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Philo VI (Loeb)

Philo VI (Loeb)

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VI: Abraham; Joseph; Moses.
VI: Abraham; Joseph; Moses.

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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D.
EDITED BY
G. P. GOOLD, PH.D.
FORMER EDITORS
t Τ . E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. t E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D.
t W. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D. f L. A. POST, L.H.D.
Ε . H. WARMI NGTON, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC.
PHILO
VI
289
PHILO
WI TH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
F. H. COLSON, M. A.
LATE FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAtfiiiUDGB
IN TEN VOLUMES
(AND TWO SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUMES)
VI
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS
H A R V A R D UNI V E RS I T Y PRESS
LONDON
WI L L I AM HE I NE MANN LTD
MCMLXXXIV
American I SBN 0-674-99319-5
British I SBN 0 434 99289 5
First printed 1935
reprinted 1950, 1959, 1966, 1984
Printed in Great Britain
CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI
PAOB
PREFACE vii
GENERAL INTRODUCTION ix
LIST OF PHILO'S WORKS xix
ON ABRAHAM ( DE ABRAHAMO)—
Introduction 2
Text and Translation . . . . 4
ON JOSEPH ( DE IOSEPHO)—
Introduction , . 138
Text and Translation 140
MOSES I. AND II. (DE VITA MOSIS)—
Introduction 274
Text and Translation 276
APPENDICES—
I. To De Abrahamo 597
II. To De Iosepho 600
III. To De Vita Mosis, i. . 603
IV. To De Vita Mosis, ii 605
V. Supplement to Textual Footnotes . 611
ν
PREFACE TO VOLUME VI
MR. WHITAKER left no work of any kind bearing on
the contents of this volume, and it therefore appears
in my name only.
The great difference of subject matter from the
five previous volumes has made the long detailed
analytical introductions less necessary and where the
narrative runs on continuously for a considerable
length almost useless. I have accordingly retained
them only in a very modified form. I have continued
to divide the annotation into footnotes which seemed
needed for the comprehension of the passages and
appendix notes mainly for illustration, but both foot-
notes and appendix are considerably diminished.
One point perhaps requires apology or at least
justification. What appears here as the Second Book
of the Life of Moses was before the publication of
Cohn's edition divided into two, a Second Book of
twelve Chapters, and a Third Book of thirty-nine.
Cohn who has demonstrated the erroneousness of
this division,
0
takes the middle course of numbering
the Chapters as of two books, but the sections as of one.
Since Cohn originated the arrangement by sections
this was probably the wiser course. But now that
citation by sections is superseding the old citation by
See note on p. 274.
vii
PREFACE
chapters this difference of arrangement between sec-
tions and chapters seemed to me confusing and I have
accordingly numbered the chapters continuously from
1 to 50; and therefore in tracing a reference to a par-
ticular chapter of De Vita Mosis, iii. my readers will
have to subtract twelve. I hope any inconvenience
caused by this will be diminished by the fact that
most, if not all, references to Philo in earlier writers
cite not only the chapters of a treatise but the
Mangey pages, which of course remain unchanged.
I may add that Dr. Rouse's help, which has been
generously given throughout, has been particularly
useful in this volume.
F. H. C.
April 1935.
viii
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
IN this volume we enter
a
upon the second main divi-
sion of Philo's works. The preceding five volumes
have been occupied with what is usually called the
commentary or allegorical commentary. We now
pass on to his Exposition of the Laws to which the
biographical treatises in this volume serve as an in-
troduction. Philo starts with the assumption that
the Pentateuch as a whole is a law-book written by
the lawgiver himself. But this law-book obviously
opens and continues with a large amount of material
which is not, strictly speaking, legislative butnarrative.
Hence the theory is developed that Moses began with
describing the foundation of the world-commonwealth
or cosmopolis which was to be governed by the laws,
and followed it by describing the lives of those who
had observed those laws while still unwritten and
were therefore themselves " living laws," as well as
α
Or perhaps 1 shall rather say " re-enter," as De Abr.
assumes that the De Opificio is the opening book of the
" Exposition." And so the German translators begin with
the De Op. and proceed at once to De Abr. In this transla-
tion we have followed the traditional arrangement, which is
also that adopted by Cohn and Wendland, not perhaps with-
out justification. It must be noted that if De Op. begins the
Exposition, it serves the same purpose for the Commentary
which begins with Gen. ii. 1, and seems to assume that the
story of Creation has been adequately dealt with.
ix
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
the rewards which obedience, and the punishments
which disobedience, in the past had incurred. He
has already in the De Opificio expounded Moses* story
of the cosmogony. In the four treatises contained
in this volume and two others which have not been
Ε
reserved he deals with the rest of what he calls the
istorical part of the legislation.
The general plan of the first three of these six
treatises, namely the extant Abraham and the lost
Isaac and Jacob, was to shew that Moses set before
us the history of the soul in two triads. The first
triad, Enos, Enoch and Noah, represent respectively
Hope, Repentance or Improvement, and Justice.
These three are the imperfectly wise, for though
Justice is the Queen of virtues and indeed Noah is
called perfect, he is only perfect in his generation—
that is, relatively only—and therefore falls below the
second triad of the truly wise. This triad, Abraham,
Isaac and Jacob, represent respectively Wisdom or
Virtue as acquired by teaching, nature and practice.
The first triad is disposed of in §§ 7-47 of De Abrahamo;
the second forms the subject of the rest of that
treatise, and no doubt of the two that have been lost.
The formula Nature (natural ability), Teaching,
Practice as covering the necessary requirements for
education is a commonplace in ancient scholastic
literature. Philo is the first, so far as I know, to
apply it to spiritual life, and we have met with this
application frequently in the Allegorical Com-
mentary.* But though it is one of his leading ideas,
he takes little pains to show how it fits the three great
Patriarchs. The chequered career of Jacob, " long
a
Cf. De Sac. 5 f., De Cong. 35 f., De Mut. 12 and note, De
Som. i. 160, 167, 173.
χ
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
trained in the athletics of adversity," qualifies him
no doubt for the name of the Practiser so regularly
applied to him, but it is difficult to see how Abraham
pre-eminently represents wisdom acquired by teach-
ing. True, he receives and obeys the Divine instruc-
tions, but so do Isaac and Jacob, though perhaps in a
lesser degree, and Isaac's name of the Self-Taught
does not exclude discipleship to God. What, if any-
thing, Philo found in the life of Isaac to justify this
epithet applied to him almost as often as Practiser
is to Jacob he never tells us.
b
I imagine that the
idea rests chiefly on the meaning of the name. Isaac
is " laughter " and therefore "joy," and joy is the
result, or as he calls it, the reward when the mind
finds what it seeks instinctively and without labour.
0
The De Abrahamo after the first 47 sections gives the
main incidents of Abraham's life, not in chronological
order, but to illustrate his piety, hospitality, tact and
kindness, courage and self-control. In every case
except the last, which describes Abraham's resigna-
tion at the death of Sarah, the narrative is followed
by an allegorical interpretation. The general prin-
ciples of these allegories is much the same as in the
Commentary, but the method is in one respect very
different. No knowledge of the Pentateuch beyond
the passage under discussion , is supposed to be
possessed by the reader, and consequently there is
• De Ios. 26.
b
Though Stanley discovered in Isaac a gentleness and
meditativeness which distinguishes him from the other two.
See, for " the gentle Isaac," Jewish Church, i. p. 32.
c
See, particularly De Praemiis 50, where also faith is said
to be the " reward " of the soul which learns by teaching,
since instruction requires the readiness of the instructed to
believe. This passage perhaps gives us the best clue to the
meaning which Philo attaches to the formula.
xi
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
none of the rambling from text to text or of the
insetting in the main allegory of minor allegories
suggested by casual phrases, which constitutes the
most striking characteristic and the chief difficulty of
the other set of treatises.
The De Iosepho is something of an excrescence in
the scheme. The qualities of the ideal "politician "
or " statesman " might serve as an effective supple-
ment to those of the contemplative and philosophical
life, but they do not bear much relation to the three
types of Nature, Teaching and Practice, and when
Philo in the De Praemiis
a
gives a sort of recapitu-
latory survey of the historical part of the law-book,
while Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Moses are all dis-
cussed again, there is no word of Joseph. I should
imagine that he felt, what of course is true, that in
the Joseph chapters of Genesis he had a fine dramatic
story which could not be without undue compression
worked into the life of Jacob, a story rich in incidents
which offer themselves for epic narrative, and in
situations which gave full scope for the rhetorical
exhibitions in which his age delighted. If in view of
contemporary .misgovernment he felt a pleasure in
showing how justly Egypt had once been governed
by a Jew, the feeling was only natural.
The treatment of the life of Joseph in the De Iosepho
makes a startling contrast to the persistent deprecia-
tion to which his character has been subjected through-
out the Allegorical Commentary. There he is the man
wise in his own conceit,
6
the philosopher of statecraft
rather than truth,
0
the honourer of spurious goods,
d
whose study is of the body and vain imaginations,
6
° §§ 22-56.
6
Leg. All. iii. 179.
β
Quod Bet. 7 * De Sob. 14. De Agr. 56.
xii
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
the many-sided vanity of life.
a
One explanation
given is that the two opposing views belong to
different periods and stages in Philo's life. Pro-
fessor Goodenough
b
ascribes it to the difference of
audiences addressed in the Exposition and the Com-
mentary, or to a chronic vacillation in Philo's own
temperament, or to both together. I am inclined to
think that the " chronic vacillation of character " is
enough in itself, though I should prefer to call it a
chronic tendency to see both sides of a question
alternately or even simultaneously. Philo un-
doubtedly looks upon the philosophical life as the
highest, and the practical life which includes the
political as a necessary evil. But he is as firm upon
the necessity of the latter as on the superiority of the
former, and further the lower may be conceived of
as a discipline or stepping-stone to the higher. If
this is realized, the twofold representation of Joseph
will not present insuperable difficulties. The main
fact in the life of Joseph was that he lived in Egypt
and was Pharaoh's viceroy. Since Egypt spiritually
is the body and the King of Egypt the body-loving
mind, Joseph may represent the agent which that
king employs for his baser purposes. He is not from
this point of view a historical person, but a τ ρ ό π ο ς
or temperament
c
and Philo has no difficulty in finding
isolated facts and passages which can be made to
a
De Conf. 71. Besides these and many others note
especially the sustained depreciation in De Som. ii. 10-16 and
often later in the same treatise.
* " Philo's Exposition of the Law and his De Vita Mosis,'*
Harvard Theological Review* April 1933.
c
Or " one of the traits or feelings existing in every man's
soul," as he is definitely stated to be in De Som. ii. 98. From
this point of view we are told to forget the actual cruelty of
the brothers.
xiii
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
bear this out. His coat of many colours, his name
of " addition " signifying adventitious goods, his
mounting the second chariot, his swearing by the
health of Pharaoh, the arrogant claims of his dreams,
can all be pressed into service, while anything that
does not fit can, if needed, be ignored.® On the
other hand, political life is also capable of bringing
out higher qualities, and of those the historical Joseph
is the obvious exemplar. In fact, Philo's treatment
of Joseph gives us the clearest example of his belief
that the spiritual truths which may " break out of the
Word " are manifold, not only different, but even at
first sight contradictory.
6
On the whole, these two treatises proceed on the
same general method, though in De Iosepho the
rhetorical element is far more and the allegorical less
conspicuous. But the two books on the life of Moses
stand to some extent by themselves. The opening
of the first book does not suggest that it is a sequel
to the four that have preceded, but assigns a different
reason for its composition^ viz. that its object is to
make the story and character of the great legislator
0
Not but that opposing facts are sometimes too strong
and numerous to be ignored. Thus in De Mig. 16-24, when
the allegory is based on the carrying of Joseph's bones to
Canaan, these " bones " or memorable actions are catalogued,
and even in De Som. ii., where the representation of him as the
impersonation of vanity is most developed, the hope is held
out that ultimately he will be reconciled with his brethren
(§ 108). Again, when the allegory demands a more favour-
able view, as when the point is that he finds his brethren, he
becomes the man who mixes in public life, but has no thirst
for fame (π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ς μ ε ρ ή κ ισ τ α δ ϊ δ ο ξ ο μ α ν ή ς , De Fuga 126).
b
For instance, the coat of many colours, which has served
in De Som. i. 219 to represent the falseness of the mere
politician^ stands in De Ios. 32 for the resourcefulness in
peace and war of the true statesman,
xiv
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
known to the outer world. The constitution of the
book is also very different. Allegory is almost en-
tirely banished from the narrative and confined to ex-
planation of the priest's vestments and the form and
apparatus of the Tabernacle. Regarded as biography,
they are not so satisfactory as the De Abrahamo and
the De Iosepho. Philo's arrangement of the life of
Moses under the four heads of king, lawgiver, priest
and prophet does, no doubt, serve for a logical basis
to the work, but it leads him into many oddities.
While the story of Moses as king or leader is carried
on consistently to the end of Exodus xviii., what next
to the deliverance itself is the central point of the
story, the theophany on Sinai, is entirely omitted ;
the account of Balaam and Balak, which has little to do
with Moses himself, is given at disproportionate length,
while the stories of the Red Sea and the Manna and
the Golden Calf are given twice over.
These and other considerations have led what is
probably the great majority of scholars to think that
the two books are not an integral part of the Exposi-
tion, but a work composed on a separate occasion, and
(at least in the eyes of those who consider the Ex-
position to be intended primarily for Jewish readers)
a
a
Any discussion of this disputed question may be left till
we come to the Laws themselves in the next volume. Mean-
while I find it difficult to resist the general impression that
Philo in writing the De Abrahamo and De Iosepho as well as
the De Vita Mosis, in which the fact is admitted, had Gentiles
rather than Jews in view. Observe, for instance (unless it is
to be put down as a mere mannerism), the strict economy of
names in all four books. Just as neither Balaam nor even
Aaron in the third and fourth is ever mentioned by name, so
too Lot in the first and the brothers in the second (even when
they act or speak individually) are only indicated by their
relationship to Abraham or Jacob.
XV
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
for a different audience. While not venturing to hold
the contrary I do not feel enough confidence in Philo's
consistency of method to regard this as certain.
Anyhow, the fact is clear that, however and for whom-
soever composed, the two books effect what indeed
is implied in the recapitulatory survey in the De
Praemiis, where Moses is joined with Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob as the recipient of the rewards of obedience
which the Pentateuch in Philo's view is intended to
preach. Without them his survey of the lessons of
the history which is begun in the De Abrahamo and his
portrait of the " Living Laws "
a
would be hopelessly
incomplete, and their right place in the series is that
which has been given them in all editions and is re-
tained in this translation.
Taking the four books as a whole I would make two
comments. One is that the separate stories are
admirably told with much fire, vigour and lucidity.
The " stilted and frigid "
6
speeches repel us, but to
Greek readers living in the age of Epideictic oratory
they would be congenial enough. As for the narra-
tives themselves, none of us would wish to exchange
them for the sacred simplicity of our own version.
But the Gentile readers who had no such associations
must have found them a pleasant contrast to the
harsh Greek of the Septuagint.
α
Moses is of course primarily the lawgiver, rather than
himself the law, and Philo may possibly have shrunk from
saying that Moses the biographer intended his own biography
to serve the same purpose as the biographies of the patriarchs.
Still the title of " Living Law " is applied to him in De Mos.
i. 162.
6
The epithets are quoted from my own judgement of them
as given in the General Introduction to Vol. I. ρ xxii. I am
inclined now to modify them with regard to some of the
speeches,
xvi
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
The second point is the essential fidelity with which
Philo adheres to the narrative of Scripture. Though
he professes to draw also from the Tradition of the
Elders, there is little or none of the legendary accre-
tions with which the Book of Jubilees, the so-called
" Antiquities of Philo " and even Josephus, to say
nothing of later Rabbinical tradition, endeavour to
embellish the history of the Patriarchs and of Moses.
a
There is of course any amount of amplification: that
is according to the practice of many if not most
ancient historians, who consider it their business not
merely to state but to interpret facts—to infer what
the actors probably would have felt, said, or done
in the given circumstances. A good example is the
description of the battle of Abraham and 318 men
against the four kings,
6
where the LXX " he came upon
them by night and smote them " is expanded into
" he attacked the enemy by night when they had
supped and were preparing to go to sleep. Some fell
helpless victims to him in their beds, others who took
arms against him were completely annihilated,'' with
a few more words about the extinction of the whole
army. As Josephus, Ant. i. 177 ,
c
gives similar details,
a
The closest approach to this is the account of Moses'
education in Mos. i. 21 IF., but even this is merely a state-
ment of what an Egyptian prince would, in Philo's view, have
naturally been taught.
b
De Abr. 233 f.
β
As the relation of Josephus's narrative to Philo's may be
of interest to some readers, I may remark here that Cohn in
the introduction to his fourth volume, p. xxv, considers
that Josephus did make use of Philo, particularly of Mos.
i. and ii. He quotes ten examples of similar thought and
phrases, mainly the former. Thackeray, in his notes to the
Loeb translation of Ant. i. and ii., cites some five instances
of the kind from the De Abr. and De Ios. The resemblance
of thought in Ant. i. 18 f. to the opening of De Op. is far more
striking, but clearly Josephus may have read that work or
xvii
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
this is quoted as a " striking parallel," but surely it
merely describes what is naturally to be expected in
a successful night attack by a small force against a
larger.
As for the text, we find nothing corresponding to
the difficulties and corruptions which we found in
the first five volumes. In the first place the MSS., at
least those which are used by Conn, are far more
numerous. They vary from thirteen in number to
eleven, whereas in the other set of treatises the maxi-
mum was seven, and in three cases the editor was
forced to rely on one or two codices, none of them
remarkable for accuracy. Secondly, the straight-
forward narrative as opposed to the tortuous argu-
ment of the Allegorical Commentary was apparently
handled by the scribes with greater ease and accuracy.
Consequently, though there are plenty of the minor
* differences certain to be found in this larger number
of MSS. so that the Apparatus Criticus is no shorter,
the emendations adopted by Cohn are few and in
only one case has the present translator ventured to
add any to the list.
its opening, without reading or at least making systematic use
of the other treatises. I think this last should be regarded
as somewhat uncertain, but see note on pp. 608 f.
xviii
LIST OF PHILO'S WORKS
SHOWI NG THEI R DI VI SI ON I NTO VOLUMES
I N THI S EDI TI ON
VOLUME
I. On the Creation (De Opificio Mundi)
Allegorical Interpretation (Legum Aljegoria)
II. On the Cherubim (De Cherubim)
On the Sacrifices of Abel and Cain (De Sacrificiis
Abelis et Caini)
The Worse attacks the Better (Quod Deterius Potiori
insidiari solet)
On the Posterity and Exile of Cain (De Posteritate
Caini)
III. On the Unchangeableness of God (Quod Deus im-
mutabilis sit)
On Husbandry (De Agricultura)
On Noah's Work as a Planter (De Plantatione)
On Drunkenness (De Ebrietate)
On Sobriety (De Sobrietate)
IV. On the Confusion of Tongues (De Confusione Lin-
guarum)
On the Migration of Abraham (De Migration©
Abrahami)
Who is the Heir (Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres)
On the Preliminary Studies (De Congressu quaerendae
Eruditionis gratia)
V. On Flight and Finding (De Fuga et Inventione)
On the Change of Names (De Mutatione Nominum)
On Dreams (De Somniis)
VI . On Abraham (De Abrahamo)
On Joseph (De Iosepho)
Moses (De Vita Mosis)
xix
LIST OF PHILO'S WORKS
VOLUME
VII. On the Decalogue (De Decalogo)
On the Special Laws Books I-III (De Specialibus
Legibus)
VIII. On the Special Laws Book IV (De Specialibus Legi-
bus)
On the Virtues (De Virtutibus)
On Rewards and Punishments (De Praemiis et
Poenis)
IX. Every Good Man is Free (Quod Omnis Probus Liber
sit)
On the Contemplative Life (De Vita Contemplativa)
On the Eternity of the World (De Aeternitate Mundi)
Flaccus (In Flaccum)
Hypothetica
1
(Apologia pro ludaeis)
On Providence
1
(De Providentia)
X. On the Embassy to Gaius (De Legatione ad Gaium)
GENEBAL INDEX TO VOLUMES I-X
SUPPLEMENT
I. Questions and Answers on Genesis
2
(Quaestiones
et Solutiones in Genesin)
II. Questions and Answers on Exodus
2
(Quaestiones et
Solutiones in Exodum)
GENERAL INDEX TO SUPPLEMENTS I-II
1
Only two fragments extant.
8
Extant only in an Armenian version.
XX
ON ABRAHAM
(DE ABRAHAMO)
I NTRODUCTI ON TO DE ABRAHAMO
AFTER stating his intention to follow Moses in describing
the " living " before proceeding to the written Laws (1-6;
Philo deals with the first and less perfect triad. First
Enos the hoper, whose name equivalent to " Man " shows
that hope is the first mark of a true man (7-10). Secondly
repentance represented by Enoch, who was " transferred "
Le. to a better life and was " not found," for the good are
rare and solitary (17-26). Thirdly, Noah, who was " just "
in comparison with the wicked generation destroyed by the
Flood (27-46).
. The higher triad of the three great Patriarchs are not
only typical of the trinity, Teaching, Nature and Practice,
but are also the parents of Israel, the soul which attains to
the sight of God (48-59). To come to Abraham himself,
the literal story of his migrations shows his self-sacrifice
(60-67) ; allegorically it denotes the soul's journey from
godless astronomy first to self-knowledge (Haran), then to
the knowledge of God (68-88). His adventures in Egypt
(89-98) suggest that the tortures which plagued Pharaoh
represent what the sensual mind suffers from the virtues
which, while it professes to love them, are incompatible
with it (99-106). Next comes the story of the three
Angelic Visitors (107-118). Allegorically they represent
the Self-existent and the beneficent and sovereign potencies
apprehended according as the soul can rise to the full
conception or is moved by hope of benefits or fear, and
Philo points out that while men distrust these last motives,
God does not hold them worthless (119-132). In fact the
tale of the destruction of the Cities of the Plain represents
the Self-existent as leaving these tasks to His subordinates
2
ON ABRAHAM
(133-146). This leads him to an allegory in which the
five cities are the five senses, the noblest of which, sight,
is figured by Zoar (147-166).
Next comes the sacrifice of Isaac (167-177). The great-
ness of Abraham is vindicated against hostile criticisms
based on the frequency of similar stories of child immolation
(178-199). Allegorically the story means that a devout
soul often feels a duty of surrendering its " Isaac," Joy,
which nevertheless through God's mercy it is allowed to
retain (200-207).
These narratives have illustrated Abraham's piety.
Next comes his kindness to men as shewn in his settlement
of the dispute with Lot (208-216). This dispute may be
taken to represent allegorically the incompatibility of love
for the goods of the soul with love for bodily or external
things (217-224). Then his courage appears in his victory
over the four kings who had routed the armies of the five
cities (225-235), and this conflict is allegorized as one
between the four passions and the five senses, in which the
intervention of reason turns the scale against the former
(236-244). Philo now goes on to say something of the
virtues of Sarah, particularly as shewn by her advocacy
of the mating with Hagar (245-254) and this leads on to an
account of the grief coupled with resignation shown by
Abraham at her death (255-261). The treatise concludes
with an eloquent praise of Abraham's faith and of his right
to the title of " Elder " and the crowning tribute that he
both did the law and was himself the Law (262-end).
3
Β Ι Ο Σ Σ Ο Φ Ο Τ Τ Ο Υ Κ Α Τ Α Δ Ι Δ Α Σ Κ Α Λ Ι Α Ν
TEA Ε Ι Ω Θ Ε Ν Τ Ο Σ Η Ν Ο Μ Ω Ν Α Γ Ρ Α Φ Ω Ν
<Τ Ο Π Ρ Ω Τ Ο Ν ) Ο Ε Σ Τ Ι Π Ε Ρ Ι Α Β Ρ Α Α Μ
f*i I. Τ ω ν ιε ρ ώ ν ν ό μ ω ν iv π έ ν τ ε β ίβ λ ο ις ά ν α γ ρ α φ έ ν -
τ ω ν η π ρ ώ τ η κ α λ ε ίτ α ι κ α ι ε π ιγ ρ ά φ ε τ α ι Υ έ ν ε σ ις α π ό
τ η ς τ ο υ κ ό σ μ ο υ γ ε ν έ σ ε ω ς , η ν ε ν ά ρ χ η π ε ρ ιέ χ ε ι,
λ α β ο ϋ σ α τ η ν π ρ ό σ ρ η σ ιν , κ α ίτ ο ι μ υ ρ ίω ν ά λ λ ω ν
έ μ φ ε ρ ο μ έ ν ω ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν , ο σ α κ α τ ε ίρ ή ν η ν η π ό -
λ ε μ ο ν η φ ο ρ ά ς κ α ΐ ά φ ο ρ ία ς η λ ιμ ό ν κ α ι ε ύ θ η ν ία ν
η τ ά ς μ ε γ ίσ τ α ς τ ω ν ε π ι γ η ς φ θ ο ρ ά ς ο ιά π υ ρ ό ς κ α ι
ύ δ α τ ο ς η τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν γ ε ν έ σ ε ις κ α ι ε ύ τ ρ ο φ ία ς ζ ώ ω ν
κ α ΐ φ υ τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ η ν α έ ρ ο ς κ α ι τ ω ν ε τ η σ ίω ν ω ρ ώ ν
ε ύ κ ρ α σ ία ν κ α ι α ν δ ρ ώ ν τ ώ ν μ ε ν ά ρ ε τ η τ ώ ν δ έ κ α κ ία
2 σ υ μ β ιω σ ά ν τ ω ν α λ λ * ε π ε ι τ ο ύ τ ω ν τ ά μ έ ν ε σ τ ι τ ο υ
κ ό σ μ ο υ μ έ ρ η , τ ά δ έ 7Γ α ^^α τ α , τ ε λ ε ιό τ α τ ο ν δ έ κ α ι
π λ η ρ έ σ τ α τ ο ν ό κ ό σ μ ο ς , α ύ τ ώ τ η ν δ λ η ν β ίβ λ ο ν
ά ν έ θ η κ ε ν . δ ν μ έ ν ο ΰ ν τ ρ ό π ο ν η κ ο σ μ ο -
π ο ιία δ ια τ β τ α ^τ α ι, δ ιά τ η ς π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ς σ υ ν τ ά ξ ε ω ς ,
^ ώ $ ο ΐό ν τ ε | η ν , ή κ ρ ιβ ώ σ α μ ε ν . έ π ε ϊ δ έ τ ο υ ς ν ό μ ο υ ς
κ α τ ά τ ο έ ξ η ς {/cat) ά κ ό λ ο υ θ ο ν ά ν α γ κ α ίο ν δ ιε ρ ε υ -
ν ά σ θ α ι, τ ώ ν έ π ι μ έ ρ ο υ ς κ α ι ώ ς α ν ε ικ ό ν ω ν υ π έ ρ -
θ ε σ ιν π ο ιη σ ά μ ε ν ο ι τ ο υ ς κ α θ ο λ ικ ω τ έ ρ ο υ ς κ α ι ώ ς α ν
α
i.e. the Deluge and the destruction of Sodom and
Gomorrah. Philo classes these two together, ignoring the
purely local character of the latter. Compare his treatment
of the two in Mos. ii. 52-65, and cf. ib. 263.
4
ON ABRAHAM
THAT IS, THE LIFE OF THE WISE MAN MADE PERFECT
THROUGH TEACHING, OR THE FIRST BOOK ON UN-
WRITTEN LAWS
I. The first of the five books in which the holy 1
laws are written bears the name and inscription of
Genesis, from the genesis or creation of the world,
an account of which it contains at its beginning. It
has received this title in spite of its embracing
numberless other matters ; for it tells of peace and
war, of fruitfulness and barrenness, of dearth and
plenty ; how fire and water wrought great destruc-
tion of what is on earth;
a
how on the other hand
plants and animals were born and throve through the
kindly tempering of the air and the yearly seasons,
and so too men, some of whom lived a life of virtue,
others of vice. But since some of these things are 2
parts of the world, and others events which befall it,
and the world is the complete consummation which
contains them all, he dedicated the whole book to it.
The story of the order in which the world was
made has been set forth in detail by us as well as
was possible in the preceding treatise
b
; but, since 3
it is necessary to carry out our examination of the
law in regular sequence, let us postpone considera-
tion of particular laws, which are, so to speak, copies,
and examine first those which are more general and
b
i.e. the De Opificio. See General Introduction to this
volume, p. ix, note a.
5
PHILO
4 α ρ χ έ τ υ π ο υ ς π ρ ο τ έ ρ ο υ ς δ ιε ρ ε υ ν ή σ ω μ ε ν . ο ΰ τ ο ι δ ε
ε ίσ ιν α ν δ ρ ώ ν ol ά ν ε π ιλ ή π τ ω ς κ α ι κ α λ ώ ς β ιώ σ α ν τ ε ς ,
<ο ν τ ά ς ά ρ ε τ ά ς ε ν τ α ΐς Ιε ρ ω τ ά τ α ις έ σ τ η λ ιτ ε ϋ σ θ α ι
γ ρ α φ α ΐς σ υ μ β έ β η κ ε ν , ο υ π ρ ο ς τ ο ν ε κ ε ίν ω ν ε π α ιν ο ν
α υ τ ό μ ό ν ο ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι υ π έ ρ τ ο υ τ ο υ ς έ ν τ υ γ χ ά ν ο ν τ α ς
π ρ ο τ ρ έ φ α σ θ α ι κ α ι ε π ι τ ο ν δ μ ο ιο ν ζ ή λ ο ν ά γ α γ ε ΐν .
6 ο ι γ ά ρ έ μ φ υ χ ο ι κ α ι λ ο γ ικ ο ί ν ό μ ο ι ά ν δ ρ ε ς ε κ ε ίν ο ι
γ ε γ ό ν α σ ιν , ο υ ς δ υ ο ΐν χ ά ρ ιν ε σ ε μ ν υ ν ε ν ε ν ό ς μ έ ν
β ο υ λ ό μ ε ν ο ς έ π ιδ ε ΐξ α ι, ο τ ι τ ά τ ε θ ε ιμ έ ν α δ ια τ ά γ μ α τ α
τ η ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς ο υ κ ά π ά δ ε ι, δ ε υ τ έ ρ ο υ δ έ ο τ ι ο ύ π ο λ ύ ς
π ό ν ο ς τ ο ις έ θ έ λ ο υ σ ι κ α τ ά τ ο υ ς κ ε ίμ ε ν ο υ ς ν ό μ ο υ ς
ζ η ν , ο π ό τ ε κ α ι ά γ ρ ά φ ω τ η ν ο μ ο θ ε σ ία , π ρ ιν τ ι τ η ν
α ρ χ ή ν ά ν α γ ρ α φ η ν α ι τ ώ ν ε ν μ έ ρ ε ι, ρ α δ ίω ς κ α ι ε υ -
π ε τ ώ ς έ χ ρ ή σ α ν τ ο ο ι π ρ ώ τ ο ι
9
ώ ς δ ε ό ν τ ω ς ά ν τ ιν α
φ ά ν α ι, τ ο υ ς τ ε θ έ ν τ α ς ν ό μ ο υ ς μ η δ έ ν α λ λ * η υ π ο -
μ ν ή μ α τ α ε ίν α ι β ίο υ τ ώ ν π α λ α ιώ ν , ά ρ χ α ιο λ ο γ ο ΰ ν τ α ς
6 έ ρ γ α κ α ι λ ό γ ο υ ς , ο ΐς έ χ ρ ή σ α ν τ ο . ε κ ε ίν ο ι γ ά ρ ο ύ τ ε
γ ν ώ ρ ιμ ο ι κ α ι φ ο ιτ η τ α ϊ γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ίν ω ν ο ύ τ ε π α ρ ά
δ ιδ α σ κ ά λ ο ις α χ ρ ή π ρ ά τ τ ε ιν κ α ι λ έ γ ε ιν ά ν α δ ιδ α χ -
θ έ ν τ ε ς , α ύ τ ή κ ο ο ι δ έ κ α ι α ύ τ ο μ α θ ε ΐς , ά κ ο λ ο υ θ ία ν
φ ύ σ ε ω ς ά σ π α σ ά μ ε ν ο ι, τ η ν φ ύ σ ιν α υ τ ή ν , ό π ε ρ έ σ τ ι
π ρ ο ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν , π ρ ε σ β ύ τ α τ ο ν θ ε σ μ ό ν ε ίν α ι ύ π ο -
λ α β ό ν τ ε ς ά π α ν τ α τ ο ν β ίο ν η ύ ν ο μ ή θ η σ α ν , ύ π α ίτ ιο ν
μ έ ν ο υ δ έ ν γ ν ώ μ α ις έ κ ο υ σ ίο ις έ ρ γ α σ ά μ ε ν ο ι, π ε ρ ι δ έ
τ ώ ν έ κ τ ύ χ η ς π ο τ ν ιώ μ ε ν ο ι τ ο ν θ ε ό ν κ α ι λ ιτ α ΐς κ α ι
ίκ ε σ ία ις έ ξ ε υ μ ε ν ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ι π ρ ο ς ο λ ο κ λ ή ρ ο υ μ ε τ ο υ σ ία ν
ζ ω ή ς δ ι
9
α μ φ ο τ έ ρ ω ν κ α τ ο ρ θ ο υ μ έ ν η ς τ ώ ν τ ε ε κ
π ρ ο ν ο ία ς κ α ΐ τ ώ ν ά ν ε υ ε κ ο υ σ ίο υ γ ν ώ μ η ς .
7 II.
9
Έ π ε ιδ ή τ ο ίν υ ν ά ρ χ ή μ ε τ ό υ σ ία ς α γ α θ ώ ν έ σ τ ιν
έ λ π ϊς κ α ι τ α ύ τ η ν ο ία λ ε ω φ ό ρ ο ν ό δ ό ν ή φ ιλ ά ρ ε τ ο ς
β
See Α ρ ρ . ρ . 597.
6
ON ABRAHAM, 4- 7
may be called the originals of those copies. These 4
are such men as lived good and blameless lives,
whose virtues stand permanently recorded in the
most holy scriptures, not merely to sound their
praises but for the instruction of the reader and as
an inducement to him to aspire to the same ; for in 5
these men we have laws endowed with life and
reason,
0
and Moses extolled them for two reasons.
First he wished to shew that the enacted ordinances
are not inconsistent with nature ; and secondly that
those who wish to live in accordance with the laws
as they stand have no difficult task, seeing that the
first generations before any at all of the particular
statutes was set in writing followed the unwritten
law with perfect ease, so that one might properly
say that the enacted laws are nothing else than
memorials of the life of the ancients, preserving to
a later generation their actual words and deeds.
For they were not scholars or pupils of others, nor β
did they learn under teachers what was right to say
or do : they listened to no voice or instruction but
their own : they gladly accepted conformity with
nature, holding that nature itself was, as indeed
it is, the most venerable of statutes, and thus their
whole life was one of happy obedience to law. They
committed no guilty action of their own free will or
purpose, and where chance led them wrong they
besought God's mercy and propitiated Him with
prayers and supplications, and thus secured a perfect
life guided aright in both fields, both in their pre-
meditated actions and in such as were not of freely-
willed purpose.
II. Since, then, the first step towards the possession 7
of blessings is hope, and hope like a high road is
7
PHILO
α ν α τ έ μ ν ε ι κ α ι α ν ο ίγ ε ι φ υ χ η σ π ο υ δ ά ζ ο υ σ α τ υ χ ε ΐν
τ ο υ π ρ ο ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν κ α λ ο ϋ , τ ο ν π ρ ώ τ ο ν ε λ π ίδ ο ς
έ ρ α σ τ η ν π ρ ο σ ε ΐπ ε ν " ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν " τ ο κ ο ιν ό ν τ ο υ
γ έ ν ο υ ς ό ν ο μ α κ α τ έ ξ α ίρ ε τ ο ν χ ά ρ ιν δ ω ρ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ς
8 α ύ τ ώ —Χ α λ δ α ίο ι γ ά ρ τ ο ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν 'Έ ιν ώ ς κ α λ ο ΰ σ ιν
—ώ ς μ ό ν ο υ π ρ ο ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν ο ν τ ο ς ά ν θ ρ ω π ο υ τ ο υ τ ά
α γ α θ ά π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ώ ν τ ο ς κ α ι ε λ π ίσ ι χ ρ η σ τ α ΐς έ φ ιδ ρ υ -
μ έ ν ο υ · ε ξ ο υ δ η λ ο ν , ο τ ι τ ο ν δ ύ σ ε λ π ιν ο υ κ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν
ά λ λ ' α ν θ ρ ω π ο ε ιδ έ ς η γ ε ίτ α ι θ η ρ ίο ν τ ό ο ίκ ε ιό τ α τ ο ν
9 α ν θ ρ ω π ιν ή ς φ υ χ η ς , ε λ π ίδ α , ά φ η ρ η μ έ ν ο ν . δ θ ε ν κ α ι
π α γ κ ά λ ω ς ύ μ ν ή σ α ι β ο υ λ ό μ ε ν ο ς τ ο ν ε ϋ ε λ π ιν π ρ ο -
ε ιπ ώ ν , ο τ ι ο ΰ τ ο ς η λ π ισ ε ν έ π ι τ ο ν τ ώ ν δ λ ω ν π α τ έ ρ α
[ 3] κ α ι π ο ιη τ ή ν , ε π ιλ έ γ ε ι· " α ΰ τ η η β ίβ λ ο ς \ γ ε ν έ σ ε ω ς
α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ," κ α ίτ ο ι π α τ έ ρ ω ν κ α ι π ά π π ω ν η δ η
γ ε γ ο ν ό τ ω ν α λ λ ά τ ο υ ς μ έ ν ά ρ χ η γ έ τ α ς τ ο υ μ ικ τ ο ύ
γ έ ν ο υ ς ύ π έ λ α β ε ν ε ΐν α ι, τ ο υ τ ο ν ι δ έ τ ο υ κ α θ α ρ ω τ ά τ ο υ
10 κ α ι δ ιη θ η μ έ ν ο υ , δ π ε ρ ό ν τ ω ς έ σ τ ι λ ο γ ικ ό ν . κ α θ ά π ε ρ
γ ά ρ π ο ιη τ ή ς "Ο μ η ρ ο ς , μ υ ρ ίω ν π ο ιη τ ώ ν ό ν τ ω ν , κ α τ
9
ε ξ ο χ ή ν λ έ γ ε τ α ι, κ α ι τ ό μ έ λ α ν ω γ ρ ά φ ο μ ε ν , κ α ίτ ο ι
π α ν τ ό ς δ μ η λ ε υ κ ό ν έ σ τ ι μ έ λ α ν ο ς ο ν τ ο ς , κ α ι ά ρ χ ω ν
9
Α θ η ν η σ ιν ο ε π ώ ν υ μ ο ς κ α ι τ ώ ν ε ν ν έ α α ρ χ ό ν τ ω ν
ά ρ ισ τ ο ς , ά φ * ο υ ο ι χ ρ ό ν ο ι κ α τ α ρ ιθ μ ο ύ ν τ α ι, τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν
τ ρ ό π ο ν κ α ι τ ο ν έ λ π ίδ ι χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ν " ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν " κ α τ *
ε ξ ο χ ή ν ώ ν ό μ α σ ε τ ά π λ ή θ η τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν ά φ η σ υ χ ά σ α ς
α
Philo uses " Chaldaean" as a synonym for Hebrew
frequently in these works, though not in the treatises con-
tained in Vols. I.-V.
b
This argument, founded on Gen. iv. 26, LXX " He called
his name Enos; he hoped to call on the name of the Lord
God " ( E.V. " then began men to call upon the name of the
Lord ") and on the fact that Enos is a poetical Hebrew term
for " man," has already been given in substantially the same
formin Quod Det. 138.
8
ON ABRAHAM, 7-10
constructed and opened up by the virtue-loving soul
in its eagerness to gain true excellence, Moses called
the first lover of hope " Man," thus bestowing on
him as a special favour the name which is common to
the race (for the Chaldean
a
name for Man is Enos), 8
on the grounds that he alone is a true man who
expects good things and rests firmly on comfortable
hopes.
6
This plainly shows that he regards a de-
spondent person as no man but a beast in human
shape, since he has been robbed of the nearest and
dearest possession of the human soul, namely hope.
And, therefore, in his wish to give the highest praise 9
to the hoper, after first stating that he set his hope
on the Father and Maker of all, he adds, " this is
the book of the coming into being of men," though
fathers and grandfathers had already come into
being. But he held that they were the founders of
the mixed race, but Enos of that from which all
impurity had been strained, in fact of the race which
is truly reasonable. For just as we give the title of 10
" the poet " to Homer in virtue of his pre-eminence,
though there are multitudes of poets besides him,
and "the black"
c
to the material with which we
write, though everything is black which is not white,
and " the Archon "
d
at Athens to the chief of the
nine archons, the Archon Eponymos, from whose year
of office dates are calculated, so too Moses gave the
name of man in pre-eminence to him who cherished
hope and left unnoticed the many others as un-
c
μ έ λ α ν being the regular word for " ink."
d
The 1st Archon was called simply ό ά ρ χ ω ν , the 2nd
ά ρ χ ω ν β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς , the 3rd ά ρ χ ω ν π ο λ έ μ α ρ χ ο ς , the other nine
θ ε σ μ ο θ έ τ α ι. The addition of ε π ώ ν υ μ ο ς (" who gives his name
to dates," etc.) seems to be a later use.
9
PHILO
ώ ς ο υ κ α ξ ίω ν τ η ς α υ τ ή ς π ρ ο σ ρ ή σ ε ω ς έ π ιλ α χ ε ΐν .
11 ε υ μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ΐ τ ή ν β ίβ λ ο ν γ ε ν έ σ ε ω ς τ ο υ
π ρ ο ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ο υ π ρ ο σ ε ΐπ ε ν , ο υ κ α π ό σ κ ο -
π ο ύ , δ ιό τ ι γ ρ α φ ή ς κ α ι μ ν ή μ η ς ά ξ ιο ς ό ε ΰ ε λ π ις , ο υ
τ ή ς ε ν χ α ρ τ ιο ίο ις υ π ό σ η τ ώ ν ο ια φ θ α ρ η σ ο μ έ ν ο ις ,
α λ λ ά τ ή ς ε ν ά θ α ν ά τ ω τ ή φ ύ σ ε ι, π α ρ
9
ή τ ά ς σ π ο υ -
δ α ία ς π ρ ά ξ ε ις ά ν α γ ρ ά π τ ο υ ς ε ΐν α ι σ υ μ β έ β η κ ε ν .
12 ε ι μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α τ α ρ ιθ μ ή σ ε ιέ τ ις ά π ό τ ο υ
π ρ ώ τ ο υ κ α ι γ η γ ε ν ο ύ ς , τ ο ν υ π ό μ έ ν Χ α λ δ α ιω ν Έ ν ώ ^
Ε λ λ ά δ ι δ έ δ ια λ έ κ τ ω π ρ ο σ α γ ο ρ ε υ ό μ ε ν ο ν " ά ν θ ρ ω -
13 π ο ν " ε ύ ρ ή σ ε ι τ έ τ α ρ τ ο ν , έ ν ά ρ ιθ μ ο ΐς δ έ ή τ ε τ ρ ά ς
τ ε τ ίμ η τ α ι π α ρ ά τ ε τ ο ις ά λ λ ο ις φ ιλ ο σ ό φ ο ις , ό σ ο ι τ ά ς
α σ ω μ ά τ ο υ ς ο υ σ ία ς κ α ι ν ο η τ ά ς ή σ π ά σ α ν τ ο , κ α ι
μ ά λ ισ τ α π α ρ ά Μ ω υ σ ε ΐ τ ω π α ν σ ό φ ω , δ ς σ ε μ ν ύ ν ω ν
τ ο ν τ έ τ α ρ τ ο ν α ρ ιθ μ ό ν φ η σ ιν ο τ ι " ά γ ιο ς έ σ τ ι κ α ι
α ίν ε τ ό ς "· δ ι α ς δ ' α ίτ ία ? ε λ έ χ θ η , δ ια τ ή ς π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ς
14 σ υ ν τ ά ξ ε ω ς ε ΐρ η τ α ι. ά γ ιο ς δ έ κ α ι ε π α ιν ε τ ό ς ό
ε ΰ ε λ π ις , ώ ς τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν ά ν α γ ν ο ς κ α ι φ ε κ τ ό ς ό
δ ύ σ ε λ π ις , φ ό β ω π ρ ο ς ά π α ν τ α σ υ μ β ο ύ λ ω κ α κ ώ
χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς ' ο υ δ έ ν γ ά ρ ο ύ τ ω ς έ χ θ ρ ό ν ά λ λ ο ά λ λ ω
φ α σ ίν , ώ ς ε λ π ίδ α φ ό β ω κ α ι φ ό β ο ν έ λ π ίδ ι* κ α ι
μ ή π ο τ ε ίκ ό τ ω ς · π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ία μ έ ν γ ά ρ έ κ ά τ ε ρ ο ν , α λ λ
ή μ έ ν α γ α θ ώ ν , ή δ ' ε μ π α λ ιν κ α κ ώ ν , ά κ α τ ά λ λ α κ τ ο ι
δ ' α ί φ ύ σ ε ις τ ο ύ τ ω ν κ α ι α σ ύ μ β α τ ο ι.
