31.1 appendix for
further discussion and assumptions.
For B31.3, B31.4, B31.8 (including Ch VIII), BS 806, Canadian, Navy and B31.11967:
The SIF for girth butt welds is always taken as 1.0 regardless of the input for thickness and mismatch.
For ASME III NC or ND:
IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
S = 0.9 * ( 1.0 + 3.0*DMIS/TR )
IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9
IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0
END IF
For the Swedish and Norwegian codes:
IF( TR .GT. 4.5mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE IF( TR.LE.0.1771654 .OR. DMIS/TR.GT.0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.8
ELSE
IF NONE OF THE OTHER PARAMETERS GOVERN THEN USE
A MAX. SIF OF 1.8. Not sure what the code's intention
3102 Piping Screen Reference
is when none of the above parameters apply. This is
certainly the most conservative.
S = 1.8
END IF
For RCCM C/D:
IF( TR .GT. 4.75mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
S = 1.8
END IF
For CODETI:
IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
S = 1.8
END IF
For FDBR:
IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
S = 1.8
END IF
For Tapered Transitions this value is the mismatch of the inside diameters at the small end weld, and is used as the "delta"
in the equation:
SIF = 1.3 + 0.0036(d/t) + 3.6("delta")/t
Socket Fillet Weld Leg Length
This parameter is used when calculating SIFs of socket welds (type 8 or 9) when the B31.3, ASMEIII Subsection NC or
ND codes (3, 12, or 13) are in effect.
Note: If a fillet leg size is entered, both socket weld types result in the same SIF.
The SIF is calculated as (2.1)(T) / Leg, where T is the pipe wall thickness and Leg is the fillet leg length. A minimum SIF
of 1.3 required.
For an unequal leg fillet weld, use the length of the shorter leg.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3103
Header Pipe Outside Diameter
Enter the actual outside diameter of the matching pipe.
If the fitting is a taper (TYPE = 10), enter the actual outside diameter of the small end of the tapered connection.
Do not enter the fitting diameter.
Header Pipe Wall Thickness
Enter the actual wall thickness of the header matching pipe.
If the fitting is a taper (TYPE = 10), enter the wall thickness of the small end of the tapered connection.
Do not enter the fitting thickness.
Branch Pipe Outside Diameter
Enter the actual outside diameter of the matching pipe.
Do not enter the diameter of the fitting.
Branch Pipe Wall Thickness
Enter the actual wall thickness of the matching pipe.
Do not enter the wall thickness of the fitting.
Bend SIF Scratchpad
Bend Radius
The default is LONG RADIUS.
The user may override the program calculated bend radius at any time.
The long radius bend value is obtained from a lookup table based on the user's specified diameter. Users of pipes with
diameters not listed as standard CAESAR II nominal diameters should compute and enter the bend radius by hand. CAESAR
II's "ONSCREENMULTIPLICATION" simplifies this chore, i.e. the bend radius for a threeeighths inch pipe could be
entered: .375*1.5.
Bend Type/Laminate Type
Enter the number of bend end cross sections that resist ovalization, i.e. 0, 1 or 2. A bend's end cross section resists
ovalization whenever a much heavier fitting (i.e. a valve or a flange), is attached to the bend end.
This entry serves only to modify the stiffness and stress intensification factors for the bend.
Flanges stiffen the bend and make it less susceptible to stress.
The British Piping Code BS 806 defines a bend's end cross section as resisting ovalization whenever a rigid fitting is within
two diameters of the bend's end.
3104 Piping Screen Reference
For the BS 7159 and UKOOA codes, this entry refers to the material laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate
types are:
1  All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer
2  Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer
3  Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer.
Laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for the BS 7159 and UKOOA
codes only.
For ISO 14692 only type 3 filament  wound laminate is considered.
Fitting Thickness
Enter the thickness of the bend if different than the thickness of the matching pipe. If the entered thickness is greater than
the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside diameter of the bend will be smaller than the inside diameter of the
matching pipe. Section modulus calculations for stress computations are made based on the properties of the matching pipe
as defined by the codes.
The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors  once as Tn, and once when determining the
mean crosssectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility characteristic (h):
h = (Tn)(R) / (r2)
Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting
R = Bend radius
r = Mean crosssectional radius of matching pipe
= (OD  WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe
WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe
Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the matching pipe for the
calculation of the mean crosssectional radius of the pipe (the WT value). More specifically, the individual codes use the
two wall thicknesses as follows:
Code For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:
B31.1 Fitting Fitting
B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe
Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3105
Code For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:
NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting
B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting
SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe
BS 806 N/A N/A
STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A
RCCM C/D Matching Pipe Matching Pipe
CODETI Fitting Fitting
NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting
FDBR Fitting Fitting
BS 7159 Fitting Fitting
UKOOA Fitting Fitting
IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting
EN13480 Fitting Matching Pipe
GPTC/Z380 Fitting Matching Pipe
The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix calculations; however, note
that the thickness of the matching pipe (WT) is always used in the bend stress calculations.
Miter Points
Number of CUTS (or changes of direction) in the mitered bend.
The "NUMBER OF CUTS" and the "BEND RADIUS" are the only inputs required (along with the programdetermined
bend angle) to calculate the SIFs and flexibilities defined in the various piping codes for mitered elbows.
The RADIUS of the bend and the spacing of the cuts are directly related to one another, given one, the other can be
calculated. Closely spaced miters typically have a radius equivalent to the standard long radius bend for the given pipe size.
Closely spaced mitered bends; regardless of the number of miter cuts can be modeled as a single bend element.
Widely spaced mitered bends should be modeled as "n" single cut miters, where "n" is the number of cuts in the bend. This
means that "n" bend elements should be defined, each one a single cut miter. The bend radius associated with these
individual, single cut miters is smaller than the standard long radius bend and must be calculated separately. Examples in
the CAESAR II User Guide illustrate this application.
Matching Pipe Outside Diameter
Enter the outside diameter of the matching pipe in the units shown.This is used in the average cross sectional radius
calculation:
r2 = (OD  WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter as entered
WT = Wall Thickness of attached pipe
The B31.3 (1993) code defines r2 as the "mean radius of matching pipe".
3106 Piping Screen Reference
Wall Thickness of Matching Pipe
Enter the actual matching pipe nominal wall thickness. Do not subtract out any corrosion. All SIF calculations are made
ignoring corrosion.
This wall thickness is used in the mean radius (r2) calculation as defined in the piping codes.
Elastic Modulus
Enter the Cold Modulus of Elasticity of the pipe material.
This is used for the pressure stiffening calculations.
Maximum Pressure
This is used for the pressure stiffening calculations.
For the BS 7159 or UKOOA codes, this entry should be the product of the material Design Strain, , and the material
modulus of elasticity.
Expansion Joint Modeler
CAESAR II will automatically generate an expansion joint model from catalog data selected by the user. The catalog used
may be selected in the CAESAR II Configure/Setup routine. The user decides where in the model the expansion joint
should go, i.e. between which two nodes, and the modeler assembles the completed joint. Selectable joint styles include
Untied, Tied, Hinged, Gimballed, UntiedUniversal, and Tied Universal expansion joints.
An example selection session is illustrated as follows. Of particular note are the following items:
Any of four material types may be selected. These material types are used to adjust the bellows stiffnesses to the actual
highest temperature in the model. This will typically result in higher stiffnesses than those shown in the vendors
catalog because the stiffnesses in the catalog may be based on a higher design temperature.
Any combination of end types may be selected.
Bellows, liner, cover, rod, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are looked up from the stored database and
automatically included in the expansion joint model.
For universal joints, the minimum allowed length is stored, but when the available space exceeds the minimum
allowed, the user is prompted for the length that he wishes the expansion joint assembly to occupy.
The last screen that follows shows the proposed model to the user before it is inserted into the CAESAR II input. This
allows the user to investigate the characteristics of several joints before settling on one.
Actual maximum pressure ratings are also a part of the database, and in many cases exceed the nominal pressure rating
shown in the catalog. Users will be permitted to use pressures up to these actual allowed maximums.
Allowed joint movements are also stored as part of the database and are printed with each proposed model. These
values should be recorded for use in checking the model after a successful design pass has been completed.
Pressure thrust is included in the modeling considerations for each of the expansion joint styles, removing this concern
from the user.
In the case of tied expansion joints, rigid elements are used to model the tiebars. Restraints with connecting nodes
are used to contain the pressure thrust, and to keep the ends of the expansion joint parallel.
The Expansion Joint Modeling session is started by clicking the Expansion Joint button on the toolbar or selecting the
MODEL  EXPANSION JOINT menu item from the pipe spreadsheet:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3107
3108 Piping Screen Reference
Expansion Joint Modeler  From / To Nodes
If the length of the current element exceeds the length of the expansion joint assembly, indicate whether the expansion joint
assembly should be installed at the FROM end or the TO end of the current element.
Expansion Joint Modeler  Hinge/Pin Axis
Enter the direction cosines which defines the axis of the hinge pin of the expansion joint assembly (i.e., the axis about which
the joint can rotate).
For example, if the hinge can rotate about the Xaxis, enter:
1.0 0.0 0.0
Expansion Joint Modeler  Tie Bar Plane
If an expansion joint has only two tie rods, permitting rotation about the plane defined by the tie rods, enter the direction
cosines which, when crossed with the axis of the expansion joint assembly, defines the plane. In other words, enter the
direction cosines corresponding to a line drawn from the midpoint of one tie rod to the mid point of the other.
Expansion Joint Modeler  Overall Length
The length of a universal joint is variable, depending upon the length of the intermediate spool piece. Enter the desired
length of the universal joint, or alternatively activate the check box in order to default to the shortest recommended length.
Expansion Joint Modeler  Expansion Joint Database
The current expansion joint vendor provides multiple databases. Select the one which you wish to use in the modeler.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3109
The default expansion joint vendor may be changed in CONFIGURE/SETUP (see "Expansion Joints" on page 29).
Expansion Joint Modeler  Modeler Results
The proposed model of the expansion joint assembly is shown in the window at top. Click Build to insert this into the
piping system model.
The lower window shows the bellows stiffness parameters and allowable movements (from the vendor catalog). The
allowable movements should be noted for later evaluation of the expansion joint.
Expansion Joint Modeler Notes
Expansion joints cannot be inserted on an element that is either already a rigid or an expansion joint. Bends, however, can
be at either end of the element where the expansion is being inserted.
There does not have to be a length given on the element where the expansion joint is to be inserted.
The six types of expansion joint models supported currently by CAESAR II are as listed below:
Untied single bellows
Tied single bellows
Hinged single bellows
Gimballed single bellows
Untied universal bellows
Tied universal bellows
The four possible joint end types are
Weldedend
Slipon flange
Weld neck flange
Plate flange
If the length of the element to receive the expansion joint model is given, then the expansion joint assembly should fit
within this length. If it does not, a warning message will be displayed to the user. If a universal joint has been requested, the
length of the receiving element should be at least long enough to accept the smallest possible universal length, as defined by
the minimum spool piece size from the manufacturers' database. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint
model is zero, the user will be prompted for the desired expansion joint length. If the element to receive the universal
expansion joint model had an original length, then the maximum possible space available for the universal will be reported
and the user asked for the length desired. If the element to receive any expansion joint is longer than the expansion joint to
be inserted, the user will be prompted for the end of the element where the joint should be inserted, i.e. the From or To end.
Overall universal lengths should be limited to about 10 times the pipe diameter before the center spool piece weight begins
to become a problem.
If there is a bend at either the From or the To end of the element to receive the expansion joint, then the length of the
element must be defined.
To find extra nodes needed for the expansion joint model, CAESAR II starts with the element FROM node and increments
by one until a sufficient number of nodes not used elsewhere in the model are encountered. It is these nodes that are
reported in the proposedmodel popup window.
Note that angular stiffnesses reported are given in the current set of units. Only the translational stiffness label is found at
the top of the bellows stiffness report. If users are unsure about the rotational stiffness units, they may be seen either in the
help screens or in the UNITS report from the LIST option.
3110 Piping Screen Reference
The user is prompted to adjust the stiffness for the expansion joint if the highest operating temperature is given and not
equal to the expansion joint catalog design temperature. Note that this will in general produce bellows stiffnesses greater
than those published in the catalog.
Bellows, tiebar, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are combined together and distributed over the expansion joint rigid
end pieces.
The expansion joint modeler makes every attempt possible to generate nodes in the model that are unique. The user should
inspect the nodes that are generated closely and make sure that he does not use them unintentionally in any future model
building.
There is a fair amount of computer logic set up to make intelligent decisions about the configuration that the user wants
insofar as bends, hinges, tied bellows, and pressure thrust are concerned. Users should review generated CAESAR II models
and be sure that everything is consistent with the users intentions.
Expansion Joint Design Notes
It was common practice in the expansion joint industry to design expansion joint bellows and hardware (restraints) for the
system pressure, and pressure thrust only. Generally, no consideration was given to the system deadweight or thermal
forces. This poor practice has been tolerated in the past (prior to the widespread use of piping analysis programs) because
of the following:
The deadweight and thermal forces are normally small compared to the pressure and pressure thrust.
Designers laid out expansion joints so that the thermal forces were very low and hence not significant.
The allowable stresses used in hardware designs have a significant safety factor.
The forces and moments generally were not known. Today when an expansion joint is modeled, it is recommended that
ALL information relating to the joint be submitted to the expansion joint manufacturer. This is especially true of the forces
and moments resulting from the operating loads, i.e. deadweight, thermal forces, and operating deflections. Better
evaluations of the loading conditions on the bellows and hardware simply help the manufacturer make sure that his design is
suited for the intended installation and service.
Torsional Spring Rates
If the torsional spring rate is unknown, a large value should be entered (i.e. 1E10) to produce conservative results. These
results will be conservative with respect to loads and nonconservative with respect to displacements. It is very common to
rate the bellows allowed torsion by the amount of rotation experienced. Large torsional stiffnesses will result in small,
seemingly satisfactory rotations. When results from a piping analysis are communicated back to the expansion joint
manufacturer, it is important to report both the rotation AND the stiffness used to produce that rotation. A good estimate of
bellows stiffnesses is given in Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.
Bellows Application Notes
The following considerations are important when selecting the number of convolutions for a particular application:
Movement Capability
The more convolutions selected the greater the movement capacity of the bellows. It is a common practice to perform a
quick hand calculation to estimate the required movement and then select the number of convolutions from the rated
movements in the catalog. Once an analysis is performed, the exact evaluation of the bellows performance can be made
using the expansion joint rating module program provided with CAESAR II.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3111
Spring Forces
The more convolutions selected, the lower the resulting bellows spring forces will be. This is particularly critical when the
expansion joint is located near rotating equipment.
Available Space
The more convolutions selected, the greater the required overall length. If working in a confined area, the number of
convolutions may be restricted by the space.
Available Expansion Joint EndTypes
The following are expansion joint endtypes available in the CAESAR II modeler.
Welded
Standard pipe beveled for welding.
Slipon
Slipon flange.
WN
Weld neck flange.
Plate
Plate flange in accordance with the manufacturers catalog.
Slipon, weld neck, and plate flanges may not be available in all diameters and pressure ratings, i.e. over 24in. diameters.
Consult the catalog for specific interface dimensions, codes and materials. When the user selects a combination not
available, he is warned that there are no database values for his particular geometry and line size.
Pressure Rating
The pressure rating should be equal to, or larger than the design pressure of the system. Note, however, that in many
instances larger pressures can be tolerated than the rated pressure shown, in fact in many small diameter expansion joints
the same bellows is used in 50, 150, and 300 psirated joints. The CAESAR II modeler contains the true minimum pressure
limits for all of the bellows in the database, and checks the maximum pressure in the line (as entered by the user) against the
allowed pressure (which as stated, is often greater than the rated pressure). This particular feature allows the user to select a
smaller joint with more flexibility for certain applications.
Expansion Joint Styles
Listed as follows are the six available styles of expansion joints that are built automatically by CAESAR II. With each type is
a brief discussion of its use when associated with hot, pressurized equipment protection.
Untied
Single unrestrained expansion joint. This type of joint can absorb movement in all directions. It will also subject the system
to pressure thrust which must be designed for, external to the expansion joint!!! This type of joint should almost never be
used by the expansion joint novice needing to protect hot, pressurized equipment. Guide restrictions limiting displacements
into the joint, regular maintenance problems (because of all of the support hardware away from the bellows), and pressure
thrust make using and analyzing this type of bellows difficult.
3112 Piping Screen Reference
Tied
Tied single expansion joint that is capable of transverse (lateral) movement only. Pressure thrust is restrained internally via
the tiebars. This is a good, dependable expansion joint to use because pressure thrust does not have to be designed for, tie
rods provide stability to the overall joint (making working with it in the field easier), and there is a single displacement
mode (i.e. lateral) that can be directly compared to the rated lateral movement in the catalog, without the need for the
relatively complicated geometric calculations in the Expansion Joint Rating program. The drawbacks to the single TIED
expansion joint are that they are fairly stiff in practice (often not providing the needed flexibility to sufficiently reduce the
loads on sensitive equipment), and that the tiebar assembly does provide some nonlinear restraining effect on flexibility
that is unaccounted for in the analysis that may be appreciable when the bellows displacement becomes large (i.e. when it is
most critical that it perform as predicted.)
Hinged
Single hinged expansion joint. This type of joint can only angulate about one axis. Pressure thrust is retained internally by
the hinge mechanism. Hinge joints are often used in pairs to absorb considerable displacement in a single plane, while
transmitting very little load to any attached equipment. The piping system must, however, be designed to assure that
displacement into the hinges is planar for all types of thermal and occasional loadings to be experienced by the system.
Where pressure loads to be absorbed by the hinge mechanism are high, considerable friction forces can be generated that
will somewhat limit further flexing of the joint, thus transmitting larger loads than expected back into the piping system.
Gimbal
Single gimbal expansion joint. This type of joint can angulate about two axes. Gimballed joints restrain both pressure thrust
and torsion via the gimbal mechanism. These joints are often used in pairs to absorb considerable displacement in several
directions, while transmitting very little load to any attached equipment.
UUNIV
Untied universal expansion joint. This type of unit is similar to a single unrestrained expansion joint. It can absorb
movement in all directions and normally has a much higher capacity for transverse (lateral) deflection than a single bellows.
An untied universal will subject the system to pressure thrust loads which must be designed for, external to the expansion
joint. Even when pressure is negligible these joints can often be difficult to use in practice unless proper guiding of the
thermal displacement protects the joint against undesired movement. Additionally, calculations for computing effective
bellows axial movements for arbitrary movements in three dimensions are not trivial.
TUNIV
Tied universal expansion joint. Similar to a tied single joint, except that the tied universal has much higher transverse
(lateral) movement capability. Pressure thrust loads are restrained internally via the tiebars. These types of joints are a good
option where vertical pipe runs close to the equipment are available. The tiebars restrict movement to a single mode
(lateral) and eliminate the worry about pressure thrust design. Longer lengths result in smaller lateral stiffnesses, but overall
length is somewhat restricted by the weight of the center spool. A good rule of thumb is to restrict the overall length of the
assembly to ten times the pipe diameter. Users should be careful not to put the assembly into compression, as the tie bar
mechanisms are not designed to take this load and damage to the bellows can result.
These six types of expansion joints are not all of the types available, but are the most common. If a joint is needed that is not
covered by the above, it is suggested that the user select the style closest to that required, and then edit the resulting input
once the EJ Modeler is complete and processing returns to the piping spreadsheet.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3113
Materials
Bellows can be formed from most ductile materials that can be welded by the automatic T.I.G. butt welding process and
yield a homogeneous ductile weld structure. Due to the fact that the specific media content varies from system to system,
and that most media data specified prior to system operation is approximate, with considerable fluctuation possible, it is
not feasible to make specific recommendations concerning bellows materials. The following are the four most common
bellows materials that are supported by CAESAR II:
304SSA240 tp 304 Stainless Steel
316SSA240 tp 316 Stainless Steel
600IncInco 600 High Nickel
625IncInco 625 High Nickel
Liners
Internal liners smooth the flow through the expansion joint. The smooth flow reduces pressure drop and also prevents flow
induced vibration of the bellows. Liners are generally recommended when the flow velocity exceeds 1.3 ft./sec. as a
minimum, and are definitely recommended when the flow velocity exceeds about 25 ft./sec. Consult the manufacturers
catalog for additional information. Heavy gage liners should be used in high velocity or turbulent flow systems. Also heavy
liners should be used when the media is abrasive.
Covers
External covers are used to protect the very thin bellows, (0.010 to 0.090 in.) from mechanical damage. Covers are also
recommended when the line is to be insulated.
Title Page
By pressing <Ctrl>T at any time during pipe spreadsheet input, the current job's title page will be displayed (also may
access through the MODEL  TITLE menu item). This is up to 60 lines of text that is stored with the problem, and may be used
for detailing run histories, discussing assumptions, etc. These lines may be printed with the output report through the input
echo.
3114 Piping Screen Reference
Hanger Data
Systemwide hanger design criteria are activated from the input spreadsheet by choosing the MODE L HANGER DESIGN CONTROL
DATA.
Spring hanger design can be globally controlled by entering data into the hanger control spreadsheet shown above. The
Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet contains five items that also appear on each individual hanger design spreadsheet.
These parameters can be set once in the run control spreadsheet, and will apply for all individual hangers to be defined
unless specifically overridden at the individual hanger input level. These items are
shortrange springs
rigid support displacement criteria
maximumallowed travel limit
hanger table
multiple loadcase design option
In addition, the Hanger Design Control spreadsheet tells the hanger design algorithm the number of temperature cases to be
used in the hanger design, and whether or not the actual cold loads should be calculated. All of these options will be
discussed in detail on the following pages.
Whenever hanger locations are given for the first time, default parameters are assigned for all of the fields that show up in
the Hanger Auxiliary Data field. These default parameters are taken from the Hanger Design Control spreadsheet. The
user should, therefore, enter any nondefault parameters that are to apply globally to all hangers in the Hanger Run Control
Spreadsheet.
An individual description of each Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet Data cell follows.
No. of Hanger  Design Operating Load Cases
The number of load cases to be considered when designing spring hangers. This value may be between 1 and 9 and
corresponds to the number of thermal load cases to be used in hanger design. If more than one Operating case is to be
considered in the hanger design then the user must also select the Multiple Load Case Design option to be used.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3115
Calculate Actual Cold Loads
Enable this check box to cause CAESAR II to make one additional pass after the hanger design is completed and the hangers
are installed, to determine the actual installed loads that should be used when the hangers are first installed and the load
flanges adjusted in the field. This calculation tends to be important when the stiffness of the piping system is small, the
stiffness of the hanger selected is high, and/or when the hanger travel is large (i.e. this usually is more important in smaller
diameter piping systems that for some reason are spring supported away from equipment nozzles). Actual cold loads should
definitely be calculated when springs in smaller diameter lines are to be adjusted in the cold position.
Allow Short Range Springs
CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the selection algorithms. In
some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used unless their shorter length is required for
clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared by the user.
If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a midrange spring over a shortrange spring, assuming they are more
standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their shortrange counterparts.
If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the Hanger Design
Control Spreadsheet.
Allowable Load Variation (%)
This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If not specified, the only
limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is approximately 100% when the hot load is smaller than the
cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load. Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the
operating displacement in the Y direction is positive. The default value for the load variation is 25%. The user is advised to
enter this value in the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet before any hangers are defined.
The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage variation from the hot load:
( )  ( ) Cold Load Hot Load
Variation
Hot Load
=
or as may be more familiar:
( )( ) Travel Spring Rate
Variation
Hot Load
=
The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent would be entered 25.0. The Allowable Load
Variation can have different values for different hanger locations if necessary by entering the chosen value on the individual
hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.
Rigid Support Displacement Criteria
This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support Displacement
Criteria is a cost saving feature that replaces springs that are not needed with rigid rods.
The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to be supported by
the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the hanger design load is known, an operating case is run with the
hot hanger load installed to determine the travel at the hanger location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid
Support Displacement Criteria then a rigid Y support is selected for the location instead of a spring.
If the Rigid Support Displacement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied.
3116 Piping Screen Reference
The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or on each individual
hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the default for all hangers not
having it defined explicitly.
A typical value to be used is 0.1 in.
Important: In some cases a Single directional restraint should be inserted instead of a rigid rod. Rigid rods are double
acting restraints which can in some cases develop large hold down forces that dont really exist because the support has
lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed slightly. When this condition develops the user should rerun the hanger design
inserting single directional restraints where rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.
Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system that are usually associated
with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.
Maximum Allowed Travel Limit
To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo, specify the limit in this field. The
specification of a maximum travel limit will cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support if the design operating travel
exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer table would have been satisfactory in every other
respect.
Constant effort hangers can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed Travel Limit. A value
of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a constant effort support for a particular location.
Hanger Table
The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:
1. Anvil 2. Bergen Power
3. Power Piping 4. NPS Industries
5. Lisega 6. Fronek
7. Piping Technology 8. Capitol
9. Piping Services 10. Basic Engineers
11. Inoflex 12. E. Myatt
13. SINOPEC 14. BHEL
15. Flexider 16. Carpenter & Paterson
17. Pipe Supports Ltd. 18. Witzenmann
19. Sarathi 20. Myricks
21. China Power 22. Pipe Supports USA
23. Quality Pipe Supports 24. PiHASA
25. Binder 26. Gradior
27. NHK
Additional design options are invoked by further use of the following checkboxes.
Extended Range
Cold Load Design
Hot load centered (if possible)
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3117
For example, to use Grinnell Springs and cold load design the user would check the "cold load design" checkbox.
To use Grinnell Extended Range springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot load centered in the middle of the
hanger table, if possible, the user would check all three checkboxes.
A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specified on the individual hanger spreadsheet, or
can be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 3114).
If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all subsequent
hangers defined. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet defaults to the hanger tablespecified in the configuration file.
The maximum load range was included in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable support hangers in
place of constant effort supports when the spring loads are just outside the manufacturers recommended range. Users should
make sure that the maximum load range is available from the manufacturer as a standard item.
Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table. Some
manufacturers build double spring supports to accommodate this range, and others adjust the top or bottom travel limits to
accommodate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges, the user should make sure that the
manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of the extended range often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort
support. Lisega springs do not support the "extended range" idea. A request for extended Lisega springs results in the
standard Lisega spring table and ranges.
Cold Load Spring Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the springs, whereby the hot
(or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of the piping. This method of spring design offers several
advantages over the more usual hot load design:
Hanger stops are easier to remove.
There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when the stops are removed.
Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.
Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.
In some system configurations, operating loads on connected equipment are lower. A typical configuration resulting in
this loadreduction is one where a hot vertical riser, anchored at the bottom, turns horizontally into a nozzle
connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the
difference between the hot and cold loads counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the
anchor.
The disadvantages to cold load design are
In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value proportional to the
spring rate times the travel.
Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.
The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user.
Middle of the Table Hanger Design (Hot Load Centered). Many designers prefer that the hot load be centered as close as
possible to the middle of the spring table. This is to provide as much variability either way before the spring bottoms out
when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effective computer modeling of piping systems, when
the weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or calculated by hand. Activating this option does not guarantee
that spring hot loads will be at the middle of the spring table, but CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this
position. The CAESAR II design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the
larger springs range, but will never switch spring types. This option can only result in a one size larger spring when it is
effective. CAESAR II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is within 10% of the maximum
travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not satisfactory then the old one will be used, even though its hot load is
within 10% of the high end of the table load range, to get a spring's hot load close to the middle of the table.
3118 Piping Screen Reference
Multiple Load Case Design Options
Whenever more than one thermal load case is to be used in the hanger sizing algorithm, CAESAR II must know how the user
wishes to weigh the results from the different cases. There are currently 13 different methods that may be used for multiple
load case hanger design selection. These 13 methods are listed as follows and are described in greater detail under the
hanger auxiliary data section.
1 Design per Load Case #1
2 Design per Load Case #2
3 Design per Load Case #3
4 Design per Load Case #4
5 Design per Load Case #5
6 Design per Load Case #6
7 Design per Load Case #7
8 Design per Load Case #8
9 Design per Load Case #9
10 Design for the maximum operating load
11 Design for the maximum travel
12 Design for the average load and the average travel
13 Design for the maximum load and the maximum travel
Special Execution Parameters
The Special Execution Parameters dialog is invoked by choosing the ENVIRONMENT  SPECIAL EXECUTION PARAMETERS option
from the menu or by clicking it's toolbar from the piping spreadsheet. The Special Execution Parameters, once chosen,
remain set for that particular job.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3119
Print Forces on Rigids and Expansion Joints
Forces and moments are not normally printed for rigid elements and expansion joints, because the forces that act on these
elements can usually be read directly from the forces that act on the adjacent pipe elements. Check this box to cause forces
and moments to be calculated and printed for all rigid elements and expansion joints in the system. If there are a
considerable number of rigid elements in the job, this option will cause some slowdown in the output processor, and will
cause the solution intermediate files to increase slightly in size.
Print Alphas and Pipe Properties
If the user checks this box he will be given the option, at the error checking level, to print the interpolated expansion
coefficients along with the pipe, insulation, and fluid weights. This report can be very useful during error checking to help
identify possible problems in the temperature or weight input specifications. Rigid elements and expansion joints are treated
just like straight pipe. Rigid weights and insulation factors are not reflected in this table.
Activate Bourdon Effects
Choose the option from the drop list to activate the Bourdon pressure effect. The Bourdon pressure effect causes straight
pipes to elongate, or displace along their axes, and causes curved pipes, or bends to elongate along the line that connects the
bends near and far nodes. If the Bourdon effect is not activated there will be no global displacements due to pressure.
The Bourdon effect is always considered when plastic pipe is used, regardless of the setting of the Activate Bourdon
Effects flag.
By default CAESAR II does not include the Bourdon effect in the analysis of steel piping systems, i.e. there will be no
displacements of the system due to pressure.
As an option, the user may include pressure displacement effects if he wishes. These effects can be appreciable in long runs
of pipe, or in high pressure, large diameter bends adjacent to sensitive equipment.
Bourdon effects are almost always important in fiberglass reinforced plastic piping systems. For this reason the Bourdon
(Translational) is automatically turned on for all FRP pipe runs and bends.
Two Bourdon options are available:
Translational pressure deformations only.
Translational and rotational deformations.
The Translational option should be used when the elbows in the system are forged or welded fittings and can reasonably be
assumed to have a circular cross section.
The Translational and Rotational option should be used when the bends in the system are fabricated by the hot or cold
bending of straight pipe. In these cases the slight residual ovalization of the bend cross section, after bending, will cause
the bend to try to straighten out when pressurized. Fixed end moments are associated with this opening that does not
exist when the original shape of the bend crosssection is circular.
Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts
This is a dual purpose flag activated by selecting the appropriate option from the drop list. The user is prompted for two
pieces of information by this input:
The loop closure tolerance.
The global coordinates of the first point of the piping system and each following piece of the piping system that is not
connected to the first.
3120 Piping Screen Reference
This data is needed the first time CAESAR II prepares a global geometry calculation. This calculation is made on three
different occasions:
Before preprocessor plots are generated
Before global coordinate reports are built
Before error checking is performed
Alternatively, prompting may be avoided by entering the global coordinates by using the Edit  Global (see "Global
Coordinates" on page 398) command from the main spreadsheet.
There are several major uses for this flag:
To set the loop closure tolerance
To properly define the elevation of the piping system for wind/wave load calculations
To give the proper eastwest/northsouth coordinates for dimension checks
To move parts of the system around in the plotted output for visual checking
Whenever the user creates a physical loop in the piping system there will be at least two different sets of dimensions
between the same points. If the two dimensions are not within a certain tolerance of each other, a fatal error will occur. This
tolerance may be set interactively or in the configuration file. Selecting "Both" for the Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts
directive causes CAESAR II to interactively prompt for this tolerance.
Thermal Bowing Delta Temperature
This field is used to specify the temperature differential which exists between the top of the pipe and the bottom of the pipe.
This differential is used to compute an elemental load, added to each temperature case for horizontal pipes.
This entry should be computed from the equation:
dT = T
top
 T
bottom
For example, consider a horizontal pipe where the temperature on the top is 20 degrees hotter than the temperature on the
bottom. The proper value to enter in this field will be 20, not 20.
Liberal Stress Allowable
A conservative formulation of the allowable expansion stress range for many codes in CAESAR II is calculated from:
f ( 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh )
When the user requests that the Liberal Allowable be used, the difference between Sh and Sl, provided Sh > Sl, will be
added to the term inside the parenthesis, i.e.
SA(Liberal) = f[ 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh + ( Sh  Sl) ]
The liberal expression will only be employed when there is at least one sustained stress case in the load set. If there is more
than one sustained stress case in a single problem, then the largest of Sl, considering all of the sustained cases, for any single
element end will be chosen to subtract from Sh. Because the sustained stress varies from one pipe to another, the allowable
expansion stress will also vary.
By default, CAESAR II uses the liberal stress allowable setting in the configuration file, (see "New Job Liberal Expansion
Stress Allowable" on page 226) in its computation of the expansion stress allowable. (New models are created using this
configuration setting.) Users not wishing to utilize this default setting for calculating the expansion can simply change the
state of this check box.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3121
Uniform Load in G's
Uniform loads can be defined in either terms of force per unit length or in terms of a magnifier times gravitational loading
(g). The loading magnifier can act in any direction and is specified by giving its components along the three orthogonal X,
Y, and Z axes.
Gravitational loading is used most often to model the static equivalent of a dynamic earthquake loading.
When activated, the uniform load fields on the pipe spreadsheet change from UX, UY, and UZ to GX, GY, and GZ. An
entry of: GX = 1.0, GY = 0.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a lg loading on the piping system in the horizontal X direction. An entry
of: GX = 0.0, GY = 1.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a 1.0g load in the minus Y direction, and is exactly equal to the pipe weight
load.
Gravitational load entries are distributive properties similar to the uniform loads they replace. Once specified, the given g
loading will act on all subsequent pipe elements until changed or zeroed.
The user may activate the gravitational load option at any time during the input of the problem. The gravitational load
option is activated by checking the box.
Note: Earthquake loads are occasional loadings and as such are not directly addressed by the CAESAR II recommended
load case logic. Users must form their own combination cases at the output processor level that represent the algebraic sum
of the stresses due to sustained and occasional loads. See Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual for more on the
Occasional Load Case definition.
Stress Stiffening Due to Pressure (all codes except IGE/TD/12)
This directive activates the Pressure Stiffening effects in straight pipes. CAESAR II applies the stress stiffening matrix to the
elemental stiffness matrices (of straight pipes only) using an axial force P equal to the internal pressure as selected from the
drop list times the internal area of the pipe. Note that other internal forces (due to thermal or imposed mechanical loads) are
not included in the P force as this is not a nonlinear effect. Note that Stress Stiffening is not currently available for pressure
cases 3 through 9.
Base Stress/Flexibility on (IGE/TD/12 code only)
IGE/TD/12 Edition 2 suggests that systems be evaluated for three possible wall thickness possibilities nominal wall, plus
mill tolerance, and minus mill tolerance. This can be done by selecting the appropriate setting (Nominal Wall, Plus Mill
Tolerance, or Minus Mill Tolerance) here. In all cases, SCFs and Flexibility Factors are calculated based upon the
nominal dimensions.
Ambient Temperature
The default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is 70F/21C. If this does not accurately represent the
installed, or zero expansion strain state, then enter the actual value in this field. The ambient temperature is used in
conjunction with the specified hot temperature and the interpolated expansion coefficient to calculate the thermal expansion
per inch of pipe length experienced by the element when going from the ambient temperature to the hot temperature.
A default ambient temperature can be defined in the configuration file (see "New Job Ambient Temperature" on page 26).
This (configuration) value is used when a new model is created to set the value of ambient temperature.
FRP Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (x 1,000,000 )
The default thermal expansion coefficient for fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe is 12.0E6 in./in./deg.F. If the user has a
more suitable value for the particular composite then that value should be inserted in this field. For example, if the improved
value was: 8.5E6 in./in./deg. F., then the user would enter 8.5 in this field. The exponent (E6) is implied. This expansion
coefficient is used in conjunction with the temperatures entered on the pipe spreadsheet for each plastic pipe element to
calculate the thermal expansion for the element. It should be noted that this method does not provide for any variation in the
3122 Piping Screen Reference
thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature. This could prove limiting should there be parts of the system at
different nonambient temperatures. In this case the user may always calculate the thermal expansion at temperature in
inches per inch and input this value directly into the Temperature field on the pipe spreadsheet.
For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.
FRP Ratio of Shear Modulus/Emod Axial
In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in the axial direction) of the fiberglass reinforced
plastic pipe used should be entered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity (axial) is 3.2E6 psi, and the shear
modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be entered here.
For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.
FRP Laminate Type
The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be entered.
Valid laminate types are
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced
layer.
All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends; therefore this default entry may be
overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3123
ZAxis Vertical
Traditionally CAESAR II has always used a coordinate system where the Yaxis coincides with the vertical axis. In one
alternative coordinate system, the Zaxis represents the vertical axis (with the X axis chosen arbitrarily, and the Yaxis
being defined according to the right hand rule. CAESAR II now gives the user the ability to model using either coordinate
system, as well as to switch between both systems on the fly in most cases.
Defaulting to ZAxis Vertical
The users preferred axis orientation may be set using the ToolsConfigure/Setup option, on the Geometry Directives (see
"ZAxis Vertical" on page 215) tab, as shown in the figure below. Clicking the ZAxis Vertical check box causes
CAESAR II to default any new piping, structural steel, WRC 107, NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, or API 661 models to
use the Zaxis vertical orientation. Old models will appear in the orientation in which they were last saved. The default
value in Configure/Setup is unchecked or Yaxis vertical.
Orienting a Piping Model to ZAxis Vertical
A new piping model will determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an
existing piping model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled
from YAxis to ZAxis vertical by clicking the check box on the EnvironmentSpecial Execution Parameters screen, as
show in the figure below.
3124 Piping Screen Reference
Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e., Yvalues become
Zvalues) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as shown in the following figures:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3125
3126 Piping Screen Reference
This allows any piping input file to be immediately translated from one coordinate system into the other.
When including other piping files in a model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match that of the piping
model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the include files need not match that of the piping
model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
The axis orientation on the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, The Dynamic
Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation of the models input file.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3127
Orienting a Structural Model to ZAxis Vertical.
A new structural model will determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an
existing structural model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be
toggled from YAxis to ZAxis Vertical by changing the value of the Vertical Command, activated by clicking the button
on the toolbar, or through the COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu command as shown in the figure on the next page.
Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling this setting does not translate the structural
input file, but rather physically rotates the model into the new coordinate system, as shown in the figures below.
When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match that of the piping
model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
When analyzing a structural model on its own, the axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave
loads), the Static Output Processor, the Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the
orientation of the structural models input file.
Orienting an Equipment Model to ZAxis Vertical
The WRC 107, NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, and API 661 equipment analytical modules may also utilize the Zaxis
vertical orientation. A new equipment model will also determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the
3128 Piping Screen Reference
Configure/Setup module, while an existing equipment model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last
saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from YAxis to ZAxis Vertical by clicking the check box typically found on
the second data input tab of each module.
Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e., Yvalues become
Zvalues) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as shown in the following figures:
When using the Get Loads From Output File button to read in piping loads from CAESAR II output files, the axis
orientation of the piping files need not match that of the equipment model. Translation occurs immediately during the read
in of the loads.
Bandwidth Optimizer Options
The bandwidth optimizer is used to order the set of equations that represent the piping system for both static and dynamic
analyses. The optimizer may be run with a variety of different switch settings. The default settings were chosen for their
combination of ordering efficiency and speed. These settings should suffice for the majority of piping systems analyzed. For
systems having greater than 100 nodes, or that are highly interconnected, the following optimum parameters should be used.
Optimizer Method Both
Next Node Selection Decreasing
Final Ordering Reversed
Collins Ordering Band
Degree Determination Connections
User Control None
If the User Control is set to Allow User Relooping, CAESAR II will let the user interactively try as many different
combinations of switch settings as desired. When the most efficient ordering is obtained, the user may continue on with the
analysis. This interactive prompting for optimization parameters is done in the analysis level processing.
Combining Independent Piping Systems
Input from other jobs may be included in the current piping model. Piping models added may have a node offset applied and
can optionally be rotated about the Y axis before being added. Choose ENVIRONMENT/INCLUDE PIPING INPUT FILES from the Pipe
Input spreadsheet to include other input files. When including other piping models, the user is asked for the following:
File Name. The user may browse for the file name. The file need not reside in the current data directory.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3129
Read Now (Y/N/L). Y, if the file is to be read immediately and stored as part of the current input (the file read may be
edited as part of the current job). N, if the file is to be read for plotting and fully processed only during error checking (the
file read may not be edited as part of the current job). The L option is discussed under "Large Job Includes," below.
Rotation. If not zero, then gives the angle about the Y axis by which to rotate the model before including it in the current
job. The rotation applies regardless of the (Y/N) setting.
Note: Restraints, uniform loads, and concentrated forces are NOT rotated. Additionally, the rotation of the model can be
accomplished from the LIST Utility.
Node Increment. The increment to be added to all of the nodes in the model before including it in the current job. The node
increment applies regardless of the (Y/N) setting.
Including Structural Models
Include Structural Input Files. This input screen is used to include an alreadybuilt structural model into the current job.
The structural model must have been built and successfully error checked in the structural steel preprocessor accessed from
the CAESAR II MAIN MENU. Once a structural model has been built, it may be included into any piping input using the
above screen. The names of up to 20 different structural models to be included are entered into the data area available. Once
this is done, the structural model may be plotted and analyzed with the piping model. The structural models need not reside
in the current directory.
Piping systems are usually tied to structural steel models by the use of restraints with connecting nodes. The user should
make absolutely sure there are no node number conflicts between structure and pipe models. Once a restraint with a
connecting node is defined between the pipe and structure, CAESAR II knows where to put the structure in the resulting
preprocessor plot. If no connection between the pipe and the structure is given, the structure will be plotted starting from the
origin of the piping system (and the resulting plot will most likely look funny).
3130 Piping Screen Reference
List/ Edit Facility
The CAESAR II input listings allow the display of all applicable input data in a context display. This mode is accessed
through the Edit  List command. optionally in a user specified format. The user can edit, delete or modify data in the lists.
The List option screen contains a row of tabs at the bottom that are used to select the various list options to be displayed.
When a tab has been selected the row headings at the top of the spreadsheet will reflect the specific input data and
controlling parameters displayed in the corresponding columns. All of the input data can be accessed through the various list
reports. An example list control screen is shown below.
The reports are generated in column format in a window like that shown above that the user can interactively review or
modify. The cursor can be moved into any field and a new value entered to replace the original value. The reports may be
scrolled vertically or horizontally.
Help may be requested by pressing <F1> while in any of the data cells. Cell input may be deleted by highlighting the
selection and pressing the <Delete>. The list spreadsheet supports standard windows commands such as Cut and Paste on a
fieldbyfield basis.
Users may edit input data on the list spreadsheet, which will then update the input spreadsheets as well. Values that carry
forward on the input spreadsheet are highlighted in red where there is a change in the data value. For example, in the sample
spreadsheet shown, the diameter changes from 219.075 mm to 508.0 mm on the element from node 90 to 100 so the new
diameter is highlighted in red.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3131
Other options from the Element List include the following:
The Find command (invoked with <Ctrl> F or EDIT  FIND menu item) is used to quickly jump to the element where the
given node is located. Find remembers the last node number entered, so subsequent finds of the same node can be
accomplished by typing <Ctrl> F.
Access to the element Auxiliary Data screens is available by highlighting an element row and choosing the Aux button
from the toolbar or alternatively by rightclicking on an element line and picking the BLOCK OPERATIONSAUX item in the
popup menu. By singleclicking on any checked items from the window shown below the appropriate Auxiliary Data field
will be displayed. The user may edit the data in the Auxiliary Data field, which will in turn update the input spreadsheet.
Additionally, the user may enter new data by doubleclicking on any of the unchecked boxes to bring up that item's
Auxiliary Data screen. An entire Auxiliary Data field may be deleted by doubleclicking on the checked item (a prompt
will warn the user of the impending delete operation).
Block Operations
The list editor has the ability to perform global editing operations on selected parts of the piping system. These operations
include varieties of rotations, duplications, node renumbering, and status reporting. Block operations are available on the
element list only.
Move the cursor to the first element in the group to be operated on and click the row number for that item. This element
should become highlighted. Move the cursor to the last element in the group to be operated on and click on the
corresponding row number while pressing the <shift> key. The entire group of elements will be highlighted. This
highlighting defines the elements that any block operations will change. A block may contain any number of elements
from a single element to every element in the model. A block must be defined before CAESAR II will allow the user to enter
the BLOCK OPERATIONS menu item.
After the block has been identified select Block and one of the following submenu items to perform the indicated operation
(or rightclick in the list processor and select one of the following from the popup menu):
Rotate
The Rotate dialog box is shown in the following figure. The user may rotate the block through some angle about the X, Y
or Z axis. The Unskew option helps the user take a skewed geometry and return it to an orthogonal orientation. The Setup
option permits the user to determine what in the block should be rotated, including restraints, displacements,
force/moments, uniform loads, and flexible nozzles. The default is for all of these items that appear in the block to be
rotated with the block. Data/message screens illustrating an example rotation are shown as follows.
Delete
This command deletes the selected block.
Duplicate
The Duplicate dialog is shown in the figure below. The user can make identical copies of the block or can make mirror
image by "flipping" the chosen elements in one of the orthogonal planes. Mirror imaging is done on the piping delta
3132 Piping Screen Reference
dimensions only (i.e. restraints are copied, but not mirror imaged, i.e.: a +Y restraint will not become a Y restraint when
mirrored in the XZ plane.)
The duplicate setup option works just like the rotation setup option. Restraints, displacements, forces/moments, uniform
loads and nozzles may individually be included or excluded from the duplication.
Once the type of duplication is determined the user must decide the following:
Where in the input to put the duplicated group of elements. Either at the end of the current block, the end of the input
file, or after a specific element in the model.
What node increments to add to the nodes in the block so that they define unique pipe elements. Be sure this increment
is large enough to avoid any duplication of node numbers.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3133
Nodes
On certain occasions the node numbering in a particular area of the model may not be to the user's liking. To renumber a
part of the model in a more logical fashion use the BlockNode menu command. The two available options are Increment
and Renumber as shown in the following figure.
The user enters the starting node and the increment for the block's nodal renumbering. Every node in the block on the piping
system will be renumbered. The user must be sure that the starting node and increment will result in unique node numbers
for the elements being renumbered. This feature can be used to clean up part, or all of the piping system. It is not unusual
for an analyst to put the entire model in one block and do a full renumber on all of the nodes. This often presents a much
cleaner picture of the analysis to the client. Users are urged to make copies of any large jobs before renumbering them.
Users should be particularly careful when renumbering systems containing large numbers of interconnected restraints with
CNodes.
Note: It is common for CAESAR II not to renumber a Cnode in a block having perceived that the Cnode is connected to a
node outside the block. (In fact Cnode will not be renumbered if they do not connect to a node in the block and on the
piping system.)
Any possible confusion can be avoided in these instances by starting the renumbering at a node greater than the largest node
in the model. If all of the nodes are renumbered successfully (i.e. there aren't any dangling CNodes), then the node
Increment command can be issued with a negative increment to shift the newly renumbered nodes back into the original
range.
Printing an Input Listing
An input listing can be printed by using the File  Print command from the spreadsheet. The program prompts the user to
select the reports to print, prior to printing.
The user can change the report contents through modification of the .inp file.
3134 Piping Screen Reference
Any time an input listing is written to a file or to the printer, the format of each of the reports is obtained from the .inp file.
The .inp files are ASCII text files which can be modified to create reports of differing styles or content. The file's Initial.inp
can be modified to change the page length in the report, and the starting and stopping column positions. Any text editor
(such as Notepad) can be used to change any of the .inp files. Users changing .inp files may receive fatal errors during
report generation if impossible formats, or invalid commands are requested.
Note: For users preferring a different (more columnar) form of the basic element data, three additional formatting files have
been provided.
ELEMENT0.INP  COADE standard element format
ELEMENT1.INP  1st alternate element format
ELEMENT2.INP  2nd alternate element format
ELEMENT3.INP  3rd alternate element format
To utilize any of these formatting files, change directories to the CAESAR II\System directory. Then, copy the desired
formatting file into Element.inp.
To print an Input Echo from the input spreadsheets, choose FILE  PRINT from the pulldown menu. To write an Input Echo to
the screen for review, choose FILE  PRINT PREVIEW from the pulldown menu.
Note: An input listing may also be printed from the output module, as part of the entire output report.
Import / Export Displacements
The Import / Export Displacements dialog allows users to either:
 export displacements from a CAESAR II model to a flat text file
 import a flat text displacement file into a CAESAR II model.
Uses can modify the flat text file using any Text Editor (such as NotePad). However, for the file to be used again the format
of the file must not be altered. The field width and the number of values per line can not be changed.
When a displacement (text) file is imported into a CAESAR II model, a summary of the containing details of the operation is
displayed in the "List" box on the dialog.
Loop Optimization Wizard
The Loop Optimization Wizard automates the sizing of expansion loops in a piping system.
Optimization Type
Select the type of output value (Stress Level or Restraint Load Component) you wish to reduce.
Load Case (for Design)
Select the load case for which you would like to reduce an output value (stress or restraint load). Be advised that adding a
Loop may well solve a problem in a displacementdriven Load Case (Operating or Expansion) but not in a forcedriven
Load Case (Sustained or Occasional).
Once the Load Case is selected, Stress or Restraint Load output values will be displayed for review and selection.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3135
Target Stress
Enter the target level to which you would like to reduce the output value. Entering a stress value (or a Load, in conjunction
with a Load Component type) here will act as a filter, showing only elements which have stress values higher exceeding that
level. This Target Value also becomes the stress or load for which the selected target (Maximum System Stress, Restraint
Load Component, or Node) will be optimized.
Note: The [Design] button will not be activated until both a Target and Optimization Type (i.e., Max Stress, Nodal Stress,
or Restraint Load Type) have been designated.
Max. Stress
Checking this box will optimize the maximum stress level in the system (as opposed to a stress level at a single node) to the
value entered in the Target Data field.
Note: The [Design] button will not be activated until both a Target and Optimization Type (i.e., Max Stress, Nodal Stress,
or Restraint Load Type) have been designated.
At Node
Specify either the node 1) at which the stress level is to be optimized (and the element upon which that node is located) or
2) at which a restraint load component is to be optimized (along with the Load Component Type). Doubleclicking on one
of the entries in the Element/Node/Stress list or a Load Component in the Restraint Load list will automatically fill in these
entries.
Note: The [Design] button will not be activated until both a Target and Optimization Type (i.e., Max Stress, Nodal Stress,
or Restraint Load Type) have been designated.
On Element
For Stress Optimization:
Specify the element on which the node for which the stress level is to be optimized is located. Doubleclicking on one of
the entries in the Element/Node/Stress list will automatically fill in this entry.
Note: The [Design] button will not be activated until both a Target and Optimization Type (i.e., Max Stress, Nodal Stress,
or Restraint Load Type) have been designated.
For Restraint Load Optimization:
Specify the Restraint Load Component which is to be optimized. Doubleclicking on one of the Load Component entries in
the Restraint Load list will automatically fill in this entry.
Note: The [Design] button will not be activated until both a Target and Optimization Type (i.e., Max Stress, Nodal Stress,
or Restraint Load Type) have been designated.
Element/Node/Stress/Restraint Load Component
Doubleclicking on one of these entries in this list will automatically fill in the entries designating the item (either nodal
stress or restraint load component) for which the results should be optimized.
Create Loop on Element
Select the element which will be replaced by the loop. You may select the element either via the drop list or by selecting it
graphically. Note that for the moment, the Loop Optimization Wizard can only be used to substitute loops in place of single
elements.
3136 Piping Screen Reference
Loop Type
Select the general configuration of the loop that you would like to try. For example, viewing the types down by column, left
to right: Type #1 places the loop at the From end of the original element, in the plane of the Major Direction; Type #2
places a 2D (both dimensions the same size) loop at the From end of the original element, first in the plane of the Major
Direction and then in the plane of the Minor Direction; Type #3 places the loop in the middle of the original element, in the
plane of the Major Direction; Type #4 places 2D (both dimensions the same size) loop in the middle of the original
element, first in the plane of the Major Direction and then in the plane of the Minor Direction; Type #5 places the loop at
the To end of the original element, in the plane of the Major Direction; Type #6 places 2D (both dimensions the same size)
loop at the To end of the original element, first in the plane of the Major Direction and then in the plane of the Minor
Direction; Type # 7 builds a loop of the same size as the original element; while Type # 8 builds a 2D (both dimensions the
same size) loop of the same size as the original element, first in the Major Direction and then in the Minor Direction. Type
#9 will cause CAESAR II to try all 8 loop types and find the most economically efficient solution (based on total pipe length
and number of bends) from the 8 types.