15 III. τ ο σ α ΰ τ α μ έ ν ά π ό χ ρ η π ε ρ ι ε λ π ίδ ο ς ε ιπ ε ίν , η ν
° So in Quod Det. 139 that " the hoper is written in the
book of God" is deduced from " this is the book of the
generation of men " following on Gen. iv. 26. Of course the
phrase introduces what is coming and begins a fresh para-
graph. For a similar misunderstanding cf. the treatment of
Gen. ii. 4, in Leg. All. i. 19, and of Gen. vi. 9 in § 31 below.
b
Enos as Adam's grandson would naturally be third, or,
if Abel and Cain are reckoned, fifth. Philo may obtain the
10
ON ABRAHAM, 11- 15
worthy to receive the same title. He did 11
well, too, in speaking of the book of the coming into
being of the true man.
a
The word was appropriate
because the hoper deserves a memorial written not
on pieces of paper which moths shall destroy but in
the undying book of nature where good actions are
registered. Further, if we reckon the 12
generations from the first, the earth-born man, we
shall find that he, who is called by the Chaldeans
Enos and in our tongue Man, is fourth.
5
Now the 13
number four has been held in high honour by the
other philosophers who devoted themselves to the
study of immaterial and conceptual realities, and
especially by the all-wise Moses who when glorifying
that number speaks of it as " holy and for praise,"
0
and why he so called it has been shewn in the former
treatise.
0
Holy, too, and praiseworthy is the hopeful 14
man, just as on the contrary the despondent is unholy
and blameworthy, since in all things he takes fear
for his evil counsellor; for no two things are more at
enmity with each other, men say, than fear and hope,
and surely that is natural, for each is an expectation,
hope of good, fear on the other hand of evil, and
their natures are irreconcilable and incapable of
agreement. III. No more need be said about 15
number he requires by omitting either Abel, because in Gen.
iv. 25 Seth is spoken of as a substitute for him, or Cain as
accursed. See App. p. 597.
c
Or "praiseworthy," See Lev. xix. 24s "In the fourth
year the fruit shall be holy and aiveros to the Lord." In De
Plant. 119, Philo takes aiveros (probably rightly) as meaning
something for which we may praise the Lord. So, too, in
De Som. i. 33, though there it is the fourth year which is
aiveros. Here the adjective is applied to the number itself
and, as the sequel shews, means worthy of praise.
* De Op. 47 ff.
VOL. VI   11
PHILO
έ π ι θ ύ ρ α ις ο ΐα π υ λ ω ρ ό ν ή φ ύ σ ις Ιο ρ ύ σ α τ ο β α σ ιλ ίδ ω ν
τ ώ ν έ ν δ ο ν α ρ ε τ ώ ν , α ΐς ο υ κ ε σ τ ίν έ ν τ υ χ ε ΐν μ ή τ α ύ τ η ν
16 π ρ ο θ ε ρ α π ε ύ σ α ν τ α ς . π ο λ λ ά μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ο ι ν ο μ ο θ έ τ α ι,
π ο λ λ ά δ έ ο ι π α ν τ α χ ο ύ ν ό μ ο ι π ρ α γ μ α τ ε ύ ο ν τ α ι π ε ρ ί
τ ο υ τ ά ς φ υ χ ά ς τ ώ ν ε λ ε υ θ έ ρ ω ν ε λ π ίδ ω ν χ ρ η σ τ ώ ν
ά ν α π λ ή σ α ΐ' ό δ ' ά ν ε υ π α ρ α ιν έ σ ε ω ς δ ίχ α τ ο υ κ ε λ ε υ -
σ θ ή ν α ι γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ς ε ϋ ε λ π ις ά γ ρ ά φ ω μ έ ν ν ό μ ω δ έ
π ά λ ιν α ύ τ ο μ α θ ε ΐ τ η ν ά ρ ε τ ή ν τ α ύ τ η ν π ε π α ίδ ε υ τ α ι,
δ ν ή φ ύ σ ις ε θ η κ ε .
17 Δ ε υ τ έ ρ α ν δ ' έ λ α χ ε τ ά ξ ιν μ ε τ ά τ η ν ε λ π ίδ α ή έ π ι
τ ο ις ά μ α ρ τ α ν ο μ έ ν ο ις μ ε τ ά ν ο ια κ α ΐ β ε λ τ ίω σ ις * ό θ ε ν
έ ξ η ς α ν α γ ρ ά φ ε ι τ ο ν ά π ό χ ε ίρ ο ν ο ς β ίο υ π ρ ο ς
τ ο ν ά μ ε ίν ω μ ε τ α β α λ ό ν τ α , δ ς κ α λ ε ίτ α ι π α ρ ά μ έ ν
Έ β ρ α ίο ις *Έ ιν ώ χ , ώ ς δ ' α ν έ λ λ η ν ε ς ε ΐπ ο ιε ν " κ ε -
χ α ρ ισ μ έ ν ο ς ," έ φ * ο δ κ α ι τ α υ τ ι λ έ λ ε κ τ α ι, ώ ς ά ρ α
[ 4] | " ε ύ η ρ έ σ τ η σ ε ν 'Έ ιν ώ χ τ ω θ ε ώ κ α ι ο ύ χ η ύ ρ ίσ κ ε τ ο ,
18 δ τ ι μ ε τ έ θ η κ ε ν α υ τ ό ν ό θ ε ό ς " ή γ ά ρ μ ε τ ά θ ε σ ις
τ ρ ο π ή ν ε μ φ α ίν ε ι κ α ΐ μ ε τ α β ο λ ή ν π ρ ο ς δ έ τ ό β έ λ τ ιο ν
ή μ ε τ α β ο λ ή , δ ιό τ ι π ρ ο μ ή θ ε ια γ ίν ε τ α ι θ ε ο ΰ ' π α ν γ ά ρ
τ ό σ υ ν θ ε ώ κ α λ ό ν κ α ι σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν π ά ν τ ω ς , έ π ε ι κ α ι
τ ό ά ν ε υ θ ε ία ς έ π ιφ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ς α λ υ σ ιτ ε λ έ ς .
19 ε υ ο ε ιρ η τ α ι τ ο ο υ χ η υ ρ ισ κ ε τ ο ε π ι τ ο υ μ ε τ α -
τ ε θ ε ιμ έ ν ο υ , τ ω τ ο ν ά ρ χ α ΐο ν κ α ι έ π ίλ η π τ ο ν ά π α λ η -
λ ίφ θ α ι β ίο ν κ α ΐ ή φ α ν ίσ θ α ι κ α ι μ η κ έ θ * ε ύ ρ ίσ κ ε σ θ α ι,
κ α θ ά π ε ρ ε ι μ η δ έ τ ή ν α ρ χ ή ν έ γ έ ν ε τ ο , ή τ ω τ ο ν
μ ε τ α τ ιθ έ μ ε ν ο ν κ α ι έ ν τ η β ε λ τ ίο ν ι τ α χ θ έ ν τ α τ ά ξ ε ι
δ υ σ ε ύ ρ ε τ ο ν ε ίν α ι φ ύ σ ε ι* π ο λ ύ χ ο υ ν μ έ ν γ ά ρ ή κ α κ ία ,
δ ιό κ α ι π ο λ λ ο ίς γ ν ώ ρ ιμ ο ν , σ π ά ν ιο ν δ ' ή α ρ ε τ ή , ώ ς
20 μ η δ ' υ π * ο λ ίγ ω ν κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε σ θ α ι. κ α ι ά λ λ ω ς ό
α
Gen. ν . 24, The LXX version " Enoch was well-pleasing
to God, and he was not found because God translated him "
12
ON ABRAHAM, 15-20
the subject of hope, set by nature as a door-keeper
at the portals of the royal virtues within, to which
access cannot be gained unless We have first paid
our respects to her. Great indeed are the efforts 16
expended both by lawgivers and by laws in every
nation in filling the souls of free men with comfort-
able hopes; but he who gains this virtue of hope-
fulness without being led to it by exhortation or
command has been educated into it by a law which
nature has laid down, a law unwritten yet intuitively
learnt.
The second place after hope is given to repentance 17
for sins and to improvement, and, therefore, Moses
mentions next in order him who changed from the
worse life to the better, called by the Hebrews Enoch
but in our language "recipient of grace." We are
told of him that he proved " to be pleasing to God and
was not found because God transferred him,
a
" for 18
transference implies turning and changing, and the
change is to the better because it is brought about
by the forethought of God. For all that is done
with God's help is excellent and truly profitable, as
also all that has not His directing care is unprofitable.
And the expression used of the trans- 19
ferred person, that he was not found, is well said,
either because the old reprehensible life is blotted
out and disappears and is no more found, as though
it had never been at all, or because he who is thus
transferred and takes his place in the better class
is naturally hard to find. For evil is widely spread
and therefore known to many, while virtue is rare,
so that even the few cannot comprehend it. Besides, 20
(E. V. " Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God
took him ") is familiar from Hebrews xi. 5. See App. p. 597).
13
PHILO
μ έ ν φ α ΰ λ ο ς ά γ ο ρ ά ν κ α ι θ έ α τ ρ α κ α ι δ ικ α σ τ ή ρ ια
β ο υ λ ε υ τ ή ρ ια τ ε κ α ι ε κ κ λ η σ ία ς κ α ΐ π ά ν τ α σ ύ λ λ ο γ ο ν
κ α ι θ ία σ ο ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ά τ ε φ ιλ ο π ρ α γ μ ο σ ύ ν η σ υ ζ ώ ν
μ ε τ α τ ρ έ χ ε ι, τ ή ν μ έ ν γ λ ώ τ τ α ν ά ν ιε ις π ρ ο ς ά μ ε τ ρ ο ν
κ α ι ά π έ ρ α ν τ ο ν κ α ι ά κ ρ ιτ ο ν δ ιή γ η σ ιν , σ υ γ χ έ ω ν
ά π α ν τ α κ α ι φ ύ ρ ω ν , ά λ η θ έ σ ι φ ε υ δ ή κ α ι ρ η τ ο ΐς
ά ρ ρ η τ α κ α ΐ ϊδ ια κ ο ιν ο ΐς κ α ι ίε ρ ο ΐς β έ β η λ α κ α ι
σ π ο υ δ α ίο ις γ ε λ ο ία ά ν α μ ιγ ν ύ ς , δ ιά τ ό μ η π ε π α ι-
δ ε ΰ σ θ α ι τ ό έ ν κ α ιρ ώ κ ά λ λ ισ τ ο ν , ή σ υ χ ία ν , τ ά δ έ ώ τ α
21 έ π ο υ ρ ίσ α ς
1
έ ν ε κ α π ο λ υ π ρ ά γ μ ο ν ο ς π ε ρ ιε ρ γ ία ς ' τ ά γ ά ρ
έ τ ε ρ ω ν ε ΐτ ε α γ α θ ά ε ϊτ α δ κ α κ ά γ λ ίχ ε τ α ι μ α ν θ ά ν ε ιν ,
ώ ς α ύ τ ίκ α τ ο ις μ έ ν φ θ ο ν ε ΐν , έ φ * ο ΐς δ έ ή δ ε σ θ α ί'
β ά σ κ α ν ο ν γ ά ρ κ α ι μ ισ ό κ α λ ο ν κ α ι φ ιλ ο π ό ν η ρ ο ν ο
22 φ α ύ λ ο ς φ ύ σ ε ι. IV. ό δ ' α σ τ ε ίο ς έ μ π α λ ιν ά π ρ ά γ -
μ ο ν ο ς ζ η λ ω τ ή ς β ίο υ γ ε γ ο ν ώ ς υ π ο χ ω ρ ε ί κ α ι μ ό ν ω σ ιν
ά γ α π α , λ α ν θ ά ν ε ιν τ ο υ ς π ο λ λ ο ύ ς ά ξ ιω ν , ο υ δ ιά
μ ισ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ν —φ ιλ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς γ ά ρ , ε ι κ α ι τ ις ά λ λ ο ς ,
—ά λ λ α δ ι ά τ ό π ρ ο β ε β λ ή σ θ α ι κ α κ ία ν , η ν ό π ο λ ύ ς
ό χ λ ο ς α σ π ά ζ ε τ α ι, χ α ίρ ω ν μ έ ν έ φ * ο ΐς σ τ έ ν ε ιν ά ξ ιο ν ,
23 λ υ π ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς δ έ έ φ * ο ΐς γ ε γ η θ έ ν α ι κ α λ ό ν , ώ ν έ ν ε κ α
σ υ γ κ λ ε ισ ά μ ε ν ο ς ο ΐκ ο ι τ ά π ο λ λ ά κ α τ α μ έ ν ε ι μ ό λ ις τ ά ς
κ λ ισ ιά δ α ς υ π ε ρ β α ίν ω ν ή δ ιά τ ο ύ ς έ π ιφ ο ιτ ώ ν τ α ς
σ υ ν ε χ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ν έ ξ ω π ό λ ε ω ς π ρ ο ε λ θ ώ ν έ ν μ ο ν α γ ρ ια
π ο ιε ίτ α ι τ ά ς δ ια τ ρ ιβ ά ς ή δ ιο ν σ υ μ β ιω τ α ΐς χ ρ ώ μ έ ν ο ς
τ ο ις ά π α ν τ ο ς τ ο υ γ έ ν ο υ ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ά ρ ίσ τ ο ις , ώ ν τ ά
μ έ ν σ ώ μ α τ α δ ιέ λ υ σ ε ν ό χ ρ ό ν ο ς , τ ά ς δ ' ά ρ ε τ ά ς α ι
ά π ο λ ε ιφ θ ε ΐσ α ι γ ρ α φ α ι ζ ω π υ ρ ο ΰ σ ι δ ιά τ ε π ο ιη μ ά τ ω ν
κ α ι τ ώ ν κ α τ α λ ο γ ά δ η ν σ υ γ γ ρ α μ μ ά τ ω ν , ο ΐς ή φ υ χ ή
1
έ π ο ν ρ Ι σ α $] so Cohn, but the text is very doubtful. Some
MSS. have έ π ο ρ θ ιά σ α ς etiropias (with variations of order and
spelling), others έ π ο υ ρ ιά σ α ς or iirovptas. The natural sense of
ϊπ ο ν ρ ίξ ω (lit. " direct with a favouring wind ") seems by itself
14
ON ABRAHAM, 20-23
the worthless man whose life is one long restlessness ,
haunts market-places, theatres, law-courts, council-
halls, assemblies, and every group and gathering of
men; his tongue he lets loose for unmeasured, end-
less, indiscriminate talk, bringing chaos and confusion
into everything, mixing true with false, fit with unfit,
public with private, holy with profane, sensible with
absurd, because he has not been trained to that
silence which in season is most excellent. His ears 21
he keeps alert in meddlesome curiosity, ever eager
to learn his neighbour's affairs, whether good or bad,
and ready with envy for the former and joy at the
latter ; for the worthless man is a creature naturally
malicious, a hater of good and lover of evil. IV.
The man of worth on the other hand, having acquired 22
a desire for a quiet life, withdraws from the public
and loves solitude, and his choice is to be unnoticed
by the many, not because he is misanthropical, for
he is eminently a philanthropist, but because he has
rejected vice which is welcomed by the multitude
who rejoice at what calls for mourning and grieve
where it is well to be glad. And therefore he mostly 23
secludes himself at home and scarcely ever crosses
his threshold, or else because of the frequency of
visitors he leaves the town and spends his days
in some lonely farm, finding pleasanter society in
those noblest of the whole human race whose bodies
time has turned into dust but the flame of their
virtues is kept alive by the written records which
have survived them in poetry or in prose and serve
strange in this context. I should prefer to read έ π ο ρ θ ιά σ α *
έ π ' ο υ ρ ία ς (" pricked up and ready to catch any chance "). It
is true that έ π ο ρ θ ίά ζ ω is not used elsewhere with ώ τ α , but
α ν ο ρ θ ίά ξ ω is several times so used by Philo. See further on
Mos. i. 283..
15
PHILO
24 π έ φ υ κ ε β ε λ τ ιο ΰ σ θ α ι. δ ιά τ ο ϋ τ ο ε ΐπ ε ν ό τ ι ο μ ε τ α -
τ ε θ ε ίς " ο ύ χ ε ύ ρ ίσ κ ε τ ο " δ υ σ ε ύ ρ ε τ ο ς κ α ι δ υ σ θ ή ρ α τ ο ς
ώ ν . μ ε θ ο ρ μ ίζ ε τ α ι ο ΰ ν ε ίς π α ιδ ε ία ν ε ξ ά μ α θ ία ς κ α ι
ε ξ α φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ς ε ις φ ρ ό ν η σ ιν έ κ τ ε δ ε ιλ ία ς ε ίς \
[ 5] ά ν δ ρ ε ία ν κ α ι ε ξ α σ ε β ε ία ς , ε ίς ε ύ σ έ β ε ια ν , κ α ι π ά λ ιν
ε κ μ έ ν φ ιλ η δ ο ν ία ς ε ίς έ γ κ ρ ά τ ε ια ν , έ κ δ έ φ ιλ ο δ ο ξ ία ς
ε ίς ά τ υ φ ία ν ώ ν τ ις ή π λ ο ϋ τ ο ς ε π ά ξ ιο ς ή β α σ ιλ ε ία ς
25 κ α ι δ υ ν α σ τ ε ία ς κ τ ή σ ις ώ φ ε λ ιμ ω τ έ ρ α ; ε ί γ ά ρ χ ρ ή
τ ά λ η θ έ ς ε ιπ ε ίν , 6 μ η τ υ φ λ ό ς ά λ λ ' ο ξ ύ β λ έ π ω ν
π λ ο ΰ τ ο ς ή τ ώ ν α ρ ε τ ώ ν έ σ τ ι π ε ρ ιο υ σ ία , η ν ε υ θ ύ ς
γ ν ή σ ιο ν κ α ι ε ΰ ν ο μ ο ν π α ρ ά τ ά ς ν ό θ ο υ ς κ α ι φ ε υ δ ω ν ύ -
μ ο υ ς α ρ χ ά ς ύ π ο λ η π τ έ ο ν ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ν έ ν δ ίκ ω ς ά π α ν τ α
26 π ρ υ τ α ν ε ύ ο υ σ α ν . ο υ δ ε ι δ έ ά γ ν ο ε ΐν , ο τ ι
τ ά δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ΐα φ έ ρ ε τ α ι μ ε τ ά ν ο ια τ ε λ ε ιό τ η τ ο ς , ώ σ π ε ρ
κ α ι ά ν ο σ ο υ σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ή π ρ ο ς ύ γ ε ία ν ε ξ α σ θ ε ν ε ία ς
μ ε τ α β ο λ ή , τ ό μ έ ν ο ΰ ν δ ιη ν ε κ έ ς κ α ι τ έ λ ε ιο ν έ ν
ά ρ ε τ α ΐς έ γ γ υ τ ά τ ω θ ε ία ς ισ τ α τ α ι δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς , ή δ ' ά π ό
τ ίν ο ς χ ρ ό ν ο υ β ε λ τ ίω σ ις ϊδ ιο ν α γ α θ ό ν ε υ φ υ ο ύ ς φ υ χ ή ς
έ σ τ ι μ η τ ο ις π α ιδ ικ ο ΐς έ π ιμ ε ν ο ύ σ η ς ά λ λ ' ά δ ρ ο τ έ ρ ο ις
κ α ι α ν δ ρ ό ς ό ν τ ω ς φ ρ ο ν ή μ α σ ιν έ π ιζ η τ ο ύ σ η ς ε ΰ δ ιο ν
κ α τ ά σ τ α σ ιν [ φ ν χ ή ς ] κ α ι τ ή φ α ν τ α σ ία τ ώ ν κ α λ ώ ν
έ π ιτ ρ ε χ ο ύ σ η ς .
27 V. "Ο θ ε ν ε ίκ ό τ ω ς τ ω μ ε τ α ν ε ν ο η κ ό τ ι τ ά τ τ ε ι κ α τ ά
τ ό έ ξ η ς τ ο ν θ ε ο φ ιλ ή κ α ι φ ιλ ά ρ ε τ ο ν , ο ς Ε β ρ α ίω ν
μ έ ν τ ή γ λ ώ τ τ Ύ } κ α λ ε ίτ α ι Ν ώ β , τ ή δ έ ^Ε λ λ ή ν ω ν
" ά ν ά π α υ σ ις " ή " δ ίκ α ιο ς ," ο ίκ ε ιό τ α τ α ι π ρ ο σ ρ ή σ ε ις
σ ο φ ώ ' ε μ φ α ν ώ ς μ έ ν ο δ ίκ α ιο ς , ά μ ε ιν ο ν γ ά ρ ο υ δ έ ν
δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η ς , τ ή ς έ ν ά ρ ε τ α ΐς ή γ ε μ ο ν ίδ ο ς , ή κ α θ ά π ε ρ
έ ν χ ο ρ ώ κ α λ λ ισ τ ε ύ ο υ σ α π ρ ε σ β ε ύ ε ι
9
ή δ ' ά ν ά π α υ σ ις ,
έ π ε ι κ α ι τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν τ ή ν π α ρ ά φ ύ σ ιν κ ίν η σ ιν τ α ρ α χ ώ ν
α
" Unnatural movement of the soul" is a phrase used
by the Stoics to define π ά θ ο ς S. V.F. iii. 4,62 and 476.
16
ON ABRAHAM, 24-27
to promote the growth of goodness in the soul. That 24
was why he said that the " transferred " was not
found, being hard to find and hard to seek. So he
passes across from ignorance to instruction, from
folly to sound sense, from cowardice to courage, from
impiety to piety, and again from voluptuousness
to self-control, from vaingloriousness to simplicity.
And what wealth is equal in worth to these, or what
possession of royalty or dominion more profitable ?
For in very truth the wealth which is not blind 25
but keen of sight is abundance of virtues, which con-
sequently we must needs hold to be, in contrast to
the bastard governments falsely so-called, genuine
and equitable sovereignty ruling in justice over all.
But we must not forget that repentance 26
holds the second place to perfection, just as a change
from sickness to health is second to a body free from
disease ; so, then, unbroken perfection of virtues
stands nearest to divine power, but improvement in
the course of time is the peculiar treasure of a soul
gifted by nature, which does not stay in childish
thoughts but by such as are more robust and truly
manly seeks to gain a condition of serenity and
pursues the vision of the excellent.
V. Naturally, therefore, next to the repentant he 27
sets the lover of virtue and beloved by God, who in
the Hebrew language is called Noah but in ours
" rest " or " just," both very suitable titles for the
Sage. " Just " is obviously so, for nothing is better
than justice, the chief among the virtues, who like
the fairest maiden of the dance holds the highest
place. But " rest" is appropriate also, since its op-
posite, unnatural movement/
1
proves to be the cause
17
PHILO
κ α ι θ ο ρ ύ β ω ν σ τ ά σ ε ω ν τ ε κ α ι π ο λ έ μ ω ν α ίτ ιο ν ε ίν α ι
σ υ μ β έ β η κ ε ν , η ν μ ε τ ία σ ιν ο ι φ α ύ λ ο ι, ή ρ ε μ α ΐο ν δ έ κ α ι
ή σ υ χ ά ζ ο ν τ α κ α ι σ τ α θ ε ρ ό ν ε τ ι δ έ κ α ι ε ίρ η ν ικ ό ν β ίο ν
28 ο ι κ α λ ο κ ά γ α θ ία ν τ ε τ ιμ η κ ό τ ε ς . ε π ό μ ε ν ο ς
δ ' α υ τ ό ς α ύ τ ώ κ α ι τ η ν έ β δ ό μ η ν , ή ν Ε β ρ α ίο ι
σ ά β β α τ α κ α λ ο ϋ σ ιν , ά ν ά π α υ σ ιν ο ν ο μ ά ζ ε ι, ο ύ χ , ώ ς
ο ΐο ν τ α ί τ ίν ε ς , ό τ ι δ ι* ε ξ ή μ ε ρ ω ν τ ώ ν σ υ ν ή θ ω ν έ ρ γ ω ν
ά π ε ίχ ε τ ο τ ό π λ ή θ ο ς , ά λ λ ' ό τ ι τ ω ό ν τ ι ό έ β δ ο μ ο ς
α ρ ιθ μ ό ς ε ν τ ε τ ω κ ό σ μ ω κ α ι έ ν ή μ ιν α ύ τ ο ΐς ά ε ι
ά σ τ α σ ία σ τ ο ς κ α ι ά π ό λ ε μ ο ς κ α ι ά φ ιλ ό ν ε ικ ο ς κ α ι
29 ε ίρ η ν ικ ώ τ α τ ο ς α π ά ν τ ω ν α ρ ιθ μ ώ ν έ σ τ ι. μ ά ρ τ υ ρ ε ς
δ έ τ ο υ λ ε χ θ έ ν τ ο ς α ι έ ν ή μ ιν δ υ ν ά μ ε ις * α ι μ έ ν γ ά ρ
ε ξ τ ο ν ά π α υ σ τ ο ν κ α ι σ υ ν ε χ ή π ό λ ε μ ο ν έ ν γ ή κ α ι
θ α λ ά τ τ τ ) σ υ γ κ ρ ο τ ο ΰ σ ιν , α ι τ ε π έ ν τ ε α ισ θ ή σ ε ις κ α ι
ο π ρ ο φ ο ρ ικ ό ς λ ό γ ο ς , α ι μ έ ν π ό θ ω τ ώ ν α ίσ θ η τ ώ ν ,
ώ ν ε ά ν μ ή τ υ γ χ ά ν ω σ ιν , ά ν ιώ ν τ α ι, ό δ ' ά χ α λ ίν ω
30 σ τ ό μ α τ ι μ ύ ρ ια τ ώ ν ή σ υ χ α σ τ έ ω ν έ κ λ α λ ώ ν ή δ '
ε β δ ό μ η δ ύ ν α μ ις ή π ε ρ ί τ ο ν η γ ε μ ό ν α ν ο υ ν , ο ς ό τ α ν
έ π ικ υ δ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ς γ έ ν η τ α ι τ ώ ν ε ξ κ α ι δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ α
ρ ώ μ η κ α τ α κ ρ α τ ή σ α ς α ν α χ ώ ρ η σ η , μ ό ν ω σ ιν ά σ π α σ ά -
μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι τ α ΐς έ α υ τ ο ΰ π ρ ο ς ε α υ τ ό ν (χ α ίρ ω ν }
1
ό μ ιλ ία ις ώ ς ά π ρ ο σ δ ε ή ς ώ ν έ τ ε ρ ο υ κ α ι α ύ τ α ρ κ έ -
σ τ α τ ο ς έ α υ τ ώ , τ η ν ικ α ϋ τ α φ ρ ο ν τ ίδ ω ν κ α ι π ρ α γ μ α -
[ 6] τ ε ιώ ν | α π α λ λ α γ ε ίς τ ώ ν έ ν τ ω θ ν η τ ώ γ έ ν ε ι β ίο ν
ε ΰ δ ιο ν κ α ι γ α λ η ν ό ν α σ π ά ζ ε τ α ι.
31 VI. Ο ύ τ ω ς δ ' ά π ο σ ε μ ν ύ ν ε ι τ ο ν φ ιλ ά ρ ε τ ο ν , ώ σ τ ε
κ α ι γ ε ν ε α λ ό γ ω ν α υ τ ό ν ο ύ , κ α θ ά π ε ρ έ θ ο ς έ π ι τ ώ ν
ά λ λ ω ν , π ά π π ω ν ή π ρ ο π ά π π ω ν ή π ρ ο γ ό ν ω ν π ο ιε ίτ α ι
κ α τ ά λ ο γ ο ν , ό σ ο ι π ρ ο ς α ν δ ρ ώ ν ή π ρ ο ς γ υ ν α ικ ώ ν
ε ίσ ιν , ά λ λ α τ ίν ω ν α ρ ε τ ώ ν , μ ό ν ο ν ο υ χ ί β ο ώ ν ά ν τ ι-
1
Or read ras . . . ο μ ιλ ία ς omitting χ α ίρ ω ν ,
18
ON ABRAHAM, 27-31
of turmoil and confusion and factions and wars. Such
movement is sought by the worthless, while a life
which is calm, serene, tranquil and peaceful to boot is
the object of those who have valued nobility of con-
duct. He shews consistency, too, when he 28
gives to the seventh day, which the Hebrews call
sabbath, the name of rest; not, as some think, because
the multitude abstained after six days from their
usual tasks, but because in truth the number seven,
both in the world and in ourselves, is always free from
factions and war and quarrelling and is of all numbers
the most peaceful. This statement is attested by 29
the faculties within us, for six
a
of them wage cease-
less and continuous war on land and sea, namely the
five senses and speech, the former in their craving
for the objects of sense, deprivation of which is
painful to them, speech because with unbridled
mouth it perpetually gives utterance where silence
is due. But the seventh faculty is that of the 30
dominant mind, which, after triumphing over the
six and returning victorious through its superior
strength, welcomes solitude and rejoices in its own
society, feeling that it needs no other and is com-
pletely sufficient for itself, and then released from
the cares and concerns of mortal kind gladly accepts
a life of calmness and serenity.
VI. So highly does Moses extol the lover of virtue 31
that when he gives his genealogy he does not, as he
usually does in other cases, make a list of his grand^
fathers, great-grandfathers and ancestors in the male
and female line, but of certain virtues, and this is
α
Elsewhere, when Philo's argument requires it, the facul-
ties, excluding mind, are seven by the addition of repro-
duction (τ ό *γ 6ι>ψ ο ν ), De Op. 117, De Mut. 111.
19
PHILO
κ ρ ν ς , ο τ ι ο Ικ ία κ α ΐ σ υ γ γ έ ν ε ια κ α ΐ π α τ ρ ίς ο υ δ ε μ ία
ε σ τ ίν ε τ έ ρ α σ ο φ ώ ο τ ι μ ή ά ρ ε τ α ϊ κ α ι α ϊ κ α τ α ρ ε τ ά ς
π ρ ά ξ ε ις * " α ύ τ α ι " γ ά ρ φ η σ ιν " α ϊ γ ε ν έ σ ε ις Ν α >€·
Ν ώ β ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς δ ίκ α ιο ς , τ έ λ ε ιο ς έ ν τ ή γ ε ν ε ά α υ τ ο ύ ,
32 τ ω θ ε ώ ε υ η ρ έ σ τ η σ ε ν !
9
ο υ δ ε ΐ δ έ ά γ ν ο ε ΐν , ο τ ι ν υ ν
" ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν " ο υ κ ο ιν ώ τ ύ π ω τ ό λ ο γ ικ ό ν θ ν η τ ό ν
ζ ώ ο ν κ α λ ε ί, τ ο ν μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α τ * ε ξ ο χ ή ν , δ ς ε π α λ η θ ε ύ ε ι
τ ο ΰ ν ο μ α τ ά α τ ίθ α σ α κ α ι λ ε λ υ τ τ η κ ό τ α π ά θ η κ α ι τ ά ς
θ η ρ ιω ο ε σ τ ά τ α ς κ α κ ία ς τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς ά π ε λ η λ α κ ώ ς .
33 σ η μ ε ΐο ν δ έ ' μ ε τ ά τ ο ν " ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν
99
ε π ιλ έ γ ε ι τ ο ν
ο ικ α ιο ν ε ιπ ώ ν α ν ν ρ ω π ο ς ο ικ α ιο ς , ω ς α ο ικ ο υ
μ έ ν ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς ο ν τ ο ς ά ν θ ρ ω π ο υ (κ υ ρ ιώ τ ε ρ ο ν δ ' ε ιπ ε ίν
ά ν θ ρ ω π ο μ ό ρ φ ο υ θ η ρ ίο υ ), μ ό ν ο υ 8έ ο ς α ν ζ η λ ω τ ή ς ή
34 δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η ς . φ η σ ι δ ' α υ τ ό ν κ α ι " τ έ -
λ ε ιο ν
99
γ ε γ ο ν έ ν α ι δ ιά τ ο ύ τ ο υ π α ρ ισ τ ά ς , ώ ς ο υ μ ία ν
ά ρ ε τ ή ν ά λ λ α π ά σ α ς έ κ τ ή σ α τ ο κ α ι κ τ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ς
έ κ α σ τ η κ α τ ά τ ό ε π ιβ ά λ λ ο ν χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς δ ιε τ έ λ ε σ ε ν ,
35 έ π ισ τ ε φ α ν ώ ν δ ' α υ τ ό ν ώ ς ά γ ω ν ισ τ ή ν
έ κ ν ε ν ικ η κ ό τ α κ η ρ ύ γ μ α τ ι λ α μ π ρ ό τ α τ ο ) π ρ ο σ ε π ικ ο σ μ ε ΐ
I / «/ tt Λ /) Λ > / ft Τ / / >
ψ α σ κ ω ν , ο τ ι τ ω σ ε ω ε υ η ρ ε σ τ η σ ε ν * ο υ τ ι γ ε ν ο ιτ
α ν έ ν τ ή φ ύ σ ε ι κ ρ ε ΐτ τ ο ν ; τ ις κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία ς ε ν -
α ρ γ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ς
1
έ λ ε γ χ ο ς ; ε ι γ ά ρ ο ι δ υ σ α ρ ε σ τ ή σ α ν τ ε ς τ ω
θ ε ώ κ α κ ο δ α ίμ ο ν ε ς , ο ΐς ε ύ α ρ ε σ τ ή σ α ι σ υ ν έ β η π ά ν τ ω ς
36 ε ύ δ α ίμ ο ν ε ς . VII. ο υ κ ά π ό σ κ ο π ο ύ μ έ ν -
τ ο ι τ α ις τ ο σ α ύ τ α ις ά ρ ε τ α ΐς ύ μ ν ή σ α ς τ ο ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν
έ π ε ΐπ ε ν , ο τ ι" τ έ λ ε ιο ς η ν έ ν τ ή γ ε ν ε ά α ύ τ ο ΰ ," δ η λ ώ ν
ό τ ι ο υ κ α θ ά π α ξ ά λ λ α κ α τ ά σ ύ γ κ ρ ισ ιν τ ώ ν κ α τ
9
37 ε κ ε ίν ο ν τ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν γ ε γ ο ν ό τ ω ν α γ α θ ό ς η ν . ή δ η γ ά ρ
1
MSS. τ η ς κ . έ ν α ρ Ύ έ σ τ α τ ο *.
α
Gen. vi. 9, cf. Quod Deus 117.
b
i.e. " a man, a just one." As the Greek adjective needs
no substantive expressed, ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς , which would be otherwise
20
ON ABRAHAM, 31-37
little less than a direct assertion that a sage has no
house or kinsfolk or country save virtues and virtuous
actions ; " for these," he says," are the generations of
Noah. Noah, a man just and perfect in his genera-
tion, was well-pleasing to God."
a
But we must not 32
fail to note that in this passage he gives the name of
man not according to the common form of speech, to
the mortal animal endowed with reason, but to the
man who is man pre-eminently, who verifies the name
by having expelled from the soul the untamed and
frantic passions and the truly beast-like vices. Here 33
is a proof. After "man " he adds "just," implying by
the combination
6
that the unjust is no man, or more
properly speaking a beast in human form, and that
the follower after righteousness alone is man.
He says, too, that Noah became " perfect," thereby 34
shewing that he acquired not one virtue but all, and
having acquired them continued to exercise each as op-
portunities allowed. And as he crowns him 35
as victor in the contest, he gives him further distinc-
tion by a proclamation couched in words of splendid
praise, " he was well-pleasing to God." What better
thing than this has nature to give ? What clearer
proof can there be of nobility of life ? For, if those
who have been ill-pleasing to God are ill-fated,
happy most surely are those whose lot it is to be well-
pleasing to God. VII. But Moses makes 36
a good point when, after praising him as possessed of
all these virtues, he adds that he was perfect in his
generation, thus shewing he was not good absolutely
but in comparison with the men of that time. For 37
superfluous, must have a special emphasis. Assuming, as
Philo does, that the LXX follows the usage of classical Greek,
the argument has some weight.
21
PHILO
ο υ κ ε ίς μ α κ ρ ά ν έ π ιμ ν η σ θ ή σ ε τ α ι σ ο φ ώ ν ε τ έ ρ ω ν , ο ι
τ η ν ά ρ ε τ ή ν ά ν α ν τ α γ ώ ν ισ τ ο ν έ σ χ ο ν , ο υ π ο ν η ρ ο ίς
ά ν τ ε ζ ε τ α σ θ έ ν τ ε ς ο ύ δ ' ο τ ι β ε λ τ ίο υ ς έ γ έ ν ο ν τ ο τ ώ ν
κ α τ α υ τ ο ύ ς α π ο δ ο χ ή ς κ α ι π ρ ο ν ο μ ία ς ά ξ ιω θ έ ν τ ε ς ,
ά λ λ ' ο τ ι φ ύ σ ιν ε ΰ μ ο ιρ ο ν κ τ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ι δ ια τ ή ρ η σ α ν
α υ τ ή ν ά δ ιά σ τ ρ ο φ ο ν , ο ύ φ υ γ ό ν τ ε ς μ ο χ θ η ρ ά ε π ιτ η δ ε ύ -
μ α τ α , ά λ λ ' ο υ δ έ τ η ν α ρ χ ή ν α ύ τ ο ΐς π ε ρ ιπ ε σ ό ν τ ε ς ,
π ρ ο η γ ο υ μ έ ν ω ς δ έ κ α λ ώ ν έ ρ γ ω ν κ α ι λ ό γ ω ν ά σ κ η τ α ι
38 γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ο ν β ίο ν έ π ε κ ό σ μ ο υ ν . θ α υ μ α σ ιώ τ α τ ο ι
μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ά ν δ ρ ε ς έ κ ε ΐν ο ι γ ε γ ό ν α σ ιν , ο ι τ α ΐς ό ρ μ α ίς
έ λ ε υ θ έ ρ α ις κ α ι ε ύ γ ε ν έ σ ιν έ χ ρ ή σ α ν τ ο , μ ή κ α τ ά
μ ίμ η σ ιν ή έ ν α ν τ ίω σ ιν έ τ ε ρ ω ν , ά λ λ ' α υ τ ό τ ό κ α λ ό ν
κ α ι τ ό δ ίκ α ιο ν ά π ο δ ε ζ ά μ ε ν ο ι, θ α υ μ ά σ ιο ς δ έ κ α ι ό
τ ή ς κ α θ * α υ τ ό ν γ ε ν ε ά ς δ ιε ν η ν ο χ ώ ς κ α ι μ η δ ε ν ι
σ υ ν ε ν ε χ θ ε ις ώ ν έ ζ ή λ ω σ α ν ο ι π ο λ λ ο ί- δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ίω ν μ έ ν
ο ΰ τ ο ς έ φ ίξ ε τ α ι, τ ά δ έ π ρ ώ τ α τ ώ ν ά θ λ ω ν έ κ ε ίν ο ις
39 ά ν α δ ώ σ ε ι ή φ ύ σ ις , τ ά μ έ ν τ ο ι δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ΐα κ α ι α υ τ ά
[ 7] μ ε γ ά λ α ' τ ι | δ ' ο υ χ ί μ έ γ α κ α ΐ π ε ρ ιμ ά χ η τ ο ν ώ ν
ό ρ έ γ ε ι κ α ι δ ω ρ ε ΐτ α ι θ ε ό ς ; σ α φ έ σ τ α τ η δ έ
π ίσ τ ις α ι τ ώ ν χ α ρ ίτ ω ν ύ π ε ρ β ο λ α ί, ώ ν ο ΰ τ ο ς ε τ υ χ ε ν .
40 έ π ε ι γ ά ρ α δ ικ η μ ά τ ω ν φ ο ρ ά ν ή ν ε γ κ ε ν ό χ ρ ό ν ο ς
ε κ ε ίν ο ς κ α ι π ά σ α χ ώ ρ α κ α ι έ θ ν ο ς κ α ι π ό λ ις κ α ι
ο ικ ία κ α ι έ κ α σ τ ο ς ίδ ια π ο ν η ρ ώ ν ε π ιτ η δ ε υ μ ά τ ω ν
ά ν ε π έ π λ η σ τ ο , π ά ν τ ω ν ε κ ο υ σ ίω ς κ α ι έ κ π ρ ο ν ο ία ς ώ ς
έ ν ά γ ώ ν ι π ε ρ ι τ ώ ν έ ν τ ω δ ι α ^α ρ τ ά ν ε ι ν π ρ ω τ ε ίω ν
ά μ ιλ λ ω μ έ ν ω ν —μ ε τ ά σ π ο υ δ ή ς γ ά ρ ά π ά σ η ς έ φ ιλ ο -
ν ε ίκ ο υ ν , έ κ α σ τ ο υ τ ο ν π λ η σ ίο ν μ ε γ έ θ ε ι κ α κ ία ς ύ π ε ρ -
β α λ ε ΐν έ π ε ιγ ο μ έ ν ο υ κ α ι μ η δ έ ν π α ρ α λ ε ίπ ο ν τ ο ς τ ώ ν
41 π ρ ο ς έ π ίλ η π τ ο ν κ α ΐ έ π ά ρ α τ ο ν β ίο ν . VIII. έ φ * ο ΐς
ό θ ε ό ς ε ίκ ό τ ω ς δ υ σ γ ε ρ ά ν α ς , ε ΐ τ ό ζ ώ ο ν τ ό ά ρ ισ τ ο ν
22
ON ABRAHAM, 37-41
we shall shortly find him mentioning other sages
whose virtue was unchallenged, who are not con-
trasted with the bad, who are adjudged worthy of
approval and precedence, not because they were
better than their contemporaries but because they
possessed a happily-gifted nature and kept it un-
perverted, who did not have to shun evil courses or
indeed come into contact with them at all, but
attained pre-eminence in practising that excellence
of words and deeds with which they adorned their
lives. The highest admiration, then, is due to those 38
in whom the ruling impulses were of free and noble
birth, who accepted the excellent and just for their
own selves and not in imitation of or in opposition to
others. But admiration is also due to him who stood
apart from his own generation and conformed him-
self to none of the aims and aspirations of the many.
He will win the second prize, though the first will be
awarded by nature to those others. Yet great also is 39
the second prize in itself, for how could anything fail to
be great and worthy of our efforts which God offers and
gives ? And the clearest proof of this is
the exceeding magnitude of the bounties which Noah
obtained. That time bore its harvest of iniquities, and 40
every country and nation and city and household and
every private individual was filled with evil practices ;
one and all, as though in a race, engaged in rivalry
pre-willed and premeditated foi the first places in
sinfulness, and put all possible zeal into the conten-
tion, each one pressing on to exceed his neighbour in
magnitude of vice and leaving nothing undone which
could lead to a guilty and accursed life. VIII.
Naturally this roused the wrath of God, to think that 41
man, who seemed the best of all living creatures,
23
PHILO
ε ΐν α ι δ ο κ ο ύ ν κ α \ σ υ γ γ ε ν ε ία ς ά ξ ιω θ έ ν τ ή ς π ρ ο ς α υ τ ό ν
έ ν ε κ α τ ή ς έ ν τ ω λ ό γ ω κ ο ιν ω ν ία ς , δ έ ο ν ά ρ ε τ ή ν
έ π ιτ η δ ε ύ ε ιν , έ ζ ή λ ω σ ε κ α κ ία ν κ α ι τ ά ε ϊδ η π ά ν τ α
κ α κ ία ς , δ ίκ η ν ο ρ ίζ ε ι τ η ν π ρ ο σ ή κ ο υ σ α ν , ά φ α ν ίσ α ι
τ ο υ ς τ ό τ ε ό ν τ α ς κ α τ α κ λ υ σ μ ώ δ ια ν ο η θ ε ίς , ο υ μ ό ν ο ν
τ ο υ ς έ ν τ ή π ε δ ιά δ ι κ α ι τ ο ις χ θ α μ α λ ω τ έ ρ ο ις ά λ λ α
κ α ι τ ο υ ς έ ν τ ο ις ύ φ η λ ο τ ά τ ο ις δ ρ ε σ ι κ α τ ο ικ ο ϋ ν τ α ς .
42 ή μ έ ν γ ά ρ μ ε γ ά λ η θ ά λ α τ τ α μ ε τ έ ω ρ ο ς ώ ς ο υ δ έ π ω
π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ά ρ θ ε ΐσ α δ ιά τ ώ ν σ τ ο μ ά τ ω ν α θ ρ ό α ρ ύ μ η
τ ο ις κ α θ * ή α ς ε ίσ ε ρ ρ ύ η π ε λ ά γ ε σ ι, τ ά δ έ π λ η μ -
μ ύ ρ α ν τ α ν ή σ ο υ ς κ α ι η π ε ίρ ο υ ς έ π έ κ λ υ σ ε , π η γ ώ ν δ '
ά ε ν ά ω ν κ α ι π ο τ α μ ώ ν α ύ θ ιγ ε ν ώ ν τ ε κ α ι χ ε ιμ ά ρ ρ ω ν
ε π ά λ λ η λ ο ι φ ο ρ α ι σ υ ν ή π τ ο ν ά λ λ τ ^λ α ι ^ ά ν α χ ε ό μ ε ν α ι
43 κ α ι π ρ ο ς ύ φ ο ς έ π α ιρ ό μ ε ν α ι έ π έ β α ιν ο ν . ο υ μ η ν
ο υ δ έ ό ά ή ρ ή ρ έ μ ε ΐ' π ά ν τ α γ ά ρ τ ο ν ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν β α θ ύ
κ α ι σ υ ν ε χ έ ς ν έ φ ο ς έ π ε ΐχ ε κ α ι π ν ε ύ μ α τ α η ν ε ξ α ίσ ια
π ά τ α γ ο ι τ ε β ρ ο ν τ ώ ν κ α ι έ π ιλ ά μ φ ε ις α σ τ ρ α π ώ ν κ α ι
κ ε ρ α υ ν ώ ν φ ο ρ α ι, κ α τ α ρ ρ η γ ν υ μ έ ν ω ν ό μ β ρ ω ν ά π α ύ σ -
τ ω ν , ώ ς ν ο μ ίσ α ι τ ά μ έ ρ η τ ο υ π α ν τ ό ς ε ίς μ ία ν φ ύ σ ιν
τ η ν ύ δ α τ ο ς ά ν α σ τ ο ιχ ε ιο ύ μ ε ν α σ π ε ύ δ ε ιν , έ ω ς τ ο υ μ έ ν
ά ν ω θ ε ν κ α τ α ρ ά τ τ ο ν τ ο ς τ ο υ δ έ κ ά τ ω θ ε ν έ π α ν ιό ν τ ο ς
μ ε τ ά ρ σ ια ή ρ θ η τ ά ρ ε ίθ ρ α , ο ΐς ο υ μ ό ν ο ν ή π ε δ ιά ς κ α ι
ό σ η χ θ α μ α λ ή κ α τ α κ λ υ σ θ ε ΐσ α ή φ α ν ίσ θ η , ά λ λ α κ α ι
44 τ ώ ν ύ φ η λ ο τ ά τ ω ν ο ρ ώ ν α ι κ ο ρ υ φ α ί. π ά ν τ α γ ά ρ τ ά
μ έ ρ η τ ή ς γ ή ς ε δ υ κ α θ
9
ύ δ α τ ο ς , ώ ς π ά σ α ν κ α θ -
η ρ π ά σ θ α ι κ α ι τ ο ν κ ό σ μ ο ν ά κ ρ ω τ η ρ ια σ θ έ ν τ α μ ε γ ά λ ω
τ μ ή μ α τ ι τ ο ν π α ν τ ε λ ή κ α ι ό λ ό κ λ η ρ ο ν , δ μ ή τ ε ε ιπ ε ίν
Β
LXX Gen. ν ϋ . 11" the fountains of the abyss were broken
up." By the Hebrew word translated in the LXX by ά β υ σ σ ο ς
is understood the "ocean which both encircled the world,
and occupied the vast hollows beneath the earth " (Driver).
Philo seems to represent the first part of this conception by
24
ON ABRAHAM, 41-44
who had been judged worthy of kinship with Him
because he shared the gift of reason, had, instead of
practising virtue as he should, shewn zeal for vice
and for every particular form of it. Accordingly He
appointed the penalty which fitted their wickedness.
He determined to destroy all those who were then
alive by a deluge, not only those who dwelt in the
plains and lower lands, but also the inhabitants of
the highest mountains. For the great deep
a
rose on 42
high as it had never risen before, and gathering its
force rushed through its outlets into the seas of our
parts, and the rising tides of these flooded the islands
and continents, while in quick succession the streams
from the perennial fountains and from the rivers
spring-fed or winter-torrents pressed on to join each
other and mounted upwards to a vast height. Nor 43
was the air still, for a deep unbroken cloud covered
the heaven, and there were monstrous blasts of wind
and crashings of thunder and flashings of lightning
and downfall of thunderbolts, while the rainstorms
dashed down ceaselessly, so that one might think
that the different parts of the universe were hurry-
ing to be resolved into the single element of water,
until, as in one form it rushed down from above and
in another rose up from below, the streams were
lifted on high, and thus not only the plains and low-
lands were submerged and lost to sight, but even the
peaks of the highest mountains. For all parts of the 44
earth sank below the water, so that it was entirely
carried away as though by violence, and the world
seemed mutilated by the loss of a great section, its
completeness and perfection destroyed and defaced,
"the great sea or deep," and the second by the "perennial
fountains."
25
PHILO
μ ή τ ε ν ο ή σ α ι θ έ μ ις , λ ε λ ω β ή σ θ α ι δ ο κ ε ΐν . ά λ λ α γ ά ρ
κ α ι 6 ά ή ρ , έ ξ ω μ έ ρ ο υ ς β ρ α χ έ ο ς τ ο υ κ α τ ά σ ε λ ή ν η ν ,
ά π α ς ά ν ή λ ω τ ο ν ικ η θ ε ίς υ π ό τ ή ς τ ο υ ύ δ α τ ο ς φ ο ρ ά ς
κ α ι β ία ς , ό π ε ρ ά ν ά κ ρ ά τ ο ς τ η ν ε κ ε ίν ο υ χ ώ ρ α ν
45 έ π έ σ χ ε . τ ό τ ε δ η τ ό τ ε ε υ θ ύ ς έ φ θ ε ίρ ε τ ο ό σ α σ π α ρ τ ά
κ α ι δ έ ν δ ρ α —φ θ ε ίρ ε ι γ ά ρ ώ ς έ ν δ ε ια κ α ι π λ ή θ ο ς
ά μ ε τ ρ ο ν ,—ε θ ν η σ κ ο ν δ ' at μ υ ρ ία ι τ ώ ν ζ ώ ω ν ά γ έ λ α ι
ή μ ε ρ ω ν ό μ ο ΰ κ α ι ά γ ρ ιω ν η ν γ ά ρ ε ικ ό ς , τ ο υ κ ρ α τ ί-
σ τ ο υ γ έ ν ο υ ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ά φ α ν ιζ ο μ έ ν ο υ , μ η δ έ ν ύ π ο λ ε ι-
φ θ ή ν α ι τ ώ ν χ ε ιρ ό ν ω ν , έ π ε ι κ α ι π ρ ο ς τ ά ς ε κ ε ίν ο υ
χ ρ ε ία ς έ γ έ ν ε τ ο δ ο ύ λ α τ ρ ό π ο ν τ ιν ά δ ε σ π ο τ ικ α ΐς
46 π ρ ο σ τ ά ζ ε σ ιν ύ π η ρ ε τ ή σ ο ν τ α . τ ο σ ο ύ τ ω ν \
[ 8] δ η κ α ι τ η λ ικ ο ύ τ ω ν έ π ιρ ρ α ξ ά ν τ ω ν κ α κ ώ ν , ά π ε ρ
ε κ ε ίν ο ς ο κ α ιρ ό ς ώ μ β ρ η σ ε —π ά ν τ α γ ά ρ τ ά τ ο υ
κ ό σ μ ο υ μ έ ρ η , δ ίχ α τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ο ν ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν , έ κ ιν ή θ η
π α ρ ά φ ύ σ ιν , ώ ς α ν β α ρ ε ΐα ν κ α ι θ α ν α τ ώ δ η ν ό σ ο ν
ν ο σ ή σ α ν τ α ,—μ ό ν ο ς δ έ ε ις ο ίκ ο ς ο τ ο υ λ ε χ θ έ ν τ ο ς
α ν δ ρ ό ς δ ικ α ίο υ κ α ι θ ε ο φ ιλ ο ύ ς δ ια σ ώ ζ ε τ α ι δ ύ ο
λ α β ό ν τ ο ς τ ά ς ά ν ω τ ά τ ω δ ω ρ ε ά ς , μ ία ν μ έ ν , η ν ε ΐπ ο ν ,
τ ό μ ή π ά σ ι τ ο ύ τ ο ις σ υ ν α π ο λ έ σ θ α ι, έ τ έ ρ α ν δ έ τ ό
π ά λ ιν ά ρ χ η γ έ τ η ν α υ τ ό ν ύ π ά ρ ξ α ι ν έ α ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν
σ π ο ρ ά ς * ή ξ ίω σ ε γ ά ρ α υ τ ό ν ό θ ε ό ς κ α ι τ έ λ ο ς τ ο υ
γ έ ν ο υ ς η μ ώ ν κ α ι α ρ χ ή ν γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι, τ έ λ ο ς μ έ ν τ ώ ν
π ρ ο τ ο υ κ α τ α κ λ υ σ μ ο ύ , τ ώ ν δ έ μ ε τ ά τ ο ν κ α τ ά -
κ λ υ σ μ ό ν α ρ χ ή ν .
47 IX. Τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ς μ έ ν ό τ ώ ν κ α θ * α υ τ ό ν ά ρ ισ τ ο ς ,
τ ο ια ύ τ α δ έ κ α ι τ ά τ ε θ ε ιμ έ ν α ά θ λ α α ύ τ ώ , ό π ο ια
δ ε δ ή λ ω κ ε ν ο ιε ρ ό ς λ ό γ ο ς , τ ώ ν δ ' ε ίρ η μ έ ν ω ν τ ρ ιώ ν
ε ΐτ ε α ν δ ρ ώ ν ε ίτ ε φ υ χ ή ς τ ρ ό π ω ν έ ν α ρ μ ό ν ιο ς ή τ ά ζ ις ·
ό μ έ ν γ ά ρ τ έ λ ε ιο ς ο λ ό κ λ η ρ ο ς έ ξ α ρ χ ή ς , ο δ έ μ ε τ ά -
τ ε θ ε ιμ έ ν ο ς ή μ ίε ρ γ ο ς , τ ο υ β ίο υ τ ο ν μ έ ν π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν
χ ρ ό ν ο ν ά ν α θ ε ϊς κ α κ ία , τ ο ν δ ' ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν α ρ ε τ ή , π ρ ο ς
26
ON ABRAHAM, 44- 47
a thing too terrible for words or even for thoughts.
Indeed even the air, except a small portion belong-
ing to the moon, had been completely made away
with, vanquished by the rush and violence of the
water which perforce occupied its place. Then 45
indeed at once all crops and trees perished, for ex-
cessive quantity of water is as destructive as the lack
of it, and the numberless herds of animals died, tame
and wild alike ; for it was to be expected that if the
highest kind, the human, was annihilated none of the
inferior kinds would be left, since they were made
for man's needs, as slaves in a sense meant to obey
their masters' orders. When all these 46
evils, so many and so vast, had burst upon the world
in the downpour which that occasion brought, and
the unnatural convulsion had shaken all its parts save
the heavenly as with a grievous and deadly plague,
one house alone, that of the man called just and
dear to God, was preserved. Thus he received two
gifts of the highest kind—one that, as I have
said, he did not perish with the rest, the other
that he should be in his turn the founder of a new
race of men. For God deemed him worthy to be
both the last and the first of our kind—last of those
who lived before the flood and first of those who
lived after it.
IX. Such was he who was best of his contem- 47
poraries, and such were the prizes awarded to him,
the nature of which is made clear in holy writ. Now
the three mentioned above, whether we think of
them as men or types of soul, form a series of regular
gradation : the perfect man is complete from the
first; the transferred stands half-way, since he devoted
the earlier part of his life to vice but the latter to
27
PHILO
ή ν μ ε τ α ν έ σ τ η κ α ΐ μ ε τ ω κ ίσ α τ ο , ό δ έ έ λ π ίζ ω ν , ώ ς
α υ τ ό δ η λ ο ΐ τ ο ΰ ν ο μ α , ε λ λ ιπ ή ς , έ φ ιέ μ ε ν ο ς μ έ ν ά ε ι τ ο υ
κ α λ ο ύ , μ ή π ω δ ' έ φ ικ έ σ θ α ι τ ο ύ τ ο υ δ ε δ υ ν η μ έ ν ο ς ,
ά λ λ ' έ ο ικ ώ ς τ ο ις π λ έ ο υ σ ιν , ο ι σ π ε ύ δ ο ν τ ε ς ε ίς λ ιμ έ ν α ς
κ α τ α ίρ ε ιν θ α λ α τ τ ε ύ ο υ σ ιν έ ν ο ρ μ ίσ α σ θ α ι μ ή δ υ ν ά -
μ ε ν ο ι.
48 Χ .
C
H μ έ ν ο ΰ ν π ρ ό τ ε ρ α τ ρ ιά ς τ ώ ν ά ρ ε τ ή ν έ π ι-
π ο θ η σ ά ν τ ω ν δ β δ ^λ ω τ α ι. μ ε ίζ ω ν δ έ έ σ τ ιν ή έ τ ε ρ α ,
π ε ρ ί ή ς ν υ ν ι λ ε κ τ έ ο ν . ε κ ε ίν η μ έ ν γ ά ρ τ ο ις έ ν
η λ ικ ία π α ιδ ικ ή μ α θ ή μ α σ ιν ε ο ικ ε ν ,^ α ύ τ η δ έ τ ο ις
α ν δ ρ ώ ν α θ λ η τ ικ ώ ν γ υ μ ν ά σ μ α σ ιν έ π ι τ ο υ ς ιε ρ ο ύ ς
ό ν τ ω ς ά λ ε ιφ ο μ έ ν ω ν α γ ώ ν α ς , ο ι σ ω μ α σ κ ία ς κ α τ α -
φ ρ ο ν ο ΰ ν τ ε ς τ ή ν έ ν τ ή φ υ χ ή κ α τ α σ κ ε υ ά ζ ο υ σ ιν
ε ύ ε ξ ία ν έ φ ιέ μ ε ν ο ι τ ή ς κ α τ ά τ ώ ν α ν τ ιπ ά λ ω ν π α θ ώ ν
49 ν ίκ η ς , ο ΐς μ έ ν ο ΰ ν δ ιε ν ή ν ο χ ε ν έ κ α σ τ ο ς έ φ ' έ ν κ α ι
τ ό α υ τ ό τ έ λ ο ς έ π ε ιγ ό μ ε ν ο ς , α ύ θ ις ά κ ρ ιβ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ν
έ ρ ο ΰ μ ε ν ά δ έ χ ρ ή π ε ρ ι τ ώ ν τ ρ ιώ ν σ υ λ λ ή β δ η ν
50 π ρ ο ε ιπ ε ΐν , ά ν α γ κ α ΐο ν μ ή π α ρ α σ ιω π ή σ α ι. τ ο ύ τ ο υ ς
τ ο ίν υ ν σ υ μ β έ β η κ ε μ ια ς ο ικ ία ς κ α ι ε ν ό ς γ έ ν ο υ ς ε ίν α ι
—ό γ ά ρ τ ε λ ε υ τ α ίο ς υ ιό ς μ έ ν έ σ τ ι τ ο υ μ έ σ ο υ , υ ίω ν ό ς
δ έ τ ο υ π ρ ώ τ ο υ —κ α ΐ π ά ν τ α ς φ ιλ ό θ ε ο υ ς ό μ ο ΰ κ α ι
θ ε ο φ ιλ ε ίς , ά γ α π ή σ α ν τ α ς τ ο ν α λ η θ ή θ ε ό ν κ α ι ά ν τ -
α γ α π η θ έ ν τ α ς π ρ ο ς α ύ τ ο ϋ , ό ς ή ξ ίω σ ε , κ α θ ά π ε ρ
δ η λ ο ϋ σ ιν ο ι χ ρ η σ μ ο ί, δ ιά τ ά ς ύ π ε ρ β ο λ ά ς τ ώ ν
α ρ ε τ ώ ν α ΐς σ υ ν ε β ίο υ ν κ ο ιν ω ν ή σ α ι τ ή ς π ρ ο σ ρ ή σ ε ω ς
51 α ύ τ ο ΐς .
1
τ ό γ ά ρ ϊδ ιο ν Ο ν ο μ α τ ο ις ε κ ε ίν ω ν έ ν -
α ρ μ ο σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ή ν ω σ ε , τ ή ν έ κ τ ώ ν τ ρ ιώ ν σ ύ ν θ ε τ ο ν
κ λ ή σ ιν έ π ιφ η μ ίσ α ς έ α υ τ ώ ' " τ ο ύ τ ο γ ά ρ μ ο υ " φ η σ ίν
" ό ν ο μ α έ σ τ ιν α ίώ ν ιο ν , θ ε ό ς
9
Α β ρ α ά μ κ α ι θ ε ό ς
[ 9] Ι σ α ά κ κ α ι θ ε ό ς
9
1α κ ώ β "—ά ν τ ι τ ο ύ \ κ α θ ά π α ζ τ ό
1
So most MSS. : Cohn prints α ύ τ ο ΰ , but suggests the
insertion of α υ τ ο ύ ς .
28
ON ABRAHAM, 47-51
virtue to which he passed over and migrated ; the
hoper, as his very name shews, is defective inasmuch
as though he always desired the excellent he has not
yet been able to attain to it, but resembles sailors
eager to put into port, who yet remain at sea unable
to reach their haven.
X. So now we have explained the first trinity of 48
those who yearn for virtue ; but greater is the second
trinity of which we have now to speak. The first we
may compare to the studies of children, but the
latter to the exercises of athletes who are preparing
for games which are really sacred,® men who despise
bodily training but foster robustness of soul in their
desire for victory over their antagonists, the passions.
How each of these differed from the others while 49
pressing on to one and the same goal will be described
in detail later ; but there is something to be said
about them taken as a whole which must not be
omitted. We find that these three are all of one 50
house and one family. The last is the son of the
second and grandson to the first. All alike are God-
lovers and God-beloved, and their affection for the true
God was returned by Him, Who deigned, as His utter-
ances shew, in recognition of their high and life-long
virtues to make them partners in the title which He
took, for He united them by joining His special name 51
to theirs and calling Himself by one combined of the
three. " For this," He said, " is my eternal name
b

the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God
of Jacob," relative instead of absolute,
0
and surely that
β
In contrast to the falsely called " holy " games of the
Greeks; cf. De Agr. 116 f.
b
Ex iii. 15, cf. De Mut. 12 f.
• See App. p. 597.
29
PHILO
π ρ ό ς τ ΐ' κ α ι μ ή π ο τ ε ίκ ό τ ω ς * ο ν ό μ α τ ο ς γ ά ρ ό θ ε ό ς
ο ύ δ ε ΐτ α ι, μ ή δ ε ό μ ε ν ο ς δ ' ό μ ω ς έ χ α ρ ίζ ε τ ο τ ω
γ έ ν ε ι τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν κ λ ή σ ιν ο ίκ ε ία ν , ιν έ χ ο ν τ ε ς
κ α τ α φ υ γ ή ν π ρ ό ς ικ ε σ ία ς κ α ι λ ιτ ά ς μ ή ά μ ο ιρ ώ σ ιν
52 ε λ π ίδ ο ς χ ρ η σ τ ή ς . XI. τ α ύ τ α μ έ ν ο υ ν
έ π ' α ν δ ρ ώ ν ό σ ιω ν ε ίρ ή σ θ α ι δ ο κ ε ΐ, μ η ν ύ μ α τ α δ
9
έ σ τ ι φ ύ σ ε ω ς ά δ η λ ο τ έ ρ α ς κ α ΐ π ο λ ύ β ε λ τ ίο ν ο ς τ ή ς έ ν
α ίσ θ η τ ο ΐς . τ ρ ό π ο υ ς γ ά ρ φ υ χ ή ς ε ο ικ ε ν ό ιε ρ ό ς
δ ιε ρ ε υ ν ά σ θ α ι λ ό γ ο ς , α σ τ ε ίο υ ς α π α ν τ ά ς , τ ο ν μ έ ν έ κ
δ ιδ α σ κ α λ ία ς , τ ο ν δ ' έ κ φ ύ σ ε ω ς , τ ο ν δ ' έ ζ α σ κ ή σ ε ω ς
έ φ ιέ μ ε ν ο ν τ ο υ κ α λ ο ΰ . ό μ έ ν γ ά ρ π ρ ώ τ ο ς , έ π ίκ λ η σ ιν
5
Α β ρ α ά μ , σ ύ μ β ο λ ο ν δ ιδ α σ κ α λ ικ ή ς α ρ ε τ ή ς έ σ τ ιν , ο
δ ε μ έ σ ο ς , Ί σ α ά /c, φ υ σ ικ ή ς , ό δ έ τ ρ ίτ ο ς , Ια κ ώ β ,
53 α σ κ η τ ικ ή ς , ά λ λ α γ ά ρ ο υ κ ά γ ν ο η τ έ ο ν , ο τ ι μ ε τ -
ε π ο ιε ΐτ ο τ ώ ν τ ρ ιώ ν έ κ α σ τ ο ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ν , ώ ν ο μ ά σ θ η
δ έ ά π ό τ ή ς π λ ε ο ν α ζ ο ύ σ η ς κ α τ
9
έ π ικ ρ ά τ ε ια ν ο ύ τ ε
γ ά ρ δ ιδ α σ κ α λ ία ν ά ν ε υ φ ύ σ ε ω ς ή α σ κ ή σ ε ω ς τ ε λ ε ιω -
θ ή ν α ι δ υ ν α τ ό ν ο ύ τ ε φ ύ σ ις έ π ι π έ ρ α ς έ σ τ ιν έ λ θ ε ΐν
ικ α ν ή δ ίχ α τ ο υ μ α θ ε ιν κ α ι ά σ κ ή σ α ι ο ύ τ ε ά σ κ η σ ις ,
ε ι μ ή π ρ ο θ ε μ ε λ ιω θ ε ίη φ ύ σ ε ι τ ε κ α ι δ ιδ α σ κ α λ ία .
54 π ρ ο σ η κ ό ν τ ω ς ο υ ν κ α ι τ ή ν τ ώ ν τ ρ ιώ ν λ ό γ ω μ έ ν
α ν δ ρ ώ ν έ ρ γ ω δ ' ώ ς ε ΐπ ο ν α ρ ε τ ώ ν ο ικ ε ιό τ η τ α
σ υ ν ή φ ε , φ ύ σ ε ω ς , μ α θ ή σ ε ω ς , α σ κ ή σ ε ω ς ,
1
α ς έ τ έ ρ ω
ο ν ό μ α τ ι Χ ά ρ ιτ α ^ ισ α ρ ίθ μ ο υ ς ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ι κ α λ ο ϋ σ ιν , ή
τ ω κ ε χ α ρ ίσ θ α ι τ ο ν θ ε ό ν τ ω ή μ ε τ έ ρ ω γ έ ν ε ι τ ά ς τ ρ ε ις
δ υ ν ά μ ε ις π ρ ό ς τ ε λ ε ιό τ η τ α τ ο υ β ίο υ ή π α ρ ό σ ο ν α ύ τ α ι
δ ε δ ώ ρ η ν τ α ι φ υ χ ή λ ο γ ικ ή έ α υ τ ά ς , δ ώ ρ η μ α τ έ λ ε ιο ν
κ α ι κ ά λ λ ισ τ ο ν , Ιν α κ α ι τ ό α ίώ ν ιο ν ό ν ο μ α τ ό δ η λ ο ύ -
μ ε ν ο ν έ ν τ ο ις χ ρ η σ μ ο ΐς έ π ι τ ρ ιώ ν μ ή έ π
9
α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν
65 μ ά λ λ ο ν ή τ ώ ν ε ίρ η μ έ ν ω ν δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ν λ έ γ η τ α ι. α ν -
θ ρ ώ π ω ν μ έ ν γ ά ρ φ θ α ρ τ ή φ ύ σ ις , ά φ θ α ρ τ ο ς δ ' ή τ ώ ν
1
MSS. φ ύ σ ις μ ά θ η σ η &σ κ η σ ι*.
30
ON ABRAHAM, 51-55
is natural. God indeed needs no name; yet, though
He needed it not, He nevertheless vouchsafed to give
to humankind a name of Himself suited to them, that
so men might be able to take refuge in prayers and
supplications and not be deprived of comforting hopes.
XI. These words do indeed appear to 52
apply to men of holy life, but they are also statements
about an order of things which is not so apparent but
is far superior to the order which is perceived by the
senses. For the holy word seems to be searching into
types of soul, all of them of high worth, one which
pursues the good through teaching, one through
nature and one through practice. The first called
Abraham, the second Isaac and the third Jacob, are
symbols of virtue acquired respectively by teaching,
nature and practice. But indeed we must not fail 53
to note that each possesses the three qualities, but
gets his name from that which chiefly predominates
in him ; for teaching cannot be consummated without
nature or practice, nor is nature capable of reaching
its zenith without learning and practising, nor
practice either unless the foundation of nature and
teaching has first been laid. Very properly, then, 54
Moses thus associated these three together, nominally
men, but really, as I have said, virtues—teaching,
nature, practice. Another name is given to them
by men, who call them the Graces, also three in
number ; either because these values are a gift of
God's grace to our kind for perfecting its life, or
because they have given themselves to the reasonable
soul as a perfect and most excellent gift. Thus the
eternal name revealed in his words is meant to in-
dicate the three said values rather than actual men.
For the nature of man is perishable, but that of 55
31
PHILO
α ρ ε τ ώ ν ε ύ λ ο γ ώ τ ε ρ ο ν δ έ έ π ιφ η μ ίζ ε σ θ α ι τ ο
1
ά ίδ ιο ν
ά φ θ ά ρ τ ο ις π ρ ο θ ν η τ ώ ν , έ π ε ι σ υ γ γ ε ν έ ς μ έ ν ά ιδ ιό τ η -
τ ο ς α φ θ α ρ σ ία , έ χ θ ρ ό ν δ έ θ ά ν α τ ο ς .
56 XII. Χ ρ ή μ έ ν τ ο ι μ η δ ' ε κ ε ίν ο ά γ ν ο ε ΐν , ο τ ι τ ο ν μ έ ν
π ρ ώ τ ο ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν τ ο ν γ η γ ε ν ή π α τ έ ρ α τ ώ ν ά χ ρ ι τ ο υ
κ α τ α κ λ υ σ μ ο ύ φ ύ ν τ ω ν ε ισ ή γ α γ ε , τ ο ν δ έ μ ό ν ο ν έ κ
τ ή ς τ ο σ α ύ τ η ς φ θ ο ρ ά ς ύ π ο λ ε ιφ θ έ ν τ α π α ν ο ίκ ιο ν έ ν ε κ α
δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η ς κ α ι τ ή ς ά λ λ η ς κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία ς τ ο υ ν ε ά -
σ ο ν τ ο ς α ύ θ ις κ α ιν ο ύ γ έ ν ο υ ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν , τ ή ν δ έ
π ε ρ ίσ ε μ ν ο ν τ ρ ιά δ α κ α ι π ε ρ ιμ ά χ η τ ο ν ε ν ό ς ε ίδ ο υ ς
ε π ιλ ε γ ο μ έ ν ο υ " β α σ ίλ ε ιο ν κ α ι ίε ρ ά τ ε υ μ α κ α ι έ θ ν ο ς
57 ά γ ιο ν " ο ι χ ρ η σ μ ο ί κ α λ ο ύ σ ι. μ η ν ύ ε ι δ έ τ ο ύ ν ο μ α
τ ή ν δ ύ ν α μ ιν α υ τ ο ύ ' π ρ ο σ ο ν ο μ ά ζ ε τ α ι γ ά ρ Ε β ρ α ίω ν
γ λ ώ τ τ η τ ό έ θ ν ο ς Ισ ρ α ή λ , Ο π ε ρ έ ρ μ η ν ε υ θ έ ν έ σ τ ιν
ο ρ ω ν ο ε ο ν . ο ρ α σ ις ο ή μ ε ν ο ι ο φ ο α λ μ ω ν ε ν
ά π ά σ α ις κ α λ λ ισ τ ε ύ ε ι τ α ΐς α ίσ θ ή σ ε σ ιν , έ π ε ι κ α ι δ ιά
μ ό ν η ς κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε τ α ι τ ά κ ά λ λ ισ τ α τ ώ ν Ο ν τ ω ν ,
ή λ ιο ς κ α ι σ ε λ ή ν η κ α ι ό σ ύ μ π α ς ο υ ρ α ν ό ς τ ε κ α ι
κ ό σ μ ο ς , ή δ έ δ ιά τ ο ύ τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς η γ ε μ ο ν ικ ο ύ π ρ ο -
[ 10] φ έ ρ ε ι τ ά ς ά λ λ α ς ό σ α ι π ε ρ ι α υ τ ό δ υ ν ά μ ε ις * α ύ τ η \ δ έ
68 έ σ τ ι φ ρ ό ν η σ ις ό φ ις ο ύ σ α δ ια ν ο ία ς , ο τ ω δ έ μ ή
μ ό ν ο ν έ ζ ε γ έ ν ε τ ο τ ά λ λ α ό σ α έ ν τ ή φ ύ σ ε ι δ ι ε π ι-
σ τ ή μ η ς κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε ιν , ά λ λ α κ α ι τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α κ α ι
π ο ιη τ ή ν τ ώ ν σ υ μ π ά ν τ ω ν ό ρ ά ν , έ π * ά κ ρ ο ν ε υ δ α ι-
μ ο ν ία ς ισ τ ω π ρ ο ε λ η λ υ θ ώ ς * ο υ δ έ ν γ ά ρ α ν ω τ έ ρ ω
θ ε ο ύ , π ρ ό ς ο ν ε ι τ ις τ ό τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς ό μ μ α τ ε ίν α ς
69 ε φ θ α κ ε , μ ο ν ή ν ε ύ χ έ σ θ ω κ α ι σ τ ά σ ιν . α ι μ έ ν γ ά ρ
α ν ά ν τ ε ις ό δ ο ϊ κ α μ α τ η ρ α ι κ α ι β ρ α δ ε ΐα ι, ή δ έ κ α τ ά
π ρ α ν ο ύ ς φ ο ρ ά , σ υ ρ μ ό ν έ χ ο υ σ α τ ό π λ έ ο ν ή κ ά θ ο δ ο ν ,
1
MSS. τ ο ν ά ίδ ιο ν .
α
Ex. xix. 6.
b
Cf. note on Quod Deus 46.
32
ON ABRAHAM, 55-59
virtue is imperishable. And it is more reasonable
that what is eternal should be predicated of the
imperishable than of the mortal, since imperishable-
ness is akin to eternality, while death is at enmity
with it.
XII. There is another thing which we must not fail 56
to know : while Moses represented the first man, the
earth-born, as father of all that were born up to the
deluge, and Noah who with all his house alone sur-
vived that great destruction because of his justice
and excellent character in other ways as the father
of the new race which would spring up afresh, the
oracles speak of this august and precious trinity as
parent of one species of that race, which species is
called " royal " and " priesthood " and " holy
nation."
a
Its high position is shewn by the name ; 57
for the nation is called in the Hebrew tongue Israel,
which, being interpreted, is " He who sees God."
Now the sight of the eyes is the most excellent of all
the senses, since by it alone we apprehend the most
excellent of existing things, the sun and the moon and
the whole heaven and world; but the sight of the
mind, the dominant element in the soul, surpasses all
the other faculties of the mind, and this is wisdom
which is the sight of the understanding.
6
But he to 58
whom it is given not only to apprehend by means of
knowledge all else that nature has to shew, but also
to see the Father and Maker of all, may rest assured
that he is advanced to the crowning point of happi-
ness ; for nothing is higher than God, and whoso has
stretched the eyesight of the soul to reach Him should
pray that he may there abide and stand firm ; for 59
journeys uphill are toilsome and slow, but the down-
hill course where one is swept along rather than
33
PHILO
τ α χ ε ία κ α ι ρ ά σ τ η . π ο λ λ ά δ έ τ ά κ ά τ ω β ια ζ ό μ ε ν α ,
ώ ν ο ύ δ ε ν ό φ ε λ ο ς , ό τ α ν ε κ τ ώ ν α ύ τ ο ΰ δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ν
ά ν α κ ρ ε μ ά σ α ς τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν 6 θ ε ό ς ο λ κ ή δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ α
π ρ ό ς ε α υ τ ό ν έ π ισ π ά ο η τ α ι.
60 XIII. Τ α ύ τ α μ έ ν ο ΰ ν κ ο ιν ή π ε ρ ι τ ώ ν τ ρ ιώ ν
ά ν α γ κ α ίω ς π ρ ο ε ιρ ή σ θ ω . λ ε κ τ έ ο ν δ ' έ ξ η ς , έ ν ο ΐς
έ κ α σ τ ο ς ιδ ία π ρ ο ή ν ε γ κ ε ν , ά π ό τ ο υ π ρ ώ τ ο υ τ ή ν
α ρ χ ή ν λ α β ό ν τ α ς . ε κ ε ίν ο ς τ ο ίν υ ν ε υ σ έ β ε ια ς , α ρ ε τ ή ς
τ ή ς ά ν ω τ ά τ ω κ α ι μ ε γ ίσ τ η ς , ζ η λ ω τ ή ς γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ς
έ σ π ο ύ δ α σ ε ν έ π ε σ θ α ι θ ε ώ κ α ι κ α τ α π ε ιθ ή ς ε ίν α ι τ ο ις
π ρ ο σ τ α τ τ ο μ έ ν ο ις υ π * α ύ τ ο ΰ , π ρ ο σ τ ά ζ ε ις ύ π ο λ α μ -
β ά ν ω ν ο υ τ ά ς δ ιά φ ω ν ή ς κ α ι γ ρ α μ μ ά τ ω ν μ η ν υ ο -
μ έ ν α ς α υ τ ό μ ό ν ο ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι τ ά ς δ ιά τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς
τ ρ α ν ο τ έ ρ ο ις σ η μ ε ίο ις δ η λ ο υ μ έ ν α ς , α ς ή α λ η θ έ σ τ α τ η
τ ώ ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν π ρ ο α κ ο ή ς τ ή ς ά π ισ τ ο υ κ α ι α β έ β α ιο υ
61 κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε ι, θ ε ώ μ ε ν ο ς γ ά ρ τ ις τ ή ν έ ν τ ή φ ύ σ ε ι
τ ά ξ ιν κ α ι τ ή ν π α ν τ ό ς λ ό γ ο υ κ ρ ε ίτ τ ο ν α π ο λ ιτ ε ία ν , ή
χ ρ ή τ α ι ο κ ό σ μ ο ς , ά ν α δ ιδ ά σ κ ε τ α ι, φ θ ε γ γ ο μ έ ν ο υ
μ η δ ε ν ό ς , ε ΰ ν ο μ ο ν κ α ι ε ίρ η ν ικ ό ν β ίο ν έ π ιτ η δ ε ύ ε ιν ε ίς
τ ή ν τ ώ ν κ α λ ώ ν έ ξ ο μ ο ίω σ ιν α π ο β λ έ π ο ν τ α . έ ν α ρ -
γ έ σ τ α τ α ι δ έ τ ή ς ε υ σ έ β ε ια ς α π ο δ ε ίξ ε ις ε ϊσ ίν , α ς
π ε ρ ιέ χ ο υ σ ιν α ί ίε ρ α ι γ ρ α φ α ί· π ρ ώ τ η ν δ έ λ ε κ τ έ ο ν , ή
62 κ α ι π ρ ώ τ η τ έ τ α κ τ α ι. XIV. λ ο γ ίω π λ η χ θ ε ις π ε ρ ι
τ ο υ π α τ ρ ίδ α κ α ι σ υ γ γ έ ν ε ια ν κ α ι π α τ ρ ώ ο ν ο ίκ ο ν
κ α τ α λ ιπ ε ΐν κ α ι μ ε τ α ν α σ τ ή ν α ι, κ α θ ά π ε ρ ά π ό τ ή ς
ξ έ ν η ς ε ίς τ ή ν ο ίκ ε ία ν έ π α ν ιώ ν ά λ λ ' ο υ κ ά π ό τ ή ς
ο ικ ε ία ς ε ίς τ ή ν ξ έ ν η ν μ έ λ λ ω ν ά π α ίρ ε ιν , έ π έ σ π ε υ δ έ
σ υ ν τ ε ίν ω ν , ν ο μ ίζ ω ν ίσ ό τ ιμ ο ν ε ίν α ι τ ώ τ ε λ ε ιώ σ α ι τ ό
63 τ α χ έ ω ς τ ό π ρ ο σ τ α χ θ έ ν ά ν ύ σ α ι. κ α ίτ ο ι τ ίν α έ τ ε ρ ο ν
β
Philo seems to assume that the command to leave
country and kindred, cf. Gen. xii. 1, was given to Abraham
in Chaldaea and not in Haran. So perhaps the A. V. " the
34
ON ABRAHAM, 59-63
descends is swift and most easy. And many are the
forces which would bear us down, yet none of them
avail when God sets the soul suspended to His
potencies and with a mightier attraction draws it to
Himself.
XIII. So much for what was needed by way of 60
preliminary discussion on the three in common.
We must now speak of the superior merits shewn by
each separately, beginning with the first. Abraham,
then, filled with zeal for piety, the highest and greatest
of virtues, was eager to follow God and to be obedient
to His commands ; understanding by commands not
only those conveyed in speech and writing but also
those made manifest by nature with clearer signs,
and apprehended by the sense which is the most
truthful of all and superior to hearing, on which no
certain reliance can be placed. For anyone who ei
contemplates the order in nature and the constitution
enjoyed by the world-city whose excellence no words
can describe, needs no speaker to teach him to
practise a law-abiding and peaceful life and to aim
at assimilating himself to its beauties. But the
clearest proofs of his piety are those which the holy
scriptures contain, and the first which should be
mentioned is that which comes first in order. XIV.
Under the force of an oracle
a
which bade him leave 62
his country and kinsfolk and seek a new home,
thinking that quickness in executing the command
was as good as full accomplishment, he hastened
eagerly to obey, not as though he were leaving home
for a strange land but rather as returning from amid
strangers to his home. Yet who else would be likely 63
Lord had said," as against the R. V. " the Lord said." Philo
may have implied the same from Gen. xv. 7. Cf. Acts vii. 2. ·.-
35
PHILO
ε ικ ό ς ο ύ τ ω ς ά κ λ ιν ή κ α ι ά τ ρ ε π τ ο ν γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι, ώ ς μ ή
φ ίλ τ ρ ο ις ύ π α χ θ ή ν α ι κ α ι ύ π ε ν δ ο ΰ ν α ι σ υ γ γ ε ν ώ ν κ α ι
π α τ ρ ίδ ο ς , ώ ν 6 π ό θ ο ς ε κ ά σ τ ω τ ρ ό π ο ν τ ιν ά σ υ γ -
γ ε γ έ ν η τ α ι κ α ι σ υ ν η ύ ξ η τ α ι κ α ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ή ο ύ χ ή τ τ ο ν
64 τ ώ ν η ν ω μ έ ν ω ν μ ε ρ ώ ν σ υ μ π έ φ υ κ ε ; μ ά ρ τ υ ρ ε ς δ ε
ο ι ν ο μ ο θ έ τ α ι τ ή ν δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ύ ο υ σ α ν θ α ν ά τ ο υ τ ιμ ω ρ ία ν
κ α τ ά τ ώ ν έ π ι τ ο ις μ ε γ ίσ τ ο ις ε α λ ω κ ό τ ω ν ό ρ ίσ α ν τ ε ς
φ υ γ ή ν , ο υ δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ύ ο υ σ α ν , ώ ς γ
9
ε μ ο ι δ ο κ ε ΐ, π α ρ *
α λ ή θ ε ια δ ικ α ζ ο ύ σ η , π ο λ ύ δ έ ά ρ γ α λ ε ω τ έ ρ α ν , ε ι γ ε
π έ ρ α ς μ έ ν κ α κ ο π ρ α γ ιώ ν ό θ ά ν α τ ο ς , ά ρ χ ή δ *, ο υ
π έ ρ α ς , ή φ υ γ ή κ α ιν ό τ ε ρ ω ν σ υ μ φ ο ρ ώ ν , ά ν θ * ε ν ό ς τ ο υ
χ ω ρ ίς ά λ γ η δ ό ν ω ν μ ύ ρ ιο υ ς έ π ά γ ο υ σ α θ α ν ά τ ο υ ς τ ο ύ ς
^65
(

V α
^
σ
^
η
ί
σ €1
· I
κ α τ
* έ μ π ο ρ ία ν ε ν ιο ι π ό θ ω χ ρ η μ α τ ι-
σ μ ο ύ π λ έ ο ν τ ε ς ή κ α τ ά π ρ ε σ β ε ία ν ή κ α τ ά θ έ α ν τ ώ ν
έ π ι τ ή ς α λ λ ο δ α π ή ς δ ι* έ ρ ω τ α π α ιδ ε ία ς , ο λ κ ο ύ ς
έ χ ο ν τ ε ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ις τ ή ς ε ξ ω μ ο ν ή ς ο ι μ έ ν τ ά ς έ π ι-
κ ε ρ δ ε ία ς , ο ι δ έ τ ό τ ή ν π ό λ ιν έ π ι κ α ιρ ώ ν έ ν τ ο ις
ά ν α γ κ α ιο τ ά τ ο ις κ α ι μ ε γ ίσ τ ο ις ό ν ή σ α ι, ο ι δ έ ισ τ ο ρ ία ν
ώ ν π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ή γ ν ό ο υ ν τ έ ρ φ ιν ά μ α κ α ι ώ φ έ λ ε ια ν τ ή
φ υ χ ή π α ρ α σ κ ε υ ά ζ ο υ σ α ν —τ υ φ λ ο ί γ ά ρ π α ρ * ο ξ ύ
β λ έ π ο ν τ α ς ά ν α π ο δ ή μ η τ ο ι π α ρ * έ κ δ ε δ η μ η κ ό τ α ς —,
Ο μ ω ς ε π ε ίγ ο ν τ α ι τ ό π α τ ρ ώ ο ν έ δ α φ ο ς ίδ ε ΐν κ α ι
π ρ ο σ κ υ ν ή σ α ι κ α ι σ υ ν ή θ ε ις ά σ π ά σ α σ θ α ι σ υ γ γ ε ν ώ ν τ ε
κ α ι φ ίλ ω ν ή δ ίσ τ η ς κ α ι π ο θ ε ιν ο τ ά τ η ς ό φ ε ω ς ά π ο -
λ α ΰ σ α ι κ α ι π ο λ λ ά κ ις τ ά ς π ρ ά ξ ε ις , ώ ν έ ν ε κ α έ ξ ε δ ή -
μ η σ α ν , μ η κ υ ν ο μ έ ν α ς ό ρ ώ ν τ ε ς κ α τ έ λ ιπ ο ν ίμ έ ρ ω τ ώ ν
66 π ρ ο σ η κ ό ν τ ω ν έ λ χ θ έ ν τ ε ς β ια ιο τ ά τ ω . μ ε τ *
36
ON ABRAHAM, 63-66
to be so firm and unmoved of purpose as not to
yield and succumb to the charms of kinsfolk and
country ? The desire of these may be said to be born
and grow with each of us and is a part of our nature
as much as or even more than the parts which unite
to make the whole. And this is attested by the 64
legislators who have appointed banishment as the
penalty second only to death for those who have
been convicted of the greatest crimes, though indeed,
in my opinion, it is not second to death, if truth gives
its verdict, but rather a far heavier punishment, since
death ends our troubles but banishment is not the
end but the beginning of other new misfortunes and
entails in place of the one death which puts an end
to pains a thousand deaths in which we do not lose
sensation. Some men go on voyages for trading 65
purposes in their desire for making money or on
embassies or in their love of culture to see the sights
of a foreign land. These are subject to influences
driving them to stay abroad, in some cases financial
gains, in others the chance of benefiting their country,
when occasion offers, in its most vital and important
interests, in others acquiring knowledge of things
which they did not know before and thus providing at
once pleasure and profit to the soul, for the stay-at-
home is to the travelled as the blind are to the keen-
sighted. Yet all these are eager to see and salute
their native soil, and to greet their familiars and
to have the sweet and most desired enjoyment of
beholding their kinsfolk and friends. And often
when they find the business for which they left
home protracting itself they abandon it, drawn by
the constraining desire for their own belongings.