Bend Cost Factor
This entry is used to enter the relative cost of a bend relative to straight pipe (used when CAESAR II is asked to select the
most economic loop design). For example, if a bend (including hardware, fabrication, and other costs) costs 100 times as
much as the same length of straight pipe, then the appropriate entry here would be 100.0.
Width to Height Ratio
This is used to specify the loop Height to Width ratio that should be maintained when building the loop. Available options
are 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and none. The first three options should be selfexplanatory. If none is selected, this means that the
segments of the selected loop configurations still coinciding with the original element run (i.e., segment #4 of Loop Type
#1, segment #6 of Loop Type #2, segments #1 and #5 of Loop Type #3, segments #1 and #7 of Loop Type #4, or segment
#1 of Loop Types #5 and #6) will have a length equal to exactly the length of a long radius bend (note that this entry does
not apply in the event that Loop Types #7 or #8 were selected). In this case, the Height to Width ratio is not used, with the
Height varying as necessary and the Width being held constant to the length necessary to make up the original element
length. This last option is often preferable in areas where there is limited room for wide loops.
Draw Cube
This button will graphically create the anticipated area where the loop will be installed. This cube may then be resized or
moved to reflect the preferred area for the loop. The Loop Optimization Wizard will try its best to design a loop that fits in
the allocated space.
Major Direction
Enter the direction and distance of the primary direction of the loop.
Minor Direction
Enter the direction and distance of the secondary direction of a 2D loop.
Major Direction Available Space
This value defines the maximum available space for the loop in the major direction.
Minor Direction Available Space
This value defines the maximum available space for the loop in the minor direction.
Design (Button)
Click this button to begin the Loop Optimization process. In the event that an appropriate loop cannot be designed, it may
be necessary to change some of the entered parameters and try again.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3137
Loop Optimization Wizard
The Loop Optimization Wizard has been added to assist users with their expansion loop design. This wizard allows users
to specify which element the loop should be incorporated into, the loop type, the item to be optimized  nodal stress or
restraint load, and the target value to which item should be optimized. When launched, the optimization routines runs the
analysis several times to arrive at an acceptable loop size such that the code stress or restraint load on the target
element is at the specified limit. Besides offering the user the opportunity to specify various loop configurations and a
selection of Height to Width ratios, an option is also provided to allow CAESAR II to select the most economical (based on
length of pipe and number of bends) of those possible.
To use the optimization wizard, the job must be run at least once (so that there is an issue, such as an overstress, to resolve),
plus no changes can have been made subsequently (in other words, the results to be optimized must be current). The
process is illustrated by the example LOOPWIZARD.C2, as displayed below.
Reviewing the results of the LOOPWIZARD job shows that it is suffering an expansion overstress of 46,741 psi vs. an
allowable of 41,288 psi at node 20. We may postulate that this is due to the expansion of the long run 60140, and that a
loop should be installed somewhere along that run. The question is where, and how big should it be?
3138 Piping Screen Reference
Prior to launching the Loop Optimizer it may be a good idea to examine the area of the plant surrounding the piping
system. This can be done by importing the CADWorx (or AutoCAD) plant model, using the icon. In this case, the
model ..\EXAMPLES\LOOPWIZARDPLANT\OVERALL.DWG should be imported it shows that there is a convenient
area to place a loop beside element 6070.
This element should be selected, and then the Optimizer wizard invoked from either the Model menu or from the toolbar
by clicking . This button displays the Optimizer dialog as shown in the figure below.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3139
Using the Loop Optimization Wizard:
In order for the wizard to work additional information is needed. Use the steps below to define the additional information:
1 Loop 6070 is already indicated as the element upon which the loop will be installed it may be changed from the drop
list, or by selecting other elements graphically.
2 Designate the Optimization type (Stress, in this case). Optionally, restraint load components may be optimized as well.
3 Select the load case to be optimized (Expansion for this example). This fills in the element list (showing stresses) on
the left of the dialog.
4 Define a target maximum stress. This value refines the element list, showing only those elements with stress levels
higher than the target. For this example, we may wish to optimize the stress level to 36,000 psi.
5 From this reduced element list, click on the node/element combination whose stress should be optimized to that level.
Alternatively, clicking the Max Stress box limits the maximum stress in the system to the target value. That is what
should be done in this example.
6 Select the loop type from the available icons. In this example the 1st loop type loop installed at Fromend of
element is selected.
7 Select the Height to Width ratio. Standard ratios such as 2.0, 1.0, or 0.5 may be selected. Or the loop height may be
allowed to vary to any size (while keeping the width constant) by picking the <none> option (in this case, the terminal
3140 Piping Screen Reference
run of pipe will be set to one bend radius, with the loop width fixed to the remaining length of element 6070). This is
what should be selected for this example.
At this point there are two alternatives to indicating where the loop should be placed.
8a) Based on the loop type selected, the loop direction (or directions) should be defined next. The major direction is
the direction off of the element where the loop is to be inserted. The minor direction (if necessary) is perpendicular to the
major direction and is used to indicate the second direction of the 2D loop types.
8b) Click on the Draw Cube button. This will generate a transparent cube anchored on the selected element. The mouse
can be used to adjust the size and location of this cube. Using the corner points (Pt1 or Pt2) adjusts the major direction of
the loop and available space. Using the triangle adjusts the minor axis of the loop and available space. This cube should
be dragged over the decking adjacent to element 6070, to build a cube with a Major dimension of 17 ft 11 inches in the X
direction.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3141
The completed dialog for methods 8b is shown in the figure below.
Once the dialog is completed, the Design button can be clicked to invoke the optimization procedure. The progress of the
design scheme is shown in a monitor window.
3142 Piping Screen Reference
Once the appropriate loop has been designed, the user is informed of how much pipe and how many bends were required to
create the loop. By using the undo button , followed by subsequent invocations of the Loop Wizard using different loop
types, this information can be used to find the most economical implementation.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3143
When the optimizer finishes, the new expansion loop is inserted into the selected element as shown in the figure below.
A final analysis should be run to verify all results. Note that there are instances where the optimizer will report an error.
Examples of such situations are: (a) requesting a loop insertion in an element that is not long enough, or (b) setting an
impossible target maximum.
3144 Piping Screen Reference
There is one other control on the Loop Optimization Wizard dialog that deserves special note  the special loop type
indicated on the dialog by the lightning bolt. This is circled in the image below.
Clicking this loop type enables CAESAR II to select the best loop to reach the indicated target. The best characteristic of
each loop is based on the relative cost of bends to straight pipe. When the lightning bolt loop type is selected, the Bend
Cost Factor edit box is activated. The default value of 100 indicates that a bend costs 100 times as much as the equivalent
length of straight pipe. This value can be adjusted as necessary.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler
This chapter discusses the structural element keywords and the directives used to add structural elements to the model.
In This Chapter
Overview ................................................................................................. 42
The Structural Steel Property Editor........................................................ 43
General Properties ................................................................................... 410
UNITS Specification  UNIT................................................................... 411
Axis Orientation Vertical......................................................................... 412
Material Identification  MATID............................................................. 413
Section Identification  SECID................................................................ 415
Setting Defaults  DEFAULT.................................................................. 417
Setting Nodes in Space  NODE, NFILL, NGEN.................................... 418
Building Elements  ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM................................ 422
Resetting Element Strong Axis  ANGLE, ORIENT............................... 429
End Connection Information ................................................................... 432
Defining Global Restraints  FIX............................................................. 440
Loads ....................................................................................................... 442
Utilities .................................................................................................... 448
Structural Databases ................................................................................ 449
C H A P T E R 4
42 Structural Steel Modeler
Overview
The following pages contain descriptions of each of the structural element keywords. These definitions and examples
arranged in usage order. The following list of all the keywords is arranged alphabetically and gives the page number for
each keyword where its input description can be found.
Keyword/Page Number
ANGLE (on page 429)
BEAMS (on page 434)
BRACES (on page 435)
COLUMNS (on page 437)
DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page 417)
EDIM (on page 427)
EFILL (on page 423)
EGEN (on page 425)
ELEM (on page 422)
FIX (see "Defining Global Restraints  FIX" on page 440)
FREE (see "Free End Connections  FREE" on page 432)
GLOAD (see "Gravity Loads  GLOADS" on page 445)
LIST (on page 448)
LOAD (see "Point Loads  LOAD" on page 442)
MATID (see "Material Identification  MATID" on page 413)
NFILL (on page 419)
NGEN (on page 420)
NODE (on page 418)
ORIENT (on page 430)
SECID (see "Section Identification  SECID" on page 415)
UNIF (see "Uniform Load in G's" on page 3121)
UNIT (see "UNITS Specification  UNIT" on page 411)
WIND (see "Wind Loads  WIND" on page 446)
VERTICAL (see "Axis Orientation Vertical" on page 412)
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 43
The Structural Steel Property Editor
CAESAR II provides the user with the capability to enter the general properties when beginning a new file using the
Structural Steel Wizard. The following section illustrates a typical new file input session using this editing technique.
New File
From the CAESAR II Main Menu, select FILE/NEW to begin the process. Type the name of the structural steel file you want to
create. To begin this process, click the Structural Input radio button and click OK to launch the Structural Steel Wizard.
Units File
Select the units file that the structural file will be based on from the pulldown list on this screen. To continue, click Next.
44 Structural Steel Modeler
Vertical Axis
Select either the Y or Z axis as the vertical axis aligned with gravity from the pulldown list on this screen. To continue,
click Next.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 45
Material Properties
Enter the material properties for the structural steel members here before continuing. These include Density, Young's
Modulus, Yield Strength, Poisson's Ration, and Thermal Expansion Coefficients. The latter corresponds to operating
temperatures 1 through 9 if used. You may have multiple materials using a unique Material ID for each. For additional
materials you must complete the wizard first, then continue in the Structural Steel Modeler as instructed later in this
chapter. To continue, click Next.
46 Structural Steel Modeler
Cross Section (Section ID)
Enter the appropriate cross sectional type (note these must be entered exactly as listed at the end of this chapter). An easier
method is to click the Select Section ID button and then expand the appropriate tree (beams, channels, tees, or angles) as
shown below. All of the cross section types supported by CAESAR II are then available for selection.
After the proper section type is selected click OK.
If the section type is to be userdefined, check the User Defined box and enter the data in the area to the right as shown
below.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 47
Enter the Cross Sectional Area, Strong and Weak axis moments of inertia, the torsional resistivity constant, and the height
and width of the rectangle for plotting purposes.
Note: In the plot of a User Defined Cross Section, the section will appear as a simple rectangle with dimensions in the
BoxH and BoxW fields.
To continue, click Next.
48 Structural Steel Modeler
Model Definition Method
Select either Type 1 (element Definition using the EDIM commands) or Type 2 (Node and Element Definition using the
NODE and ELEM commands). Click Finish to complete the wizard and the main Structural Steel Modeler window
appears populated with data from the wizard.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 49
Once this portion of the model is complete you can make further entries as detailed in the following section.
410 Structural Steel Modeler
General Properties
All directives are picked from either the menu or the toolbar. After the information is filled out in the input fields on the left
side of the window, press the +sign button to add the command to the model (or drag the dialog to the appropriate position
in the text). The appropriate text will appear on the right side of the window (the white section). The following graphics
show how to choose the commands, the input fields, and the resultant input file text (always the last line of text on the
right). There is no provision to type in commands directly in the text section.
Add
Click on the + button to add the data in the edit dialog to the end of the model.
Insert
Highlight a given command line in the input list section and click the Insert button to insert the data in the edit dialog in
front of the highlighted command.
Replace
Click the Replace button to replace the currently highlighted command line with the data in the Edit dialog.
Delete
Click the Delete button to remove the highlighted command line from the model.
Note: The data in the Edit dialog may also be dragged to its appropriate position in the model text area.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 411
UNITS Specification  UNIT
Units Specification
Used to specify the UNITS file to be used, instead of the UNITS file currently designed in the configuration file. This
command should appear first, before entering any material, section, or dimensional data.
412 Structural Steel Modeler
Axis Orientation Vertical
The axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, the Dynamic
Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation of the models input file.
Orienting a structural model to ZAxis Vertical. A new structural model will determine its axis orientation based on the
setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing structural model will use the same axis orientation under which it
was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from YAxis to ZAxis Vertical by changing the value of the Vertical
command, activated by clicking the button on the toolbar, or through the COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu
option, as shown in the figure below.
Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling this setting does not translate the structural
input file, but rather physically rotates the model into the new coordinate system.
When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match that of the piping
model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
When analyzing a structural model on its own, the axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind, and wave
loads), the Static Output Processor, and the Dynamic Input Processor is dictated by the orientation of the structural models
input.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 413
Material Identification  MATID
Material Properties Definition
Used to enter material properties that correspond to a Material ID number. There must be at least one valid material
specification given per job. One Material ID can be used for a group of elements that have many Section IDs. (In fact there
is usually only a single Material ID specified for any one job.) Units from the specified UNITS.FIL are used. Default
material properties (i.e. for A36 structural steel) may be invoked by issuing the following MATID command: MATID 1.
MATID matid, YM, POIS, G, YS, DENS, ALPHA
MATID
User defined material ID number. Usually 1, and sequentially thereafter.
YM
Youngs Modulus of Elasticity.
414 Structural Steel Modeler
POIS
Poissons Ratio, usually 0.3.
G
Shear Modulus of Elasticity Usually about one third of YM
YS
Yield Strength (Currently not used)
DENS
Material Density
ALPHA
Material coefficient of thermal expansion. There can be up to three thermal cases (corresponding to thermal cases T1, T2,
and T3) defined for structural steel members. Thermal effects on structural members are entered using thermal expansion
coefficients in terms of in./in, mm./mm., i.e. unitless. The three thermal coefficients are entered after the density.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 415
Section Identification  SECID
Section Definition
Section ID
Used to assign member cross section properties to Section ID numbers. SECID secid, NAME = <label>
SECID
A user defined Section ID to be used for all future referencing of this set of cross section properties. Usually Section IDs
start at 1 and go up, but the user may assign values in any order that is convenient.
Name
Either an AISC shape name or the word USER. All AISC names should be entered exactly as shown in the AISC
handbook with the exception that fractions should be represented as decimals., i.e. the angle: LX6X31/2X1/2 should be
entered: L6X3.5X0.5. Leading or trailing zeros may be omitted. Alternatively, the user may select the appropriate section
name from the window provided after clicking the Select Section ID button. A full list of available Section types are found
at the end of this chapter.
UserDefined
For a userdefined shape click the User Defined check box. There are six additional parameters users must enter to fully
define the users cross section:
416 Structural Steel Modeler
Area
Cross section area (length
2
).
Ixx
Strong axis moment of inertia (length
4
).
Iyy
Weak axis moment of inertia (length
4
).
Torsional R
Torsional resistivity constant (length
4
).
BOXH
Height of a rectangular box for plotting (height is along the weak axis).
BOXW
Width of a rectangular box for plotting (width is along the strong axis).
UserDefined Section Properties
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 417
Setting Defaults  DEFAULT
Default Section and Material IDs
Used to set the default values of the Section ID and the Material ID. Whenever an element generation occurs and the
Section and/or the Material ID are omitted, the default values set here are used. The initial default value for both the Section
and the Material ID is 1.
418 Structural Steel Modeler
Setting Nodes in Space  NODE, NFILL, NGEN
NODE
Node Definition
Node is used to define the absolute coordinates of a point in global X, Y, and Z space.
NODE num X, Y, Z
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 419
NFILL
Defining Multiple Nodes along a Line
Used to fill in evenly spaced nodes between two already defined end points. If the increment BY is omitted, the default is
1.
420 Structural Steel Modeler
NGEN
Generating a Matrix of Nodes
Used to duplicate patterns of nodes. At least the first and last node in the base node pattern must already exist before the
NGEN command is issued. Other nodes in the base node pattern not already defined will be evenly spaced between the first
and last node. The DX, DY, and DZ are offsets for duplicate nodes from the base pattern of nodes.
NGEN n1, TO, BY, LAST, NODEINC, DX, DY, DZ,
n1
First node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issued).
TO
Last node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issued).
BY
Increment to get from the starting node to the ending node in the base pattern. n1, TO and BY define the nodes in the base
pattern. All subsequent nodal patterns generated start from the base pattern. If omitted the default is 1.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 421
LAST
Last node in the last nodal pattern to be generated. If omitted then single pattern duplication will occur.
NODEINC
Increment to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and then from this pattern to
the next generated pattern, etc.
DX, DY, DZ
Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and then from this
pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.
Example
In the preceding figure, the nodes from 1100 to 2000 with an increment of 100 are duplicated twice, each new pattern offset
10 ft. in the zdirection. The new nodes created are from 2100 to 3000 and also from 3100 to 4000. Note that the NFILL
command previous to this NGEN command was not necessary.
422 Structural Steel Modeler
Building Elements  ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM
ELEM
Defining a Single Element
Used to define a single element that exists between two points in global Cartesian space. In addition a section identifier and
a material identifier for the element may also be given. If the section and/or material ids are omitted the current default
values are used. (For more information see help for the keyword DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page
417).)
ELEM n1, TO, SECID, MATID, KEYWORD,
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 423
EFILL
Generating Multiple Elements along a Line
Used to generate a consecutive string of elements. None of the elements generated need to exist prior to the FILL operation.
EFILL n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, SECID, MATID, INCSECID, INCMATID
n1
FROM node number on the first element generated.
TO
TO node number on the first element generated.
INC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the FROM node on the second element. If omitted, INC
defaults to 1.
424 Structural Steel Modeler
INCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO node on the second element. If INCTO is not given, it
defaults to INC.
LAST
TO node on the last element to be generated.
SECID
Section ID for the first element generated.
MATID
Material ID for the first element generated.
INCSECID
Increment to get from the Section ID for the first element to the Section ID for the second element. (Default=0)
INCMATID
Increment to get from the Material ID for the first element to the Material ID for the second element. (Default=0)
Example
In the preceding figure elements were generated between each pair of nodes between node 1200 and 2000. The increment
between From to From nodes and To to To nodes is the same in this case, being equal to 100. Eight elements were created
in this example, together with the one element previously created using the ELEM command for a total of nine elements.
Note that the ELEM command would not have been necessary here, since all nine elements could have been created using
the EFILL command by simply substituting node 1100 in place of node 1200 in the From Node field.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 425
EGEN
Duplicating Elements
Used to duplicate patterns of elements. EGEN is a very flexible and very powerful generation command that should be used
carefully. The form of EGEN shown below does not presume that any of the elements in the base pattern exist before the
generation. If elements in the base pattern do exist before the generation they will be redefined during the generation
process.
EGEN n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, GENINC,
GENINCTO, GENLAST, SECID, MATID, INSECID, INCMATID,
n1
FROM node on the first element in the base pattern.
TO
TO node on the first element in the base pattern.
426 Structural Steel Modeler
INC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element in the base pattern to the FROM node on the second element
in base pattern. If omitted defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO node on the second element. If INCTO is not given, it
defaults to INC.
LAST
TO node on the last element in the base pattern. The EGEN command is set up to generate multiple copies from the base
pattern of elements.
GENINC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element in the base pattern to the FROM node on the first element in
the first duplicate pattern.
GENINCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element in the base pattern to the TO node on the first element in the
first duplicate pattern. If omitted defaults to GENINC.
GENLAST
The TO node on the last element in the last pattern to be duplicated from the base pattern.
SECID
Section ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the default Section ID is used. For more information
see the help for DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page 417) for an explanation of how the default
Section ID is set up. On startup the default Section ID is 1.
MATID
Material ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the default Material ID is used. For more information
see help for DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page 417) for an explanation of how the default material
ID is set up. On startup the default material ID is 1.
INCSECID
Section ID increment to be used between patterns. i.e. the first pattern of elements generated from the base pattern of
elements will have a Section ID of SECID + INCSECID. If omitted defaults to zero.
INCMATID
Material ID increment to be used between patterns. If omitted defaults to zero.
Example
In the preceding figure the base element pattern from 1100 to 2000 was reproduced two more times, from 2100 to 3000 and
from 3100 to 4000. Each element has nodal increments of 100. The increment between the base element list and the next
element list is 1000 and the last node in the last pattern is 4000. Then the cross members were created using the base pattern
from 1100 to 2100 and reproducing it in nodal increments of 100 until node 4000 was reached. The following figure shows
the resultant model.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 427
Volume Plot of Structural Steel Model Showing Node Numbers
EDIM
Define elements using the dimensions of the element rather than references to nodes. Any existing elements encountered
will be redefined.
The EDIM element definition is probably more familiar to piping engineers while ELEM, EGEN, and EFIL are more
familiar to structural engineers. INC, INCTO, and LAST may be omitted to define a single element.
n1
"FROM" node on the first element to be defined.
TO
"To" node on the last element to be defined.
INC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the FROM node on the second element. If omitted, INC
defaults to 1.
428 Structural Steel Modeler
INCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO node on the second element. If INCTO is not given, it
defaults to INC.
Last
"TO" node on e the last element to be defined.
DX, DY, DZ
Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and then from this
pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.
SECID
Section ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is used.
MATID
Material ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is used.
INSECID
Section ID increment to get from the Section ID of the first element to the Section ID of the second element.
INCMATID
Material ID increment to get from the Material ID of the first element to the Material ID of the second element.
Examples
EDIM 5 to 10 DY = 123 SECID=2..Column 123 high from 5 to 10
EDIM 5,10 DY=123,2....................Same column
EDIM 2 TO 3 LAST=8 DX=133..Defining beams 133 long and elements 23, 34, 45, 56, 67and 78. INC defaults to 1.
Enter the 4 EDIM commands top define the
small frame shown to the right. Remember that
every thing after a (:) or (:) on the line is treated
as a comment.
<> 100 (typ)
EDIM 1 TO 5 INC=1 LAST=8 DY=120 SECID=1 ;1st floor columns
EDIM 5 TO 9 INC=1 LAST=12 DY=120 SECID=2 ;2nd floor columns
EDIM 5 TO 6 INC=1 LAST=8 DX=100 SECID=3 ;1st floor beams
EDIM 9 TO 10 INC=1 LAST=12 DX=100 SECID=3 ;roof beams
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 429
Resetting Element Strong Axis  ANGLE, ORIENT
ANGLE
Defining the Default Strong Axis Orientation
Used to define the default element strong axis orientation.
ANGLE is most often used when defining columns whose strong axes are not parallel to the X axis. (Usually for columns
the strong axis is parallel to either the X or the Z axis.) In the case where the column strong axis is parallel to the Z axis,
first ANGLE is used to redefine the default orientation, i.e. ANGLE=90. Next the column elements are defined. Then
ANGLE is used again to reset the default orientation back to its original value, i.e. ANGLE=0.0.
The ORIENT and ANGLE keywords similarly define the angle of rotation (in degrees) about the element center line from
the standard orientation to the element strong axis. ORIENT defines this angle for a single element or for a group of
elements, and ANGLE sets the default orientation back to its original value, i.e. ANGLE=0.0.
The default orientation angle is zero degrees.
Positive angular rotation is found using the righthand rule by extending the thumb along the element in the direction of
the TO node. The fingers of the right hand circle in the direction of a positive orientation angle.
430 Structural Steel Modeler
The default element orientation is as follows:
If the member is vertical then the default strong axis is taken to be along the global X axis.
For all nonvertical members the strong axis is taken to be perpendicular to the center line of the member and in the
horizontal plane. (This is exactly what is desired for a typical beam orientation in a building).
The strong axis is defined for the WF shape as shown:
ANGLE n1
n1
Default strong axis orientation angle to be used for all subsequently defined elements.
ORIENT
Used to define the element strong axis orientation. Note that values for n1 and TO may be given as node numbers or
element indices. Element indices are enclosed in parentheses. An example of the index input is given at the bottom.
ORIENT n1, TO INC, INCTO, LAST, ANGLE,
n1
FROM node on the first element.
TO
TO node on the first element.
INC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the FROM node on the second element. If omitted, INC
defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO node on the second element. If INCTO is not given, it
defaults to INC.
LAST
TO node on the last element to have its orientation angle defined.
ANGLE
Rotation in degrees from the default position to the actual position of the member strong axis.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 431
Examples
ORIENT 1 TO 2 ANGLE=90. The strong axis for the element from 1 to 2 is 90 degrees away from the default position.
ORIENT 5 TO 10 INC=5 LAST=30 ANGLE=90. The elements: 510, 1015, 1520, 2025, and 2530 all have their strong
axis 90 degrees away from the default position. If each of these members is a vertical column, then their new strong axis of
bending is along the Z axis. (This means that the columns with their new orientation are better suited to take X direction
forces.)
432 Structural Steel Modeler
End Connection Information
Free End Connections  FREE
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Free End Connections
Used to define element FREE end connections. For example FREE would be used to describe the element ends in a
structure that has pinnedonly beamtocolumn connections. End connection type define a members' fixity to its nodes,
not a nodes' fixity in space. FREE works in conjunction with BEAMS, BRACES, and COLUMNS. These last three
keywords are used to set the FREE end connection defaults for certain types of members. For each element defined after
the defaults are set an entry is automatically made into the FREE array to keep track of the type of connection and the
nodes that define the element.
FREE n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, <free parms>
n1
FROM node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to.
TO
TO node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 433
INC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the FROM node on the second element. If omitted, INC
defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO node on the second element. If INCTO is not given, it
defaults to INC.
LAST
TO node on the last element this FREE spec is to apply to. LAST, INC, and INCTO can be omitted if the FREE spec is
only to apply to a single element.
<free end parms>  May be any single combination of:
/At the element FROM end /
FAXIAL  Axial translational dof
FSHRSTR  Strong axis shear translational dof
FSHRWEAK  Weak axis shear translational dof
FTORS  Torsional dof
FBNDSTR  Strong axis bending dof
FBNDWEAK  Weak axis bending dof
/At the element TO end /
TAXIAL  Axial translational dof
TSHRSTR  Strong axis shear translational dof
TSHRWEAK  Weak axis shear translational dof
TTORS  Torsional dof
TBNDSTR  Strong axis bending dof
TBNDWEAK  Weak axis bending dof
Enter those <free end parms> that define the degrees of freedom at the element end that should be FREE.
In the case where a small WF shape attaches to a large I beam the connection might be designed so that weak axis bending
of the WF shape is not transmitted to the web of the I beam. If the element defining the WF shape went from nodes 1040 to
1045 then the FREE spec for this element might appear:
FREE 1040 TO 1045 FBNDWEAK, TBNDWEAK
The westward side of a building has a row of beams on the ground floor that are attached rigidly to columns at the other
end. The beams are identified by the pattern of nodes: 610710, 620720, 630730, ...,690790. There are eight beams in all
in this group. The 600 end is the end that is pinned. The FREE spec for this group might appear:
FREE 610 TO 710 INC=10 LAST=790 FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK
434 Structural Steel Modeler
Standard Structural Element Connections  BEAMS, BRACES, COLUMNS
BEAMS
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Default End Connections for BEAMS
Defines default end connection types for members identified by the orientation of their center line. The definition of BEAM
is any member whose center line lies completely along either the global X or global Z axis. Once the BEAMS keyword is
used to define element end connection freedoms any element subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a beam
will have those same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the BEAMS keyword is reset or respecified. The
default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes.
BEAMS have two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is to set FREE end connection defaults, and
the FIX mode is to reset the end connection types once all beams with that particular FREE end connection have been
defined.
BEAMS FREE <free end parms>...use to release end connections.
BEAMS FIX <free end parms>...use to reset releasedend connections
The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the FREE keyword. The <free end parms> defining the 12 local
degrees of freedom for each element are:
FAXIAL TAXIAL
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 435
FSHRSTR TSHRSTR
FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK
FTORS TTORS
FBNDSTR TBNDSTR
FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK
Example
Just before defining a group of beams that had both ends pinned, the following BEAMS command would be issued:
BEAMSFREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
Just after defining the pinned end beams, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the following BEAMS
command would be issued:
BEAMSFIX FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
As shorthand notation, if the word FIX is all that appears on the line following BEAMS, then all end connections for
the beam will be fixed, i.e. BEAMS FIX
436 Structural Steel Modeler
BRACES
Auxiliary Area for Defining Default End Connections for Braces
Used to define default end connection types for members that can be identified by the orientation of their center line. The
definition of BRACE in so far as this keyword is concerned, is any member whose center line does not completely lie along
any of the global axes. Once the BRACE keyword is used to define element end connection freedoms any element
subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a brace will have those same end connection freedoms. This will
continue until the BRACE keyword is reset or respecified. The default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed
in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes. BRACES may be abbreviated: BR.
BRACES have two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is used to set FREE end connection defaults,
and the FIX mode is used to reset the end connection types once all braces with that particular FREE end connection have
been defined.
BRACES FREE <free end parms> ...use to release end connections
BRACES FIX <free end parms> ...use to reset released end connections
The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the FREE keyword. The <free end parms> defining the 12 local
degrees of freedom for each element are:
FAXIAL TAXIAL
FSHRSTR TSHRSTR
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 437
FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK
FTORS TTORS
FBNDSTR TBNDSTR
FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK
Example
Just before defining a group of braces that had both ends pinned to the adjoining columns, the following BRACES
command would be issued:
BRACES FREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
Just after defining the pinned end braces, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the following
BRACES command would be issued.
BRACESFIX FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
As shorthand notation, if the word FIX is all that appears on the line following BRACES, then all end connections for
the brace will be fixed, i.e. BRACES FIX
438 Structural Steel Modeler
COLUMNS
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Default End Connections for Columns
Used to define default end connection types for members that can be identified by the orientation of their center line. The
definition of COLUMN insofar as this keyword is concerned is any member whose center line is completely vertical.
Once the COLUMN keyword is used to define element end connection freedoms any element subsequently defined that fits
the above definition for a column will have those same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the COLUMN
keyword is reset or respecified. The default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of
freedom to its nodes.
COLUMNS have two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is to set FREE end connection defaults,
and the FIX mode is to reset the end connection types once all columns with that particular FREE end connection have
been defined.
COLUMNS FREE <free end parms> ..use to release end connections
COLUMNS FIX <free end parms> ..use to reset released end connections
The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the FREE keyword. The <free end parms> that define the 12
local element degrees of freedom are:
FAXIAL TAXIAL
FSHRSTR TSHRSTR
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 439
FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK
FTORS TTORS
FBNDSTR TBNDSTR
FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK
Example
Just before defining a group of corner columns that were pinned at there TO ends, the following COLUMN command
would be issued:
COLUMNSFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
Just after defining the pinned end columns, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the following
COLUMNS command would be issued:
COLUMNSSFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
As shorthand notation, if the word FIX is all that appears on the line following COLUMNS, then all end connections
for the column will be fixed, i.e. COLUMNS FIX
Note: As a general rule an element cannot undergo rigid body motion. Therefore, an element can not have both TTORS
and FTORS released at the same time. Additionally beams typically have moment releases only at their ends, not at
intermediate nodes used to apply loads or connect bracing.
440 Structural Steel Modeler
Defining Global Restraints  FIX
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Restraints
Used to define restraint boundary conditions at structural member end points. Stiffnesses may be entered in the field
following the fixity indicator; if the stiffness value is omitted, the fixity will be rigid. TO and BY may be omitted to
define the fixity for a single node point. (i.e. FIX 10 ALL) Note that values for n1 and TO may be given as node numbers
or indices. Node indices are enclosed in parenthesis.
FIX n1, TO, BY, X, Y, Z, RX, RY, RZ, ALL
FIX n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n9, n10
Examples
FIX 1
ALL  Fix all degrees of freedom at node #1.
FIX 5 X1000 Y1000 Z1000 Fix X, Y and Z degrees of freedom at node #5, and use 1,000 lb./in. springs
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 441
FIX 100 TO 110. ALL Fix rigidly all degrees of freedom for the nodes from 100 to 110. The increment between 100 and
110 defaults to 1. Eleven nodes have their fixities defined here.
FIX 105 TO 125 BY 5 X1000,1000,1000 Fix X, Y, and Z degrees of freedom for the nodes: 105, 110, 115, 120, and 125,
and use 1,000 lb./in. springs.
FIX (1) to (10) ALL Fix all degrees of freedom for the first 10 nodes in the node list.
442 Structural Steel Modeler
Loads
Point Loads  LOAD
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Concentrated Forces and Moments
Used to define concentrated forces and/or moments that act at structural member end points. TO and BY may be
omitted to define loads for a single point. LOAD may be abbreviated: LOA. Note that values for n1 and TO may be given
as node numbers or indices. Node indices are enclosed in parentheses.
LOAD n1, TO, BY, FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY
LOAD n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8
Examples
LOAD 305 FY1000. Have minus 1,000 lb. Y direction load acting at the structural node #305.
LOAD 10 TO 18 BY=1 FX=707,FZ=707. Have skewed load in the horizontal plane acting at each of the nodes
10,11,...,17,18. BY could have been omitted here, its default is 1.
LOAD (15) to (25) FY=383. A load of 383 pounds acts in the minus Y direction on the 15th through the 25th nodes in
the node list.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 443
Uniform Loads  UNIF
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Uniform Loads
Used to define a constant uniform load (i.e., CAESAR II load case U1) that acts over the full length of the member. (Uniform
loads may have special meanings when used in CAESAR II piping runs.) INC, INCTO, and LAST may be omitted to
define a uniform loading that acts on a single element only. Note that values for n1 and TO may be given as node
numbers or element indices. Element indices are enclosed in parentheses.
UNIF n1, TO, INC, INCTO LAST UX, UY, UZ
UNIF n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8
n1
FROM node on the first element this uniform load is to act on.
TO
TO node on the first element this uniform load is to act on.
444 Structural Steel Modeler
INC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the FROM node on the second element. If omitted, INC
defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO node on the second element. If INCTO is not given, it
defaults to INC.
LAST
TO node on the last element this uniform load is to act on.
UX,UY,UZ
Magnitude of the uniform load in the global X, Y and Z directions. Unless used in a piping analysis employing g loads,
uniform loads are in units of force per unit length of member. When used in a piping analysis with g loads the uniform
loads are in units of gravitational acceleration., i.e. UY=1 would define a uniform load identical to the member weight
load.
Examples
UNIF 1 TO 2 UY=2.3 On the element from 1 to 2 a uniform load with a magnitude of 2.3 lbs. per inch acts in the minus Y
direction.
UNIF 1,2, UY 2,3 Same
UNIF 100 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3
LAST=500 UX=0.03, 1,0.03. Uniform load acting on elements 100200, 102203,...,300500 with a small horizontal
component and a 1 load in the Y. (Looks like have g load input for piping problem.)
UNIF (1) to (30) UY=2.3. The first 30 elements in the element list have a uniform load of 2.3 pounds per inch acting in
the minus Y direction.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 445
Gravity Loads  GLOADS
Defining Uniform Load in Gs
Used to inform this processor that all specified uniform loads are to be interpreted as G loads instead of force/length.
Important: If structural and piping models are mixed the GLOAD flags must match (i.e., uniform loads in the piping model
must be designed as "G" loads in the special execution parameters).
This command takes no other parameters.
446 Structural Steel Modeler
Wind Loads  WIND
Defining Wind Loads
Defines the magnitude of the wind shape factor for the structural elements. (The default value is 2.0.)
WIND n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, SHAPE
WIND n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8
n1
FROM node on the first element the wind load is to act on.
TO
TO node on the first element the wind load is to act on.
INC
Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the FROM node on the second element. If omitted, INC
defaults to 1.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 447
INCTO
Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO node on the second element. If INCTO is not given, it
defaults to INC.
LAST
TO node on the last element the wind load is to act on.
SHAPE
Magnitude of the wind shape factor. For structural steel members this value is usually 2.0. Wind loading on the structure
can be turned on and off by resetting this parameter to zero, for elements not exposed to the wind.
This value carries forward to all subsequently defined elements.
Examples
WIND 1 TO 2 SHAPE=2.0. On the element from 1 to 2 a shape factor with a magnitude of 2.0 is applied. This value is
applied to all following elements.
WIND 1,2,SHAPE 2.0. Same
WIND 100 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3
LAST=500 SHAPE=1.8 Wind shape factor of 1.8 on elements 100200, 102203,...,300500.
448 Structural Steel Modeler
Utilities
LIST
To access the List option, click the List tab located at the bottom of the Structural Steel Modeler. List enables users to
display node and coordinate data; enter node ranges; and also select input list reports. Note, selecting all displays a of each
report in the order they appear on the modeler window.
Defining List Options to Display
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 449
Structural Databases
The CAESAR II Structural databases contain over 20 different properties for each cross section. For the finite element
solution, only six of these items are employed:
Area
Strong axis moment of inertia
Weak axis moment of inertia
Torsional resistivity constant
Member section height
Member section depth
There are seven different structural databases included in CAESAR II
AISC 1977
AISC 1989
German 1991
Australian 1990
South African 1992
Korean 1990
UK 1993
Member designations for each database display in the tables that follow.
450 Structural Steel Modeler
AISC 1977 Database
W36X300 W36X280 W36X260 W36X245 W36X230 W36X210
W36X194 W36X182 W36X170 W36X160 W36X150 W36X135
W33X241 W33X221 W33X201 W33X152 W33X141 W33X130
W33X118 W30X211 W30X191 W30X173 W30X132 W30X124
W30X116 W30X108 W30X99 W27X178 W27X161 W27X146
W27X114 W27X102 W27X94 W27X84 W24X162 W24X146
W24X131 W24X117 W24X104 W24X94 W24X84 W24X76
W24X68 W24X62 W24X55 W21X147 W21X132 W21X122
W21X111 W21X101 W21X93 W21X83 W21X73 W21X68
W21X62 W21X57 W21X50 W21X44 W18X119 W18X106
W18X97 W18X86 W18X76 W18X71 W18X65 W18X60
W18X55 W18X50 W18X46 W18X40 W18X35 W16X100
W16X89 W16X77 W16X67 W16X57 W16X50 W16X45
W16X40 W16X36 W16X31 W16X26 W14X730 W14X665
W14X605 W14X550 W14X500 W14X455 W14X426 W14X398
W14X370 W14X342 W14X311 W14X283 W14X257 W14X233
W14X211 W14X193 W14X176 W14X159 W14X145 W14X132
W14X120 W14X109 W14X99 W14X90 W14X82 W14X74
W14X68 W14X61 W14X53 W14X48 W14X43 W14X38
W14X34 W14X30 W14X26 W14X22 W12X336 W12X305
W12X279 W12X252 W12X230 W12X210 W12X190 W12X170
W12X152 W12X136 W12X120 W12X106 W12X96 W12X87
W12X79 W12X72 W12X65 W12X58 W12X53 W12X50
W12X45 W12X40 W12X35 W12X30 W12X26 W12X22
W12X19 W12X16 W12X14 W10X112 W10X100 W10X88
W10X77 W10X68 W10X60 W10X54 W10X49 W10X45
W10X39 W10X33 W10X30 W10X26 W10X22 W10X19
W10X17 W10X15 W10X12 W8X67 W8X58 W8X48
W8X40 W8X35 W8X31 W8X28 W8X24 W8X21
W8X18 W8X15 W8X13 W8X10 W6X25 W6X20
W6X16 W6X15 W6X12 W6X9 W5X19 W5X16
W4X13
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 451
AISC 1977 Database
M14X18 M12X11.8 M10X9 M8X6.5 M6X20 M6X4.4
M5X18.9 M4X13
AISC 1977 Database
S24X121 S24X106 S24X100 S24X90 S24X80 S20X96
S20X86 S20X75 S20X66 S18X70 S18X54.7 S15X50
S15X42.9 S12X50 S12X40.8 S12X35 S12X31.8 S10X35
S10X25.4 S8X23 S8X18.4 S7X20 S7X15.3 S6X17.2
S6X12.5 S5X14.7 S5X10 S4X9.5 S4X7.7 S3X7.5
S3X5.7
AISC 1977 Database
C15X50 C15X40 C15X33.9 C12X30 C12X25 C12X20.7
C10X30 C10X25 C10X20 C10X15.3 C9X20 C9X15
C9X13.4 C8X18.7 C8X13.7 C8X11.5 C7X14.7 C7X12.2
C7X9.8 C6X13 C6X10.5 C6X8.2 C5X9 C5X6.7
C4X7.25 C4X5.4 C3X6 C3X5 C3X4.1
AISC 1977 Database
MC18X58 MC18X51.9 MC18X45.8 MC18X42.7 MC13X50
MC13X40 MC13X35 MC13X31.8 MC12X50 MC12X45
MC12X40 MC12X35 MC12X37 MC12X32.9 MC12X30.9
MC12X10.6 MC10X41.1 MC10X33.6 MC10X28.5 MC10X28.3
MC10X25.3 MC10X24.9 MC10X21.9 MC10X8.4 MC10X6.5
MC9X25.4 MC9X23.9 MC8X22.8 MC8X21.4 MC8X20
MC8X18.7 MC8X8.5 MC7X22.7 MC7X19.1 MC7X17.6
MC6X18 MC6X15.3 MC6X16.3 MC6X15.1 MC6X12
452 Structural Steel Modeler
AISC 1977 Database
WT18X150 WT18X140 WT18X130 WT18X122.5
WT18X115 WT18X105 WT18X97 WT18X91
WT18X85 WT18X80 WT18X75 WT18X67.5
WT16.5X120.5 WT16.6X110.5 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X76
WT16.5X70.5 WT16.5X65 WT16.5X59 WT15X105.5
WT15X95.5 WT15X86.5 WT15X66 WT15X62
WT15X58 WT15X54 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X89
WT13.5X80.5 WT13.5X73 WT13.5X57 WT13.5X51
WT13.5X47 WT13.5X42 WT12X81 WT12X73
WT12X65.5 WT12X58.5 WT12X52 WT12X47
WT12X42 WT12X38 WT12X34 WT12X31
WT12X27.5 WT10.5X73.5 WT10.5X66 WT10.5X61 WT10.5X55.5
WT10.5X50.5 WT10.5X46.5 WT10.5X41.5 WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X34
WT10.5X31 WT10.5X28.5 WT10.5X25 WT10.5X22 WT9X59.5
WT9X53 WT9X48.5 WT9X43 WT9X38 WT9X35.5
WT9X32.5 WT9X30 WT9X27.5 WT9X25 WT9X23
WT9X20 WT9X17.5 WT8X50 WT8X44.5 WT8X38.5
WT8X33.5 WT8X28.5 WT8X25 WT8X22.5 WT8X20
WT8X18 WT8X15.5 WT8X13 WT7X365 WT7X332.5
WT7X302.5 WT7X275 WT7X250 WT7X227.5 WT7X213
WT7X199 WT7X185 WT7X171 WT7X155.5 WT7X141.5
WT7X128.5 WT7X116.5 WT7X105.5 WT7X96.5 WT7X88
WT7X79.5 WT7X72.5 WT7X66 WT7X60 WT7X54.5
WT7X49.5 WT7X45 WT7X41 WT7X37 WT7X34
WT7X30.5 WT7X26.5 WT7X24 WT7X21.5 WT7X19
WT7X17 WT7X15 WT7X13 WT7X11 WT6X168
WT6X152.5 WT6X139.5 WT6X126 WT6X115 WT6X105
WT6X95 WT6X85 WT6X76 WT6X68 WT6X60
WT6X53 WT6X48 WT6X43.5 WT6X39.5 WT6X36
WT6X32.5 WT6X29 WT6X26.5 WT6X25 WT6X22.5
WT6X20 WT6X17.5 WT6X15 WT6X13 WT6X11
WT6X9.5 WT6X8 WT6X7 WT5X56 WT5X50
WT5X44 WT5X38.5 WT5X34 WT5X30 WT5X27
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 453
WT5X24.5 WT5X22.5 WT5X19.5 WT5X16.5 WT5X15
WT5X13 WT5X11 WT5X9.5 WT5X8.5 WT5X7.5
WT5X6 WT4X33.5 WT4X29 WT4X24 WT4X20
WT4X17.5 WT4X15.5 WT4X14 WT4X12 WT4X10.5
WT4X9 WT4X7.5 WT4X6.5 WT4X5 WT4X12.5
WT4X10 WT4X7.5 WT3X8 WT3X6 WT3X4.5
WT2.5X9.5 WT2.5X8 WT2X6.5
AISC 1977 Database
MT7X9 MT6X5.9 MT5X4.5 MT4X3.25
MT3X10 MT3X2.2 MT2.5X9.45 MT2X6.5
ST12X60.5 ST12X53 ST12X50 ST12X45
ST12X40 ST10X48 ST10X43 ST10X37.5
ST10X33 ST9X35 ST9X27.35 ST7.5X25
ST7.5X21.45 ST6X25 ST6X20.4 ST6X17.5
ST6X15.9 ST5X17.5 ST5X12.7 ST4X11.5
ST4X9.2 ST3.5X10 ST3.5X7.65 ST3X8.625
ST3X6.25 ST2.5X7.375 ST2.5X5 ST2X4.75
ST2X3.85 ST1.5X3.75 ST1.5X2.85
454 Structural Steel Modeler
Double Angles  Long Legs BacktoBack
D8X8X1.1250 D8X8X1.0000 D8X8X0.8750
D8X8X0.7500 D8X8X0.6250 D8X8X0.5000
D6X6X1.0000 D6X6X0.8750 D6X6X0.7500
D6X6X0.6250 D6X6X0.5000 D6X6X0.3750
D5X5X0.8750 D5X5X0.7500 D5X5X0.5000
D5X5X0.3750 D5X5X0.3125 D4X4X0.7500
D4X4X0.6250 D4X4X0.5000 D4X4X0.3750
D4X4X0.3125 D4X4X0.2500 D3.5X3.5X0.3750
D3.5X3.5X0.3125 D3.5X3.5X0.2500 D3X3X0.5000
D3X3X0.3750 D3X3X0.3125 D3X3X0.2500
D3X3X0.1875 D2.5X2.5X0.3750 D2.5X2.5X0.3125
D2.5X2.5X0.2500 D2.5X2.5X0.1875 D2X2X0.3750
D2X2X0.3125 D2X2X0.2500 D2X2X0.1875
D2X2X0.1250 D8X6X1.0000 D8X6X0.7500
D8X6X0.5000 D8X4X1.0000 D8X4X0.7500
D8X4X0.5000 D7X4X0.7500 D7X4X0.5000
D7X4X0.3750 D6X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.6250
D6X4X0.5000 D6X4X0.3750 D6X3.5X0.3750
D6X3.5X0.3125 D5X3.5X0.7500 D5X3.5X0.5000
D5X3.5X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.3125 D5X3X0.5000
D5X3X0.3750 D5X3X0.3125 D5X3X0.2500
D4X3.5X0.5000 D4X3.5X0.3750 D4X3.5X0.3125
D4X3.5X0.2500 D4X3X0.5000 D4X3X0.3750
D4X3X0.3125 D4X3X0.2500 D3.5X3X0.3750
D3.5X3X0.3125 D3.5X3X0.2500 D3.5X2.5X0.3750
D3.5X2.5X0.3125 D3.5X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.3750
D3X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.1875 D3X2X0.3750
D3X2X0.3125 D3X2X0.2500 D3X2X0.1875
D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.2500
D2.5X2X0.1875
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 455
Double Angles  Short Legs BacktoBack
B8X6X1.0000 B8X6X0.7500
B8X6X0.2500 B8X4X1.0000 B8X4X0.7500
B8X4X0.5000 B7X4X0.7500 B7X4X0.5000
B7X4X0.3750 B6X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.6250
B6X4X0.5000 B6X4X0.3750 B6X3.5X0.3750
B6X3.5X0.3125 B5X3.5X0.7500 B5X3.5X0.5000
B5X3.5X0.3750 B5X3.5X0.3125 B5X3X0.5000
B5X3X0.3750 B5X3XO.3125 B5X3X0.2500
B4X3.5X0.5000 B4X3.5X0.3750 B4X3.5X0.3125
B4X3.5X0.2500 B4X3X0.5000 B4X3X0.3750
B4X3X0.3125 B4X3X0.2500 B3.5X3X0.3750
B3.5X3X0.3125 B3.5X3X0.2500 B3.5X2.5X0.3750
B3.5X2.5X0.3125 B3.5X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.3750
B3X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.1875 B3X2X0.3750
B3X2X0.3125 B3X2X0.2500 B3X2X0.1875
B2.5X2X0.3750 B2.5X2X0.3125 B2.5X2X0.2500
B2.5X2X0.1875
456 Structural Steel Modeler
AISC 1989 Database
W44X285 W44X248 W44X224 W44X198 W40X328 W40X298
W40X268 W40X244 W40X221 W40X192 W40X655 W40X593
W40X531 W40X480 W40X436 W40X397 W40X362 W40X324
W40X297 W40X277 W40X249 W40X215 W40X199 W40X183
W40X167 W40X149 W36X848 W36X798 W36X720 W36X650
W36X588 W36X527 W36X485 W36X439 W36X393 W36X359
W36X328 W36X300 W36X280 W36X260 W36X245 W36X230
W36X256 W36X232 W36X210 W36X194 W36X182 W36X170
W36X160 W36X150 W36X135 W33X619 W33X567 W33X515
W33X468 W33X424 W33X387 W33X354 W33X318 W33X291
W33X263 W33X241 W33X221 W33X201 W33X169 W33X152
W33X141 W33X130 W33X118 W30X581 W30X526 W30X477
W30X433 W30X391 W30X357 W30X326 W30X292 W30X261
W30X235 W30X211 W30X191 W30X173 W30X148 W30X132
W30X124 W30X116 W30X108 W30X99 W30X90 W27X539
W27X494 W27X448 W27X407 W27X368 W27X336 W27X307
W27X281 W27X258 W27X235 W27X217 W27X194 W27X178
W27X161 W27X146 W27X114 W27X102 W27X94 W27X84
W24X492 W24X450 W24X408 W24X370 W24X335 W24X306
W24X279 W24X250 W24X229 W24X207 W24X192 W24X176
W24X162 W24X146 W24X131 W24X117 W24X104 W24X103
W24X94 W24X84 W24X76 W24X68 W24X62 W24X55
W21X402 W21X364 W21X333 W21X300 W21X275 W21X248
W21X223 W21X201 W21X182 W21X166 W21X147 W21X132
W21X122 W21X111 W21X101 W21X93 W21X83 W21X73
W21X68 W21X62 W21X57 W21X50 W21X44 W18X311
W18X283 W18X258 W18X234 W18X211 W18X192 W18X175
W18X158 W18X143 W18X130 W18X119 W18X106 W18X97
W18X86 W18X76 W18X71 W18X65 W18X60 W18X55
W18X50 W18X46 W18X40 W18X35 W16X100 W16X89
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 457
AISC 1989 Database
WT18X115 WT18X128 WT18X116
WT18X105 WT18X97 WT18X91
WT18X85 WT18X80 WT18X75
WT18X67.5 WT16.5X177 WT16.5X159
WT16.5X145.5 WT16.5X131.5 WT16.5X120.5
WT16.5X110.5 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X84.5
WT16.5X76 WT16.5X70.5 WT16.5X65
WT16.5X59 WT15X117.5 WT15X105.5
WT15X95.5 WT15X86.5 WT15X74
WT15X66 WT15X62 WT15X58
WT15X54 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X108.5
WT13.5X97 WT13.5X89 WT13.5X80.5
WT13.5X73 WT13.5X64.5 WT13.5X57
WT13.5X51 WT13.5X47 WT13.5X42
WT12X88 WT12X81 WT12X73
WT12X65.5 WT12X58.5 WT12X52
WT12X51.5 WT12X47 WT12X42
WT12X38 WT12X34 WT12X31
WT12X27.5 WT10.5X83 WT10.5X73.5
WT10.5X66 WT10.5X61 WT10.5X55.5
WT10.5X50.5 WT10.5X46.5 WT10.5X41.5
WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X34 WT10.5X31
WT10.5X28.5 WT10.5X25 WT10.5X22
WT9X71.5 WT9X65 WT9X59.5
WT9X53 WT9X48.5 WT9X43
WT9X38 WT9X35.5 WT9X32.5
WT9X30 WT9X27.5 WT9X25
WT9X23 WT9X20 WT9X17.5
WT8X50 WT8X44.5 WT8X38.5
WT8X33.5 WT8X28.5 WT8X25
WT8X22.5 WT8X20 WT8X18
WT8X15.5 WT8X13 WT7X365
WT7X332.5 WT7X302.5 WT7X275
458 Structural Steel Modeler
WT7X250 WT7X227.5 WT7X213
WT7X199 WT7X185 WT7X171
WT7X155.