But Abraham, the moment he was 66
37
PHILO
ο λ ίγ ω ν δ έ ο ΰ τ ο ς ή κ α ι μ ό ν ο ς ά μ α τ ώ κ ε λ ε υ σ θ ή ν α ι
/χ ε τ α ν ίσ τ α τ ο κ α ι τ ή φ υ χ ή π ρ ο τ ο υ σ ώ μ α τ ο ς τ ή ν
ά π ο ικ ία ν έ σ τ έ λ λ ε τ ο , τ ο ν έ π ι τ ο ις θ ν η τ ο ΐς ιμ ε ρ ο ν
67 π α ρ ε υ η μ ε ρ ο ΰ ν τ ο ς έ ρ ω τ ο ς ο υ ρ α ν ίο υ , ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς ο ΰ ν
φ ρ ο ν τ ίσ α ς , ο υ φ υ λ ε τ ώ ν , ο υ δ η μ ο τ ώ ν , ο υ σ υ μ φ ο ιτ η -
τ ώ ν , ο ύ χ ε τ α ίρ ω ν , ο υ τ ώ ν ά φ
9
α ίμ α τ ο ς ό σ ο ι π ρ ό ς
π α τ ρ ό ς ή μ η τ ρ ό ς ή σ α ν , ο υ π α τ ρ ίδ ο ς , ο υ κ α ρ χ α ίω ν
έ θ ώ ν , ο υ σ υ ν τ ρ ο φ ιά ς , ο υ σ ι^δ ια ιτ ^σ ε ω ^, ώ ν έ κ α σ τ ο ν
ά γ ω γ ό ν τ ε κ α ι δ υ σ α π ό σ π α σ τ ο ν ό λ κ ό ν έ χ ο ν δ ύ ν α μ ιν ,
έ λ ε υ θ έ ρ α ις κ α ι ά φ έ τ ο ις ό ρ μ α ΐς ή τ ά χ ισ τ α μ ε τ α ν -
ίσ τ α τ α ι, τ ό μ έ ν π ρ ώ τ ο ν ά ,π ό τ ή ς Χ α λ δ α ιω ν γ ή ς ,
ε ύ δ α ίμ ο ν ο ς χ ώ ρ α ς κ α ι κ α τ
9
ε κ ε ίν ο ν ά κ μ α ζ ο ύ σ η ς τ ο ν
χ ρ ό ν ο ν , ε ίς τ ή ν "Χ α ρ ρ α Ιω ν γ ή ν , έ π ε ιτ α ο υ μ α κ ρ ά ν
ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν κ α ι ά π ό τ α ύ τ η ς ε ίς έ τ ε ρ ο ν τ ό π ο ν , π ε ρ ι ο ΰ
λ έ ζ ο μ ε ν ε κ ε ίν ο π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ε ίπ ό ν τ ε ς .
68 XV. Α ι δ η λ ω θ ε ΐσ α ι ά π ο ικ ία ι τ ώ μ έ ν ρ η τ ώ τ ή ς
γ ρ α φ ή ς υ π
9
α ν δ ρ ό ς σ ο φ ο ϋ γ ε γ ό ν α σ ι, κ α τ ά δ έ τ ο υ ς
έ ν α λ λ η γ ο ρ ία ν ό μ ο υ ς υ π ό φ ιλ α ρ έ τ ο υ φ υ χ ή ς τ ο ν
69 α λ η θ ή ζ η τ ο ύ σ η ς θ ε ό ν . Χ α λ δ α ίο ι γ ά ρ έ ν τ ο ις
μ ά λ ισ τ α δ ια π ο ν ή σ α ν τ ε ς ά σ τ ρ ο ν ο μ ία ν κ α ι π ά ν τ α τ α ΐς
κ ιν ή σ ε σ ι τ ώ ν α σ τ έ ρ ω ν ά ν α θ έ ν τ ε ς ύ π έ λ α β ο ν ο ίκ ο -
ν ο μ ε ϊσ θ α ι τ ά έ ν κ ό σ μ ω δ υ ν ά μ ε σ ιν , α ς π ε ρ ιέ χ ο υ σ ιν
α ρ ιθ μ ο ί κ α ι α ρ ιθ μ ώ ν ά ν α λ ο γ ία ι, (κ α ι} τ ή ν ό ρ α τ ή ν
ο ύ σ ία ν έ σ έ μ ν υ ν ο ν τ ή ς α ο ρ ά τ ο υ κ α ι ν ο η τ ή ς ο υ
λ α β ό ν τ ε ς έ ν ν ο ια ν , α λ λ ά τ ή ν έ ν έ κ ε ίν ο ις τ ά ξ ιν δ ι-
ε ρ ε υ ν ώ μ ε ν ο ι κ α τ ά τ ε τ ά ς ή λ ιο υ κ α ι σ ε λ ή ν η ς κ α ι τ ώ ν
ά λ λ ω ν π λ α ν ή τ ω ν κ α ι α π λ α ν ώ ν π ε ρ ιό δ ο υ ς κ α ι κ α τ ά
τ ά ς τ ώ ν ε τ η σ ίω ν ω ρ ώ ν μ ε τ α β ο λ ά ς κ α ι κ α τ ά τ ή ν
τ ώ ν ο υ ρ α ν ίω ν π ρ ό ς τ ά ε π ίγ ε ια σ υ μ π ά θ ε ια ν τ ο ν
κ ό σ μ ο ν α υ τ ό ν ύ π έ λ α β ο ν ε ΐν α ι θ ε ό ν , ο υ κ ε ύ α γ ώ ς τ ό
38
ON ABRAHAM, 66-69
bidden, departed with a few or even alone, and his
emigration was one of soul rather than body, for the
heavenly love overpowered his desire for mortal
things. And so taking no thought for anything, 67
either for his fellow-clansmen, or wardsmen, or
schoolmates, or comrades, or blood relations on
father's or mother's side, or country, or ancestral
customs, or community of nurture or home life, all
of them ties possessing a power to allure and attract
which it is hard to throw off, he followed a free and
unfettered impulse and departed with all speed first
from Chaldea, a land at that time blessed by fortune
and at the height of its prosperity, and migrated to
Haran; then not long afterwards he left this too
for another place, about which we shall speak after
dealing with something else to which I now proceed."
XV. The migrations as set forth by the literal text 68
of the scriptures are made by a man of wisdom,
but according to the laws of allegory by a virtue-
loving soul in its search for the true God. For the 69
Chaldeans were especially active in the elaboration of
astrology and ascribed everything to the movements
of the stars. They supposed that the course of the
phenomena of the world is guided by influences
contained in numbers and numerical proportions.
Thus they glorified visible existence, leaving out of
consideration the intelligible and invisible. But
while exploring numerical order as applied to the
revolution of the sun, moon and other planets and
fixed stars, and the changes of the yearly seasons
and the interdependence of phenomena in heaven
and on earth, they concluded that the world itself
° Gen. xi. 31 and xii. 5. For the meaning of " another
place" see on § 85.
39
PHILO
70 γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ν έ ξ ο μ ο ιώ σ α ν τ ε ς τ ώ π ε π ο ιη κ ό τ ι. τ α ύ τ η
τ ο ι τ ή δ ό ξ η σ υ ν τ ρ α φ ε ϊς κ α ΐ χ α λ δ α ίσ α ς μ α κ ρ ό ν τ ίν α
[ 12] χ ρ ό ν ο ν , ώ σ π ε ρ έ κ β α θ έ Ό ς ύ π ν ο υ \ δ ιο ίξ α ς τ ό τ ή ς
φ υ χ ή ς ό μ μ α κ α ι κ α θ α ρ ά ν α ύ γ ή ν α ν τ ί σ κ ό τ ο υ ς
β α θ έ ο ς β λ έ π ε ιν ά ρ ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς ή κ ο λ ο ύ θ η σ ε τ ω φ έ γ γ ε ι
κ α ι κ α τ ε ΐδ ε ν , δ μ ή π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν έ θ ε ά σ α τ ο , τ ο υ κ ό σ μ ο υ
τ ιν ά ή ν ίο χ ο ν κ α ι κ υ β ε ρ ν ή τ η ν έ φ ε σ τ ώ τ α κ α ι σ ω τ η -
ρ ίω ς ε ύ θ ύ ν ο ν τ α τ ό ο ίκ ε ΐο ν έ ρ γ ο ν , έ π ιμ έ λ ε ιά ν τ ε κ α ι
π ρ ο σ τ α σ ία ν κ α ι τ ώ ν ε ν α ύ τ ώ μ ε ρ ώ ν ό σ α θ ε ία ς
71 ε π ά ξ ια φ ρ ο ν τ ίδ ο ς π ο ιο ύ μ ε ν ο ν . ό π ω ς ο ΰ ν β ε β α ιώ -
σ η τ α ι τ ή ν φ α ν ε ίσ α ν ό φ ιν ε ν τ ή δ ιά ν ο ια π α γ ιώ τ ε ρ ο ν ,
α υ σ ις ψ η σ ιν ο ιε ρ ό ς Λ ό γ ο ς α υ τ ω ' τ α μ ε γ ά λ α , ω
ο ΰ τ ο ς , ύ π ο τ υ π ώ σ ε ι β ρ α χ υ τ ε ρ ω ν π ο λ λ ά κ ις γ ν ω ρ ί-
ζ η τ α ι, π ρ ό ς ά τ ις ά π ιδ ώ ν η ϋ ξ η σ ε τ ή ν φ α ν τ α σ ία ν
ά π ε ρ ιγ ρ ά φ ο ις μ ε γ έ θ ε σ ι. π α ρ α π ε μ φ ά μ ε ν ο ς ο ΰ ν τ ο υ ς
τ ε κ α τ ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν π ε ρ ιπ ο λ ο ΰ ν τ α ς κ α ι τ ή ν Ύ ^α λ δ α ϊκ ή ν
έ π ισ τ ή μ η ν μ ε τ α ν ά σ τ η 0ι π ρ ό ς ο λ ίγ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν ά π ό
τ ή ς μ ε γ ίσ τ η ς π ό λ ε ω ς , τ ο ΰ δ ε τ ο υ κ ό σ μ ο υ , π ρ ό ς
β ρ α χ υ τ ε ρ α ν , δ ι* ή ς δ υ ν ή σ η μ ά λ λ ο ν κ α τ α λ α β ε ΐν τ ο ν
Τ 2 ε φ ο ρ ο ν τ ο υ π α ν τ ό ς ." δ ιά τ ο ΰ τ ο τ ή ν
π ρ ώ τ η ν ά π ο ικ ία ν ά π ό τ ή ς Χ α λ δ α ιω ν γ ή ς ε ίς τ ή ν
Ύ ία ρ ρ α ίω ν λ έ γ ε τ α ι π ο ιή σ α σ θ α ι. XVI. Χ α ρ ρ ά ν δ έ
Ε λ λ η ν ισ τ ί " τ ρ ώ γ λ α ι " λ έ γ ο ν τ α ι, κ α τ ά σ ύ μ β ο λ ο ν
α ι τ ώ ν η μ ε τ έ ρ ω ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν χ ώ ρ α ι, δ ι' ώ ν ώ σ π ε ρ
ο π ώ ν έ κ α σ τ η δ ια κ ΰ π τ ε ιν π έ φ υ κ ε π ρ ό ς τ ή ν τ ώ ν
73 ο ικ ε ίω ν ά ν τ ίλ η φ ιν . ά λ λ α τ ι τ ο ύ τ ω ν , ε ϊπ ο ι τ ις ά ν ,
ό φ ε λ ο ς η ν , ε ι μ ή ν ο υ ς α ό ρ α τ ο ς κ α θ ά π ε ρ θ α υ μ α τ ο -
π ο ιό ς έ ν δ ο θ ε ν ύ π ή χ ε ι τ α ΐς έ α υ τ ο ϋ δ υ ν ά μ ε σ ιν , α ς
° The allegorical meaning of Haran is given more fully
and clearly in De Mig. 176 if. and De Som. i. 41 ff. Haran
40
ON ABRAHAM, 69-73
was God, thus profanely likening the created to the
Creator. In this creed Abraham had been reared, 70
and for a long time remained a Chaldean. Then
opening the soul's eye as though after profound sleep,
and beginning to see the pure beam instead of the
deep darkness, he followed the ray and discerned
what he had not beheld before, a charioteer and pilot
presiding over the world and directing in safety his
own work, assuming the charge and superintendence
of that work and of all such parts of it as are worthy
of the divine care. And so to establish more firmly 71
in his understanding the sight which had been
revealed to him the Holy Word follows it up by saying
to him, "Friend, the great is often known by its
outlines as shown in the smaller, and by looking at
them the observer finds the scope of his vision in-
finitely enlarged. Dismiss, then, the rangers of the
heavens and the science of Chaldea, and depart for
a short time from the greatest of cities, this world,
to the lesser, and thus you will be better able to
apprehend the overseer of the All."
This is why he is said to emigrate first from the land of 72
Chaldea to that of Haran.
a
XVI, Now Haran in our
language means " holes,*' a symbol for the seats of
our senses through which each of them naturally
peers as through orifices to apprehend what belongs
to it. Yet what use, we might ask, would they be if 73
the invisible mind were not there like a juggler to
prompt its faculties, sometimes relaxing and giving
being the place of sense-perception is the bodily tenement of
the mind (De Mig. 187), and therefore stands for Socratic
self-knowledge as a whole in contrast to astrological specula-
tion. It thus gives the conviction that there is a higher
power than mind and thus leads to the second migration
from self-knowledge to knowledge of God.
41
PHILO
τ ο τ ε μ ε ν ά ν ιε ις κ α ι ε π ιχ α λ ώ ν τ ο τ ε δ ε ά ν τ ισ π ώ ν κ α ι
ά ν θ έ λ κ ω ν β ία κ ίν η σ ιν ε μ μ ε λ ή κ α ΐ π ά λ ιν ή σ υ χ ία ν
ε μ π α ρ ε ΐχ ε τ ο ΐς θ α ν μ α σ ίο ις ; τ ο ΰ τ ο ε χ ω ν π α ρ ά
σ ε α υ τ ώ τ ο π α ρ ά δ ε ιγ μ α ρ α δ ίω ς ο δ σ φ ό δ ρ α π ο θ ε ίς
74 λ α β ε ίν τ η ν ε π ισ τ ή μ η ν κ α τ α ν ο ή σ ε ις , ο ύ γ α ρ ε ν σ ο ι
μ ε ν ν ο υ ς ε σ τ ίν ή γ ε μ ώ ν ε π ιτ ε τ α γ μ έ ν ο ς , ω κ α ι τ ο υ
σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ά π α σ α κ ο ιν ω ν ία π ε ιθ α ρ χ ε ί κ α ι ε κ ά σ τ η τ ω ν
α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν έ π ε τ α ι, 6 δ ε κ ό σ μ ο ς , τ ο κ ά λ λ ισ τ ο ν κ α ι
μ έ γ ισ τ ο ν κ α ι τ ε λ ε ώ τ α τ ο ν έ ρ γ ο ν , ο ΰ π ά ν τ α τ α ά λ λ α
σ υ μ β ε β η κ ε ν ε ΐν α ι μ έ ρ η , β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ^ά μ ο ιρ ε ΐ τ ο υ
σ υ ν έ χ ο ν τ ο ς
1
κ α ι ε ν δ ίκ ω ς ε π ιτ ρ ο π ε ύ ο ν τ ο ς . ε ΐ δ '
α ό ρ α τ ο ς 6 β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς , μ η θ α υ μ ά σ η ς ' ο ύ δ ε γ α ρ 6 ε ν
75 σ ο ι ν ο υ ς ο ρ α τ ό ς , τ α ϋ τ ά τ ις ε π ιλ ο γ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι ο ύ
π ό ρ ρ ω θ ε ν ά λ λ ' ε γ γ ύ θ ε ν ά ν α δ ιδ α σ κ ό μ έ ν ο ς ε κ τ ε
ε α υ τ ο ύ κ α ι τ ω ν π ε ρ ί α υ τ ό ν ε ΐσ ε τ α ι σ α φ ώ ς , δ τ ι 6
κ ό σ μ ο ς ο ύ κ ε σ τ ίν 6 π ρ ώ τ ο ς θ ε ό ς , α λ λ * έ ρ γ ο ν τ ο υ
π ρ ώ τ ο υ θ ε ο ΰ κ α ι τ ο υ σ υ μ π ά ν τ ω ν π α τ ρ ό ς , ο ς ά ε ιδ ή ς
ώ ν π ά ν τ α φ α ίν ε ι μ ικ ρ ώ ν τ ε α ΰ κ α ι μ ε γ ά λ ω ν δ ια -
76 δ ε ικ ν ύ ς τ ά ς φ ύ σ ε ις , σ ώ μ α τ ο ς γ α ρ ό φ θ α λ μ ό ις ο ύ κ
ή ξ ίω σ ε κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε σ θ α ι, τ ά χ α μ ε ν ε π ε ιδ ή θ ν η τ ό ν
α ιο ιο υ ψ α υ ε ιν ο υ χ ο σ ιο ν η ν , τ α χ α ο ε κ α ι ο ι ά σ σ ε -
ν ε ια ν τ η ς η μ ε τ έ ρ α ς ό ψ ε ω ς * ο ύ γ α ρ α ν ε χ ώ ρ η σ ε
τ ά ς α π ό τ ο υ δ ν τ ο ς ε κ χ ε ο μ ε ν α ς α ύ γ ά ς , ο π ό τ ε ο ύ δ ε
τ α ΐς α φ * η λ ίο υ π ρ ο σ β λ ε π ε ιν ά κ τ ΐσ ιν ο ΐα τ ε ε σ τ ι.
η * XVII. I τ ε κ μ ή ρ ιο ν δ ε ε ν α ρ γ ε σ τ α τ ο ν τ η ς α π ο ικ ία ς ,
ή ν ά π ' α σ τ ρ ο ν ο μ ία ς κ α ι τ η ς χ α λ δ α ϊζ ο ύ σ η ς δ ό ξ η ς
ή δ ιά ν ο ια ε σ τ ε ίλ α τ ο * λ έ γ ε τ α ι γ ά ρ ε υ θ ύ ς ά μ α τ η
μ ε τ α ν α σ τ ά σ ε ι τ ο υ σ ο φ ο ϋ ' " ώ φ θ η δ έ ό θ ε ό ς τ ω
5
Α β ρ α ά μ " ω δ ή λ ο ν ό τ ι π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ο ύ κ ή ν ε μ φ α ν ή ς ,
1
MSS. σ υ ν έ ξ ο ν τ ο ς .
• Gen.xii. 7. But this" appearance "comes when Abraham
is in Canaan. If Philo is following Genesis carefully the
42
ON ABRAHAM, 73-77
them a free rein, sometimes forcibly pulling and
jerking them back, and thus causing its puppets at
one time to move in harmony, at another to rest ?
With this example in yourself you will easily appre-
hend that which you so earnestly desire to know.
For it cannot be that while in yourself there is a mind 74
appointed as your ruler which all the community of
the body obeys and each of the senses follows, the
world, the fairest, and greatest and most perfect
work of all, of which everything else is a part, is
without a king who holds it together and directs it
with justice. That the king is invisible need not
cause you to wonder, for neither is the mind in your-
self visible. Anyone who reflects on these things and 75
learns from no distant source., but from one near at
hand, namely himself and what makes him what he
is, will know for certain that the world is not the
primal God but a work of the primal God and Father
of all Who, though invisible, yet brings all things to
light, revealing the natures of great and small. For 76
He did not deem it right to be apprehended by the
eyes of the body, perhaps because it was contrary to
holiness that the mortal should touch the eternal,
perhaps too because of the weakness of our sight.
For our sight could not have borne the rays that pour
from Him that is, since it is not even able to look
upon the beams of the sun. XVII. We have a very 77
clear proof of the mind's migration from astrology
and the Chaldean creed in the words which follow at
once the story of the departure of the Sage. " God,"
it says, " was seen by Abraham." This shews that
God was not manifested to him before, when in his
μ ε τ α ν ά σ τ α σ ις must embrace both migrations. But the sequel
suggests that he mistakenly assigns it to the Haran period.
VOL. vi c 43
PHILO
δ τ ε χ α λ δ α ιζ ω ν τ ή τ ώ ν α σ τ έ ρ ω ν χ ο ρ ε ία π ρ ο σ ε ΐχ ε ν
ε ξ ω τ ο υ κ ό σ μ ο υ κ α ι τ η ς α ισ θ η τ ή ς ο υ σ ία ς ε ύ -
ά ρ μ ο σ τ ο ν κ α ι ν ο η τ η ν φ ύ σ ιν ο ύ 8€ ία ν α π λ ώ ς κ α τ ά -
78 λ α μ β ά ν ω ν , έ π ε ι δ ε μ ε τ ε χ ώ ρ η σ ε κ α ι μ ε θ ω ρ μ ίσ α τ ο ,
κ α τ ά τ ά ν α γ κ α ΐο ν ε γ ν ω τ ο ν κ ό σ μ ο ν ύ π ή κ ο ο ν α λ λ
9
ο υ κ α υ τ ο κ ρ ά τ ο ρ α , ο υ π ρ υ τ α ν ε ύ ο ν τ α α λ λ ά π ρ υ τ α -
ν ε υ ό μ ε ν ο ν υ π * α ιτ ίο υ τ ο υ π ε π ο ιη κ ό τ ο ς , ό π ε ρ η
79 δ ιά ν ο ια τ ό τ € π ρ ώ τ ο ν ά ν α β λ έ φ α σ α ε ίδ ε . π ο λ λ ή γ α ρ
α υ τ ή ς π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ά χ λ ύ ς υ π ό τ ώ ν α ισ θ η τ ώ ν κ α τ -
ε κ έ χ υ τ ο , η ν έ ν θ έ ρ μ ο ις κ α ι δ ια π ύ ρ ο ις δ ό γ μ α σ ιν
ά ν α σ κ ε δ ά σ α σ α μ ό λ ις ΐσ χ υ σ ε ν ώ ς iv α ιθ ρ ία κ α θ α ρ ά
τ ο υ π ά λ α ι κ ρ υ π τ ο μ έ ν ο υ κ α ι α ε ιδ ο ΰ ς φ α ν τ α σ ία ν
λ α β ε ίν * δ ς έ ν ε κ α φ ιλ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ς ά φ ικ ν ο υ μ έ ν η ν τ η ν
φ υ χ η ν ώ ς ε α υ τ ό ν ο υ κ ά π ε σ τ ρ ά φ η , π ρ ο ϋ π α ν τ η σ α ς
δ έ τ η ν ε α υ τ ο ύ φ ύ σ ιν έ δ ε ιξ ε , κ α θ
9
δ σ ο ν ο ΐό ν τ ε η ν
80 Ιδ ε ΐν τ ο ν β λ έ π ο ν τ α , δ to λ έ γ ε τ α ι, ο ύ χ δ τ ι 6 σ ο φ ό ς
ε ίδ ε θ ε δ ν , α λ λ * δ τ ι " ό θ ε δ ς ώ φ θ η " τ ω σ ο φ ώ ' κ α ι
γ α ρ η ν α δ ύ ν α τ ο ν κ α τ α λ α β ε ΐν τ ιν α δ ι
9
α ύ τ ο ΰ τ ο π ρ ο ς
ά λ ή θ ε ια ν δ ν , μ η π α ρ α φ ή ν α ν τ ο ς ε κ ε ίν ο υ ε α υ τ ό ν κ α ι
έ π ιδ ε ίξ α ν τ ο ς .
81 XVIII. Μ α ρ τ υ ρ ε ί δ ε τ ο ις ε ίρ η μ έ ν ο ις κ α ι η τ ο υ
ο ν ό μ α τ ο ς ύ π α λ λ α γ η κ α ι μ ε τ ά θ ε σ ις . έ κ α λ ε ΐτ ο γ ά ρ
"Α β ρ α μ τ ο ά ρ χ α ΐο ν δ ν ο μ α , π ρ ο σ ε ρ ρ η θ η δ
9
ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν
9
Α β ρ α ά μ , φ ω ν ή μ ε ν έ ν δ ς σ τ ο ιχ ε ίο υ τ ο υ α λ φ α
δ ιπ λ α σ ια σ θ έ ν τ ο ς , δ υ ν ά μ ε ι δ ε μ ε γ ά λ ο υ π ρ ά γ μ α τ ο ς
82 κ α ι δ ό γ μ α τ ο ς έ ν δ ε ιξ α μ έ ν ο υ τ η ν μ ε τ α β ο λ η ν . "Α β ρ α μ
μ ε ν γ ά ρ έ ρ μ η ν ε υ θ έ ν έ σ τ ι " π α τ ή ρ μ ε τ έ ω ρ ο ς ,**
5
Α β ρ α ά μ δ ε " π α τ ή ρ ε κ λ ε κ τ ό ς η χ ο ϋ ς ," τ ο μ ε ν
π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν έ μ φ α ΐν ο ν τ ο ν ά σ τ ρ ο λ ο γ ικ ό ν κ α ΐ μ ε τ έ ω ρ ο -
λ ο γ ικ ό ν έ π ικ α λ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν , ο ύ τ ω ς τ ώ ν Χ α λ δ α ϊκ ώ ρ
44
ON ABRAHAM, 77-82
Chaldean way he was fixing his thoughts on the
choric movement of the stars with no apprehension
at all of an harmonious and intelligible order of
things outside the world and the sphere of sense.
But when he had departed and changed his habita- 78
tion he could not help but know that the world
is not sovereign but dependent, not governing but
governed by its Maker and First Cause. And this
his mind then saw for the first time with its re-
covered sight. For before a great mist had been 79
shed upon it by the things of sense, and only with
difficulty could it dispel this mist under the warmth
and fervour of higher verities and so be able as in
clear open sky to receive the vision of Him Who so
long lay hidden and invisible. He in His love for
mankind, when the soul came into His presence, did
not turn away His face, but came forward to meet
him and revealed His nature, so far as the beholder's
power of sight allowed. That is why we are told not 80
that the Sage saw God, but that God was seen by
him. For it were impossible that anyone should by
himself apprehend the truly Existent, did not He
reveal and manifest Himself.
XVIII. What has been said is attested by the altera- 81
tion and change in his name, for his original name
was Abram, but afterwards he was addressed as
Abraham.
0
To the ear there was but a duplication
of one letter, alpha, but in fact and in the truth con-
veyed this duplication shewed a change of great
importance. Abram is by interpretation " uplifted 82
father " ; Abraham, " elect father of sound." The
former signifies one called astrologer and meteoro-
β
Gen. xvii. 5. For the interpretation of Abram and
Abraham (Greek Abraam) cf. De Cher. 4, 7, De Gig. 62, 64,
De Mut. 66·
45
PHILO
δ ο γ μ ά τ ω ν έ π ιμ ε λ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν , ώ ς ά ν τ ις π α τ ή ρ ε γ γ ό ν ω ν
83 ε π ιμ ε λ η θ ε ίη , τ ό δ ' ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν τ ο ν σ ο φ ό ν . δ ια μ ε ν γ α ρ
τ η ς ή χ ο υ ς τ ο ν π ρ ο φ ο ρ ικ ό ν λ ό γ ο ν α ιν ίτ τ ε τ α ι, δ ια τ ο υ
π α τ ρ ό ς δ ε τ ο ν η γ ε μ ό ν α ν ο υ ν —π α τ ή ρ γ α ρ 6 έ ν δ ιά -
θ ε τ ο ς φ ύ σ ε ι τ ο υ γ ε γ ω ν ο ϋ π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς γ ε ώ ν κ α ι
τ α λ ε κ τ έ α ύ π ο σ π ε ίρ ω ν —, δ ια δ έ τ ο υ ε π ίλ ε κ τ ο υ τ ο ν
ά σ τ ε ΐο ν ε ίκ α ΐο ς μ ε ν γ α ρ κ α ι π ε φ υ ρ μ ε ν ο ς ο φ α ύ -
λ ο ς τ ρ ό π ο ς , ε κ λ ε κ τ ό ς δ ε ο α γ α θ ό ς , ε π ικ ρ ιθ ε ίς ε ζ
84 α π ά ν τ ω ν ά ρ ισ τ ίν δ η ν . τ ω μ ε ν ο ύ ν μ ε τ ε ω ρ ο λ ο γ ικ ώ
μ ε ίζ ο ν ο υ δ έ ν τ ο υ κ ό σ μ ο υ τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν ε ΐν α ι δ ο κ ε ΐ, ω
κ α ι τ ά ς τ ω ν γ ιν ο μ έ ν ω ν α ίτ ια ς ά ν α τ ίθ η σ ιν * ο δ έ
σ ο φ ό ς ά κ ρ ιβ ε σ τ ε ρ ο ις ο μ μ α σ ιν ίδ ώ ν τ ι τ ε λ ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ν
ν ο η τ ό ν ά ρ χ ο ν τ ε κ α ι ή γ ε μ ο ν ε ϋ ο ν , ύ φ ' ο ύ τ ά λ λ α \
[ 14] δ ε σ π ό ζ ε τ α ι κ α ι κ υ β ε ρ ν ά τ α ι, π ο λ λ ά κ α τ ε μ ε μ φ α τ ο
τ η ς π ρ ο τ ε ρ α ς ζ ω ή ς ε α υ τ ό ν ώ ς τ υ φ λ ό ν β 'ιο ν δ ι-
ε ξ ε λ η λ υ θ ό τ α , σ κ η ρ ιπ τ ό μ ε ν ο ν έ π ι τ ο ΐς α ίσ θ η τ ο ΐς ,
ά β ε β α ίω κ α ι ά ν ιδ ρ ύ τ ω φ ύ σ ε ι π ρ ά γ μ α τ ι,
δ ε υ τ έ ρ α ν δ ' ά π ο ικ ία ν σ τ έ λ λ ε τ α ι λ ο γ ίω π ά λ ιν π ε ισ -
85 θ ε ϊς ο ά σ τ β ϊ ο ^ ο ύ κ έ τ ε κ π ό λ ε ω ς ε ις π ό λ ιν , α λ λ * ε ίς
χ ώ ρ α ν ε ρ ή μ η ν , ε ν ή π λ α ζ ό μ έ ν ο ς δ ιε τ ε λ ε ι μ ή δ υ σ -
ά ρ ε σ τ ω ν τ ή π λ ά ν η κ α ι τ ω δ ι
9
α υ τ ή ν ά ν ιδ ρ ύ τ ω .
86 κ α ίτ ο ι τ ις έ τ ε ρ ο ς ο ύ κ α ν ή χ θ ε σ θ η μ ή μ ό ν ο ν τ η ς
ο ϊκ ε ία ς ά π α ν ισ τ ά μ ε ν ο ς , α λ λ ά κ α ι ε ξ ά π ά σ η ς π ό λ ε ω ς
ε λ α υ ν ό μ ε ν ο ς ε ις δ ύ σ β α τ ο υ ς κ α ι δ υ σ π ο ρ ε ύ τ ο υ ς ά ν ο -
δ ία ς ; τ ις δ ' ο ύ κ ά ν μ ε τ α τ ρ α π ό μ έ ν ο ς έ π α λ ιν δ ρ ό μ η -
σ ε ν ο ΐκ α δ ε , β ρ α χ έ α μ ε ν φ ρ ο ν τ ίσ α ς τ ω ν μ ε λ λ ο υ σ ώ ν
ε λ π ίδ ω ν , τ ή ν δ έ π α ρ ο ΰ σ α ν ά π ο ρ ία ν σ π ε ύ δ ω ν ε κ -
φ υ γ ε ΐν , ε ύ ή θ ε ια ν ύ π ο λ α β ώ ν α δ ή λ ω ν χ ά ρ ιν α γ α θ ώ ν
° Gen. χ ϋ . 9. LXX " And Abram departed and having
journeyed encamped in the wilderness." E. V. " And Abram
journeyed going on still towards the south." Philo con-
veniently ignores the earlier movements of Abraham in
46
ON ABRAHAM, 82-86
logist, one who takes care of the Chaldean tenets as
a father would of his children. The latter signifies 83
the Sage, for he uses " sound " asa figure for spoken
thought and " father " for the ruling mind, since the
inward thought is by its nature father of the uttered,
being senior to it, the secret begetter of what it has
to say. " Elect" signifies the man of worth, for the
worthless character is random and confused, while
the good is elect, chosen out of all for his merits.
Now to the meteorologist nothing at all seems 84
greater than the universe, and he credits it with the
causation of what comes into being. But the wise
man with more discerning eyes sees something more
perfect perceived by mind, something which rules
and governs, the master and pilot of all else. And
therefore he blames himself severely for his former
life, feeling that all his years have been passed in
blindness with no staff to support him but the world
of sense, which is by its nature an insecure and
unstable thing. The second migration 85
which the man of worth undertakes, again in obedi-
ence to an oracle, is not as before from state to state
but into a desert country in which he continued to
wander, never complaining of the wandering or the
insecurity which it caused.* Yet who else would not 86
have felt it a burden not only to be severed from his
own country, but also to be driven out of all city life
into pathless tracts where the traveller could hardly
find a way ? Who would not have turned his course
and hurried back homeward, paying little regard to
future hopes, but eager to escape his present hard-
ships, and thinking it folly to choose admitted evil
Canaan and fastens on the ultimate goal—the wilderness, as
a symbol of the solitude of the mystic.
47
PHILO
87 δ μ ο λ ο γ ο ύ μ ε ν α α ίρ ε ΐσ θ α ι κ α κ ά ; μ ό ν ο ς δ * ο ύ τ ο σ ϊ
τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν π ε π ο ν θ έ ν α ι φ α ίν ε τ α ι, β ίο ν ή δ ισ τ ο ν
ν ο μ ίζ ω ν τ ο ν ά ν ε υ σ υ ν δ ια ιτ ή σ ε ω ς τ ή ς τ ώ ν π ο λ λ ώ ν ,
κ α ι π ε φ υ κ ε ν ο ΰ τ ω ς ε χ ε ιν ο ι γ ά ρ ζ η τ ο ΰ ν τ ε ς κ α ι
έ π ιπ ο θ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς θ ε ό ν ά ν ε υ ρ ε ΐν τ η ν φ ίλ η ν α ύ τ ώ μ ό ν ω σ ιν
α γ α π ώ σ ι, κ α τ α υ τ ό τ ο ΰ τ ο σ π ε ύ δ ο ν τ ε ς π ρ ώ τ ο ν
έ ξ ο μ ο ιο ΰ σ θ α ι τ ή μ α κ ά ρ ια κ α ΐ ε ύ δ α ίμ ο ν ι φ ύ σ ε ι.
88 ε κ α τ έ ρ α ν ο ΰ ν ά π ό δ ο σ ιν π ε π ο ιη μ ε ν ο ι,
τ η ν τ ε ρ η τ ή ν ώ ς ε π * α ν δ ρ ό ς κ α ι τ η ν δ ι υ π ο ν ο ιώ ν
ώ ς ε π ι φ υ χ ή ς , ά ξ ιέ ρ α σ τ ο ν κ α ι τ ο ν ά ν δ ρ α κ α ι τ ο ν
ν ο υ ν ά π ε φ ή ν α μ ε ν , τ ο ν μ ε ν π ε ισ θ ε ν τ α λ ο γ ίο ις ε κ
δ υ σ α π ο σ π ά σ τ ω ν ά φ ε λ κ υ σ θ ε ν τ α , τ ο ν δ ε ν ο υ ν , δ τ ι ο ύ
μ έ χ ρ ι π α ν τ ό ς α π α τ η θ ε ίς έ π ι τ ή ς α ισ θ η τ ή ς ο υ σ ία ς
ε σ τ η τ ο ν δ ρ α τ ό ν κ ό σ μ ο ν ύ π ο λ α β ώ ν μ έ γ ισ τ ο ν κ α ι
π ρ ώ τ ο ν ε ίν α ι θ ε ό ν , ά λ λ α ά ν α δ ρ α μ ώ ν τ ω λ ο γ ισ μ ώ
φ ύ σ ιν έ τ έ ρ α ν ά μ ε ίν ω τ ή ς ο ρ α τ ή ς ν ο η τ ή ν έ θ ε ά σ α τ ο
κ α ι τ ο ν ά μ φ ο ΐν π ο ιη τ ή ν δ μ ο ΰ κ α ι η γ ε μ ό ν α .
89 XIX. Τ α ύ τ α τ ο υ θ ε ο φ ιλ ο ύ ς τ ά π ρ ο τ έ λ ε ια , ο ΐς
έ π ο ν τ α ι π ρ ά ξ ε ις ο υ κ ε υ κ α τ α φ ρ ό ν η τ ο ι, τ ο δ ε μ έ γ ε -
θ ο ς α υ τ ώ ν ο ύ π α ν τ ί τ ω δ ή λ ο ν , α λ λ ά μ ό ν ο ν τ ο ις
γ ε υ σ α μ έ ν ο ις α ρ ε τ ή ς , ο ι τ ά θ α υ μ α ζ ό μ ε ν α π α ρ ά τ ο ις
π ο λ λ ο ίς ε ίώ θ α σ ι χ λ ε υ ά ζ ε ιν έ ν ε κ α μ ε γ έ θ ο υ ς τ ώ ν π ε ρ ι
90 φ υ χ ή ν α γ α θ ώ ν , ά π ο δ ε ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς ο ΰ ν ο θ ε ό ς τ η ν
ε ιρ η μ έ ν η ν π ρ α ξ ιν α ύ τ ίκ α τ ο ν ά σ τ ε ίο ν a/iet/?erai
μ ε γ ά λ η δ ω ρ ε ά , τ ο ν γ ά μ ο ν α ύ τ ώ κ ιν δ υ ν ε ύ σ α ν τ α π ρ ο ς
δ υ ν α τ ο ύ κ α ι ά κ ρ α τ ο υ ς α ν δ ρ ό ς έ π ιβ ο υ λ ε υ θ ή ν α ι
9! δ ια τ η ρ ή σ α ς ά φ α υ σ τ ό ν τ ε κ α ι σ ώ ο ν . ή δ ' α ίτ ια τ ή ς
ε π ιθ έ σ ε ω ς α ρ χ ή ν έ λ α β ε τ ο ιά ν δ ε . κ α ρ π ώ ν ά φ ο ρ ία ς
β
For §§ 91-98 see Gen. xii. 10-20.
48
ON ABRAHAM, 87-91
for the sake of uncertain good ? Yet he alone ap- 87
pears to have had feelings the opposite of these, and
to have thought that no life was so pleasant as one
lived without association with the multitude. And
that is natural, for those who seek God and yearn
to find Him love the solitude which is dear to Him,
and in this way first of all hasten to make themselves
like His blessed and happy nature. So in 88
both our expositions, the literal as applied to the man
and the allegorical as applied to the soul, we have
shewn both man and soul to be worthy of our affec-
tion. We have shewn how the man in obedience to
divine commands was drawn away from the stubborn
hold of his associations and how the mind did not
remain for ever deceived nor stand rooted in the
realm of sense, nor suppose that the visible world was
the Almighty and Primal God, but using its reason
sped upwards and turned its gaze upon the intel-
ligible order which is superior to the visible and upon
Him who is maker and ruler of both alike.
XIX. This is the opening of the story of the friend 89
of God, and it is followed by actions which call for
anything but contempt. But their greatness is not
clear to everyone, but only to those who have tasted
virtue and who recognize the greatness of the good
things which belong to the soul and therefore are wont
to deride those which win the admiration of the multi-
tude. God, then, approving of the action just re- 90
lated, at once rewards the man of worth with a great
gift; for when his marriage was threatened through
the designs of a licentious potentate, God kept it
safe and unharmed.
a
The occasion which led up to 91
the attempted outrage originated in the following
way. There had been a failure of the crops for a
49
PHILO
ε π ι σ υ χ ν ό ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν γ ε ν ο μ έ ν η ς , τ ο τ ε μ ε ν δ ια π ο λ λ ή ν
κ α ι ά μ ε τ ρ ο ν ε π ο μ β ρ ία ν τ ο τ ε δ ε δ ι
9
α ύ χ μ ό ν κ α ι
ζ ά λ η ν , α ι κ α τ ά Σ υ ρ ία ν π ό λ ε ις σ υ ν έ χ ε ι λ ιμ ώ π ιε -
σ θ ε ΐσ α ι κ ε ν α ι τ ω ν ο ίκ η τ ό ρ ω ν ή σ α ν , ά λ λ ω ν ά λ λ α χ ό σ ε
σ κ ιδ ν α μ έ ν ω ν κ α τ ά ζ ή τ η σ ιν τ ρ ο φ ή ς κ α ι π ο ρ ισ μ ό ν
92 τ ω ν α ν α γ κ α ίω ν , π ν θ ό μ ε ν ο ς ο ΰ ν
1
Α β ρ α ά μ ά φ θ ο ν ο ν
ε ν θ η ν ία ν κ α ι ε ύ ε τ η ρ ία ν ε ν Α ιγ ύ π τ ω , τ ο ν μ ε ν π ο -
τ α μ ο ύ τ α ις π λ η μ μ ύ ρ α ις λ ιμ ν ά σ α ν τ ο ς ε ν κ α ιρ ώ τ ά
π ε δ ία , τ ω ν δ ε τ ο ν σ π ό ρ ο ν ε ΰ σ τ α χ υ ν έ ν ε γ κ ό ν τ ω ν κ α ι
[ 15] ά ν α θ ρ ε φ α μ έ ν ω ν \ ε ύ κ ρ α σ ία ις π ν ε υ μ ά τ ω ν , ά π α ίρ ε ι
93 π α σ α ν τ ή ν ο ίκ ία ν ε π α γ ό μ ε ν ο ς , ή ν δ ' α ύ τ ώ γ υ ν ή τ ή ν τ ε
φ υ χ ή ν α ρ ίσ τ η κ α ι τ ό σ ώ μ α τ ώ ν κ α θ * α υ τ ή ν π ε ρ ικ α λ -
λ ε σ τ ά τ η * τ α ύ τ η ν ίδ ό ν τ ε ς τ ώ ν Α ιγ υ π τ ίω ν ο ι ε ν τ έ λ ε ι
κ α ι τ η ς ε ύ μ ο ρ φ ία ς ά γ ά μ ε ν ο ι—λ α ν θ ά ν ε ι γ ά ρ τ ο υ ς ε ν
94 ε ξ ο χ α ΐς ο υ δ έ ν —μ η ν ύ ο υ σ ι τ ω β α σ ιλ ε ΐ. μ ε τ α π ε μ -
φ ά μ ε ν ο ς δ έ τ ή ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν κ α ι θ ε α σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ε κ π ρ ε π ε -
σ τ ά τ η ν δ φ ιν , β ρ α χ ύ φ ρ ο ν τ ίσ α ς α ίδ ο ΰ ς κ α ι ν ό μ ω ν τ ώ ν
ε π ι τ ιμ ή ξ έ ν ω ν ο ρ ισ θ έ ν τ ω ν , ε ν δ ο ύ ς ά κ ρ α σ ία δ ι-
ε ν ο ε ΐτ ο λ ό γ ω μ έ ν α υ τ ή ν ά γ α γ έ σ θ α ι π ρ ο ς γ ά μ ο ν , τ ό
95 δ ' α λ η θ έ ς α ίσ χ ύ ν ε ιν . ή δ ' ά τ ε ε ν α λ λ ό τ ρ ια γ ή π α ρ
9
ά κ ρ α τ ε ΐ τ ε κ α ι ώ μ ο θ ύ μ ω δ υ ν ά σ τ η τ ο υ β ο η θ ή σ ο ν τ ο ς
α π ο ρ ο ύ σ α —ο υ δ έ γ ά ρ ο ά ν ή ρ ε σ θ ε ν ε ν ά ρ ή γ ε ιν τ ο ν
ε π ικ ρ ε μ ά μ ε ν ο ν ε κ τ ώ ν δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ ω ν φ ό β ο ν δ ε δ ιώ ς
—ε π ι τ ή ν τ ε λ ε υ τ α ία ν ά μ * ε κ ε ίν ω κ α τ α φ ε ύ γ ε ι
96 σ υ μ μ α χ ία ν τ ή ν ε κ θ ε ο ΰ . λ α β ώ ν δ έ τ ώ ν ξ έ ν ω ν
ο ΐκ τ ο ν ό ε υ μ ε ν ή ς κ α ι ϊλ ε ω ς κ α ι υ π έ ρ μ α χ ο ς τ ώ ν
α δ ικ ο ύ μ ε ν ω ν ά λ γ η δ ό ν α ς δ υ σ κ α ρ τ ε ρ ή τ ο υ ς κ α ι χ α λ ε -
π ά ς τ ιμ ω ρ ία ς ε π ά γ ε ι τ ω β α σ ιλ ε ΐ, π α ν τ ο ίω ν κ α κ ώ ν
ά ν α π λ ή σ α ς α ύ τ ο ϋ σ ώ μ α κ α ι φ υ χ ή ν δ υ σ ιά τ ω ν , ώ ς τ ά ς
μ έ ν ε φ * ή δ ο ν ή ν ά γ ο υ σ α ς ο ρ έ ξ ε ις ά π ά σ α ς ε κ κ ε κ ό φ -
θ α ι, τ ά ς δ ' ε ν α ν τ ία ς π α ρ ε ισ ε λ η λ υ θ έ ν α ι φ ρ ο ν τ ίδ α ς
50
ON ABRAHAM, 91-96
considerable period, at one time through a great and
excessive rainfall, at another through drought and
stormy weather; and the cities of Syria, hard pressed
through continual famine, were stripped of their in-
habitants who scattered in different directions to seek
for food and to procure necessities. Abraham, then, 92
learning that there was a rich and abundant supply
of corn in Egypt, where the river by its seasonal
flooding had turned the plains into pools, and well-
tempered winds had produced and fostered a fine
growth of corn, set off thither with his whole house-
hold. He had a wife distinguished greatly for her 93
goodness of soul and beauty of body, in which she
surpassed all the women of her time. When the
chief people of Egypt saw her and admired her
beauty, since the highly placed leave nothing
unobserved, they told the king. He sent for the 94
woman, and, marking her surpassing comeliness,
paid little regard to decency or the laws enacted to
shew respect to strangers, but gave rein to his licence
and determined nominally to take her in marriage,
but in reality to bring her to shame. She who in a 95
foreign country was at the mercy of a licentious and,
cruel-hearted despot and had no one to protect her,
for her husband was helpless, menaced as he was by
the terror of stronger powers, joined him in fleeing
for refuge to the last remaining championship, that
of God. And God, Who is kindly and merciful and 96
shields the wronged, had pity for the strangers and
plied the king with almost intolerable pains and
grievous penalties. He filled him body and soul with
all manner of scarce curable plagues. All appetite
for pleasure was eradicated and replaced by visita-
tions of the opposite kind, by cravings for release
51
PHILO
π ε ρ ι α π α λ λ α γ ή ς ά ν η ν ύ τ ω ν β α σ ά ν ω ν , ύ φ ' ω ν γ υ μ ν ά -
ζ ό μ ε ν ο ς μ ε θ ' ή μ έ ρ α ν κ α ι ν ύ κ τ ω ρ έ ξ ε τ ρ α χ η λ ίζ ε τ ο .
97 π α ρ α π έ λ α υ σ ε δ έ τ ή ς τ ιμ ω ρ ία ς κ α ι σ υ μ π ά ς 6 ο ΐκ ο ς
α ύ τ ω , μ η δ ε ν ό ς έ π ι τ ή τ α ρ α ν ο μ ία δ υ σ χ ε ρ ά ν α ν τ ο ς ,
ά λ λ α π ά ν τ ω ν έ ν ε κ α τ ο υ σ υ ν α ιν ε ιν μ ό ν ο ν ο υ σ υ γ -
98 χ ε ιρ ο υ ρ γ η σ ά ν τ ω ν τ ό α δ ίκ η μ α , τ ο ύ τ ο ν τ ο ν τ ρ ό π ο ν ή
μ έ ν ά γ ν ε ία τ ή ς γ υ ν α ικ ό ς δ ια σ ώ ζ ε τ α ι, τ ο υ δ έ α ν δ ρ ό ς
τ ή ν κ α λ ο κ ά γ α θ ία ν κ α ι ε ύ σ έ β ε ια ν ο θ ε ό ς ή ξ ίω σ ε ν
ετ τ ιδ ει^α σ β α ι γ έ ρ α ς α ύ τ ω μ έ γ ισ τ ο ν π α ρ ά σ χ ω ν ,
ά σ ιν ή κ α ι ά ν ύ β ρ ισ τ ο ν ό σ ο ν ο ΰ π ω κ ιν δ υ ν ε ύ σ α ν τ α
δ ια φ θ α ρ ή ν α ι τ ο ν γ ά μ ο ν , δ ς ο υ κ έ μ ε λ λ ε ν ο λ ίγ ω ν
α ρ ιθ μ ό ν υ ιώ ν ή θ υ γ α τ έ ρ ω ν γ ε ν ν ά ν , ά λ λ ' ό λ ο ν έ θ ν ο ς
κ α ι ε θ ν ώ ν τ ό θ ε ο φ ιλ έ σ τ α τ ο ν , δ μ ο ι δ ο κ ε ΐ τ ή ν υ π έ ρ
π α ν τ ό ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν γ έ ν ο υ ς ίε ρ ω σ ύ ν η ν κ α ι π ρ ο φ η τ ε ία ν
λ α χ ε ΐν .
99 XX. "Η κ ο υ σ α μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι φ υ σ ικ ώ ν α ν δ ρ ώ ν ο υ κ
ά π ό σ κ ο π ο ύ τ ά π ε ρ ί τ ο ν τ ό π ο ν ά λ λ η γ ο ρ ο ύ ν τ ω ν , ο ι
τ ο ν μ έ ν ά ν δ ρ α σ υ μ β ο λ ικ ώ ς ε φ α σ κ ο ν σ π ο υ δ α ΐο ν
ε ίν α ι ν ο υ ν έ κ τ ή ς π ε ρ ι τ ο ϋ ν ο μ α έ ρ μ η ν ε υ θ ε ίσ η ς
δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς τ ε κ μ α ιρ ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ρ ό π ο ν ά σ τ ε ΐο ν έ ν φ υ χ ή ,
τ ή ν δ έ τ ο ύ τ ο υ γ υ ν α ίκ α ά ρ ε τ ή ν , ή ς τ ο ΰ ν ο μ ά έ σ τ ι
Χ α λ δ α ϊσ τ χ μ έ ν Happa,Ε λ λ η ν ισ τ ί δ έ " ά ρ χ ο υ σ α ,"
δ ιά τ ό μ η δ έ ν α ρ ε τ ή ς ά ρ χ ικ ώ τ ε ρ ο ν ε ίν α ι κ α ι ή γ ε μ ο -
100 ν ικ ώ τ ε ρ ο ν . γ ά μ ο ς δ έ , δ ν μ έ ν α ρ μ ό ζ ε τ α ι η δ ο ν ή ,
σ ω μ ά τ ω ν κ ο ιν ω ν ία ν ε λ α χ ε ν , δ ν δ έ σ ο φ ία , λ ο γ ισ μ ώ ν
κ α θ ά ρ σ ε ω ς έ φ ιε μ έ ν ω ν κ α ι τ ε λ ε ίω ν α ρ ε τ ώ ν , έ ν α ν -
τ ιώ τ α τ ο ι δ έ ά λ λ ή λ ο ις ε ίσ ιν ο ι λ ε χ θ έ ν τ ε ς γ ά μ ο ι.
101 κ α τ ά μ έ ν γ ά ρ τ ο ν τ ώ ν σ ω μ ά τ ω ν σ π ε ίρ ε ι μ έ ν τ ό
α
Or " students of the (higher) truths of Nature," almost in
some contexts {e.g. Mos. ii. 216) = " theologians." Nature is
so closely akin to the divine (see note on De Sac. 98) that
allegorical truths such as these especially belong to its study,
52
ON ABRAHAM, 96-101
from the endless tortures which night and day
haunted and racked him almost to death. The whole 97
household, too, shared the punishment with him,
since none had shewn indignation at the outrage, but
all by consenting were almost accomplices in the mis-
deed. Thus the chastity of the woman was pre- 98
served, while the nobility and piety^of the man was
evidenced by God, Who deigned to grant him this
signal boon, that his marriage, which would have
been in almost immediate danger of violation, should
remain free from harm and outrage, that marriage
from which was to issue not a family of a few sons
and daughters, but a whole nation, and that the
nation dearest of all to God, which, as I hold, has
received the gift of priesthood and prophecy on
behalf of all mankind.
XX. I have also heard some natural philosophers
a
99
who took the passage allegorically, not without good
reason. They said that the husband was a figure for
the good mind, judging by the meaning given for
interpretation of this name that it stood for a good
disposition of soul. The wife, they said, was virtue,
her name being in Chaldean Sarah but in our language
a sovereign lady,
b
because nothing is more sovereign
or dominant than virtue. Now in a marriage where 100
the union is brought about by pleasure, the partner-
ship is between body and body, but in the marriage
made by wisdom it is between thoughts which seek
purification and perfect virtues. Now the two kinds
of marriage are directly opposed to each other. For 101
in the bodily marriage the male sows the seed and the
cf. De Post. 7 T\)V 8L ά λ λ η 'γ ο ρ ία * ό δ ό ν φ υ σ ικ ο ί* φ ί\η ν ά ν δ ρ ά σ ι,
and De Mut. 62 φ ν σ ιο λ ο Ύ ο ϋ ρ τ β *. See further App. p. 597.
6
Cf, De Cher. 8, De Mut. 77.
53
PHILO
ά ρ ρ ε ν , γ ο ν ή ν δ * υ π ο δ έ χ ε τ α ι τ ο θ ή λ υ , κ α τ ά δ ε τ η ν |
[ 16] έ ν φ υ χ α ΐς σ ύ ν ο δ ο ν ε μ π α λ ιν ή μ ε ν α ρ ε τ ή τ ά ξ ιν
γ υ ν α ικ ό ς ε χ ε ιν δ ο κ ο ΰ σ α σ π ε ίρ ε ιν π έ φ υ κ ε β ο υ λ ά ς
ά γ α θ ά ς κ α ι λ ό γ ο υ ς σ π ο υ δ α ίο υ ς κ α ΐ β ιω φ ε λ ε σ τ ά τ ω ν
ε ισ η γ ή σ ε ις δ ο γ μ ά τ ω ν , ο δ έ λ ο γ ισ μ ό ς ε ίς τ η ν α ν δ ρ ό ς
χ ω ρ ά ν τ ά τ τ ε σ θ α ι ν ο μ ισ θ ε ίς τ ά ς ιε ρ ο π ρ ε π ε ίς κ α ι
θ ε ία ς υ π ο δ έ χ ε τ α ι σ π ο ρ ά ς * ή μ ή π ο τ ε τ ο λ ε χ θ έ ν
ε φ ε υ σ τ α ι δ ι ' ά π ά τ η ν ο ν ο μ ά τ ω ν , έ π ε ιδ ή π ε ρ 6 μ ε ν
ν ο υ ς ά ρ ρ ε ν ο ς ή δ ' α ρ ε τ ή θ ή λ ε ο ς μ ε τ έ χ ε ι χ α ρ α κ τ ή ρ ο ς
102 ε ν φ ω ν α ΐς . ε ί δ έ τ ις τ ά ς έ π ισ κ ια ζ ο ύ σ α ς κ λ ή σ ε ις
ά π α μ φ ιά σ α ς γ υ μ ν ά τ ά π ρ ά γ μ α τ α β ο υ λ η θ ε ίη κ α -
θ α ρ ώ ς ιδ ε ΐν ε ΐσ ε τ α ι δ ιό τ ι ά ρ ρ ε ν μ έ ν έ σ τ ιν ή α ρ ε τ ή
φ ύ σ ε ι, π α ρ ό σ ο ν κ ιν ε ί κ α ι δ ια τ ίθ η σ ι κ α ι κ α λ ά ς
ε ν ν ο ία ς κ α λ ώ ν π ρ ά ξ ε ω ν κ α ι λ ό γ ω ν ύ π η χ ε ΐ, θ ή λ υ
δ έ 6 λ ο γ ισ μ ό ς κ ιν ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι π α ιδ ε υ ό μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι
ω φ ε λ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι σ υ ν ό λ ω ς ε ν τ ω π ά σ χ ε ιν ε ξ ε τ α ζ ό -
μ ε ν ο ς , κ α ι τ ο π ά θ ο ς α ύ τ ώ τ ο ϋ τ ο μ ό ν ο ν ε σ τ ί σ ω τ ή -
103 ρ ιο ν . XXI. ά π α ν τ ε ς μ ε ν ο ΰ ν κ α ι ο ι φ α υ λ ό τ α τ ο ι
τ ω λ ό γ ω τ ιμ ώ σ ι κ α ι θ α υ μ ά ζ ο υ σ ιν ά ρ ε τ ή ν ο σ α τ ώ
δ ο κ ε ΐν , χ ρ ώ ν τ α ι δ ' α υ τ ή ς τ ο ις π α ρ α γ γ έ λ μ α σ ιν ο ί
α σ τ ε ίο ι μ ό ν ο ι, δ ιό κ α ι 6 τ ή ς Α ιγ ύ π τ ο υ β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς ,
ό π ε ρ ε σ τ ί σ υ μ β ο λ ικ ώ ς ν ο υ ς φ ιλ ο σ ώ μ α τ ο ς , κ α θ υ π ο -
κ ρ ιν ό μ ε ν ο ς ώ ς ε ν θ ε ά τ ρ ω π ρ ο σ π ο ίη τ ο ν ε π ιμ ο ρ φ ά ζ ε ι
κ ο ιν ω ν ία ν , π ρ ο ς έ γ κ ρ ά τ ε ια ν 6 ά κ ρ α τ η ς κ α ι π ρ ο ς
σ ω φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ν ό α κ ό λ α σ τ ο ς κ α ϊ π ρ ο ς δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η ν
ο ά δ ικ ο ς , κ α ι κ α λ ε ί τ η ν ά ρ ε τ ή ν ώ ς ε α υ τ ό ν τ ή ς π α ρ ά
104 τ ο ις π ο λ λ ο ίς ε υ φ η μ ία ς γ λ ιχ ό μ έ ν ο ς , ο π ε ρ κ α τ ιδ ώ ν
6 έ φ ο ρ ο ς —μ ό ν ω γ ά ρ ε ξ ε σ τ ι θ ε ώ φ υ χ ή ν ιδ ε ΐν —
έ μ ίσ η σ ε κ α ι π ρ ο ύ β ά λ ε τ ο κ α ι β α σ ά ν ο ις ή λ ε γ ξ ε ν
ά ρ γ α λ ε ω τ ά τ α ις ή θ ο ς κ α τ ε φ ε υ σ μ έ ν ο ν . α ί δ έ β ά σ α ν ο ι
δ ιά τ ίν ω ν ο ρ γ ά ν ω ν ; ή π ά ν τ ω ς δ ιά τ ώ ν τ ή ς α ρ ε τ ή ς
μ ε ρ ώ ν , ά π ε ρ έ π ε ισ ιό ν τ α χ α λ ε π ώ ς α ίκ ίζ ε τ α ι κ α ι
54
ON ABRAHAM, 101-104
female receives it; on the other hand in the matings
within the soul, though virtue seemingly ranks as wife,
her natural function is to sow good counsels and excel-
lent words and to inculcate tenets truly profitable to
life, while thought, though held to take the place of
the husband, receives the holy and divine sowings.
Perhaps however the statement
a
above is a mistake
due to the deceptiveness of the nouns, since in the
actual words employed vovs has the masculine, and ά ρ α τ ή
the feminine form. And if anyone is willing to divest 102
facts of the terms which obscure them and observe
them in their nakedness in a clear light he will under-
stand that virtue is male, since it causes movement
and affects conditions and suggests noble conceptions
of noble deeds and words, while thought is female,
being moved and trained and helped, and in general
belonging to the passive category, which passivity is
its sole means of preservation. XXI. All men, then, 103
even the most worthless, professedly honour and
admire virtue so far as outward appearance goes, but
only the worthy practise its injunctions. And so the
king of Egypt, under which figure is symbolized the
mind which loves the body, acts a part as in a theatre
and assumes a counterfeited fellowship, he, the
licentious with chastity, the profligate with self-con-
trol, the unjust with justice, and in his desire to earn
a good repute with the multitude invites virtue to join
him. Seeing this, God the surveyor, since He alone 104
can scan the soul, hates and rejects the sham character
and submits it to the test of most painful tortures.
What are the instruments of these tortures ? Surely
the different parts of virtue which enter in and plague
a
i.e. that virtue is wife, and mind husband; but see App.
pp. 597-598.
55
PHILO
τ ιτ ρ ώ σ κ ε ι; β ά σ α ν ο ς μ ε ν γ ά ρ ε σ τ ίν α π λ η σ τ ία ς
ό λ ιγ ο δ ε ΐα , β ά σ α ν ο ς 8έ λ α γ ν ε ία ς ε γ κ ρ ά τ ε ια * σ τ ρ ε -
β λ ο ΰ τ α ι 8ε κ α ι 6 φ ιλ ό δ ο ξ ο ς ά τ υ φ ία ς ε υ η μ ε ρ ο ύ σ η ς κ α ι
105 ο ά δ ικ ο ς δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η ς ε π α ίν ο υ μ έ ν η ς . μ ία ν γ ά ρ
ά μ ή χ α ν ο ν φ υ χ ή ν κ α τ ο ικ ε ΐν δ ύ ο τ ά ς ε χ θ ρ ά ς φ ύ σ ε ις ,
κ α κ ία ν κ α ΐ ά ρ ε τ ή ν ο ύ χ ά ρ ιν , ε π ε ιδ ά ν σ υ ν ε ν ε χ θ ώ σ ιν ,
α σ ύ μ β α τ ο ι κ α ι ά κ α τ ά λ λ α κ τ ο ι σ τ ά σ ε ις κ α ι π ό λ ε μ ο ι
σ υ γ κ ρ ο τ ο ύ ν τ α ι, κ α ίτ ο ι τ ή ς α ρ ε τ ή ς ε ίρ η ν ικ ω τ ά τ η ν
φ ύ σ ιν ε χ ο ύ σ η ς , ή φ α σ ιν ε π ιμ ε λ έ ς ε ίν α ι, δ τ α ν ε ις
χ ε ιρ ώ ν ά μ ιλ λ α ν ίέ ν α ι μ ε λ λ η , τ ή ς ιδ ία ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς
ά π ο π ε ιρ ά σ θ α ι π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν , ιν
9
, ε ι μ έ ν ισ χ ύ ο ι κ α τ -
α γ ω ν ίσ α σ θ α ι, σ υ ν ισ τ ή τ α ι, ε ΐ δ
9
α σ θ ε ν έ σ τ ε ρ α χ ρ ώ τ ο
τ ή δ υ ν ά μ ε ι, μ η δ έ σ υ γ κ α τ α β ή ν α ι τ η ν α ρ χ ή ν ε ις τ ο ν
106 α γ ώ ν α θ α ρ ρ ή σ η * κ α κ ία ν μ έ ν γ ά ρ ^"τ ό ΐο ^ο :
1
ο υ κ
α ίσ χ ρ ό ν , ή σ υ γ γ ε ν έ ς ά δ ο ξ ία , ά ρ ε τ ή ν δ έ ό ν ε ιδ ο ς , ή
π ά ν τ ω ν ο ίκ ε ιό τ α τ ο ν ε ΰ κ λ ε ια , δ ι
9
η ν π ε φ υ κ ε ν ικ α ν ή
δ ια τ η ρ ε ΐν α υ τ ή ν ά ή τ τ η τ ο ν .
107 XXII. Τ ο μ έ ν ο δ ν Α ιγ υ π τ ίω ν α ξ ε ν ο ν κ α ι ά κ ό -
λ α σ τ ο ν ε ΐρ η τ α ι. τ ο υ δ έ τ ο ια ύ τ α π ε π ο ν θ ό τ ο ς ά ξ ιο ν
θ α υ μ ά σ α ι τ ή ν φ ιλ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ν , δ ς μ ε σ η μ β ρ ία ς \
[ 17] θ ε α σ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ρ ε ις ώ ς ά ν δ ρ α ς ό δ ο ιπ ο ρ ο ΰ ν τ α ς —ο ι δ έ
θ ε ιο τ ε ρ α ς ο ν τ ε ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς ε λ ε λ ή θ ε σ α ν —π ρ ο σ δ ρ α μ ώ ν
ικ έ τ ε υ ε λ ιπ α ρ ώ ς μ ή π α ρ ε λ θ ε ΐν α ύ τ ο ΰ τ ή ν σ κ η ν ή ν ,
α λ λ
9
ώ ς π ρ έ π ο ν ε ίσ ε λ η λ υ θ ό τ α ς ξ ε ν ίω ν μ ε τ α σ χ ε ΐν ο ι
δ
9
ο ύ κ ε κ τ ώ ν λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ω ν μ ά λ λ ο ν ή τ ή ς δ ιά ν ο ια ς
ε ίδ ό τ ε ς ά λ η θ ε ύ ο ν τ α μ η δ έ ν ε ν δ ο ιά σ α ν τ ε ς ε π ιν ε ύ ο υ σ ι.
108 π λ η ρ ω θ ε ίς δ έ τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν χ α ρ ά ς π ά ν τ ε σ π ο ύ δ α ζ ε ν
ε ις τ ο ά ν υ π ε ρ θ ε τ ο ν τ ή ς υ π ο δ ο χ ή ς κ α ι τ ή μ έ ν γ υ ν α ικ ι
φ η σ ι" σ π ε ϋ σ ο ν κ α ι τ ρ ία μ έ τ ρ α π ο ίη σ ο ν ε γ κ ρ υ φ ιώ ν ,"
α υ τ ό ς δ έ ε ις τ ά β ο υ κ ό λ ια σ υ ν τ ε ίν α ς , ά π α λ ό ν κ α ι
109 ε ΰ σ α ρ κ ο ν ά γ α γ ώ ν μ ό σ χ ο ν , ο ίκ έ τ η π α ρ α δ ίδ ω σ ιν . ό
° For §§ 107-118 see Gen. xviii.
56
ON ABRAHAM, 104-109
and wound him grievously ? For greediness is tortured
by frugal contentment and lewdness by continence.
And so the vainglorious is racked when simplicity
prevails, and the unjust when justice is praised. For 105
it is impossible for the single soul to have for its tenant
two hostile natures, vice and virtue, and therefore
when they meet factions and wars are set on foot
incapable of truce or reconciliation. And yet virtue's
nature is most peaceable, and she is careful, so they
say, to test her own strength before the conflict, so
that if she is able to contend to the end she may take
the field, but if she finds her strength too weak she
may shrink from entering the contest at all. For vice 106
feels no disgrace in defeat, since ill-repute is congenital
to her, but to virtue it is a reproach, for nearest and
dearest to her is good fame which makes it natural
for her to be victorious or at least to keep herself
undefeated.
XXII.
a
I have described the inhospitality and 107
licentiousness of the Egyptians. Turning to the
victim of this outrage, we may well admire his kind-
ness of heart. When at noon he saw three travellers
in the form of men, for their diviner nature was not
apparent to him, he ran to them and earnestly begged
of them not to pass his tent but to enter as was fitting
and partake of hospitality. But they, knowing, not
so much by his words as by the feeling he showed,
that he spoke the truth, assented without hesitation.
And he, his soul full of joy, was eager to carry out 108
the reception without delay, and said to his wife :
" Hasten and bake three measures of cakes in the
ashes." Meanwhile he himself hurried to the stalls
and brought a tender and well-fed calf which he gave
to the servant who killed it and dressed it with all 109
57
PHILO
δ έ κ α τ α θ ύ σ α ς σ κ ε υ ά ζ ε ι τ ά χ ισ τ α * β ρ α δ ύ ς γ ά ρ ο υ δ ε ίς
π ρ ο ς φ ιλ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ν ε ν ο ικ ω σ ο φ ο ΰ , α λ λ ά κ α ι γ υ -
ν α ίκ ε ς κ α ι ά ν δ ρ ε ς κ α ι δ ο ύ λ ο ι κ α ι ε λ ε ύ θ ε ρ ο ι π ρ ο -
θ υ μ ό τ α τ ο ι π ρ ο ς τ ά ς τ ώ ν ξ ε ν ιζ ο μ έ ν ω ν υ π η ρ ε σ ία ς .
110 έ σ τ ια θ έ ν τ ε ς δ ' ο ύ τ ο ΐς ε ύ τ ρ ε π ισ θ ε ΐσ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ή τ η
τ ο υ ξ ε ν ο δ ό χ ο υ γ ν ώ μ η κ α ι π ο λ λ ή τ ιν ι κ α ι ά π ε ρ ά ν τ ω
φ ιλ ο τ ιμ ία π α ρ ε χ ο υ σ ιν ά θ λ ο ν ε λ π ίδ ο ς μ ε ίζ ο ν α ύ τ ώ ,
υ ίο ϋ γ ν η σ ίο υ γ έ ν ε σ ιν ε ις ν έ ω τ α β ε β α ιω θ η σ ο μ ε ν η ν
υ π ο σ χ ό μ ε ν ο ι δ ι' ε ν ό ς τ ο υ τ ώ ν τ ρ ιώ ν α ρ ίσ τ ο υ —
λ έ γ ε ιν γ ά ρ ε ν τ α ύ τ ώ π ά ν τ α ς α θ ρ ό ο υ ς ή ν ά φ ιλ ό -
σ ο φ ο ν , ε ν δ ε λ ε γ ο ν τ ι τ ο ύ ς ά λ λ ο υ ς σ υ ν ε π ιν ε ύ ε ιν
111 ε μ π ρ ε π ε ς —. ά λ λ α γ ά ρ ο ύ δ ' ύ π σ χ ν ο ύ έ ν ο ις έ ν ε κ α
τ ο υ π ε ρ ί τ ό π ρ ά γ μ α α π ίσ τ ο υ β ε β α ίω ς π ρ ο σ ε ΐχ ο ν
ή δ η γ ά ρ υ π ε ρ ή λ ικ ε ς γ ε γ ο ν ό τ ε ς δ ιά μ α κ ρ ό ν γ ή ρ α ς
112 ά π ε γ ν ώ κ ε σ α ν π α ιδ ό ς σ π ο ρ ά ν . ά κ ο ύ σ α σ α ν ο ΰ ν τ ή ν
γ υ ν α ίκ α ε ν ά ρ χ ή φ η σ ι γ ε λ ά σ α ι κ α ι μ ε τ ά τ α ύ τ α ,
ε ίπ ό ν τ ω ν " μ ή α δ υ ν α τ ε ί π α ρ ά τ ω θ ε ώ π α ν ρ ή μ α ; "
κ α τ α ιδ ε σ θ ε ΐσ α ν ή ρ ν ή σ θ α ι τ ο ν γ έ λ ω τ α * π ά ν τ α γ ά ρ
ή δ ε ι θ ε ώ δ υ ν α τ ά σ χ ε δ ό ν ε ξ έ τ ι σ π ά ρ γ α ν ω ν τ ο υ τ ί τ ό
113 δ ό γ μ α π ρ ο μ α θ ο υ σ α . τ ό τ ε μ ο ι δ ο κ ε ΐ π ρ ώ τ ο ν ο ύ κ έ θ *
ό μ ο ία ν τ ώ ν ό ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν λ α β ε ίν φ α ν τ α σ ία ν , α λ λ ά
σ ε μ ν ο τ έ ρ α ν ή π ρ ο φ η τ ώ ν ή α γ γ έ λ ω ν ^ε τ α ^α λ ό ν τ ω ν
ά π ό π ν ε υ μ α τ ικ ή ς κ α ι ψ υ χ ο ε ιδ ο ΰ ς ο υ σ ία ς ε ις ά ν -
θ ρ ω π ό μ ο ρ φ ο ν ίδ έ α ν .
114 XXIII. Τ ό μ έ ν ο ΰ ν φ ιλ ό ξ ε ν ο ν τ ο υ α ν δ ρ ό ς ε ΐρ η τ α ι,
π ά ρ ε ρ γ ο ν δ ν α ρ ε τ ή ς μ ε ίζ ο ν ο ς * ή δ ' α ρ ε τ ή θ ε ο σ έ β ε ια ,
π ε ρ ι ή ς κ α ι π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ε ΐπ ο μ ε ν , η ς δ ε ΐγ μ α σ α φ έ σ -
τ α τ ο ν τ ά ν υ ν λ ε χ θ έ ν τ α ε σ τ ίν ώ ς ε π ί ξ έ ν ω ν α ν δ ρ ώ ν .
α
i.e. Sarah's denial of her laughter is ascribed to a
recognition that the Visitor was divine, rather than as in
58
ON ABRAHAM, 109-115
speed. For in a wise man's house no one is slow in
showing kindness ; but women and men, slaves and
free, are full of zeal to do service to their guests. After 110
feasting not so much on the viands prepared for them
as on the goodwill of their host, and on this example
of a great and unbounded generosity, they presented
him with a reward surpassing his hopes, by promising
him the birth of a son born in wedlock. And this
promise, which was to be made good in the next year,
was given through one, and that the highest, of the
three. For wise refinement demanded that all should
not speak together at once but rather that one should
speak and the others shew assent. But to Abraham 111
and Sarah the thing seemed incredible, and therefore
they did not pay serious regard even to the promises
of the three. For as they had passed the years of
parenthood their great age had made them despair
of the birth of a son. So the scripture says that the 112
wife first laughed at the words and afterwards when
they said, " Is anything impossible with God ? " was
ashamed and denied her laughter, for she knew that
all things were possible with God, a truth which she
had learnt long ago, and even from the cradle. It 113
was then, I think, that she first saw in the strangers
before her a different and grander aspect, that of
prophets or angels, transformed from their spiritual
and soul-like nature into human shape.
a
XXIII. We have described Abraham's hospitality 114
which was but a by-product of a greater virtue. That
virtue is piety, of which we have spoken before, and
it is quite clearly seen in this story, even if we think
of the strangers as men. Some may feel that the 115
Genesis to fear. Otherwise Philo here gives the natural
interpretation of the incident. See note on § 206.
59
PHILO
115 ε ι δ ' ε ύ δ α ίμ ο ν α κ α ι μ α κ ά ρ ιο ν ο ίκ ο ν ύ π έ λ α β ο ν ε ίν α ι
η ν ε ς , έ ν ώ σ υ ν έ β η κ α τ α χ θ ή ν α ι κ α ΐ έ ν δ ια τ ρ ΐφ α ι
σ ο φ ο ύ ς , ο υ κ α ν ά ξ ιώ σ α ν τ α ς ά λ λ ' ο ύ ο
9
δ σ ο ν δ ια κ ΰ φ α ι
μ ό ν ο ν , ε ι τ ι π ά θ ο ς έ ν ε ώ ρ ω ν τ α ΐς φ υ χ α ΐς τ ώ ν έ ν δ ο ν
Ο ν τ ω ν ά ν ία τ ο ν , έ γ ώ δ έ ο υ κ ο ΐδ α , τ ίν α ύ π ε ρ β ο λ ή ν
ε υ δ α ιμ ο ν ία ς κ α ΐ μ α κ α ρ ιό τ η τ ο ς ε ίν α ι φ ώ π ε ρ ι τ ή ν
ο ίκ ία ν , έ ν ή κ α τ α χ θ ή ν α ι κ α ι ξ ε ν ίω ν λ α χ ε ΐν ύ π -
έ μ ε ιν α ν ά γ γ ε λ ο ι π ρ ό ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ,
1
ίε ρ α ι κ α ι θ ε ΐα ι
φ ύ σ ε ις , ύ π ο δ ιά κ ο ν ο ι κ α ι ύ π α ρ χ ο ι τ ο υ π ρ ώ τ ο υ θ ε ο ϋ ,
[ 18] | δ ι ώ ν ο ΐα π ρ ε σ β ε υ τ ώ ν ό σ α α ν θ ε λ ή σ η ^ τ ώ γ έ ν ε ι
116 η μ ώ ν π ρ ο θ ε σ π ίσ α ι δ ια γ γ έ λ λ ε ι. π ώ ς γ ά ρ α ν τ ή ν
α ρ χ ή ν ε ίσ ε λ θ ε ιν ύ π έ μ ε ιν α ν , ε ι μ ή κ α θ ά π ε ρ ν ε ώ ς ε ΰ
σ υ ν τ ε τ α γ μ έ ν ο ν π λ ή ρ ω μ α τ ο υ ς έ ν δ ο ν α π α ν τ ά ς ή δ ε σ α ν
έ ν ι π ε ιθ α ρ χ ο ΰ ν τ α ς κ ε λ ε ύ σ μ α τ ι τ ώ τ ο υ π ρ ο ε σ τ η κ ό τ ο ς
ώ σ α ν ε ϊ κ υ β ε ρ ν ή τ ο υ ; π ώ ς δ ' α ν έ σ τ ιω μ έ ν ω ν κ α ι
ξ ε ν ιζ ο μ έ ν ω ν π α ρ έ σ χ ο ν ύ π ό λ η φ ιν , ε ι μ ή τ ο ν ε σ τ ιά -
τ ο ρ α σ υ γ γ ε ν ή κ α ι ό μ ό δ ο υ λ ο ν ή γ ο ΰ ν τ ο τ ώ α υ τ ώ ν
π ρ ο σ π ε φ ε υ γ ό τ α δ ε σ π ό τ η ; ν ο μ ισ τ έ ο ν μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι
κ α τ ά τ ή ν ε ΐσ ο δ ο ν α υ τ ώ ν έ τ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν έ π ιδ ο ΰ ν α ι
π ά ν τ α τ ά μ έ ρ η τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς π ρ ό ς τ ό β έ λ τ ιο ν α ύ ρ α
117 τ ιν ι τ ε λ ε ιό τ α τ η ς α ρ ε τ ή ς έ π ιπ ν ε υ σ θ έ ν τ α . τ ό δ έ σ υ μ -
π ό σ ιο ν ο ΐο ν ε ικ ό ς γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι, τ ή ν έ ν ε ύ ω χ ία ις
ά φ έ λ ε ια ν έ π ιδ ε ικ ν υ μ έ ν ω ν π ρ ό ς τ ο ν ε σ τ ιά τ ο ρ α τ ώ ν
έ σ τ ιω μ έ ν ω ν κ α ι γ υ μ ν ο ΐς ή θ ε σ ι π ρ ο σ α γ ο ρ ε υ ό ν τ ω ν
κ α ι ο μ ιλ ία ς τ ά ς ά ρ μ ο τ τ ο ύ σ α ς τ ώ κ α ιρ ώ π ο ιο υ -
118 μ έ ν ω ν , τ ε ρ ά σ τ ιο ν δ έ κ α ι τ ό μ ή π ίν ο ν τ α ς π ιν ό ν τ ω ν
κ α ι τ ό μ ή έ σ θ ίο ν τ α ς έ σ θ ιό ν τ ω ν π α ρ έ χ ε ιν φ α ν τ α σ ία ν .
ά λ λ α τ α υ τ ί γ ε ώ ς α κ ό λ ο υ θ α * τ ό δ έ π ρ ώ τ ο ν ε κ ε ίν ο
τ ε ρ α τ ω δ έ σ τ α τ ο ν , α σ ω μ ά τ ο υ ς Ο ν τ α ς [ τ ο ΰ δ ε σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ]
1
So one MS. The others α ν θ ρ ώ π ο υ ς which Cohn prints in
the text, but later declared for -ω ν . The accusative, however
= " in relation with men " is not impossible.
60
ON ABRAHAM, 115-118
house must have been happy and blessed in which
such an event as this took place, that wise men halted
there and made a stay who would not have deigned
even to look inside if they saw anything hopelessly
wrong in the souls of the inmates. And, if this is so,
I do not know how to express the vast happiness and
blessedness of that house where angels did not shrink
from halting and receiving hospitality from men—
angels, those holy and divine beings, the servitors and
lieutenants of the primal God whom He employs as
ambassadors to announce the predictions which He
wills to make to our race. For how could they have 116
brought themselves to enter at all if they had not
known that all the household, like a well ordered
crew, was obedient to a single call from him who
steered them like a pilot ? And how should they
have given ground for the idea that they feasted and
received hospitality unless they thought that the giver
of the feast was their kinsman and fellow-servant
who had sought refuge with their master ? Indeed
we must suppose that at their entrance all parts of
the house advanced still further in goodness and felt
some breath of the inspiration of perfect virtue. The 117
conduct of the meal was such as it should be. The
guests showed to their entertainer the frank sim-
plicity of a festive gathering. Their manner in
addressing him was unreserved, and their converse
suited to the occasion. It is a marvel indeed that 118
though they neither ate nor drank they gave the
appearance of both eating and drinking.
a
But that
is a secondary matter; the first and greatest wonder
is that, though incorporeal, they assumed human
β
See App. p. 598·
61
PHILO
ε ις ίδ έ α ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν μ ε μ ο ρ φ ώ σ θ α ι χ ά ρ ιτ ι τ ή π ρ ο ς
τ ο ν ά σ τ €ΐο ν τ ίν ο ς γ ά ρ έ ν ε κ α τ α ύ τ α έ θ α υ μ α τ ο υ ρ -
γ β ΐτ ο ή τ ο υ π α ρ α σ χ ε ΐν α ϊσ θ η σ ιν τ ω σ ο φ ώ δ ιά
τ ρ α ν ο τ έ ρ α ς ό ψ ε ω ς , δ τ ι ο ύ λ έ λ η θ ε τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α
τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ς ώ ν ;
119 XXIV. Τ ά μ έ ν ο ΰ ν τ ή ς ρ η τ ή ς α π ο δ ό σ ε ω ς ώ δ ι
λ ε λ έ χ θ ω ' τ ή ς δ έ δ ι ' υ π ο ν ο ιώ ν ά ρ κ τ έ ο ν . σ ύ μ β ο λ α τ ά
iv φ ω ν α ΐς τ ώ ν δ ιά ν ο ια μ ό ν η κ α τ α λ α μ β α ν ό μ ε ν ω ν
ε σ τ ίν έ π ε ιδ ά ν ο ΰ ν ή ψ υ χ ή κ α θ ά π ε ρ ε ν μ ε σ η μ β ρ ία
θ ε ώ π ε ρ ιλ α μ φ θ ή κ α ι δ λ η δ ι ' δ λ ω ν ν ο η τ ο ύ φ ω τ ό ς
ά ν α π λ η σ θ ε ΐσ α τ α ΐς ε ν κ ύ κ λ ω κ ε χ υ μ ε ν α ις α ύ γ α ΐς
1
ά σ κ ιο ς γ έ ν η τ α ι, τ ρ ιτ τ ή ν φ α ν τ α σ ία ν ε ν ό ς υ π ο κ ε ί-
μ ε ν ο υ κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε ι, τ ο υ μ ε ν ώ ς δ ν τ ο ς , τ ώ ν δ '
ά λ λ ω ν δ υ ο ιν ώ ς α ν ά π α υ γ α ζ ο μ έ ν ω ν ά π ό τ ο ύ τ ο υ
σ κ ιώ ν ό π ο ιο ν τ ι σ υ μ β α ίν ε ι κ α ι τ ο ις ε ν α ίσ θ η τ ώ
φ ω τ ι δ ια τ ρ ίβ ο υ σ ιν ή γ ά ρ ε σ τ ώ τ ω ν ή κ ιν ο υ μ έ ν ω ν
120 δ ι τ τ α ι σ κ ια ι π ο λ λ ά κ ις σ υ ν ε μ π ίπ τ ο υ σ ι. μ ή μ έ ν τ ο ι
ν ο μ ισ ά τ ω τ ις έ π ι θ ε ο ύ τ ά ς σ κ ιά ς κ υ ρ ιο λ ο γ ε ΐσ θ α ί'
κ α τ ά χ ρ η σ ις ο ν ό μ α τ ο ς ε σ τ ι μ ό ν ο ν π ρ ο ς έ ν α ρ γ ε σ τ έ ρ α ν
ε μ φ α σ ιν τ ο υ δ η λ ο υ μ έ ν ο υ π ρ ά γ μ α τ ο ς , έ π ε ι τ ο γ ε
121 α λ η θ έ ς ο ύ χ ώ δ ε έ χ ε ι* ά λ λ ' ε σ τ ίν , ώ ς α ν τ ις ε γ γ ύ τ α τ α
τ ή ς α λ η θ ε ία ς ισ τ ά μ ε ν ο ς ε ΐπ ο ι, π α τ ή ρ μ έ ν τ ώ ν δ λ ω ν
[ 19] ο μ έ σ ο ς , δ ς ε ν τ α ΐς \ ιε ρ α ΐς γ ρ α φ α ΐς κ υ ρ ίω ο ν ό μ α τ ι
κ α λ ε ίτ α ι 6 ώ ν , α ί δ έ π α ρ
9
έ κ ά τ ε ρ α α ί 7Γ /)€σ /?υ τ α τ α ι
κ α ι έ γ γ υ τ ά τ ω τ ο υ δ ν τ ο ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ις , ή μ έ ν π ο ιη τ ικ ή ,
ή δ ' α ΰ β α σ ιλ ικ ή * π ρ ο σ α γ ο ρ ε ύ ε τ α ι δ έ ή μ έ ν π ο ιη τ ικ ή
θ ε ό ς , τ α ύ τ η γ ά ρ έ θ η κ έ τ ε κ α ι δ ιε κ ό σ μ η σ ε τ ο π α ν ,
ή δ έ β α σ ιλ ικ ή κ ύ ρ ιο ς , θ έ μ ις γ ά ρ ά ρ χ ε ιν κ α ι κ ρ α τ ε ΐν
122 τ ό π ε π ο ιη κ ό ς τ ο υ γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ο υ . δ ο ρ υ φ ό ρ ο υ έ ν ο ς ο ΰ ν
1
MSS. (with the exception of Η
2
) ras . . κ ε χ ν μ έ ν α ς atfyas,
which perhaps might be kept, as Conn suggests, by correcting
aoTCtos yfryrai to ά σ κ ίο ν ς δ έ χ η τ α ι or ά σ π ά σ η τ α ι.
62
ON ABRAHAM, 118-122
form to do kindness to the man of worth. For why
was this miracle worked save to cause the Sage to
perceive with clearer vision that the Father did not
fail to recognize his wisdom?
XXIV. Here we may leave the literal exposition 119
and begin the allegorical. Spoken words contain
symbols of things apprehended by the understanding
only. When, then, as at noon-tide God shines around
the soul, and the light of the mind fills it through and
through and the shadows are driven from it by the
rays which pour all around it, the single object
presents to it a triple vision, one representing the
reality, the other two the shadows reflected from it.
Our life in the light which our senses perceive gives
us a somewhat similar experience, for objects stand-
ing or moving often cast two shadows at once. No 120
one, however, should think that the shadows can be
properly spoken of as God. To call them so is loose
speaking, serving merely to give a clearer view of
the fact which we are explaining, since the real truth
is otherwise. Rather, as anyone who has approached 121
nearest to the truth would say, the central place
is held by the Father of the Universe, Who in the
sacred scriptures is called He that is as His proper
name, while on either side of Him are the senior
potencies, the nearest to Him, the creative and the
kingly. The title of the former is God,
a
since it
made and ordered the All; the title of the latter
is Lord, since it is the fundamental right of the
maker to rule and control what he has brought into
being. So the central Being with each of His pot- 122
0
Evidently an allusion to the accepted derivation of 6e6s
from τ ίθ η μ ι. Cf. De Conf. 137 δ ύ ν α μ η κ α θ ' ή ν 2θ η κ € κ α ΐ
δ ιε τ ά ξ α τ ο τ α π ά ν τ α κ έ κ λ η τ α ι έ τ ύ μ ω ς θ ε ό ς , where έ τ ύ μ ω ς shews
that an etymology is intended (see note). Cf. also De Mut. 29.
63
PHILO
ό μ έ σ ο ς ύ φ
9
έ κ α τ έ ρ α ς τ ώ ν δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ν π α ρ έ χ ε ι τ ή
ό ρ α τ ικ ή δ ι ά ν ο ι α τ ο τ ε μ έ ν ε ν ό ς τ ο τ έ δ έ τ ρ ιώ ν φ α ν -
τ α σ ία ν , ε ν ό ς μ έ ν ό τ α ν ά κ ρ ω ς τ ύ χ η κ α θ α ρ θ ε ΐσ α κ α ι
μ ή μ ό ν ο ν τ α π λ ή θ η τ ώ ν α ρ ιθ μ ώ ν ά λ λ α κ α ι τ ή ν
γ ε ίτ ο ν α μ ο ν ά δ ο ς δ υ ά δ α υ π ε ρ β ά σ α π ρ ο ς τ ή ν α μ ιγ ή
κ α ι ά σ ύ μ π λ ο κ ο ν κ α ι κ α θ
9
α υ τ ή ν ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς ε π ιδ ε α τ ό
π α ρ ά π α ν ίδ έ α ν ε π ε ίγ η τ α ι, τ ρ ιώ ν δ έ ό τ α ν μ ή π ω τ ά ς
μ ε γ ά λ α ς τ ε λ ε σ θ ε ισ α τ ε λ ε τ ά ς έ τ ι ε ν τ ο ις β ρ α χ ύ -
τ έ ρ α ις ό ρ γ ιά ζ η τ α ι κ α ΐ μ ή δ ύ ν η τ α ι τ ό δ ν ά ν ε υ ε τ έ ρ ο υ
τ ιν ό ς ε ξ α ύ τ ο ΰ μ ό ν ο υ κ α τ α λ α β ε ΐν , α λ λ ά δ ι α τ ώ ν
123 δ ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν , ή κ τ ίζ ο ν ή ά ρ χ ο ν . δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ς μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ,
ώ ς φ α σ ι, π λ ο υ ς ο ύ τ ο ς , μ ε τ έ χ ε ι δ ' ο υ δ έ ν ή τ τ ο ν δ ό ξ η ς
θ ε ο φ ιλ ο ϋ ς · ό δ έ π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ς τ ρ ό π ο ς ο ύ μ ε τ έ χ ε ι, α λ λ
9
α υ τ ό ς ε σ τ ι θ ε ο φ ιλ ή ς δ ό ξ α , μ ά λ λ ο ν δ έ κ α ι δ ό ξ η ς
π ρ ε σ β υ τ έ ρ α κ α ι π α ν τ ό ς τ ιμ ιω τ έ ρ α τ ο υ δ ο κ ε ΐν α λ ή -
θ ε ια , γ ν ω ρ ιμ ώ τ ε ρ ο ν δ έ τ ό δ η λ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν
124 π α ρ α σ τ α τ έ ο ν . XXV. τ ρ ε ις ε ίσ ιν η θ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ω -
π ίν ω ν τ ά ξ ε ις , ώ ν ε κ ά σ τ η δ ια κ ε κ λ ή ρ ω τ α ι μ ία ν τ ώ ν
ε ίρ η μ έ ν ω ν φ α ν τ α σ ιώ ν ή μ έ ν α ρ ίσ τ η τ ή ν μ έ σ η ν τ ο υ
ό ν τ ω ς ο ν τ ο ς , η ο ε μ ε τ ε κ ε ιν η ν τ η ν ε π ι ο ε ς ια , τ ή ν
ε ύ ε ρ γ έ τ ιν , fj θ ε ό ς ό ν ο μ α , ή δ έ τ ρ ίτ η τ ή ν ε π ι θ ά τ ε ρ α ,
125 τ ή ν ά ρ χ ικ ή ν , ή κ α λ ε ίτ α ι κ ύ ρ ιο ς , τ ά μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ά ρ ισ τ α
τ ώ ν η θ ώ ν τ ο ν κ α θ
9
α υ τ ό ν ά ν ε υ τ ιν ό ς Ο ν τ α θ ε ρ α π ε ύ ε ι
π ρ ο ς μ η δ ε ν ό ς ε τ έ ρ ο υ μ ε θ ε λ κ ό μ ε ν α , τ ω τ ε τ ά σ θ α ι
μ ο ν α δ ικ ώ ς π ρ ο ς τ ή ν ε ν ό ς τ ιμ ή ν τ ώ ν δ ' ά λ λ ω ν τ ά
μ έ ν δ ι α τ ή ς ε ύ ε ρ γ έ τ ιδ ο ς σ υ ν ίσ τ α τ α ι κ α ι γ ν ω ρ ίζ ε τ α ι
α
For this proverbial phrase see note on De Som. i. 44.