MT7X9 MT6X5.9 MT5X4.5 MT4X3.25 MT3X2.2 MT2.5X9.45
AISC 1989 Database
ST12X60.5 ST12X53 ST12X50 ST12X45 ST12X40 ST10X48
ST10X43 ST10X37.5 ST10X33 ST9X35 ST9X27.35 ST7.5X25
ST7.5X21.45 ST6X25 ST6X20.4 ST6X17.5 ST6X15.9 ST5X17.5
ST5X12.7 ST4X11.5 ST4X9.2 ST3.5X10 ST3.5X7.65 ST3X8.625
ST3X6.25 ST2.5X7.375 ST2.5X5 ST2X4.75 ST2X3.85 ST1.5X3.75
ST1.5X2.85
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 459
AISC 1989 Database
460 Structural Steel Modeler
AISC 1989 Database
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 461
AISC 1989 Database
462 Structural Steel Modeler
German 1991 Database
German 1991 Database  1
I80 I100 I120 I140 I160 I180
I200 I220 I240 I260 I280 I300
I320 I340 I360 I380 I400 I425
I450 I475 I500 I550 I600
IPE80 IPE100 IPE120 IPE140 IPE160 IPE180
IPE200 IPE220 IPE240 IPE270 IPE300 IPE330
IPE360 IPE400 IPE450 IPE500 IPE550 IPE600
IPEO180 IPEO200 IPEO220 IPEO240 IPEO270 IPEO300
IPEO330 IPEO360 IPEO400 IPEO450 IPEO500 IPEO550
IPEO600
IPEV400 IPEV450 IPEV500 IPEV550 IPEV600
IPBI100 IPBI120 IPBI140 IPBI160 IPBI180 IPBI200
IPBI220 IPBI240 IPBI260 IPBI280 IPBI300 IPBI320
IPBI340 IPBI360 IPBI400 IPBI450 IPBI500 IPBI550
IPBI600 IPBI650 IPBI700 IPBI800 IPBI900 IPBI1000
IPB100 IPB120 IPB140 IPB160 IPB180 IPB200
IPB220 IPB240 IPB260 IPB280 IPB300 IPB320
IPB340 IPB360 IPB400 IPB450 IPB500 IPB550
IPB600 IPB650 IPB700 IPB800 IPB900 IPB1000
U30X15 U30 U40X20 U40 U50X25 U50
U60 U65 U80 U100 U120 U140
U160 U180 U200 U220 U240 U260
U280 U300 U320 U350 U380 U400
T20 T25 T30 T35 T40 T45
T50 T60 T70 T80 T90 T100
T120 T140
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 463
German 1991 Database  2
1/2I140 1/2I160 1/2I180 1/2I200 1/2I220 1/2I240
1/2I260 1/2I280 1/2I300 1/2I320 1/2I340 1/2I360
1/2I380 1/2I400 1/2I425 1/2I450 1/2I475 1/2I500
1/2IPE140 1/2IPE160 1/2IPE180 1/2IPE200 1/2IPE220 1/2IPE240
1/2IPE270 1/2IPE300 1/2IPE330 1/2IPE360 1/2IPE400 1/2IPE450
1/2IPE500 1/2IPE550 1/2IPE600
1/2IPEO180 1/2IPEO200 1/2IPEO220 1/2IPEO240 1/2IPEO270 1/2IPEO300
1/2IPEO330 1/2IPEO360 1/2IPEO400 1/2IPEO450 1/2IPEO500 1/2IPEO550
1/2IPEO600
1/2IPEV400 1/2IPEV450 1/2IPEV500 1/2IPEV550 1/2IPEV600
1/2IPB140 1/2IPB160 1/2IPB180 1/2IPB200 1/2IPB220 1/2IPB240
1/2IPB260 1/2IPB280 1/2IPB300 1/2IPB320 1/2IPB340 1/2IPB360
1/2IPB400 1/2IPB450 1/2IPB500 1/2IPB550 1/2IPB600 1/2IPB650
1/2IPB700 1/2IPB800 1/2IPB900 1/2IPB1000
1/2IPBI140 1/2IPBI160 1/2IPBI180 1/2IPBI200 1/2IPBI220 1/2IPBI240
1/2IPBI260 1/2IPBI280 1/2IPBI300 1/2IPBI320 1/2IPBI340 1/2IPBI360
1/2IPBI400 1/2IPBI450 1/2IPBI500 1/2IPBI550 1/2IPBI600 1/2IPBI650
1/2IPBI700 1/2IPBI800 1/2IPBI900 1/2IPBI1000
1/2IPBV140 1/2IPBV160 1/2IPBV180 1/2IPBV200 1/2IPBV220 1/2IPBV240
1/2IPBV260 1/2IPBV280 1/2IPBV300 1/2IPBV305 1/2IPBV320 1/2IPBV340
1/2IPBV360 1/2IPBV400 1/2IPBV450 1/2IPBV500 1/2IPBV550 1/2IPBV600
1/2IPBV650 1/2IPBV700 1/2IPBV800 1/2IPBV900 1/2IPBV1000
L20X3 L25X3 L25X4 L30X3 L30X4 L30X5
L35X4 L35X5 L40X4 L40X5 L45X4 L45X5
L50X5 L50X6 L50X7
464 Structural Steel Modeler
Australian 1990 Database
UB760X244 UB760X220 UB760X197 UB760X173 UB760X148 UB690X140
UB690X125 UB610X125 UB610X113 UB610X101 UB530X92 UB530X82
UB460X82 UB460X74 UB460X67 UB410X60 UB410X54 UB360X57
UB360X51 UB360X45 UB310X46 UB310X40 UB250X37 UB250X31
UB200X30 UB200X25 UB180X22 UB180X18 UB150X18 UB150X14
UC310X283 UC310X240 UC310X198 UC310X158 UC310X137 UC310X118
UC310X97 UC250X89 UC250X73 UC200X60 UC200X52 UC200X46
UC150X37 UC150X30 UC150X23 UC100X15
UBP310X79 UBP250X85 UBP250X63
TFB125X65 TFB100X45
TFC125X65 TFC100X50 TFC75X40
PFC380X100 PFC300X90 PFC250X90 PFC230X75 PFC200X75 PFC180X75
PFC150X75
EL200X200X26 EL200X200X20 EL200X200X18
EL200X200X16 EL200X200X13 EL150X150X19
EL150X150X16 EL150X150X12 EL150X150X10
EL125X125X16 EL125X125X12 EL125X125X10
EL125X125X8 EL100X100X12 EL100X100X10
EL100X100X8 EL100X100X6 EL90X90X10
EL90X90X8 EL90X90X6 EL75X75X10
EL75X75X8 EL75X75X6 EL75X75X5
EL65X65X10 EL65X65X8 EL65X65X6
EL65X65X5 EL55X55X6 EL55X55X5
EL50X50X8 EL50X50X6 EL50X50X5
EL50X50X3 EL45X45X6 EL45X45X5
EL45X45X3 EL40X40X6 EL40X40X5
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 465
EL40X40X3 EL30X30X6 EL30X30X5
EL30X30X3 EL25X25X6 EL25X25X5
EL25X25X3
UL150X100X12 UL150X100X10 UL150X90X16
UL150X90X12 UL150X90X10 UL150X90X8
UL125X75X12 UL125X75X10 UL125X75X8
UL125X75X6 UL100X75X10 UL100X75X8
UL100X75X6 UL75X50X8 UL75X50X6
UL75X50X5 UL65X50X8 UL65X50X6
UL65X50X5
466 Structural Steel Modeler
South African 1992 Database
IPE100 IPE120 IPE140 IPE160 IPE180
IPE200 IPEAA100 IPEAA120 IPEAA140 IPEAA160
IPEAA180 IPEAA200 IP152X89X16 IP178X102X19 IP203X133X25
IP203X133X30 IP254X146X31 IP254X146X37 IP254X146X43 IP305X102X25
IP305X102X29 IP305X102X33 IP305X165X41 IP305X165X46 IP305X165X54
IP356X171X45 IP356X171X51 IP356X171X57 IP356X171X67 IP406X140X39
IP406X140X46 IP406X178X54 IP406X178X60 IP406X178X67 IP406X178X75
IP457X191X67 IP457X191X75 IP457X191X82 IP457X191X90 IP457X191X98
IP533X210X82 IP533X210X93 IP533X210X101 IP533X210X109 IP533X210X122
IP610X229X101 IP610X229X113 IP610X229X125 IP610X229X140 IP762X267X147
IP838X292X176 IP914X305X201 IP914X419X343
HP152X152X23 HP152X152X30 HP152X152X37 HP203X203X46 HP203X203X52
HP203X203X60 HP203X203X71 HP203X203X86 HP254X254X73 HP254X254X89
HP254X254X107 HP254X254X132 HP254X254X167 HP305X305X97 HP305X305X118
HP305X305X137 HP305X305X158 HP305X305X198 HP305X305X240 HP305X305X283
IT127X76X13 IT152X89X17 IT178X102X22 IT203X102X25 IT203X152X52
IT254X152X59 IT305X152X66
CP100X50 CP120X55 CP140X60 CP160X65 CP180X70
CP200X75 CP220X80 CP240X85 CP260X90 CP280X95
CP300X100
CT100X50X11 CT120X55X13 CT140X60X16 CT160X65X19 CT180X70X22
CT200X75X25 CT220X80X29 CT240X85X33 CT260X90X38 CT280X95X42
CT300X100X46 CT76X38X7 CT127X64X15 CT152X76X18 CT178X54X15
CT381X102X55
AE25X25X3 AE25X25X5 AE30X30X3 AE30X30X5 AE35X35X3
AE35X35X5 AE40X40X3 AE40X40X5 AE40X40X6 AE45X45X3
AE45X45X5 AE45X45X6 AE50X50X3 AE50X50X4 AE50X50X5
AE50X50X6 AE50X50X8 AE60X60X4 AE60X60X5 AE60X60X6
AE60X60X8 AE60X60X10 AE70X70X6 AE70X70X8 AE70X70X10
AE80X80X6 AE80X80X8 AE80X80X10 AE80X80X12 AE90X90X6
AE90X90X8 AE90X90X10 AE90X90X12 AE100X100X8 AE100X100X10
AE100X100X12 AE100X100X15 AE120X120X8 AE120X120X10 AE120X120X12
AE120X120X15 AE150X150X10 AE150X150X12 AE150X150X15 AE150X150X18
AE200X200X16 AE200X200X18 AE200X200X20 AE200X200X24
AU65X50X6 AU65X50X8 AU75X50X6 AU75X50X8 AU80X60X6
AU80X60X8 AU90X65X6 AU90X65X8 AU90X65X10 AU100X65X8
AU100X65X10 AU100X75X6 AU100X75X8 AU100X75X10 AU100X75X12
AU125X75X8 AU125X75X10 AU125X75X12 AU150X75X10 AU150X75X12
AU150X75X15 AU150X90X10 AU150X90X12 AU150X90X15
TCI203X133X25 TCI203X133X30 TCI254X146X31 TCI254X146X37 TCI254X146X43
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 467
Korean 1990 Database
W594X302 W588X300 W582X300 W612X202 W606X201
W600X200 W596X199 W488X300 W482X300 W506X201
W500X200 W496X199 W440X300 W434X299 W450X200
W446X199 W390X300 W386X299 W404X201 W400X200
W396X199 W350X350 W344X354 W344X348 W340X250
W336X249 W354X176 W350X175 W346X174 W310X310
W310X305 W304X301 W300X305 W300X300 W298X299
W294X302 W298X201 W294X200 W300X150 W298X149
W250X255 W250X250 W248X249 W244X252 W244X175
W250X125 W248X124 W208X202 W200X204 W200X200
W194X150 W200X100 W150X150 W148X100 W150X75
W125X125 W100X100
L250X250X35 L250X250X25 L200X200X25 L200X200X20 L200X200X15
L175X175X15 L175X175X12 L150X150X19 L150X150X15 L150X150X12
L150X150X10 L130X130X15 L130X130X12 L130X130X10 L130X130X9
L120X120X8 L100X100X13 L100X100X10 L100X100X8 L100X100X7
L90X90X13 L90X90X10 L90X90X9 L90X90X8 L90X90X7
L90X90X6 L80X80X7 L80X80X6 L75X75X12 L75X75X9
L75X75X6 L70X70X6 L65X65X8 L65X65X6 L65X65X5
L60X60X6 L60X60X5 L60X60X4 L50X50X6 L50X50X5
L50X50X4 L45X45X5 L45X45X4 L40X40X5
C300X90 C300X91 C300X92 C300X93 C300X94
C125X65 C100X50 C75X40
M300X150 M250X125 M200X100 M150X75 M125X75
468 Structural Steel Modeler
UK 1993 Database
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
This chapter introduces dynamic analysis and describes the specific input for each of the options available from the
Dynamics Input Menu.
In This Chapter
Dynamic Analysis Input .......................................................................... 52
Dynamic Analysis Overview................................................................... 53
Harmonic Analysis .................................................................................. 57
Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles ...................................... 513
Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ....................................... 519
Spectrum Time History............................................................................ 531
Lumped Masses ....................................................................................... 535
Dynamic Control Parameters................................................................... 539
Advanced Parameters .............................................................................. 564
Pulsation Loads........................................................................................ 567
Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis ......................................................... 569
C H A P T E R 5
52 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Dynamic Analysis Input
Once the basic model has been constructed a dynamic analysis can be performed. After selecting ANALYSIS/ DYNAMICS from
the CAESAR II Main Menu, the Dynamics Input window appears.
The analysis type is selected from the drop list on the upper left portion of the window and the tabbed items will be
modified depending on the type of analysis to be performed. If the model contains spring hangers to be designed, or single
directional supports, gaps, rods, or friction, then a static analysis must be performed before the dynamic analysis to
determine how the nonlinear supports are acting. The following sections describe the specific input for each of the options
available from the Dynamics Input Menu.
See Chapter 8 of the User Guide for a thorough discussion of basic dynamic load cases and data, and for a description of
how to interact with the dynamics input processor.
The current units applicable to the dynamics input are pulled from the piping input file (or from the Configuration file in the
event of a structuralonly job).
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 53
Dynamic Analysis Overview
A piping system may respond far differently to a dynamic load than it would to a static load of the same magnitude. Static
loads are those which are applied slowly enough that the system has time to react and internally distribute the loads, thus
remaining in equilibrium. In equilibrium, all forces and moments are resolved (i.e., the sum of the forces and moments are
zero), and the pipe does not move.
With a dynamic loada load which changes quickly with timethe piping system may not have time to internally
distribute the loads, so forces and moments are not always resolvedresulting in unbalanced loads, and therefore pipe
movement. Since the sum of forces and moments are not necessarily equal to zero, the internally induced loads can be
differenteither higher or lowerthan the applied loads.
For this reason, different analysis methods must be used to determine response of a system when subjected to dynamic
loads. CAESAR II provides several methods for analyzing different types of dynamic loadings, which help optimize the
tradeoff of accuracy vs. computing requirementsthese include harmonic solution, response spectrum method, and time
history analysis.
The force vs. time profiles of the dynamic loads most often encountered during the design of piping is usually one of three
typesrandom, harmonic, or impulse. Each of these load profiles has a preferred solution method as well. These profiles,
and the load types identified with them, are described below.
Random
With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude unpredictably with time, although there may be
predominant characteristics within the load profile. Loads with random force/time profiles are best solved using the
Spectrum method. Major types of loads with random time profiles are
WindWind velocity causes forces due to the decrease of wind momentum as the air strikes the pipe, creating an
equivalent pressure on the pipe. Wind loadings, even though they may have predominant directions and average
velocities over a given time, are subject to gusting, i.e., sudden changes in direction and velocity. As the observed time
period lengthens, the observed number of changes increases in an unpredictable manner as well, eventually
encompassing nearly all directions and a wide range of velocities.
EarthquakeSeismic (earthquake) loadings are caused by the introduction of random motion (accelerations,
velocities, and displacements) of the ground and corresponding inertia loads (the mass of the system times the
acceleration) into a structure through the structuretoground anchorage. The random ground motion is actually the sum
of an infinite number of individual harmonic (cyclic) ground motions. Two earthquakes may be similar in terms of
predominant direction (along a fault, for example), predominant harmonic frequencies (if certain of the underlying
cyclic motions tend to dominate), and maximum ground motion, but their exact behavior at any given time may be quite
different and unpredictable.
Harmonic
With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude following a harmonic profile, ranging from its
minimum to its maximum over a fixed time period. For example, the load may be described by a function of the form:
F(t) = A + B cos(e t + Q)
Where:
F(t) = force magnitude as a function of time
A = mean force
B = variation of maximum and minimum force from mean
e = angular frequency (radian/sec)
54 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Q = phase angle (radians)
t = time (sec)
Loads with harmonic force/time profiles are best solved using the Harmonic method. Major types of loads with harmonic
time profiles are
Equipment vibrationIf rotating equipment attached to a pipe is slightly out of tolerance (drive shaft out of round,
for example), it may impose a small cyclic displacement onto the pipe at the point of attachment, where the
displacement cycle would most likely correspond to the equipments operating cycle. The displacement at the pipe
connection may be so small as to not even be noticeable, but dynamically it could cause significant problems. The
loading vs. time can be easily predicted once the equipments operating cycle and variation from tolerance is known.
Acoustic vibrationIf fluid flow characteristics are changed within a pipe (for example if flow conditions change
from laminar to turbulent as the fluid goes through an orifice), slight lateral vibrations may be set up within the pipe.
Often these vibrations fit harmonic patterns, with predominant frequencies somewhat predictable based upon the flow
conditions. For example, Strouhals equation predicts that the developed frequency (Hz) of vibration caused by flow
through an orifice will be somewhere between 0.2 V/D and 0.3 V/D, where V is the fluid velocity (ft./sec) and D is the
diameter of the orifice (ft). Wind flow around a pipe sets up lateral displacements as well (a phenomenon known as
vortex shedding), with an exciting frequency in the area of 0.18 V/D, where V is the wind velocity and D is the outer
diameter of the pipe.
PulsationDuring the operation of a reciprocating pump or a compressor, the fluid is compressed by pistons driven by
a rotating shaft. This causes a cyclic change (vs. time) in the fluid pressure at any specified location in the system. If the
fluid pressures at opposing elbow pairs or closures are unequal, this creates an unbalanced pressure load in the system.
Since the pressure balance changes with the cycle of the compressor, the unbalanced force changes as well. (Note that
the frequency of the force cycle will most likely be some multiple of that of the equipment operating cycle, since
multiple pistons will cause a corresponding number of force variations during each shaft rotation.) The pressure
variations will continue to move along through the fluid, so in a steady state flow condition, unbalanced forces may be
present simultaneously at all elbow pairs in the system. The load magnitudes may vary, and the load cycles may or may
not be in phase with each other, depending upon the pulse velocity, the distance of each elbow pair from the
compressor, and the length of the piping legs between the elbow pairs.
For example, if the pressure at elbow a is denoted by P
a
(t) and the pressure at elbow b is denoted by P
b
(t), then the
unbalanced force acting along the pipe between the two elbows is:
F(t) = (P
a
(t)  P
b
(t)) A
Where:
A = internal area of the pipe
The expression for P
a
(t) can be calculated as (assuming that the pressure peak hits the elbow a at time t = 0):
P
a
(t) = P
avg
+ 0.5 (dP) cos e t
Where:
P
avg
= average pressure in the line
dP = alternating component of the pressure
e = driving angular frequency of pulse
If the length of the pipe between the elbows is L, then the pressure pulse will reach elbow b t
s
after it has passed elbow a:
t
s
= L / c
Where:
c = speed of sound in the fluid
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 55
Therefore the expression for the pressure at elbow b is:
P
b
(t) = P
avg
+ 0.5(dP) cos ( e t  Q)
Where:
Q = phase shift between the pressure peaks at a and b
= e t
s
Combining these equations, the equation for the unbalanced pressure force acting on an elbow pair can be written as:
F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos e t  cos e (t  L/c) ]
Under steadystate conditions, a similar situation would exist at all elbow pairs throughout the piping system.
Impulse
With this type of profile, the load magnitude ramps up from zero to some value, remains relatively constant for a time, and
then ramps down to zero again. For rapid ramping times, this type of profile resembles a rectangle. Loads with impulse
force/time profiles are best solved using the Time History or Force Spectrum methods. Major types of loads with impulse
time profiles are
Relief valveWhen system pressure reaches a dangerous level, relief valves are set to open in order to vent fluid and
reduce the internal pressure. Venting through the valve causes a jet force to act on the piping system; this force ramps
up to its full value, from zero, over the opening time of the valve. The relief valve remains open (and the jet force
remains relatively constant) until sufficient fluid is vented to relief the overpressure situation. The valve then closes,
ramping down the jet force over the closing time of the valve.
Fluid hammerWhen the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted at one point, through valve closure or a
pump trip, the fluid in the remainder of the system cannot be stopped instantaneously as well. As fluid continues to flow
into the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or pump), the fluid compresses, causing a high pressure situation at that
point. Likewise, on the other side of the restriction, the fluid moves away from the stoppage point, creating a low
pressure (vacuum) situation at that location. Fluid at the next elbow or closure along the pipeline is still at the original
operating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced pressure force acting on the valve seat or the elbow.
The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) fluid further away from the point of flow stoppage, thus
causing the leading edge of the pressure pulse to move through the line. As the pulse moves past the first elbow, the
pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run, leading to a balanced (i.e., zero) pressure load on the first pipe leg.
However the unbalanced pressure, by passing the elbow, has now shifted to the second leg. The unbalanced pressure load
will continue to rise and fall in sequential legs as the pressure pulse travels back to the source (or forward to the sink).
The ramp up time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to low flow, such as the closing time
of the valve or trip time of the pump. Since the leading edge of the pressure pulse is not expected to change as the pulse
travels through the system, the ramp down time is the same. The duration of the load from initiation through the beginning
of the down ramp is equal to the time required for the pressure pulse to travel the length of the pipe leg.
Slug flowMost piping systems are designed to handle singlephase fluids (i.e., those which are uniformly liquid or
gas). Under certain circumstances, however, the fluid may have multiple phases. For example, slurry systems transport
solid materials in liquids, and gases may condense, creating pockets of liquid in otherwise gaseous media. Systems
carrying multiphase fluids are susceptible to slug flow.
In general, when fluid changes direction in a piping system, this is done through the application of forces at elbows. This
force is equal to the change in momentum with respect to time, or
F
r
= dp / dt = v
2
A [2(1  cos u)]
1/2
56 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Where:
dp = change in momentum
dt = change in time
= fluid density
v = fluid velocity
A = internal area of pipe
u = inclusion angle at elbow
Normally this force is constant, and is small enough that it can be easily absorbed through tension in the pipe wall, to be
passed on to adjacent elbows which may have equal and opposite loads, zeroing the net load on the system. Therefore these
types of momentum loads are usually ignored by the stress analyst. However, if the fluid velocity or density changes with
time, this momentum load will change with time as well, leading to a dynamic (changing) load, which may not be cancelled
by the load at other elbows.
For example, consider a slug of liquid in a gas system. The steady state momentum load is insignificant, since the fluid
density of a gas is effectively zero. Suddenly the liquid slug hits the elbow, increasing the momentum load by orders of
magnitude. This load lasts only as long as it takes for the slug to traverse the elbow, and then suddenly drops to near zero
again, with the exact profile of the slug load depending upon the shape of the slug. The time duration of the load depends
upon the length of the slug divided by the velocity of the fluid.
Where:
Fx = v
2
A(1  cos u)
Fr = v
2
A [2(1  cos u)]
Fy = v
2
A sin u
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 57
Harmonic Analysis
Input Excitation Frequencies
Harmonic Analysis Excitation Frequencies
Starting Frequency
First frequency in the users defined excitation frequency range. The defined harmonic displacements and forces will have
the form: A*cosine(wt+p), where A is the amplitude of the force or displacement, p is the phase angle, and e is the
frequency of the loading. Real and imaginary solutions will be developed for each frequency in the defined range (from
which any phased solution can be calculated). For an entered frequency range to be valid there must be at least a starting
frequency. All frequencies are entered in Hertz.
Ending Frequency
Last frequency in the users defined excitation frequency range. If omitted then it defaults to the Starting frequency.
Increment
Frequency increment. If omitted then defaults to 1.0 Hz.
58 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
The frequencies for harmonic excitation are taken from each frequency range defined by the user. Individual frequencies for
excitation are computed using a DO LOOP type of logic as follows:
X = STARTING FREQUENCY
5 CONTINUE
COMPUTE SOLUTION FOR FREQUENCY X
X = X + INCREMENT
IF( X .LT. ENDING FREQUENCY+0.001) GO TO 5
Using this logic the user can determine exactly which frequencies in a specified frequency range will be analyzed. The sign
of the frequency increment may be modified by CAESAR II to properly step from the users starting frequency to his ending
frequency.
Either the starting frequency, the ending frequency, or the frequency increment may be given as a fraction or a whole part
with fraction.
Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the Excitation frequency
data.
EXAMPLES:
Find harmonic solutions for the following group of equipment speeds:
100 rpm (Warm up speed)
400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200 rpm. Speeds passed through very slowly while coming up to operating
speed.
3600 rpm. Operating speed.
Rotations per minute convert to cycles per second by dividing by 60. Frequency excitation would be input.
WARM UP SPEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 100/60
BRINGING TURBINE ONLINE (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 400/60 3200/60 400/60
OPERATING SPEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 3600/60
A low frequency field vibration exists in the piping system at about 3 Hertz. Define a 3 Hertz excitation:
APPROXIMATE FIELD OBSERVED EXCITATION FREQUENCY (HZ) 3
The response of the piping system when the dynamic load was applied at 3 Hertz was almost zero. This was true regardless
of the magnitude of the dynamic load (i.e. the maximum conceivable varying pressure load was applied, and there were still
no appreciable dynamic displacements when the excitation frequency was 3 Hertz). Apply the dynamic load over a range of
frequencies around 3 Hertz and see if any dynamic response can be observed.
GROUP OF FREQUENCIES AROUND THE FIELD GUESSED AT
3 HERTZ EXCITATION. THE EXCITATION FREQUENCIES
DEFINED BY THE INPUT BELOW ARE:
(2.5, 2.6, 2.7, ..., 3.3, 3.4, 3.5) HZ.
2.5 3.5 0.1
Load Cycles
Number of cycles expected for this loading. If entered, this signals to CAESAR II that the harmonic load case should be
treated as a fatigue stress case with the allowable stress based on the number of anticipated cycles.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 59
Harmonic Forces and Displacements
Harmonic Forces
Either the Harmonic Forces or the Displacements must be entered in addition to the Excitation Frequency Data. Click the
Harmonic Forces button to bring up a window like that shown below. Click the + button on the toolbar to add a harmonic
force.
Force
Amplitude of the harmonic force. The form of the harmonic forcing function is: F(t) = A*cosine( et), where F(t) is the
force as a function of time. A is the maximum amplitude of the dynamic force. e is the frequency of the excitation (in
radians per second), and p is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the force in the units shown. These units are taken from
the current set which resides on the file UNITS.FIL.
Direction
Enter the line of action of the force as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The format for direction
cosines is (cx,cy, cz), i.e. (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), i.e.. (1,0,1).
510 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Phase
Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic loading can start with its maximum load at time equal to zero, or the
harmonic load can start with its maximum at any time between zero and t=2*pi/w seconds. The phase angle is the method
used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using
the equation: p(degrees) = 180tw/pi, where t is given in seconds and w is given in radians per second. Most frequently the
phase angle is entered as either zero or 90. The phase specification is most useful when defining eccentric loads on rotating
equipment. Some of the examples that follow discuss common applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a
required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0 must be entered !
Start Node
The node where the force is to act. This entry is required. If entered without a Stop Node and Increment, then this node must
exist in the piping system. If entered with a Stop Node and Increment, then the range of nodes identified by the loop must
include at least one node in the piping system.
Stop Node
Used as a part of a range of nodes force loading command. This entry is optional.
Increment
Used as a part of a range of nodes force loading command. This entry is optional.
EXAMPLES
It is assumed that a pressure pulse traveling in the line between nodes 95 and 100 causes the line to shake at about 2 hertz.
The magnitude of the pressure loading (See the examples for calculating forces from pressures) is estimated to be about 460
lb. The pressure wave travels from 95 to 100. The harmonic force to model this load is shown as follows. Note that the
magnitude is divided by 2 because the total variation in the dynamic load is a function of the cosine, which varies from 1 to
1. To find the true response magnitudes from a positive only harmonic load pulse, a static solution with 460/2 lb. acting in
the plus X direction would have to be superimposed on the static 460/2 lb. solution to provide the constant shifting of the
load axis (i.e. as defined in the following example, there will exist a negative load at node 95 due to the negative sign on the
cosine). The pressure pulse will always be positive and so a negative load will never exist. The superposition of the 460/2
static solution makes sure that the dynamic load (and probably the resulting displacements) are always positive.
460 LB PRESSURE LOAD AT 2 HERTZ 460/2 X 0.0 95
A pump is shaking in the XY plane. The pump axis is along the global Z axis. The magnitude of the dynamic load is
computed to be 750 lb. from the manufacturers provided masses and eccentricities. Apply this rotating equipment loading
on the inline pump at node 350. The X and Y loads are 90 degrees out of phase with one another. When the X load is at its
maximum the Y load is zero, and when the Y load is at its maximum the X load is zero.
ESTIMATED ECCENTRIC LOAD ON INLINE PUMP DOHV33203001
750 X 0.0 350
750 Y 90.0 350
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 511
Harmonic Displacements
Displacement
Amplitude of the harmonic displacement. The form of the harmonic displacement function is: D(t)=(A)*cosine(et), where
D(t) is the displacement as a function of time, A is the maximum amplitude of the dynamic displacement. e is the
frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and  is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the displacements in the
units shown.
Direction
Enter the line of action of the displacement as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The format for
direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), i.e (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), i.e. (1,0,1).
Phase
Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacement at time equal to
zero, or the harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacements at any time between zero and t + 2 t/e
seconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load waveform. The phase angle can
be calculated from the time shift using the equation:  (degrees) = 180te/t, where t is given in seconds and e is given in
radians per second. Most frequently the phase angle is entered as either zero or 90. The phase specification is most useful
when defining eccentric displacements on rotating equipment. Some of the examples that follow discuss common
512 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0 must be
entered!
Start Node
Node where the dynamic displacement is defined. If the node is a supported node, then the dynamic displacement will be
assumed to act at the support point. If the node is not supported, then the dynamic displacement will be assumed to describe
the exact motion of the pipe at that point. This differentiation only becomes important when the node is supported by a
flexible restraint. For example, node 55 is supported in the Y direction by a restraint having a stiffness of 5000 lb./in. A
harmonic displacement is also specified at node 55, in the Y direction. In this case, the harmonic displacement does not
describe the displacement that is attached to 55!
Harmonic Displacements at Compressor Flange
0.008 Y 0.0 330
0.003 Z 0.0 330
If the Start Node is entered without a Stop Node and Increment, then this node must exist in the piping system. If the Start
Node is entered with a Stop Node and Increment, then this range of nodes must include at least one node in the piping
system.
Stop Node
Used as a part of a range of nodes force displacement loading. This entry is optional.
Increment
Used as a part of a range of nodes force displacement loading. This entry is optional.
EXAMPLES
A large ethylene compressor shakes the node exiting the compressor flange in the Y direction a field measured 8 mils, and
in the Z direction an amount equal to 3 mils. Define these dynamic displacements. The displacements are assumed to be
simultaneous, with no phase shift. This is because the load causing the displacements is believed to be the compressor
plunger moving in the X, or axial direction. (The displacements are skewed because the piping configuration entering
the compressor is itself skewed.)
Applying estimated eccentric forces to the pump described in the harmonic force example did not produce the
displacements witnessed in the field. Field personnel have measured the dynamic displacements in the vertical (Y) and
transverse (Z) directions at the pump piping connections. The centerline of the pump, at the intersection of the
horizontal suction and vertical discharge is node 15. The magnitude of the Z displacement was measured to be 12 mil.
The magnitude of the Y displacement was measured to be 3 mils. It is assumed that the vibration is due to the rotation
of the pump shaft, and so the Z and Y loads will be taken to be 90 degrees out of phase.
HARMONIC DISPLACEMENTS MODELING PUMP VIBRATION ON THE INLINE PUMP DOHV33203001.
MODELLING THE PUMPS
DYNAMIC LOAD WITH FORCES DID NOT RESULT IN THE
DISPLACEMENTS WITNESSED BY FIELD PERSONNEL. NOW TRY
IMPOSING THE DISPLACEMENTS AND SEE WHAT THE RESULTING
FORCES ARE. ALSO CHECK TO SEE IF THE ATTACHED PIPING
MOVES AROUND AS EXPECTED.
Z MAGNITUDE OF THE LOAD  ZERO PHASE SHIFT
0.012 Z 0.0 15
Y MAGNITUDE OF THE LOAD  90 DEG. PHASE SHIFT
0.003 Y 90.0 15
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 513
Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles
Spectrum Definitions
Name
Can be any 24character identifier. This name is associated with a particular spectrum or load profile. The complete
definition of a shock includes its name, range type, ordinate type, range interpolation method, ordinate interpolation method,
and the shock data point table. Everything but the shock data point table can be entered here. There are 14 predefined
spectra for which no extra definitions are required and they are:
El Centro
514 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
For the El Centro California NS component taken from Biggs, Introduction to Structural Dynamics, and applies for
systems with 510 percent critical damping.
REG. GUIDE 1.60
1.60H.5 and 1.60V.5
1.60H2 and 1.60V2
1.60H5 and 1.60V5
1.60H7 and 1.60V7
1.60H1.0 and 1.60V10
Each of these spectra defines respectively the horizontal and vertical components for 0.5, 2, 5, 7, and 10 percent critically
damped systems. Associated with each of these spectra is a value for the Maximum ground acceleration at the site, the ZPA.
(Zero Period Acceleration) This value defaults to 0.5 g and can be changed on the control parameter spreadsheet.
Uniform Building Code
UBCSOIL1
UBCSOIL2
UBCSOIL3
These spectra represent the normalized (horizontal) response spectra for three soil types provided in Figure 233 of the
Uniform Building Code, (1991 Edition).
Note The spectrum name (or load profile) can be preceded by a (#) sign. The (#) sign instructs CAESAR II to read the
spectrum table from a file having the same name as the spectrum with no extension.
Entering the spectrum table in an ASCII file allows several jobs to access the same spectrum table data without the user
having to retype it for each job. If data is to be read directly from within the Dynamic Output then click the Data Points
button and enter the appropriate Range and Ordinate values.
Range Type
This entry defines the table range, or horizontal axis, and can be either Period, Frequency, or "Time". If the range
type is Period then the spectrum table data must be entered in seconds. If the range type is Frequency then the spectrum
table data must be entered in Hertz, (cycles per second). Time may be used for Time History load profiles only, and must be
entered in milliseconds (ms).
Ordinate Type
This entry defines the spectrum table ordinate, or vertical axis, and can be either Acceleration, Velocity, Displacement or
Force (multiplier). Any part of the word for the ordinate type can be spelled out, but only the first letter is required. Note
that acceleration units are length per second squared. Users may enter the spectrum table ordinate in gs by selecting
acceleration as the ordinate type and then using a shock scale factor of 386, for length units of inches. For Time History
load profiles, the only valid ordinate type is Force (multiplier).
Range Interpolation
Interpolation between range values may be done logarithmically or linearly (valid input is LOG or LIN). See the examples
shown for additional discussion.
Ordinate Interpolation
Interpolation between ordinate values may be done logarithmically or linearly (valid input is LOG or LIN). See the
examples shown for additional discussion.
One job may have any number of different spectrum types and definitions.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 515
Special FORCE spectrum data files are created by the DLF Spectrum generator. See the documentation covering this item
later in this chapter.
When a new job is started up the 14 predefined spectra is already included in the spectrum definition list. Any combination
of these predefined spectra may be used as is, deleted or used with any other user defined spectra.
ASCII files that contain spectrum table data can contain comment lines starting with an asterisk just like regular terminal
entered data lines. The user is encouraged to include the basic spectrum data definitions in the comments for each ASCII
spectrum file. See the example that follows.
Example
The job requires that the El Centro shock be applied in the X and Z directions using a factor of 1.0, and in the Y direction
using a factor of 0.667.
There is no spectrum definition required for this shock. El Centro is a predefined spectrum. All of its shock data resides in
the CAESAR II shock database.
The job requires the use of the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 shock loads. At a maximum acceleration value of 0.25 gs,
analysis is to be performed using 1.0 times the horizontal and vertical components of the shock as specified in Reg. Guide
1.60.
There is no spectrum definition required for either of these two shock loads. The Reg. Guide 1.60 shock spectra are
predefined. The user must only specify the maximum acceleration (ZPA) of 0.25 gs on the control parameter spreadsheet,
and must use the reg. guide spectra which correspond to the anticipated system damping. Lower damping values mean
more conservative results.
The job requires a shock spectrum that is given by the client and developed for the site. A plot of the spectrum appears as
follows. The horizontal axis is period and the vertical axis is acceleration. From the variation of the numbers along each axis
it can be seen that a logarithmic interpolation for each axis should be used. Because the shock name is NOT preceded by
a (#) sign the user will have to enter the points for this spectrum during this interactive input session.
BENCHNO4 PERIOD ACCELERATION LOG LOG
All jobs on a particular project require the use of the spectrum table shown as follows. Since we only want to type the
spectrums data points in one time, the points will be entered into a file named BENCH1. The ASCII file BENCH1 can be
created using any standard editor or the CAESAR II text editor. The listing of the ASCII file for BENCH1 is shown following
the plot of the spectrum.
The spectrum definition input for pointing to this file is:
#BENCH1 PERIOD ACCEL LOG LOG
Listing of ASCII file BENCH1:
SPECTRUM FOR NUCLEAR BENCHMARK NO.1. THIS SPECTRUM IS
TO BE USED FOR ALL LINES ON PROJECT 1130023A03.
FILENAME = BENCH1
RANGE TYPE = PERIOD (SECONDS)
ORDINATE TYPE = ACCELERATION (IN./SEC./SEC.)
INTERPOLATION FOR BOTH AXES = LOGARITHMIC.
FILE PREPARED BY M.NASH JANUARY 15, 1987
PERIOD(SEC) ACCELERATION(IN/SEC/SEC)
516 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
0.1698
E02
0.1450E
+03
0.2800E
01
0.3800E
+03
0.5800E
01
0.7750E
+03
0.7100E
01
0.7750E
+03
0.9100E

01
0.4400E
+03
0.1140E
+00
0.1188E
+04
0.1410E
+00
0.1188E
+04
0.1720E
+00
0.7000E
+03
0.2000E
+00
0.8710E
+03
0.2500E
+00
0.8710E
+03
0.3230E
+
00
0.4000E
+03
Response Spectrum / Time History Profile Data Point Input
Data points for userdefined spectra may be entered through the menu option Tools /Spectrum Data Points.
Range
Spectrum table range value. There should be at least one rangeordinate pair for each spectrum.
Ordinate
Spectrum table ordinate value. There should be at least one range ordinate pair for each spectrum.
Values may be entered in exponential format (i.e. 0.3003E+03, or 0.3423E03, or 0.3003E3,...), or can have explicit
multiplication or division (i.e. 4032.3/386, or 1.0323*12). Sufficient data points should be entered to fully describe the
spectrum or load profile.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 517
There can be any number of line entries in the spectrum data. Data may also be read from a file using the Read From File
button.
Force Response Spectrum Definitions
The CAESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator takes the time waveform of some excitation and converts it into a frequency
domain dynamic load factor (DLF) curve. The frequency domain dynamic load factor curve is written to a hard disk file and
can be read directly by CAESAR II as a FORCE response spectrum curve. Input for the Pulse Table Generator is shown as
follows.
DLF/Spectrum Table Generator
Force Spectrum Name
The force spectrum generator creates an ASCII file containing the force spectrum that corresponds to the input time history
waveform.
Maximum Table Frequency
Enter the maximum frequency that should exist in the CAESAR II generated spectrum table. This value seldom needs to be
greater than 100 Hz. If piping frequencies greater than 100 Hz are found in the system and included in the spectrum
analysis, then the spectrum value at 100 Hz would be used. The user can decide which frequencies are important, and
therefore how high the frequency must go, by looking at the solution participation factors and the animated mode shapes.
Typically only the lower frequencies contribute to the system displacements, forces and stresses.
Number of Points in the Table
This is the number of points CAESAR II will generate for the spectrum table. Usually 15 to 20 points are sufficient. These
points are distributed in a cubic relationship starting from zero hertz.
Create Table
When the Create Table button is clicked, a dialog box will appear with the input table as displayed below. Enter the Time /
Force data and click the OK button to create the DLF curve on the hard drive.
518 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Input Table Dialog
Time
Enter the points that describe the time waveform to be modeled. Units for this table are milliseconds. (1000 milliseconds
equal one second.)
Force
Enter the forces that correspond to the points on the force/time curve. Units are as shown. Note that the absolute magnitude
of the force is not important, only the form of the time history loading is important. The actual maximum value of the
dynamic load is taken from the force pattern defined in: SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SETS.
There can be any number of line entries in the Excitation frequency data.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 519
Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases
Time History Load Cases
Spectrum /Time History Profile
Enter the name of the shock that was defined during the Time History Definitions phase of the input. This may be any type
of spectra, user defined, predefined, or read from a file. (DO NOT PRECEDE THE SPECTRUM NAME WITH A # HERE,
EVEN IF THE SPECTRUM TABLE WAS READ FROM AN ASCII DATA FILE!) Any number of shocks can be listed
here. Individual contributions can be of any shock type or definition.
Factor
Constant by which to multiply the shock table. Usually 1.0, or if the spectrum table data points were read in units of gs, to
convert to in/sec/sec then this factor would be 386. There are several examples that follow which illustrate various
applications of this value.
Direction
Defines the direction of application of the shock. To define an earthquake type of loading, CAESAR II must know what the
earthquake shock looks like, which comes from the shock spectrum table. CAESAR II must also know in which direction
this shock acts. Typically a shock load case will be comprised of three shock components. One acts in the X direction, one
520 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
in the Z, and one in the Y. The combination of each of these three shocks defines the earthquakes dynamic loading of the
piping system.
Skewed directions may be entered by giving a direction cosine or direction vector. Skewed shock contributions are entered
when the piping or structural system appears particularly sensitive to a shock along a skewed line. This most often occurs
when a majority of the piping system lies along a 45 degree line in the horizontal plane. An example shock input for this
type of system is shown among the examples on the following pages.
Any number of shock components can act in the same direction. i.e. there can be two X direction components. This usually
occurs with independent support shock contributions where one X direction component would apply to one support group
and another X direction component would apply to a different support group. (However, there can be two shock
components in the same direction without having independent support contributions defined. This would just involve
defining two shock contributions in the same direction without start, stop, or increment node entries.)
In the simplest form of force spectrum loading there is only a single shock component in the load case, i.e. there is only a
single line of input on the load case screen. When there are multiple lines of input on the load case screen, as when the user
is analyzing a traveling pressure wave that impacts different elbowelbow pairs, there can be many components to the shock
load case. The combination of responses from each of these shock loading components can be established in one of two
ways. If the Direction field is the same for each load component, then the Directional Combination method will be used to
combine the responses from each load component. If the Direction field is different for each load component, then the
spatial combination method will be used to combine the responses from each load component. The difference between
Spatial and Directional combination methods is that Directional combinations are always made before Modal combinations,
while Spatial combinations can be made before or after Modal combinations, (it is user controlled). The default is to
perform the Modal combinations before Spatial combinations. Either Spatial or Directional combinations can be made using
the ABS or SRSS method. Some of the following force spectrum examples illustrate these differences.
Note: Since Time History combinations are all algebraic (inphase), this entry is used as nothing more than a label during
this type of analysis.
Force Set #
If the Spectrum/Load Profile Name describes a Forcetype spectrum (rather than displacement, velocity, or acceleration),
then the fourth entry in the load case screen is the force set number. This force set number corresponds to the loads entered
in the Force Sets option. Examples shown on the following pages illustrate this application. Note that if a force set # is
entered, the last three fields must be left blank!
Start Node
Start node, stop node, and increment are only used to define the component of an independent support shock (ISM). This is
a shock component that applies only to a group of support points. For example, different shock spectrum may have been
generated for rack level piping and for ground level piping. In this case the rack supports would be subject to one shock
excitation (influenced by the racks response to the earthquake), and the ground level supports would be subject to a
different shock excitation (not influenced by the rack). In this case, one node range would be used to define the rack support
shock contributions and another would be used to define the ground support shock contributions. The range of nodes
defined by the start node, stop node, and increment must include at least one support point.
Stop Node
Part of the range of nodes. If omitted, defaults to the start node. See the examples that follow for clarification.
Increment
Part of the range of nodes. If omitted, defaults to 1. See the examples that follow for clarification.
Anchor Movement (Earthquake Only)
This entry is only used for independent support movements. It is used to specify the absolute displacement of the restraints
included in this shock case. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load components representing the
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 521
relative displacement of the individual restraint sets. If omitted, the default is taken from the lowest frequency entry of the
response spectrum: specified displacement, velocity/frequency, or acceleration/frequency
2
(where frequency is angular
frequency).
Directives
A number of directives can be set for each individual load case using the Directives button. These parameters are optional
extensions to the global options set for all load cases on the Control Parameter spreadsheet. Typically users will not need
to specify any of these options.
Directional Combination Method. Similar directional components will be combined using either the ABS or the SRSS
summation method. If there are two shock components in the X direction, the components from each shocks effect on the
system will be summed absolutely. Directional combinations are performed before all other combinations. (There are three
types of combinations: DIRECTIONAL, SPATIAL AND MODAL). The default DIRECTIONAL combination method is
ABS.
Modal Combination Method.
Modal (Group) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 GROUPING method. CAESAR II uses
the Revision 1, February 1976 issue of the Regulatory Guide 1.92. See the discussion of the SPATIAL(ABS) directive for a
description of the relationship that exits between modal and spatial response combinations.
Modal (10%) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 10% method.
Modal (DSRSS) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 Double Square Root of the Sum of the
Squares method. Damping is assumed to be equal for all modes and is taken from the control parameter spreadsheet.
Modal (ABS) Modal components (response quantities) will be combined absolutely. (i.e. the absolute value of each
response quantity will be summed.)
Modal (SRSS) Modal components will be combined using the square root of the sum of the squares method of
combination.
Spatial Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Spatial components will be combined using the ABS summation method.
There are typically three spatial components in a single earthquake type shock load case. The three usual excitation
directions are the X, Y, and Z global axes. (Although there can be any number of spatial components along any global or
skewed axes.)
522 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Spatial or Modal Combination First. Modal before Spatial summations are Independent. An Independent shock is one
where the X, Y, Z components are random and temporally independent of one another. (i.e. time histories for each
directional component of the shock are not equal.) Spatial before Modal summations are Simultaneous. A simultaneous
shock is one where the X, Y, and Z components are random, but temporarily the same (i.e. time histories for each
directional component of the shock are equal).
Pseudostatic Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Pseudostatic components for each ISM are added into the response
quantities either absolutely or using the SRSS method of combination. Pseudostatic combinations are performed after all
spatial and modal combinations. The user can deactivate the inclusion of pseudostatic component from the control
parameter spreadsheet.
Missing Mass Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Missing mass components for each shock load are added into the
response quantities either absolutely or using the SRSS method of combination. The user can deactivate the inclusion of
missing mass components from the control parameter spreadsheet. Missing mass components are added in following modal
summation.
Stress Type (EXP). Stress type for the load case is set using the stress type drop list. If FATigue is selected, the expected
number of load cycles must be entered. The user can change the default stress type dynamic loads to any of the allowed
stress types in CAESAR II. Available stress types are EXP, SUS, OCC, OPE, and FAT. The OCC or occasional stress type is
the default.
The entry of node groups causes a pseudostatic component of the shock to be created. This pseudostatic contribution
can be added or omitted from the final shock loading effects. Additional parameters can be entered on the control
parameter spreadsheet.
The order of input of the shock contributions is not important, and has no bearing on the results.
There is no limit to the number of shock load cases the user can define. The dynamic output processor lets the user
decide which of the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases he wants to process.
Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the spectrum data.
EXAMPLES
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of one times the El Centro earthquake in the X
direction, one times the El Centro earthquake in the Z, and 0.667 times the El Centro earthquake in the Y direction.
ELCENTRO 1 X
ELCENTRO 1 Z
ELCENTRO 0.667 Y
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with the horizontal and vertical components of the Reg. Guide 1.60
shock spectra for a 2 percent critically damped system. The maximum ground acceleration should be 0.22 gs.
The maximum ground acceleration is set on the control parameter spreadsheet and has no effect on the shock load case
definitions.
1.60H2 1 X
1.60H2 1 Z
1.60V2 1 Y
Define a shock load case that is comprised of the users' shocks BENCH1 and BENCH2. BENCH1 should act in the X and Z
directions, and shock BENCH2 should act in the Y direction. The scale factor for all shocks is 1.0.
BENCH1 1 X
BENCH2 1 Y
BENCH1 1 Z
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 523
One of the shock load cases for this particular job should excite the piping system along a line that is 45 degrees off of the
global axes in the horizontal plane. It is suspected that this direction of excitation will yield the worst possible results. Apply
the user defined shock BENCH1 in the horizontal direction and BENCH2 in the vertical direction.
BENCH1 1 (1,0,1)
BENCH1 1 (1,0,1)
BENCH2 1 Y
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of two times the El Centro earthquake in the X, Y,
and Z directions. There should be two shock load cases in this job. The first should use an independent summation and the
second a simultaneous.
The load cases would be defined as shown. (There are several ways to accomplish the same objective here using parameters
on the control parameter spreadsheet, etc. Only the method using the explicit definition of the load case combination
method will be presented.) Remember that independent summation means MODAL then SPATIAL, and simultaneous
means SPATIAL then MODAL.
LOAD CASE 1 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS  CAESAR IIs title
MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL COMBINATIONS FIRST
ELCENTRO 2 X
ELCENTRO 2 Y
ELCENTRO 2 Z
LOAD CASE 2 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS  CAESAR IIs title
SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL COMBINATIONS FIRST
ELCENTRO 2 X
ELCENTRO 2 Y
ELCENTRO 2 Z
Define a shock case that has the user defined spectrum 1DIR acting in the Z direction only. Set the stress type for the case
to be operating and use modal summations before spatial summations. Note that there is no mention of modal or spatial
summations in the load data shown as follows (only the stress type). This is because modal summation first is the
CAESAR II default and would have to be changed on the control parameter spreadsheet for it not to still apply.
1DIR 1 Z
STRESSTYPE(OPE)
The support nodes 5, 25, 35, 45, and 56 are pipe shoes sitting on concrete foundations. The support nodes 140, 145, 157,
160, and 180 are second level rack supports, i.e. pipe shoes sitting on structural steel beams in the second level of the rack.
The ground level shock spectrum name is GROUND04, and the second level rack spectrum name is RACKLEVEL2
04. Set up the shock load case to define these independent support excitations. Note that an option exists on the control
parameter spreadsheet to neglect the pseudostatic component of the Independent Support Excitation. Assume that this
option is activated. The default is to include the pseudostatic component in an absolute (ABS) summation method.
524 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION
GROUND04 1.0 X 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Y 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Z 5,56,1
RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 X 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Y 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Z 140,180,1
Set up a shock load case, and define all combinations options explicitly. Use the same shock components as defined in the
above example, except assume that the pseudostatic component is to be added using the SRSS combination method. Also
change the modal summation method is SRSS. (This is the recommended method.) Note that when the modal summation
method is SRSS it doesn't matter whether modal or spatial combinations are performed first. The order is only a factor when
closely spaced modes are considered as in the grouping, ten percent, and DSRSS methods.
MODAL(SRSS),PSEUDOSTATIC(SRSS),SPATIAL(SRSS)
GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION
GROUND04 1.0 X 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Y 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Z 5,56,1
RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 X 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Y 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Y 140,180,1
The last elbow in the relief valve piping is at node 295. The spectrum name: BLAST contains the DLF response spectrum
for this relief valves firing. SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET #1 contains the load information and its point of
application. Show the load case input that would provide the most conservative combination of modal results. (Because
there is only a single loading there is no consideration given to spatial or directional combinations.)
Shock Name, Factor, Direction, and Force Set #
ABSOLUTE MODAL SUMMATION, ONLY A SINGLE LOADING
COMPONENT AND SO NO CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO SPATIAL OR
DIRECTIONAL COMBINATIONS.
BLAST, 1, X, 1
MODAL (ABS)
Use the same example above and combine the modes using the grouping method. This will produce the most realistic
solution.
BLAST, 1, X, 1
MODAL (GROUP)
There are two elbowelbow pairs that are of significance in this job. Waterhammer loads act on the elbow at 40 in the X
direction and on the elbow at 135 in the Ydirection. In the SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET input, force set #1
is defined as the load at 40 and force set #2 is defined as the load at 135. Add the response quantities from each load
component first, using an ABS summation, and then the resulting modal response quantities second, using the grouping
summation method. Two identical methods for achieving the same results are shown.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 525
Shock Name, Factor, Direction, and Force set #
BECAUSE THE DIRECTION INPUT IS THE SAME, I.E. X, FOR BOTH,
LOAD CONTRIBUTIONS, THE DIRECTIONAL COMBINATION METHOD
WILL GOVERN HOW THE HAMMER 40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES
ARE COMBINED.