64
ON ABRAHAM, 122- 125
encies as His squire presents to the mind which has
vision the appearance sometimes of one, sometimes
of three : of one, when that mind is highly purified
and, passing beyond not merely the multiplicity of
other numbers, but even the dyad which is next to
the unit, presses on to the ideal form which is free
from mixture and complexity, and being self-con-
tained needs nothing more ; of three, when, as yet
uninitiated into the highest mysteries, it is still a
votary only of the minor rites and unable to appre-
hend the Existent alone by Itself and apart from all
else, but only through Its actions, as either creative
or ruling. This is, as they say, a " second best 123
voyage " ; yet all the same there is in it an element
of a way of thinking such as God approves. But the
former state of mind has not merely an element. It is
in itself the divinely-approved way, or rather it is the
truth, higher than a way of thinking, more precious
than anything which is merely thought. But
it would be well to state the point in a more familiar
guise. XXV. There are three classes of human 124
temperaments, each of them so constituted that the
vision presents itself in one of the three ways above-
mentioned. To the best class it presents itself in
the middle form, that of the essentially existent; to
the next best, in that which stands on the right, the
beneficent, which bears the name of God ; to the
third, in that on the left, the governing, which
is called Lord. Temperaments of the last kind 125
worship the solely Self-existent and nothing can
make them swerve from this, because they are
subject to the single attraction which leads them
to honour the one. Of the other two types, one
is introduced and made known to the Father by
65
PHILO
δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς τ ώ π α τ ρ ί, τ ά δ ε δ ιά τ ή ς β α σ ιλ ικ ή ς .
126 δ δ έ λ έ γ ω , τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ν έ σ τ ιν . ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ι
μ έ ν έ π ε ιδ ά ν α ί σ β ω ν τ α ι κ α τ ά π ρ ό φ α σ ιν ε τ α ιρ ε ία ς
π ρ ο σ ιό ν τ α ς α ύ τ ο ΐς τ ιν α ς έ π ι θ ή ρ α π λ ε ο ν ε ξ ιώ ν , ύ π ο -
β λ έ π ο ν τ α ί τ ε κ α ι α π ο σ τ ρ έ φ ο ν τ α ι τ ή ν π ρ ο σ π ο ίη τ ο ν
κ ο λ α κ ε ία ν κ α ι τ ιθ α σ ε ία ν α υ τ ώ ν δ ε δ ιό τ ε ς ώ ς
127 σ φ ό δ ρ α έ π ιζ ή μ ιο ν ό δ έ θ ε ό ς ά τ ε β λ ά β η ν ο υ κ ε π ι-
δ ε χ ό μ ε ν ο ς α π α ν τ ά ς τ ο υ ς κ α θ
9
ή ν τ ιν ο ΰ ν ίδ έ α ν π ρ ο -
α ιρ ο υ μ έ ν ο υ ς τ ιμ ά ν α υ τ ό ν ά σ μ ε ν ο ς π ρ ο σ κ α λ ε ίτ α ι,
μ η δ έ ν α σ κ ο ρ α κ ίζ ε ιν ά ξ ιω ν τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν , ά λ λ α μ ό ν ο ν
ο υ κ ά ν τ ικ ρ υ ς τ ο ις ά κ ο ά ς έ χ ο υ σ ιν έ ν τ ή φ υ χ ή θ ε σ -
128 π ίζ ε ι τ ά δ ε * " τ ά μ έ ν π ρ ώ τ α τ ώ ν ά θ λ ω ν κ ε ίσ ε τ α ι
τ ο ις έ μ έ θ ε ρ α π ε ύ ο υ σ ι δ ι* έ μ έ α υ τ ό ν , τ ά δ έ δ ε ύ τ ε ρ α
τ ο ις δ ι
9
ε α υ τ ο ύ ς , ή τ υ χ ε ΐν α γ α θ ώ ν έ λ π ίζ ο υ σ ιν ή
τ ιμ ω ρ ιώ ν ά π α λ λ α γ ή ν ε ύ ρ ή σ ε σ θ α ι π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ώ σ ΐ' κ α ι
γ ά ρ ε ι έ μ μ ισ θ ο ς ή τ ώ ν δ ε θ ε ρ α π ε ία κ α ΐ μ ή α δ έ κ α -
σ τ ο ς , ά λ λ ' ο υ δ έ ν ή τ τ ο ν ε ν τ ό ς ε ί λ ε ι τ α ι θ ε ίω ν π ε ρ ι-
129 β ό λ ω ν κ α ι ο υ κ ε ξ ω π λ ά ζ ε τ α ι. τ ά δ έ ά θ λ α τ ο ις \
[ 20 ] μ έ ν έ μ έ τ ιμ ώ σ ι δ ι
9
έ μ έ κ ε ίσ ε τ α ι φ ίλ ια , τ ο ις δ έ δ ιά
τ ά ς χ ρ ε ία ς φ ίλ ια μ έ ν ο υ , τ ό δ έ μ ή ά λ λ ο τ ρ ίο ις
ν ο μ ίζ ε σ θ α ί' δ έ χ ο μ α ι γ ά ρ κ α ι τ ο ν τ ή ς ε ύ ε ρ γ έ τ ιδ ό ς
μ ο υ δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς β ο υ λ ό μ ε ν ο ν μ ε τ α λ α χ ε ΐν ε ίς μ ε τ ο υ σ ία ν
α γ α θ ώ ν κ α ι τ ο ν φ ό β ω τ ή ν ή γ ε μ ο ν ικ ή ν κ α ι δ ε σ -
π ο τ ικ ή ν ΐλ α σ κ ό μ ε ν ο ν έ ξ ο υ σ ία ν ε ίς ά π ο τ ρ ο π ή ν κ ο λ ά -
σ ε ω ς · ο υ γ ά ρ α γ ν ο ώ , δ ιό τ ι π ρ ό ς τ ώ χ ε ίρ ο υ ς μ ή
γ ίγ ν ε σ θ α ι κ α ι β ε λ τ ίο υ ς έ σ ο ν τ α ι τ ώ σ υ ν έ χ ε ι τ ή ς
θ ε ρ α π ε ία ς ε ιλ ικ ρ ιν ή κ α ι κ α θ α ρ ά ν ε ύ σ έ β ε ια ν ά σ κ ή -
130 σ α ν τ ε ς . ε ι γ ά ρ κ α ι μ ά λ ισ τ α ο ι τ ρ ό π ο ι δ ια φ έ ρ ο υ σ ιν ,
ά φ
9
ώ ν π ο ιο ύ ν τ α ι τ ά ς π ρ ό ς τ ή ν ά ρ έ σ κ ε ια ν ο ρ μ ά ς ,
ο υ κ α ίτ ια τ έ ο ν , ό τ ι σ κ ο π ό ς ε ις κ α ι τ έ λ ο ς έ ν έ σ τ ιν
131 α ύ τ ο ΐς , τ ό θ ε ρ α π ε ύ ε ιν έ μ έ ." ό τ ι δ ' ή
66
ON ABRAHAM, 125-130
the beneficial, the other by the kingly potency.
My meaning is something as follows : 126
men, when they see others approaching them under
profession of friendship, in bluest of advantages to
be gained from them, look askance and turn away ;
they fear that counterfeited adulation and suavity
which they regard as exceedingly pernicious. But 127
God cannot suffer injury, and therefore He gladly
invites all who set themselves to honour Him under
any form whatsoever, and in His eyes none such
deserves rejection. Indeed one might almost say
that to those whose souls have ears God speaks
plainly as follows : " My first prizes will be set apart 128
for those who honour Me for Myself alone, the
second to those who honour Me for their own sakes,
either hoping to win blessings or expecting to obtain
remission of punishments, since, though their worship
is for reward and not disinterested, yet all the same
its range lies within the divine precincts and does not
stray outside. But the prizes set aside for those 129
who honour Me for Myself will be gifts of friend-
ship ; to those whose motive is self-interest they do
not show friendship but that I do not count them as
aliens. For I accept both him who wishes to enjoy
My beneficial power and thus partake of blessings
and him who propitiates the dominance and authority
of the master to avoid chastisement. For I know well
that they will not only not be worsened, but actually
bettered, through the persistence of their worship
and through practising piety pure and undefiled.
For, however different are the characters which pro- 13Q
duce in them the impulses to do My pleasure, no
charge shall be brought against them, since they
have one aim and object, to serve Me."
67
PHILO
68
τ ρ ιτ τ ή φ α ν τ α σ ία δ υ ν ά μ ε ι
1
ε ν ό ς ε σ τ ίν υ π ο κ ε ίμ ε ν ο υ ,
φ α ν ε ρ δ ν ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν ε κ τ ή ς ε ν α λ λ η γ ο ρ ία θ ε ω ρ ία ς ,
ά λ λ α κ α ΐ τ ή ς ρ η τ ή ς γ ρ α φ ή ς τ ά δ ε π ε ρ ιε χ ο ύ σ η ς *
132 ή ν ίκ α μ έ ν γ ά ρ ο σ ο φ ό ς ικ ε τ ε ύ ε ι τ ο υ ς ε ο ικ ό τ α ς
ό δ ο ιπ ό ρ ο ις τ ρ ε ις ξ ε ν ισ θ ή ν α ι π α ρ * α ύ τ ώ , StaAeyerat
τ ο ύ τ ο ις ο ύ χ ώ ς τ ρ ισ ίν , α λ λ
9
ώ ς ε ν ί, κ α ι φ η σ ί'
" κ ύ ρ ιε , ε ι ά ρ α ε υ ρ ο ν χ ά ρ ιν π α ρ ά σ ο ι, μ ή π α ρ ε λ θ η ς
\ / it Λ \ tt / t> \ \ tt * \
τ ο ν π α ιο α σ ο υ * τ ο γ α ρ κ ύ ρ ιε κ α ι τ ο π α ρ α
σ ο ι κ α ι τ ο μ ή π α ρ ε λ σ η ς κ α ι ο σ α τ ο ια ύ τ α π ρ ο ς
έ ν α π έ φ υ κ ε ν α λ λ
9
ο ύ π ρ ο ς π λ ε ίο υ ς λ έ γ ε σ θ α ί' ή ν ίκ α
δ έ ξ ε ν ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ι φ ιλ ο φ ρ ο ν ο ύ ν τ α ι τ ο ν ζ ε ν ο δ ό χ ο ν , π ά λ ιν
ε ις ύ π ισ χ ν ε ΐτ α ι ώ ς μ ό ν ο ς α υ τ ό ς π α ρ ώ ν γ ν η σ ίο υ
π α ιδ ό ς σ π ο ρ ά ν δ ιά τ ώ ν δ ε ' " έ π α ν ιώ ν ή ζ ω π ρ ο ς σ έ
κ α τ ά τ ο ν κ α ιρ ό ν τ ο ύ τ ο ν ε ις ν έ ω τ α , κ α ι έ ξ ε ι υ ίό ν
Σ ιά ρ ρ α ή γ υ ν ή σ ο υ ."
133 XXVI. Φ α ν ε ρ ώ τ α τ α μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι δ ια π ο ν η τ ό τ α τ α *
μ η ν ύ ε ι δ ιά τ ώ ν ε ξ ή ς τ ο δ η λ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν . ή Έ ο δ ο μ ιτ ώ ν
χ ώ ρ α , μ ο ΐρ α τ ή ς Ιία ν α ν ίτ ιδ ο ς γ ή ς , η ν ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν
ώ ν ό μ α σ α ν Έ υ ρ ία ν Τ Ια λ α ισ τ ίν η ν , α δ ικ η μ ά τ ω ν μ υ -
ρ ίω ν ό σ ω ν γ ε μ ισ θ ε ισ α κ α ι μ ά λ ισ τ α τ ώ ν έ κ γ α σ τ ρ ι-
μ α ρ γ ία ς κ α ι λ α γ ν ε ία ς ο σ α τ ε μ ε γ έ θ η κ α ι π λ ή θ η τ ώ ν
ά λ λ ω ν η δ ο ν ώ ν €77τ τ €ΐχ ι σ α <7α ^δ ^ π α ρ ά τ ω δ ικ α σ τ ή
134 τ ώ ν δ λ ω ν κ α τ έ γ ν ω σ τ ο . α ίτ ιο ν δ έ τ ή ς π ε ρ ι τ ο
ά κ ο λ α σ τ α ίν ε ιν ά μ ε τ ρ ία ς έ γ έ ν ε τ ο τ ο ις ο ίκ ή τ ο ρ σ ιν ή
τ ώ ν χ ο ρ η γ ιώ ν ε π ά λ λ η λ ο ς α φ θ ο ν ία * β α θ ύ γ ε ιο ς γ ά ρ
κ α ΐ ε ΰ υ δ ρ ο ς ο ύ σ α ή χ ώ ρ α π α ν τ ο ίω ν ά ν ά π α ν έ τ ο ς
ε υ φ ο ρ ία κ α ρ π ώ ν έ χ ρ ή τ ο · "μ ε γ ίσ τ η δ ' α ρ χ ή κ α κ ώ ν "
1
Cohn suspects δ υ ν ά μ ε ι, needlessly, I think. No doubt
δ υ ν ά μ ε ι is properly opposed to ο υ σ ία or έ ν τ ε λ ε χ ε ία . Cf. De Op.
47, Leg. All. i. 61. But the statement here is that the vision
of one is the reality which lies behind the vision of three.
Actually a φ α ν τ α σ ία can only be of that which appears.
ON ABRAHAM, 131-134
That the triple vision is in reality
α
a vision of a single 131
object is clear not merely from the principles of
allegory but from the literal text which contains the
following account. When the Sage supplicates the 132
three seeming travellers to accept his hospitality,
he discourses with them as though they were one
and not three. He says, " Sir, if indeed I have found
favour with thee, do not thou pass thy servant by."
Here " Sir " and " with thee " and " do not thou
pass " and the other like phrases must be addressed
to one and not to more than one; and during their
entertainment, when they show courtesy to their
host, we find one only, as though no other was pre-
sent, promising the birth of a son born in wedlock
in the following words : " I will return and come to
thee at this season next year, and Sarah, thy wife,
shall have a son."
h
XXVI.
c
He brings out the point most clearly and 133
elaborately in what follows. The land of the Sodo-
mites, a part of the land of Canaan afterwards called
Palestinian Syria, was brimful of innumerable
iniquities, particularly such as arise from gluttony
and lewdness, and multiplied and enlarged every
other possible pleasure with so formidable a menace
that it had at last been condemned by the Judge of
All. The inhabitants owed this extreme licence to the 134
never-failing lavishness of their sources of wealth, for,
deep-soiled and well-watered as it was, the land had
every year a prolific harvest of all manner of fruits,
β
Or " virtually." See critical note.
* See Gen. xviii. 3 and 10.
β
For §§ 133-141 see Gen. xix.
2
Some MSS. ά δ ία π ο ν η τ ό τ α τ α or ά δ ια π δ ρ η τ α : Cohn suggests
ά δ ια π ο ρ η τ ό τ α τ α »
69
PHILO
ώ ς ε ΐπ έ τ ις ο ύ κ ά π ό σ κ ο π ο ύ " τ ά λ ία ν α γ α θ ά .
19
135 ω ν α δ υ ν α τ ο ύ ν τ ε ς φ έ ρ ε ιν τ ο ν κ ό ρ ο ν ώ σ π ε ρ τ ά θ ρ έ μ -
μ α τ α σ κ ιρ τ ώ ν τ ε ς ά π α υ χ ε ν ίζ ο υ σ ι τ ο ν τ η ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς
ν ό μ ο ν , ά κ ρ α τ ο ν π ο λ ύ ν κ α ι ό φ ο φ α γ ία ς κ α ι ό χ ε ία ς
ε κ θ έ σ μ ο υ ς μ ε τ α δ ιώ κ ο ν τ έ ς · ο ύ γ ά ρ μ ό ν ο ν θ η λ υ μ α -
ν ο ΰ ν τ ε ς α λ λ ό τ ρ ιο υ ς γ ά μ ο υ ς δ ιέ φ θ ε ιρ ο ν , α λ λ ά κ α ι
ά ν δ ρ ε ς δ ν τ ε ς ά ρ ρ ε σ ιν ε π ιβ α ίν ο ν τ ε ς , τ ή ν κ ο ιν ή ν π ρ ο ς
τ ο ύ ς π ά σ χ ο ν τ α ς ο ι δ ρ ώ ν τ ε ς φ ύ σ ιν ο ύ κ α ίδ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ι,
π α ιδ ο σ π ο ρ ο ΰ ν τ ε ς ή λ ε γ χ ο ν τ ο μ ε ν α τ ε λ ή γ ο ν ή ν σ π ε ί-
ρ ο ν τ ε ς , ο ο έ λ ε γ χ ο ς π ρ ο ς ο υ ο ε ν η ν ό φ ε λ ο ς , υ π ο
136 β ια ιο τ έ ρ α ς ν ικ ω μ έ ν ω ν ε π ιθ υ μ ία ς , ε ΐτ ε κ τ ο υ κ α τ
[ 21] | ο λ ίγ ο ν ε θ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς τ ά γ υ ν α ικ ώ ν ύ π ο μ ε ν ε ιν τ ο ύ ς
ά ν δ ρ α ς γ ε ν ν η θ ε ν τ α ς θ ή λ ε ια ν κ α τ ε σ κ ε ύ α σ α ν α ύ τ ο ΐς
ν ό σ ο ν , κ α κ ό ν δ ύ σ μ α χ ο ν , ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν τ ά σ ώ μ α τ α
μ α λ α κ ό τ η τ ι κ α ϊ θ ρ ύ φ ε ι γ υ ν α ικ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς , α λ λ ά κ α ι τ ά ς
φ υ χ ά ς ά γ ε ν ν ε σ τ ε ρ α ς ά π ε ρ γ α ζ ό μ ε ν ο ι, κ α ι τ ό γ ε ε π
9
α υ τ ο ύ ς
1
ή κ ο ν μ έ ρ ο ς τ ό σ ύ μ π α ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν γ έ ν ο ς
δ ιέ φ θ ε ιρ ο ν ε ι γ ο ϋ ν Έ λ λ τ ^ν β ^ ο μ ο ύ κ α ι β ά ρ β α ρ ο ι
σ υ μ φ ω ν ή σ α ν τ ε ς ε ζ ή λ ω σ α ν τ ά ς τ ο ια ύ τ α ς ο μ ιλ ία ς ,
ή ρ ή μ ω ν τ ο ά ν ε ξ ή ς α ι π ό λ ε ις ώ σ π ε ρ λ ο ιμ ώ δ ε ι ν ό σ ω
137 κ ε ν ω θ ε ΐσ α ι. XXVII. λ α β ώ ν δ έ ό θ ε ό ς ο ΐκ τ ο ν ά τ ε
σ ω τ ή ρ κ α ι φ ιλ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς τ ά ς μ έ ν κ α τ ά φ ύ σ ιν α ν δ ρ ώ ν
κ α ι γ υ ν α ικ ώ ν σ υ ν ό δ ο υ ς γ ιν ο μ έ ν α ς έ ν ε κ α π α ίδ ω ν
σ π ο ρ ά ς η ΰ ξ η σ ε ν ώ ς έ ν ι μ ά λ ισ τ α , τ ά ς δ
9
έ κ φ υ λ ο υ ς
κ α ι έ κ θ έ σ μ ο υ ς δ ι α / χ ι σ η σ α ? ε σ β ε σ ε κ α ι τ ο ύ ς ο ρ γ ώ ν -
τ α ς ε π ι τ α ύ τ α ς π ρ ο β α λ ό μ ε ν ο ς ο ύ χ ι τ ά ς ε ν ε θ ε ι
κ α ιν ο υ ρ γ ή σ α ς δ
9
έ κ τ ο π ο υ ς κ α ι π α ρ η λ λ α γ μ έ ν α ς
138 τ ιμ ω ρ ία ς έ τ ιμ ω ρ ή σ α τ ο . κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι γ ά ρ ε ξ α ίφ ν η ς τ ο ν
α έ ρ α ν ε φ ω θ έ ν τ α π ο λ ύ ν ο μ β ρ ο ν ο ύ χ ύ δ α τ ο ς α λ λ ά
1
MSS. έ φ ' α ύ τ ο ΐς or έ π α ύ τ ο ΐς .
β
ά ρ χ ή μ ε ^ίσ τ Ί ] τ ω ν έ ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ι* κ α κ ώ ν , | ώ ·γ α θ έ , τ ά Χ ία ν
aya0a. Menander.
70
ON ABRAHAM, 134-138
and the chief beginning of evils, as one has aptly said,
is goods in excess.
a
Incapable of bearing such satiety, 135
plunging like cattle, they threw off from their necks
the law of nature and applied themselves to deep
drinking of strong liquor and dainty feeding and for-
bidden forms of intercourse. Not only in their mad lust
for women did they violate the marriages of their
neighbours, but also men mounted males without
respect for the sex nature which the active partner
shares with the passive ; and so when they tried to
beget children they were discovered to be incapable of
any but a sterile seed. Yet the discovery availed them
not, so much stronger was the force of the lust which
mastered them. Then, as little by little they accus- 136
tomed those who were by nature men to submit to
play the part of women, they saddled them with the
formidable curse of a female disease. For not only
did they emasculate their bodies by luxury and
voluptuousness but they worked a further degenera-
tion in their souls and, as far as in them lay, were
corrupting the whole of mankind. Certainly, had
Greeks and barbarians joined together in affecting
such unions, city after city would have become a desert,
as though depopulated by a pestilential sickness.
XXVII. But God, moved by pity for mankind whose 137
Saviour and Lover He was, gave increase in the
greatest possible degree to the unions which men and
women naturally make for begetting children, but
abominated and extinguished this unnatural and for-
bidden intercourse, and those who lusted for such He
cast forth and chastised with punishments not of the
usual kind but startling and extraordinary, newly-
created for this purpose. He bade the air grow sud- 138
denly overclouded and pour forth a great rain, not of
71
PHILO
π υ ρ ό ς ΰ ε ιν α θ ρ ό α ς δ έ ν ιφ ο ύ σ η ς ά δ ια σ τ ά τ ω κ α ι
ά π α ύ σ τ ω ρ ύ μ η φ λ ο γ ό ς , έ κ α ίο ν τ ο μ έ ν α γ ρ ο ί κ α ι
λ ε ιμ ώ ν ε ς κ α ι λ ά σ ια ά λ σ η κ α ϊ έ λ η δ α σ ύ τ α τ α κ α ι
8ρ υ μ ο Ι β α θ ε ΐς , έ κ α ίε τ ο δ ' ή π ε δ ιά ς κ α ϊ ό τ ο υ σ ίτ ο υ
κ α ι τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν σ π α ρ τ ώ ν ά π α ς κ α ρ π ό ς , έ κ α ίε τ ο δ έ
κ α ι τ ή ς ο ρ ε ιν ή ς ή δ ε ν δ ρ ο φ ό ρ ο ς , σ τ ε λ ε χ ώ ν ρ ίζ α ις
139 α ύ τ α ΐς έ μ π ιπ ρ α μ έ ν ω ν ε π α ύ λ ε ις δ έ κ α ι ο ίκ ία ι κ α ι
τ ε ίχ η κ α ι ό σ α έ ν ο ίκ ο δ ο μ α ΐς ιδ ιω τ ι/ca κ α ι δ η μ ό σ ια
π ά ν τ α σ υ γ κ α τ ε π ίμ π ρ α ν τ ο κ α ι ή μ ε ρ α μ ια α ι μ έ ν
ε ύ α ν δ ρ ο ΰ σ α ι π ό λ ε ις τ ά φ ο ς τ ώ ν ο ίκ η τ ό ρ ω ν έ γ ε γ έ -
ν η ν τ ο , α ί δ ' έ κ λ ίθ ω ν κ α ι ξ ύ λ ω ν κ α τ α σ κ ε υ α ΐ τ έ φ ρ α
140 κ α ι λ ε π τ ή κ ό ν ις . έ π ε ι δ έ τ ά έ ν φ α ν ε ρ ώ κ α ι υ π έ ρ
γ ή ς ά π α ν τ α κ α τ α ν ά λ ω σ ε ν ή φ λ ό ξ , ή δ η κ α ϊ τ ή ν γ ή ν
α υ τ ή ν έ κ α ιε κ α τ ω τ ά τ ω δ ια δ ΰ σ α κ α ι τ ή ν έ ν - '
υ π ά ρ χ ο υ σ α ν ζ ω τ ικ ή ν δ ύ ν α μ ιν έ φ θ ε ιρ ε ν ε ίς ά γ ο ν ία ν
π α ν τ ε λ ή , υ π έ ρ τ ο υ μ η δ * α ύ θ ις π ο τ ε κ α ρ π ό ν έ ν ε γ κ ε ΐν
ή χ λ ο η φ ο ρ ή σ α ι τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν δ υ ν η θ ή ν α ι· κ α ι μ έ χ ρ ι ν υ ν
κ α ίε τ α ι, τ ό γ ά ρ κ ε ρ α ύ ν ιο ν π υ ρ ή κ ισ τ α σ β ε ν ν ύ μ ε ν ο ν
141 ή ν έ μ ε τ α ι ή έ ν τ ύ φ ε τ α ι. π ίσ τ ις δ έ σ α φ έ σ τ α τ η τ ά
ό ρ ώ μ ε ν α ' τ ο υ γ ά ρ σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό τ ο ς π ά θ ο υ ς μ ν η μ ε ΐό ν
έ σ τ ιν ο τ ε ά ν α δ ιδ ό μ ε ν ο ς ά ε ι κ α π ν ό ς κ α ι δ μ ε τ α λ -
λ ε ύ ο υ σ ι θ ε ίο ν τ ή ς δ έ π ε ρ ί τ ή ν χ ώ ρ α ν π α λ α ιά ς
ε υ δ α ιμ ο ν ία ς έ ν α ρ γ έ σ τ α τ ο ν υ π ο λ ε ίπ ε τ α ι δ ε ίγ μ α π ό λ ις
μ ία τ ώ ν ο μ ό ρ ω ν κ α ι ή έ ν κ ύ κ λ ω γ ή , π ο λ υ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς
μ έ ν ή π ό λ ις , ε ΰ χ ο ρ τ ο ς δ έ κ α ι ε ΰ σ τ α χ υ ς κ α ι σ υ ν ό λ ω ς
κ α ρ π ο φ ό ρ ο ς ή γ ή , π ρ ό ς έ λ ε γ χ ο ν δ ίκ η ς γ ν ώ μ η θ ε ία
δ ικ α σ θ ε ίσ η ς .
142 XXVIII. 'Α λ λ ά γ ά ρ ο ύ χ έ ν ε κ α τ ο υ δ η λ ώ σ α ί μ ε
τ ά ς μ ε γ ά λ ο υ ρ γ η θ ε ίσ α ς σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς κ α ιν ά ς τ α ύ τ α
δ ιε ξ ή λ θ ο ν , α λ λ * ε κ ε ίν ο β ο υ λ ό μ έ ν ο ς π α ρ α σ τ ή σ α ι, ο τ ι
τ ώ ν τ ρ ιώ ν ώ ς α ν δ ρ ώ ν έ π ιφ α ν έ ν τ ω ν τ ώ σ ο φ ώ δ ύ ο
72
ON ABRAHAM, 138- 142
water but fire. And when the flames streamed down
massed in one constant and perpetual rush, they
burnt up the fields and meadows, the leafy groves, the
overgrowths of the marshland and the dense thickets.
They burnt the plainland and all the fruit of the corn
and other crops. They burnt the forest-land on the
mountains, where trunks and roots alike were con-
sumed. The conflagration reached to byres and 139
houses and walls and all public and private property
contained in buildings ; and in one day populous
cities had become the grave of the inhabitants and
fabrics of stone and timber had turned into ashes and
fine dust. And when the flame had utterly consumed 140
all that was visible and above ground it penetrated
right down into the earth itself, destroyed its inherent
life-power and reduced it to complete sterility to pre-
vent it from ever bearing fruit and herbage at all.
And to this day it goes on burning, for the fire of the
thunderbolt is never quenched, but either continues
its ravages or else smoulders. And the clearest proof 141
is what is still visible, for a monument of the disastrous
event remains in -the smoke which rises ceaselessly
and the brimstone which the miners obtain; while
the ancient prosperity of the country is most plainly
attested by the survival of one of the cities of the
neighbourhood and the land round it; for the city is
thickly populated and the land rich in corn and pas-
turage and fertile in general, thus providing a stand-
ing evidence to the sentence decreed by the divine
judgement.
XXVIII. However, I have given these details not in 142
order to describe the unprecedented calamity of God's
mighty working, but in my wish to shew something
else. Scripture tells us that of the three who appeared
73
PHILO
[ 22] μ ό ν ο υ ς ε ις τ ή ν | ά φ α ν ισ θ ε ΐσ α ν χ ώ ρ α ν τ ά λ ό γ ια φ η σ ιν
ε λ θ ε ΐν ε π * ό λ ε θ ρ ω τ ώ ν ο ίκ η τ ό ρ ω ν , τ ο υ τ ρ ίτ ο υ μ ή
143 δ ικ α ιώ σ α ν τ ο ς ή κ ε ιν δ ς κ α τ ά γ ε τ ή ν ε μ ή ν ε ν ν ο ια ν
ή ν ό π ρ ο ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν ώ ν , ά ρ μ ό τ τ ο ν ύ π ο λ α β ώ ν ε ΐν α ι
τ ά μ έ ν α γ α θ ά π α ρ ώ ν δ ι
9
α ύ τ ο ΰ χ α ρ ίζ ε σ θ α ι, μ ό ν α ις
δ
9
έ π ιτ ρ ε π ε ιν τ α ΐς δ υ ν ά μ ε σ ι κ α θ * ύ π η ρ ε σ ία ν τ ά
ε ν α ν τ ία χ ε φ ο υ ρ γ ε ΐν , Ιν α μ ό ν ω ν α γ α θ ώ ν α ίτ ιο ς ,
144 κ α κ ο ϋ δ έ μ η δ ε ν ό ς π ρ ο η γ ο υ μ έ ν ω ς ν ο μ ίζ η τ α ι. τ ο ϋ τ ό
μ ο ι δ ο κ ο ΰ σ ι κ α ι τ ώ ν β α σ ιλ έ ω ν ο ι μ ιμ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ι τ ή ν
θ ε ία ν φ ύ σ ιν π ρ ά τ τ ε ιν , τ ά ς μ έ ν χ ά ρ ιτ α ς δ ι
9
ε α υ τ ώ ν
π ρ ο τ ε ίν ο ν τ ε ς , τ ά ς δ έ τ ιμ ω ρ ία ς δ ι* έ τ ε ρ ω ν β ε β α ιο ύ ν -
145 τ ε ς . ά λ λ ' ε π ε ιδ ή τ ώ ν δ υ ε ΐν δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ν ή μ έ ν ε ύ -
ε ρ γ ε τ ις ε σ τ ίν , ή δ έ κ ο λ α σ τ ή ρ ιο ς , ε κ α τ ε ρ α κ α τ ά τ ο
ε ικ ό ς €7T6(^(uV€T(u τ ή Σ ιο δ ο μ ιτ ώ ν γ ή , δ ιό τ ι τ ώ ν
α ρ ίσ τ ω ν ε ν α υ τ ή π έ ν τ ε π ό λ ε ω ν τ έ τ τ α ρ ε ς μ έ ν ε μ ε λ
λ ο ν ε μ π ίπ ρ α σ θ α ι, μ ία δ έ α π α θ ή ς π α ν τ ό ς κ α κ ο ϋ
σ ώ ο ς ύ π ο λ ε ίπ ε σ θ α ι. ε χ ρ ή ν γ ά ρ δ ιά μ έ ν τ ή ς κ ο λ α -
σ τ η ρ ίο υ γ ίν ε σ θ α ι τ ή ν φ θ ο ρ ά ν , σ ω ζ ε σ θ α ι δ έ δ ιά τ ή ς
146 ε ύ ε ρ γ έ τ ιδ ο ς . α λ λ * ε π ε ιδ ή κ α ι τ ο σ ω ζ ό μ ε ν ο ν μ έ ρ ο ς
ο ύ χ ο λ ό κ λ η ρ ο υ ς κ α ι π α ν τ ε λ ε ίς ε ΐχ ε ν ά ρ ε τ ά ς , δ υ ν ά μ ε ι
μ έ ν τ ο υ ο ν τ ο ς ε ύ ε ρ γ ε τ ε ΐτ ο , π ρ ο η γ ο υ μ έ ν ω ς δ έ τ ή ς
ε κ ε ίν ο υ φ α ν τ α σ ία ς ά ν ά ζ ιο ν ε ν ο μ ίσ θ η τ υ χ ε ΐν .
147 XXIX. Ή μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ε ν φ α ν ε ρ ώ κ α ι π ρ ο ς τ ο υ ς
π ο λ λ ο ύ ς α π ο ο ο σ ις η ο ε σ τ ίν η ο ε ν α π ο κ ρ ύ ψ ω κ α ι
π ρ ο ς ο λ ίγ ο υ ς , Ο σ ο ι τ ρ ό π ο υ ς ψ υ χ ή ς ε ρ ε υ ν ώ σ ιν ά λ λ '
ο ύ σ ω μ ά τ ω ν μ ο ρ φ ά ς , α ύ τ ίκ α λ ε χ θ ή σ ε τ α ι. σ υ μ -
β ο λ ικ ώ ς ή π ε ν τ ά π ο λ ις α ί ε ν ή μ ΐν π έ ν τ ε α ισ θ ή σ ε ις
ε ίσ ί, τ ά τ ώ ν η δ ο ν ώ ν δ ρ γ α ν α , δ ι ώ ν ά π α σ α ι μ ικ ρ α ί
* Or " primarily."
b
The idea that God's direct agency appears only in doing
good and that He leaves punishment to His subordinates has
been already worked out in De Conf. 168 ff. on the text " let
74
ON ABRAHAM, 142- 147
to the Sage in the guise of men two only went on to
the land whose existence was blotted out to destroy
the inhabitants, but the third thought good not to
accompany them. In my opinion that one was the 143
truly Existent, who held it fitting that He should be
present to give good gifts by His own agency, but
should leave the execution of the opposite of good
entirely in the hands of His potencies acting as His
ministers, that so He might appear to be the cause
of good only, but not directly" the cause of anything
evil.
6
This is the practice, I think, of kings also, who 144
imitate the divine nature. They are their own
agents in granting boons, but employ others to
enforce punishment. But since of the two potencies 145
one is beneficial and the other punitive it was natural
that each should make his appearance in the land of
the Sodomites, since of the five most flourishing cities
in it four were to be burnt but one was to be left, pre-
served from all evil that could harm it. It was right
that the punitive should be employed for destruction,
but the beneficial for preservation. Yet since the 146
virtues of the part preserved were not complete and
perfect, while it received benefits through a potency
of the Existent, it was not thought worthy to be
granted the vision of Him directly.
XXIX. Such is the natural and obvious rendering 147
of the story as suited for the multitude. We will pro-
ceed at once to the hidden and inward meaning which
appeals to the few who study soul characteristics
rather than bodily forms. Symbolically the group
of five cities is the five senses in us, the instruments
of the pleasures which, whether great or small, are
us go down and confuse their tongue," and so, too, in De
Fuga 68 if. Cf. also De Op. 72 ff.
VOL. VI D 75
PHILO
148 τ ε α υ κ α ι μ ε γ ά λ α ι τ ε λ ε σ ιο υ ρ γ ο ΰ ν τ α ι. ή γ ά ρ
ό ρ ώ ν τ ε ς χ ρ ω μ ά τ ω ν κ α ι σ χ η μ ά τ ω ν π ο ικ ιλ ία ς ε ν τ ε
ά φ ύ χ ο ις κ α ι φ υ χ ή ν έ χ ο υ σ ιν ή δ ό μ ε θ α ή φ ω ν ώ ν
ε μ μ ε λ ε σ τ ά τ ω ν ά κ ο ύ ο ν τ ε ς ή κ α τ ά γ ε ϋ σ ιν iv τ ο ΐς
π ε ρ ι ε δ ω δ ή ν κ α ι π ό σ ιν ή κ α τ
9
ο σ φ ρ η σ ιν iv ε ύ ω δ ία ις
α τ μ ώ ν ή iv μ α λ α κ ο ΐς κ α ι θ ε ρ μ ο ΐς ε τ ι δ έ λ ε ίο ις κ α τ ά
149 τ ή ν ά φ ή ν . ζ ω ω δ έ σ τ α τ α ι μ ε ν ο ΰ ν κ α ι ά ν δ ρ α π ο δ ω -
δ ώ τ τ α τ α ι τ ώ ν π έ ν τ ε τ ρ ε ις ε ίσ ιν α ισ θ ή σ ε ις , γ ε ϋ σ ις ,
ο σ φ ρ η σ ις , α φ ή , π ε ρ ι α ς τ ώ ν θ ρ ε μ μ ά τ ω ν κ α ι τ ώ ν
θ η ρ ίω ν τ ά γ α σ τ ρ ιμ α ρ γ ό τ α τ α κ α ι σ υ ν ο υ σ ια σ τ ικ ώ -
τ α τ α μ ά λ ισ τ α ε π τ ό η τ α ΐ' δ ι
9
ο λ η ς γ ά ρ ή έ ρ α ς κ α ι
ν υ κ τ ό ς ή τ ρ ο φ ώ ν ά π λ ή σ τ ω ς ε μ φ ο ρ ε ίτ α ι ή π ρ ο ς τ ά ς
150 ο χ ε ία ς ό ρ μ α . δ ύ ο δ
9
ε ίσ ιν ε μ φ ιλ ό σ ο φ ο ι κ α ι ή γ ε -
μ ο ν ίδ ε ς , α κ ο ή κ α ΐ δ ρ α σ ις ' β ρ α δ ύ τ ε ρ α δ ε π ω ς κ α ι
θ η λ ύ τ ε ρ α ώ τ α ο φ θ α λ μ ώ ν ε π ι τ ά ο ρ α τ ά φ θ α ν ό ν τ ω ν
ύ π ό ε ύ τ ο λ μ ία ς κ α ι ο ύ κ ά ν α μ ε ν ό ν τ ω ν , ά χ ρ ις ά ν
ε κ ε ίν α κ ιν ή σ η , π ρ ο ϋ π α ν τ ια ζ ό ν τ ω ν δ ε κ α ι ά ν τ ικ ιν ή -
σ α ι γ λ ιχ ο μ ε ν ω ν . ά κ ο ή μ έ ν ο ΰ ν , δ ιό τ ι β ρ α δ ε ία κ α ι
[ 23] θ η λ υ τ ε ρ α , δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ύ ο υ σ α ν τ ά ξ ιν τ ε τ ά χ θ ω , \ π ρ ο ν ο μ ία
δ ' έ σ τ ω τ ις ε ξ α ίρ ε τ ο ς ό ρ ά σ ε ΐ' τ α ύ τ η ν γ ά ρ ό θ ε ό ς
β α σ ιλ ίδ α τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν ά π έ φ η ν ε ν ε π ά ν ω θ ε ις ά π α σ ώ ν
κ α ι ώ σ π ε ρ ε π
9
α κ ρ ο π ό λ ε ω ς ίδ ρ υ σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ο ίκ ε ιο τ ά τ η ν
151 ά π ε ιρ γ ά σ α τ ο φ υ χ ή . τ ε κ μ η ρ ιώ σ α ιτ ο δ '
ά ν τ ις ε κ τ ο υ σ υ μ μ ε τ α β ά λ λ ε ιν τ α ΐς ε κ ε ίν η ς τ ρ ο π α ΐς ·
λ ύ π η ς μ έ ν γ ά ρ ε γ γ ιν ο μ έ ν η ς , ο φ θ α λ μ ο ί σ υ ν ν ο ία ς
γ έ μ ο ύ σ ι κ α ι κ α τ η φ ε ία ς , χ α ρ ά ς δ
9
ε μ π α λ ιν , ύ π ο μ ε ι-
δ ιώ σ ι κ α ι γ ε γ ή θ α σ ι,ώ ο β ρ υ δ έ κ ρ α τ ή σ α ν τ ο ς , τ α ρ α -
χ ώ δ ο υ ς γ έ μ ο υ σ ιν ^α ξ ία ς £> κ ιν ή σ ε ις κ α ι π α λ μ ο ύ ς
152 κ α ι π ε ρ ισ τ ρ ο φ ά ς ά τ α κ τ ο υ ς ε ν δ ε χ ό μ ε ν ο ι· ε ι δ ' ο ρ γ ή
κ α τ ά σ χ ο ι, τ ρ α χ υ τ έ ρ α π ω ς κ α ι ύ φ α ιμ ο ς ή ό φ ις , κ α ι
ε ν μ έ ν τ ω λ ο γ ίζ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι φ ρ ο ν τ ίζ ε ιν τ ιν ό ς η ρ ε μ ε ί
κ α ι ε κ ν έ ν ε υ κ ε , μ ό ν ο ν ο ύ σ υ ν ε κ τ ε ίν ο υ σ α τ ή δ ιά ν ο ια
76
ON ABRAHAM, 148- 152
brought to their accomplishment by the senses. For 148
we get pleasure either by seeing varieties of colours
and shapes in objects, whether possessed of physical
life or not, or by hearing very melodious sounds or
through taste in matters of food and drink, or through
smell in fragrant perfumes or through touch in soft
and warm and also in smooth substances. Now of the 149
five, the three most animal and servile are taste, smell,
and touch, which cause particular excitation in the
cattle and wild beasts most given to gluttony and
sexual passion. For all day and night they fill them-
selves with food insatiably or are at rut. The other 150
two have a link with philosophy and hold the'leading
place—hearing and sight. But the ears are in a way
more sluggish and womanish than eyes. The eyes
have the courage to reach out to the visible objects
and do not wait to be acted on by them, but anticipate
the meeting, and seek to act upon them instead.
Hearing, then, sluggish and more womanish as it is,
must be put in the second place and a special preced-
ence must be given to sight, for God has made it the
queen of the other senses and set it above them all,
and, establishing it as it were on a citadel, has
associated it most closely with the soul.
We may find a proof of this in the way in which it 151
changes with the soul's phases. When the soul feels
grief, the eyes are full of anxiety and depression.
When on the other hand it feels joy, they smile and
rejoice. When fear is supreme, they are full of tur-
bulent confusion, and move and quiver and roll con-
fusedly. If anger prevails, the organ of sight is 152
harsher and bloodshot, and during reflection and care-
ful consideration of any question it has a quiet and
distant appearance, almost as though it was accommo-
77
PHILO
ε α υ τ ή ν , ε ν δ έ τ α ΐς ά ν α ψ ύ ξ ε σ ι κ α ϊ ά ν ε σ ε σ ι σ υ ν α ν ίε τ α ι
153 κ α ι χ α λ α τ α ί' κ α ϊ π ρ ο σ ιό ν τ ι μ έ ν φ ίλ ω π ρ ο ε υ α γ -
γ ε λ ίζ ε τ α ι τ ο τ η ς ε ύ ν ο ια ς π ά θ ο ς ε ύ δ ίω κ α ϊ γ α λ η ν ώ
β λ ε μ μ α τ ι, el δ ' ε χ θ ρ ό ς τ ύ χ ο ι, τ ο δ υ σ ά ρ ε σ τ ο ν τ ή ς
ψ υ χ ή ς π ά θ ο ς π ρ ο μ η ν ύ ε ι* κ α ι θ ρ α σ ύ τ η τ ι μ έ ν π ρ ο π η -
δ ώ σ ι κ α ι π ρ ο ε κ τ ρ ε χ ο υ σ ιν ο φ θ α λ μ ο ί, α ίδ ο ΐ δ έ π ρ ά ω ς
ή ρ ε μ ο ΰ σ ΐ' [ κ α ϊ] ώ ς σ υ ν ε λ ό ν τ ι φ ρ ά σ α ι ψ υ χ ή ς ε ικ ό ν α
δ ε δ η μ ιο υ ρ γ ή σ θ α ι τ ή ν ο ρ α σ ιν ά κ ρ ό τ η τ ι τ έ χ ν η ς ε ΰ
μ ε μ ιμ η μ ε ν η ς ε ν α ρ γ έ ς ε μ φ α ίν ο υ σ α ν ε ϊδ ω λ ο ν ο ία δ ιά
κ α τ ό π τ ρ ο υ τ ή ν φ ύ σ ιν ό ρ α τ ή ν ε ξ α υ τ ή ς ο υ κ ε χ ο ύ σ η ς .