HAMMER40, 1, X, 1
HAMMER135, 1, X, 2
DIRECTIONAL (ABS), MODAL(GROUP)
<or>
BECAUSE THE DIRECTION INPUT IS DIFFERENT, I.E. X AND Y,
THE SPATIAL COMBINATION METHOD WILL GOVERN HOW THE
HAMMER40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES ARE COMBINED. NOTE THAT
ON THE DIRECTIVE LINE THE SPATIAL DIRECTIVE COMES BEFORE
THE MODAL DIRECTIVE.
HAMMER40, 1, X, 1
HAMMER135, 1, Y, 2
SPATIAL(ABS), MODAL(GROUP)
526 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Combining Static and Dynamic Results
Static/Dynamic Combinations
Load Case
Defines the static or dynamic load case that is to be a part of this combination case. The load case label must always start
with an S or a D for Static and Dynamic, and must be immediately followed by a load case number. Valid entries are: S1,
STATIC1, S3, STATIC3, D1, DYNAMICS1, S#1, D#1, ...etc... The user can use any length up to 24 characters to define
the load case label so long as the name starts in an S or a D, and ends in a valid load case number. For static load case
definitions, the static case must exist and have already been run (also, the S cant refer to a spring hanger design case). For
dynamic load case definitions, the dynamic load case number refers to the shock load case. Several examples are given as
follows.
Factor
This entry is required and multiplies the response quantities from the respective static or dynamic run.
<Directive Data>
The Stress Type drop list or the Directive button may be used to set optional extensions to global options set for all load
cases on the Control Parameter spreadsheet. Typically the user will not need to specify any of these options. Some of the
examples included on the following pages illustrate cases where these directives provide extra desired flexibility.
STRESSTYPE (EXP)
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 527
STRESSTYPE (SUS)
STRESSTYPE (OPE)
STRESSTYPE (OCC)
STRESSTYPE (FAT)
The user can change the default stress type for the combination case to any of the four shown here. The default stress type is
OCC  occasional.
COMBINATION (SRSS)
COMBINATION (ABS)
Defines how the load cases listed are to be combined. The ABS method takes the absolute value of all displacement, force,
and stress data for each load case and adds them together. The SRSS method sums the square of all displacement, force, and
stress data for each load case and then takes the square root of the result.
Any number of separate static and dynamic cases can exist in the Combination Load Case list provided each reference
to a static or dynamic case is on a separate line.
The order of input of the load case definitions is not important, and has no bearing on the results.
Any number of user comment lines may be included.
Static cases alone can be combined without dynamic cases.
Dynamic cases alone can be combined without static cases.
EXAMPLES:
The static cases run in the job were:
1 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)
2 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
3 = L1  L2 (EXP)
The dynamic cases run in the job were:
1 = Operating Basis Earthquake
2 = 1/2 the Operating Basis Earthquake
The user must combine the Operating Basis Earthquake Stresses with the Sustained Static Stresses. The specification for
this combination case is:
STATIC2 1.0
DYNAMIC1 1.0
<or>
S2 1
D1 1
528 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
The static cases run in the job were:
1 = W + P1 + F1 (For hanger design)
2 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + F1 (For hanger design)
3 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + F1 (OPE)
4 = W + P1 + F1 (SUS)
5 = L3  L4 (EXP)
There was one dynamic load case. The user is required to turn an occasional case that is the sum of the sustained and the
dynamic stresses using the SRSS Combination method and the ABS Combination method. Additionally, the user must
combine the expansion static case and the dynamic case using the SRSS Combination method. This is a total of three
combination load cases. Note that since the job had hanger design the first two static load cases cannot be used in a
combination case. The input for each case is shown as follows:
COMBINATION CASE 1:
* SRSS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)
STATIC4 1
DYNAMIC1 1
COMBINATION CASE 2:
* ABS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(ABS)
STATIC4 1
DYNAMIC1 1
COMBINATION CASE 3:
* SRSS COMBINATION OF EXPANSION AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)
STATIC5 1
DYNAMIC1 1
The static cases run in the job were:
1 = W+T1+P+D1+F1 (OPE)
2 = W+P+F1
3 = U1 (OCC) ... Static seismic simulation
4 = L1L2
5 = ST2+ST3
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 529
The user is instructed to perform an SRSS Combination of the static seismic case and both the sustained and operating
static cases. The combination case lists for these two cases would appear:
COMBINATION CASE 1:
COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTYPE(OCC)
STATIC2 1
STATIC3 1
COMBINATION CASES 2:
COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTYPE(OCC)
STATIC1 1
STATIC3 1
The following static load cases were run:
1 = W+P1+F1 (Hanger design restrained weight case)
2 = W+T1+F1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #1)
3 = W+T2+F1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #2)
4 = WNC+P1+F1 (Hanger design actual cold loads)
5 = W+T1+F1+P1+D1 (OPE)
6 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
7 = L5L6 (EXP)
Spectrum/Time History Load Cases 1 through 6 were defined by the client. The static sustained stresses are to be combined
with 1/2 the shock case 1 results, 1/2 the shock case 2 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 3 results. The combination
method is to be SRSS. A second combination case is to combine 1/2 the shock case 4 results, 1/2 the shock case 5 results,
and 1.333 times the shock case 6 results. These two combination load cases would be defined as shown as follows:
COMBINATION CASE 1:
COMBINATION(SRSS)
STATIC6 1
DYNAMIC1 1/2
DYNAMIC2 1/2
DYNAMIC3 1.333
<or>
COMB(SRSS)
S6 1
D1 0.5
D2 0.5
D3 1.333
COMBINATION CASE 2:
530 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
COMBINATION (SRSS)
STATIC6 1
DYNAMIC4 0.5
DYNAMIC5 0.5
DYNAMIC6 1.333
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 531
Spectrum Time History
Force
Maximum value of the dynamic load applied at this point. Units are as shown. Note that the total applied force will be the
product of this value, the selected force value from the spectrum or load profile, and the factor entered for the load case.
Direction
Direction of the dynamic load. Can be entered as X, Y, or Z or direction cosines or direction vectors. Direction cosines are
entered in the form (cx,cy,cz), i.e. (0.707, 0, 0.707). Direction vectors are entered in the form: (vx, vy, vz), i.e. (1,0, and 1).
Node
Node number where the force acts.
Force Set #
Number to uniquely identify this particular force load pattern. See the examples that follow for clarification. This value
defaults to 1.
The general procedure for applying a force spectrum load is as follows:
1 Determine the pulse time history that acts at a single node or over a group of nodes. Only the pulse waveform must be
the same for all nodes in group, the maximum pulse amplitude may vary. For example, a particular shock load due to
ocean current loading acts over the nodes 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 on a production piping system, and the magnitude of
the dynamic loading is 50 lb. at 5, 100 lb. at 10, 200 lb. at 15, and so on up to 500 lb. at 30. Also the dynamic load as a
function of time at each point is equal to half of a sine wave with a period of one second. Even though the magnitude of
the dynamic load varies over the nodes from 5 to 30, the pulse waveform does not (The pulse waveform is the half sine
wave, and its shape is the same for each node). Thus the group of nodes from 5 to 30 can be included in the same force
set #, each node having a different dynamic force magnitude.
2 Using the CAESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator build a DLF vs. frequency file for the timepulse waveform.
3 Using the Spectrum Definitions option, define the DLF vs. frequency file just created as a Force spectrum data file with
linear interpolation along the frequency axis and linear interpolation along the ordinate axis. (The DLF Spectrum
Generator builds a standard shock table file. Until the type of shock data in the file is described to CAESAR II, the file
cant be used.) Remember to precede the shock name with a # sign when defining it in the Spectrum Definitions so
that CAESAR II knows to read the shock table from the data file.
4 Determine the maximum force magnitude that acts on each node subject to the pulse load.
5 Using the Force Set Editor specify the maximum amplitude of the dynamic load, its direction, and the nodes it acts on.
6 Build the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases by entering the Force spectrum name (this is the name that is preceded by
the # sign, defined in the Spectrum Definitions editor), the table multiplication factor (usually 1.0), a direction (this is
only a label used for output processing and should be characteristic of the shock, the actual force spectrum loads can act
in multiple directions), and the Force Set #. (The Force Set # refers to the force pattern defined in the Force Spectrum
Editor in step 5 above.) It is step 6 that defines the link between the force spectrum and the force loading pattern.
7 Setup any other parameters needed to run the spectrum analysis for this job. Perform error checking, and once there are
no fatal errors, run the job.
For a Time History analysis, the load profile used in step 2 would be entered directly in step 3, with the rest of the process
remaining the same.
Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the Force spectrum data.
532 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
If there are multiple force spectrum components in a single dynamic load case, the user should be particularly careful with
the combination method selected. In this case, the same rules that cover earthquake shocks and components apply to force
spectrum shocks and components.
EXAMPLES:
The nodes 5, 10, and 15 define a cantilever pipe leg that is part of an offshore production platform. The dynamic load as a
function of time is equal to a half sine wave. The waveform is the same for all three nodes, but the maximum dynamic load
on node 5 is 5030 lb., on node 10 is 10,370 lb., and on node 15 is 30,537 lb. Three force sets are to be built for this problem.
One is with the dynamic loads acting in the X direction. One is with the dynamic loads acting in the Z direction, and the
third is with the dynamic loads acting simultaneously in the X an Z directions. The force spectrum input data for this job is
as follows:
* X DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING
5030 X 5 1
10370 X 10 1
30537 X 15 1
* Z DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING
5030 Z 5 2
10370 Z 10 2
30537 Z 15 2
* X AND Z DIRECTION WAVE/CURRENT LOADING
5030 X 5 3
5030 Z 5 3
10370 X 10 3
10370 Z 10 3
30537 X 15 3
30537 Z 15 3
A relief valve at node 565 is being investigated for several different reactor decompression conditions. The maximum load
for the first condition is 320 kips in the X direction. This is a ramped time waveform. The valve opens and closes in 5
milliseconds. The duration for the first decompression condition is 50 milliseconds. The maximum load for the second
decompression condition is 150 kips in the X direction. This also is a ramped time waveform. The valve opens and closes in
5 milliseconds and the duration for the second decompression condition is 4 seconds. The third decompression condition
maximum load is 50 kips, and has the same time waveform as the second condition. (It is this decompression state that is
expected to be the most frequent.)
There must be two shock tables defined, one for the 50 ms duration waveform, and one for the 4 second duration waveform.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 533
Three different maximum force patterns are defined:
* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 1
320000 X 565 1
* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 2
150000 X 565 2
* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 3 (MOST FREQUENT)
50000 X 565 3
A startup shock wave passes through a single elbow system. Nodes in the piping model are 5, 10, and 15. The system is
shown as follows:
As the wave starts off between 5 and 10 there is an initial dynamic axial load on the anchor at 5. When the shock wave hits
the elbow at 10, the axial load in the 510 element balances the initial imbalance at node 5, and there becomes an axial
imbalance in the 1015 element. This shock load will be modeled as two completely separate impacts on the piping system
The first is the dynamic anchor load at 5. (If 5 is a flexible anchor then this load may cause dynamic displacements of the
piping system and 5 will just be subject to the dynamic time history pulse due to the shock.) Assume the anchor at 5 is a
flexible vessel nozzle. The second shock load is the unbalanced dynamic pressure load in the 1015 element that exists until
the shock reaches the node 15. Friction in the line resisting movement of the shock wave is considerable. In the time the
wave leaves the anchor at 5 until it encounters the bend at 10 there is a 50% drop in the pulse strength as shown in the
following plot.
534 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
This pressure drop was computed using a transient fluid simulator. Between node 10 and node 15 the pulse strength drops
even further as shown as follows.
The Force Spectrum input for this loading is as shown as follows:
* X DIRECTION LOAD ON FLEXIBLE ANCHOR AT 5
5600 X 5 1
* Z DIRECTION LOAD ON ELBOW AT 10
2800 Z 10 2
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 535
Lumped Masses
Lumped Masses
Mass
Enter the concentrated mass in the units shown, a positive concentrated mass is added to the mass at the node. A negative
concentrated mass is subtracted from the mass at the node and a zero entry deletes all mass for the node.
Direction
Can be X, Y, Z, or ALL. ALL can be abbreviated A. If X, Y, or Z is entered, then the mass is only added or subtracted for
that direction.
Start Node
Node where the mass is to act. This entry is required. If entered without a stop node and increment, then this node must
exist in the piping system. If entered with a stop node and increment then the range of nodes identified by the loop must
include at least one node in the piping system. See the examples that follow.
536 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Stop Node
Used as part of a range of nodes lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. This entry is optional.
Increment
Used as part of a range of nodes lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. This entry is optional.
There can be any number of line entries in the lumped mass data.
The zero mass capability with the range of nodes entry is particularly useful when the user has a part of the system for
which he is not interested in the modes. That part of the system would have been modeled for its stiffness effect only. One
example is structural steel models. It is not uncommon for a user to delete all of the mass for nodes in the structural steel
model. (Steel models are often only entered to include their stiffness effects and so the omission of their dynamic effects is
often not significant.)
EXAMPLES:
450 ALL 40
Note: The node range loop starts from node 12, which is not defined and goes through node 25 in steps of 1. Some nodes
dont exist in this range but this is not an error as long as at least one node in the range defined by 12 through 25 by 1, exists
in the system.
0.0 ALL 12 25 1
375 A 25 50 5
0.0 X 1 600 1
0.0 Y 1 600 1
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 537
Snubbers
Snubbers
Stiffness
Enter the stiffness for the snubber in the units shown. If the snubber is rigid enter a value of 1.0E12. The stiffness of the
snubber must be given and must be positive.
Direction
Enter the line of action of the snubber as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The format for direction
cosines is (cx,cy,cz), and for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz). See the example that follows for the entry of some typical
skewed snubbers.
Node
Enter the node where the snubber acts. This is a required entry. If the snubber acts between the piping system and a fixed
point in space, then leave the CNode field blank. Connecting Nodes work for snubbers just like they do for restraints.
538 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
CNode
If the snubber acts between one point on the piping system and another point on the piping system, then enter the node that
the snubber connects to.
EXAMPLES:
1 Add rigid snubber at node 150 in the Z direction.
1E12 Z 150
2 Add rigid snubbers at nodes 160, 165, and 170 in the Z direction.
1E12 Z 160
1E12 Z 165
1E12 Z 170
3 Add a rigid snubber between the structural steel node 1005 and the piping node 405 in the Z direction.
1E12 Z 405 1005
4 Add a 5,000 lb./in. snubber in the X and Y directions at the piping node 500. The X snubber should connect to the
structural steel node 1050 and the Y snubber should connect to the overhead line at node 743.
HORIZONTAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND STEEL 5000 X 500 1050.
VERTICAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND OVER HEAD COOLING WATER LINE
5000 Y 500 743
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 539
Dynamic Control Parameters
Control Parameters
The type of analysis chosen by the user in the Dynamic Input Processor determines the active Control Parameters.
CAESAR II will only display this list of active Control Parameters. In addition, the calculation details can be finetuned using
many of the other Control Parameters, maximizing accuracy of results for most dynamic problems. The impact and use of
these parameters, as well as their technical bases, are described in this section.
The list of the control parameters, along with the Analysis Types for which they are active, displays in the table on the
following page.
540 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Notes:
Xrequired
1 If system has nonlinear restraints or hanger design
2 If any restraints have friction
3 Either "Max. No. of Eigenvalues" or "Frequency Cutoff" required
4 If modal combination method is GROUP or 10%
5 If modal combination method is DSRSS
6 If USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 or Uniform Building Code seismic spectra are used
7 If independent support movement (USM) loads are present
8 If pseudostatic components are inducted
9 If missing mass components are included
10 If multiple spectrum loads are applied in the same direction
Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/TimeHistory)
The first parameter is used to select from the available dynamic analysis types, which are Harmonic (direct solution),
Response Spectrum (any combination of seismic, anchor movement, and force loadings), Modal Extraction, Range, and
Time History (linear modal). These analysis types are described below:
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 541
Harmonic Analysis
Generally, the response of a system to a dynamically applied load is expressed through the dynamic equation of motion:
Where:
M = system mass matrix
= acceleration vector, as a function of time
C = system damping matrix
= velocity vector, as a function of time
K = system stiffness matrix
x(t) = displacement vector, as a function of time
F(t) = applied load vector, as a function of time
Unfortunately, this differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, except in a few specific cases. Harmonic analysis looks
at one of these casesthe set of dynamic problems where the forces or displacements (i.e., pulsation or vibration) acting on
the piping system take sinusoidal forms. Under harmonic loading, when damping is zero, the dynamic equation of the
system can be reduced to
M (t) + K x(t) = F
0
cos (e t + Q)
Where:
F
0
= harmonic load vector
e = angular forcing frequency of harmonic load (radian/sec)
t = time
Q = phase angle (radians)
This differential equation can be solved directly, yielding the nodal displacements at any time (and from there the system
reactions, forces and moments, and stresses).
The equation has a solution of the form
x (t) = A cos (e t + Q)
Where:
A = vector of maximum harmonic displacements of system
Since acceleration is the second derivative of displacement with respect to time,
(t) = A e
2
cos e t
Inserting these equations for displacement and acceleration back into the basic harmonic equation of motion yields,
M A e
2
cos (e t + Q) + K A cos (e t + Q) = F
o
cos (e t + Q)
Dividing both sides of this equation by cos (e t + Q),
M A e
2
+ K A = F
o
542 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Reordering this equation,
(K  M e
2
) A = F
o
This is exactly the same form of the equation as is solved for all linear (static) piping problems. The appealing thing about
this is that the solution time for each excitation frequency takes only as long as a single static solution, and, when there is no
phase relationship to the loading, the results give the maximum dynamic responses directly. Due to the speed of the
analysis, and because the solutions are so directly applicable, it is advisable to make as much use of this capability as
possible. Two considerations must be kept in mind:
When damping is not zero, the harmonic equation can only be solved if the damping matrix can be defined as the sum
of multiples of the mass and stiffness matrix (Rayleigh damping), i.e.:
[C] = a [M] + b [K]
On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and the constants a and b is given as
2 2
Cc
o e  
= +

e
\ .
Where:
e = Undamped natural frequency of mode (rad/sec)
For practical problems, o is extremely small, and so may be ignored. Therefore the definition of  reduces to
 = 2 Cc/e
CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis; however there are still two problems. First, for
multidegreeoffreedom systems, there is not really a single b, but there must be only a single b in order to get a solution of
the harmonic equation. The second problem is that the modal frequencies are not known prior to generation of the damping
matrix. Therefore the w used in the calculation of b is the forcing frequency of the load, instead of the natural frequency of a
mode. When the forcing frequency of the load is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives a good estimation of the
true damping.
If multiple harmonic loads occur simultaneously, and they are not in phase, system response is the sum of the responses
due to the individual loads:
x(t) = S A
i
cos (e t + Q
i
)
Where:
A
i
= displacement vector of system under load i
Q
i
= phase angle of load i
In this case, an absolute maximum solution cannot be found. Rather, solutions for each load, and the sum of these, must be
found at various times in the load cycle. These combinations should then be reviewed in order to determine which one
causes the worst load case. Alternatively, CAESAR II can select the frequency/phase pairs which maximize the system
displacement.
Note: Damped harmonics will always cause a phased response.
The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency field vibrations resulting from either fluid
pulsation or outofround rotating equipment displacements. The approach typically taken towards solving this type of
problem is described briefly below:
1 A potential dynamic problem is first identified in the fieldeither in terms of large cyclic vibrations or high stresses
(fatigue failure) being present in an existing piping system, raising questions of whether this represents a dangerous
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 543
situation. As many symptoms of the problem (quantifiable displacements, overstress points, etc.) are identified as
possible, for future use in refining the dynamic model.
2 A model of the piping system is built using CAESAR II. This should be done as accurately as possible, since system, as
well as load, characteristics affect the magnitude of the developed response. Particular attention should be paid when
modeling the area where the vibration occurs. This might include accurately representing valve operators, flange pairs,
orifice plates and other inline equipment. It may also be a good idea to add additional nodes in the area of the vibration.
3 The engineer next postulates the cause of the load, and from that, an estimate of the frequency, magnitude, point, and
direction of the load. This is somewhat difficult because the dynamic loads can come from many sources. Dynamic
loads may be due to internal pressure pulses, external vibration, flow shedding at intersections, two phase flow, etc., but
in almost all cases, there is some frequency content of the excitation that corresponds to (and therefore excites) a system
mechanical natural frequency. If the load is caused by equipment, then the forcing frequency is probably some multiple
of the operating frequency; if the load is due to acoustic flow problems, then the forcing frequency can be estimated
through the use of Strouhals equations (from fluid dynamics). Using the best assumptions available, the user should
estimate the magnitudes and points of application of the dynamic load.
4 The loading is then modeled using harmonic forces or displacements (normally depending upon whether the cause is
assumed to be pulsation or vibration) and several harmonic analyses are done, sweeping the frequencies through a
range centered about the target frequency (in order to account for uncertainty). The results of each of the analyses are
examined for signs of large displacements, indicating harmonic resonance. If the resonance is present, the results of the
analysis are compared to the known symptoms from the field. If they are not similar (or if there is no resonance), this
indicates that the dynamic model is not a good one, so it must be improved, either in terms of a more accurate system
(static) model, a better estimate of the load, or a finer sweep through the frequency range. Once the model has been
refined, this step is repeated until the mathematical model behaves just like the actual piping system in the field.
5 At this time, there is a good model of the piping system and a good model of the loads (or, more accurately, a good
model of the relationship of the load characteristics to the system characteristics). The results of this run are evaluated
in order to determine whether they indicate a problem. Since harmonic stresses are cyclic, they should be evaluated
against the endurance limit of the piping material; displacements should be reviewed against interference limits or
esthetic guidelines.
6 If the situation is deemed to be a problem, its cause must be identified, where the cause is normally the excitation of a
single mode of vibration. For example, the Dynamic Load Factor for a single damped mode of vibration, with a
harmonic load applied is
2
2 2
1 (2 )
[1 ( ) ] (2 )
c f m
f m c f m
C
DLF
C
+ e e
=
e e + e e
Where:
DLF = dynamic loading factor
C
c
= ratio of system damping to critical damping,
where critical damping =
e
f
= forcing frequency of applied harmonic load
e
n
= natural frequency of mode of vibration
A modal extraction of the system is done; one (or more) of these modes should have a natural frequency close to the forcing
frequency of the applied load. The guilty mode can be further identified as that one having a shape very similar to the shape
of the total system vibration, since this mode shape has certainly been dynamically magnified far beyond the other modes
(and thus predominates in the final vibrated shape).
7. Once the guilty mode has been identified, it must be eliminated. This is done most easily by adding a restraint at a high
point (and in the direction thereof) of the mode shape. If this cannot be done, the mode may also be altered by changing the
mass distribution of the system. If no modification of the system is possible, it may be possible to alter the forcing
frequency of the load. If the dynamic load was postulated to be due to internal acoustics, it is recommended that the pipe not
544 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
be rerouted at this point, as rerouting the pipe will change the internal flow conditions (which may resolve or amplify the
problem, but in either case will void CAESAR IIs good model of the system). After modifying the system, the harmonic
problem (using the single forcing frequency determined as a good model) is then rerun, and the stresses, displacements,
etc. are reevaluated.
8. If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is now reanalyzed statically to determine the effects of
any modifications on the static loading cases. (Remember, adding restraint normally increases expansion stresses, while
adding mass increases sustained stresses.)
The user may process output from a harmonic analysis in two ways:
Use of the output processor to review displacement, restraint, force, or stress data either graphically or in report form.
Animation of the displacement pattern for each of the frequency load cases.
Note: The results of harmonic dynamic loads cannot be combined using the Static/Dynamic Combination option.
Spectrum Analysis
A spectrum analysis represents an attempt to estimate the maximum response developed in a system during a transient load.
The results are a statistical summation of the maximum displacements, forces, reactions, stresses, etc; the individual
responses do not represent an actual physical loading case in that the maxima may all occur at different times. Spectrum
analyses are especially useful when the loading profile is random, or otherwise not known exactly, such as with seismic
loads. CAESAR II provides the ability to perform two types of spectrum analyses (which may be combined): for seismic and
force loadings. Seismic loadings may be evaluated either uniformly over the entire system, or applied through individual
support groups (with corresponding anchor movements). Force spectra analyses may be used to analyze impulse loadings,
such as those due to relief valve, fluid hammer, or slug flow. These two types are described in the following paragraphs.
Seismic Spectrum Analysis. Seismic loads cannot be solved through time history analyses, since earthquakes cause random
motion, which may be different for each earthquake, even those occurring at the same site. To simplify the analytical
definition of the earthquake, it is necessary to get the expected random waveform of acceleration (or velocity or
displacement) vs. time into some simple frequencycontent plot. The most predominantly used frequencycontent plot is the
response spectrum. A response spectrum for an earthquake load can be developed by placing a series of single degreeof
freedom oscillators on a mechanical shake table and feeding a typical (typical for a specific site) earthquake time history
through it, measuring the maximum response (displacement, velocity, or acceleration) of each oscillator.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 545
The expectation is that even though all earthquakes are different, similar ones should produce the same maximum
responses, even though the time at which they occur will differ with each individual occurrence. (Responses will be based
on the maximum ground displacement and acceleration, the dynamic load factors determined by the ratios of the pre
dominant harmonic frequencies of the earthquake to the natural frequencies of the oscillators, and system damping.)
Response spectra for a number of damping values can be generated by plotting the maximum response for each oscillator. A
plot of a set of typical response spectra is shown in the following figure.
Seismic response spectra resemble harmonic Dynamic Load Factor curves, since seismic loads evidence strong harmonic
tendencies. As damping value increases, the system response approaches the ground motion. Seismic spectra usually also
show strong evidence of flexible, resonant, and rigid areas. Spectra may have multiple peaks due to filtering by the building
and/or piping system; however multiple peaks are usually enveloped in order to account for uncertainties in the analysis.
Seismic response spectra peaks are typically spread to account for inaccuracies as well.
The idea behind the generation of the response spectra is that a systems modes of vibration will respond to the load in the
exact same manner as will a single degreeoffreedom oscillator. System response may be plotted in terms of displacement,
velocity, or acceleration, since these terms of the spectra are all related by the frequency:
d = v / e = a / e
2
Where:
d = displacement from response spectrum at frequency
v = velocity from response spectrum at frequency
e = angular frequency at which response spectrum parameters are taken
a = acceleration from response spectrum at frequency
Response Spectrum analysis proceeds according to the following steps:
1 Modes of vibration are extracted from the system using an Eigensolver algorithm. Each mode has a characteristic
frequency and mode shape.
2 The maximum response of each mode under the applied load is determined from the spectrum value corresponding to
the modes natural frequency.
3 The total system response is determined by summing the individual modal responses, using methods that reflect the
time independence of the responses and the portion of system mass allocated to each mode.
There are four major sources of earthquake spectra available to the CAESAR II user:
546 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Predefined El Centro (available in the CAESAR II databasespectrum name = ELCENTRO): This data is taken from J.
Biggs Introduction to Structural Dynamics and is based on the northsouth component of the May 18, 1940 El
Centro California earthquake. The recorded maximum acceleration was 0.33 g. The spectrum provided here is intended
to apply to elastic systems having 5 to 10 percent critical damping.
Predefined Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 (Available in the CAESAR II database): The predefined spectrum names are:
1.60H.5 1.60V.5 Horizontal/vertical,0.5% damping
1.60H2 1.60V2  Horizontal/vertical,2.0% damping
1.60H5 1.60V5  Horizontal/vertical,5.0% damping
1.60H7 1.60V7  Horizontal/vertical,7.0% damping
1.60H10 1.60V10  Horizontal/vertical,10.0% damping
These spectra are constructed according to the instructions given in Regulatory Guide 1.60 for seismic design of nuclear
plants. They must also be scaled up or down by the maximum ground acceleration (ZPAzero period acceleration), which
can be specified in the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet.
Predefined Uniform Building Code (Available in the CAESAR II database). The predefined spectrum names are:
UBCSOIL1 Spectrum for rock and stiff soils
UBCSOIL2 Spectrum for deep cohesionless or stiff clay soils
UBCSOIL3 Spectrum for soft to medium clays and sands
These spectra represent the normalized response spectra shapes (for three soil types) provided in Figure 233 of the Uniform
Building Code (1991 Edition). When used, they must be scaled by the ZPA, which is the product of Z and I (Where Z is the
seismic zone coefficient and I is the earthquake importance factor, from UBC Tables 23I and 23L, respectively). The ZPA
can be specific using the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet.
User defined spectra: User defined spectra may be entered with period or frequency as the range, and displacement,
velocity, or acceleration as the ordinate. These spectra may be read in from a text file or entered directly into a spectrum
table during dynamic input processing.
Independent Support Motion Applications. Earthquake ground motions are caused by the passing of acoustic shock
waves through the earths soil. These waves are usually hundreds of feet long. If supports having foundations in the soil are
grouped together within a several hundred foot radius of each other they will typically see exactly the same excitation from
the earthquake. If all of the supports for a particular piping system are attached directly to ground type supports, each
support will be excited by an essentially identical time waveform. This type of excitation is known as uniform support
excitation. Often pipe is supported from rack, building, or vessel structures as well as from ground type supports. These
intermediate structures serve to, in some cases, filter and in some cases accentuate the effect of the earthquake. In this
situation, the supports attached to the intermediate structure are not exposed to the same excitation as those that are attached
directly to ground foundations. To accurately model these systems different shocks must be applied to different parts of the
piping system. This type of excitation is known as independent support motion (ISM) excitation. While the different support
groups are exposed to different shocks, there are also relative movements between support groups that dont exist for
uniform support excitation. The movement of one support group relative to another is termed pseudostatic displacement, or
seismic anchor movements. For uniform support excitation there are spatial and modal response components available for
combination. For independent support excitation there are spatial and modal response components available for each
different support group, plus pseudostatic components of the earthquake that must be added into the dynamic response as
well.
The major difference when running ISM type earthquake loads comes while building the shock load cases. Whereas in the
uniform excitation case the shock acts implicitly over all of the supports in the system, in the ISM case different shocks act
on different groups of supports. The shock load case input form appears:
SHOCK NAME FACTOR DIR START NODE STOP NODE INCR ANCHOR
MVMT
Name, Factor, and Direction are all that is entered for uniform support excitations. For ISM type shocks, the group of nodes
over which the shock acts must be specified as well, using the Start Node, Stop Node, and Increment entries. The Anchor
Movement entry is used to explicitly define the seismic displacement of the restraint set. This displacement is used to
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 547
calculate the pseudostatic load components. If omitted, the program defaults to the displacement derived from the response
spectrum entry corresponding to the lowest frequency.
Force Spectrum Analysis. A similar method can be followed for nonrandom loads, such as an impulse load for which the
force vs. time profile is known. A look at the equation for the earthquake problem explains why the force spectrum solution
is very similar to the earthquake solution:
The term on the right hand side is nothing more than a dynamic force acting on the piping system, i.e. F = Ma, so the
analogous equation to be solved for the force spectrum problem is:
Where:
F = the dynamic load (water hammer or relief valve)
Instead of the displacement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum used for the seismic problem, a Dynamic Load Factor
spectrum is used for a force spectrum problem. A DLF spectrum gives the ratio of the maximum dynamic displacement
divided by the maximum static displacement. Whereas the earthquake response spectrum analysis method started with the
time history of an earthquake excitation, the force spectrum analysis method is done in exactly the same wayexcept that
the analysis starts with the force vs. time profile. Just as for the earthquake, this time history loading can be applied to a
shake table of single degreeoffreedom bodies, with a response spectrum (in this case, DLF vs. natural frequency) being
generated by dividing the maximum oscillator displacements by the static displacements expected under the same load. An
alternate means of generating a response spectrum for an impulse load is to numerically integrate the dynamic equation of
motion for oscillators of various frequencies under the applied load. This can be done using the Pulse Table/DLF
Spectrum Generator available from the CAESAR II Main Dynamics Menu.
The user may process output from a spectrum analysis in two ways:
Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors, included mass/force,
displacements, and restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form. Dynamic results also show the largest modal
contributor, along with the mode and shock load responsible for that contribution.
Animation of the individual mode shapes extracted for the spectrum analysis.
Modal Extraction. A modal extraction performs only an Eigensolution (an eigensolution is also performed as the initial
step of the spectrum or modal time history analyses). The Eigensolution algorithm uses an iterative method to solve for
natural frequencies and mode shapes of a piping or structural system. Each mode of the piping system is associated with a
shape and a frequency, which together define the systems tendency to vibrate; the mode shape defining the shape the
system would like to take when it vibrates, and the natural frequency defining the desired speed of the vibration. The
eigensolver returns a set of these for each mode, with the dimensionless mode shape called an eigenvector, and the
frequency returned as the square of the angular frequency ( e
2
), known as the eigenvalue. Given the eigenvalue, the modal
frequency can be expressed in angular frequency (radians per second), cyclic frequency (Hz), or period (seconds per cycle):
eigenvalue = e
2
(radians squared per second squared)
angular frequency = e (radians per second)
cyclic frequency = e / 2t (Hz, or cycles per second)
period = 2t / e (seconds per cycle)
The absolute magnitude of a mode shape displacement computed by an eigensolver is unknown, with only the shape being
given (i.e. only the ratios of the displacements at various degrees of freedom are known for each mode, with these ratios
being constant for each mode). One eigenpair can potentially be calculated for each degree of freedom in the model that
contains some nonzero mass (node point) and some nonrigid stiffness (i.e., is not fully restrained). CAESAR II omits
548 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
rotational degrees of freedom from dynamic models in order to simplify the calculationthis is usually acceptable since
rotational modes of vibration usually have very high frequencies, and correspondingly very low mode participation factors.
The user may process output from a modal analysis in two ways:
Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies and mode shapes in report form.
Animation of the individual mode shapes.
Time History
Time history analysis is a more accurate, more computationally intensive analytical method than is response spectrum
analysis, and is best suited to impulse loadings or other transient loadings where the profile is known. This method of
analysis involves the actual solution of the dynamic equation of motion throughout the duration of the applied load and
subsequent system vibration, providing a true simulation of the system response at all times.
As noted previously, the dynamic equation of motion for a system is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Mx t Cx t Kx t F t + + = && &&
This differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, but may be integrated using numeric techniques by slicing the
duration of the load into many small time steps. Based on an assumption of the behavior of the system between time slices
(i.e., that the change in acceleration between time slices is linear), the system accelerations, velocities, displacements, and
correspondingly, the reactions, internal forces, and stresses can be calculated at successive time steps.
Since the total response of a system is equivalent to the sum of the responses of its individual modes of vibration, the above
equation can be simplified (assuming the damping matrix C is orthogonal), using the transformation x = FX, to be expressed
in modal coordinates:
1
( ) ( ) h ( ) i ( ) x t C x t x t F t ' + + = && &&
Where:
x(t) &&
= acceleration vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
C = diagonal damping matrix, where entry C
i
= e
i
c
i
e
i
= angular frequency of mode i
c
i
= ratio of damping to critical damping for mode i
(t) = velocity vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
x(t) = displacement vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
O = diagonal stiffness matrix, where entry O
i
= e
i
2
This transformation represents N (where N is the number of modes of vibration extracted) uncoupled second order
differential equations, which can then be integrated and summed (using the inphase, algebraic summation method) to give
the total system response. The CAESAR II program uses the Wilson u method (an extension of the Newmark method) to
integrate the equations of motion, which provides an unconditionally stable algorithm, regardless of time step size chosen.
Only one dynamic load may be defined for a time history analysis (this dynamic load case may be used in as many
static/dynamic combination load case as necessary). However, the single load case may consist of multiple force profiles
applied to the system simultaneously, or sequentially. Each force vs. time profile is entered as a spectrum with an ordinate
of FORCE (in current units) and a range of TIME (in milliseconds). The profiles are defined by entering the time and force
coordinates of the corner points defining the profile. (Note that a time can only be entered once, and that times with zero
force outside of the defined profile need not be entered explicitly.)
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 549
For example, the profiles shown in the following figure are entered as:
TIME (MS) FORCE TIME (MS) FORCE
0.0 0.0 20.0 1000.0
10.0 300.0 60.0 1000.0
20.0 1000.0 30.0 0.0
The load profiles must then be linked with force sets (indicating magnitude, direction, and location of the applied load) in
the shock case. The magnitude of the applied load is determined by the product of the profile force, the force set magnitude,
and the scale in the shock case.
Currently only forces, not moments or restraint displacements, may be entered in the time history load profile. However,
moments can be modeled using force couples, and restraint displacements can be simulated by entering forces equal to the
desired displacement times the restraint stiffness in the direction of the displacement).
The user may process output from a Time History analysis in three ways:
1 Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors, included mass/force,
displacements, and restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form. CAESAR IIs implementation of time history
analysis provides two types of resultsone results case containing the maximum individual components (axial stress,
Xdisplacement, MZ reaction, etc.) of the system response, along with the time at which it occurred, and several (the
actual number is determined by user request) results cases representing the actual system response at specific times.
Dynamic results also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and transient load responsible for that
contribution.
2 Animation of the shock displacement for the transient load cases. During animation, the displacements, forces,
moments, stresses, and other data associated with individual elements may be displayed at every time step and for the
dynamic load alone, or for any of the static/dynamic combinations.
3 Animation of the individual mode shapes included in the time history response.
Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status
(Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History)
Currently all of CAESAR IIs dynamic analyses act only on linear systems, so any nonlinearities must be linearized prior to
analysis. This means that onedirectional restraints will not lift off and reseat, gaps will not open and close, and friction will
not act as a constant effort force. Therefore, for dynamic analyses, all nonlinear effects must be modeled as linearfor
example, a onedirectional restraint must be modeled as either seated (active) or lifted off (inactive), and a gap must be
550 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
either open (inactive) or closed (active). This process is automated when the static load case is selected hereCAESAR II
automatically activates the nonlinear restraints in the system to correspond to their status in the selected load case (the user
may think of this as being the loading conditionfor example Operatingof the system at the time at which the dynamic
load occurs). It must be noted that this automated linearization does not always provide an appropriate dynamic model, and
it may be necessary to select other static load cases or even to manually alter the restraint condition in order to simulate the
correct dynamic response.
A static load case must precede the dynamics job whenever one or more of the following situations occur:
There are spring hangers to be designed in the job. The static runs must be made in order to determine the spring rate to
be used in the dynamic model.
There are nonlinear restraints, such as onedirectional restraints, largerotation rods, bilinear restraints, gaps, etc. in
the system. The static analysis must be made in order to determine the active status of each of the restraints for
linearization of the dynamic model.
There are frictional restraints in the job, i.e. any restraints with a nonzero j (mu) value.
The most common arrangement of static loads during typical CAESAR II analyses displays below:
Example 1analyses containing no hanger design:
1 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)
2 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
3 = L1L2 (EXP)
In this case, if the operating condition is most likely to exist throughout the duration of the dynamic transient, the correct
entry for this parameter is 1. If the installed condition is more likely to exist during the transient, the entry for this parameter
should be 2. It is extremely unlikely that the expansion case (3) would be correct here, since it does not represent the system
status at any given time, but rather represents the difference between the first two cases.
Example 2analyses containing hanger design:
1 = W+P1+F1 (For hanger design)
2 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (For hanger design)
3 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)
4 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
5 = L3L4 (EXP)
In this case, the correct static load cases to use are those in which the selected spring hangers have been included; if the
operating condition is the correct load case, the entry for this parameter should be 3. For the installed condition, an entry of
4 is correct.
Stiffness Factor for Friction (0.0  Not Used)
(Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History)
As noted above, all of CAESAR IIs dynamic analyses are currently linear, so nonlinear effects must be linearized. Modeling
of friction in dynamic models presents a special case, since friction actually impacts the dynamic response in two ways
static friction (prior to breakaway) affects the stiffness of the system, by providing additional restraint, while kinetic friction
(subsequent to breakaway) actually affects the damping component of dynamic response; due to mathematical constraints,
damping is ignored for all analyses except time history and harmonics (for which it is only considered on a systemwide
basis).
CAESAR II allows friction to be taken into account through the use of this Friction Stiffness Factor. CAESAR II approximates
the restraining effect of friction on the pipe by including stiffnesses transverse to the direction of the restraint at which
friction was specified. The stiffness of these frictional restraints is computed as:
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 551
K
friction
= (F) (W) (Fact)
Where:
K
friction
= stiffness of frictional restraint inserted by CAESAR II
F = the force at the restraint taken from the static solution
W = mu, friction coefficient at restraint, as defined in the static model
Fact = Friction Factor from the control spreadsheet
This factor should be adjusted as necessary in order to make the dynamic model simulate the systems actual dynamic
response (note that use of this factor does not correspond to any actual dynamic parameter, but is actually a tweak factor
to modify system stiffness). Entering a friction factor greater than zero causes these friction stiffnesses to be inserted into
the dynamics job. Increasing this factor correspondingly increases the effect of the friction. Entering a friction factor equal
to zero ignores any frictional effect in the dynamics job.
Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (0Not used)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
The first stage of the Spectrum, Modal, and Time History analyses, is the use of the Eigensolver algorithm to extract the
piping systems natural frequencies and mode shapes. For the Spectrum and Time History analyses, the response under
loading is calculated for each of the modes, with the system response being the sum of the individual modal responses.
Obviously, the more modes that are extracted, the more the sum of those modal responses resembles the actual system
response. The problem is that this algorithm uses an iterative method for finding successive modes, so extraction of a large
number of modes usually requires much more time than does a static solution of the same piping system. The object is to
extract sufficient modes to get a suitable solution, without straining computational resources.
CAESAR II permits the user to specifyeither through a mode number cutoff or a frequency cutoffthe number of modal
responses to be included in the system results. This parameter is used, in combination with the Frequency Cutoff described
below, to limit the maximum number of modes of vibration to be extracted during the dynamic analysis. If this parameter is
entered as 0, the number of modes extracted is limited only by the frequency cutoff (and potentially, the number of degrees
offreedom in the system model).
If the analyst is more interested in providing an accurate representation of the system displacements, it may only be
necessary to request the extraction of a few modes, allowing a rapid calculation time. However, if an accurate estimate of
the forces, stresses, etc. in the system is the objective, calculation time grows as it becomes necessary to extract far more
modes. This is particularly true in the case when solving a fluid hammer problem in the presence of axial restraints; often
modes with natural frequencies of up to 300 Hz can be large contributors to the solution.
The usual procedure for determining how many modes are sufficient is to extract a certain number of modes and review the
results; then to repeat the analysis while extracting 5 to 10 additional modes, and comparing the new results to the old. If
there is a significant change between the results, a new analysis is made, again extracting 5 to 10 more modes above those
that were extracted for the second analysis. This iterative process continues until the results taper off, becoming asymptotic.
This procedure has two drawbacks, the first one obviousthe time involved in making the multiple analyses, as well as the
time involved in extracting the potentially large number of modes. The second drawback, occurring with Spectrum analysis,
is less obviousa degree of conservatism is introduced when combining the contributions of the higher order modes.
Possible spectral mode summation methods include SRSS, ABSOLUTE, and GROUPall methods that combine modal
results as samesign (positive) values. In reality, theory states that the rigid modes actually act in phase with each other, and
should therefore be combined algebraically, thus permitting the response of some rigid modes to cancel the effect of other
rigid modes (this is actually what occurs in a time history analysis). Because of this conservatism, it is actually possible to
get results which exceed twice the applied load, despite the fact that the Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of an impulse load
cannot be greater than 2.0.
552 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
An alternative method of ensuring that sufficient modes are considered in the dynamic model is through the use of the
Included Mass Data Report. This report (available from the Dynamic Output Screen) is compiled for all spectrum and time
history shock cases, whether missing mass (see description in the section Include Missing Mass Components) is to be
included or not. It displays the percent of system mass along each of the three global axes, as well as the percent of total
force, which has been captured by the extracted modes.
The percent of system mass active along each of the three global axes (X, Y, and Z) is calculated by summing the modal
mass (corresponding to the appropriate directional degreeoffreedom) attributed to the extracted modes and dividing that
sum by the sum of the system mass acting in the same direction:
% Active Mass
x
[ ]
[ ]
100( )
e
M i
M i
=
Summed over i = 1 to n, by 6
(Xdirection degrees of freedom)
%Active Mass
Y
[ ]
[ ]
100( )
e
M i
M i
=
Summed over 1 = 2 to n, by 6
(Ydirection degrees of freedom)
%Active Mass
z
[ ]
[ ]
100( )
e
M i
M i
=
Summed over 1 = 3 to n, by 6
(Zdirection degrees of freedom)
Where:
M
e
= vector (by degreeoffreedom) of sum (over all extracted modes) of effective modal masses
M = vector corresponding to main diagonal of system mass matrix
The maximum possible percent of active mass which is theoretically possible is of course 100%, with 9095% usually
indicating that a sufficient number of modes have been extracted to provide a good dynamic model.
The percent of active force is calculated by the following factors:
separately summing the components of the effective force acting along each of the three directional degreesoffreedom
combining them algebraically
doing the same for the applied load
taking the ratio of the effective load divided by the applied load
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 553
For example:
F
e
x
= EF
e
[i]
Fx = EF[i]
Summed over i = 1 to n, by 6
(X  Direction degrees of freedom)
F
e
y
= EF
e
[i]
Fy = EF[i]
Summed over i = 2 to n, by 6
(Y  Direction degrees of freedom)
F
e
z
= EF
e
[i]
Fz = EF[i]
Summed over i = 3 to n, by 6
(Z  Direction degrees of freedom)
% Active Force
2 2 2
2 2 2
[ ]
100*
[ ]
+ +
=
+ +
e e e
F x F y F z
Fx Fy Fz
Where:
F
eX
,F
eY
,F
eZ
= effective force (allocated to extracted modes) acting along the global X, Y, and Z
axes, respectively
F
r
= vector of effective forces (allocated to extracted modes)
F
X
,F
Y
,F
Z
= total system forces acting along the global X, Y, and Zaxes, respectively
F = vector of total system forces
The maximum possible percent which is theoretically possible for this value is also 100%; however, in practice it may be
higher, indicating an uneven distribution of the load and mass in the system model. There is nothing inherently wrong with
an analysis where the included force exceeds 100%if the missing mass correction is included, the modal loadings will be
adjusted to conform to the applied loading automatically. Often the percent of included force can be brought back under
100% by extracting a few more modes. At other times, the situation can be remedied by improving the dynamic model
through a finer element mesh, or, more importantly, equalizing the mass point spacing in the vicinity of the load.
Frequency Cutoff (HZ)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
As noted above, CAESAR II permits the user to specify either a number of modes or a frequency cutoff for extracting modes
to be considered in the dynamic analysis. Modal extraction ceases when the Eigensolver extracts either the number of
modes requested, or extracts a mode with a frequency above that of the Frequency Cutoff, whichever comes first.
One recommendation for selection of a frequency cutoff point is that the user extract modes up to, but not far beyond, a
recognized rigid frequency, and then include the missing mass correction (discussed in the section Include Missing Mass
Components). Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the response spectrums resonant peak will provide a non
554 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
conservative result, since resonant responses may be missed. During spectrum analysis, using a cutoff frequency to the right
of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will yield either over or underconservative results, depending upon the method
used to extract the ZPA from the response spectrum. (In the case of time history analysis, selecting a cutoff frequency to the
right of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will probably yield nonconservative results, since the missing mass force is
applied with a dynamic load factor of 1.0). Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic
response may be conservative in the case of Spectrum analysis, since all spectral modal combination methods (SRSS,
GROUP, ABS, etc.) give conservative results versus the algebraic combination method (always used during time history
analysis), which gives a more realistic representation of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response
spectrum shown in the following figure, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz.
1 Nonconservative cutoff (Misses amplification of any modes in resonant range)
2 Conservative cutoff (Multiplies missing mass contribution by excessive DLF1.6)
3 Optimal cutoff (Includes all modes in resonant range, uses low DLF1.05for missing mass contribution, minimizes
combination of rigid modes)
4 Conservative Cutoff (Too many rigid modes combined using nonconservative summation methods)
When the analysis type is SPECTRUM, MODES, or TIMEHIST, either this parameter or the previous one must be entered.
Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms)
(Active for: Spectrum/GROUP and Time History)
This parameter does double duty, depending upon the analysis type. For a Spectrum analysis type with GROUP modal
Combination Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this parameter specifies the frequency spacing
defining each modal groupi.e., the percent (of the base frequency) between the lowest and highest frequency of the group.
Regulatory Guide 1.92 specifies the group spacing criteria as 10% (entered here as 0.1), so it is unlikely that the user would
ever wish to change the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria from the CAESAR II default value of 0.1. The GROUP modal
combination method is described in detail in the section Modal Combination Method found later in this chapter.
For a Time History analysis type, this parameter is used to enter the length of the time slice, in milliseconds, to be used by
the program during its stepbystep integration of the equations of motion for each of the extracted modes (CAESAR II uses
the unconditionally stable Wilson q integration method, so any size time step will provide a solution, with a smaller step
providing greater accuracyand more strain on computational resources). The time step should be sufficiently small that it
can accurately map the force vs. time load profile (i.e., the time step should be smaller than typical force ramp times).
Additionally, the time step must be small enough that the contribution of the higher order modes is not filtered from the
response. For this reason, it is recommended that the time step should be selected such that Time Step (in seconds) times
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 555
Maximum Modal Frequency (in Hz) be less than 0.1. For example, if the modal frequency cutoff is set to 50 Hz, the time
step should be set to a maximum of 2 milliseconds:
0.002 sec x 50 Hz = 0.1
Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS Method) (Sec.)
(Active for: Spectrum/DSRSS and Time History)
This parameter is used to specify the duration of the applied dynamic load. For a Time History analysis, this parameter is
used to specify the total length of time (in seconds) over which the dynamic response is to be simulated. The load duration,
divided by the time step size (see the previous section) gives the total number of integration steps making up the solution
(currently CAESAR II limits the number of time steps to 5000, or as permitted by available memory and system size). It is
recommended that, if possible, the duration be at least equal to the maximum duration of the applied load, plus the period
(in seconds) of the first extracted mode. This allows simulation of the system response throughout the imposition of the
external load, plus one full cycle of the resulting free vibration. After this point, the response will die out, according to the
damping value used. For example, if the applied load is expected to last 150 milliseconds, and the lowest extracted
frequency is 3Hz, the load duration should be set to a minimum of 0.150 plus 1/3, or 0.483 seconds.
For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combination Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory
Guide 1.92), this parameter is used to specify the duration of the earthquake, in seconds. This duration is used to compute
the modal correlation coefficients based on empirical data. The DSRSS modal combination method is described in detail in
the section Modal Combination Method later in this chapter.
Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (Ratio of Critical)
(Active for: Spectrum/DSRSS, Harmonics, and Time History)
This parameter is used to specify the system damping value, as a ratio of critical damping. Typical values for piping
systems, as recommended in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and ASME Code Case N411, range from 0.01 to 0.05, based
upon pipe size, earthquake severity, and the systems natural frequencies.
Generally, damping cannot be considered in the mathematical solutions required for spectrum or harmonic analysis. It is
therefore ignored (or solved as specialized cases) in most analyses, and must be instead considered through adjustment of
the applied loads (generation of the response spectrum) and/or system stiffness.
For a Time History analysis, damping is used explicitly, since this method uses a numeric solution to integrate the dynamic
equations of motion.
For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combination Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory
Guide 1.92), the damping value is used in the computation of the modal correlation coefficients. (Note that CAESAR II does
not permit the specification of damping values for individual modes.) The DSRSS modal combination method is described
in detail in the section Modal Combination Method later in this chapter.
For a Harmonic analysis, this ratio is converted to Rayleigh Damping, where the damping matrix can be expressed as
multiples of the mass and stiffness matrices:
[C] = a [M] + b [K]
On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping C
c
and the constants a and b is given as:
556 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Where:
e = undamped natural frequency of mode (radians/sec)
For many practical problems, a is extremely small, and so may be ignored, reducing the relationships to:
o = 0  = 2 C
c
/ e
CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, with the exception that a single b is calculated for
the multidegreeoffreedom system, and the w used is that of the load forcing frequency. When the forcing frequency is in
the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives an accurate estimate of the true damping value.
ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC G's)/# Time History Output Cases
(Active for: Spectrum/1.60/UBC and Time History)
This parameter does double duty, depending upon the analysis type. When used with certain predefined normalized
response spectra, it is used as the acceleration factor (in g's) by which the spectrum is scaled. For example, when a
spectrum analysis uses one of the predefined spectra names beginning with "1.60" (i.e., 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7), CAESAR II
constructs an earthquake spectrum according to the instructions given in USAEC (now USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.60.
That guide requires that the shape of the response spectrum be chosen from the curves shown in the following figures, based
upon the system damping value (for example, the .5 or 7 in the spectrum names 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7). If the analysis uses one
of the predefined spectra names beginning with "UBC" (i.e., UBCSOIL1), CAESAR II uses the normalized seismic response
spectra for the corresponding soil type from Table 233 from the Uniform Building Code (1991 Edition). Both the Reg
Guide 1.60 and the UBC curves are normalized to represent a ground acceleration (ZPA) of lg; the true value is actually site
dependent. Therefore, entering ZPA value here appropriately scales any Regulatory Guide 1.60 or the Uniform Building
Code response spectra.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 557
When performing Time History analysis, this parameter is used to specify the number of distinct times at which the results
of the load cases (the dynamic load as well as all static/dynamic combinations) should be generated. In addition, CAESAR II
generates one set of results (for each load case) containing the maximum of each output value (displacement, force, stress,
etc.) along with the time at which it occurred. The times for which results are generated are determined by dividing as
evenly as possible the load duration by the number of output timesfor example, if the load duration is 1 second, and 5
output cases are requested, results will be available at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 milliseconds (in addition to the
maximum case). The total number of results cases generated for an analysis is the product of the number of load cases (one
dynamic case plus the number of static/dynamic combination cases) times the number of results cases per load (one maxima
case plus the requested number of output cases). Currently the total number of results cases is 999:
(1 + # Static/Dynamic Combinations) x (1 + # Output Cases) s 999
At least one output case (in addition to the automatically generated maxima case) must be requested; more than one is not
really necessary, since the worst case results are reflected in the Maxima case and individual results at every time step are
available through the ELEMENT command when animating the Time History results.
Reuse Last Eigensolution
(Active for: Spectrum and Time History)
When repeating a dynamic analysis, this parameter may be set to Yes, causing CAESAR II to skip the eigensolution
(reusing the results of the earlier analysis), and only perform the computations for displacements, reactions, forces, and
stresses. Activating this option is only valid after an initial eigensolution has been performed and is still available.
Additionally, the mass and stiffness parameters of the model must be unchanged or the previous eigensolution is invalid.
558 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Spatial or Modal Combination First
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive tells CAESAR II whether to combine the Spatial components or the Modal components of the load case first.
When performing a spectrum analysis, each of the modal responses must be summed. In addition, if multiple shocks have
been applied to the structure in more than one direction, the results from different directions must be combinedfor
example, spatially combining the Xdirection, Ydirection, and Zdirection results. The question arises as to whether the
spatial summations should precede or follow the modal summations. A difference in the final results (of Spatial first vs.
Modal first) arises whenever different methods are used for the spatial and modal combinations.
The combination of Spatial components first implies that the shock loads are dependent, while the combination of Modal
components first implies that the shock loads are independent.
Dependent and Independent refer to the time relationship between the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake. With a
dependent shock case, the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake have a direct relationshipa change in the shock
along one direction produces a corresponding change in the other directions. For example, this would be the case when the
earthquake acts along a specific direction having components in more than one axissuch as when a fault runs at a 30
angle between the X and Zaxes. In this case, the Zdirection load would be a scaled (by a factor of tan 30), but otherwise
identical version of the Xdirection load. In this case, spatial combinations should be made first.
An Independent shock is one where the X, Y, and Z time histories produce related frequency spectra but have completely
unrelated time histories. It is the Independent type of earthquake that is far more common, and thus in most cases the modal
components should be combined first.
For example, IEEE 3441975 (IEEE Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear
Power Generating Stations) states:
Earthquakes produce random ground motions which are characterized by simultaneous but statistically INDEPENDENT
horizontal and vertical components.
This is usually less of an issue for force spectrum combinations, since normally there are no separate spatial components to
combinei.e., there are not X, Y, and Zshocks acting simultaneously. However, in the event that there is more than one
potential force load (such as when there is a bank of relief valves that can fire individually or in combination), the spatial
combination method may be used to indicate the independence of the loadings. For example, if two relief valves may or
may not fire simultaneously (i.e., they are independent), the two shocks should be defined as being in different directions
(for example, X and Y), and the combination method selected should be Modal before Spatial. If under certain
circumstances, the two valves will definitely open simultaneously (i.e., the loadings are dependent), the combination
method should be Spatial before Modal. (Otherwise, the direction defined for a force spectrum loading has no particular
meaning.)
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) describes the requirements for combining spatial components
when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear power plants.
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no effect on Time History
results.
Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This parameter is used to define the method for combining the spatial contributions of the shocks in a single spectrum load
case. This option is only used for spectrum runs with more than a single excitation direction. Since directional forces are
usually combined vectorially, this points to a Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) combination method as being
most appropriate. An Absolute method is provided for additional conservatism.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 559
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no effect on Time History
results.
Modal Combination Method (GROUP/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
During a spectrum analysis, responses are calculated for each of the individual modes; these individual responses are then
combined to get the total system response. Considering that the response spectrum yields the maximum response at any time
during the course of the applied load, and considering that each of the modes of vibration will probably have different
frequencies, it is probable that the peak responses of all modes will not occur simultaneously. Therefore an appropriate
means of summing the modal responses must be considered.
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) defines the requirements for combining modal responses
when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear power plants. The four options presented there are also
available, along with one other, for modal combinations under nonnuclear seismic and force spectrum analyses.
There are five available modal combination methods:
Grouping Method
Ten Percent Method
Double Sum Method
Absolute
Square Root of the Sum of the Squares
Grouping Method
This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Grouping Method attempts to eliminate the drawbacks of
the Absolute and SRSS methods (see below) by assuming that modes are completely correlated with any modes with similar
(closely spaced) frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with those modes with widely different frequencies.
Therefore, the total system response is calculated as
1/ 2
2
1
1
(where 1 )
N
j P j
q m i lq mq l i
k
R Rk R R m
= = =
=
(
= + + + =
(
Where:
R = total system response of the element
N = number of significant modes considered in the modal response combination
R
k
= the peak value of the response of the element due to the kth mode
P = number of groups of closelyspaced modes (where modes are considered to be closelyspaced if
their frequencies are within 10% of that of the base mode in the group), excluding individual separated
modes. No mode can be in more than one group.
i = number of first mode in group q
j = number of last mode in group q
R
lq
= response of mode l in group q
R
mq
= response of mode m in group q
560 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Effectively, this method dictates that the responses of any modes which have frequencies within 10% of each other first be
added together absolutely, with the results of each of these groups then combined with the remaining individual modal
results using the SRSS method.
Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of a group may be changed by using the Closely Spaced Mode
Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) parameter. For more information see the corresponding section earlier in this
chapter.
Ten Percent Method
This method is defined in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Ten Percent Method is similar to the Grouping method
in that it assumes that modes are completely correlated with any modes with similar (closely spaced) frequencies, and are
completely uncorrelated with those modes with widely different frequencies. The differences between this one and the
preceding method is that the Grouping Method assumes that modes are only correlated with those that fall within the group
i.e., are within a 10% band, while this method assumes that modes are correlated with those that fall within 10% of the
subject mode effectively creating a 20% band  105 up and approximately 10% down. The total system response is
calculated as
1/ 2
2
1
2 (Where i j)
=
(
= + =
(
N
i j
k
R Rk R R
Where:
R
i
, R
j
= the peak value of the response of the element due to the ith and jth mode, respectively, where
mode i and j are any frequencies within 10% of the each other,
Where:
(fi, fj) / fi = frequencies of modes i and j, respectively
Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies may be changed by using the Closely Spaced
Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) parameter. (See description in corresponding section earlier in this chapter).
Double Sum Method (DSRSS)
This method is also defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. This combination method is the most technically correct for
earthquake loads, in that an attempt is made to estimate the actual intermodal correlation coefficient based upon empirical
data. The total system response is calculated as
Where:
R
s
= the peak value of the response of the element due to mode s
e
ks
= intermodal correlation coefficient
= [ 1 + {( e
k
'  e
s
') /(
k
' e
k
+
s
' e
s
)}
2
]
1
e
k
' = e
k
[ 1 
k
2
]
1/2
e
s
' = e
s
[ 1 
s
2
]
1/2
k
' =
k
+ 2 / ( t
d
e
k
)
s
' =
s
+ 2 / ( t
d
e
s
)
e
k
= frequency of mode k, rad/sec
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 561
e
s
= frequency of mode s, rad/sec
k
= ratio of damping to critical damping of mode k, dimensionless
s
= ratio of damping to critical damping of mode s, dimensionless
t
d
= duration of earthquake, sec
Note: The load duration (t
d
) and the damping ratio () may be specified by using the Load Duration (Time History or
DSRSS method) (sec.) and Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (ratio of critical) parameters described in the
corresponding sections found earlier in this chapter.
Absolute Method
This method states that the total system response is equal to the sum of the absolute values of the individual modal
responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all correlation coefficients equal to 1.0, or the
Grouping method, with all modes being closely spaced.) The total system response is calculated as:
1
N
i
i
R R
=
=
This method gives the most conservative result, since it assumes that the all maximum modal responses occur at exactly the
same time during the course of the applied load. This is usually overlyconservative, since modes with different natural
frequencies will probably experience their maximum DLF at different times during the load profile.
Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS)
This method states that the total system response is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual
modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all correlation coefficients equal to 0.0, or
the Grouping method, with none of the modes being closely spaced.) The total system response is calculated as:
1/ 2
2
1
N
i
i
R R
=
(
=
(
This method is based upon the statistical assumption that all modal responses are completely independent, with the maxima
following a relatively uniform distribution throughout the duration of the applied load. This is usually nonconservative,
especially if there are any modes with very close frequencies, since those modes will probably experience their maximum
DLF at approximately the same time during the load profile.
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no effect on Time History
results.
Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum/ISM)
This option is only used when Independent Support Motion (anchor movement) components are part of a shock load case.
The excitation of a group of supports produces both a dynamic response and a static response. The static response is due to
the movement of one group of supports or anchors relative to another group of supports/anchors. These static components of
the dynamic shock loads are called pseudostatic components. USNRC recommendations, as of August 1985, suggest that
the following procedure be followed for pseudostatic components:
1 For each support group, the maximum absolute response should be calculated for each input direction.
2 Same direction responses should then be combined using the absolute sum method.
3 Combination of the directional responses should be done using the SRSS method.
562 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
4 The total response should be formed by combining the dynamic and pseudostatic responses, using the SRSS method.
Therefore pseudostatic components should be included whenever Independent Support spectral loadings are used.
Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum and Time History)
During spectrum (either seismic or force spectrum) or time history analyses, the response of a system under a dynamic load
is determined by superposition of modal results. One of the advantages of this type of modal analysis is that usually only a
limited number of modes are excited and need to be included in the analysis. The drawback to this method is that although
displacements may be obtained with good accuracy using only a few of the lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and
stress results may require extraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is
attained.
CAESAR II provides a feature, called the Missing Mass Correction, which helps solve these problems. This feature offers
the ability to include a correction which represents the contribution of the higher order modes not explicitly extracted for the
modal/dynamic response, thus providing greater accuracy without additional calculation time. When this option is activated
(by entering Yes for this parameter), the program automatically calculates the net (inphase) contribution of all non
extracted modes and combines it with the modal contributionsavoiding the long calculation time associated with the
extraction of the high order modes and the possible excessive conservatives of the summation methods. This feature is
described in Chapter 6 of this manual.
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive specifies the method by which the pseudostatic responses (see description in the earlier section Include
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)" on page
561)) are to be combined with the dynamic (inertial) responses; therefore it is applicable only when there is at least one
Independent Support Motion excitation component in a shock load case. Pseudostatic combinations are done after all
directional, spatial, and modal combinations. Absolute combination gives conservative results, but, as noted in the section
Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components, the USNRC recommends using the SRSS method for pseudostatic
combinations.
Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive defines the method used to combine the missing mass/force correction components (see description in an
earlier section, Include Missing Mass Components (see "Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N)" on page 562)) with the
modal (dynamic) results. Research suggests that the modal and rigid portions of the response are statistically independent,
so the SRSS combination method (CAESAR IIs default) is usually most accurate. The Absolute combination method
provides a more conservative result, based upon the assumption that the modal maxima occur simultaneously with the
maximum ground acceleration. Missing mass components are combined following the modal combination.
Note: Even though missing mass components may be included during Time History analyses, all Time History
combinations are done algebraically (inphase), so this parameter has no effect on Time History results.
Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive specifies the method used for combining shock components acting in the same direction. This directive is
used most typically with Independent Support Motion load cases, where it defines the way in which responses from
different support groups caused by excitation in the same direction are combined. Additionally, if there are multiple uniform
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 563
shock spectra acting in the same direction (although this is unusual), this directive would govern their combination. In
general, directional combinations should be made using the absolute method. (As noted in the earlier section, Include
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)" on page
561), this is the USNRC recommendation for directional combination of pseudostatic responses.) However, in the case of
force spectrum loads, if several loads (for example, several relief valve loads) are all defined with the same shock
direction, using an SRSS combination method would be a way of modeling these as independent loads, while using the
Absolute method would model them as dependent loads.
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no effect on Time History
results.
Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
In almost all cases, the eigensolver will detect modal frequencies from the lowest frequency to the highest. Sometimes,
when there is some strong directional dependency in the system, the modes may converge in the wrong order. This could
cause a problem if the eigensolver reaches the cutoff number of modes (i.e., 20), but has not yet found the 20 modes with
the lowest frequency (it may have found modes 1 through 18, 20, and 21, and would have found number 19 next).
CAESAR II checks for this anomaly using the Sturm Sequence calculation. This procedure determines the number of modes
that should have been found between the highest and lowest frequencies found, and compares that against the actual number
of modes extracted. If those numbers are different, the user is given a warning. For example, if 22 natural frequencies are
extracted for a particular system, and if the highest natural frequency is 33.5 Hz, the Sturm Sequence check makes sure that
there are exactly 22 natural frequencies in the model between zero and 33.5+p Hz, where p is a numerical tolerance found
from:
10
Log [(Highest Eigenvalue)(Number of Significant Figures+1.5)]
10
p=
2l
The Sturm Sequence check would fail in the case where there are two identical frequencies at the last frequency extracted.
The significance of this failure can only be estimated by the user. For example, consider a system with the following natural
frequencies:
0.6637 1.2355 1.5988 4.5667 4.5667
If the user asks for only the first four natural frequencies, a Sturm Sequence failure would occur because there are five
frequencies, rather than four, which exist in the range between 0.0 and 4.5667 + p (where p calculates to 0.0041). To correct
this problem, the user can do either of the following:
Increase the frequency cutoff by the number of frequencies not found. (This number is reported by the Sturm Sequence
Check.)
Increase the cutoff frequency by some small amount, if the frequency cutoff terminated the eigensolution. This will
usually allow the lost modes to fall into the solution frequency range.
Fix the subspace size at 10 and rerun the job. Increasing the number of approximation vectors improves the possibility that
at least one of them will contain some component of the missing modes, allowing the vector to properly converge.
The default here is Yes, and should be left alone unless the user has some specific reason for deactivating the check.
564 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Advanced Parameters
Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This is the approximate number of significant figures in the computed eigenvalues (e
2
, where e is the angular frequency in
rad/sec). For example, using the default value of 6, if a computed eigenvalue was 44032.32383, then the first digit to the
right of the decimal is probably the last accurately computed figure.
The eigenvectors, or mode shapes, are computed to half as many significant figures as are the eigenvalues. If the
eigenvalues have 6 significant figures of accuracy, then the eigenvectors have 3.
This number should typically never be decreased. Increases to 8 or 10 are not unusual but result in slower solutions with
typically little change in response results.
Jacobi Sweep Tolerance
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
Eigen analyses are done using an NxN subspace for calculating the natural frequencies and mode shapes for a reduced
problem. The first step is to perform a Jacobi denationalization of the subspace. Iterations are performed until the off
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 565
diagonal terms of the matrix are approximately zero. The offdiagonal terms are considered to be close enough to zero when
their ratio to the ondiagonal term in the row is smaller the Jacobi Sweep Tolerance.
The default is 1.0E12. Users wishing to change this value should be aware of the computers precision (the IEEE488
double precision word on the IBM PC has approximately 14 significant figures) and the approximate size of the ondiagonal
coefficients in the stiffness matrix for the problem to be solved (which may be estimated from simple beam expressions).
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
During the eigensolvers decomposition of what may be a shifted stiffness matrix, a singularity check is performed to make
sure that the shift is not too close to an eigenvalue that is to be calculated. If a singular condition is detected, a new shift, not
quite as aggressive as the last one, is computed and a new decomposition is attempted. If the new composition fails, a fatal
error is reported from the eigensolver. In certain cases, increasing the singularity tolerance is warranted and eliminates this
fatal error. Values should not be entered greater than 1.0 E13. Singularity problems may also exist when very light, small
diameter piping is attached to very heavy, large diameter, or when very, very short lengths of pipe are adjacent to very, very
long lengths of pipe.
Subspace Size (0Not Used)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
During an eigensolution, the NDOFxNDOF problem constructed by the user is reduced to an NxN problem during each
subspace iteration, where N is the subspace size. If a zero is entered in this field, CAESAR II selects what is expected to be an
optimal subspace size (so this value usually need not be changed); if a nonzero value is entered here, it will override
CAESAR IIs calculation and will be used as the subspace size.
CAESAR IIs default is to use the square root of the bandwidth (with a minimum of 4) as the subspace size, resulting in sizes
of 4 to 8 for typical piping configurations. Increasing the subspace size slows the eigensolution, but increases the numerical
stability. Values in the range between 12 and 15 should probably be used when unusual geometries or dynamic properties
are encountered, or when a job is large (has 100 elements or more, and/or requires that 25 or more frequencies be extracted).
No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0  Not Used)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
A zero in this field lets CAESAR II select what it thinks will be the most optimal shifting strategy for the eigen problem to be
solved. One way to speed the eigensolution is to improve the convergence characteristics. The convergence rate for the
lowest eigenpair in the subspace is inversely proportional to e
1
/ e
2
, where e
1
is the lowest eigenvalue in the current
subspace and e
2
is the next lowest eigenvalue in the current subspace. A slow convergence rate is represented by an
eigenvalue ratio of approximately one, and a fast convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of zero. The shift is
employed to get the convergence rate as close to zero as possible. The cost of each shift is one decomposition of the system
set of equations. The typical shift value is equal to the last computed eigenvalue plus 90 percent of the difference between
this value and the lowest estimated eigenvalue still nonconverged in the subspace. As e
1
is shifted closer to zero, the ratio
e
1
/e
2
will become increasingly smaller thus increasing the convergence rate. In certain instances where eigenvalues are
very closely spaced, shifting can result in eigenvalues being lost (the Sturm Sequence Check will detect this condition). A
large value entered for this parameter will effectively disable shifting, so no eigenvalues will be missed; however, the
solution will take longer to run. When the system to be analyzed is very large, shifting the set of equations can be very time
consumingin these cases, the user is advised to set this parameter to somewhere between 4 and 8.
No. of Iterations Per Shift (0  Pgm computed)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
566 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
A zero in this field lets CAESAR II compute what it thinks is an optimal number of subspace iterations per shift. This
parameter, along with the next one (% of iterations per shift before orthogonalization) can work together to control solution
shifting. These two parameters are used to limit the number of GramSchmidt orthogonalizations that are performed. Trying
to limit this number is very dangerous for small subspace problems, but less dangerous when the subspace size is large
(around 1020 percent of the total number of eigenpairs required).
The GramSchmidt orthogonalization is by default performed once during each subspace iteration. This orthogonalization
makes sure that the eigenvector subspace does not converge to an already found eigenpair. When a large number of
eigenpairs are to be computed this repeated computation can appreciably slow down the extraction of the highest eigenpairs.
Proper setting of these parameters can cause the eigensolution to perform the orthogonalization every second, third, fourth,
etc. iteration, thus speeding the solution. Unfortunately, once orthogonalized, the subspace may still converge to earlier
eigenpairs during subsequent nonorthogonalized subspace iteration passes. Users setting these parameters are urged to
use caution. The Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (see "Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)" on
page 566) parameter (see corresponding section later in this chapter) should probably also be set if the frequency of
orthogonalization is slowed.
Percent of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
CAESAR II computes a number of iterations per shift that are to be performed, which the user can alter if desired. A
maximum of N eigenpairs can conceivably converge per subspace pass, where N is the subspace size (although this is
highly unlikely). By default a GramSchmidt orthogonalization is performed for each subspace pass. This directive allows
the user to alter this default. For example, if there are 12 iterations per shift, and the percentage of iterations per shift is 50
percent (an entry of 0.50), the GramSchmidt orthogonalization would be performed every 6 iterations. Users employing
this option should also set the Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (see "Force Orthogonalization After
Convergence (Y/N)" on page 566) directive to Yes. The Percent of Iterations per Shift Before Orthogonalization
parameter is most often used in conjunction with the No. of Iterations per Shift (see "No. of Iterations Per Shift (0  Pgm
computed)" on page 565) parameter because then the user knows exactly how many iterations will go by without an
orthogonalization.
Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This parameter is only needed for eigensolutions for which the Percent of Iterations per Shift Before Orthogonalization
(on page 566) (the previous section) has been set to a nonzero value. When set to Yes in this case, whenever a subspace
pass that sees at least one eigenpair convergence completes, a GramSchmidt orthogonalization is performed whether the
specified percentage of iterations has been completed or not.
Use OutOfCore Eigensolver (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This parameter is used primarily as a benchmarking and debugging aid. When entered as Yes, the outofcore eigensolver
is automatically invoked regardless of the problem size. Using this solver can take considerably more time than the incore
solver, but should in all cases produce exactly the same results. Note that if the problem is too big to fit into the incore
solver (the capacity of which is based upon the amount of available extended memory), the outofcore solver will be
invoked automaticallythis parameter does not need to be changed to have this automatic switch occur when necessary.
Frequency Array Spaces
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This is the maximum number of eigenpairs that can be extracted for the problem. The default value of 100 is arbitrary. If the
user needs to extract more than 100 eigenpairs, then some number greater than the number to be extracted must be entered.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 567
Pulsation Loads
Unexpectedly, and sometimes after support changes or process modifications, an operating line will begin experiencing
large amplitude, low frequency vibration. The first step in the solution is the construction of the dynamic model. Particular
attention should be paid when modeling the piping system in the area of the field vibration. This might include accurately
representing valve operators, inline flange pairs, orifice plates and measuring equipment. It is also a good idea to add extra
nodes in the area where vibration is experienced. The extra nodes would be put at bend near nodes and at span midpoints.
The next step is the eigenvalue/eigenvector extraction. If the system is large, then degrees of freedom far removed from the
area of local vibration should be eliminated and (610) natural frequencies should be extracted. Natural frequencies and
mode shapes define the systems tendency to vibrate. The mode shapes extracted should show how the system in the area
of the local vibration problem is tending to displace. In most cases acoustic resonances are coupled with mechanical
resonances to produce the large amplitude vibrations experienced in the field.
Very typically one of the first mode shapes will show exactly the shape displayed by the pipe vibrating in the field. If the
mode shapes extracted do not show movement in the area of the local vibration, then not enough degrees of freedom were
removed from other areas. If the lowest mode shape in the area of the local vibration problem is above (15) Hz. then there is
a good possibility that either the vibration is mechanically induced or the fluid pulsation peak pressures are very high. Either
of these cases may represent critical situations which should be evaluated by an expert.
When the mode shape is identified which corresponds to the observed field vibration, the pulsation load model can be
developed. Pulsation loads will exist at closed ends, at bends, and at changes in diameter. Harmonically varying forces are
put at these points in an attempt to get the mathematical model to vibrate like the real piping system. The driving frequency
for the applied harmonic load should be equal to the frequency that pressure pulses are introduced into the line. The
magnitude of the harmonic load can be estimated within a range of tolerances. The actual design value is selected from this
range such that resulting displacements of the model are close to those observed in the field.
Output from the harmonic analysis can be processed in the static output processor and maximum restraint loads due to the
dynamic forces calculated. It is critical when redesigning supports for dynamic loads that static thermal criteria are not
violated by any new support configuration designed.
Important: Static thermal criteria and dynamic displacement criteria must be satisfied simultaneously.
The ultimate objective of the harmonic analysis will be to find the elbow pair whose unbalanced load results in the observed
field vibration.
Unbalanced loads exist between adjacent elbows because the pressure peak in the traveling wave hits each elbow at a
slightly different time.
If the pressure at elbow a is denoted by Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow b is denoted by Pb(t), then the unbalanced force
which acts along the pipe connecting the two elbows is:
F = A * Pa(t)  A * Pb(t) EQ. (1)
Where A is the inside area of the pipe. The expression for Pa(t) can be found assuming the pressure peak hits the elbow a
at time t = 0:
Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos et EQ. (2)
Where:
(Pavg)  average pressure in the line,
(dP)  alternating component of the pressure, (PmaxPmin)
(e)  driving frequency.
568 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
If the straight pipe between the elbows a and b is (L) inches long, then the pressure peak that has just passed elbow a
will get to elbow b (ts) seconds later, where
(t
s
) = (L) / c,
(c) being the speed of sound in the fluid. (Remember, pressure pulses travel at the speed of sound, not the speed of the fluid
! ! !) The expression for the pressure at b can now be written:
Pb(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos (et + Q) EQ.(3)
Q is the phase shift between the pressure peaks at a and b,
Q = e * (t
s
). (Where Q is in radians, and e is in radians/second)
Combining equations 1, 2, and 3 the unbalanced pressure force can be written:
F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos et  cos (etQ) ]
This function has a maximum:
Fmax = 0.5(dP)A sin Q/cos (Q/2)
and a period of 1/w, and will be approximated with:
f(t) = 0.5(dP)A (sin Q/cos (Q/2)) cos et
The formulation of the harmonic loads can be summarized as follows:
1 Decide which elbowelbow pair is most likely to have an unbalanced force which could cause the displacements
observed in the field.
2 Find upper and lower estimates for the following variables:
dP Alternating pressure in the line (Pmax  Pmin)
e Driving frequency.
c Speed of sound in the fluid.
L Length between the two elbows.
A Area of the pipe.
3 Find the time it takes the pressure wave to get from one elbow to the other.
t
s
= L / (c)
(c) is the lower estimate for the speed of sound in the fluid.
4 Find the largest estimated magnitude of the unbalanced pressure force:
Fmax = (0.5) (dP+)A * sin [(e+) (t
s)
] / cos [(et) (t
s
)/2]
(dP+) is the upper estimate for the alternating pressure.
(e+) is the upper estimate for the driving frequency.
5 Run a single harmonic analysis with a force of F = Fmax [cos (et)] acting along the axis of the pipe between the two
elbows. If the pattern of the displacement approximately that seen in the field, and if the magnitude of the calculated
displacement is greater than or equal to the magnitude of the displacement in the field, then the harmonic load to be
used for the design of the new restraints has been found.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 569
Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis
There can be two types of destructive dynamic forces associated with relief devices:
Thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface
Acoustic shock due to the sudden change in fluid momentum and the associated traveling pressure wave(s).
The analyst must evaluate the effective contribution of both types of loads. Dynamic forces associated with relieving
devices can cause considerable mechanical damage to equipment and supports. The discussion below concerns only the
thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface. The acoustic traveling pressure wave can be dealt with similar to the water hammer
problem, addressed elsewhere.
The first step in performing a relief load analysis is to compute the magnitudes of the relieving thrust forces. For opentype
vent systems CAESAR II has a RELIEF LOAD SYNTHESIZER that will make these computations automatically for the
user. There are two procedures incorporated into the synthesizer, one is for gases greater than 15 psig, and the other is for
liquids. Both are discussed as follows.
Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig
CAESAR II assumes that a successful vent stack/relief system design maintains the following gas properties:
The input for the gas relief load synthesis is shown as follows:
570 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Line Temperature
Enter the stagnation condition temperature of the gas to be relieved (Usually just the gas temperature upstream of the relief
valve).
Line Pressure
Enter the stagnation pressure of the gas to be relieved (Usually just the gas pressure upstream of the relief valve). Note that
stagnation properties can vary considerably from line properties if the gas flow velocity in the line is high.
ID of Relief Valve Orifice
Enter the flow passage inside diameter for the smallest diameter in the relief valve throat. (This information is usually
provided by the relief valve manufacturer).
ID of Relief Valve Piping
Enter the inside diameter of the piping attached directly to the exhaust of the relief valve.
ID of Vent Stack Piping
If CAESAR II is to size the vent stack then leave this ID blank. If the vent stack piping is the same size as the relief valve
piping, i.e. it is oneinthesame, then this field may be left blank. Otherwise enter the inside diameter of the vent stack
piping.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 571
Length of the Vent Stack
Enter the length of the vent stack. This is a required entry. Add double the lengths of fittings and elbows (or compute the
appropriate equivalent lengths for nonpipe fittings and add the lengths).
Some typical values for these constants are given below:
Ratio of GasSpecific Heats (k) Gas Constant (R) (ft. lbf./lbm./deg. R
Superheated Steam 1.300 Nitrogen 55.16
Saturated Steam 1.100 Carbon Dioxide 35.11
Nitrogen 1.399 Acetylene 59.35
Carbon Dioxide 1.288 Ammonia 90.73
Acetylene 1.232 nButane 26.59
Ammonia 1.304 Ethane 51.39
nButane 1.093 Ethylene 55.09
Ethane 1.187 Methane 96.33
Ethylene 1.240 Propane 35.05
Methane 1.226
Propane 1.127
Does the Vent Pipe Have an Umbrella Fitting (Y/N)
Enter a Y or a N. See the following figures to determine if the connection of the vent stack to the vent piping is via an
umbrella fitting.
572 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Should CAESAR II Size the Vent Stack (Y/N)
Enter a Y if CAESAR II should size the vent stack. The sizing algorithm searches through a table of available inside pipe
diameters starting at the smallest diameter until a vent stack ID is found that satisfies the thermodynamic criteria shown in
the figure above. The computed ID is automatically inserted into the input.
Example input and output from the relief load synthesizer is shown and discussed as follows:
Relief Load Synthesis Input (Gas)
Relief Load Synthesis Output (Gas)
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 573
Computed Mass Flowrate (Vent Gas)
This is CAESAR IIs computed gas mass flow rate based on choked conditions at the relief orifice. If greater mass flow rates
are expected, then the error in either the approach used by CAESAR II or in the expected mass flow rate should be
investigated.
Thrust at Valve Pipe/Vent Pipe Interface
If there is an umbrella fitting between the vent stack and the relief valve piping then this is the thrust load that acts back on
the relief valve piping. (See the following figure.) If the vent stack is hard piped to the relief valve piping then this
intermediate thrust will be balanced by tensile loads in the pipe and can be ignored.
Thrust load acts directly on valve opening. Only the valve pipe/vent stack interface
thrust acts in this configuration.
Thrust at the Vent Pipe Exit
When there is an elbow in the vent stack piping, this is the thrust load that acts on the elbow just before the pipe opening
into the atmosphere. (See the following figure for clarification.)
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening
This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line pressure when the relief
valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave
in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (PoPa)*Ap, where
Po is the stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping.
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing
The estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line pressure when the relief device
slams shut. This positive pressure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the
574 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
supply side piping of a waterhammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the fluid
density, c is the speed of sound in the fluid and dv is the change in the velocity of the fluid.
Thermodynamic Entropy Limit /Subsonic Vent Exit Limit
These values should always be greater than 1. If either of these computed limits fall below 1.0 then the thermodynamic
assumptions made regarding the gas properties are incorrect and the computed thrust values should be disregarded.
Valve Orifice Gas Conditions /Vent Pipe Exit Gas Conditions/Subsonic Velocity Gas Conditions
These are the thermodynamic properties of the gas at three critical points in the relief system. These three points are shown
in the figure on the opposite page. The entire formulation for the thrust gas properties is based on an ideal gas equation of
state. If the pressures and temperatures displayed above for the gas being vented are outside of the range where the ideal gas
laws apply then some alternate source should be sought for the computation of the systems thrust loads.
In addition, all three of these points should be sufficiently clear of the gas saturation line. When the exit gas conditions
become saturated, the magnitude of the thrust load can be reduced significantly. In this case the manufacturer should be
consulted. In several instances at COADE, saturated exhaust thrust loads were 50 to 75% less than the CAESAR II computed
values.
Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids
CAESAR II assumes that the liquid vent system has one of the two following configurations:
The input for the liquid relief load synthesis is shown as follows:
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 575
Relief Valve or Rupture Disk
Enter RV if the relieving device is a relief valve and RD if the relieving device is a rupture disk. If the user has his own
relief exit coefficient it can be entered here in place of the letters RV or RD. An entry of zero represents No appreciable
head loss due to the relief opening configuration. The exit coefficient for a relief valve is 0.25 and for a rupture disk is 0.5.
Supply Overpressure
Enter the stagnation, or zero velocity pressure in the fluid upstream of the relief valve.
ID Relief Orifice or Rupture Disk Opening
Enter the manufacturers inside diameter of the contracted opening in the particular relieving device. (For special purpose
calculations this ID may be equal to the ID of the Relief exit piping.)
ID Relief Exit Piping
Enter the inside diameter of the piping connected to the downstream side of the relief valve.
ID Manifold Piping
If the relief exit piping runs into a manifold then enter the inside diameter of the manifold. Leave this field blank or zero if
there isn't a manifold.
ID Supply Header
Enter the inside diameter of the supply header.
Fluid Density
Enter the specific gravity of the fluid being relieved.
Length of Relief Exit Piping
Enter the equivalent length of the relief exit piping. Add twice the piping length for fittings and elbows, or the calculated
fitting equivalent length.
Length of Manifold Piping
Enter the equivalent length of the manifold piping, if any. If there isn't a manifold system then leave this field blank or zero.
Add twice the piping length for fitting and elbows. If the manifold is not filled by the relieving fluid then leave the manifold
length zero.
Fluid Bulk Modulus
Enter the bulk modulus of the fluid. If omitted a valve of 250,000 psi will be used as the default. Some typical values for use
are given as follows. These are the values for an isothermal compression as taken from Marks Standard Handbook for
Engineers, p. 335, 8th edition.
Supply Header Pipe Wall Thickness
Enter the wall thickness of the supply header.
Note: When running the relief load synthesis for liquids, the error message: NUMERICAL ERROR OR NO FLOW
CONDITION DETECTED, means a physically impossible configuration was described.
576 Controlling the Dynamic Solution
Flashing of volatile relief liquids is not considered. If the relieving liquid flashes in the exhaust piping as its pressure drops
to atmospheric then some other means should be used to compute the resulting gas properties and thrust loads.
Output From the Liquid Relief Load Synthesizer
Computed Mass Flow Rate
The computed exhaust mass flow rate in U.S. Gallons per minute. CAESAR II makes the necessary pressure drop calculations
between the stagnation pressure upstream of the relief device and atmospheric conditions at the exit of the manifold.
Thrust at the End of the Exit Piping
The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the exit piping. If there is no manifold then this is the external thrust
load that acts on the piping system. If there is a manifold then this thrust is opposed by tension in the pipe wall at the
junction of the exit piping and manifold. See the figures that follow for clarification.
Thrust at the End of the Manifold Piping
The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the manifold piping. If there is no manifold system then this thrust will
be equal to the thrust at the end of the exit piping. See the figures that follow for clarification.
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening
This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line pressure when the relief
valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave
in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (PoPa)*Ap, where
Po is the stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping.
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing
The estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line pressure when the relief device
slams shut. This positive pressure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the
supply side piping of a waterhammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the fluid
density, c is the speed of sound in the fluid and dv is the change in the velocity of the fluid.
Orifice Flow Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions
These are the computed fluid properties at the three critical crosssections in the relief piping. If pressures or velocities here
do not seem reasonable then some characteristic of the relief model is probably in error.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 577
Note: If the L dimensions are significant in any of the previous figures (several feet) then unbalanced thrust loads will
act between the elbowelbow pairs that are very similar to a water hammer load. Water hammer pulses travel at the speed of
sound in the fluid, while the fluid/atmosphere interface pulses travel at the velocity of the flowing fluid. For this reason,
these unbalanced loads can cause significant piping displacements in much shorter pipe runs. The magnitude of these loads
is equivalent to the computed thrust and the duration may be found from the computed fluid velocity and distance between
each elbowelbow pair.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions
This chapter includes a more detailed discussion of implementations, methods, and assumptions.
In This Chapter
Rigid Element Application ...................................................................... 62
Inline Flange Evaluation ........................................................................ 63
Cold Spring.............................................................................................. 65
Expansion Joints ...................................................................................... 67
Hanger Sizing Algorithm......................................................................... 69
Class 1 Branch Flexibilities ..................................................................... 612
Modeling Friction Effects........................................................................ 615
Nonlinear Code Compliance.................................................................... 616
Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints ........................................... 617
Static Seismic Loads................................................................................ 620
Wind Loads.............................................................................................. 622
Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading .......................................... 625
Evaluating Vessel Stresses....................................................................... 636
Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction..................................................... 640
Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II........................................................ 644
Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping......................................................... 660
Code Compliance Considerations............................................................ 681
Local Coordinates.................................................................................... 6112
C H A P T E R 6
62 Technical Discussions
Rigid Element Application
CAESAR II forms rigid elements by multiplying the wall thickness of the element by 10. The inside diameter, and the weight
of the element, remain unchanged. The rigid element in CAESAR II is rigid relative to the pipe around it. If a 6in. line ties
into a 72in. heat exchanger, then the rigid elements modeling the heat exchanger should have a diameter closer to 72 than
6. The user that is sensitive to the rigidness of the rigid element can increase or decrease the diameter or wall thickness of
the rigid to simulate any order of magnitude stiffness.
Rigid Material Weight
The weight of the rigid element is entered by the user. If no value is input then the weight of the rigid is taken to be zero.
The entered weight is the weight of the rigid excluding insulation or fluid. If the weight of the rigid element is entered as
zero or blank, then no additional weight due either to insulation or fluid will be added.
Rigid Fluid Weight
CAESAR II automatically adds fluid loads for rigid elements if a nonzero fluid density is entered on the pipe spreadsheet.
The fluid weight in a rigid element is assumed to be equal to the fluid weight in an equivalent straight pipe of similar length
and inside diameter.
Rigid Insulation Weight
CAESAR II also automatically adds insulation loads if the line containing the rigid element is insulated. The insulation
weight for the rigid is assumed to be equal to 1.75 times the insulation for an equivalent length of straight pipe of equal
outside diameter.
The cumulative rigid element weight calculation is as follows:
Weight = 0.0 W
u
= 0.0
Weight = W
u
+ W
f
+ 1.75W
i
W
u
> 0.0
Where:
W
u
= User entered rigid weight
W
f
= Calculated fluid weight for equivalent straight pipe
W
i
= Calculated insulation weight for equivalent straight pipe
The userentered weight for the rigid element is not reflected in the Thermal Expansion/Pipe Weight Report optionally
printed during error checking.
Stresses are not calculated on Rigid elements since they are often used to simulate components that have variable cross
sections along the length of the element, i.e. a valve, and is normally not of concern for this type of analysis anyway. Forces
and Moments are not normally printed on nodes between two rigid elements, but can be by selecting the appropriate check
box found in EnvironmentSpecial Execution Parameters from the Piping Input Spreadsheet.
Zeroweight rigids ("dummy" rigids) are often used to model components whose weight is not important to the analysis, but
where thermal growth may be a consideration. Dummy rigids are often used to model restraints. Tie rods in an expansion
joint, rod hangers, and trunnions are examples of restraints modeled as dummy rigids. Dummy rigids may also be used to
provide connectivity between the center line of an element and it's outside edge. The most common example of this is the
addition of a dummy rigid that runs from the node at the center line of the vessel to the edge where a nozzle is to be
connected. Sometimes equipment is modeled through a series of rigid elements. This is particularly true when multiple
nozzles are attached and the equipment is restrained such that the interactions between the various nozzles must be taken
into account due to the thermal growth of the attached piping system. The use of dummy rigids is explained in the
CAESAR II Applications Guide in various sections as appropriate to a particular modeling technique.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 63
Inline Flange Evaluation
CAESAR II offers two methods for evaluating flanges under load:
Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method
The Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method converts piping axial forces and bending moments into a Equivalent Pressure
on the flange, which is then added to the Design Pressure, the total of which is then compared to the allowable pressure
rating for the flange at the appropriate temperature. The exact calculations are:
P
eq
= 16M/(t)G
3
+ 4F/ (t)G
2
+ P
D
Where:
P
eq
= equivalent pressure (for checking against flange rating)
M = bending moment on flange
G = diameter of effective gasket reaction
F = axial force on flange (where forces are always taken as an absolute value)
P
D
= design pressure
Note: CAESAR IIs implementation increases the allowable pressure rating by the Occasional Stress factor where one exists
for the load case type/code combination.
ASME NC3658.3 Calculation for B16.5 Flanged Joints with High Strength Bolting Method
Note that use of this method should be restricted to joints using flanges, bolting, and gaskets as specified in ANSI B16.5
which use bolting materials having an S value at 100F (38C) not less than 20,000 psi (138 MPa). The analysis method for
Service Level A has been implemented in CAESAR II. As stated in NC3658.3(a)(2):
Mfs @ 3125(Sy/36,000)CA
b
or
Mfd @ 6250(Sy/36,000)CA
b
Where:
M
fs
= bending or torsional moment (whichever is greater) acting on the flange, and due to weight,
thermal expansion, sustained anchor movements, relief valve steady state thrust, and other sustained
mechanical loads (CAESAR II considers any moments developed during a nonOccasional Load Case to
be M
fs
)
M
fd
= bending or torsional moment (whichever is greater) acting on the flange, as defined for
Mfs
and
but also including any dynamic loadings (CAESAR II considers any moments developed during an
Occasional Load Case to be M
fd
, effectively doubling flange capacity for Occasional loadings)
Sy = yield strength of flange material at design temperature (CAESAR II allows evaluation to be done at
up to 10 different temperatures); Sy/36,000 (where Sy, given in psi, shall not be taken as greater than
36,000 psi)
C = bolt circle diameter
A
b
= total cross sectional area of bolts
P
D
= design pressure
64 Technical Discussions
CAESAR IIs implementation calculates an Equivalent Stress S in the flange, which is then compared to Sy (or 2*Sy for
Occasional Load Cases), in the following manner:
S = 36,000* Mfs / (CA
b
* 3125) @ Min(Sy, 36000) (nonOcc)
S = 36,000 * Mfd / (CA
b
* 3125) @ 2.0 * Min(Sy, 36000) (Occ)
Note that for systems of units not expressing stresses in PSI, the 36,000 values in the above equations are converted to the
appropriate set of units.
Note: Flange Evaluation has only been implemented for Static Analysis, but not yet for Dynamic (including Harmonic)
Analysis.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 65
Cold Spring
Cold spring is the process of offsetting (or preloading) the piping system with displacement loads (usually accomplished by
cutting short or long the pipe runs between two anchors) for the purpose of reducing the absolute expansion load on the
system. Cold spring is used to do the following:
hasten the thermal shakedown of the system in fewer operating cycles
reduce the magnitude of loads on equipment and restraints, since often, only a single application of a large load is
sufficient to damage these elements
Several things should be considered when using cold spring:
Cold reactions on equipment nozzles due to cold spring should not exceed nozzle allowables.
The expansion stress range should not include the effect of the cold spring.
The cold spring should be much greater than fabrication tolerances.
Note: No credit can be taken for cold spring in the stress calculations, since the expansion stress provisions of the piping
codes require the evaluation of the stress range, which is unaffected by cold spring (except perhaps in the presence of non
linear boundary conditions, as discussed below). The cold spring merely adjusts the stress mean, but not the range.
Many engineers avoid cold spring due to the difficulty of maintaining accurate records throughout the operating life of the
unit. Future analysts attempting to make field repairs or modifications may not necessarily know about (and therefore
include in the analysis) the cold spring specification.
Due to the difficulty of properly installing a cold sprung system, most piping codes recommend that only 2/3 of the
specified cold spring be used for the equipment load calculations.
The cold spring amount is calculated as:
C
i
= 1/2L
i
o dT
66 Technical Discussions
Where:
C
i
= length of cold spring in direction i (where i is X, Y, or Z), (inches)
L
i
= total length of pipe subject to expansion in direction i, (inches)
o = mean thermal expansion coefficient of material between ambient and operating temperature,
(in/in/F)
dT = change in temperature, (F)
Note that the 1/2 in the equation for the cold spring amount is used such that the mean stress is zero. In some cases it is
desirable to have the operating load on the equipment as close to zero as possible. In this latter case the 1/2 should be
omitted. The maximum stress magnitude will not change from a system without cold spring, but will now exist in the cold
case rather than the hot.
To model a cold spring in CAESAR II specify the elements as being made of cut short or cut long materials. Cut short
describes a cold sprung section of pipe fabricated short by the amount of the cold spring, requiring an initial tensile load to
close the final joint. Cut long describes a cold sprung section of pipe fabricated long by the amount of cold spring, requiring
an initial compressive load to close the final joint. The software models cut shorts and cut longs by applying end forces to
the elements sufficient to reduce their length to zero (from the defined length) or increase their length to the defined length
(from zero) respectively. (It should be remembered to make the lengths of these cold spring elements only 2/3 of their actual
lengths to implement the code recommendations.) This is effectively what occurs during application of cold spring. The end
forces applied to the elements are then included in the basic loading case F (for force), whereby they can be included in
various load combinations.
Special material numbers 18 and 19 are used to signal CAESAR II that the element currently in the spreadsheet actually
represents a length of pipe that is to be cut short or long during fabrication.
Material # 18  Cut Short
Material # 19  Cut Long
The user should be sure to reset the material property on the element following the cold spring element.
The following load cases are recommended when analyzing a cold spring system:
Load Case 1 (OPE) W+T1+P1+CS includes all of the design cold spring
Load Case 2 (OPE) W+P1+CS includes all of the design cold spring but not the temperature.
Load Case 3 (SUS) W+P1 standard sustained case for Code Stress check
RUN # 1
Load Case4 (EXP) L1L2 expansion case for code stress check.
Cold spring is allowed to reduce the magnitude of equipment loads because, often, only a single application of a large load
is sufficient to cause damage to rotating machinery.
Cold spring does not change the range of stresses that the piping system is subject to, and so, no allowance is given for
stress reduction. (The maximum value of the stress is lowered, but the range is unchanged.)
Both the sustained loads and the operating loads should be within the manufacturers allowables for the particular piece of
equipment. If the designer isn't careful, the installation of the cold spring in the ambient state can overload a piece of
rotating equipment as the unit starts up.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 67
Expansion Joints
To define an expansion joint, activate the Expansion Joint check box (see "Expansion Joints" on page 320) on the Pipe
Element Spreadsheet.
Expansion joint elements may have a zero or nonzero length. The expansion joint will have a zero length if the Delta fields
in the spreadsheet are left blank or zero. The expansion joint will have a nonzero length if at least one of the elements
spreadsheet Delta fields is nonblank and nonzero. When an expansion joint has a finite length CAESAR II evenly
distributes the expansion joint stiffnesses over the entire length of the element. This will usually result in a more accurate
stiffness model in what is typically a very sensitive area of the piping system.
Four stiffnesses define the expansion joint
Axial Stiffness
Transverse Stiffness
Bending Stiffness
Torsional Stiffness
These stiffnesses are defined as shown in the following figure:
The transverse and the bending stiffnesses are directly related when a finite length joint is defined. In this case the bending
stiffness should be left blank and the transverse stiffness entered. CAESAR II will compute the proper bending stiffness from
the relationship between the bending and transverse stiffnesses. Bending stiffnesses from manufacturers' catalogs should
generally only be entered for zero length expansion joints modeling hinges or gimbals. Before a manufacturers bending
stiffness is used for a finite length bellows it should be multiplied by 4.0 (note that in this case the transverse stiffness would
be left blank).
Torsional stiffnesses are often not given by expansion joint manufacturers. In this case the user is recommended to insert a
large torsional stiffness value and ensure that the resulting load on the bellows is not excessive. When the piping system is
tight, and the diameter large, the magnitude of this large torsional stiffness can significantly affect the magnitude of the
torsion carried by the bellows, i.e. stiffnesses of 100,000 in.lb./deg. and 1E12 in.lb./deg. can produce considerably different
torsional load results. The tendency would be to go with the larger stiffness, i.e. being conservative, except that the torsional
stiffness value is probably closer to the 100,000 in.lb./deg. In the instance where the largeness of the torsional stiffness
68 Technical Discussions
value is important, the manufacturer should be pressed for his bestguess at the stiffness, or the following equation should
be used to get an estimate, which the user can then conservatively increase to get reasonable torsional loads on the bellows
and surrounding equipment.
The equation for estimating bellows torsional stiffness is
3
( ) ( )( )
(1 )
Re t E
L
t
+ v
Where
t = 3.14159
Re = Expansion joint effective radius
t = Bellows thickness
E = Elastic Modulus
v = Poissons Ratio
L = Flexible bellows length
When the expansion joint has a zero length, none of the expansion joint stiffnesses are related. The user must be sure that a
value is entered into all four of the Stiffness fields.
CAESAR II will calculate pressure thrust on the expansion joint if the bellows effective id is given in the expansion joint
auxiliary screen. The mathematical model for pressure thrust applies a force equal to the pressure times the effective area of
the bellows at either end of the expansion joint. The force will tend to open the bellows if the pressure is positive, and close
the bellows if the pressure is negative. Users should note that this model does not exactly distribute the pressure loads
correctly in the vicinity of the expansion joint. In most cases the misapplied load does not affect the solution. There are two
components of the pressure thrust to be applied in practice, rather than the one component applied in the model. The first
component is equal to the pressure times the inside area of the pipe and acts at the first change in direction of the pipe on
either side of the expansion joint. This load will tend to put the pipe wall between the change in direction and the expansion
joint in tension. The second component is equal to the pressure times the difference between the bellows effective area and
inside pipe area. This load acts at the end of the expansion joint and tends to open the bellows up, putting the pipe between
the expansion joint and the change in direction in compression. In the mathematical model the full component of the
pressure thrust force is placed on the ends of the bellows instead of having a portion shifted out on either side of the
expansion joint. A large number of expansion joint examples can be found in Chapter 5 of the Applications Guide.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 69
Hanger Sizing Algorithm
The basic function of the hanger design algorithm is to calculate the hot load and travel for userspecified hanger locations.
Once the hot load and travel are known, spring tables are entered and the theoretical cold load is calculated for each spring
in the table.
Spring Design Requirements
The smallest single spring that satisfies all design requirements is selected as the designed spring.
The spring design requirements are:
1 Both the hot and the cold loads must be within the spring allowed working range.
2 If the user specified an allowed load variation then the absolute value of the product of the travel and the spring rate
divided by the hot load must be less than the specified variation.
3 If the user specified some minimum available clearance then the spring selected must fit in this space.
If a single spring cannot be found that satisfies the design requirements, CAESAR II will try to find two identical springs that
do satisfy the requirements.
If satisfactory springs cannot be found, CAESAR II recommends a constant effort support for the location.
There are several variations of this approach that arise due to the different design options available in CAESAR II, but for the
most part the general algorithm remains unchanged.
Restrained Weight Case
In any job, if a hanger is to be designed, the first analysis case that must be run is the restrained weight case. This case
usually includes weight, pressure and concentrated loads. Hanger hot loads are calculated in the restrained weight case.
For the restrained weight run, rigid Y restraints are placed at each hanger location, and any anchors to be freed are
properly released. Loads on the Y restraints at hangers, calculated from the restrained weight case, are the hanger hot
design loads.
Operating Case
Immediately after the restrained weight case, an operating analysis is performed. The Y restraints are removed from the
hanger locations and the hot loads just calculated are inserted. Any anchors that were freed for the restrained weight
analysis are fixed.
The operating case vertical displacement at each hanger location defines that hangers travel. If there were single
directional restraints or gaps in the system that changed status in the operating case then the possibility exists that loads on
hangers will be redistributed. When a nonlinear status change is detected CAESAR II reruns the restrained weight case with
the restraints left as they were at the end of the operating case. New restraint loads are calculated and another operating case
is run to get the updated travel.
The operating case must always be the second load case in the set of defined analysis cases.
The user has the ability to define the restrained weight or operating load cases for hanger design any way he sees fit. For
simplicity, CAESAR II recommends the load cases it thinks should be run whenever it detects the first attempt to analyze a
particular system. The user can accept or reject CAESAR IIs recommendations. The user that sets up his own hanger design
load cases should be sure he understands exactly what is done in the restrained weight and operating passes of the hanger
design algorithm.
610 Technical Discussions
Installed Load Case
If the user requested the calculation of the actual hanger installed loads, the third analysis level combination case must
define the weight configuration that will exist in the field when the spring is installed. Typically this case includes weight
without fluid contents and concentrated loads.