154 ά λ λ α γ ά ρ ο ύ τ α ύ τ η μ ό ν ο ν τ ά ς ά λ λ α ς
α ισ θ ή σ ε ις υ π ε ρ β ά λ λ ε ι τ ο κ ά λ λ ο ς ο φ θ α λ μ ώ ν , ά λ λ ά
κ α ι δ ιό τ ι τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν ε ν τ α ΐς ε γ ρ η γ ό ρ σ ε σ ι—τ ή ν γ ά ρ
κ α θ
9
ύ π ν ο ν ά π ρ α ξ ία ν ο ύ π α ρ α λ η π τ ε ο ν —ε π ιλ ε ίπ ο υ σ ιν
α ι χ ρ ή σ ε ις · ό π ο τ ε γ ά ρ μ ή κ ιν ή σ ε ιέ τ ι τ ώ ν ε κ τ ό ς ,
ή σ υ χ ά ζ ο υ σ ιν , α ί δ έ τ ώ ν ο φ θ α λ μ ώ ν ά ν α π ε π τ α μ ε ν ω ν
ε ν ε ρ γ ε ια ι σ υ ν ε χ ε ίς κ α \ ά δ ιά σ τ α τ ο ι μ η δ ε π ο τ ε π λ η ρ ο υ -
μ ε ν ω ν ε ίσ ι κ α ι τ α ύ τ η π α ρ ισ τ ά ν τ ω ν , η ν ε χ ο υ σ ι π ρ ο ς
155 ψ υ χ ή ν σ υ γ γ ε ν ε ια ν . ά λ λ ' ε κ ε ίν η μ έ ν α ε ικ ίν η τ ο ς
ο ύ σ α μ ε θ * ή μ ε ρ α ν κ α ι ν ύ κ τ ω ρ δ ια ν ισ τ α τ α ι, τ ο ις δ '
ά τ ε σ α ρ κ ό ς π λ ε ίσ τ ο ν μ ε τ έ χ ο υ σ ιν α υ τ ά ρ κ η ς ε δ ό θ η
δ ω ρ ε ά , μ έ ρ ο ς ή μ ισ υ τ ο υ π α ν τ ό ς χ ρ ό ν ο υ κ α ι β ίο υ
δ ια τ ε λ ε ΐν ε ν ε ρ γ ο ϋ ν τ α ς τ ά ς ά ρ μ ο τ τ ο ύ σ α ς ε ν ε ρ γ ε ία ς .
156 XXX. ο δ ' ε σ τ ίν ά ν α γ κ α ιό τ α τ ο ν τ ή ς
α π ό τ ώ ν ο μ μ ά τ ω ν ω φ ε λ ε ία ς , ή δ η λ ε κ τ ε ο ν . μ ό ν η
γ ά ρ ό ρ ά σ ε ι τ ώ ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν ο θ ε ό ς α ν έ τ ε ιλ ε φ ώ ς , ο
κ α ι τ ώ ν ό ν τ ω ν ε σ τ ι κ ά λ λ ισ τ ο ν κ α ι π ρ ώ τ ο ν ε ν ίε ρ α ΐς
157 β ίβ λ ο ις ώ ν ο μ ά σ θ η κ α λ ό ν , δ ιτ τ ή δ έ φ ω τ ό ς φ ύ σ ις
9
τ ό μ έ ν γ ά ρ α π ό τ ο υ χ ρ ε ιώ δ ο υ ς π υ ρ ό ς , φ θ α ρ τ ο ύ
φ θ α ρ τ ό ν , ε κ λ ά μ π ε ι σ β έ σ ιν ε ν δ ε χ ό μ ε ν ο ν , τ ό δ έ
α
For the distinction between the " useful" and the
" heavenly " fire cf. Quis Rerum 136 and note.
78
ON ABRAHAM, 152- 157
dating itself to the outlook of the mind. In times of
mental refreshment and relaxation it relaxes also and
is at its ease. When a friend approaches, its peaceful 153
and sunny look is the happy herald of the kindly
feeling within, while in the case of an enemy it gives
a warning of the soul's displeasure. Courage makes
the eyes dart swiftly forward. Modesty makes them
gentle and reposeful. In short, one may say that
sight has been created as an image of the soul, and
through the perfection of the art which has produced
so faithful a copy presents a clear and mirror-like
reflection of the original whose nature is in itself in-
visible. But indeed it is not only in this 154
way that the excellence of the eyes exceeds the
other senses, but also because in waking moments,
since we need not consider their inaction in sleep,
they cease to function. For when no outward
object moves them they are still, whilst the eyes
when open are constant and unceasing in their
activities ; they have always room for more, and
in this way they shew their kinship with the soul.
But, while the soul is always in motion and wakeful 155
day and night, the eyes in which the fleshly is the
principal ingredient must rest satisfied with the gift
of continuing to exercise the activities which befit
them for half the whole span of time and human life.
XXX. But the most vital part of the 156
benefit we gain from sight remains now to be told.
God made t he light to shine upon sight alone of the
senses, and light is t he best of existing things and was
the first to be Called good in the sacred books. Now 157
light has a double nature : one is the effulgence of
the fire of common use,
a
perishable as that which
produces it and liable to extinction, the other, the
79
PHILO
ά σ β ε σ τ ο ν κ α ι ά δ ιά φ θ ο ρ ό ν ε σ τ ίν , ά ν ω θ ε ν ά π ό τ ο υ
ο υ ρ α ν ο ύ π ρ ο ς ή μ α ς φ ε ρ ό μ ε ν ο ν , ώ σ π ε ρ α π
9
α έ ν α ω ν
π η γ ώ ν ε κ ά σ τ ο υ τ ώ ν α σ τ έ ρ ω ν α ύ γ ά ς ε κ χ ε ο ν τ ο ς ·
ε κ α τ ε ρ ω δ
9
ή ό φ ις ε ν ο μ ιλ ε ΐ κ α ι δ ι
9
α μ φ ο τ έ ρ ω ν
π ρ ο σ β ά λ λ ε ι τ ο ΐς ό ρ α τ ο ΐς ε ίς ά κ ρ φ ε σ τ ά τ η ν ά ν τ ί-
158 λ η φ ιν . έ τ ι τ ο ίν υ ν ε π ιχ ε ιρ ώ μ ε ν ο φ θ α λ μ ο ύ ς λ ό γ ο ις
ε γ κ ω μ ιά ζ ε ιν , τ ο υ θ ε ο ύ τ ο ύ ς α λ η θ ε ίς ε π α ίν ο υ ς α υ τ ώ ν
[ 24] | σ τ η λ ιτ ε ύ σ α ν τ ο ς ε ν ο ύ ρ α ν ώ , τ ο ύ ς α σ τ έ ρ α ς ; ή λ ιο υ
γ ά ρ α ύ γ α ι κ α ι σ ε λ ή ν η ς κ α ι τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν π λ α ν ή τ ω ν
κ α ι α π λ α ν ώ ν τ ο υ χ ά ρ ιν γ ε γ ό ν α σ ιν ό τ ι μ ή τ ή ς
ο φ θ α λ μ ώ ν ε ν ε ρ γ ε ία ς ε ίς τ ή ν τ ο υ ό ρ ά ν ύ π η ρ ε σ ία ν ;
159 δ ι ό κ α ι π ρ ο σ χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ι τ ή π α σ ώ ν ά ρ ισ τ η δ ω ρ ε ά
φ ω τ ι κ α τ α θ ε ώ ν τ α ι τ ά ε ν κ ο σ μ ώ , γ ή ν , φ υ τ ά , ζ ώ α ,
κ α ρ π ο ύ ς , π ε λ α γ ώ ν ά ν α χ ύ σ ε ις π ο τ α μ ο ύ ς α ύ θ ιγ ε ν ε ΐς
τ ε κ α ι χ ε ίμ α ρ ρ ο υ ς π η γ ώ ν τ ε δ ια φ ο ρ ά ς , &ν α ί
μ ε ν φ υ χ ρ ο ν α ί δ έ θ ε ρ μ ό ν ν α μ α π ρ ο χ έ ο υ σ ι, π ά ν τ ω ν
τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ο ν α έ ρ α σ υ ν ισ τ α μ έ ν ω ν τ ά ς φ ύ σ ε ις
—α μ ύ θ η τ ο ι δ έ ε ίσ ιν ίδ έ α ι κ α ι ά π ε ρ ίλ η π τ ο ι λ ό γ ω ,—
κ α ι ε π ι π ά σ ι τ ο ν ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν , ό ς α λ ή θ ε ια κ ό σ μ ο ς
ε ν κ ό σ μ ω δ ε δ η μ ιο ύ ρ γ η τ α ι, κ α ι τ ά κ α τ
9
ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν
κ ά λ λ η κ α ι θ ε ία α γ ά λ μ α τ α , τ ις ο ύ ν τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν
α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν έ π α υ χ ή σ ε ι δ ια β ή ν α ί π ο τ ε τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο ν ;
160 XXXI. ά λ λ ' έ ά σ α ν τ ε ς τ ά ς ε π ι τ α ΐς φ ά τ ν α ις τ ό
σ ύ μ φ υ τ ο ν ή μ ΐν θ ρ έ μ μ α π ια ιν ο ύ σ α ς , τ ή ν έ π ιθ υ -
μ ία ν , ε ζ ε τ ά σ ω μ ε ν τ ή ν λ ό γ ο υ μ ε τ α π ο ιο υ μ έ ν η ν ά κ ο ή ν
ή ς ό σ ύ ν τ ο ν ο ς κ α ι τ ε λ ε ιό τ α τ ο ς δ ρ ό μ ο ς ϊσ τ α τ α ι κ α τ ά
α έ ρ α τ ο ν π ε ρ ίγ ε ιο ν , ό τ α ν β ία π ν ε υ μ ά τ ω ν κ α ι κ τ ύ π ο ι
β ρ ο ν τ ώ ν σ υ ρ μ ό ν π ο λ ύ ν κ α ι χ α λ ε π ό ν π ά τ α γ ο ν
161 έ ξ η χ ώ σ ιν . ο φ θ α λ μ ο ί δ έ ά π ό γ ή ς ε ν ά κ α ρ ε ΐ φ θ ά ν ο υ -
σ ιν ε ίς ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν κ α ι τ ά π έ ρ α τ α τ ο υ π α ν τ ό ς , έ π
9
α ν α -
τ ο λ ά ς ό μ ο ϋ κ α ι δ ύ σ ε ις ά ρ κ τ ο ν τ ε κ α ι μ ε σ η μ β ρ ία ν ,
80
ON ABRAHAM, 157- 161
unquenchable and imperishable, brought to us from
heaven above, where each of the stars pours forth its
rays as though from perennial fountains. With each
of these the sight is conversant, and through both it
strikes upon visible objects so as to apprehend them
with all exactness. Need we still try to expend words 158
in extolling the eyes, when God has set graven in the
heaven their true praises, the stars ? For with what
purpose have the rays of the sun and moon and the
other stars, planets or fixed, been made save to serve
the action of the eyes and to minister to sight ? And 159
so it is, by using light, the best of gifts, that men
contemplate the world's contents, earth, plants,
living creatures, fruits, seas with their tides, rivers
spring-fed or winter torrents, various kinds of foun-
tains, some sending up a cold, others a warm, stream,
and all the phenomena of the air with their several
natures, the different forms of which are so countless
that speech can never include them all; above all,
heaven, which in truth has been framed as a world
within a world, and the divine and hallowed forms
which beautify it. Which of the other senses, then,
can boast that it ever traverses so great a span ?
XXXI. Let us leave out of consideration those senses 160
which do but fatten in its manger the beast which
shares our nature, lust, and examine the one which
does lay claim to reason, hearing. When its travel-
ling is tense and at its fullest, that is when the violent
winds with their long, sweeping sound or the loud
thunders with their terrific claps make themselves
heard, it halts within the air that surrounds the
earth. But the eyes leave earth and in an instant 161
reach heaven, and the boundaries of the universe,
east, west, north and south alike, and when they
81
PHILO
(κ α ι} ά φ ικ ν ο ύ μ ε ν ο ι π ρ ο ς τ ο θ ε ω ρ ε ΐν ε λ κ ο υ σ ιν ε π ι
162 τ ά φ α ν έ ν τ α τ ή ν δ ιά ν ο ια ν . ή δ έ τ ο π α ρ α -
π λ η σ ίο ν έ ν δ ε ξ α μ έ ν η π ά θ ο ς ο ύ κ η ρ ε μ ε ί, ά λ λ ' ά τ ε
α κ ο ίμ η τ ο ς κ α ι α ε ικ ίν η τ ο ς ο ύ σ α , π α ρ ά τ ή ς ο φ ε ω ς
τ ο υ δ ύ ν α σ θ α ι τ ά ν ο η τ ά θ ε ω ρ ε ΐν τ ά ς ά φ ο ρ μ ά ς λ α -
β ο ϋ σ α , ε ις σ κ έ φ ιν ή λ θ ε , π ό τ € ο ν τ ά φ α ν έ ν τ α τ α ΰ τ
ε σ τ ίν ά γ έ ν η τ α ή γ ε ν έ σ ε ω ς έ λ α β ε ν α ρ χ ή ν κ α ι π ό τ ε ρ ο ν
ά π ε ιρ α ή π ε π ε ρ α σ μ έ ν α κ α ι π ό τ ε ρ ο ν ε ις ή π λ ε ίο ν ε ς
ε ίσ ι κ ό σ μ ο ι κ α ι π ό τ ε ρ ο ν τ ά τ ε τ τ α ρ α σ τ ο ιχ ε ία τ ώ ν
α π ά ν τ ω ν ε σ τ ίν ή φ ύ σ ιν ε ζ α ίρ ε τ ο ν ο υ ρ α ν ό ς κ α ι τ ά
ε ν α ύ τ ώ κ ε κ λ ή ρ ω τ α ι θ ε ιο τ ε ρ α ς κ α ι ο ύ χ ι τ ο ΐς ά λ λ ο ις
163 τ ή ς α υ τ ή ς ο υ σ ία ς ε π ιλ α χ ό ν τ α
9
ε ΐ δ έ δ ή κ α ι γ έ γ ο ν ε ν
ό κ ό σ μ ο ς , ύ π ό τ ίν ο ς γ έ γ ο ν ε κ α ι τ ις ό δ η μ ιο υ ρ γ ό ς
κ α τ * ο ύ σ ία ν ή π ο ιό τ η τ α κ α ι τ ι δ ια ν ο η θ ε ίς ε π ο ίε ι κ α ι
τ ί ν υ ν π ρ ά τ τ ε ι κ α ι τ ις α ύ τ ώ δ ια γ ω γ ή κ α ι β ίο ς κ α ι
ό σ α ά λ λ α π ε ρ ιτ τ ό ς ν ο υ ς φ ρ ο ν ή σ ε ι σ υ μ β ίω ν ε ΐω θ ε
164 δ ιε ρ ε υ ν ά σ θ α ι. τ α ύ τ α δ έ κ α ι τ ά τ ο ια ύ τ α ά ν ά κ ε ιτ α ι
τ ω φ ιλ ο σ ο φ ε ίν ε ζ ο ύ δ ή λ ό ν ε σ τ ίν , ό τ ι σ ο φ ία κ α ι
φ ιλ ο σ ο φ ία τ ή ν α ρ χ ή ν ά π * ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς ε ϊλ η φ ε ν ε τ έ ρ ο υ
τ ώ ν ε ν ή μ ΐν ή τ ή ς ή γ ε μ ο ν ίδ ο ς τ ώ ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν ο ρ ά -
σ ε ω ς , ή ν κ α ΐ μ ό ν η ν ε κ τ ή ς σ ω μ α τ ικ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς
δ ιέ σ ω σ ε ν ο θ ε ό ς τ ά ς τ ε σ σ ά ρ α ς φ θ ε ίρ α ς , ό τ ι α ί μ έ ν
σ α ρ κ ϊ κ α ι τ ο ΐς σ α ρ κ ό ς π ά θ ε σ ιν ε δ ο ύ λ ε υ σ α ν , ή δ έ
ϊσ χ υ σ ε ν ά ν α τ ε ΐν α ι τ ο ν α υ χ έ ν α κ α ι β λ έ φ α ι κ α ι \
[ 25] τ έ ρ φ ε ις ε τ έ ρ α ς ά ν ε υ ρ ε ΐν π ο λ ύ β ε λ τ ίο υ ς τ ώ ν σ ω μ α -
τ ικ ώ ν η δ ο ν ώ ν ε κ τ ή ς π ε ρ ι τ ο ν κ ό σ μ ο ν θ ε ω ρ ία ς κ α ι
165 τ ώ ν ε ν α ύ τ ώ . μ ία ν ο ΰ ν ώ σ π ε ρ ε κ π ε ν τ α π ό λ ε ω ς τ ώ ν
π έ ν τ ε α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν τ ή ν δ ρ α σ ιν ε ξ α ίρ ε τ ο υ γ έ ρ ω ς τ υ χ ε ΐν
ά ρ μ ό τ τ ο ν ή ν κ α ι φ θ ε ιρ ο μ έ ν ω ν τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν δ ια μ έ ν ε ιν ,
α
For the thought cf. Timaeus 47A "whence," i.e. from
the knowledge which sight gives us, "we have derived
82
ON ABRAHAM, 161- 165
arrive draw the understanding to the observation
of what they have seen. And the under- 162
standing affected in like manner is not quiescent,
but, unsleeping and constantly in motion as it is,
takes the sight as the starting-point for its power
of observing the things of the mind, and proceeds
to investigate whether these phenomena are un-
created or had some beginning of creation, whether
they are infinite or finite, whether there is one world
or more than one, whether the four elements make
up all things, or on the other hand heaven and its
contents enjoy a special nature of their own and have
been given a substance which differs from the others
and is more divine. Further, if the world has been 163
created, who is the Creator ? What is His essence and
quality ? What was His purpose in making it ? What
does He do now and what is His occupation and way
of life ? And all the other questions which the curious
mind with good sense ever at its side is wont to ex-
plore. But these and the like belong to philosophy, 164
whence it is clear that wisdom and philosophy owe
their origin to no other of our faculties but to the
princess of the senses, sight.
α
And this alone of all
the bodily region did God preserve when He destroyed
the four, because they were in slavery to flesh and
the passions of flesh, while the sight had the strength
to stretch its neck upwards, and to look, and to find in
the contemplation of the world and its contents plea-
sures far better than those of the body. It was fitting, 165
then, that the one of the five senses which form, so to
speak, a group of five cities, should receive a special
privilege and continue to exist when the others were
philosophy." A similar adaptation of the same passage was
made in De Op. 54, where see note.
83
PHILO
ο τ ι ο ύ π ε ρ ι τ ά θ ν η τ ά ε ίλ ε ΐτ α ι μ ό ν ο ν ώ ς έ κ ε ΐν α ι,
μ ε τ α ν ίσ τ α σ θ α ι δ έ π ρ ο ς τ ά ς ά φ θ α ρ τ ο υ ς φ ύ σ ε ις ά ξ ιο ι
166 χ α ίρ ο υ σ α τ ή θ έ α τ ο ύ τ ω ν , δ ιό κ α ϊ π α γ κ ά λ ω ς " μ ι-
κ ρ ά ν " τ ε κ α ι " ο ύ μ ικ ρ ά ν " τ ή ν π ό λ ιν τ α ύ τ η ν ο ι
χ ρ η σ μ ο ί δ ι α σ υ ν ι σ τ ά σ ι ι / α ΐν ιτ τ ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ή ν ό ρ α σ ιν
μ ικ ρ ά μ έ ν γ ά ρ λ έ γ ε τ α ι ε ίν α ι, δ ιό τ ι β ρ α χ ύ μ έ ρ ο ς
τ ώ ν έ ν ή μ ιν έ σ τ ι, μ ε γ ά λ η δ έ , δ ιό τ ι μ ε γ ά λ ω ν έ φ ίε τ α ι
τ ο ν σ ύ μ π α ν τ α ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν κ α ι κ ό σ μ ο ν γ λ ιχ ο μ έ ν η
κ α τ α θ ε ά σ α σ θ α ι.
167 XXXII. ΐίε ρ ί μ έ ν ο ΰ ν τ ή ς έ π ιφ α ν ε ίσ η ς ό φ ε ω ς
κ α ι τ ώ ν ά ο ιδ ίμ ω ν κ α ι π ά γ κ α λ ω ν ξ ε ν ίω ν , έ ν ο ΐς
δ ο κ ώ ν έ σ τ ιά ν ο ξ ε ν ο δ ό χ ο ς ε ίσ τ ιά τ ο , κ α θ * Ο σ ο ν
έ φ ικ τ ό ν η ν , ά κ ρ ιβ ο ϋ σ ιν ή μ ιν τ ά π ε ρ ι τ ο ν τ ό π ο ν
δ ε δ ή λ ω τ α ι. μ ε γ ίσ τ η ν δ έ π ρ ά ξ ιν ά ξ ία ν α κ ο ή ς ο ύ χ
ή σ υ χ α σ τ έ ο ν ο λ ίγ ο υ γ ά ρ δ έ ω φ ά ν α ι π ά σ α ς ό σ α ι θ ε ο -
φ ιλ ε ίς υ π ε ρ β ά λ λ ε ι, λ ε κ τ έ ο ν δ έ τ ά κ α ίρ ια π ε ρ ι
168 α υ τ ή ς , υ ιό ς έ κ τ ή ς γ α μ έ τ η ς γ ίν ε τ α ι τ ώ σ ο φ ώ
γ ν ή σ ιο ς , α γ α π η τ ό ς κ α ι μ ό ν ο ς , τ ό τ ε σ ώ μ α κ ά λ -
λ ισ τ ο ς κ α ϊ τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν ά ρ ισ τ ο ς * ή δ η γ ά ρ τ ε λ ε ιο τ έ ρ α ς
τ ή ς η λ ικ ία ς έ ξ έ φ α ιν ε ν ά ρ ε τ ά ς , ώ ς τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α μ ή
π ά θ ε ι μ ό ν ο ν ε ύ ν ο ια ς φ υ σ ικ ή ς ά λ λ α κ α ι γ ν ώ μ η
κ α θ ά π ε ρ η θ ώ ν δ ικ α σ τ ή ν ισ χ υ ρ ά τ ιν ι κ ε χ ρ ή σ θ α ι
169 φ ιλ ο σ τ ο ρ γ ία , δ ια κ ε ιμ έ ν ω δ ' ο ύ τ ω ς έ ξ α π ιν α ίω ς
θ ε σ π ίζ ε τ α ι λ ό γ ιο ν ο ύ π ο τ έ λ π ισ θ έ ν , σ φ α γ ιά σ α ι τ ο ν
ν ίό ν έ π ι τ ίν ο ς ύ φ η λ ο τ ά τ ο υ κ ο λ ω ν ο ΰ π ο ρ ρ ω τ ά τ ω
170 π ό λ ε ω ς ά π ο σ τ ά ν τ α τ ρ ιώ ν ό δ ό ν η μ ε ρ ώ ν , ο δ έ κ α ίτ ο ι
* Gen. xix. 20 ir6\is α ΰ τ η iyyds . . . ή έ σ τ ι μ ικ ρ ά . . . . ο ι)
μ ικ ρ ά έ σ τ ι; R.V. "This city is near . . . and it is a little one.
. . . Is it not a little one ? " Philo either fails to see that the
last three words are a question, or more probably thinks
that the grammatical possibility of treating them as a state-
ment is a sufficient ground for extracting an allegorical
lesson.
84
ON ABRAHAM, 165-170
destroyed, because its range is not confined to mortal
things, as theirs is, but it aspires to find a new home
amid imperishable beings and rejoice in their con-
templation. And therefore it is excellently said, 166
when the oracles represent this city first as small and
then as not small, figuring thereby sight.
a
For sight
is said to be small in that it is a little part of all we
contain, but great in that great are its desires, since
it is the whole world and heaven which it yearns to
survey.
XXXII.
6
1 have now told with all the care that lay 167
within my powers the story of the vision which was
manifested to Abraham and of that splendid and
magnificent exchange of hospitality, where the host
who seemed to give the feast was himself the feasted.
But his greatest action which deserves reporting
must not be passed over in silence. For I might
almost say that all the other actions which won the
favour of God are surpassed by this ; and on this
subject I must say what is needed. The wife of the 168
Sage bore to him in full wedlock his only and dearly-
cherished son, a child of great bodily beauty and
excellence of soul. For already he was showing a
perfection of virtues beyond his years, so that his
father, moved not merely by a feeling of natural
affection but also by such deliberate judgement as a
censor of character might make, cherished for him
a great tenderness. Such were his feelings when 169
suddenly to his surprise there came a divine message
that he should sacrifice his son on a certain lofty hill
at a very considerable distance,
0
as much as three
days' journey, from the city. He, though devoted to 170
b
For §§ 167-177 see Gen. xxii. 1-19.
• Strictly speaking ά π ο σ τ ά ν τ α agrees with vlbv* Perhaps
we should read ά π ο σ τ ά ν τ ο $»
85
PHILO
ά λ έ κ τ ω π ό θ ω τ ο υ π α ιδ ό ς έ κ κ ρ ε μ ά μ ε ν ο ς ο ϋ τ € τ ή ν
χ ρ ό α ν μ ε τ έ β α λ ε ν ο ϋ τ € τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν έ γ ν ά μ φ θ η , γ ν ώ μ η
δ ' ά ν ε ν δ ό τ ω κ α ι ά ρ ρ ε π ε ΐ δ ιέ μ ε ιν ε ν ά κ λ ιν ή ς , ο ΐο ς κ α ι
π ρ ό σ θ ε ν ή ν ε ρ ω τ ι δ έ θ ε ίω δ ε δ α μ α σ μ έ ν ο ς α ν ά κ ρ ά τ ο ς
έ ν ίκ α π ά ν τ α ο σ α σ υ γ γ ε ν ε ία ς ο ν ό μ α τ α κ α ϊ φ ίλ τ ρ α
κ α ϊ μ η δ ε ν ϊ τ ώ ν έ ν δ ο ν έ ξ ε ιπ ώ ν τ ό λ ό γ ιο ν , ε κ π ο λ υ -
ά ν θ ρ ω π ο υ θ ε ρ α π ε ία ς ο ίκ ε τ ώ ν δ ύ ο μ ό ν ο υ ς τ ο υ ς π ρ ε -
σ β υ τ ά τ ο υ ς κ α ϊ μ ά λ ισ τ α φ ιλ ο δ ε σ π ό τ ο υ ς π α ρ α λ α β ώ ν ,
ώ ς έ ν ε κ α τ ίν ο ς ιε ρ ο υ ρ γ ία ς τ ώ ν ε ν ε θ ε ι τ έ τ α ρ τ ο ς
171 έ ξ ή ε ι σ υ ν τ ώ π α ιδ ί, τ ο ν δ ε π ρ ο σ τ α χ θ έ ν τ α χ ώ ρ ο ν
.ώ σ π ε ρ α π ό σ κ ο π ιά ς Ιδ ώ ν ε κ μ α κ ρ ο ύ τ ο ις μ έ ν
θ ε ρ ά π ο υ σ ι κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι κ α τ α μ έ ν ε ιν , τ ώ δ έ π α ίδ ι π υ ρ κ α ι
ξ ύ λ α δ ίδ ω σ ι κ ο μ ίζ ε ιν , α υ τ ό δ ικ α ιώ σ α ς τ ό ίε ρ ε ΐο ν
τ ά π ρ ο ς τ ή ν θ υ σ ία ν έ π η χ θ ίσ θ α ι, κ ο υ φ ό τ α τ ο ν β ά ρ ο ς ·
172 ο υ δ έ ν γ ά ρ ε υ σ έ β ε ια ς ά π ο ν ώ τ ε ρ ο ν . β α δ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς δ '
ίσ ο τ α χ ώ ς ο ύ τ ο ις σ ώ μ α σ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ή τ α ΐς δ ια ν ο ία ις
r
, ό δ ό ν τ ή ν έ π ίτ ο μ ο ν , ή ς ό σ ιό τ η ς τ ό τ έ λ ο ς , έ π ι τ ο ν \
173
π
Ρ
ο σ τ α
χ 0€ ΐ / τ α τ ό π ο ν ά φ ικ ν ο ΰ ν τ α ι. κ ά π ε ιθ ' ο μ έ ν
π α τ ή ρ σ υ ν ε κ ό μ ιζ ε λ ίθ ο υ ς , ΐν α δ ε ίμ α ιτ ο β ω μ ό ν , ό δ έ
υ ιό ς τ ά μ έ ν ά λ λ α ο ρ ώ ν ο σ α π ρ ο ς Ιε ρ ο υ ρ γ ία ν ε ύ τ ρ ε π ή ,
ω ο ν ο ε μ η ο ε ν , α π ιο ω ν ε ις τ ο ν π ά τ ε ρ α ιο ο υ τ ο
π υ ρ " έ φ η " κ α ι τ ά ξ ύ λ α , π ά τ ε ρ , π ο υ τ ό ίε ρ ε ΐο ν ; "
174 έ τ ε ρ ο ς μ έ ν ο υ ν ά δ ρ ά ν ε μ ε λ λ ε ν ε ιδ ώ ς κ α ι τ ή ψ υ χ ή
σ υ σ κ ιά ζ ω ν υ π ό τ ο υ λ ε χ θ έ ν τ ο ς κ α ν σ υ ν ε χ ύ θ η κ α ι
δ α κ ρ ύ ω ν π λ η ρ ω θ ε ίς ε μ φ α σ ιν τ ο υ γ ε ν η σ ο μ έ ν ο υ π α ρ -
175 έ σ χ ε ν ε κ τ ή ς π ε ρ ιπ α θ ή σ ε ω ς ή σ υ χ ά ζ ω ν . ο δ '
ο ύ δ ε μ ία ν έ ν δ ε ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ρ ο π ή ν ο ύ τ ε κ α τ ά τ ό σ ώ μ α
ο ύ τ ε κ α τ ά τ ή ν δ ιά ν ο ια ν σ τ α θ ε ρ ώ μ έ ν τ ώ β λ έ μ μ α τ ι
σ τ α θ ε ρ ώ δ έ τ ώ λ ο γ ισ μ ώ φ η σ ι π ρ ο ς τ ή ν π ε ϋ σ ιν
ά π ο κ ρ ιν ό μ ε ν ο ς · " ώ τ έ κ ν ο ν , ο θ ε ό ς ο ψ ε τ α ι ίε ρ ε ΐο ν
α
Literally " the names and love-charms of kinship."
6
In Genesis Isaac does not carry the fire.
86
ON ABRAHAM, 170-175
his son with a fondness which no words can express,
shewed no change of colour nor weakening of soul,
but remained steadfast as ever with a judgement that
never bent nor wavered. Mastered by his love for God,
he mightily overcame all the fascination expressed in
the fond terms of family affection,
0
and told the divine
call to none of his household, but taking out of his
numerous following two only, the oldest and most
loyal, he went forth with his son, four in all, as though
to perform one of the ordinary rites. But, when, like 171
a scout on some commanding point, he saw the
appointed place afar off, he bade his servants stay
there, but gave his son the fire
6
and wood to carry ;
for he thought it good that the victim himself should
bear the load of the instruments of sacrifice, a light
burden indeed, for nothing is less toilsome than
piety. They walked with equal speed of mind rather 172
than body along the short straight road at the end
of which is holiness and came to the appointed place.
0
And then, while the father was collecting stones to 173
build the altar, the son, seeing everything else ready
for sacrifice but no animal, looked at his father and
said : " My father, behold the fire and the wood,
but where is the victim? " To anyone else who 174
knew what he was about to do, and was hiding it in
his heart, these words would have brought confusion
and tearfulness and he would have remained silent
through extreme emotion, and thus given an indica-
tion of what was going to happen. But Abraham 175
admitted no swerving of body or mind, and with
Visage and thought alike unmoved he said in answer
to the question, " Child, God will provide Himself a
C
LXX Gen. xxii. 8 κ α ϊέ π ο ρ β ύ θ η σ α ν oi δ ύ ο ά μ α . Philo has gained
from this phrase a fuller spiritual lesson in De Miff. 166 f.
87
PHILO
88
έ α υ τ ώ κ α ι ε ν ε ρ η μ ιά π ο λ λ ή , δ ι
9
ή ν ϊσ ω ς ά π ο γ ιν ώ -
σ κ ε ις ε ύ ρ ε θ ή σ ε σ θ α ί' π ά ν τ α δ ' Ισ θ ι θ ε ώ δ υ ν α τ ά κ α ι
ο σ α iv ά μ η χ ά ν ω κ α ί ά π ό ρ ω κ ε ίτ α ι π α ρ
9
ά ν θ ρ ώ -
176 π ο ις ." κ α ι τ α ΰ θ
9
ά μ α λ έ γ ω ν fj τ ά χ ισ τ α τ ο ν υ ίό ν
ε ξ α ρ π ά σ α ς ε π ιτ ίθ η σ ι τ ω β ω μ ώ κ α ι σ π α σ ά μ ε ν ο ς Τ Ύ ^
δ ε ξ ιά τ ό ξ ίφ ο ς ε π έ φ ε ρ ε ν ώ ς ά ν α ιρ ή σ ω ν φ θ ά ν ε ι δ
ό σ ω τ ή ρ θ ε ό ς ά π
9
α έ ρ ο ς φ ω ν ή μ ε σ ο λ α β ή σ α ς τ ό
έ ρ γ ο ν , ή π ρ ο σ έ τ α τ τ ε ν ά ν έ χ ε ιν κ α ι μ ή φ α ΰ σ α ι τ ο ν
π α ιδ ό ς , ο ν ο μ α σ τ ι κ α λ έ σ α ς δ ις τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α , ΐν
9
ε π ισ τ ρ έ φ α ς κ α ί ά ν τ ισ π ά σ α ς δ ια κ ω λ υ σ τ ) τ ή ν σ φ α γ ή ν
177 ε ρ γ ά σ α σ θ α ι. XXXIII. κ α ί 6 μ έ ν δ ι α σ ώ ζ β τ α ι , τ ό
δ ώ ρ ο ν ά ν τ ιχ α ρ ισ α μ έ ν ο υ τ ο υ θ ε ο ϋ κ α ί τ ο ν φ έ ρ ο ν τ α
ε ν ο ΐς ε ύ σ ε β ε ΐτ ο ά ν τ ιτ ιμ ή σ α ν τ ο ς * τ ω δ
9
ή δ η κ α ι ή
π ρ ά ξ ις , ε ί κ α ι μ ή τ ο τ έ λ ο ς ε π η κ ο λ ο ύ θ η σ ε ν , ο λ ό κ λ η -
ρ ο ς κ α ι π α ν τ ε λ ή ς ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν ε ν τ α ΐς ιε ρ α ΐς β ίβ λ ο ις
ά λ λ α κ α ι ε ν τ α ΐς τ ώ ν ά ν α γ ιν ω σ κ ο ν τ ώ ν δ ια ν ο ία ις
ά ν ά γ ρ α π τ ο ς ε σ τ η λ ίτ ε υ τ α ι.
178   λ λ α τ ο ΐς φ ιλ α π ε χ θ ή μ ο σ ι κ α ί π ά ν τ α δ ια β ά λ -
λ ο υ σ ιν , ο ι φ ό γ ο ν π ρ ο ε π α ίν ο υ τ ιμ α ν ε θ ίζ ο ν τ α ι, τ ό
π ρ α χ θ έ ν έ ρ γ ο ν ο ύ δ ο κ ε ΐ μ έ γ α κ α ί θ α υ μ α σ τ ό ν , ώ ς
179 ή μ ε ΐς ύ π ο λ α μ β ά ν ο μ ε ν ε ίν α ι, π ο λ λ ο ύ ς γ ά ρ κ α ι
ά λ λ ο υ ς φ α σ ι τ ώ ν π ά ν υ φ ιλ ο ικ ε ίω ν κ α ι φ ιλ ο τ έ κ ν ω ν
ε π ιδ ο ΰ ν α ι τ ο ύ ς ε α υ τ ώ ν π α ΐδ α ς , τ ο ύ ς μ έ ν υ π έ ρ
π α τ ρ ίδ ω ν σ φ α γ ια σ θ η σ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς , λ υ τ ή ρ ια ή π ο λ έ μ ω ν ή
α ύ χ μ ώ ν ή ε π ο μ β ρ ία ς ή ν ο σ η μ ά τ ω ν λ ο ιμ ικ ώ ν γ ε ν η -
σ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς , τ ο ύ ς δ ' υ π έ ρ ν ε ν ο μ ισ μ έ ν η ς ε υ σ έ β ε ια ς , ε ί
180 κ α ι μ ή π ρ ο ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν ο ύ σ η ς · 'Έ λ λ ή ν ω ν μ έ ν γ ε τ ο ύ ς
δ ο κ ιμ ω τ ά τ ο υ ς , ο ύ κ ίδ ιώ τ α ς μ ό ν ο ν α λ λ ά κ α ί β α σ ι-
λ ε ίς , ο λ ίγ α φ ρ ο ν τ ίσ α ν τ α ς ώ ν ε γ έ ν ν η σ α ν δ ιά τ ή ς
τ ο ύ τ ω ν α ν α ιρ έ σ ε ω ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ις σ τ ρ α τ ε υ μ ά τ ω ν μ ε γ ά -
λ α ς κ α ί π ο λ υ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο υ ς ε ν μ έ ν τ ή σ υ μ μ α χ ία τ ε τ α γ -
ON ABRAHAM, 175- 180
victim, even in this wide desert, which perhaps makes
you give up hope of finding it; but know that to
God all things are possible, including those that are
impossible or insuperable to men." And, as he said 176
this, he hastily seized his son, laid him on the altar
and with his drawn knife in his right hand was pre-
paring with it to deal the death blow. But ere he
did so, God the Saviour stopped the deed half-way
with a voice from the air, in which He ordered him
to stay and not touch the lad. And twice He called
the father by name to turn him and draw him back
from his purpose and thus prevent his carrying out
the slaughter. XXXIII. So Isaac was saved, since 177
God returned the gift of him and used the offering
which piety rendered to Him to repay the offerer,
while for Abraham the action, though not followed
by the intended ending, was complete and perfect,
and the record of it as such stands graven not only
in the sacred books but in the minds of the readers.
But quarrelsome critics who misconstrue every- 178
thing and have a way of valuing censure above praise
do not think Abraham's action great or wonderful,
as we suppose it to be. They say that many other 179
persons, full of love for their kinsfolk and offspring,
have given their children, some to be sacrificed for
their country to serve as a price to redeem it from
wars or drought or excessive rainfall or pestilence,
others for the sake of what was held to be piety
though it is not really so. Indeed they say that 180
among the Greeks men of the highest reputation,
not only private individuals but kings, have with
little thought of their offspring put them to death,
and thereby saved armed forces of great strength
and magnitude when enlisted as their allies, and
89
PHILO
μ έ ν α ς δ ια σ ώ σ α ι, ε ν δ έ τ ή μ ε ρ ίδ ι τ ώ ν έ χ θ ρ ω ν α υ τ ό -
181 β ο ε ι δ ια φ θ ε ΐρ α ι· β α ρ β α ρ ικ ά δ έ έ θ ν η μ έ χ ρ ι π ο λ λ ο ύ
π α ιδ ο κ τ ο ν ία ν ώ ς δ σ ιο ν έ ρ γ ο ν κ α ι θ ε ο φ ιλ έ ς π ρ ο σ έ σ -
θ α ι, ώ ν μ ε μ ν ή σ θ α ι τ ο υ ά γ ο υ ς κ α ι τ ο ν ίε ρ ώ τ α τ ο ν
Μ ω υ σ ή ν α ίτ ιώ μ ε ν ο ς γ ά ρ α υ τ ο ύ ς τ ο υ μ ιά σ μ α τ ο ς
φ ά σ κ ε ι, ο τ ι " τ ο υ ς υ ιο ύ ς α υ τ ώ ν κ α ι τ ά ς θ υ γ α τ έ ρ α ς
^ κ α τ α κ α ίο υ σ ι τ ο ις θ ε ο ις α υ τ ώ ν "· Ιν δ ώ ν δ έ | τ ο υ ς
1
γ υ μ ν ο σ ο φ ισ τ ά ς ά χ ρ ι ν υ ν , έ π ε ιδ ά ν ά ρ χ η τ α ι κ α τ α λ α μ -
β ά ν ε ιν ή μ α κ ρ ά κ α ι α ν ία τ ο ς ν ό σ ο ς , τ ό γ ή ρ α ς , π ρ ιν
β ε β α ίω ς κ ρ α τ η θ ή ν α ι, π υ ρ ά ν ν ή σ α ν τ α ς ε α υ τ ο ύ ς έ μ -
π ιπ ρ ά ν α ι, δ υ ν α μ έ ν ο υ ς έ τ ι π ρ ο ς π ο λ υ ε τ ία ν ΐσ ω ς
ά ν τ ισ χ ε ΐν ή δ η δ έ κ α ι γ ύ ν α ια π ρ ο α π ο θ α ν ό ν τ ω ν
α ν δ ρ ώ ν ό ρ μ ή σ α ι γ ε γ η θ ό τ α π ρ ο ς τ ή ν α υ τ ή ν π υ ρ ά ν
κ α ι ζ ώ ν τ α τ ο ις ε κ ε ίν ω ν σ ώ μ α σ ιν ύ π ο μ ε ΐν α ι σ υ γ -
183 κ α τ α φ λ ε χ θ ή ν α ι* τ α ύ τ α μ έ ν ε ίκ ό τ ω ς ά ν τ ις τ ή ς
ε ύ τ ρ λ μ ία ς θ α υ μ ά σ ε ιε ν έ κ π ο λ λ ο ύ τ ο υ π ε ρ ιό ν τ ο ς
κ α τ α φ ρ ο ν η τ ικ ώ ς έ χ ο ν τ α θ α ν ά τ ο υ κ α ι ώ ς έ π *
ά θ α ν α σ ία ν α υ τ ό ν ίέ μ ε ν α κ α ι α π ν ε υ σ τ ί θ έ ο ν τ α *
XXXIV. τ ο ν δ έ τ ι π ρ ο σ ή κ ε ν έ π α ιν ε ιν ώ ς έ γ χ ε ιρ η -
τ ή ν κ ε α ιν ο ύ γ η μ έ ν η ς π ρ ά ξ ε ω ς , η ν κ α ι ίδ ιώ τ α ι κ α ι
β α σ ιλ ε ίς κ α ι ο λ α έ θ ν η δ ρ ώ σ ιν έ ν κ α ιρ ο ΐς ;
184 έ γ ώ δ έ π ρ ο ς τ ή ν τ ο ύ τ ω ν β α σ κ α ν ία ν κ α ι π ικ ρ ία ν
ε κ ε ίν α λ έ ξ ω * τ ώ ν κ α τ α θ υ ό ν τ ω ν π α ΐδ α ς ο ι μ έ ν έ θ ε ι
τ ο ύ τ ο δ ρ ώ σ ιν , ώ σ π ε ρ έ ν ίο υ ς ε φ α σ κ ο ν τ ώ ν β α ρ -
β ά ρ ω ν , ο ι δ έ δ ι* ά β ο υ λ ή τ ο υ ς κ α ι μ ε γ ά λ α ς υ π ο θ έ σ ε ις
π ό λ ε ω ν τ ε κ α ι χ ω ρ ώ ν έ τ έ ρ ω ς κ α τ ο ρ θ ο ΰ σ θ α ι μ ή
δ υ ν α μ έ ν ω ν , ώ ν ο ι μ έ ν α ν ά γ κ η τ ο υ ς α υ τ ώ ν έ π ι-
α
Philo may be thinking of Iphigeneia and Macaria in
Euripides
1
Heracleidae, though neither exactly fits the circum-
stances.
6
Deut. xii, 31.
90
ON ABRAHAM, 180- 184
destroyed them without striking a blow when arrayed
as enemies.