The theoretical cold, or installed, load is the load on the spring when the pipe has exactly zero displacement. The actual
installed load may differ from the theoretical installed load by (K)(d), where (K) is the spring stiffness and (d) is the
displacement of the pipe in the installed condition. In essence, the actual installed load is calculated by taking the piping
system and freezing all displacements at zero. With the pipe in this condition, the hangers are installed and the theoretical
cold load is applied. The pipe is then defrosted and allowed to adjust its weight position due to the hanger, restraint, and
anchor stiffnesses and the installed hanger loads. Once the system settles out, the total load on each of the hangers is read
and recorded as the actual hanger installed load.
Setting Up the Spring Load Cases
The load cases that must exist for hanger design, as described above, are
Restrained Weight
Operating
Installed Weight ...if the user requested actual hanger installed loads.
After the hanger algorithm has run the load cases it needs to size the hangers. The newly selected springs are inserted into
the piping system and included in the analysis of all remaining load cases.
The spring rate becomes part of the global stiffness matrix, and is therefore added into all subsequent load cases. Hanger
installed loads are concentrated forces and are only included in subsequent load cases that contain the first concentrated
force set, (i.e., +H).
Users may specify any number of their own load cases after the required spring load cases are set up.
Spring hanger design does not affect CAESAR IIs ability to check code compliance. In fact, in CAESAR IIs recommended
load cases, the normal code compliance cases always follow the set of load cases required for hanger design.
Multiple operating case spring hanger design implies that hanger loads and travels from more than one operating case are
included in the spring hanger selection algorithm.
Each spring in a multiple operating case hanger design has a multiple load case design option. This design option tells
CAESAR II how the multiple loads and travels for a single hanger are to be combined to get a single design load and travel.
The setup of the analysis cases is slightly different for multiple operating case hanger design, and as might be expected, the
difference is that now there is more than one operating case. The actual number of operating cases is specified by the user
on the Hanger Design Control dialog and can be up to 9.
Load cases that must be set up for a multiple load case hanger design that considers two hanger design operating cases are:
Restrained Weight (this doesn't change)
Operating case #1
Operating case #9
Installed Weight ...if the user requested that actual installed loads are to be calculated.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 611
Constant Effort Support
The specification of the support load for a constant effort hanger completely defines the hanger location. If the user enters
this value it will be included in all hanger design runs and all analysis cases following the hanger cases that include
concentrated loads in their formulation. This value is the load on each support at this location.
Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm
The operating cases for hanger travel are normally analyzed with no stiffness included at the hanger locations (hence these
cases are traditionally referred to as "free thermal" cases). However, when the piping system is very flexible, or the selected
springs are very stiff, the actual resulting spring loads in the hot condition can vary significantly from the theoretically
calculated results. In that case, CAESAR II offers the option to include (via an iterative process) the stiffness of the selected
springs in the operating cases for hanger travel. This can be activated by setting the Hanger Stiffness Load Case option to
"As Designed" for that operating case. (Activating the Configure/Setup option "Include Travel cases to default to "As
Designed".) The user is warned that selection of this option may lead to convergence problems. If this option is used, it is
very important that the hanger load in the cold case (In the physical system) be adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold
Load.
Spring Hanger Hot Loads for as designed springs are always included in all Operating Hanger Travel cases. Cold loads can
be included in subsequent load cases through the use of the H load component. (Note that applying thermal and
displacement effects to the system should make the Cold Load move to the Hot Load in the operating case.)
Other Notes on Hanger Sizing
Users should note that whenever a hanger location is found to hold the pipe down, a beep and a warning message are
flashed to the user. These locations in output are flagged as zero load constant effort supports. These supports are usually
found to be at poor hanger design locations.
Hanger design load cases, unless specifically designed with a "KEEP" status by the user, show up in the output report as
being NOT ACTIVE. Results from these analyses are reflected in the spring hanger table only.
612 Technical Discussions
Class 1 Branch Flexibilities
This analytical option was added to CAESAR II for the following reasons:
Automatic local flexibilities at intersections help the user bound the true solution. Because the computer time to do an
analysis is getting less expensive, more frequently an analyst is running several solutions of the same model using
slightly different input techniques to determine the effect of the modeling difference on the results. (This gives the
analyst a degree of confidence in the numbers he is getting.) For example, structural steel supporting structures may be
modeled to see the effect of their stiffnesses, nozzle flexibilities may be added at vessel connections to see how these
features redistribute load throughout the model, friction is added to watch its effect on displacements and equipment
loads, and with CAESAR II users may include Class 1 intersection flexibilities. The characteristic that makes this option
convenient to use is that the user can turn the Class 1 flexibilities on and off via a single parameter in the setup file.
There is no other modification to the input required.
In WRC 329, there are a number of suggestions made to improve the stress calculations at intersections. These
suggestions are fairly substantial, and are given in order of importance. The most important item, as felt by Rodabaugh
in improving the stress calculations at intersections is given, in part, as follows:
In piping system analyses, it may be assumed that the flexibility is represented by a rigid joint at the branchtorun
centerlines juncture. However, the Code user should be aware that this assumption can be inaccurate and should consider
the use of a more appropriate flexibility representation.
User of the Class 1 branch flexibility feature may be summarized as follows: The user adds the option:
CLASS_1_BRANCH_FLEX to the setup file. This option is a flag, and merely has to appear in the setup file to activate
the option.
Where reduced branch geometry requirements are satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid offset from the centerline of
the header pipe to its surface, and then adds the local flexibility of the header pipe, between the end of the offset, at the
header, and the start of the branch. Stresses computed for the branch, are for the point at its connection with the header.
Where reduced branch geometry requirements are not satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid offset from the centerline
of the header pipe to its surface. The branch piping starts at the end of this rigid offset. There is NO local flexibility due
to the header added. (It is deemed to be insignificant.) Stresses computed for the branch, are for the point at its
connection with the header.
The reduced branch geometry requirements checked by CAESAR II are
d/D s 0.5 and D/T s 100.0
Where:
d = Diameter of branch
D = Diameter of header
T = Wall thickness of header
When the Class 1 branch flexibilities are used, intersection models in the analysis will become stiffer when the reduced
geometry requirements do not apply, and will become more flexible when the reduced geometry requirements do apply.
Stiffer intersections typically carry more load, and thus have higher stresses (lowering the stress in other parts of the system
that have been unloaded). More flexible intersections typically carry less load, and thus have lower stresses, (causing
higher stresses in other parts of the system that have picked up the extra load).
The branch flexibility rules used in CAESAR II are taken from ASME III, Subsection NB, (Class 1), 1992 Edition, Issued
December 31, 1992, from Code Sections NB3686.4 and NB3686.5.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 613
When the reduced branch rules apply, the following equations are used for the local stiffnesses:
TRANSLATIONAL:
AXIAL = RIGID
CIRCUMFERENTIAL = RIGID
LONGITUDINAL = RIGID
ROTATIONAL:
AXIAL = RIGID
CIRCUMFERENTIAL = (kx)d/EI
LONGITUDINAL = (kz)d/EI
Where:
RIGID = 1.0E12 lb./in. or 1.0E12 in.lb./deg.
d = Branch diameter
E = Youngs Modulus
I = Cross Section Moment of Inertia
D = Header diameter
T = Header thickness
T
b
= Branch fitting thickness
kx = 0.1(D/T)
1.5
[(T/t)(d/D)]
0.5
(Tb/T)
kz = 0.2(D/T)[(T/t)(d/D)]
0.5
(Tb/T)
Users are referred to WRC 329 Section 4.9 Flexibility Factors. A brief quote from this section follows:
The significance of k depends upon the specifics of the piping system. Qualitatively, if k is small compared to the
length of the piping system, including the effect of elbows and their kfactors, then the inclusion of k for branch
connections will have only minor effects on the calculated moments. Conversely, if k is large compared to the piping
system length, then the inclusion of k for branch connections will have major effects. The largest effect will be to greatly
reduce the magnitude of the calculated moments acting on the branch connection. To illustrate the potential significance of
ks for branch connections, we use the equation [above] to calculate k for a branch connection with D=30 in.,
d=12.75 in. T=t=0.375 in.:
k = 0.1(80)
1.5
(0.425)
0.5
* (1.0) = 46.6
This compares to the more typical rigidjoint interpretation that k=1, rather than k=46.6 !
Further discussion in section 4.9 illustrates additional problems that can arise by overestimating the stiffness at branch
connections. Problems arise by believing mistakenly that the stress at the intersection is too high. Further reference should
be made to this section in WRC 329.
The branch automatic flexibility generation can be used where the user has only defined the branch element in the model,
i.e. has left the header piping out of the analysis. In this case there will be no offset equal to onehalf of the header
diameter applied to the branch end. A partial intersection is one where either the header pipe is not modeled, is modeled
with a single element, or is part of a geometric intersection where the header pipes are not colinear. In the case where there
is no header pipe going to the intersection there will be no modification to the model for the class 1 branch flexibilities.
When at least a single header pipe is recognized, the local flexibility directions are defined by the branch alone and in
accordance with the CAESAR II defaults for circumferential and longitudinal directions for the branch and header. Users are
614 Technical Discussions
recommended to build full intersection models at all times (not only when employing the class 1 branch flexibility.) In most
cases building full intersection models will eliminate problems caused by the assumptions necessary when a partial
intersection is described.
In the equations in NB3686.5 for tn, the thickness of the branch pipe is used in all cases.
When branches are skewed with respect to the header pipe, and where the two header pipes are colinear, the local Class 1
flexibilities are still taken to be the longitudinal and circumferential directions that are tangent to the header surface at its
intersection with the branch.
Class 1 branch flexibilities can be formed at both ends of a single pipe element.
Note: The offsets necessary to form the class 1 intersections are automatically generated by CAESAR II. There is no extra
input required by the user to have CAESAR II build these intersections.
(If there are already userdefined offsets at an intersection end, the computed offset to get from the header centerline to its
surface along the centerline of the branch will be added to the already entered user offset.) Automatic offsets will be
generated providing that the distance from the header centerline to the header surface along the branch centerline is less than
or equal to 98% of the total pipe straight length.
When a bend curved element is part of an intersection model, the offset and flexibility calculations will not be performed.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 615
Modeling Friction Effects
There are two approaches to solving the friction problem; insert a force at the node which must be over come for motion to
occur, or insert a stiffness which applies an increasing force up to the value of Mu * Normal force. CAESAR II uses the
restraint stiffness method. (An excellent paper on this subject is Inclusion of a Support Friction Into a Computerized
Solution of a SelfCompensating Pipeline by J. Sobieszczanski, published in the Transactions of the ASME, Journal of
Engineering for Industry, August 1972. A summary of the major points of this paper can be found below.)
Ideally, if there is motion at the node in question, the friction force is equal to (Mu * Normal force). However, since we
have a nonrigid stiffness at that location to resist the initial motion, the node can experience displacements. The force at the
node will be the product of the displacement and the stiffness. If this resultant force is less than the maximum friction
force (Mu * Normal force), the node is assumed to be not sliding, even though we see displacements in the output
report.
The maximum value of the force at the node is the friction force, Mu * Normal force. Once this value is reached, the
reaction at the node stops increasing. This constant force value is then applied to the global load vector during the next
iteration to determine the nodal displacements. Basically here is what happens in a friction problem.
1 The default friction stiffness is 1,000,000 lb./in. This value should be decreased to improve convergence.
2 Until the horizontal force at the node equals Mu * Normal force, the restraint load is the displacement times the friction
stiffness.
3 Once the maximum value of the friction force is reached, the friction force will stop increasing, since a constant effort
force is inserted.
By increasing the friction stiffness in the setup file, the displacements at the node will decrease to some degree. This may
cause a redistribution of the loads throughout the system. However, this could have adverse affects on the solution
convergence.
If problems arise during the solution of a job with friction at supports, reducing the friction stiffness will usually improve
convergence. Several runs should be made with varying values of the friction stiffness to insure the system behavior is
consistent.
Summary of J. Sobieszczanskis ASME Paper
For dry friction, the friction force magnitude is a step function of displacement. This discontinuity determines the
problem as intrinsically nonlinear and eliminates the possibility of using the superposition principle.
The friction loading on the pipe can be represented by an ordinary differential equation of the fourth order with a
variable coefficient that is a nonlinear function of both dependent and independent variables. No solution in closed form
is known for an equation of this type. Solution has to be sought by means of numerical integration to be carried out
specifically for a particular pipeline configuration.
Dry friction can be idealized by a fictitious elastic foundation, discretized to a set of elastic (spring) supports.
A wellknown property of an elastic system with dry friction constraints is that it may attain several static equilibrium
positions within limits determined by the friction forces.
THE WHOLE PROBLEM THEN HAS CLEARLY NOT A DETERMINISTIC, BUT A STOCHASTIC
CHARACTER.
616 Technical Discussions
Nonlinear Code Compliance
Nonlinear piping code compliance can be directly satisfied by
1 Performing an operating and sustained analysis of the system including in each case the effect of nonlinear restraints.
2 Subtracting the sustained case displacements from the operating case displacements to find the displacement range.
3 Calculating the expansion stresses from the displacement range solved for in #2 above.
Approximate approaches usually involve some combination of the above. The approximate combination used depends
typically on the inherent limitations of the base program. In several commonly used programs, the approach taken is
1 Formulate and solve for operating case displacements including an iteration to deal with the effect of nonlinear
restraints in the system.
2 Run the thermalonly analysis of the system to calculate expansion stresses with restraints in the same condition as they
were at the end of #1.
3 Run the weight+pressure only analysis of the system to calculate sustained stresses, again with restraints in the same
condition as they were at the end of #1.
This alternate approach is identical to the first method only when the sustained analysis final stiffness matrix is the same as
the operating analysis final stiffness matrix. The resulting error in the displacement range can be found from
{[F
o
]  [F
s
]}f
s
.
Where:
[F
o
]  is the operating analysis final flexibility matrix (i.e. the inverse of the stiffness matrix).
[F
s
]  is the sustained analysis final flexibility matrix.
f
s
 is the sustained analysis load vector.
CAESAR II uses the exact method described above for calculating the expansion stress range. In addition CAESAR II scans the
users input and recommends loading cases and combinations for performing the operating, sustained and expansion stress
calculations. This recommendation can prove very useful when performing spring hanger analysis of a multiple operating
case system.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 617
Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints
The proper computation of sustained stresses has been an issue since the late 1970s, when computerized pipe stress analysis
programs first attempted to address the problem of nonlinear restraints. The existing piping codes offered little guidance on
the subject, since their criteria were developed during the era when all analyses were considered to behave in a strictly linear
fashion. The problem arises because the codes require that a piping system be analyzed separately for sustained loadings
the engineer must determine which stresses are caused by which loadings. Sustained loads are force loadings which are
assumed not to change, while expansion loadings are displacement loadings which vary with the system operating
conditions. Determination of the sustained loads is the simple part most everybody agrees that those forces consist of
weight, pressure, and spring preloads these forces remain relatively constant as the piping system goes through its
thermal growth. However, confusion occurs when the status of nonlinear restraints change (pipes lift off of supports, gaps
close, etc.) as the pipe goes from its hot to cold state in this case, which boundary conditions should be used when
evaluating the applied forces? Or in other words, what portion of the stress in the operating case is caused by weight loads,
and what portion is caused by expansion effects? (Note that there is no corresponding confusion on the question of
calculating expansion stresses, since the codes are explicit in their instructions that the expansion stress range is the
difference between the operating and cold stress distributions, both of which are known.)
The obvious answer to this question, to the developers of some pipe stress programs, was that the sustained stress
calculation should be done using the operating, or hot boundary condition. This compounded the problem, in that the laws
of superposition no longer held in other words, the results of sustained (W+P) and thermal (T) cases, when added
together, did not equal the results of the operating (W+P+T) case! One pioneering program, DYNAFLEX, attempted to
resolve this by introducing the concept of the thermal component of weight an oxymoron, in our opinion. Other
programs, notably those which came from the mainframe/linear analysis world, had to approximate the behavior of these
nonlinear restraints. Their approach to the problem is to run an operating case, obtain the restraint status, and modify the
model according to these results. All subsequent load cases analyzed use this restraint configuration. The fact that the laws
of static superposition didn't hold was hopefully not noticed by the user. CAESAR II, on the other hand, represents new
technology, developed expressly for operation on the PC, and therefore incorporates directly the effects of nonlinear
restraints. This is done by considering each load case independently the restraint configuration is determined for each
load case by the program as it runs, based upon the actual loads which are considered to be present.
Some users have asserted that there are actually two sustained load cases. In fact, there has been a B31.3 code interpretation
that indicates that the sustained stress may also be checked with the operating restraint configuration. Calculating the
sustained stresses using the operating restraint status raises several other issues; what modulus of elasticity should be used,
and which sustained stresses should be used for occasional cases.
It is COADEs assertion that there is only one sustained case (otherwise it is not sustained) there can be, however,
multiple sustained stress distributions. The two most apparent are those associated with the cold (installed) and hot
(operating) configurations, however, there are also numerous inbetween, as the piping system load steps from cold to hot.
Whether the true sustained load case occurs during the installed or operating case is a matter of the frame of reference. If
an engineer first sees a system in its cold condition, and watches it expand to its operating condition, it appears that the first
case (since weight and pressure primary loads are present) is the sustained case, and the changes he viewed are
thermal effects (due to heat up) secondary loads due to displacements. If a second engineer first sees the same system in
the operating case and watches it cool down to the cold case, he may believe that the first case he saw (the operating case) is
the sustained case, and changes experienced from hot to cold are the thermal expansion effects (the thermal stress ranges are
the same in both cases). Consider the further implications of cryogenic systems where changes from installed to
operating are the same as those experienced by hot systems when going from operating to installed. Once elastic shakedown
has occurred, the question becomes clouded even further, due to the presence of thermally induced prestresses in the pipe
during both the cold and hot conditions. We feel either the operating or installed case (or some other one inbetween) could
justifiably be selected for analysis as the sustained case, as long as the program is consistent.
We have selected the installed case (less the effect of cold spring) as our reference sustained case, since thermal effects can
be completely omitted from the solution (as intended by the code), and this best represents the support configuration when
the sustained loads are initially applied. If the pipe lifts off of a support when going from installed to operating, we view this
as a thermal effect consistent with the piping codes view of thermal effects as the variation of stress distribution as the
618 Technical Discussions
piping system goes from cold to hot (this view is explicitly corroborated by one code the French petrochemical code,
which states that weight stress distributions due to thermal growth of the pipe should be considered as expansion stresses).
For example, we feel that a change in a rigid support load from 2,000 lbs to zero should be treated no differently than would
be a variable spring load changing from 6,000 lbs to 4,000 lbs (or another rigid support load going 2,000 lbs to 1 lb). In the
former case, if the pipe became overstressed, it would yield, and sag back to the support, relieving the stress. This process
is identical to the way that all other expansion stresses are relieved in a piping system.
We are confident that our interpretation is correct. However, we understand that our users may not always agree with us
that is why CAESAR II provides the greatest ability to custom tailor the analysis to ones individual specifications. If desired,
a hot sustained case can be analyzed by adding two load cases to those normally recommended by CAESAR II. This would
be done by assuming that the pipe expands first, and then the sustained loads are applied (this is of course an idealized
concept, but the stresses can only be segregated by segregating the applied loads, so the sustained loads can only be applied
either before, or after, the expansion loads). Following are the default load cases, as well as those required for a hot
sustained.
Default New
W+P1+T1(OPE) W+P1+T1(OPE)
W+P1(SUS) W+P1(SUS)
L1L2(EXP) T1 (EXP)
L1L2(EXP)
L1L3(SUS)
In the new load case list, the second case still represents the cold sustained, while the fourth case represents the expansion
case (note that L1L2, or W+P1+T1WP1, equals T1, with nonlinear effects taken into account). The third case represents
the thermal growth of the weightless, nonpressurized pipe, against the nonlinear restraints.
The fifth case (L1L3, or W+P1+T1T1, equals W+P1) represents the application of weight and pressure to that expanded
case, or the hot sustained case. Note that when the piping system is analyzed as above, the actual effects of the nonlinear
restraints are considered (they are not arbitrarily removed from the model), and the laws of superposition still hold.
An alternative school of thought believes that a "hot sustained" is only valid if (1) the sustained, primary loads are applied,
(2) all springs are showing their Hot Load settings, and (3) any supports that lift off (or otherwise become nonactive) have
been removed from the model. An analysis such as this is achievable by setting the "Keep/Discard" status of the Restrained
Weight case (the first hanger design load case) to "Keep", thus permitting the results of that case to be viewable as for any
other load case. The Restrained Weight case automatically removes restraints that become nonactive during the designated
operating case, and apply the Hot Load at each of the hanger locations.
Notes on Occasional Load Cases
Several piping codes require that the stresses from occasional loads (such as wind or earthquake) be added to the sustained
stresses (due to weight, pressure, and other constant loads) before comparing them to their allowables. This combination is
easily created in CAESAR II:
CASE #
1. W+P+F1 (SUS): Sustained stresses
2. WIND (OCC): Wind load set
3. U1 (OCC): Uniform (g) load set for earthquake
4. L1+L2 (OCC): Code stresses for wind *
5. L1+L3 (OCC): Code stresses for earthquake*
* Scalar Summation Method required
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 619
If nonlinear effects are modeled in the system these combinations may not be so straight forward. Friction, onedirection
restraints and doubleacting restraints with gaps are the nonlinear items which present this complication. Wind loading on a
long vertical run of pipe with a guide will serve as an example. Assume there is a one inch gap between the pipe and guide.
Under normal operation, the pipe moves 3/4 inch towards the stop leaving a gap of 13/4 inch on either side of the pipe and
a 1/4 inch gap on the other side. If wind loads are analyzed alone, the pipe is allowed to move 1 inch from its center point in
the guide to the guide stop. Since occasional loads are usually analyzed with the system in operation, the pipe may be
limited to a 1/4 inch motion as the gap is closed in one direction, and 13/4 inch if the gap is closed in the opposite direction.
With nonlinear effects modeled in the system, the occasional deflections (and stresses) are influenced by the operating
position of the piping.
The following list of CAESAR II load cases takes this point into consideration. Note that the load cases shown below are only
for wind acting in one direction, i.e., +X. Depending on the system, the most critical loads could occur in any direction, i.e.,
+/X, +/Z or skewed in an XZ direction.
The intention of the following load case construction is to find the occasional loads effect on the piping system in the
operating condition. The stress due to the moment change from the operating to the operating plus wind case is added to the
stress from the sustained case.
The isolated wind effect on the piping system in the operating condition in is computed in Case 5. Case 6 adds the stresses
from Case 5 to the sustained stresses from Case 2.
CASE #
1. W+T+P (OPE): Operation analysis
2. W+P (SUS): Sustained stresses
3. W+T+P+WIND (OPE): Operating analysis with wind
4. L1L2 (EXP): Expansion stresses (Algebraic summation)
5. L3L1 (OCC): Winds net deflection (Algebraic summation)
6. L2+L5 (OCC): Code stresses for wind (Scalar summation)
620 Technical Discussions
Static Seismic Loads
Static earthquake loads are applied in a manner very similar to static wind loads. The static loading magnitude is considered
to be in direct proportion to the elements weight. Earthquake load magnitudes are given in terms of the gravitational
acceleration constant, i.e. g's. If an earthquake is modeled as having a 0.5g load in the X direction, then half of the systems
weight is turned into a uniform load and applied in the X direction.
Earthquake static load cases are set up exactly as they are for wind occasional loads, i.e. the same load case, nonlinearity,
and directional sensitivity logic. In some cases the client specifies the magnitude of the earthquake loading in g's and the
direction(s). In others, the analysis is left to the sole discretion of the analyst. It is not unusual to see only X or XY
components of an earthquake. It is not uncommon to see Y only components, or X, Y, and Z simultaneous components.
Dynamic earthquakes are discussed later in this chapter, in the dynamic analysis and output chapters, and in the screen
reference chapter. The ASCE #7 method for determining earthquake coefficients is described below. Once calculated, the
gfactors should be entered as uniform loads on the piping spreadsheet.
Note: The Uniform Load in G's (on page 3121) check box must also be enabled in the spreadsheet special execution
parameters.
The total lateral force at the base of a structure is to be computed from:
V = ZIKCSW
Where:
V  total lateral force or shear at the base
Znumerical coefficient from table 22
Knumerical coefficient from table 23
Cnumerical coefficient from Sect. 9.4
Ssoil factor from table 25
Wtotal dead load
The gfactor can be found by dividing Eq. 6 through by W.
gs = V/W = ZIKCS
The product CS does not need to exceed the value 0.14. Use this value as a conservative maximum.
The following table provides the seismic zone coefficient (Z)
Seismic Zone
Coefficient, Z
4 1
3 3/4
2 3/8
1 3/16
0 1/8
From the following table, the importance factor can be found: (However use a value for I = 1.0. The categories in this table
are identical for those used in the wind load calculation.)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 621
Category Number
I 1
II 1025
III 1.5
IV N/A
The following table shows K varying from 0.67 to 2.0. Use K=2.0 for Structures other than buildings.
So the equation for the g load:
g = ZIKCS
reduces to:
g = Z (1.0) (2.0) (0.14)
and for the various value of Z:
Seismic Zone Product "g" Load
4 (1)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.28
3 (3/4)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.21
2 (3/8)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.105
1 (3/16)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.0525
0 (1/8)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.035
ASCE #7  1990 is the 1990 revision to ANSI A58.1 1982. There are no revisions to this code which affect CAESAR II.
ASCE #7  1993 has completely changed the approach for "static" seismic analysis. These changes are not addressed by
this discussion.
622 Technical Discussions
Wind Loads
Currently CAESAR II enables users to access the wind load data from ten different wind codes.
AS/NZ 1170:2002 IBC 2006
Brazil NBR 6123 IS 875
BS639997 Mexico 1993
China GB 50009 NBC 2005
EN 2005 UBC
Wind loads are generated by multiplying the pipe exposed area, including insulation, and considering the angle to the wind,
by the equivalent wind pressure and the pipe shape factor. There are typically three different ways to get the equivalent
wind pressure:
ASCE #7 (1995)
Pressure vs. elevation table entry
Velocity vs. elevation table entry
The total wind force on the element is calculated from the equation below
F = P
eq
SA
Where:
F = the total wind force on the element
P
eq
= the equivalent wind pressure (dynamic
pressure)
S = the pipe element wind shape factor
A = the pipe element exposed area as shown in the
figure to the right.
P
eq
is calculated for each end of the element and the average taken. The average applies uniformly over the whole length of
the element. Note, the wind force is applied in the three global directions as a function of the element direction cosines.
If the user enters a velocity vs. elevation table then the velocity is converted to a dynamic pressure using the following
equation:
P = 1/2 V
2
Where V is the wind velocity and is the air density.
The WIND SHAPE FACTOR is entered on the pipe spreadsheet and, for cylindrical elements, the value from Table 12 is
between 0.5 and 0.7. A value of 0.65 is typical. The wind shape factor as entered is distributive. This means that the
shape factor applies for all following elements until zeroed or changed.
Important: Users do not have to enter the shape factor on each pipe spreadsheet. Zero (or turn "Off") the wind shape factor
if the piping system runs inside of a building or similarly protective structure.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 623
Wind load data is entered on the Wind Loads (on page 363) tab of the Static Load Case Builder. Up to four different
wind loads can be entered per analysis. These typically might be setup to model wind loads in the +X, Y, and Z directions.
The ASCE #7 ( 1995) Method for computing equivalent pressure requires several computerized table look ups and
interpolation. The user enters the following parameters:
1 Basic wind speed (mph)  The minimum allowed basic wind speed is 85 mph. This does not include averages for
abnormally high wind loading events such as hurricanes or tornadoes.
ASCE #7 refers to fig. 61 for basic wind speeds in the continental United States. The following description is a crude
representation of Figure 1:
California 85 mph (124.6 ft/sec)
Other West Coast Areas 85 mph (124.6 ft/sec)
Great Plains 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec)
NonCoastal Eastern United States 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec)
Gulf Coast 130 mph (190.6 ft/sec)
Florida Carolinas 130 mph (190.6 ft/sec)
Miami 145 mph (212.6 ft/sec)
New England Coastal Areas 120 mph (176.0 ft/sec)
2 Wind Exposure Options
Large oily center
Urban, suburban, and wooded areas
Open terrain
Flat coastal areas
3 Structural Classification Options
Everything except the following options (used most often)
Primary occupancy more than 100 people
Essential facilities, i.e. hospitals
Failure represents low hazard
4 Topographic Factor Parameters (sec. 6.5.5)
Height of hill or escarpment
Crest distance
Height above ground level
Distance from crest to site
Hill type
624 Technical Discussions
The following procedure from the appendix is used to calculate the effective wind pressure:
1 Get the Importance Factor from Table 62 (p.17).
2 Get (Alpha), Zg, from Table C 62.
3 Calculate Kz from Eq. C2 (p.152).
4 Calculate Kzt from Eq. 62 (p.34).
5 Calculate qz from Eq. 61 (p.17)
6 Calculate Gz from sec 6.6.
7 Calculate the effective wind pressure from:
PRESSURE = Gz * qz * Shape Factor
Note: Winds of 20 to 40 mph can cause vortex shedding and excitation in the 30 Hz and higher range that can cause
fatigue failure in smaller line sizes particularly susceptible to fatigue type failures. To analyze vortex shedding, use an
harmonic analysis method.
Elevation
The accurate elevation of each individual piping element may, or may not be important depending on the total height,
diameter and rigidity of the piping system and attachments. By default, CAESAR II starts the first node on the first element at
an elevation of 0.0. If this is not close enough to the true elevation then the user should set the true coordinates of the piping
system through the command EDIT  GLOBAL. This presents a dialog requesting coordinates for the first node of any
disconnected section. The coordinates for up to 100 node points can be specified and saved as part of the input data from the
model.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 625
Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading
Ocean waves are generated by wind and propagate out of the generating area. The generation of ocean waves is dependent
on the wind speed, the duration of the wind, the water depth, and the distance over which the wind blows is referred to as
the fetch length. There a variety of two dimensional wave theories proposed by various researchers, but the three most
widely used are the Airy (linear) wave theory, Stokes 5
th
Order wave theory, and Dean's Stream Function wave theory. The
later two theories are nonlinear wave theories and provide a better description of the near surface effects of the wave.
(The term two dimensional refers to the unidirectional wave. One dimension is the direction the wave travels, and the other
dimension is vertical through the water column. Two dimensional waves are not found in the marine environment, but are
somewhat easy to define and determine properties for, in a deterministic sense. In actuality, waves undergo spreading, in the
third dimension. This can be easily understood by visualizing a stone dropped in a pond. As the wave spread, the diameter
of the circle increases. In addition to wave spreading, a real sea state includes waves of various periods, heights, and
lengths. In order to address these actual conditions, a deterministic approach cannot be used. Instead, a sea spectrum is
utilized, which may also include a spreading function. As there are various wave theories, there are various sea spectra
definitions. The definition and implementation of sea spectra are usually employed in dynamic analysis. Sea Spectra and
dynamic analysis will not be discussed in this article.)
The linear or Airy wave theory assumes the free surface is symmetric about the mean water level. Furthermore, the water
particle motion is a closed circular orbit, the diameter of which decays with depth. (The term circular should be taken
loosely here, the orbit varies from circular to elliptical based on whether the wave is in shallow or deep water.) Additionally,
for shallow water waves, the wave height to depth ratio (H/D) is limited to 0.78 to avoid breaking. (None of the wave
theories address breaking waves!) The figure below shows a typical wave and associated hydrodynamic parameters.
SWL  The still water level.
L  The wave length, the horizontal distance between successive crests or troughs.
H  The wave height, the vertical distance between the crest and trough.
D  The water depth, the vertical distance from the bottom to the still water level.
q  The surface elevation measured from the still water level.
Ocean Wave Particulars
The Airy Wave theory provides a good first approximation to the water particle behavior. The nonlinear theories provide a
better description of particle motion, over a wider range depths and wave heights. Stokes 5
th
Wave theory is based on a
power series. This wave theory does not apply the symmetric free surface restriction. Additionally, the particle paths are no
longer closed orbits, which mean there is a gradual drift of the fluid particles, i.e. a mass transport.
Stokes 5
tH
Order Wave Theory however, does not adequately address steeper waves over a complete range of depths.
Deans Stream Function wave theory attempts to address this deficiency. This wave theory employs an iterative numerical
technique to solve the stream function equation. The stream function describes not only the geometry of a two dimensional
flow, but also the components of the velocity vector at any point, and the flow rate between any two streamlines.
626 Technical Discussions
The most suitable wave theory is dependent on the wave height, the wave period, and the water depth. Based on these
parameters, the applicable wave theory can be determined from the figure below (from APIRP2A, American Petroleum
Institute  Recommended Practice 2A).
Applicable Wave Theory Determination
The limiting wave steepness for most deep water waves is usually determined by the Miche Limit:
H / L = 0.142 tanh( kd )
Where:
H is the wave height
L is the wave length
k is the wave number (2t)/L
d is the water depth
PseudoStatic Hydrodynamic Loading
CAESAR II allows individual pipe elements to experience loading due to hydrodynamic effects. These fluid effects can
impose a substantial load on the piping elements in a manner similar to, but more complex than wind loading.
The various wave theories incorporated into CAESAR II as well as the various types of current profiles are discussed below.
The wave theories and the current profile are used to compute the water particle velocities and accelerations at the node
points. Once these parameters are available, the force on the element can be computed using Morrisons equation:
F = 1/2 * * C
d
* D * U * U + t/4 * * C
m
* D
2
* A
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 627
Where
 is the fluid density
C
d
 is the drag coefficient
D  is the pipe diameter
U  is the particle velocity
C
m
 is the inertial coefficient
A  is the particle acceleration
The particle velocities and accelerations are vector quantities which include the effects of any applied waves or currents. In
addition to the force imposed by Morrisons equation, piping elements are also subjected to a lift force and a buoyancy
force. The lift force is defined as the force acting normal to the plane formed by the velocity vector and the elements axis.
The lift force is defined as:
Fl = 1/2 * * C
l
* D * U
2
Where
 is the fluid density
Cl  is the lift coefficient
D  is the pipe diameter
U  is the particle velocity
The buoyancy force acts upward, and is equal to the weight of the fluid volume displaced by the element.
Once the force on a particular element is available, it is placed in the system load vector just as any other load is. A standard
solution is performed on the system of equations which describe the piping system. (The piping system can be described by
the standard finite element equation:
[K] {x} = {f}
Where
[K]  is the global stiffness matrix for the entire system
{x}  is the displacement / rotation vector to solve for
{f}  is global load vector
The element loads generated by the hydrodynamic effects are placed in their proper locations in {f}, similar to weight,
pressure, and temperature. Once [K] and {f} are finalized, a standard finite element solution is performed on this system of
equations. The resulting displacement vector {x} is then used to compute element forces, and these forces are then used to
compute the element stresses.)
Except for the buoyancy force, all other hydrodynamic forces acting on the element are a function of the particle velocities
and accelerations.
AIRY Wave Theory Implementation
Airy Wave theory is also known as Linear Wave theory, due to the assumption that the wave profile is symmetric about
the mean water level. Standard Airy Wave theory allows for the computation of the water particle velocities and
accelerations between the mean surface elevation and the bottom. The Modified Airy Wave theory allows for the
consideration of the actual free surface elevation in the computation of the particle data. CAESAR II includes both the
standard and modified forms of the Airy wave theory.
628 Technical Discussions
To apply the Airy Wave theory, several descriptive parameters about the wave must be given. These values are then used to
solve for the wave length, which is a characteristic parameter of each unique wave. CAESAR II uses NewtonRaphston
iteration to determine the wave length by solving the dispersion relation, shown below:
L = (gT
2
/ 2t) * tanh(2tD / L)
Where
g  is the acceleration of gravity
T  is the wave period
D  is the mean water depth
L  is the wave length to be solved for
Once the wave length (L) is known, the other wave particulars of interest may be easily determined. The parameters
determined and used by CAESAR II are: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and UY ), the horizontal and
vertical particle acceleration ( AX and AY ), and the surface elevation above (or below) the mean water level ( ETA ). The
equations for these parameters can be found in any standard text (such as those listed at the end of this section) which
discusses ocean wave theories, and therefore will not be repeated here.
STOKES Wave Theory Implementation
The Stokes Wave is a 5th order gravity wave, and hence nonlinear in nature. The solution technique employed by CAESAR
II is described in a paper published by Skjelbreia and Hendrickson of the National Engineering Science Company of
Pasadena California in 1960. The standard formulation as well as a modified formulation (to the free surface) is available in
the CAESAR II Stokes 5th Order Wave Theory.
The solution follows a procedure very similar to that used in the Airy wave, characteristic parameters of the wave are
determined by using NewtonRaphston iteration, followed by the determination of the water particle values of interest.
The NewtonRaphston iteration procedure solves two nonlinear equations for the constants beta and lambda. Once these
values are available, the other twenty constants can be computed. After all of the constants are known, CAESAR II can
compute: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and UY ), the horizontal and vertical particle acceleration ( AX
and AY ), and the surface elevation above the mean water level (ETA).
Stream Function Wave Theory Implementation
In addition to the forces imposed by ocean waves, piping elements may also be subjected to forces imposed by ocean
currents. There are three different ocean current models in CAESAR II; linear, piecewise, and a power law profile.
The linear current profile assumes that the current velocity through the water column varies linearly from the specified
surface velocity (at the surface) to zero (at the bottom). The piecewise linear profile employs linear interpolation between
specific depth/velocity points specified by the user. The power law profile decays the surface velocity to the 1/7 power.
While waves produce unsteady flow, where the particle velocities and accelerations at a point constantly change, current
produces a steady, nonvarying flow.
Ocean Currents
In addition to forces imposed by ocean waves, piping elements may also be subjected to forces imposed by ocean currents.
There are three different ocean current models in CAESAR II; linear piecewise linear profile, and a power law profile. The
linear current profile assumes that the current velocity though the water column varies linearly from the specified surface
velocity (at the surface to zero (at the bottom). The piecewise linear profile employs linear interpolation between specific
"depth /velocity" points specified by the user. The power law profile decays the surface velocity to the 1/7 power.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 629
While waves produce unsteady flow, where the particle velocities and accelerations at a point constantly change, current
produces a steady, nonvarying flow.
Technical Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading
The input parameters necessary to define the fluid loading are described in detail in the next section. The basic parameters
describe the wave height and period, and the current velocity. The most difficult to obtain, and also the most important
parameters, are the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients, C
d
, C
m
, and C
l
. Based on the recommendations of API RP2A and
DNV (Det Norske Veritas), values for C
d
range from 0.6 to 1.2, values for C
m
range from 1.5 to 2.0. Values for Cl show a
wide range of scatter, but the approximate mean value is 0.7.
The inertia coefficient C
m
is equal to one plus the added mass coefficient C
a
. This added mass value accounts for the mass
of the fluid assumed to be entrained with the piping element.
In actuality, these coefficients are a function of the fluid particle velocity, which varies over the water column. In general
practice, two dimensionless parameters are computed which are used to obtain the Cd, Cm, and Cl values from published
charts. The first dimensionless parameter is the KeuleganCarpenter Number, K. K is defined as:
K = U
m
* T / D
Where:
U
m
 is the maximum fluid particle velocity
T  is the wave period
D  is the characteristic diameter of the element.
The second dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds number, R
e
. R
e
is defined as
R
e
= U
m
* D / v
Where:
U
m
 is the maximum fluid particle velocity
D  is the characteristic diameter of the element.
v  is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid (1.26e5 ft
2
/sec for sea water).
Once K and R
e
are available, charts are used to obtain C
d
, C
m
, and C
l
. (See Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore
Structures by T. Sarpkaya, Figures 3.21, 3.22, and 3.25 for example charts, which are shown in the figures below.)
630 Technical Discussions
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 631
In order to determine these coefficients, the fluid particle velocity (at the location of interest) must be determined. The
appropriate wave theory is solved, and these particle velocities are readily obtained.
Of the wave theories discussed, the modified Airy and Stokes 5
th
theories include a modification of the depthdecay
function. The standard theories use a depthdecay function equal to cosh(kz) / sinh(kd),
Where:
k  is the wave number, 2t /L
L  is the wave length
d  is the water depth
z  is the elevation in the water column where the data is to be determined
The modified theories include an additional term in the numerator of this depthdecay function. The modified depthdecay
function is equal to cosh(od) / sinh(kd),
Where:
o  is equal to z / (d + q)
The term od represents the effective height of the point at which the particle velocity and acceleration are to be computed.
The use of this term keeps the effective height below the still water level. This means that the velocity and acceleration
computed are convergent for actual heights above the still water level.
As previously stated, the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients are a function of the fluid velocity and the diameter of the
element in question. Note that the fluid particle velocities vary with both depth and position in the wave train (as determined
by the applied wave theory). Therefore, these coefficients are in fact not constants. However, from a practical engineering
point of view, varying these coefficients as a function of location in the Fluid field is usually not implemented. This
practice can be justified when one considers the inaccuracies involved in specifying the instantaneous wave height and
period. According to Sarpkaya, these values are insufficient to accurately predict wave forces, a consideration of the
previous fluid particle history is necessary. In light of these uncertainties, constant values for C
d
, C
m
, and C
l
are
recommended by API and many other references.
The effects of marine growth must also be considered. Marine growth has the following effects on the system loading: the
increased pipe diameters increase the hydrodynamic loading; the increased roughness causes an increase in C
d
, and
therefore the hydrodynamic loading; the increase in mass and added mass cause reduced natural frequencies and increase
the dynamic amplification factor; it causes an increase in the structural weight; and possibly causes hydrodynamic
instabilities, such as vortex shedding.
Finally, Morrisons force equation is based the small body assumption. The term small refers to the diameter to wave
length ratio. If this ratio exceeds 0.2, the inertial force is no longer in phase with the acceleration of the fluid particles and
diffraction effects must be considered. In such cases, the fluid loading as typically implemented by CAESAR II is no longer
applicable.
Additional discussions on hydrodynamic loads and wave theories can be found in the references at the end of this article.
632 Technical Discussions
Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR II
The hydrodynamic load analysis requires the specification of several measurable parameters which quantify the physical
aspects of the environmental phenomenon in question.
Note: Users can enter four different wave loads here. Use the Editing Load Case buttons to move up or down between the
Wave Load Input Spreadsheets.
The necessary hydrodynamic parameters are discussed in the following paragraphs and a CAESAR II hydrodynamic loading
dialog is shown in the figure below.
Wave Loading Editing in the Load Case Editor
Current Data
Profile TypeThis entry defines the interpolation method used by CAESAR II to determine the current velocity as a function
of depth. Available options for this entry are: a power law profile, a piecewise linear profile, and a linear profile.
The power law profile determines the current velocity at depth D according to the equation:
V
d
= V
s
* [d
i
/ D]
p
Where
V
d
 is the velocity at depth d
i
V
s
 is the specified velocity at the surface
D  is the water depth
p  is the power, set to 1/7
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 633
The piecewise linear profile performs a linear interpolation of a velocity verse depth table (provided by the user) to obtain
the current velocity at depth d
i
. When this type profile is specified, a table of depths and velocities must be provided. The
table should start at the surface (a depth of zero) and progress in the direction of increasing depth, to the sea bed.
The linear profile also performs a linear interpolation to obtain the current velocity at depth d
i
. However, this method
assumes the current velocity varies linearly from the specified surface velocity to zero at the sea bed.
Current Speed This entry defines the current speed at the surface. The units for this entry are (length/time) as defined
by the active units file at the time of input. This value should always be a positive entry.
Current Direction Cosines These entries define the direction of fluid transport due to the current. These fields are
unitless, and follow the standard software global axis convention.
Wave Data
Wave Theory Indicator This entry specifies which wave theory is to be used to compute the water particle velocities
and accelerations. The wave theories presently available are:
Standard Airy Wave This is also known as linear wave theory. Discussion of this theory can be found in the previously
mentioned references.
Modified Airy Wave This is a modification of the standard Airy theory which includes the free surface effects due to
the wave. The modification consists of determining a depth scaling factor equal to the depth divided by the depth plus the
surface elevation. Note that this scale factor varies as a function of the location in the wave train.
Standard Stokes 5th Wave This is a 5th order wave theory, also discussed in the previously mentioned references.
Modified Stokes 5th Wave This is a modification of the standard Stokes 5th theory. The modification is the same as
applied to the Airy theory.
Stream Function Wave This is Deans Stream Function theory, also discussed in the previously mentioned references.
Modified Stream Function Wave This is Deans Stream Function theory, modified to directly consider current in the
wave solution.
Stream Function Order When the Stream Function theory is activated, the solution order must be defined. Typical
values for the stream function order range from 3 to 13, and must be an "odd" value (see APIRP2A figure).
Water Depth This entry defines the vertical distance (in units of length) from the still water level (the surface) to the sea
bed.
Wave Height This entry defines the height of the incident wave. The height is the vertical distance (in units of length)
from the wave crest to the wave trough.
Wave Period This entry defines the time span (in seconds) for two successive wave crests to pass a fixed point.
Wave Kinematic Factor Because the two dimensional wave theories do not account for spreading, a reduction factor is
often used for the horizontal particle velocity and acceleration. Wave kinematic measurements support values in the range
of 0.85 to 0.95. Refer to the applicable offshore codes before using this item.
Wave Direction Cosines These entries define the direction of wave travel. These fields are unitless, and follow the
standard software global axis convention.
Wave Phase Angle This entry defines the position of the wave relative to the starting node of the piping system. The
phase angle is a measure (in degrees) of position in the wave train, where 0 is the wave crest, 180 is the wave trough, and
634 Technical Discussions
360 is the following crest. Since the wave propagates over the piping structure, each point in the structure experiences all
possible wave phase angles. One analysis technique specifies the wave phase at the system origin, and then the phase at
each node point in the model is determined. From these exact phase locations, the water particle data is computed from the
wave theory.
Alternatively, a conservative engineering approach is to use the same phase angle (usually zero) for all points in the model.
This technique produces higher loads; however, the extra conservatism is warranted when given the unknowns in specifying
environmental data.
Seawater Data
Free Surface Elevation This entry defines the height of the free surface, from the global system origin. If the system
origin is at the free surface, this entry should be specified as zero. If the system origin is at the sea bottom, this entry is equal
to the water depth. By default, the first node in a CAESAR II model is at an elevation of zero. This elevation can be changed
using the [AltG] key sequence.
Kinematic Viscosity This entry is used to define the kinematic viscosity of water. This value is used to determine the
Reynolds number, which is subsequently used to determine they hydrodynamic coefficients C
d
, C
m
, and C
l
. Typical values
of kinematic viscosity for sea water are listed in the table below.
Temp Deg (F) v(ft
2
/sec) Temp (C) v(m
2
/sec)
60 1.26
e5
15.556 1.17058
e6
50 1.46
e5
10.000 1.35639
e6
40 1.55
e5
4.444 1.44000
e6
30 2.00
e5
1.111 1.85807
e6
Fluid Weight Density  This entry defines the weight density of the fluid. For sea water, this value is approximately
.037037 pounds per cubic inch (.001025 kg/cm3, 1.0256SG).
Piping Element Data
Element Exposure In implementing hydrodynamic loading in a software program, one must be able to indicate that
elements are either exposed to the fluid or not exposed to the fluid. In CAESAR II, this is accomplished by a set of radio
buttons, which indicate that the particular element is exposed to hydrodynamic loads, wind loads, or not exposed. This
specification carries forward for all subsequent elements, until changed.
Hydrodynamic Coefficients Piping elements which are to be subjected to hydrodynamic loading must have a drag (C
d
),
an inertia (C
m
), and a lift (C
l
) coefficient defined. The specification of these items is optional. A user may specify these
values as constants to be applied to all subsequent exposed elements, regardless of depth or phase position in the wave.
Alternatively, these values may be left blank, which will cause CAESAR II to interpolate their values from the charts
previously discussed.
Marine Growth This entry defines the amount of marine growth on the piping elements. The value of this entry is used
to increase the diameter of the piping elements. The units for this field are the current diameter units. The diameter used in
the computation of the hydrodynamic forces is equal to the pipe diameter plus twice the marine growth entry.
References
1 Mechanics of Wave Forces On Offshore Structures, Turgut Sarpkaya and Michael Isaacson, Van Nostrand Reinhold
Co., 1982, ISBN 0442254024.
2 Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering, Myers, Holm, and McAllister, McGrawHill Book Co., 1969, ISBN
07044245 2.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 635
3 Fifth Order Gravity Wave Theory, Lars Skjelbreia and James Hendrickson, National Engineering Science Co.,
Pasadena, California, 1960.
4 Planning and Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms, McClelland and Reifel, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1986, ISBN 0
442252234.
5 Intercomparison of NearBottom Kinematics by Several Wave Theories and Field and Laboratory Data, R. G. Dean and
M. Perlin, Coastal Engineering, #9 (1986), p399437.
6 A Finite Amplitude Wave on a Linear Shear Current, R. A. Dalrymple, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 79, No
30, 1974.
7 Application of Stream Function Wave Theory to Offshore Design Problems, R. G. Dean, OTC #1613, 1972.
8 Stream Function Representation of Nonlinear Ocean Waves, R. G. Dean, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 70, No
18, 1965.
9 American Petroleum Institute  Recommended Practice 2A (APIRP2A), American Petroleum Institute, July 1993.
10 Improved Algorithm for Stream Function Wave Theory, MinChih Huang, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and
Ocean Engineering, January 1989.
11 Stream Function Wave Theory with Profile Constraints, MinChih Huang, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and
Ocean Engineering, January/February 1993.
636 Technical Discussions
Evaluating Vessel Stresses
The ASME Section VIII, Division 2 code provides for a fairly elaborate procedure to analyze the local stresses in vessels
and nozzles. Only the elastic analysis approach will be discussed in this manual. The user should always refer to the
applicable code if any of the limits described in this section are approached, or if any unusual material, weld, or stress
situation exists, or there are nonlinear concerns such as the material's operation in the creep range.
The first step in the procedure is to determine if the elastic approach is satisfactory. Section AD160 contains the exact
method and basically states that if all of the following conditions are met, then fatigue analysis need not be done:
1 The expected design number of fullrange pressure cycles does not exceed the number of allowed cycles corresponding
to an S
a
value of 3S
m
(4S
m
for nonintegral attachments) on the material fatigue curve. The S
m
is the allowable stress
intensity for the material at the operating temperature.
2 The expected design range of pressure cycles other than startup or shutdown must be less than 1/3 (1/4 for nonintegral
attachments) the design pressure times (S
a
/S
m
), where S
a
is the value obtained on the material fatigue curve for the
specified number of significant pressure fluctuations.
3 The vessel does not experience localized high stress due to heating.
4 The full range of stress intensities due to mechanical loads (including piping reactions) does not exceed S
a
from the
fatigue curve for the expected number of load fluctuations.
Once the user has decided that an elastic analysis will be satisfactory, either a simplified or a comprehensive approach may
be taken to the vessel stress evaluation. Both methods will be described in detail below, after a discussion of the Section
VIII Div. 2 Requirements.
ASME Section VIII Division 2  Elastic Analysis of Nozzle
Ideally, in order to address the local allowable stress problem, the user should have the endurance curve for the material of
construction and complete design pressure / temperature loading information. If any of the elastic limits are approached, or
if there is anything out of the ordinary about the nozzle/vessel connection design, the code should be carefully consulted
before performing the local stress analysis. The material S
m
table and the endurance curve for carbon steels are given in this
section for illustration. Only values taken directly from the code should be used in design.
There are essentially three criteria that must be satisfied before the stresses in the vessel wall due to nozzle loads can be
considered within the allowables. These three criteria can be summarized as:
P
m
< kS
mh
P
m
+ P
l
+ P
b
< 1.5kS
mh
P
m
+ P
l
+ P
b
+ Q < 3S
mavg
Where P
m
, P
l
, P
b
, and Q are the general primary membrane stress, the local primary membrane stress, the local primary
bending stress, and the total secondary stresses (membrane plus bending), respectively; and K, S
mh
, and S
mavg
are the
occasional stress factor, the hot material allowable stress intensity, and the average material stress intensity (S
mh
+ S
mc
) / 2.
Due to the stress classification defined by Section VIII, Division 2 in the vicinity of nozzles, as given in the Table 4120.1,
the bending stress terms caused by any external load moments or internal pressure in the vessel wall near a nozzle or other
opening, should be classified as Q, or the secondary stresses, regardless of whether they were caused by sustained or
expansion loads. This causes P
b
to disappear, and leads to a much more detailed classification:
P
m
General primary membrane stress (primarily due to internal pressure)
P
l
Local primary membrane stress, which may include
Membrane stress due to internal pressure
Local membrane stress due to applied sustained forces and moments
QSecondary stresses, which may include
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 637
Bending stress due to internal pressure
Bending stress due to applied sustained forces and moments
Membrane stress due to applied expansion forces
Bending stress due to applied expansion forces and moments
Membrane stress due to applied expansion moments
Each of the stress terms defined in the above classifications contains three parts: two stress components in normal directions
and one shear stress component. To combine these stresses, the following rules apply:
Compute the normal and shear components for each of the three stress types, i.e. P
m
, P
l
, and Q;
Compute the stress intensity due to the P
m
and compare it against kS
mh
;
Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to P
m
and P
l
; compute the resultant stress intensity and
compare its value against 1.5kS
mh
;
Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to P
m
, P
l
, and Q, compute the resultant stress intensity, and
compare its value to against 3S
mavg
.
If there is an occasional load as well as a sustained load, these types may be repeated using a k value of 1.2.
These criteria can be readily found from Figure 4130.1 of Appendix 4 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2 and the
surrounding text. Note that the primary bending stress term, Pb, is not applicable to the shell stress evaluation, and therefore
disappears from the Section VIII, Division 2 requirements. Under the same analogy, the peak stress limit may also be
written as:
P
l
+ P
b
+ Q + F < S
a
The preceding equation need not be satisfied, provided the elastic limit criteria of AD160 is met based on the statement
explicitly given in Section 5100, which is cited below:
If the specified operation of the vessel meets all of the conditions of AD160, no analysis for cyclic operation is required
and it may be assumed that the peak stress limit discussed in 4135 has been satisfied by compliance with the applicable
requirements for materials, design, fabrication, testing and inspection of this division.
Procedure to Perform Elastic Analyses of Nozzles
The procedure for checking stresses in vessel shells using WRC 107 can be summarized as follows:
1 Check geometric limitation to see whether WRC 107 is applicable;
2 If yes, check to see whether or not the elastic approach as outlined in Section VIII, Division 2, AD160 is satisfactory;
3 Compute the sustained, expansion and occasional loads in the vessel shell due to the applied nozzle loads. Consider the
local restraint configuration in order to determine whether or not the axial pressure thrust load (P * A
in
) should be added
to the sustained (and occasional loads). If desired by the user, this thrust load will be automatically calculated and added
to the applied loads.
4 Calculate pressure stresses, P
m
, on the vessel shell wall in both longitudinal and circumferential (hoop) directions for
both sustained and occasional cases. Notice that two different pressure terms are required in carrying out the pressure
stress calculations. P is the design pressure of the system (sustained), while P
var
is the DIFFERENCE between the peak
pressure and the design pressure of the system, which will be used to qualify the vessel membrane stress under the
occasional load case.
Note: The P
m
stresses will be calculated automatically if a pressure value is entered by the user.
5 Run WRC 107 to calculate the P
l
, and Q stresses as defined earlier. Note that the local stresses due to sustained,
expansion and occasional loads can now be compute simultaneously.
6 Various stress components can be obtained from combining the stress intensities computed from applying the sustained,
expansion and occasional loads, if applicable. These stress intensities can then be used to carry out the stress
638 Technical Discussions
summations and the results are used to determine acceptability of the local stresses in the vessel shell. Notice now
CAESAR II can provide the WRC 107 stress summation module in line with the stress calculation routines
Under the above procedure, the equations used in CAESAR II to qualify the various stress components can be summarized as
follows:
P
m
(SUS) < S
mh
P
m
(SUS + OCC) < 1.2S
mh
P
m
(SUS) + P
l
(SUS) < 1.5S
mh
P
m
(SUS + OCC) + P
l
(SUS + OCC) < 1.5(1.2)S
mh
P
m
(SUS + OCC) + P
l
(SUS + OCC) + Q(SUS + EXP + OCC) < 1.5(S
mc
+ S
mh
)
Description of Alternate Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Nozzle Analysis
The most difficult problem associated with the comprehensive ASME Sect. VIII, Div. 2 nozzle/vessel analysis involves the
pressure calculation. Hoop and longitudinal hand pressure calculations can not be considered dependable, and axial pressure
loading on the junction is often calculated incorrectly or omitted. A smaller, yet significant problem with the comprehensive
calculation is the time it takes to organize and manipulate the stress data.
For these reasons, an alternate simplified approach was developed. To eliminate the concern for pressure, both the pressure
term in the loading on the left side of the inequality and the pressure term in the allowable on the right side of the inequality
are cancelled.
The first check is P
m
(due to pressure) must be less than or equal to 1.0 S
mh
. Assuming that the area reinforcement around
the nozzle will satisfy the pressure requirements, let this first check equal the maximum value.
The second check is P
m
+ P
l
+ P
b
must be less than or equal to 1.5 S
mh
. Subtracting the stresses due to pressure (assumed
equal to S
mh
) reduces this check to: P
l
+ P
b
(due to external sustained forces without pressure) < 0.5 S
mh
.
Unfortunately, the third check on the P
m
+ P
l
+ Q terms is at the root of an application controversy. There are primarily three
schools of thought:
P
m
+P
l
+Q is an operating loading condition, and as such, includes the loads due to pressure and weight.
P
m
+P
l
+Q is the range of loads, i.e. the expansion loading condition, and as such, excludes the effects of sustained, or
primary loads. Primary sustained loads, such as weight and pressure, should be excluded.
P
m
+P
l
+Q is the range of loads and should exclude the primary load weight, but should include the varying pressure load
at least in those thermal load cases where the system goes from a startup (ambient temperature and pressure condition to
operating condition).
For the simplification, it is assumed that the P
m
component due to pressure should be included in both the left and right side
of the P
m
+P
l
+P
b
+Q < 3S
m
inequality, thus assuming that the area reinforcement requirements are exactly satisfied, i.e.
Again, letting P
m
= S
m
and subtracting this pressure term from the expansion allowable (P
m
+ P
l
+ Q < 3S
m
) provides a
simplified allowable limit.
The expansion (or operating, or both) loads from the CAESAR II restraint report should satisfy the computed stress
requirement:
P
l
+ P
b
+ Q (operating or expansion excluding pressure) < 2S
m
.
In summary
Ensure proper nozzle reinforcement for pressure and assume pressure stresses are at their maximum.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 639
Compare primary stresses (without pressure) to 1/2 S
mh
.
Compare stresses due to the sum of primary and secondary loads to 2S
m(avg)
; where S
m(avg)
is the average of the hot and
cold allowable stress intensities (S
mh
& S
mc
).
Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Elastic Nozzle Analysis
1 Perform a CAESAR II analysis of the piping loads on the vessel/nozzle junction. Use WRC 297 flexibilities to compute
loads more accurately, but less conservatively (or do two analysis, one with flexibilities and one without). From this
analysis the user should have sustained, operating, and expansion loads on the vessel/nozzle junction.
2 Find S
mh
and S
mc
from the Sect. VIII allowable stress tables. S
mh
is the vessel material hot allowable, and S
mc
is the
vessel material cold allowable.
3 Run WRC 107 with the sustained loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure that the computed
stress intensities are less than 0.5 S
mh
. This conservatively considers bending stresses from internal pressure and
sustained moments to have a primary classification; if it fails, the stresses must be reviewed in more detail.
4 Run WRC 107 with the operating loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure that the computed
stress intensities are less than S
mh
+ S
mc
.
5 Run WRC 107 with the expansion loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure that the
computed stress intensities are less than S
mh
+ S
mc
.
Should any of the checks described fail, then the more comprehensive analysis (described earlier) of the junction should be
performed.
640 Technical Discussions
Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction
The response of a system under a dynamic load is often determined by superposition of modal results, with CAESAR II
specifically providing the spectral analysis method for use. One of the advantages of modal analysis is that usually only a
limited number of modes are excited and need be included in the analysis. The drawback to this method is that although
displacements may be obtained with good accuracy using only a few of the lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and
stress results may require extraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is
attained. CAESAR IIs Missing Mass option offers the ability to include a correction which represents the quasistatic
contribution of the higher order modes not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, thus providing greater
accuracy with reduced calculation time.
The dynamic response of a linear multidegreeoffreedom system is described by the following equation:
Ma(t) + Cv(t) + Kx(t) = F(t)
Where:
M = n x n mass matrix of system
C = n x n damping matrix of system
K = n x n stiffness matrix of system
a(t) = n x 1, timedependent acceleration vector
v(t) = n x 1, timedependent velocity vector
x(t) = n x 1, timedependent displacement vector
F(t) = n x 1, timedependent applied force vector
Assuming harmonic motion and neglecting damping, the free vibration eigenvalue problem for this system is
Ku  Mu e
2
= 0
Where:
u = n x n mode shape matrix
e
2
= n x n matrix where each diagonal entry is the frequency squared of the corresponding mode
The modal matrix u may be normalized such that u
T
M u = I (where I is the n x n identity matrix) and u
T
K u = e
2
.
The modal matrix u may be partitioned into two submatrices:
u = [ u
e
u
r
]
Where:
u
e
= mode shapes extracted for dynamic analysis (i.e., lowest frequency modes)
u
r
= residual (nonextracted) mode shapes (corresponding to rigid response, or the missing mass
contribution)
The extracted mode shapes are orthogonal to the residual mode shapes, or:
u
e
T
x u
r
= 0
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 641
The displacement components can be expressed as linear combinations of the mode shapes:
x = uY = u
e
Y
e
+ u
r
Y
r
= x
e
+ x
r
Where:
x = total system displacements
x
e
= system displacements due to extracted modes
x
r
= system displacements due to residual modes
Y = generalized modal coordinates
Y
e
= partition of Y matrix corresponding to extracted modes
Y
r
= partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes
The dynamic load vector can be expressed in similar terms:
F = K u Y = K u
e
Y
e
+ K u
r
Y
r
= F
e
+ F
r
Where:
F = total system load vector
F
e
= load vector due to extracted modes
F
r
= load vector due to residual modes
Y = generalized modal coordinates
Y
e
= partition of Y matrix corresponding to extracted modes
Y
r
= partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes
Normally, modal superposition analyses completely neglect the rigid response the displacements X
r
caused by the load
F
r
. This response, of the nonextracted modes, can be obtained from the system displacement under a static loading F
r
.
Based upon the relationships stated above, F
r
can be estimated as follows:
F = K u
e
Y
e
+ K u
r
Y
r
Multiplying both sides by u
e
T
(and considering that u
e
T
u
r
= 0):
u
e
T
F = u
e
T
K u
e
Y
e
+ u
e
T
K u
r
Y
r
= u
e
T
K u
e
Y
e
Substituting e
e
2
for u
e
T
K u
e
and solving for Y
e
:
u
e
T
F = e
e
2
Y
e
Y
e
= u
e
T
e
e
2
F
The residual force can now be stated as
F
r
= F  K u
e
Y
e
= F  u
e
T
K u
e
e
e
2
F
As seen earlier
u
T
M u e
2
= I e
2
= u
T
K u
Substituting u
e
T
Mu
e
e
e
2
for u
e
T
K u
e
:
F
r
= F  u
e
T
M u
e
e
e
2
e
e
2
F = F  u
e
T
M u
e
F
642 Technical Discussions
Therefore, CAESAR II calculates the residual response (and includes it as the missing mass contribution) according to the
following procedure:
1 The missing mass load is calculated for each individual shock load as
F
r
= F  u
e
T
M u
e
F
Note: The load vector F represents the product of the force set vector and the rigid DLF for force spectrum loading; the
product of the mass matrix, ZPA, and directional vector for nonISM seismic loads; and the product of the mass matrix,
ZPA, and displacement matrix (under unit ISM support displacement) for seismic anchor movement loads. Note that the
missing mass load will vary, depending upon the number of modes extracted by the user and the cutoff frequency selected
(or more specifically, the DLF or acceleration corresponding to the cutoff frequency). "Rigid, for the purposes of
determining the rigid DLF, or the ZPA, may be designated by the user, through a setup parameter, to be either the
DLF/acceleration associated with the frequency of the last extracted mode, or the true spectral DLF/ ZPAthat
corresponding to the largest entered frequency of the input spectrum.
2 The missing mass load is applied to the structure as a static load. The static structural response is then combined
(according to the userspecified combination method) with the dynamically amplified modal responses as if it were a
modal response. Actually this static response is the algebraic sum of the responses of all nonextracted modes
representing inphase response, as would be expected from rigid modes.
3 The Missing Mass Data report is compiled for all shock cases, whether missing mass is to be included or not. The
percent of mass active is calculated according to:
% Active Mass = 1  ( F
r
[i] / F [i])
summed over i = 1 to n
The maximum possible percent that is theoretically possible for this value is of course 100%, however numerical
inaccuracies may occasionally cause the value to be slightly higher. If the missing mass correction factor is included, the
percent of mass included in the correction is shown in the report as well.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 643
Since CAESAR IIs procedure assumes that the missing mass correction represents the contribution of rigid modes, and that
the ZPA is based upon the spectral ordinate value at the frequency of the last extracted mode, it is recommended that the
user extract modes up to, but not far beyond, a recognized rigid frequency. Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the
spectrums resonant peak will provide a nonconservative result, since resonant responses may be missed. Using a cutoff
frequency to the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will yield conservative results, since the ZPA/rigid DLF
will be overestimated. Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response may be
conservative, since all available modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give conservative results versus
the algebraic combination method which gives a more realistic representation of the net response of the rigid modes. Based
upon the response spectrum shown below, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz.
Maximum Stress vs. Extracted Nodes
CAESAR II provides two options for combining the missing mass correction with the modal (dynamic) resultsSRSS and
Absolute. The Absolute combination method of course provides the more conservative result, and is based upon the
assumption that the dynamic amplification is going to occur simultaneously with the maximum ground acceleration or force
load. Literature (References 1, 2) states that the modal and the rigid portions of the response to typical dynamic loads are
actually statistically independent, so that an SRSS Combination method is a more accurate representation of reality. For this
reason, CAESAR IIs default missing mass combination method is SRSS.
References
1 A. K. Gupta, Response Spectrum Method in Seismic Analysis and Design of Structures, CRC Press, 1990
2 K. M. Vashi, Computation of Seismic Response from Higher Frequency Modes, ASME 80C2/PVP50, 1980
3 O. E. Hansteen and K. Bell, On the Accuracy of Mode Superposition Analysis in Structural Dynamics, Earthquake
Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Volume 7, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 1979
644 Technical Discussions
Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II
For most piping codes supported by CAESAR II, performance of fatigue analysis is an extension to, rather than an explicit
part of, the code requirements (however, it is an explicit part of the IGE/TD/12 Pipework Stress Analysis for Gas Industry
Plant code).
Fatigue Basics
Piping and vessels have been known to suffer from sudden failure following years of successful service. Research done
during the 1940s and 1950s (primarily advanced by A. R. C. Markls Piping Flexibility Analysis, published in 1955)
provided an explanation for this phenomenon, as well as design criteria aimed at avoiding failures of this type. The
explanation was that materials were failing due to fatigue, a process leading to the propagation of cracks, and subsequent
fracture, following repeated cyclic loading.
Steels and other metals are made up of organized patterns of molecules, known as crystal structures. However, these
patterns are not maintained throughout the steel producing an ideal homogeneous material, but are found in microscopic
isolated islandlike areas called grains. Inside each grain the pattern of molecules is preserved. From one grain boundary to
the next the molecular pattern is the same, but the orientation differs. As a result, grain boundaries are high energy borders.
Plastic deformation begins within a grain that is both subject to a high stress and oriented such that the stress causes a
slippage between adjacent layers in the same pattern. The incremental slippages (called dislocations) cause local cold
working. On the first application of the stress, dislocations will move through many of the grains that are in the local area of
high stress. As the stress is repeated, more dislocations will move through their respective grains. Dislocation movement is
impeded by the grain boundaries, so after multiple stress applications, the dislocations tend to accumulate at grain
boundaries, eventually becoming so dense that the grains lock up, causing a loss of ductility and thus preventing further
dislocation movement. Subsequent applications of the stress cause the grain to tear, forming cracks. Repeated stress
applications cause the cracks to grow. Unless abated, the cracks propagate with additional stress applications until sufficient
cross sectional strength is lost to cause catastrophic failure of the material.
The fatigue capacity of a material can be estimated through the application of cyclic tensile/compressive displacement loads
with a uniaxial test machine. A plot of the cyclic stress capacity of a material is called a fatigue (or endurance) curve. These
curves are generated through multiple cyclic tests at different stress levels. The number of cycles to failure usually increases
as the applied cyclic stress decreases, often until a threshold stress (known as the endurance limit) is reached below which
no fatigue failure occurs, regardless of the number of applied cycles. An endurance curve for carbon and low alloy steels,
taken from the ASME Section VIII Division 2 Pressure Vessel Code is shown in the following figure.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 645
Fatigue Analysis of Piping Systems
IGE/TD/12 does, on the other hand, present specific requirements for true fatigue evaluation of systems subject to a cyclic
loading threshold. Furthermore, ASME Section III, Subsection NB and ASME Section VIII Division 2 provide guidelines
by which fatigue evaluation rules may be applied to piping (and other pressure retaining equipment). These procedures have
been adapted, where possible, to CAESAR IIs methodology.
Performing Fatigue Analyses:
1 Assigning fatigue curve data to the piping material: This is done on the Allowable auxiliary screen. Fatigue data may
be entered directly, or read in from a text file (a number of commonly used curves have been provided). Users may
define their own fatigue curves as defined later in this section.
2 Defining the fatigue load cases: This may be done in either the static or dynamic load case builders. For this purpose, a
new stress type, FAT, has been defined. For every fatigue case, the number of anticipated cycles must also be defined.
3 Calculation of the fatigue stresses: This is done automatically by CAESAR II the fatigue stresses, unless explicitly
defined by the applicable code are calculated the same as CAESAR II calculates stress intensity, in order to conform to
the requirements of ASME Section VIII, Division 2 Appendix 5. (The IGE/TD/12 is currently the only piping code
supported by CAESAR II which does have explicit instructions for calculating fatigue stresses.) The equations used in the
calculation of fatigue stresses are documented at the end of this section.
4 Determination of the allowable fatigue stresses: Allowables are interpolated logarithmically from the fatigue curve
based upon the number of cycles designated for the load case. For static load cases, the calculated stress is assumed to
be a peaktopeak cyclic value (i.e., thermal expansion, settlement, pressure, etc.), so the allowable stress is extracted
646 Technical Discussions
directly from the fatigue curve. For harmonic and dynamic load cases, the calculated stress is assumed to be a zeroto
peak cyclic value (i.e., vibration, earthquake, etc.), so the extracted allowable is divided by 2 prior to use in the
comparison.
5 Determination of the allowable number of cycles: The flip side of calculating the allowable fatigue stress for the
designated number of cycles is the calculation of the allowable number of cycles for the calculated stress level. This is
done by logarithmically interpolating the Cycles axis of the fatigue curve based upon the calculated stress value.
Since static stresses are assumed to be peaktopeak cyclic values, the allowable number of cycles is interpolated
directly from the fatigue curve. Since harmonic and dynamic stresses are assumed to be zerotopeak cyclic values, the
allowable number of cycles is interpolated using twice the calculated stress value.
6 Reporting the results: CAESAR II provides two reports for viewing the results of load cases of stress type FAT. The first
of these is the standard stress report, which displays the calculated fatigue stress and fatigue allowable at each node.
Stress reports may be generated individually for each load case, and show whether any of the individual load cases in
isolation would fail the system.
However, in those circumstances where there is more than one cyclic load case potentially contributing to fatigue failure,
the Cumulative Usage report is appropriate. In order to generate this report, the user selects all of the FAT load cases which
contribute to the overall system degradation. The Cumulative Usage report lists for each node point the usage ratio (actual
cycles divided by allowable cycles), and then sums these up for total Cumulative Usage. A total greater than 1.0 indicates a
potential fatigue failure.
Static Analysis Fatigue Example
Consider a sample job that potentially has several different cyclic load variations:
1 Operating cycle from ambient (70F) to 500F (12,000 cycles anticipated)
2 Shut down external temperature variation from ambient (70F) to 20F (200 cycles anticipated)
3 Pressurization to 1800 psig (12,000 cycles anticipated)
4 Pressure fluctuations of plus/minus 30 psi from the 1800 psig (200,000 cycles anticipated)
In order to do a proper fatigue analysis, these should be grouped in sets of load pairs which represent the worstcase
combination of stress ranges between extreme states. These load variations can be laid out in graphical form. The figure
below shows a sketch of the various operating ranges this system experiences. Each horizontal line represents an operating
range. At the each end of each horizontal line, the temperatures and pressures defining the range are noted. At the center of
each horizontal line, the number of cycles for each range is defined.
Using this sketch of the operating ranges, the four fatigue load cases can be determined. The procedure is as follows.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 647
Case 1: Cover the absolute extreme, from 20F and 0 psi to 500F and 1830 psi. This occurs 200 times. As a result of this
case, the cycles for the ranges defined must be reduced by 200. The first range (20,0 to 70,0) is reduced to zero, and has no
contribution to additional load cases. The second range (70,0 to 500,1800) is reduced to 11,800 cycles. The third and fourth
ranges are similarly reduced to 199,800 cycles.
These same steps can be used to arrive at cases 2 through 4, reducing the number of considered cycles at each step. This
procedure is summarized in the table below.
Segment 20, 0 to 70, 0 70, 0 to 500, 1800 500, 1700 to 500, 1800 500, 1800 to 500, 1830
Case
Initial 200 12,000 200, 000 200,000
After 1 0 11,800 200, 000 199,800
After 2 0 0 200, 000 188,000
After 3 0 0 12,000 0
After 4 0 0 0 0
This table is then used to set the load cases as cycles between the following load values:
Between 20F, 0 psig and 500F, 1830 psig (200 cycles)
Between 70F, 0 psig and 500F, 1830 psig (11,800 cycles)
Between 500F, 1770 psig and 500F, 1830 psig (188,000 cycles)
Between 500F, 1770 psig and 500F, 1800 psig (12,000 cycles)
648 Technical Discussions
These temperatures and pressures are entered as operating conditions accordingly:
Static Analysis Fatigue Example
It is next necessary to enter the fatigue curve data for the material. This is done by clicking the Fatigue Curves button,
revealing the Material Fatigue Curve dialog box. This can be used to enter the fatigue curve for the material (note: for
IGE/ TD/12 code it is necessary to enter five sets of fatigue curves, for fatigue classes D, E, F, G, and W). Up to eight Cycle
vs. Stress data points may be entered to define the curve; interpolations are made logarithmically. Cycle/Stress pairs should
be entered in ascending order (ascending by cycles). Stress values should be entered as allowable Stress Range, rather than
allowable Stress Amplitude.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 649
Material Fatigue Curves Dialog
Fatigue curves may be alternatively acquired from a text file, by clicking on the Read from file button. This displays a
list of all \CAESAR\SYSTEM\*.FAT files.
Read from File Dialog
Shipped with the program are the following fatigue curve files (the user may easily construct additional fatigue curve files,
as described in Appendix A below):
51101A.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.1, UTS < 80 ksi
51101B.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.1, UTS = 115130 ksi
51102A.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.2, Curve A
51102B.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.2, Curve B
51102C.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.2, Curve C
650 Technical Discussions
In this case, for A106B low carbon steel, operating at 500F, 51101A.FAT is the appropriate selection. This populates the
fatigue curve data:
A106B Low Carbon Steel Example Fatigue Curve Data
At this point, users can error check the job, and the load cases can be set up.
The static load case builder offers a new stress type, FAT (fatigue). Selecting this stress type does the following:
1 Invites the user to define the number of cycles for the load case (dragging the FAT stress type into the load case or
pressing the Load Cycles button opens the Load Cycles field),
2 Causes the stress range to be calculated as per the fatigue stress method of the governing code (currently this is stress
intensity for all codes except IGE/TD/12).
3 Causes the calculated stress range to be compared to the full value extracted from the fatigue curve, and
4 Indicates that the load case may be included in the Cumulative Usage report.
The last four load cases represent the load set pairs defined earlier.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 651
Example with Fatigue Load Cases Defined in the Load Case Editor
Once the job has been run, note that the presence of a FAT stress type adds the Cumulative Usage report to the list of
available reports.
652 Technical Discussions
Static Output Processor
The fatigue stress range may be checked against the fatigue curve allowable for each load case by simply selecting it along
with the Stresses report. Review of each load case shows that all stress levels pass.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 653
Fatigue Stress Report
654 Technical Discussions
However, this is not a true evaluation of the situation, because it is not a case of eitheror. The piping system is subjected
to all of these load cases throughout its expected design life, not just one of them. Therefore, we must review the
Cumulative Usage report, which shows the total effect of all fatigue load cases (or any combination selected by the user)
on the design life of the system. This report lists for each load case the expected number of cycles, the allowable number of
cycles (based upon the calculated stress), and the Usage Ratio (actual cycles divided by allowable cycles). The Usage Ratios
are then summed for all selected load cases; if this sum exceeds 1.0, the system has exceeded its fatigue capabilities. In this
case, it is apparent that the sum of all of the cyclic loadings at node 115 can be expected to fail this system:
Cumulative Usage Report
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 655
Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis
Fatigue analysis capability is also available for harmonic and dynamic analyses as well. Harmonic load cases are entered as
they always have been; they may be designated as being stress type FAT simply by entering the number of expected load
cycles on the harmonic input screen:
Harmonic Input Screen
This produces the same types of reports as are available for the static analysis; they can be processed as discussed earlier.
656 Technical Discussions
Static Output Processor
The only difference between the harmonic and static fatigue analyses is that for harmonic jobs, the calculated stresses are
assumed to be zerotopeak calculations, so they are compared to only half of the stress value extracted from the fatigue
curve. Likewise, when creating the Cumulative Usage report, the number of allowable cycles is based upon twice the
calculated stress.
For other dynamic applications (response spectrum and time history), the stress type may be identified as fatigue by
selecting the stress type from the drop list for the Load Case or Static/Dynamic Combination, and by entering the number of
expected cycles in the provided field.
Note that as with the harmonic analyses, the calculated stresses are assumed to be zerotopeak calculations, so they are
compared to only half of the stress value extracted from the fatigue curve. Likewise, when creating the Cumulative Usage
report, the number of allowable cycles is based upon twice the calculated stress.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 657
Creating the .FAT Files
The .FAT file is a simple text file, containing the data points necessary to describe the fatigue curve for the material, for
both butt welded and fillet welded fittings. A sample FAT file is shown below.
* ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 FATIGUE CURVE
* FIGURE 5110.1
* DESIGN FATIGUE CURVES FOR CARBON, LOW ALLOY, SERIES 4XX,
* HIGH ALLOY AND HIGH TENSILE STEELS FOR TEMPERATURES NOT
* EXCEEDING 700 F
* FOR UTS s 80 KSI
*
0.5000000  STRESS MULTIPLIER (PSI); ALSO CONVERTS AMPLITUDE TO FULL RANGE
*
10 580000.0
100 205000.0
1000 83000.0
10000 38000.0
100000 20000.0
500000 13500.0
1000000 12500.0
0 0.0
*
This text file can be created using any available text editor. Any line beginning with an asterisk is treated as a comment
line. It is highly recommended that comment lines be used so that the data can be related back to a specific material curve.
The first actual data line in the file is a stress multiplier. This value is used to adjust the data values from zero to peak to
peak to peak and/or to convert the stress levels to psi (the entered values will be divided by this number  i.e., if the stress
values in the file represent a stress amplitude, in psi, rather than a range, this "stress multiplier should be 0.5). Following
this line is the fatigue curve data table. This table consists of eight lines, of two columns. The first column is the Cycle
column, the second column is the Stress column. For each value in the cycle column, the corresponding stress value from
the material fatigue curve should be listed in the stress column.
Fatigue curves intended for use in the IGE/TD/12 code are built slightly different. The first data line contains not one, but
three values: the stress multiplier described above, a modulus of elasticity correction, and a modulus of elasticity
multiplier (the correction factor is divided by this to convert to psi) upon file read, the modulus of elasticity correction
is inserted into the appropriate field on the fatigue curve screen. Furthermore, the IGE/TD/12 fatigue files include five
fatigue curves (sequentially Fatigue Class D, E, F, G, and W), rather than one. Optional comment lines may be used to
separate the tables these comments aid in the readability of the data file. The format of the IGE/TD/12 fatigue files can
best be determined by reviewing the contents of the file TD12ST.FAT.
In all tables, the number of cycles increases as you work down the table. If there is not enough data to utilize all eight lines,
unused lines should be populated with zeroes.
658 Technical Discussions
Calculation of Fatigue Stresses
For IGE/TD/12 the computation of fatigue stresses is detailed in Section 5.4.4 of that code. This section of the code states:
"The principal stress in any plane can be calculated for any set of conditions from the following formula:"
Where,
S
h
= Hoop stress
S
a
= Axial stress
S
q
= Shear stress
"This should be used for establishing the range of stress, due regard being paid to the direction and sign." For all other
piping codes in CAESAR II, the fatigue stress is computed as the stress intensity, as follows:
3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (Default)
SI = Maximum of:
S1OT  S3OT
S1OB  S3OB
Max(S1IT,RPS)  Min(S3IT,RPS)
Max(S1IB,RPS)  Min(S3IB,RPS)
Where:
S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
= (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)1/2
S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0(((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2
S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0(((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0+ (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
) 1/2
S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bottom
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0 (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
) 1/2
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 659
S1IB=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
S3IB=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0 (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
RPS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside
HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, from Lame's Equation)
HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lame's Equation)
SLOT=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Top
SLIT=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Top
SLOB=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Bottom
SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom
TSI=Torsional Stress, Inside
TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside
660 Technical Discussions
Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping
Underlying Theory
The behavior of steel and other homogeneous materials has been long understood, permitting their widespread use as
construction materials. The development of the piping and pressure vessel codes (Reference 1) in the early part of this
century led to the confidence in their use in piping applications; the work of Markl et. al. in the 1940s and 1950s was
responsible for the formalization of todays pipe stress methods, leading to an ensuing diversification of piping codes on an
industry by industry basis. The advent of the digital computer, and with it the appearance of the first pipe stress analysis
software (Reference 2), further increased the confidence with which steel pipe could be used in critical applications. The
1980s saw the wide spread proliferation of the micro computer, with associated pipe stress analysis software, which in
conjunction with training, technical support, and available literature, has brought stress analysis capability to almost all
engineers. In short, an accumulated experience of close to 100 years, in conjunction with ever improving technology has led
to the utmost confidence on the part of todays engineers when specifying, designing, and analyzing steel, or other metallic,
pipe.
For fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and other composite piping materials, the situation is not the same. Fiberglass
reinforced plastic was developed only as recently as the 1950s, and did not come into wide spread use until a decade later
(Reference 3). There is not a large base of stress analysis experience, although not from a lack of commitment on the part of
FRP vendors. Most vendors conduct extensive stress testing on their components, including hydrostatic and cyclic pressure,
uniaxial tensile and compressive, bending, and combined loading tests. The problem is due to the traditional difficulty
associated with, and lack of understanding of, stress analysis of heterogeneous materials. First, the behavior and failure
modes of these materials are highly complex and not fully understood, leading to inexact analytical methods, and a general
lack of agreement on the best course of action to follow. This lack of agreement has slowed the simplification and
standardization of the analytical methods into universally recognized codes (BS 7159 Code (Design and Construction of
Glass Reinforced Plastics Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites) and UKOOA Specification and
Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP Piping Offshore being notable exceptions). Secondly, the heterogeneous,
orthotropic behavior of FRP and other composite materials has hindered the use of the pipe stress analysis algorithms
developed for homogeneous, isotropic materials associated with crystalline structures. A lack of generally accepted
analytical procedures has contributed to a general reluctance to use FRP piping for critical applications.
Stress analysis of FRP components must be viewed on many levels. These levels, or scales, have been called MicroMini
Macro levels, with analysis proceeding along the levels according to the MMM principle (Reference 4).
MicroLevel Analysis
Stress analysis on the Micro level refers to the detailed evaluation of the individual materials and boundary mechanisms
comprising the composite material. In general, FRP pipe is manufactured from laminates, which are constructed from
elongated fibers of a commercial grade of glass (called Eglass), which are coated with a coupling agent or sizing prior to
being embedded in a thermosetting plastic material, typically epoxy or polyester resin.
This means, on the micro scale, that an analytical model must be created which simulates the interface between these
elements. Since the number and orientation of fibers is unknown at any given location in the FRP sample, the simplest
representation of the micromodel is that of a single fiber, extending the length of the sample, embedded in a square profile
of matrix.
Evaluation of this model requires use of the material parameters of
1 the glass fiber
2 the coupling agent or sizing layer (normally of such microscopic proportion that it may be ignored)
3 the plastic matrix
It must be considered that these material parameters may vary for an individual material based upon tensile, compressive, or
shear applications of the imposed stresses, and typical values vary significantly between the fiber and matrix (Reference 5):
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 661
Young's
Modulus
Ultimate
Strength
Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
Material tensile (MPa) tensile (MPa) m/m/C
7.25 x 10
3
1.5 x 10
3
5.0 x 10
6
2.75 x 10
3
7.0x 10
3
7.0 x 10
3
The following failure modes of the composite must be similarly evaluated:
failure of the fiber
failure of the coupling agent layer
failure of the matrix
failure of the fibercoupling agent bond
failure of the coupling agentmatrix bond
Because of uncertainties about the degree to which the fiber has been coated with the coupling agent and about the nature of
some of these failure modes, this evaluation is typically reduced to
failure of the fiber
failure of the matrix
failure of the fibermatrix interface
MicroLevel GRP Sample Single Fiber Embedded in Square Profile of Matrix
Stresses in the individual components can be evaluated through finite element analysis of the strain continuity and
equilibrium equations, based upon the assumption that there is a good bond between the fiber and matrix, resulting in
compatible strains between the two. For normal stresses applied parallel to the glass fiber:
c
f
= c
m
= o
af
/ E
f
= o
am
/ E
m
o
af
= o
am
E
f
/ E
m
Where:
c
f
= strain in the fiber
c = strain in the matrix
o
af
= normal stress parallel to fiber, in the fiber
E
f
= modulus of elasticity of the fiber
o
am
= axial normal stress parallel to fiber, in the matrix
E = modulus of elasticity of the matrix
662 Technical Discussions
Due to the large ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber to that of the matrix, it is apparent that nearly all of the axial
normal stress in the fibermatrix composite is carried by the fiber. Exact values are (Reference 6):
o
af
= o
L
/ [ + (1)E
m
/E
f
]
o
am
= o
L
/ [E
m
/E
f
+ (1)]
Where:
o
L
= nominal longitudinal stress across composite
 = glass content by volume
The continuity equations for the glassmatrix composite seem less complex for normal stresses perpendicular to the fibers,
since the weak point of the material seems to be limited by the glassfree crosssection shown in the following figure.
For this reason, it would appear that the strength of the composite would be equal to that of the matrix for stresses in this
direction; in fact, its strength is less than that of the matrix due to stress intensification in the matrix caused by the irregular
stress distribution in the vicinity of the stiffer glass. (Since the elongation over distance D
1
must be equal to that over the
longer distance D
2
, the strain, and thus the stress at location D
1
must exceed that at D
2
by the ratio
D
2
/D
1
.) Maximum
intensified transverse normal stresses in the composite are:
( )
1.25
2
2 2
1 ( ) /(1 )
(1 0.85 )[1 (2 3 )1 ( )(1 )]
m f m
m f m
E E V
E E V

(
o  + 
(
o =
+   t
Where:
o
b
= intensified normal stress transfer to the fiber in the composite
o
a
= nominal transverse normal stress across composite
V = Poissons ratio of the matrix
Note: Because of the Poisson effect, this stress produces an additional s'
am
equal to the following:
o
am
= V
m
o 
Shear stress can be allocated to the individual components again through the use of continuity equations; it would appear
that the stiffer glass would resist the bulk of the shear stresses; however, unless the fibers are infinitely long, all shears must
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 663
eventually pass through the matrix in order to get from fiber to fiber. Shear stress between fiber and matrix can be estimated
as
1.25
m f
o
2
m f
T(1p) +p(G /G )
q =
(1+0.6rp )1r( 2rp3 l)1(G /G )
Where:
t
ab
= intensified shear stress in composite
T = nominal shear stress across composite
G
m
= shear modulus of elasticity in matrix
G
f
= shear modulus of elasticity in fiber
Determination of the stresses in the fibermatrix interface is more complex. The bonding agent has an inappreciable
thickness, and thus has an indeterminate stiffness for consideration in the continuity equations. Also, the interface behaves
significantly differently in shear, tension, and compression, showing virtually no effects from the latter. The state of the
stress in the interface is best solved by omitting its contribution from the continuity equations, and simply considering that it
carries all stresses which must be transferred from fiber to matrix.
Once the stresses have been apportioned, they must be evaluated against appropriate failure criteria. The behavior of
homogeneous, isotropic materials such as glass and plastic resin, under a state of multiple stress is better understood. A
failure criterion for isotropic material reduces the combined normal and shear stresses (s
a
, s
b
, s
c
, t
ab
, t
ac
, t
bc
) to a single stress,
an equivalent stress, which can be compared to the tensile stress present at failure in a material under uniaxial loading, i.e.
the ultimate tensile stress, S
ult
.
Different theories, and different equivalent stress functions f(s
a
, s
b
, s
c
, t
ab
,
tac
, t
bc
) have been proposed, with possibly the most
widely accepted being the Hubervon MisesHencky criterion, which states that failure will occur when the equivalent stress
reaches a critical value the ultimate strength of the material:
o
eq
= \{1/2 [(o
a
 o
b
)
2
+ (o
a
 o
c
)
2
+ (o
b
 o
c
)
2
] + 6(t
ab
2
+ t
ac
2
+ t
bc
2
)} s S
ult
This theory does not fully cover all failure modes of the fiber, in that it omits reference to direction of stress (i.e., tensile vs.
Compressive). The fibers, being relatively long and thin, predominantly demonstrate buckling as their failure mode when
loaded in compression.
664 Technical Discussions
The equivalent stress failure criterion has been corroborated (with slightly nonconservative results) by testing. Little is
known about the failure mode of the adhesive interface, although empirical evidence points to a failure criterion which is
more of a linear relationship between the normal and the square of the shear stresses. Failure testing of a composite material
loaded only in transverse normal and shear stresses are shown in the following figure; the kink in the curve shows the
transition from the matrix to the interface as the failure point.
MiniLevel Analysis
Although feasible in concept, micro level analysis is not feasible in practice. This is due to the uncertainty of the
arrangement of the glass in the compositethe thousands of fibers which may be randomly distributed, semirandomly
oriented (although primarily in a parallel pattern), and of randomly varying lengths. This condition indicates that a sample
can truly be evaluated only on a statistical basis, thus rendering detailed finite element analysis inappropriate.
For minilevel analysis, a laminate layer is considered to act as a continuous (hence the common reference to this method as
the continuum method) material, with material properties and failure modes estimated by integrating them over the
assumed crosssectional distribution, i.e., averaging. The assumption regarding the distribution of the fibers can have a
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 665
marked effect on the determination of the material parameters; two of the most commonly postulated distributions are the
square and the hexagonal, with the latter generally considered as being a better representation of randomly distributed
fibers.
The stressstrain relationships, for those sections evaluated as continua, can be written as:
c
aa
= o
aa
/E
L
 (V
L
/E
L
)o
bb
 (V
L
/E
L
)o
cc
c
bb
= ( V
L
/E
L
)o
aa
+ o
bb
/E
T
 (V
T
/E
T
)o
cc
c
cc
= ( V
L
/E
L
)o
aa
 (V
T
/E
T
)o
bb
+ o
cc
/E
T
c
ab
= t
ab
/ 2 G
L
c
bc
= t
bc
/ 2 G
T
c
ac
= t
ac
/ 2 G
L
Where:
c
ij
= strain along direction i on face j
o
ij
, t
ab
= stress (normal, shear) along direction i on face j
E
L
= modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longitudinal direction
V
L
= Poissons ratio of laminate layer in longitudinal direction
E
T
= modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in transverse direction
V
T
= Poissons ratio of laminate layer in transverse direction
G
L
= shear modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longitudinal direction
G
T
= shear modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in transverse direction
These relationships require that four modules of elasticity (E
L
, E
T
, G
L
, and G
T
) and two Poissons ratios (V
L
and V
T
) to be
evaluated for the continuum. Extensive research (References 4  10) has been done to estimate these parameters. There is
general consensus that the longitudinal terms can be explicitly calculated; for cases where the fibers are significantly stiffer
than the matrix, they are:
E
L
= E
F
 + E
M
(1  )
G
L
= G
M
+ / [ 1 / (G
F
 G
M
) + (1  ) / (2G
M
)]
V
L
= V
F
 + V
M
(1  )
Parameters in the transverse direction cannot be calculated; only their upper and lower bounds can. Correlations with
empirical results have yielded approximations (Reference 5 and 6):
G
T
= G
M
(1 + 0.6\) / [(1  )
1.25
+  (G
M
/G
F
)]
V
T
= V
L
(E
L
/ E
T
)
Use of these parameters permits the development of the homogeneous material models which facilitate the calculation of
longitudinal and transverse stresses acting on a laminate layer. The resulting stresses may be allocated to the individual
fibers and matrix using relationships developed during the micro analysis.
666 Technical Discussions
MacroLevel Analysis
Where Minilevel analysis provides the means of evaluation of individual laminate layers, Macrolevel analysis provides the
means of evaluating components made up of multiple laminate layers. It is based upon the assumption that not only the
composite behaves as a continuum, but that the series of laminate layers acts as a homogeneous material with properties
estimated based on the properties of the layer and the winding angle, and that finally, failure criteria are functions of the
level of equivalent stress.
Laminate properties may be estimated by summing the layer properties (adjusted for winding angle) over all layers. For
example
Where:
ELAM = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate
tLAM = thickness of laminate
Ek = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate layer k
C
i
k = transformation matrix orienting axes of layer k to longitudinal laminate axis
Cjk = transformation matrix orienting axes of layer k to transverse laminate axis
tk = thickness of laminate layer k
Once composite properties are determined, the component stiffness parameters may be determined as though it were made
of homogeneous material i.e., based on component crosssectional and composite material properties
Normal and shear stresses can be determined from 1) forces and moments acting on the crosssections, and 2) the cross
sectional properties themselves. These relationships can be written as
o
aa
= F
aa
/ A
aa
M
ba
/ S
ba
M
ca
/ S
ca
o
bb
= F
bb
/ A
bb
M
ab
/ S
ab
M
cb
/ S
cb
o
cc
= F
cc
/ A
cc
M
ac
/ S
ac
M
bc
/ S
bc
t
ab
= F
ab
/ A
ab
M
bb
/ R
ab
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 667
t
ac
= F
ac
/ A
ac
M
cc
/ R
ac
t
ba
= F
ba
/ A
ba
M
aa
/ R
ba
t
bc
= F
bc
/ A
bc
M
cc
/ R
bc
t
ca
= F
ca
/ A
ca
M
aa
/ R
ca
t
cb
= F
cb
/ A
cb
M
bb
/ R
cb
Where:
o
ij
= normal stress along axis i on face j
F
ij
= force acting along axis i on face j
A
ij
= area resisting force along axis i on face j
M
ij
= moment acting about axis i on face j
S
ij
= section modulus about axis i on face j
t
ij
= shear stress along axis i on face j
R
ij
= torsional resistivity about axis i on face j
Using the relationships developed under macro, mini, and micro analysis, these stresses can be resolved back into local
stresses within the laminate layer, and from there, back into stresses within the fiber and the matrix. From these, the failure
criteria of those microscopic components, and hence, the component as a whole, may be checked.
Implementation of MacroLevel Analysis for Piping Systems
The macrolevel analysis described above is the basis for the preeminent FRP piping codes in use today, including Code BS
7159 (Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced Plastics Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites) and the
UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP Piping Offshore.
BS 7159 uses methods and formulas familiar to the world of steel piping stress analysis in order to calculate stresses on the
crosssection, with the assumption that FRP components have material parameters based on continuum evaluation or test.
All coincident loads, such as thermal, weight, pressure, and axial extension due to pressure need be evaluated
simultaneously. Failure is based on the equivalent stress calculation method; since one normal stress (radial stress) is
traditionally considered to be negligible in typical piping configurations, this calculation reduces to the greater of (except
when axial stresses are compressive):
S
eq
S
x
2
4t
2
+ =
(when axial stress is greater than hoop)
S
eq
S
h
2
4t
2
+ =
(when hoop stress is greater than axial)
A slight difficulty arises when evaluating the calculated stress against an allowable, due to the orthotropic nature of the FRP
piping normally the laminate is designed in such a way to make the pipe much stronger in the hoop, than in the
longitudinal, direction, providing more than one allowable stress. This is resolved by defining the allowable in terms of a
design strain ed, rather than stress, in effect adjusting the stress allowable in proportion to the strength in each direction
i.e., the allowable stresses for the two equivalent stresses above would be (ed ELAMX) and (ed ELAMH) respectively. In
lieu of test data, system design strain is selected from Tables 4.3 and 4.4 of the Code, based on expected chemical and
temperature conditions.
668 Technical Discussions
Actual stress equations as enumerated by BS 7159 display below:
1 Combined stress: straights and bends:
oC = (of
2
+ 4oS
2
)
0.5
s cd ELAM
or
oC = (oX
2
+ 4oS
2
)
0.5
s cd ELAM
Where:
oC = combined stress
oR = circumferential stress
=oRP + oRB
oS =torsional stress
= MS(Di + 2td) / 4I
oX = longitudinal stress
= oXP + oXB
oRP = circumferential pressure stress
= mP(Di + td) / 2 td
oRB = circumferential bending stress
= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFRi)
2
+ Mo SIFRo)
2
]
0.5
(for bends, = 0 for straights)
MS = torsional moment on crosssection
D = internal pipe diameter
td = design thickness of reference laminate
I = moment of inertia of pipe
m = pressure stress multiplier of component
P = internal pressure
Mi = inplane bending moment on crosssection
SIFRi= circumferential stress intensification factor for inplane moment
M = outplane bending moment on crosssection
SIFR = circumferential stress intensification factor for outplane moment
oXP = longitudinal pressure stress
= P(Di + td) / 4 td
oXB = longitudinal bending stress
= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFxi)
2
+ Mo SIFxo)
2
]
0.5
SIF = longitudinal stress intensification factor for inplane moment
SIF = longitudinal stress intensification factor for outplane moment
2 Combined stress: branch connections:
oCB = ((oRP + obB)
2
+ 4oSB
2
)
0.5
ed ELAM
Where:
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 669
oCB = branch combined stress
oRP = circumferential pressure stress
= mP(Di + tM) / 2 tM
obB = nondirectional bending stress
= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFBi)
2
+ Mo SIFBo)
2
]
0.5
oSB = branch torsional stress
= MS(Di + 2td) / 4I
tM = thickness of the reference laminate at the main run
SIFBi = branch stress intensification factor for inplane moment
SIFB = branch stress intensification factor for outplane moment
3 When longitudinal stress is negative (net compressive):
oR  Vfx ox s c ELAMR
Where:
Vfx = Poissons ratio giving strain in longitudinal direction caused by stress in circumferential direction
cR = design strain in circumferential direction
ELAMR = modulus of elasticity in circumferential direction
BS 7159 also dictates the means of calculating flexibility and stress intensification (k and i) factors for bend and tee
components, for use during the flexibility analysis.
670 Technical Discussions
BS 7159 SIF Factors for Bends
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 671
BS 7159 imposes a number of limitations on its use, the most notable being the limitation of a system to a design pressure
of 10 bar, the restriction to the use of designated design laminates, and the limited applicability of the k and i factor
calculations to pipe bends (i.e., mean wall thickness around the intrados must be 1.75 times the nominal thickness or less).
BS 7159 SIF Factors for Tees
This code appears to be more sophisticated, yet easy to use, than any available alternative, so it is recommended here that its
calculation techniques be applied even to FRP systems outside its explicit scope, with the following recommendations:
Pressure stiffening of bends should be based on actual design pressure, rather than allowable design strain.
Design strain should be based on manufacturers test and experience data wherever possible (with consideration for
expected operating conditions).
Fitting k and i factors should be based on manufacturers test or analytic data if available.
The UKOOA Specification is similar in many respects to the BS 7159 Code, except that it simplifies the calculational
requirements in exchange for imposing more limitations and more conservatism on the piping operating conditions.
Rather than explicitly calculating a combined stress, the specification defines an idealized envelope of combinations of axial
and hoop stresses which cause the equivalent stress to reach failure. This curve represents the plot of:
672 Technical Discussions
(ox / oxall)
2
+ (ohoop / ohoopall)
2
 [ox ohoop / (oxall ohoopall)] s 1.0
Where:
oxall = allowable stress, axial
ohoopall = allowable stress, hoop
The Specification conservatively limits the user to that part of the curve falling under the line between oxall (also known as
sa(0:1)) and the intersection point on the curve where ohoop is twice sx(a natural condition for a pipe loaded only with
pressure), as shown in the following figure.
An implicit modification to this requirement is the fact that pressure stresses are given a factor of safety (typically equal to
2/3) while other loads are not. This gives an explicit requirement of
Pdes s f1 f2 f3 LTHP
Where:
Pdes = allowable design pressure
f1 = factor of safety for 97.5% lower confidence limit, usually 0.85
f2 = system factor of safety, usually 0.67
f3 = ratio of residual allowable, after mechanical loads
= 1  (2 oa
b
) / (r f1 LTHS)
oa
b
= axial bending stress due to mechanical loads
r = oaa(0:1) / oa(2:1)
oa(0:1)
b
= long term axial tensile strength in absence of pressure load
oa(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength under only pressure loading
LTHS = long term hydrostatic strength (hoop stress allowable)
LTHP = long term hydrostatic pressure allowable
Note: This has been implemented in the CAESAR II pipe stress analysis software as:
Code Stress Code Allowable
oa
b
(f2 /r) + PDm / (4t)
s (f1 f2 LTHS) / 2.0
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 673
Where:
P = design pressure
D = pipe mean diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
and ifactors for bends are to be taken from the BS 7159 Code, while no such factors are to be used for
tees.
The UKOOA Specification is limited in that shear stresses are ignored in the evaluation process; no consideration is given
to conditions where axial stresses are compressive; and most required calculations are not explicitly detailed.
FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II
Practical Applications
CAESAR II has had the ability to model orthotropic materials such as FRP almost since its inception. It also can specifically
handle the requirements of the BS 7159 Code and the UKOOA Specification.
FRP material parameters corresponding to those of many vendors lines are provided with CAESAR II and may be pre
selected by the user to be the default values whenever FRP piping is used. Other options, as to whether the BS 7159
pressure stiffening requirements should be carried out using design strain or actual strain can be set in CAESAR IIs con
figuration module as well.
FRP Properties Tab  Configuration Setup Dialog
674 Technical Discussions
Special Execution Parameters for Activating the Orthotropic Material Model
Selecting material 20 Plastic (FRP) activates CAESAR IIs orthotropic material model and brings in the appropriate
material parameters from the preselected materials. The orthotropic material model is indicated by the changing of two
fields from their previous isotropic values: Elastic Modulus (C) > Elastic Modulus/axial and Poisson's Ratio >
Ea/Eh*Vh/a. These changes are necessary due to the fact that orthotropic models require more material parameters than
do isotropic. For example, there is no longer a single modulus of elasticity for the material, but now two axial and hoop.
There is no longer a single Poissons ratio, but again two V
h/a
(Poissons ratio relating strain in the axial direction due to
stressinduced strain in the hoop direction) and V
a/h
(Poissons ratio relating strain in the hoop direction due to stress
induced strain in the axial direction). Also, unlike isotropic materials, the shear modulus does not follow the relationship G
= 1 / E (1V), so that value must be explicitly input as well.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 675
Example Orthotropic Parameters Required in Piping Input
In order to minimize input, a few of these parameters can be combined, due to their use in the program. Generally, the only
time that the modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction, or the Poissons ratios are used during flexibility analysis is when
calculating piping elongation due to pressure (note that the modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction is used when
determining certain stress allowables for the BS 7159 code):
d
x
= (o
x
/ E
a
 V
h/a
* o
hoop
/ E
h
) L
Where:
d
x
= extension of piping element due to pressure
o
x
= longitudinal pressure stress in the piping element
E
a
= modulus of elasticity in the axial direction
V
h/a
= Poissons ratio relating strain in the axial direction due to stressinduced strain in the hoop
direction
o
hoop
= hoop pressure stress in the piping element
E
h
= modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction
676 Technical Discussions
L = length of piping element
This equation can be rearranged, to require only a single new parameter, as
d
x
= (o
x
 o
hoop
* (E
a
/ E
h
* V
h/a
)) * L / E
a
Note: In theory, that single parameter, (E
a
/ E
h
* V
h/a
) is identical to V
a/h
.
The shear modulus of the material is required in ordered to develop the stiffness matrix; in CAESAR II, this value, expressed
as a ratio of the axial modulus of elasticity, is brought in from the preselected material, or can be changed on a problem
wise basis using the special execution parameter screen accessed by the Environment menu from the piping spreadsheet
(see figure). This screen also shows the coefficient of thermal expansion (extracted from the vendor file or entered by the
user) for the material, as well as the default laminate type, as defined by the BS 7159 Code:
Type 1 All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with an internal and an external surface tissue reinforced layer.
Type 2 Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with an internal and an external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
Type 3 Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with an internal and an external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
The latter is used during the calculation of flexibility and stress intensification factors for piping bends.