0
Barbarian nations, they add, have for 181
long admitted child sacrifice as a holy deed and
acceptable to God, and this practice of theirs is
mentioned by the holy Moses as an abomination,
for, charging them with this pollution, he says that
" they burn their sons and daughters to their gods."
b
Again they point out that in India the gymno- 182
sophists even now when the long incurable disease
of old age begins to take hold of them, even before
they are completely in its clutches, make up a
funeral pile and burn themselves on it, though they
might possibly last out many years more. And the
womenfolk when the husbands die before them have
been known to hasten rejoicing to share their pyre,
and allow themselves to be burned alive with the
corpses of the men.
c
These women might reasonably, 183
no doubt, be praised for their courage, so great and
more than great is their contempt for death, and
the breathless eagerness with which they rush to
it as though it were immortality. XXXIV. Why,
then, they ask, should we praise Abraham, as though
the deed which he undertook was unprecedented,
when private individuals and kings and whole nations
do it when occasion calls ? To their 184
malignity and bitterness I reply as follows. Some of
those who sacrifice their children follow custom in
so doing, as was the case according to the critics with
some of the barbarians. Others have important and
painful reasons for their action because their cities
and countries cannot but fail otherwise. These give
their children partly under compulsion and the
9
For Philo's knowledge of the Indian custom see App.
p. 598.
91
PHILO
δ ιδ ό α σ ιν ν π ο δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ ω ν β ια σ θ έ ν τ ε ς , ο ι δ έ δ ό ξ η ς
κ α ί τ ιμ ή ς ε φ ιέ μ ε ν ο ι κ α ι ε ύ κ λ ε ία ς μ ε ν τ ή ς iv τ ω
185 π α ρ ό ν τ ι, ε υ φ η μ ία ς δ έ τ ή ς ε ίς ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν , ο ι μ έ ν ο ΰ ν
ε θ ε ι σ φ α γ ιά ζ ο ν τ ε ς ο υ δ έ ν ώ ς ε ο ικ ε μ έ γ α δ ρ ώ σ ιν
ε γ χ ρ ο ν ίζ ο ν γ ά ρ ε θ ο ς ε ξ ισ ο ΰ τ α ι φ ύ σ ε ι π ο λ λ ά κ ις , ώ ς
κ α ι τ ά δ υ σ υ τ τ ο μ ό ν η τ α κ α ί δ υ σ κ α ρ τ έ ρ η τ α ρ α δ ίω ς
ε π ε λ α φ ρ ίζ ε ιν , τ ά ς ύ π ε ρ β ο λ ά ς τ ώ ν φ ο β ε ρ ώ ν ε ξ ε υ -
186 μ α ρ ίζ ο ν . τ ώ ν δ ' έ ν ε κ α δ έ ο υ ς ε π ιδ ιδ ό ν τ ω ν έ π α ιν ο ς
ο υ δ ε ίς
9
6 γ ά ρ έ π α ιν ο ς ε ν έ κ ο υ σ ίο ις κ α τ ο ρ θ ώ μ α σ ι
γ ρ ά φ ε τ α ι, τ ά δ ' ά β ο ύ λ η τ α έ τ έ ρ ο ις ά ν ά κ ε ιτ α ι π ρ ά γ -
μ α σ ιν , ή κ α ιρ ο ΐς ή τ ύ χ α ις ή τ α ΐς ά π * α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν
187 ά ν ά γ κ α ις . ε ί δ έ τ ις δ ό ξ η ς ό ρ ε γ ό μ ε ν ο ς υ ίό ν ή
θ υ γ α τ έ ρ α π ρ ο ίε τ α ι, φ έ γ ο ιτ α ν ε ν δ ίκ ω ς μ ά λ λ ο ν ή
ε π α ιν ο ΐτ ο , θ α ν ά τ ω τ ώ ν φ ιλ τ ά τ ω ν ώ ν ο ύ μ έ ν ο ς τ ιμ ή ν ,
ή ν κ α ί κ ε κ τ η μ έ ν ο ς ώ φ ε ιλ ε ν υ π έ ρ σ ω τ η ρ ία ς τ ώ ν
188 τ έ κ ν ω ν ά π ο ρ ρ ίπ τ ε ιν . ε ρ ε υ ν η τ έ ο ν ο ΰ ν , ε ί
ύ π ό τ ίν ο ς τ ώ ν λ ε χ θ έ ν τ ω ν η τ τ η θ ε ίς ε κ ε ίν ο ς έ μ ε λ λ ε
σ φ α γ ιά ζ ε ιν τ ο ν υ ίό ν , έ θ ο υ ς ή τ ιμ ή ς ή δ έ ο υ ς , ε θ ο ς
μ έ ν ο ΰ ν τ ό ε π ί π α ιδ ο κ τ ο ν ία Έ α β υ λ ώ ν κ α ί Μ β σ ο -
π ο τ α μ ία κ α ί τ ό Χ α λ δ α ιω ν έ θ ν ο ς ο ύ π α ρ α δ έ χ ε τ α ι, ε ν
ο ΐς ε τ ρ ά φ η κ α ί ε π ε β ίω σ ε τ ο ν π λ ε ίο ν α χ ρ ό ν ο ν , ώ ς τ ή
σ υ ν ε χ ε ία τ ώ ν δ ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν ά μ β λ υ τ έ ρ α ις τ α ΐς τ ώ ν δ ε ι-
189 ν ώ ν <^α ν τ α σ ια ι? κ ε κ ρ α τ ή σ θ α ι
1
δ ο κ ε ΐν . κ α ί μ ή ν ο υ δ έ
φ ό β ο ς τ ις ή ν α π * α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν —ο υ δ έ γ ά ρ τ ό χ ρ η σ θ έ ν
α ύ τ ώ μ ό ν ω λ ό γ ιο ν ή δ ε ι τ ις —, ο υ δ έ τ ις σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά
κ ο ιν ή κ α τ ε ίλ η φ ε ν , ή ς έ δ ε ι τ ή ν θ ε ρ α π ε ία ν α ν α ιρ έ σ ε ι
190 γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι τ ο υ δ ο κ ιμ ω τ ά τ ο υ π α ιδ ό ς . α λ λ ά θ η ρ ώ -
[ 28] μ έ ν ο ς \ ε π α ιν ο ν τ ώ ν π ο λ λ ώ ν ε π ί τ ή ν π ρ ά ξ ιν ώ ρ μ η σ ε ;
1
Perhaps, as Mangey suggests, κ β χ ρ ή σ θ α ι.
92
ON ABRAHAM, 184-190
pressure of higher powers, partly through desire for
glory and honour, to win fame at the time and a
good name in the future. Now those who are led 185
by custom to make the sacrifice would not seem to
be doing anything great, for long-standing custom
often becomes equal to nature, so that in matters
where patience and resolution are difficult to attain
it gives ease and relief by reducing their terrors
to moderate dimensions. Where the gift is made 186
through fear no praise is due, for praise is recorded
for voluntary good deeds, while for those which are
involuntary other things are responsible, favourable
occasions, chances or force brought to bear by men.
And if anyone throws away a son or a daughter 187
through desire for glory he will be justly blamed
rather than praised, for with the life of his dearest
he is purchasing an honour which he ought to cast
aside, if die possessed it, to ensure the safety of his
children. We must therefore examine 188
whether Abraham, when he intended to sacrifice
his son, was mastered by any of these motives,
custom or love of honour or fear. Now in Babylonia
and Mesopotamia and with the nation of the Chaldeans
with whom he was brought up and lived the greater
part of his life the custom of child slaughter does not
obtain, so as to suggest that his realization of its
horrors was rendered less powerful by the regularity
of such a practice. Surely, too, he had nothing to 189
fear from man, since no one knew of the oracular
message which he alone had received; nor was he
under the pressure of any public misfortune which
could be remedied only by the immolation of a child of
special worth. Or was the quest of praise from the 190
multitude the motive which urged him to the deed ?
93
PHILO
κ α ι τ ις έ π α ιν ο ς ε ν ε ρ η μ ιά , μ η δ ε ν ό ς τ ο υ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ο ς
έ π ε υ φ η μ ή σ ε ιν π α ρ ό ν τ ο ς , α λ λ ά κ α ι τ ώ ν δ υ ε ΐν ο ίκ ε τ ώ ν
μ α κ ρ ά ν ε π ίτ η δ ε ς ά π ο λ ε ιφ θ έ ν τ ω ν , ίν α μ ή έ γ κ α λ -
λ ω π ίζ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι έ ν ε π ιδ ε ίκ ν υ σ θ α ι δ ο κ ή μ ά ρ τ υ ρ α ς
191 ε π α γ ό μ ε ν ο ς ώ ν ε ύ σ έ β ε ι; XXXV. σ τ ό μ α σ ιν ο υ ν
ά χ α λ ίν ο ις κ α ι κ α κ η γ ό ρ ο ις θ ύ ρ α ς έ π ιθ έ ν τ ε ς μ ε τ ρ ια -
ζ έ τ ω σ α ν τ ο ν έ ν α ύ τ ο ΐς μ ισ ό κ α λ ο ν φ θ ό ν ο ν κ α ι
ά ρ ε τ ά ς α ν δ ρ ώ ν ε ΰ β ε β ιω κ ό τ ω ν μ ή σ ιν έ σ θ ω σ α ν , α ς
ά ρ μ ό τ τ ο ν η ν ε υ φ η μ ία σ υ ν ε π ικ ο σ μ ε ΐν .
ό τ ι δ έ τ ώ ο ν τ ι ε π α ιν ε τ ή κ α ϊ ά ξ ιέ ρ α σ τ ο ς ή π ρ ά ξ ις , έ κ
192 π ο λ λ ώ ν ε ύ μ α ρ έ ς ίδ ε ΐν . π ρ ώ τ ο ν μ έ ν τ ο ίν υ ν τ ό
π ε ίθ ε σ θ α ι θ ε ώ π α ρ ά π ά σ ι τ ο ις ε δ φ ρ ο ν ο ΰ σ ι σ ε μ ν ό ν
κ α ι π ε ρ ιμ ά χ η τ ο ν ε ίν α ι ν ο μ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ν έ ν τ ο ις μ ά λ ισ τ α
έ π ε τ ή δ ε υ ε ν , ώ ς μ η δ ε ν ό ς π ώ π ο τ ε τ ώ ν π ρ ο σ τ ε τ α γ -
μ έ ν ω ν ά λ ο γ ή σ α ι, ά ν ε υ δ υ σ κ ο λ ία ς κ α ι α η δ ία ς , κ α ν
π ό ν ω ν τ ε κ α ι ά λ γ η δ ό ν ω ν μ ε σ τ ό ν ή ' π α ρ ό κ α ϊ τ ό
χ ρ η σ θ έ ν έ π ι τ ώ υ ίώ ye^^atorara κ α ι σ τ ε ρ ρ ό τ α τ α
193 ή ν ε γ κ ε ν . ε π ε ιτ ο υ κ ό ν τ ο ς έ θ ο υ ς έ ν τ ή χ ώ ρ α ,
κ α θ ά π ε ρ ϊσ ω ς π α ρ
9
έ ν ίο ις έ σ τ ιν , ά ν θ ρ ω π ο θ υ τ ε ΐν , ο
τ ή σ υ ν ε χ ε ία τ ά ς τ ώ ν δ ε ιν ώ ν φ α ν τ α σ ία ς ε ΐω θ ε ν
έ κ λ ύ ε ιν , α υ τ ό ς έ μ ε λ λ ε π ρ ώ τ ο ς ά ρ χ ε σ θ α ι κ α ιν ό τ α τ ο υ
κ α ι π α ρ η λ λ α γ μ έ ν ο υ π ρ ά γ μ α τ ο ς , ό μ ο ι δ ο κ ε ΐ μ η δ ε ις
α ν ύ π ο μ ε ΐν α ι, κ α ι ε ι σ ιδ ή ρ ο υ τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν ή α δ ά μ α ν τ ο ς
κ α τ ε σ κ ε ύ α σ τ ο '
f i
φ ύ σ ε ι " γ ά ρ ώ ς ε ΐπ έ τ ις " έ ρ γ ο ν
194 μ ά χ ε σ θ α ι." γ ν ή σ ιό ν τ ε υ ίό ν π ε π ο ιη μ έ ν ο ς μ ό ν ο ν
τ ο ύ τ ο ν ε υ θ ύ ς ε ίχ ε κ α ι τ ό π ά θ ο ς έ π * α ύ τ ω τ ή ς ε ύ -
ν ο ια ς γ ν ή σ ιο ν , υ π ε ρ β ά λ λ ο ν τ ο υ ς σ ώ φ ρ ο ν α ς έ ρ ω τ α ς
195 κ α ι τ ά ς φ ιλ ία ς , ό σ α ι δ ι
9
ο ν ό μ α τ ο ς γ ε γ ό ν α σ ι. π ρ ο σ ή ν
94
ON ABRAHAM, 190-195
What praise could there be in a solitude where no
one was present to report his fame afterwards, but
even the two servants had been purposely left afar
off lest he should appear to be making a boastful
parade by bringing witnesses to his pious conduct ?
XXXV. Let them, therefore, set bolt and bar to 191
their unbridled evil-speaking mouths, control their
envy and hatred of excellence and not mar the
virtues of men who have lived a good life, virtues
which they should rather help to glorify by their good
report. That the deed really deserves our praise
and love can easily be seen in many ways. First, 192
then, he made a special practice of obedience to
God, a duty which every right-minded person holds
to be worthy of all respect and effort. Hitherto he
had not neglected any of Gods commands, nor ever
met them with repining or discontent, however
charged with toils and pains they might be, and
therefore he bore the sentence pronounced on his
son with all nobleness and firmness. Secondly, since 193
human sacrifice was not in that country, as it was
perhaps in some, sanctioned by custom which is
so apt through constant repetition to weaken the
realization of the terrible, he would have been the
first himself to initiate a totally new and extraordinary
procedure, and this, to my mind, is a thing which no
one could have brought himself to do even if his soul
had been made of iron or adamant, for, as it has been
said, it is hard work to fight against nature. And, 194
as he had begotten no son in the truest sense but
Isaac, his feeling of affection for him was necessarily
on the same high level of truth, higher even than
the chaste forms of love and also the much talked-of
ties of friendship. Further, he had a most potent 195
95
PHILO
δ έ τ ι κ α ι β ια σ τ ικ ώ τ α τ ο ν φ ίλ τ ρ ο ν , τ ό μ ή κ α θ *
ή λ ικ ία ν ά λ λ ' έ ν γ ή ρ α γ ε γ ε ν ν η κ έ ν α ι τ ο ν π α ιδ α * τ ο ις
γ ά ρ δ φ ιγ ό ν ο ις έ π ιμ ε μ ή ν α σ ί π ω ς ol τ ο κ ε ΐς , ή τ ω
μ α κ ρ ό ν έ π ιπ ο θ ή σ α ι χ ρ ό ν ο ν τ ή ν γ έ ν ε σ ιν α υ τ ώ ν ή τ ώ
μ η κ έ θ * έ τ ε ρ ο υ ς έ λ π ίζ ε ιν έ σ ε σ θ α ι, τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς
ε ν τ α ύ θ α ισ τ ά μ ε ν η ς ώ ς έ π ι τ ε λ ε υ τ α ΐο ν κ α ι ΰ σ τ α τ ο ν
196 δ ρ ο ν . ε κ π ο λ υ π α ιδ ία ς μ έ ν ο ΰ ν έ ν α π ρ ο έ σ θ α ι θ ε ώ
κ α θ ά π ε ρ α π α ρ χ ή ν τ ιν α τ έ κ ν ω ν π α ρ ά δ ο ζ ο ν ο υ δ έ ν ,
έ χ ο ν τ α τ ά ς έ π ι τ ο ις ζ ώ σ ιν ή δ ο ν ά ς ο ύ μ ικ ρ ά π α ρ α μ ύ -
θ ια κ α ι /χ .€ΐλ ί)//Λ α τ α τ ή ς έ π ι τ ώ σ φ α γ ια σ θ έ ν τ ι λ ύ π η ς '
ο ν δ έ μ ό ν ο ν τ ις ε σ χ ε ν ά γ α π η τ ο ν δ ιδ ο ύ ς λ ό γ ο υ
π α ν τ ό ς μ ε ίζ ο ν έ ρ γ ο ν δ ια π ρ ά τ τ ε τ α ι, μ η δ έ ν ο ίκ ε ιό τ η τ ι
χ α ρ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ς , ά λ λ ' δ λ η τ ή ρ ο π ή π ρ ο ς τ ό θ ε ο φ ιλ έ ς
197 τ α λ α ν τ ε ύ ω ν . ε κ ε ίν ο μ έ ν δ ή έ ζ α ίρ ε τ ο ν κ α ι μ ό ν ω
σ χ ε δ ό ν τ ι τ ο ύ τ ω π ε π ρ α γ μ έ ν ο ν ο ι μ έ ν γ ά ρ ά λ λ ο ι,
κ α ν υ π έ ρ σ ω τ η ρ ία ς π α τ ρ ίδ ω ν ή σ τ ρ α τ ε υ μ ά τ ω ν
έ π ιδ ιδ ώ σ ι σ φ α γ ια σ θ η σ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς τ ο υ ς ε α υ τ ώ ν , ή ο ίκ ο ι
Κ α τ α μ έ ν ο υ σ ιν ή μ α κ ρ ά ν α φ ίσ τ α ν τ α ι τ ώ ν β ω μ ώ ν ή ,
κ α ν π α ρ α τ υ γ χ ά ν ω σ ι, τ ά ς δ φ ε ις α π ο σ τ ρ έ φ ο ν τ α ι θ ε ά -
198 σ α σ θ α ι μ ή υ π ο μ έ ν ο ν τ ε ς , ά λ λ ω ν ά ν α ιρ ο ύ ν τ ω ν ο δ '
[29] ώ σ π ε ρ ιε ρ ε ύ ς \ α υ τ ό ς κ α τ ή ρ χ ε τ ο τ ή ς ιε ρ ο υ ρ γ ία ς , ε φ
υ ίώ τ ά π ά ν τ α ά ρ ίσ τ ω φ ιλ ο σ τ ο ρ γ ό τ α τ ο ς π α τ ή ρ ·
έ μ έ λ ισ ε δ ' α ν ίσ ω ς κ α ι ν ό μ ω τ ώ ν ο λ ο κ α υ τ ω μ ά τ ω ν
κ α τ ά μ έ λ η τ ο ν υ ιό ν ιε ρ ο υ ρ γ ώ ν , ο ύ τ ω ς ο ύ τ ό μ έ ν τ ι
μ έ ρ ο ς α π έ κ λ ίν ε π ρ ο ς τ ο ν π α ΐδ α , τ ό δ έ τ ι π ρ ο ς
ε ύ σ έ β ε ια ν , ά λ λ ' δ λ η ν τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν δ ι
9
δ λ ω ν ό σ ιό τ η τ ι
π ρ ο σ ε κ λ ή ρ ω σ ε ν ο λ ίγ α φ ρ ο ν τ ίσ α ς σ υ γ γ ε ν ικ ο ύ α ϊ-
199 μ α τ ο ς . τ ι δ ή τ ώ ν ε ίρ η μ έ ν ω ν π ρ ο ς ε τ έ ρ ο υ ς κ ο ιν ό ν ;
τ ι δ ' ο ύ κ έ ζ α ίρ ε τ ο ν κ α ι π α ν τ ό ς λ ό γ ο υ κ ρ ε ΐτ τ ο ν ;
96
ON ABRAHAM, 195-199
incentive to love in that he had begotten the boy
in his old age and not in his years of vigour. For
parents somehow dote on their late-born children,
either because they have longed for their birth for
so many years or because they do not hope to have
any more, since nature comes to a halt at this point
as its final and furthermost boundary. For a father 196
to surrender one of a numerous family as a tithe to
God is nothing extraordinary, since each of the
survivors continues to give him pleasure, and this is
no small solace and mitigation of his grief for the
one who has been sacrificed. But one who gives his
only darling son performs an action for which no
language is adequate, since he concedes nothing to
the tie of relationship, but his whole weight is thrown
into the scale on the side of acceptability with God.
The following point is exceptional, and his conduct 197
in it is practically unique. Other fathers, even if
they give their children to be sacrificed for the safety
of their country or armies, either stay at home or
stand far away from the altars, or, if they are present,
turn away their eyes, since they cannot bear the
sight, and leave others to kill the victim. But here 198
we have the most affectionate of fathers himself
beginning the sacrificial rite as priest with the very
best of sons for victim. Perhaps too, following the law
of burnt offering, he would have dismembered his
son and offered him limb by limb. Thus we see that
he did not incline partly to the boy and partly to
piety, but devoted his whole soul through and
through to holiness and disregarded the claims of
their common blood. Which of all the points men- 199
tioned is shared by others ? Which does not stand
by itself and defy description ? Thus everyone who
97
PHILO
cos τ ο ν γ ε μ ή φ ύ σ ε ι β ά σ κ α ν ο ν κ α ι φ ιλ ο π ό ν η ρ ο ν
κ α τ α π λ α γ ή ν α ι κ α ι θ α ν μ ά σ α ι τ ή ς π ε ρ ιτ τ ή ς ά γ α ν
ε υ σ έ β ε ια ς , ο ύ χ ά π α ν τ α Ο σ α ε ΐπ ο ν α θ ρ ό α ε ις ν ο υ ν
β α λ λ ό μ ε ν ο ν , ά λ λ α κ α ν ε ν τ ι τ ώ ν π ά ν τ ω ν ικ α ν ή γ ά ρ
κ α ι ή ε ν ό ς φ α ν τ α σ ία τ ύ π ω τ ιν ι β ρ α χ ε ί—β ρ α χ ύ δ '
ο υ δ έ ν έ ρ γ ο ν σ ο φ ο ύ —μ έ γ ε θ ο ς φ υ χ ή ς κ α ι ύ φ ο ς
ε μ φ ή ν α ι.
200 XXXVI.   λ λ α γ ά ρ ο ύ κ ε π ι τ ή ς ρ η τ ή ς κ α ι
φ α ν ε ρ α ς α π ο δ ό σ ε ω ς ΐσ τ α τ α ι τ ά λ ε χ θ έ ν τ α , φ ύ σ ιν δ έ
τ ο ΐς π ο λ λ ο ίς ά δ η λ ο τ έ ρ α ν ε ο ικ ε π α ρ ε μ φ α ίν ε ιν , ή ν ο ι
τ ά ν ο η τ ά π ρ ο τ ώ ν α ισ θ η τ ώ ν α π ο δ ε χ ό μ ε ν ο ι κ α ι ό ρ α ν
201 δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ι γ ν ω ρ ίζ ο υ σ ιν . ε σ τ ί δ έ τ ο ιά δ ε · ό μ ε λ λ ή σ α ς
σ φ α γ ιά ζ ε σ θ α ι κ α λ ε ίτ α ι Χ α λ δ α ϊ σ τ ί μ έ ν Ισ α ά κ ,Ε λ λ η -
ν ισ τ ί δ έ μ ε τ α λ η φ θ έ ν τ ο ς τ ο υ ο ν ό μ α τ ο ς " γ έ λ ω ς "'
γ έ λ ω ς δ ' ο ύ χ ό κ α τ ά π α ιδ ιά ν ε γ γ ιν ό μ έ ν ο ς
σ ώ μ α τ ι π α ρ α λ α μ β ά ν ε τ α ι τ ά ν υ ν , ά λ λ ' ή κ α τ ά
202 δ ιά ν ο ια ν ε υ π ά θ ε ια κ α ι χ α ρ ά . τ α ύ τ η ν ό σ ο φ ό ς
ίε ρ ο υ ρ γ ε ΐν λ έ γ ε τ α ι δ ε ό ν τ ω ς θ ε ώ δ ιά σ υ μ β ό λ ο υ
π α ρ ισ τ ά ς , Ο τ ι τ ό χ α ίρ ε ιν μ ό ν ω θ ε ώ ο ίκ ε ιό τ α τ ό ν
έ σ τ ιν έ π ίλ υ π ο ν μ έ ν γ ά ρ τ ό ά ν θ ρ ώ π ιν ο ν γ έ ν ο ς κ α ι
π ε ρ ιδ ε έ ς , ή π α ρ ό ν τ ω ν κ α κ ώ ν ή π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ώ μ ε ν ω ν , ώ ς
ή ε π ι τ ο ΐς ε ν χ ε ρ σ ιν ά β ο υ λ ή τ ο ις ά ν ιά σ θ α ι ή ε π ι τ ο ΐς
μ έ λ λ ο υ σ ι τ α ρ α χ ή κ α ι φ ό β ω κ ρ α δ α ίν ε σ θ α ί' ά λ υ π ο ς
δ έ κ α ι ά φ ο β ο ς κ α ί π α ν τ ό ς π ά θ ο υ ς α μ έ τ ο χ ο ς ή τ ο υ
θ ε ο ΰ φ ύ σ ις ε υ δ α ιμ ο ν ία ς κ α ί μ α κ α ρ ιό τ η τ ο ς π α ν τ ε λ ο ύ ς
203 μ ό ν η μ ε τ έ χ ο υ σ α , τ ω δ ή τ ή ν α λ η θ ή τ α ύ τ η ν ό μ ο λ ο -
γ ία ν ώ μ ο λ ο γ η κ ό τ ι τ ρ ό π ω χ ρ η σ τ ό ς ώ ν κ α ί φ ιλ ά ν -
θ ρ ω π ο ς ό θ ε ό ς , φ θ ό ν ο ν ε λ η λ α κ ώ ς ά φ ' ε α υ τ ο ύ , π ρ ο σ -
η κ ό ν τ ω ς ά ν τ ιχ α ρ ίζ ε τ α ι τ ό δ ώ ρ ο ν , κ α θ
9
Ο σ ο ν έ χ ε ι
δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς ό λ η φ ό μ ε ν ο ς , κ α ι μ ό ν ο ν ο ύ τ α ύ τ α θ ε σ π ίζ ε ι
α
In the strict Stoic sense of the word, for reasonable forms
of π ά θ ο ς . See note on De Mut. 1 and references there given.
98
ON ABRAHAM, 199-203
is not malignant or a lover of evil must be over-
whelmed with admiration for his extraordinary piety ;
and he need not take into consideration at once all
the points which I have mentioned, for any single
one of them would be enough. For to picture in
the mind one of these, however small the form which
the picture takes, though no action of the Sage is
small, is enough to show the greatness and loftiness
of his soul.
XXXVI. But the story here told is not confined to 200
the literal and obvious explanation, but seems to
have in it the elements of a further suggestion,
obscure to the many but recognized by those who
prefer the mental to the sensible and have the power
to see it. It is as follows. The proposed victim is 201
called in Chaldaean Isaac, but, if the word is trans-
lated into our language, Laughter. But the laughter
here understood is not the laughter which amuse-
ment arouses in the body, but the good emotion
a
of
the understanding, that is joy. This the Sage is 202
said to sacrifice as his duty to God, thus showing in
a figure that rejoicing is most closely associated with
God alone. For mankind is subject to grief and very
fearful of evils either present or expected, so that
men are either distressed by disagreeables close at
hand or are agitated by troublous fear of those which
are still to come. But the nature of God is without
grief or fear and wholly exempt from passion of any
kind, and alone partakes of perfect happiness and
bliss. The frame of mind which has made this true 203
acknowledgement God, Who has banished jealousy
from His presence in His kindness and love for man-
kind, fitly rewards by returning the gift in so far as
the recipient's capacity allows. And indeed we may
99
PHILO
204 λ έ γ ω ν " τ ο μ έ ν τ ή ς χ α ρ ά ς γ έ ν ο ς κ α ι τ ό χ α ίρ ε ιν ό τ ι
ο υ κ έ σ τ ιν έ τ ε ρ ο υ π λ ή ν έ μ ο ϋ τ ο υ π α τ ρ ό ς τ ώ ν Ο λ ω ν
κ τ ή μ α , σ α φ ώ ς ο ΐδ α , κ ε κ τ η μ έ ν ο ς δ ' ό μ ω ς ο ύ φ θ ο ν ώ
τ ο ις α ξ ιο ις χ ρ η σ υ α ί' ά ξ ιο ς ο ε τ ις α ν ε ιη , π λ η ν ε ι
τ ις έ μ ο ι κ α ι τ ο ις έ μ ο ΐς β ο υ λ ή μ α σ ιν έ π ο ιτ ο ; τ ο ύ τ ω
γ ά ρ ή κ ισ τ α μ έ ν ά ν ιά σ θ α ι ή κ ισ τ α δ έ φ ο β ε ΐσ θ α ι σ υ μ -
β ή σ ε τ α ι π ο ρ ε υ ο μ έ ν ω τ α ύ τ η ν τ η ν ό ο ό ν , ή π ά θ ε σ ι μ έ ν
κ α ι κ α κ ία ις έ σ τ ιν ά β α τ ο ς , ε ύ π α θ ε ία ις δ έ κ α ϊ ά ρ ε τ α ΐς
205 έ μ π ε ρ ιπ α τ ε ΐτ α ι." μ η δ ε ϊς δ ' ύ π ο λ α β έ τ ω
τ ή ν ά κ ρ α τ ο ν κ α ϊ α μ ιγ ή λ ύ π η ς χ α ρ ά ν ά π * ο υ ρ α ν ο ύ
[ 30] κ ο /τ α β α ίν ε ιν έ π ι τ ή ν γ ή ν , ά λ λ α | κ έ κ ρ α τ α ι
1
έ ζ ά μ φ ο ΐν ,
π ε ρ ιτ τ ε ύ ο ν τ ο ς τ ο υ κ ρ ε ίτ τ ο ν ο ς * ό ν π ε ρ τ ρ ό π ο ν κ α ϊ τ ό
φ ώ ς έ ν ο ύ ρ α ν ώ μ έ ν ά κ ρ α τ ο ν κ α ϊ α μ ιγ έ ς σ κ ό τ ο υ ς
έ σ τ ιν , έ ν δ έ τ ο ις υ π ό σ ε λ ή ν η ν α έ ρ ι ζ ο φ ε ρ ώ κ ε κ ρ α -
206 μ έ ν ο ν φ α ίν ε τ α ι, τ α ύ τ η ς έ ν ε κ α τ ή ς α ιτ ία ς δ ο κ ε ΐ μ ο ι
κ α ϊ π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν γ ε λ ά σ α σ α ή α ρ ε τ ή ς ε π ώ ν υ μ ο ς Σ ά ο ο α
π ρ ό ς τ ο ν π υ ν θ α ν ό μ ε ν ο ν ά ρ ν ή σ α σ θ α ι τ ο ν γ έ λ ω τ α ,
κ α τ α δ ε ίσ α σ α μ ή π ο τ ε ά ρ α τ ό χ α ίρ ε ιν ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς δ ν
γ ε ν η τ ο ΰ , μ ό ν ο υ δ έ τ ο υ θ ε ο ϋ , σ φ ε τ ε ρ ίζ η τ α ι* δ ιό π ε ρ
θ α ρ σ ύ ν ω ν α υ τ ή ν ο ιε ρ ό ς λ ό γ ο ς φ η σ ί* μ η δ έ ν ε υ λ α β ή -
207 θ ή
ζ
> ό ν τ ω ς έ γ έ λ α σ α ς κ α ϊ μ έ τ ε σ τ ί σ ο ι χ α ρ ά ς , ο ύ
γ ά ρ ε ΐα σ ε ν ο π α τ ή ρ τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν τ ό γ έ ν ο ς λ ύ π α ις
κ α ϊ ό δ ύ ν α ις κ α ϊ ά χ θ ε σ ιν ά ν ιά τ ο ις έ μ φ έ ρ ε σ θ α ι, π α ρ -
έ μ ιξ ε δ έ κ α ϊ τ ή ς ά μ ε ίν ο ν ο ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς , ε ύ δ ιά σ α ι κ α ϊ
Τ /α λ ^^ιά σ α ι π ο τ έ τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν δ ικ α ιώ σ α ς * τ ή ν δ έ τ ώ ν
1
MSS. ά λ λ * ^κ έ κ ρ α τ α ι or ά λ λ ά κ ρ έ μ α τ α ι et alia. Perhaps
ά λ λ ά κ ρ α μ ά τ ι.
β
Gen. xviii. 12 and 15. Sarah's laughter has been ex-
plained in the obvious way in § 112. Here we have a more
100
ON ABRAHAM, 204- 207
almost hear His voice saying : "'All joy and rejoicing 204
I know well is the possession of none other save Me
alone, the Father of All. Yet I do not grudge that
this My possession should be used by such as are
worthy, and who should be worthy save one who
should follow Me and My will, for he will prove to
be most exempt from distress and fear if he travels
by this road which passion and vice cannot tread,
but good feelings and virtue can walk therein.''
But let no one suppose that joy de- 205
scends from heaven to earth pure and free from any
mixture of grief. No, it is a mixture of both, though
the better element is the stronger, just as light too
in heaven is pure from any mixture of darkness but
in regions below the moon is clearly mixed with
dusky air. This was the reason, I think, why Sarah 206
who bears the name of virtue first laughs, and then,
in reply to her questioner, denies the laughter."
She feared lest she should be grasping for herself
the joy which belongs not to created being but to
God alone. Therefore, the holy word bids her be of
good cheer and says : "Be not afraid : thou didst
indeed laugh and dost participate in joy." For the 207
Father did not suffer the whole course of the human
race to move amid griefs and pains and burdens which
admit no remedy, but mixed with them something
of the better nature and judged it well that the soul
should at times dwell in sunshine and calm ; and as
spiritual interpretation. That the laughter signified joy, not
incredulity, has already been suggested in Leg. All. iii. 217 f.
and De Mut. 166. In neither of these places, however, has
the subsequent denial been dealt with. The interpretation
here suggested that the soul begins to doubt whether joy is
not more than humanity can expect appears again in Spec.
Leg. ii. 54.
101
PHILO
σ ο φ ώ ν κ α ι τ ο ν π λ ε ίω χ ρ ό ν ο ν τ ο ν β ίο υ γ ή θ ε ιν κ α ι
ε ύ φ ρ α ίν ε σ θ α ι τ ο ις τ ο υ κ ό σ μ ο υ θ ε ω ρ ή μ α σ ιν ε β ο υ λ ή θ η .
208 XXXVII. Ύ ο σ α ϋ τ α μ έ ν π ε ρ ι τ ή ς τ ο υ α ν δ ρ ό ς
ε υ σ έ β ε ια ς , ε ι κ α ϊ π ο λ λ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν ε σ τ ίν α φ θ ο ν ία ,
λ ε λ έ χ θ ω . δ ιε ρ ε υ ν η τ έ ο ν δ έ κ α ι τ ή ν π ρ ο ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ο υ ς
α ύ τ ο ΰ δ ε ξ ιό τ η τ α · τ ή ς γ ά ρ α υ τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς ε σ τ ίν
ε υ σ ε β ή τ ε ε ίν α ι κ α ι φ ιλ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν , κ α ι π ε ρ ι τ ο ν
α υ τ ό ν έ κ ά τ ε ρ ο ν , ό σ ιό τ η ς μ έ ν π ρ ο ς θ ε ό ν , δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η
δ έ π ρ ο ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ο υ ς , θ ε ω ρ ε ίτ α ι, π ά ,ν τ α μ έ ν ο ΰ ν τ ά
π ε π ρ α γ μ έ ν α μ α κ ρ ό ν α ν ε ϊη Sce^teVat, δ υ ε ΐν δ έ ή
209 τ ρ ιώ ν ο ύ κ ά τ ο π ο ν έ π ιμ ν η σ θ ή ν α ι. π ο λ υ ά ρ γ υ ρ ο ς κ α ι
π ο λ ύ χ ρ υ σ ο ς ε ν τ ο ις μ ά λ ισ τ α ώ ν κ α ι θ ρ ε μ μ ά τ ω ν
π ο λ υ ζ ω ο υ ς έ χ ω ν ά γ ε λ α ς κ α ι τ ώ ν ε γ χ ω ρ ίω ν κ α ι
α υ τ ο χ θ ό ν ω ν τ ο ις ικ α ν ά κ ε κ τ η μ έ ν ο ις ε ν τ ώ π ε ρ ι-
ο υ σ ιά ζ ε ιν ά μ ιλ λ ώ μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι π λ ο υ σ ιώ τ ε ρ ο ς γ ε γ ο ν ώ ς
ή κ α τ ά μ έ τ ο ικ ο ν ύ π * ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς ε μ ε μ φ θ η τ ώ ν ύ π ο -
δ ε ξ α μ ε ν ω ν , ά λ λ ' υ π ό π ά ν τ ω ν τ ώ ν ε ις π ε ιρ α ν έ λ θ ό ν τ ω ν
210 ε π α ιν ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς δ ιε τ έ λ ε σ ε ν . ε ι δ έ κ α ι τ ις , ο ία φ ιλ ε ΐ
π ο λ λ ά κ ις , ε κ θ ε ρ α π ό ν τ ω ν κ α ι τ ώ ν σ υ ν δ ια τ ρ ιβ ό ν τ ω ν
ά μ ιλ λ α κ α ϊ δ ια φ ο ρ ά π ρ ο ς ε τ έ ρ ο υ ς έ γ έ ν ε τ ο , τ α ύ τ η ν
έ π ε ιρ α τ ο δ ια λ ύ ε ιν ή σ υ χ η β α ρ υ τ έ ρ ω ή θ ε ι τ ά φ ιλ ό -
ν ε ικ α κ α ι τ α ρ α χ ώ δ η κ α ι σ τ α σ ια σ τ ικ ά π ά ν τ α π ρ ο β ε -
211 β λ η μ έ ν ο ς κ α ι τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς ά π ε λ η λ α κ ώ ς . κ α ι θ α υ -
μ α σ τ ό ν ο υ δ έ ν , ε ι π ρ ο ς τ ο υ ς α λ λ ό τ ρ ιο υ ς τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ς η ν ,
ο ι β α ρ ύ τ ε ρ α κ α ι δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ α χ ε ιρ ι σ υ μ φ ω ν ή σ α ν τ ε ς
ή μ ύ ν α ν τ ο α ν ά ρ χ ο ν τ α χ ε ιρ ώ ν α δ ίκ ω ν , ο π ό τ ε κ α ι
π ρ ο ς τ ο υ ς γ έ ν ε ι μ έ ν ο ικ ε ίο υ ς , γ ν ώ μ η δ ' ή λ λ ο τ ρ ιω -
α
Or " kindness and courtesy." wSee note on De Fuga 31.
6
For Abraham's wealth cf. Gen. xiii. 2 and xxiv. 35.
c
Or "seriousness." But the word seems strange.
102
ON ABRAHAM, 207-211
for the soul of the wise He willed that it should pass
the chief part of its life in glad-hearted contempla-
tion of what the world has to show.
XXXVII. These examples must suffice for our 208
treatment of Abraham's piety, though others might
be found in great plenty. But we must also examine
the good and wise behaviour
a
shown in his dealings
with men. For the nature which is pious is also
kindly, and the same person will exhibit both qual-
ities, holiness to God and justice to men. It would
be too long, indeed, to describe all his actions, but
it would not be out of place to mention two or three.
Though he was exceedingly rich
6
in silver and gold 209
and possessed many herds of numerous live-stock
and in abundance of wealth rivalled those of the
natives and original inhabitants who possessed good
means, and became more opulent than would be
expected of an immigrant, he incurred no censure
from those who received him into their midst but
continued to be praised by all who had experience
of him. But, if, as often happens, any of his ser- 210
vants or regular associates had a quarrel or differ-
ence with his neighbours, he would try to put an
end to it quietly, banishing and expelling from the
soul by means of his greater dignity
c
of character
all that tended to strife and confusion and faction.
And we need not wonder that he so bore himself to 211
strangers who could have united to repel him with
their superior weight of strength if he was the aggres-
sor in injustice, when we see what moderation he
showed to those who, connected with him by birth
but estranged from him in moral principles, stood
Mangey wished to read π ρ α ο τ έ ρ ω . Cohn notes that the
Armenian seems to have read π ρ α ο τ έ ρ ω τ ά β α ρ ύ τ ε ρ α .
103
PHILO
μ έ ν ο υ ς , έ ρ η μ ο υ ς κ α ϊ μ ό ν ο υ ς κ α ι π ο λ λ ώ κ α τ α δ ε έ *
σ τ ε ρ α κ ε κ τ η μ έ ν ο υ ς έ μ ε τ ρ ία ζ ε ν , έ λ α τ τ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς ε κ ώ ν
212 έ ν ο ΐς π λ ε ο ν ε κ τ ε ΐν έ δ ύ ν α τ ο . ή ν γ ά ρ ά δ ε λ φ ιδ ο ϋ ς
α ύ τ ώ , τ ή ς π α τ ρ ί8ο ς δ τ ε μ ε τ α ν ίσ τ α τ ο , σ υ ν ε ζ ε λ η λ υ -
θ ώ ς , α β έ β α ιο ς , ύ π α μ φ ίβ ο λ ο ς , ά ν τ φ ρ έ π ω ν ώ δ ε
[ 31] κ ά κ ε ΐσ ε , τ ο τ έ μ έ ν π ρ ο σ σ α ίν ω ν \ φ ιλ ικ ο ΐς ά σ π ά -
σ μ α σ ι, τ ο τ έ δ έ ά φ η ν ιά ζ ω ν κ α ϊ ά π α υ χ ε ν ίζ ω ν δ ι ά τ ή ν
213 τ ώ ν τ ρ ό π ω ν ά ν ω μ α λ ία ν . δ θ ε ν κ α ϊ τ ό ο ικ ε τ ικ ό ν
α ύ τ ώ δ ύ σ ε ρ ι κ α ι τ α ρ α χ ώ δ ε ς η ν σ ω φ ρ ο ν ισ τ ή ν ο υ κ
έ χ ο ν κ α ι μ ά λ ισ τ α τ ό π ο ιμ ε ν ικ ό ν μ α κ ρ ά ν τ ο υ δ ε σ π ό -
τ ο υ δ ιε ζ ε υ γ μ έ ν ο ν ά π ε λ ε υ θ ε ρ ιά ζ ο ν τ ε ς γ ο ϋ ν ύ π *
α ύ θ α δ ε ία ς ά ε ι δ ιε φ έ ρ ο ν τ ο τ ο ις π ρ ο ε σ τ η κ ό σ ι τ ώ ν
θ ρ ε μ μ ά τ ω ν τ ο υ σ ο φ ο ύ τ ά π ο λ λ ά ε ΐκ ο υ σ ι δ ιά τ ή ν τ ο ϋ
δ ε σ π ό τ ο υ π ρ α ϋ π ά θ ε ια ν ύ φ * ο ΰ π ρ ο ς ά π ό ν ο ια ν
έ π ιδ ό ν τ ε ς κ α ϊ θ ρ ά σ ο ς ά ν α ίσ χ υ ν τ ο ν ώ ρ γ ω ν , μ η ν ι-
ώ ν τ ε ς ή δ η κ α ι τ ό ά κ α τ ά λ λ α κ τ ο ν έ ν α ύ τ ο ΐς ζ ω π υ -
ρ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς , έ ω ς ά π η ν ά γ κ α σ α ν τ ο υ ς α δ ικ ο ύ μ ε ν ο υ ς ε ίς
214 ά μ υ ν α ν ό ρ μ ή σ α ι. μ ά χ η ς δ έ ε μ β ρ ιθ έ σ τ α τ η ς γ ε ν ο -
μ έ ν η ς , ά κ ο υ σ α ς 6 α σ τ ε ίο ς τ ή ν ά ν τ ε φ ό ρ μ η σ ιν , ε ίδ ώ ς
έ π ικ υ δ ε σ τ έ ρ α ν ο ύ σ α ν τ ή ν α υ τ ο ύ μ ε ρ ίδ α π λ ή θ ε ι τ ε
κ α ι δ υ ν ά μ ε ι, τ ή ν δ ια φ ο ρ ά ν ο ύ κ ε 'ία σ ε ν ά χ ρ ι ν ίκ η ς
έ λ θ ε ΐν , υ π έ ρ τ ο ϋ μ ή ά ι ^ά σ α ι τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ιδ ο ΰ ν έ φ '
ή τ τ η τ ώ ν ιδ ίω ν , ά λ λ ' έ ν μ ε θ ο ρ ίω σ τ ά ς σ υ μ β α τ ή -
ρ ίο ις λ ό γ ο ις τ ο υ ς δ ια φ ε ρ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς κ α τ ή λ λ α ξ ε ν , ο ύ
π ρ ο ς τ ό π α ρ ό ν μ ό ν ο ν ά λ λ α κ α ι τ ο ν μ έ λ λ ο ν τ α χ ρ ό ν ο ν .
215 ε ιδ ώ ς γ ά ρ δ τ ι σ υ ν ο ικ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς -μ έ ν κ α ι έ ν τ α ύ τ ώ
δ ια ιτ ώ μ ε ν ο ι γ ν ω σ ιμ α χ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς φ ιλ ο ν ε ικ ή σ ο υ σ ι σ τ ά -
σ ε ις α ε ί κ α ι π ο λ έ μ ο υ ς κ α τ
9
α λ λ ή λ ω ν έ γ ε ίρ ο ν τ ε ς , Ιν α
β
For §§ 212-216 see Gen. xiii. 5-11.
104
ON ABRAHAM