Bend and tee information may be entered easily through use of auxiliary spreadsheets. Bend radius and laminate type may
be changed on a bend by bend basis, as shown in the corresponding figure. BS 7159 fabricated and moulded tee types are
specified by defining CAESAR II tee types 1 and 3 respectively at intersection points. CAESAR II automatically calculates the
appropriate flexibility and stress intensification factors for these fittings as per code requirements.
Required code data may be entered on the Allowables auxiliary spreadsheet; with the program providing fields for CODE
(both number 27 BS 7159 and 28 UKOOA are available). After selection of BS 7159, CAESAR II provides fields for
entry of the following code parameters:
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 677
SH1,2,3 = longitudinal design stress = c
d
E
LAMX
Kn1,2,3 = cyclic reduction factor (as per BS 7159 paragraph 4.3.4)
E
h
/E
a
= ratio of hoop modulus of elasticity to axial modulus of elasticity
K = temperature differential multiplier (as per BS 7159 paragraph 7.2.1)
678 Technical Discussions
After selection of UKOOA, CAESAR II provides fields for entry of the following code parameters:
SH1,2,3 = hoop design stress = f
1
* LTHS
R1,2,3 = ratio r (o
a(0:1)
/ o
a(2:1)
)
f
1
= system factor of safety (defaults to 0.67 if omitted)
K = temperature differential multiplier (same as BS 7159)
These parameters need only be entered a single time, unless they change at some point in the system.
Performing the analysis is even simpler than the system modeling. CAESAR II evaluates the operating parameters and
automatically builds the appropriate load cases; in this case three are built:
Operating (includes pipe and fluid weight, temperature, equipment displacements, pressure, etc.). This case is used to
determine maximum code stress/strain, operational equipment nozzle and restraint loads, hot displacements, etc.
Cold (same as above, except excluding temperature and equipment movements). This case is used to determine cold
equipment nozzle and restraint loads.
Expansion (cyclic stress range between the cold and hot case). This case may be used to evaluate fatigue criteria as per
paragraph 4.3.4 of the BS 7159 Code.
After analyzing the response of the system under these loads, CAESAR II presents the user with a menu of possible output
reports. Reports may be designated by selecting a combination of load case and results type (displacements, restraint loads,
element forces and moments, and stresses). From the stress report, the user can determine at a glance whether the system
passed or failed the stress criteria.
For UKOOA code, the piping is considered to be within allowables when the operating stress falls within the idealized
stress envelope (indicated by the straight line in the following figure).
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 679
Conclusion
A reliable, powerful, yet easy to use, pipe stress analysis program with world wide acceptance is now available for
evaluation of FRP piping systems as per the requirements of the most sophisticated FRP piping codes. This means that
access to the same analytical methods and tools long enjoyed by engineers using steel pipe is available to any potential user
of FRP piping ensuring that design.
References
1 Cross, Wilbur, An Authorized History of the ASME Boiler an Pressure Vessel Code, ASME, 1990
2 Olson, J. and Cramer, R., Pipe Flexibility Analysis Using IBM 705 Computer Program MEC 21, Mare Island Report
27759, 1959
3 Fiberglass Pipe Handbook, Composites Institute of the Society of the Plastics Industry, 1989
4 Hashin, Z., Analysis of Composite Materials a Survey, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Sept. 1983
5 Greaves, G., Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Pipe Design, CibaGeigy Pipe Systems
6 Puck, A. and Schneider, W., On Failure Mechanisms and Failure Criteria of FilamentWound GlassFibre/Resin
Composites, Plastics and Polymers, Feb. 1969
7 Hashin, Z., The Elastic Moduli of Heterogeneous Materials, Journal of Applied Mechanics, March 1962
8 Hashin, Z. and Rosen, B. Walter, The Elastic Moduli of Fibre Reinforced Materials, Journal of Applied Mechanics,
June 1964
9 Whitney, J. M. and Riley, M. B., Elastic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials, AIAA Journal, Sept.
1966
680 Technical Discussions
10 Walpole, L. J., Elastic Behavior of Composite Materials: Theoretical Foundations, Advances in Applied Mechanics,
Volume 21, Academic Press, 1989
11 BS 7159: 1989 British Standard Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP)
Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites
12 UK Offshore Operators Association Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP Piping Offshore
1994
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 681
Code Compliance Considerations
General Notes for All Codes
This section comprises general notes that cover code compliance. The first several pages contain information that applies to
all of the codes. The last pages contain codespecific discussions. The user is urged to review the general notes once,
highlighting those that apply to his specific type of problem. He is also recommended to review the notes for the particular
piping code to be used.
Chapter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 21) of the Technical Reference Manual gives details about the
various parameters that can be used in the CAESAR II setup file. Many of these parameters are discussed from an
application pointofview in the text that follows. Users not familiar with the setup file should see Chapter 2 (see
"Configuration and Environment" on page 21) of the Technical Reference Manual.
An SIF of 2.3 is used for threaded joints for all codes. An SIF of 1.2 is used for double welded slipon flanges for all codes.
An SIF of 1.6 is used for lap joint flanges with B16.9 stub ends for all codes.
The only piping codes that cannot take advantage of the WRC 329 options, or the option to use the ASME NC and ND rules
for reduced intersections, are BS806 and the Swedish Power Method 1. These codes have no provision for using the
effective section modulus, and any extrapolation of the ASME methods into these codes at this time is considered
unwarranted.
The Weld ID on the SIF & TEE Auxiliary field is used in the calculation of the Bonney Forge Sweepolet and Bonney
Forge Insert Weldolet. If the user can be sure that the welds for these fittings will be finished or dressed, then the
specification of the Weld ID will result in lower stress intensification factors.
Bend SIF overrides by the user affect the entire cross section of the bend, and as such cannot be specified for only a single
point on the bend curvature. The users defined SIF should be specified for the bend TO node. CAESAR II will then apply
this SIF, (in place of the codes SIF) over the entire bend curvature, i.e. from weldline to weldline.
The default fiberglassreinforced plastic (FRP) bend and intersection SIF is 2.3. This value is used for all bends and for all
intersections unless otherwise modified by the user. Flexibility factors for FRP bends are 1.0. Users modifying these values
are cautioned that SIFs generated from steel fatigue tests may not be applicable as a basis for SIFs for FRP fittings.
At this time stress intensification factors cannot be less than 1.0. Because original SIF work used girth butt welds as a basis,
some manufacturers are generating SIFs for their fittings that are less than 1.0 implying that the fitting is stronger than a
girth butt weld. CAESAR II does not permit the use of these reduced SIFs at this time.
The REDUCED_INTERSECTION calculations discussed at length in the following text apply whenever d/D < 0.975.
Where (d) is the outside diameter of the branch, and (D) is the outside diameter of the header.
WRC 329 for the codes: B31.3, B31.4, B31.11, and B31.1 (1967) does the following:
1 Include torsional stresses in all stress calculations, (i.e. Sustained and Occasional)
2 Use a torsional SIF of (r/R) io.
3 Compute i(ib) from: 0.6(R/T)**2/3 [1+0.5(r/R)**3](r/rp)
4 For i(ob) use 1.5(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (r/rp), and i(ob)(t/T)>1.5
when (r/R) < 0.9., use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and i(ob)(t/T)>1.0
when (r/R) = 1.0, and use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9
5 For ir use 0.8 (R/T)**2/3 (r/R), and ir > 2.1
682 Technical Discussions
6 If a radius at the junction is provided greater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may be divided by
2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5.
WRC 329/330 for the codes: B31.1, B31.8, ASME III NC & ND, Navy 505, Z183, Z184, and Swedish Method 2, do the
following:
1 For ib, use 1.5(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)>1.5
when (r/R) < 0.9.
use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)>1.0
when (r/R) = 1.0, and
use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9
2 For ir, use 0.8 (R/T)**2/3 (r/R), and ir > 2.1
3 If a radius at the junction is provided greater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may be divided by
2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5.
Bonney Forge Sweepolets tend to be a little more conservative because they are used for fittings in the Nuclear industry.
The Bonney Forge Sweepolet equations can generate SIFs less than one because they are stronger than the girth butt weld
used as the unity basis for the code fitting SIFs. CAESAR II does not permit SIFs of less than 1.0. If a Bonney Forge
Sweepolet SIF is generated that is less than 1.0, 1.0 will be used.
Even though CAESAR II allows the specification of two element intersections, the user cannot specify two SIFs at a single
node and get an increased SIF. For example a socketweld SIF and an intersection SIF cannot be specified at the same point.
For two element joints the largest diameter and the smallest T is used when discrepancies exist between the two adjoining
pipes. When the two element fitting is a socket weld then the largest T is used. These selections are made to generate the
largest SIFs and thus the most conservative stress calculations for under specified fittings.
Note: The mismatch given for girth butt welds is the average mismatch and not the maximum mismatch. Users must
make sure that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied themselves.
If a fillet leg is given in conjunction with a socket weld SIF definition, then both socket weld types result in the same SIF.
The B31.3 sustained case SIF factor in the setup file affects all of the following codes: B31.4, B31.8, B31.11, Navy 505,
Z662, and B31.1 (1967). The default for the B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=1.0.
The calculation for the corroded effective section modulus is made from (pi)(r
2
)te where (r) is the average cross sectional
radius of the noncorroded pipe and (te) is the corroded thickness. The thickness (te) is selected based on the noncorroded
thicknesses of the branch and header, i.e. the lesser of Th and iTb. The resulting value has the corrosion subtracted from it
before the effective section modulus calculation is made.
The Maximum Shear Stress is always calculated with the corroded wall thickness, regardless of the setting of the
ALL_STRESS_CASES_CORRODED flag in the setup file.
If different piping codes are used in one job the code reported at the top of the output stress report will be the code that was
last encountered during model input. SIFs, allowables and code equations are all computed in accordance with the code that
is varying with the input.
The following piping codes do not, by default, include torsion in the sustained or occasional stress calculations:
B31.3 Navy 505
B31.4 Z662
B31.8 B31.1 (1967)
B31.11 GPTC/Z380
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 683
Torsion is not added because these codes instruct the user to add the longitudinal stresses due to weight, pressure and
other sustained loadings. Torsional shear stresses are not longitudinal stresses. The user can request that torsion be added
into the sustained and occasional stress equations by putting the parameter: ADD_TORSION_IN_SL_STRESS=YES in the
setup file. The torsion stress is still however not intensified, as it is in the power piping codes. This lack of intensification is
considered an oversight, and is corrected in WRC 329. The user can implement this fix in his running of any of the above
codes by putting the parameter: USE_WRC330 in the setup file.
Note that the radius given in CAESAR II is always the equivalent closely spaced miter radius. The radius calculation given
for widely spaced miters in the piping codes is only to be used when the user breaks the widely spaced miter bend down into
individual single cut miters as recommended.
B31.1 and the ASME Section III piping codes provide stress intensification factors for reduced branch ends. None of the
other piping codes provide these SIFs. The REDUCED INTERSECTION=<option> parameter in the setup file allows the
user of other piping codes to access these improved SIFs for reduced fittings. Users taking advantage of this option should
review the notes associated with the B31.1 and the ASME Section III codes that follow to make sure that any other
parameters or input associated with the reduced intersection calculations are set as necessary.
When the user requests pressure stiffening for those codes that do not normally provide it, the pressure stiffening is applied
for all bends and for both miter types.
The defaults for the occasional load factor from the setup file used in the evaluation of the allowable stress, is given in the
text that follows for each of the piping codes.
B31.1: The occasional load factor is 1.15.
B31.3: The occasional load factor is 1.33.
B31.4: This is 0.8Sy as defined in the most recent edition of B31.4. OCC does not affect a B31.4 analysis in CAESAR II.
B31.5: The occasional load factor is 1.33.
B31.8: An occasional case is not specifically defined. If the user enters an OCC load case the allowable will default to
1.0 times the sustained allowable stress, i.e. OCC=1.0
B31.11: This is 0.88Sy as defined in the most recent edition of B31.11 OCC does not affect a B31.11 analysis in
CAESAR II.
ASME Section III NC and ND: The default value of OCC is 1.2 so, the occasional stress allowable is 1.8 (1.2 X 1.5) Sh
but not greater than 1.5 Sy. If OCC is set to 1.5 or 2.0, the allowable is set to the minimum of 2.25 Sh/1.8 Sy (Level C)
or 3.0 Sh/2.0Sy (Level D). Note in the latter two cases, Sm should be entered for Sh.
Navy 505: Occasional cases are not addressed but will default to the method used in B31.1, and an OCC value of 1.15
will be used as the default.
Z662: Occasional cases not defined, but if entered by the user the allowable for the case will default to 1.0 times the
sustained allowable.
BS806: The occasional load case is not defined. If entered the allowable stress for the OCC load case will be K Sh, (the
occasional load factor times the sustained allowable). The default for k is 1.0.
Swedish Method 1: OCC is not used. The load cases are not differentiated. The same allowable Sigma(ber)/1.5 is used
for all load cases.
Swedish Method 2: An OCC default of 1.2 as recommended in the Swedish Piping Code is used.
B31.1(1967): OCC default is 1.15.
Stoomwezen: OCC default is 1.2.
RCCM C&D: OCC default is 1.2.
CODETI: OCC default is 1.15.
NORWEGIAN: OCC default is 1.2.
FBDR: OCC default is 1.15
BS 7159: The occasional load case is not defined.
684 Technical Discussions
UKOOA: The occasional load case is not defined.
IGE/TD/12: Occasional stress increases are addressed is Table 4 of the code. The occasional factor in the setup file has
no bearing on this code.
EN13480: The occasional load factor varies from 1.0 to 1.8, depending on the loading. Refer to Section 12.3.3 for
details.
GPTC/Z380: An occasional case is not specifically defined. If the user enters an OCC load case the allowable will
default to 1.0 times the sustained allowable stress, i.e. OCC=1.0
HPGSL: The occasional load factor is 1.33.
JPI: The occasional load factor is 1.33.
The occasional load factor can be changed from the program defaults via the setup file. The value should be entered in
percent. To get an occasional load factor of 1.5, the user would enter 50.0
Intersections are not FULL intersections in CAESAR II whenever the branch outside diameter is less than 0.975 times the
header outside diameter.
When there are multiple piping codes in the same piping job, and a piping code change occurs at an intersection, if the
intersection is completely defined with three pipes framing into the intersection then the piping code used to generate the
SIF equations will be that one associated with the first header pipe framing into the intersection. If the intersection is only
partially defined, then the piping code will be selected from the first pipe framing into the intersection point.
The material, thermal expansion, and modulus of elasticity data are for the B31 piping codes. Users may enter their own
material and thermal expansion properties if desired.
There is a small difference between USE_WRC330 and REDUCED_INTERSECTION =WRC330. The first applies for all
full and reduced intersections that are not welding tees or reinforced tees. The latter applies only for reduced fittings that are
not welding tees or reinforced fabricated tees. A fitting is reduced when d/D is less than 0.975.
The Bonney Forge SIF Data came from the technical flyer: Bonney Forge Stress Intensification Factors Bulletin 789/SI1,
Copyright 1976.
The ASME piping codes primarily combine moments for thermal expansion stresses. When there is any tendency for large
axial forces to exist in the pipe these code equations are not adequate. An example of this is for a buried, or partially buried
pipe. Here the axial stresses can be very high. B31.4 directs the user to compute a longitudinal stress for completely
restrained pipe. CAESAR II allows the user to specify just how much of the pipe is buried. This longitudinal stress is then
added to the stress calculations for thermal and will contribute to a failure prediction that might have otherwise been
ignored. Similar effects can be achieved in CAESAR II by using the axial soil restraint and telling the setup file to include
F/A components in the stress calculations. Users should be aware that for any type of problem, if large axial loads are
developed because of the design, the piping code may not be adequately considering it.
CodeSpecific Notes
B31.1
Pressure stiffening is implemented by default. Users may deactivate pressure stiffening for B31.1 runs by entering the
parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
B31.1 does not by default add F/A into the stress calculation. F/A and the pressure stresses are added to the bending stress
(whether the tensile or compressive component of bending), to produce the largest longitudinal stress component. This is
true for all codes insofar as the addition of axial and pressure terms are concerned. The user can cause CAESAR II to include
the axial force terms into the code stress by inserting the parameter ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The
F/A forces discussed here are structural forces developed in the piping independent of pressure PD/4t forces.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 685
In 1980 B31.1 added a reduced branch stress intensification factor equation to Appendix D. This equation came directly
from ASME Section III. B31.1 continued however to use the effective section modulus calculation for the branch. The
ASME Section III rules clearly stated that the branch section modulus, NOT the effective section modulus should be used
with the new SIF. B31.1s using of the effective section modulus produced unnecessarily high calculated stresses. This error
was corrected in the 1989 version of B31.1. Prior to Version 3.0 CAESAR II users had two options:
Use the pre1980 version of the B31.1 SIF rules.
Use the very conservative, post1980 B31.1 SIF rules.
In version 3.0 (and later) these options also exist, except that the section modulus problem is corrected. For users that wish
to run version 3.0 (and later) just like they ran version 2.2, i.e. without the section modulus correction, they can do so by
putting the parameter: B31.1_REDUCED_Z_FIX=NO in the setup file.
The reduced intersection branch SIFs were not intended for reinforced or welding tees. Conservative results are produced,
but the original researchers did not intend for the SIFs to be used for these fittings. The CAESAR II user can disable the
reduced branch fitting calculations for reinforced or welded tees by putting the parameter
NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_AND_WLT in the setup file. This will produce less conservative results, but can, in some
cases be justified.
B31.1 102.3.2 (c) tells the user to divide the allowable stresses coming from the stress tables in Appendix A by the
applicable weld joint factors listed in Para. 102.4.3.
Stress allowables for B31.1 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh)  Sl ]
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * (Occ)
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Sl = Sustained Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.15)
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept the same in the B31.1 stress calculation.
The B31.1 criteria B length for closely spaced miters is not checked by CAESAR II.
For reducers B31.1 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha*
SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small
end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ 0.5 * (D1D2) / (0.60 * length of the sloped portion of the reducer) ]
Tip: Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an
686 Technical Discussions
estimated slope equal to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the
entered reducer length.
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60 and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 can not exceed 100.
B31.3
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.
Since the B31.3 piping code gives the equation for the expansion stress explicitly, and since that equation does not include
the longitudinal stress due to axial loads in the pipe, CAESAR II does not include the F/A component of the stress in the
expansion stress equation. (The code also says that the user may wish to add in the F/A component where it may be
significant.) Users can change this by placing the parameter: ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The F/A
longitudinal stress component are by default added to the code stress component for all other stress categories.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markls original basis for SIFs.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without undercut. Codes that do differentiate use 1.3 for socket
welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all B31.3 socket welds (unless a fillet weld leg
length is specified).
Stress allowables for B31.3 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh)  Sl ]
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * (Occ)
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Weld Joint Efficiency (Only for pre1980 B31.3)
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Sl = Sustained Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.33)
For B31.3 the flag ALL_STRESS_CASES_CORRODED=NO flag in the setup file returns the corroded stress calculations
to the way they were performed in the 2.2 version of CAESAR II. The corrosion is removed from the sustained and
occasional stress calculations.
See Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual for the setup file parameter B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=<nnn>.
This value can have a considerable impact on the sustained case stress calculations.
Pressure effects on miters are allowed in the B31.3 piping code.
For reducers B31.3 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 687
B31.4
Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users may turn pressure stiffening off by including
the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markls original basis for SIFs.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.
The Allowables for B31.4 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)
Sustained Allowable = (0.75)(0.72)(Sy)
Occasional Allowable = (0.8)(Sy)
Operating Allowable = (0.9)(Sy) if the axial stress is compressive, no code check done if axial
stress tensile
Where:
Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
B31.4 does not use EFF, (found in the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field). The minimum yield stress is all that is required to
compute flexibility stress allowables.
B31.4 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
B31.4 does not include a provision for the liberal allowable. This particular option is not used for B31.4 stress allowable
calculations. The occasional load factor (used in the other piping codes for determining the allowable stress for occasional
load sets) is not used in B31.4, as the allowable stress is expressly given as 0.8 times the minimum yield stress.
CAESAR II assumes that 419.6.4(b) establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress at 90% of Sy; when the net
axial stress is compressive (i.e., when longitudinal pressure stresses can be ignored in underground pipes). The last sentence
in the paragraph establishes that: Beam bending stresses shall be included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the
restrained line which are supported above ground. CAESAR II users have two options for including this axial stress in their
analyses:
1 Include axial friction restraints and include the ADD_F/A parameter into the setup file. Set the fac value to 0.001 to
indicate that the line is buried, so longitudinal pressure stresses are not present, so the hoop stress component must be
considered.
2 Use the fac value to have CAESAR II compute the axiallyrestrained stress and include it during stress calculations.
If a nonzero fac value is entered, the pressure plus axial loads in the pipe are multiplied by (1Fac). This gives a more
realistic estimation of the axial stress in the pipe when the user has included both of the effects above.
Users should note that paragraph 419.6.4(b) requires 1) the reduction of the axial expansion stress by the product of
Poissons ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addiction of the hoop stress to the axial stress. The latter represents
the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive, implying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress
in buried pipe (the pressure loads are transmitted directly to the soil). CAESAR II handles this case in the Operating Load
Case, where the hoop stress is added in and the allowable stress is set to 0.9 Sy whenever the axial stress is compressive. If
fac is set to 0.001, the piping element is considered to be buried, so the longitudinal pressure stress is replaced by the
product of Poissons ratio and the hoop stress, in keeping with the spirit of paragraph 419.6.4(b). fac is automatically set
to 0.001 when B31.4 pipe is sent through CAESAR II's buried pipe modeler. The stress due to axial force will also be
included for these elements.
688 Technical Discussions
The fac variable should probably not be set to 1.0 with B31.4 and thermal expansion cases where the user is going from
one thermal state to another state, i.e. where the case is of the form: DS1DS2, and both DS1 and DS2 contain temperatures.
In this case the thermal expansion used in the restrained pipe calculation comes from the last thermal specified in the load
case definition. In the example above the thermal expansion associated with the DS2 load case.
The base hoop stress on OD flag in the setup file is used by B31.4 when the hoop stress is calculated for the restrained pipe
longitudinal stress calculation. The default is to base the hoop stress calculation on the average diameter, and the equation
PD/2t. In the mechanical stress calculations the hoop stress is based on the inside diameter. (This is the hoop stress that is
printed in the 132 column CAESAR II stress report.)
For reducers B31.4 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0.
B31.4 Chapter IX
Chapter IX presents the offshore requirements of the B31.4 code.
All Stress Intensification Factors, Flexibility Factors, and section moduli are calculated exactly as in the standard B31.4
Code. Stress calculations are made using the uncorroded wall thickness.
Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treated identically (there is no provision for a code check for an
Expansion load case, so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load cases, three stress calculations
are done, each with a different allowable. The stress calculation causing the highest percent of allowable is reported in the
stress report, along with its specific allowable. These stress checks are:
Hoop Stress: S
h
s F
1
S
y
Longitudinal Stress: S
L
 s 0.8 S
y
Equivalent Stress: S
e
s 0.9 S
y
Where:
S
h
= (P
i
P
e
) D / 2t
P
i
= internal pressure
P
e
= external pressure
D = outer diameter
t = wall thickness
F
1
= hoop stress design factor (0.60 or 0.72, see Table A402.3.5(a) of the B31.4 Code)
S
y
= specified minimum yield strength
S
L
= S
a
+ S
b
or S
a
 S
b
, whichever results in greater stress value
S
a
= axial stress (positive tensile, negative compressive)
S
b
= bending stress
S
e
= 2[((S
L
 S
h
)/2)
2
+ S
t
2
]
1/2
S
t
= torsional stress
B31.5
For reducers B31.5 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states the SIF is 1.0.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 689
B31.8
The B31.8 stress requirements have been implemented in CAESAR II in the following manner:
Restrained Pipe (as defined in Section 833.1):
For Straight Pipe:
Max(S
L
, S
C
) < 0.9ST (OPE)
Max(S
L
, S
C
) < 0.9ST (SUS)
S
L
< 0.9ST (OCC)*
and
S
C
< ST (OCC) *
* CAESAR II prints the controlling stress of the two
For All Other Components
S
L
< 0.9ST (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Unrestrained Pipe (as defined in Section 833.1):
S
L
< 0.75ST (SUS, OCC)
S
E
< f[1.25(S
C
+ S
H
) S
L
] (EXP)
Where:
S
L
= S
P
+ S
X
+ S
B
S
P
= 0.3S
Hoop
(for restrained pipe); 0.5S
Hoop
(for unrestrained pipe)
S
X
= R/A
S
B
= M
B
/Z (for straight pipe/bends with SIF = 1.0); M
R
/Z (for other components)
S
C
= Max (S
Hoop
S
L
, sqrt[S
L
2
S
L
S
Hoop
+ S
Hoop
2
])
M
R
= sqrt[(0.75i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (0.75i
o
M
o
)
2
+ M
t
2
]
S
E
= M
E
/Z
M
E
= sqrt[(0.75i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (0.75i
o
M
o
)
2
+ M
t
2
]
S = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
T = Temperature Derating Factor
S
H
= 0.33S
U
T
S
C
= 0.33S
U
S
U
= Specified Minimum Ultimate Tensile Stress
B31.8 (2003 and later) distinguishes between restrained and unrestrained piping for the purposes of stress computations.
When implementing the B31.8 piping code, it is necessary for the user to define which sections of the piping system are
restrained, as per Code Section 833.1. In general, restrained piping is piping in which the soil or supports prevent axial
displacement of flexure at bends. Conversely, unrestrained piping is piping that is free to displace axially or flex at bends.
Additional details are provided in Section 833.1, and users are urged to consult the Code directly. Processing a B31.8
model through CAESAR II's Buried Pipe Processor will designate the buried sections as restrained.
690 Technical Discussions
For restrained pipe, B31.8 specifies that the Operating case stresses should include the thermal axial stress component ST (a
constant stress due to linear thermal expansion) but exclude thermal bending stresses from the S
B
component. Since
CAESAR II cannot afterthefact segregate internal thermal forces and moments from those of other loads, the thermal axial
stresses will actually be calculated and included as part of SX (as opposed to added as a constant), and thermal bending
stresses will actually be conservatively included in S
B
.
Bending stress S
B
is defined differently for straight pipe or largeradius bends than it is for other components. CAESAR II
resolves the ambiguity of exactly what constitutes a largeradius bend by considering any bend having an SIF of 1.0 as
being a largeradius bend.
The OCC occasional load default for B31.8 is 1.111, and is only applied to the allowable for S
C
(combined stress),
calculated only in straight pipes (i.e., the allowable in this case is ST as opposed to 0.9ST). There is no provision for
increasing (or decreasing) this allowable.
In the case of Occasional Stresses in straight pipes, there are potentially two stresses (S
L
and S
C
) to be compared against two
different allowables. CAESAR II prints only one whichever of the two provides the greater ratio of calculated stress vs.
allowable stress. Users can determine which stress is printed by examining the magnitude of the allowable printed.
Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users may turn pressure stiffening off by including
the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications to the Flexibility Factor and Stress Intensification Factor of bends resulting from flanged ends are permitted
by the code.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without undercut. An SIF of 2.1 is used for all B31.8 socket
welds, unless a fillet weld leg length is specified.
Use of reducers is subject to the following limitations: 1) alpha (the reducer cone angle) is limited to 60, and 2) the larger
of D1/SQRT(t1) and D2/SQRT(t2) cannot exceed 100 (where D1/t1 and D2/t2 are the diameters and thicknesses of the
large and small ends, respectively).
B31.8 Chapter VIII
Chapter VIII presents the offshore requirements of the B31.8 code.
All Stress Intensification Factors, Flexibility Factors, and section moduli are calculated exactly as in the standard B31.8
Code. Stress calculations are made using the noncorroded wall thickness for the hoop and longitudinal stresses, and using
the corroded thickness for the combined stress.
Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treated identically (there is no provision for a code check for an
Expansion load case, so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load cases, three stress calculations
are done, with different allowables. The stress calculation causing the highest percent of allowable is reported in the stress
report, along with its specific allowable. These stress checks are:
Hoop Stress: S
h
s F
1
S T
Longitudinal Stress: S
L
 s 0.8 S
Equivalent Stress: S
e
s 0.9 S
Where:
S
h
= (P
i
P
e
) D / 2t
P
i
= internal pressure
P
e
= external pressure
D = outer diameter
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 691
t = wall thickness
F
1
= hoop stress design factor (0.50 or 0.72, see Table A842.22 of the B31.8 Code)
S = specified minimum yield strength
T = temperature derating factor (see Table 841.116A of the B31.8 Code)
Note: The product of S and T (i.e., the yield stress at operating temperature) is required in the SH field of the CAESAR II
input
S
L
= maximum longitudinal stress (positive tensile, negative compressive)
S
e
= 2[((S
L
 S
h
)/2)
2
+ S
s
2
]
1/2
S
s
= torsional stress
B31.11
Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users may turn pressure stiffening off by including
the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markls original basis for SIFs.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.
The Allowables for B31.11 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)
Sustained Allowable = (0.75)(0.72)(Sy)
Occasional Allowable = (0.88)(Sy)
Operating Allowable = (0.9)(Sy) if the axial stress is compressive, no code
check done if the axial stress is tensile
Where:
Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
B31.11 does not use EFF, (found in the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field). The minimum yield stress is all that is required
to compute flexibility stress allowables.
B31.11 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
B31.11 does not include a provision for the liberal allowable. This particular option is not used for B31.11 stress allowable
calculations. The occasional load factor (used in the other piping codes for determining the allowable stress for occasional
load sets) is not used in B31.11, as the allowable stress is expressly given as 0.88 times the minimum yield stress.
CAESAR II assumes that 1119.6.4(b) establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress at 90% of Sy; when the net
axial stress is compressive (i.e., when longitudinal pressure stresses can be ignored in underground pipes). The last sentence
in the paragraph establishes that: Beam bending stresses shall be included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the
restrained line which are supported above ground. CAESAR II users have two options for including this axial stress in their
analyses:
1 Include axial friction restraints and include the ADD_F/A parameter into the setup file. Set the fac value to 0.001 to
indicate that the line is buried, so longitudinal pressure stresses are not present, so the hoop stress component must be
considered.
692 Technical Discussions
2 Use the fac value to have CAESAR II compute the axiallyrestrained stress and include it during stress calculations.
If a nonzero fac value is entered, the pressure plus axial loads in the pipe are multiplied by (1Fac). This gives a more
realistic estimation of the axial stress in the pipe when the user has included both of the effects above.
Users should note that paragraph 1119.6.4(b) requires 1) the reduction of the axial expansion stress by the product of
Poissons ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addition of the hoop stress to the axial stress. The latter represents
the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive, implying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress
in buried pipe (the pressure loads are transmitted directly to the soil). CAESAR II handles this case in the Operating Load
Case, where the hoop stress is added in and the allowable stress is set to 0.9 Sy whenever the axial stress is compressive. If
fac is set to 0.001, the piping element is considered to be buried, so the longitudinal pressure stress is replaced by the
product of Poissons ratio and the hoop stress, in keeping with the spirit of paragraph 1119.6.4(b). fac is automatically set
to 0.001 when B31.11 pipe is sent through CAESAR II's buried pipe modeler. The stress due to axial force will also be
included for these elements.
The fac variable should probably not be set to 1.0 with B31.11 and thermal expansion cases where the user is going from
one thermal state to another state, i.e. where the case is of the form: DS1DS2, and both DS1 and DS2 contain temperatures.
In this case the thermal expansion used in the restrained pipe calculation comes from the last thermal specified in the load
case definition. In the example above the thermal expansion associated with the DS2 load case.
The base hoop stress on OD flag in the setup file is used by B31.11 when the hoop stress is calculated for the restrained pipe
longitudinal stress calculation. The default is to base the hoop stress calculation on the average diameter, and the equation
PD/2t. In the mechanical stress calculations the hoop stress is based on the inside diameter. (This is the hoop stress that is
printed in the 132 column CAESAR II stress report.)
For reducers B31.11 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that the SIF is 1.0.
ASME III Subsections NC and ND
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends in the analysis by
including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the configuration file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
The minimum SIF for reinforced and unreinforced fabricated tees is 2.1.
B1 and B2 are calculated according to ASME NC and ND. Equations used are shown in the Help screens for B1 and B2.
If in the odd situation where the user is using the ASME III piping code, and is running dynamics, and is calling one of the
dynamic case expansions, and has the liberal allowable flag turned on, the liberal allowable request will be ignored, and the
difference between Sh and Sl will not be added to the expansion allowable. This is more of a programming decision than an
interpretation of the piping code or a recommendation for doing dynamic analysis.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors are the same for the ASME Section III piping codes.
When using USE_WRC329 with ASME NC or ND, for all intersections that are not welding tees or reinforced fabricated
tees, the approximate section modulus is used for the stress calculations, i.e. pi*r
2
*t. This includes all reduced intersections
and all d/D ratios.
Users that DO NOT wish to use the branch stress intensification factors found in Appendix D of the Code for welding and
reinforced reducing tees, should put the flag: NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_AND_WLT in the setup file.
The allowables for ASME III NC and ND are computed from
Expansion Allowable = f( 1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (ShSl)
Sustained Allowable = 1.5Sh (If not at an intersection)
Occasional Allowable = 1.8Sh not greater than 1.5Sy (If OCC=1.2); 2.25Sh not greater than
1.8Sy (If OCC=1.5); 3.0Sh not greater than 2.0Sy (If OCC=2.0)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 693
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Sc = Cold Allowable
Sh = Hot Allowable
Sl = Sustained stress from PD/4t+0.75iMb.
Sy = Material Yield Stress
OCC = Occasional factor from the CAESAR II configuration file
For two pipe intersections, i.e. butt welds, socket welds, etc. B1 and B2 factors are 1.0. If the ratio of the average branch to
average run radius is less than 0.5 then the reduced intersection rules are applied to the B1 and B2 calculations regardless of
the intersection type. If the reduced intersection rules do not apply then the rules for butt welded fittings are used, i.e.
B2b = 0.4 * (R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0,
B2r = 0.5 * (R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0.
Users can always modify the B1 and B2 values for any node in the SIF&TEE Auxiliary field. B1 and B2 values modified
on an auxiliary field only apply for that element, regardless of whether the node is an intersection or not. When r/R < 0.5 the
following equations are used for B1 and B2:
B2b = 0.50 C2b but not < 1.0,
B2r = 0.75 C2r but not < 1.0,
C2b = 3(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (t/T)(r/rp), but not < 1.5
C2r = 1.15(r/t)**1/4 but not < 1.5.
WRC329 does result in smaller branch SIFs than ASME NC and ND, and the same run SIFs. The branch SIFs are smaller
by a factor of 2. This is when d/D<0.5 and WRC 329 corrects the Mob inconsistency when d/D is between 0.5 and 1. Thus
in the lower ranges of d/D ratios WRC 329 is less conservative than the present codes and in the higher ranges WRC 329 is
more conservative than the present codes.
The Pvar value in the allowable stress spreadsheet is for the DIFFERENCE between the operating pressure and Pmax to be
used in eq 11. This is because of the way the occasional stresses are formed in CAESAR II, i.e. the direct addition of two
stress components. So we are computing the sustained stress (including pressure) and adding it to the occasional stress,
including the stress difference between the operating pressure and the peak pressure that is to be used in the ASME
occasional stress equation 11.
The equations 10 or 11 are satisfied by using as the allowable for the iMc/Z stress as the maximum of either f(1.25Sc +
0.25Sh) or f(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (ShSl) where Sl is the sustained stress as defined by equation 11 as PDo/4tn+0.75iMa/Z.
The CAESAR II approach taken for ASME NC and ND for moment summations at intersections to satisfy equations 8 and 9
is the same as for equations 10 and 11, i.e. the SRSS of the moments at each end of the pipe framing into the intersection is
found. The cumulative moment summation rules for a single intersection as per NB 3683.1 are not adhered to. In addition
the effective section modulus rules of NC and ND are used for all intersection stress calculations, i.e. for equations 8 and 9.
(The NB subsection is used to get the values for B1 and B2 only, and to compute the local flexibility if requested) Because
of this approach in CAESAR II, there is no allowable calculated for intersection points and sustained or occasional loads.
The sustained case SIF factor is not used in the ASME class 2 or 3 calculations.
For reducers NC states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
694 Technical Discussions
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small
end. Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ 0.5 * (D1D2) / (0.60 * length of the sloped portion of reducer) ]
Tip: Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an
estimated slope equal to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the
entered reducer length.
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60 . The larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100.
B1=.5 if alpha s 30 , 1.0 if 30 < alpha s 60 B2 = 1.0.
For reducers ND states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha*
SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small
end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ 0.5 * (D1D2) / (0.60 * length of the sloped portion of the reducer) ]
Tip: Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an
estimated slope equal to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the
entered reducer length.
Note: There is an error in the code, the code states note 12 however, they meant note 14. Alpha cannot exceed 60 . The
larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100.
B1=.5 if alpha s 30 , 1.0 if 30 < alpha s 60 B2 = 1.0.
CANADIAN Z662
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends by including the
parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
There is no limit in Z662 for the beneficial effect of the pad on an intersection. Most codes limit the pad thickness to 1.5
times the header thickness. For Z662 CAESAR II will not limit the pad thickness.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markls original basis for SIFs.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are the same.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without undercut. Codes that do differentiate use 1.3 for socket
welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all Z662 socket welds (unless a fillet weld leg
length is specified). This code has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 695
The allowable stresses are computed from
Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)(T)
Sustained Allowable = (Sy)(Fac)(T)(L)
Occasional Allowable = (Sy)(Fac)(T)(Occ)(L)
Operating Allowable = 0.9(Sy)(T) If pipe is buried and axial stress is compressive
= (Sy)(T) If pipe is not buried and axial stress is compressive
Where:
Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
Fac = Construction Design Factor
T = Temperature Derating Factor
Eff = Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (=1.0)
L = Location Factor
CAESAR II assumes that Section 4.6.2 of the Z662 code establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress of 0.9 x
S x T whenever the net axial stress is compressive in the absence of bending stress, and an allowable operating stress of S x
T when the net axial stress is compressive in the presence of bending stress.
Users should note that Section 4.6.2 requires 1) the reduction of the axial expansion stress by the product of Poissons Ratio
and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addition of the hoop stress to the axial stress. The latter represents the calculation of
stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive, implying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the
longitudinal pressure thrust loads are transmitted directly to the soil).
CAESAR II handles these requirements, in the OPERATING load case, in the following manner:
1 If FAC is set to 1.0, the implication is that the piping system is fully restrained (in the axial direction) as described in
Section 4.6.2.1, and the operating stress is calculated as:
Sh + E a (T2  T1)  v Sh < 0.9 S x T
2 If FAC is set to 0.001, the implication is that the piping system is buried, but the soil supports are modeled (rather than
just assumed to be fully rigid). This setting removes the longitudinal pressure stress from the equation (as described
above), takes bending stresses into consideration, as required by Section 4.6.2.2.1. In this case, the operating stress is
calculated as:
Sh +Fax/A + Sb  v Sh < S x T
3 If FAC is set to 0.0, the implication is that the piping system is either not restrained, or is a freely spanning or above
ground portion of a restrained line, as described in Section 4.6.2.2.1. In this case, the longitudinal pressure stress is
restored, so this formula only comes into effect if the net axial stress (including pressure) is compressive, in which case
the operating stress is calculated as:
Sh +Slp + Fax/A + Sb < S x T
4 For those elements for which the net axial stress is longitudinal, no operating code stress check is done.
5 Users should note that CAESAR II does not check for buckling, as required by Section 4.6.2.2.2.
For reducers Z662 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0 and the SIF is 1.0.
696 Technical Discussions
NAVY 505
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends in the analysis by
including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markls original basis for SIFs.
Navy 505 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are the same.
Navy 505 has no provision for a liberal allowable, i.e. adding the difference between Sh and Sl to the allowed expansion
stress range. This flag in the control parameter spreadsheet has no affect on 505 runs.
Navy 505 does use Eff in computing the cold and the hot allowable. The use of this parameter is subject to some speculation
however.
Navy 505 has no specific allowable for occasional loads. An occasional load factor, similar to B31.1s will be used, and the
occasional allowable calculated from kSh.
The allowable stresses for Navy 505 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f/Eff(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh)
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * Occ
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Joint Efficiency (Not explicitly in the Code)
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.15)
The B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR can be used for 505 to multiply the stress intensification factors for sustained and
occasional loads to be more in line with the current B31.1 practice.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 697
BS806
For BS806 the maximum hot stress case is considered to be the operating load case. Operating load case allowables are only
given as per BS806 when the creep rupture strength governs the stress range allowable. See BS806 sect 4.11.2.
BS806 SIFs printed are fti and fto for bends, and Bi and Bo for intersections.
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends by including the
parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications due to flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bend types. This includes closely and widely spaced
mitered bends.
There is no limit in BS806 to the beneficial effect of the pad on an intersection. Most codes limit the pad thickness to 1.5
times the header thickness. For BS806, CAESAR II will not limit the pad thickness.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markls original basis for SIFs.
Important When there is more than one thermal case to evaluate, the following note should be read carefully
concerning CAESAR II's application of BS806.
Note: Re: BS806 4.11.3.1 paragraph 2, for sectionalized systems: At this time CAESAR II only makes the moment
summation on a load case by load case basis, and does not take the largest moments for an axis for any combination of load
cases. The CAESAR II method was set up to allow the user to make, and combine the effects of each of the load transients
that the piping system undergoes. This is, for the most part the method used in the B31/ASME piping codes. The BS806
method will be conservative in that it uses what is basically a shakedown approach and computes a single worst case
moment difference. The CAESAR II approach still satisfies the shakedown theory, but computes the moment range for each
different load traversed. The BS806 method of combining the maximum moment range will be more conservative. The
BS806 approach also eliminates the need to know where on the pipe the stress is the highest. In reference to the moment
tables in Appendix F, CAESAR II users can get the moment difference between any two load cases, but not the maximum
moment difference for any of the three moment axes as requested by the sectionalized piping rules. In satisfying 4.11.3.1(a)
CAESAR II uses the moment difference between the cold and the hot case to compute the stress.
Only a single modulus of elasticity can be entered for a single element for each job. Different elements can have different
moduli of elasticity, but that modulus cannot be varied between load cases in the same run, i.e. cold and hot moduli of
elasticity cannot be used in the same run at this time.
For BS806 in 4.11.5.2 the value of n is always taken as 1.0., i.e. all branches are of the noninteracting type. See 4.11.4.2
for the definition of n for interacting branches (n is defined in the fourth paragraph of 4.11.4.2).
698 Technical Discussions
The CAESAR II equation modeling of the BS806 SIF curves for bends is shown in the following plots.
The BS 806 allowable stresses are calculated as follows:
Expansion Allowable = lesser of (H)(Sc)+(H)(Sh) <or> (H)(Sc)+F
Sustained Allowable = Sy
Occasional Allowable = (Sy)(Occ)
Operating Allowable = S avg rupture at design temperature
Where:
H = Multiplication Factor (0.9 or 1.0 from CAESAR II)
Sc = 0.2% proof stress at room temperature
Sh = 0.2% proof stress at design temperature
F = Mean stress to failure in design life at design temperature.
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.0)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 699
The pressure calculation at the intersections is made as required in BS806 4.8.5.1 Eq. (17). The pressure stress as per 17 is
computed and then combined with the bending and torsional moments at each of the intersection ends 1, 2 and 3
respectively. The m factor is computed as required with a value of n=1, i.e. for noninteracting intersections.
BS806 does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations.
Swedish Method 1 and 2
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Swedish Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends in the
analysis by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications due to flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bends providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
Swedish Method 1 cannot take advantage of the WRC329 recommendations. WRC 329, if requested is ignored.
Swedish Method 1 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept the same.
Swedish Code item 9 is dealt with as a US tapered transition. Also items 10 and 11 in the Swedish table 9:2 correspond to
items 8 and 9 in the CAESAR II nomenclature.
The Allowable Stress for Method 1 is calculated from:
Sber = lesser of Sh <or> F
Allowable = (Fac)(Sber) / 1.5
Where:
Sh = Yield stress at temperature
F = Creep rupture stress at temperature
Fac = Usually 1.5, for prestressed pipe 1.35.
The Allowable Stress for Method 2 is calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f ( 1.17S1 + 0.17S2 )
Sustained Allowable = Sh
Occasional Allowable = Sh * Occ
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
S1 = lesser of Sc <or> 0.267Sy
S2 = lesser of Sh <or> 0.367Sy
Sc = Allowable stress at room temperature (Stn2)
Sh = Allowable stress at design temperature (Stn1)
Sy = Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.2)
6100 Technical Discussions
If the weld is ground flush inside and out then the SIF of a girth butt weld can be taken to be 1.0. A weld ID = 1, informs
CAESAR II that the weld is finished and ground flush, and will result in a girth butt weld SIF of 1.0.
Swedish methods 1 and 2 Beta in the code is entered in the Pvar field on the Allowable Stress Auxiliary screen. Pvar is
entered in percent, i.e. 10.0 for ten percent. The default if no value is entered is 10 percent.
Limits on the reasonable Betas that users may enter for the Swedish piping code is 0.1 to 25%. Anything entered less than
0.1 will be taken to be 10% and anything entered greater than 25% will be taken to be 25%. If no value is entered then beta
will default to 10%. Note that 10% is entered in the Pmax field as 10.0. This applies equally for Swedish Method 1 and
Method 2.
The USE_PDo/4t line for the setup file causes the Swedish method 1 code compliance to use the thin walled equations as
given in the codes for stress calculations.
Users of Swedish Method 1 should note that implied in the CAESAR II allowable calculation is the assumption that the
SIGMA(tn) multiplier is 1.5 for piping that is not prestressed. Users of prestressed pipe (i.e. cold sprung) should change
Fac on the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field to be 1.35 as directed in the Swedish code.
Note: The corroded section modulus is used for all stress calculations as per the definition of Di in the Swedish code.
The default occasional load factor for Swedish Method 2 is 1.2.
The Swedish piping codes allow the pad thickness on an intersection to reduce stresses up to pad thickness of 2.5 times the
header wall thickness. This is greater than most codes value of 1.5 times the header wall thickness.
For reducers the Swedish piping codes states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small
end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ 0.5 * (D1D2) / (0.60 * length of sloped portion of the reducer) ]
Tip: Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an
estimated slope equal to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the
entered reducer length.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 6101
B31.1 (1967)
The 1967 B31.1 piping code uses i
i
=i
o
for full sized intersections for both the header and the branch, and for reduced
intersections uses i
i
=0.75i
o
+ 0.25 for both the header and the branch.
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default. Users may activate pressure stiffening for B31.1 (1967) runs by entering the
parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bends providing the bend is not a widely spaced
miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markls original basis for SIFs.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without undercut. Codes that do differentiate use 1.3 for socket
welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all socket welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is
specified).
B31.1 (1967) allowable stresses are computed from:
Expansion Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh)  Sl ]
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * Occ
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Sl = Sustained Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.15)
Stoomwezen
SC = the yield stress at room temperature, referred to as Re in the code.
SH1 = the yield stress at design temperature, referred to as Re (um) in the code.
SH2 = not used
SH3 = not used
FN = the average creep stress to produce one percent set, referred to as Rrg in the code. F2
is the average creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmg in the code. F3 is
the minimum creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmmin in the code.
EFF = the cyclic reduction factor, referred to as Cf in the code.
SY = the tensile strength at room temperature, referred to as Rm in the code.
FAC = a constant whose value is either 0.44 or 0.5. Refer to Stoomwezen Section 5.2 for
details.
PVAR = the Cm coefficient in the code whose value is usually 1.0.
Stoomwezen does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations.
6102 Technical Discussions
RCCM Subsection C and D
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends in the analysis by
including the parameter.
USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the configuration file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter.
Inplane and outofplane stress intensification factors are the same for these piping codes.
Users who do not wish to use the stress intensification factor for branch connections found in Figure C3680.1 of the code
for welding and reinforced reduced tees, should set NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_ AND_WLT=YES in the
configuration file.
The allowables for RCCM C and D are computed from:
Expansion Allowable = F (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh)+(Sh  SSl)
Sustained Allowable = Sh
Occasional Allowable = OCC + Sh (Defaults to 1.2, Level B)
(Use OCC = 1.8 for Level C)
(Use OCC = 2.4 for Level D)
Where:
F = Cyclic reduction factor
Sc = Cold allowable
Sh = Hot allowable
S
sl
= Sustained stress (PD/4t + 0.75i M
b
/Z)
OCC = Occasional factor from the CAESAR II configuration file)
The Pvar value in the allowable stress spreadsheet is for the DIFFERENCE between the design pressure and Pmax to be
used in equation 10.
Equations 7 or 8 are satisfied by using as the allowable for the i M
c
/Z stress the maximum of either F (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) or F
(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (Sh  S
sl
) where S
sl
is the sustained stress as defined by equation 6. For reducers RCCM states that the
Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small
end. Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ 0.5 * (D1D2) / (0.60 * length of sloped portion of reducer) ]
Tip: Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an
estimated slope equal to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the
entered reducer length.
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60 and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 6103
CODETI
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bends, including widely spaced miters.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors of intersections are kept separate and unique.
Since CODETI gives the equation for the expansion stress explicitly, and since that equation does not include the
longitudinal stress due to axial loads in the pipe, CAESAR II does not include the F/A component of the stress in the
expansion stress equation. Users can change this by setting ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS=YES to the configuration file. The F/A
longitudinal stress component are by default added to the code stress component for all other stress categories.
Stress allowables for CODETI are calculated from
Expansion Allowable = F [1.25 (Sc + Sh)]  Sl
Sustained Allowable = Sh
Occasional Allowable = OCC x Sh
Where:
F = Cyclic reduction factor
Sc = Cold allowable stress
Sh = Hot allowable stress
Sl = Sustained stress
OCC = Occasional load factor from configuration (defaults to 1.15)
Pressure stiffening of bends is automatically included as directed by the code. Users may deactivate it by setting the
parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the configuration file.
Flexibility coefficients and stress intensification factors are phased in for bends with an included angle between 15 and 45.
Their value is 1.0 for smaller than 15 bends.
The stress intensification factor of fabricated tees having an angle of incidence other than 90 are increased by dividing
them by (sin a)
3/2
.
Recommended occasional load factors are 1.15, 1.2, and 1.3, as per Code Table C3.3.
CODETI requires that when the design temperature is such that the creep characteristics are determinant, and if a section of
the piping presents locally weaker characteristics, the sum of the primary and secondary stresses must not exceed the value
F
F
(from Section C1.4.3). This requirement has not been implemented in CAESAR II and has been left to the user to verify.
For reducers CODETI states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0 and the SIF is 1.0.
Norwegian (TBK 56)
Pressure stiffening of bends is required for flexibility factors only and is done that way, by default. Users may deactivate
pressure stiffening completely by setting USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the configuration file. Pressure stiffening
may be activated for stress intensification factors as well by setting USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES.
The Norwegian Code does not by default add F/A into the stress calculation. The user can cause CAESAR II to include the
axial force term into the code stress by setting ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS=YES in the configuration file.
The code uses a circumferential weld strength factor (Z) when calculating longitudinal pressure stress. This value is entered
as EFF.
6104 Technical Discussions
The cyclic reduction factor should be calculated as F = (7000/Ne)
0.2
(where Ne is the number of anticipated cycles), and
may be as high as 2.34, but shall not be greater than 1.0 when Rm governs the expansion stress allowable.
Inplane and outofplane stress intensification factors for bends and intersections are kept the same in the stress calculation.
Stress allowables for the Norwegian Code are
Expansion allowable = Sr + F2  SSUS
Sustained allowable = F2
Occasional allowable = Occ x F2
Where:
Sr = Minimum of 1.25F
1
+ 0.25F
2
; Fr x Rs  F
2
; or Fr (1.25 R
1
+ 0.25 R
2
) (The latter for higher
temperatures; above 425C for austenitic stainless steel, or above 370C for other materials)
F
2
= Hot allowable stress (entered in Sh)
OCC = Occasional load factor from the configuration file (defaults to 1.2)
S
SUS
= Sustained stress
F
1
= Allowable stress at ambient (entered in Sc)
Fr = Cyclic reduction factor
Rs = Permissible extent of stress for 7000 cycles (from Code Table 10.2)
R
1
= Smaller of F
1
and 0.267 R
M
R
2
= Smaller of F
2
and 0.367 R
M
Rm = Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature
Stress intensification factors for fitting types 6 (branch with raised edge radius), 7 (branch on locally thickened pipe), 13
(conical reducer with knuckles), and 14 (reducer without knuckles) have not been implemented in CAESAR II and are the
responsibility of the user to enter manually.
The Norwegian code offers an alternative stress analysis method in Appendix D. CAESAR II does not implement that
method.
For reducers the Norwegian code states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: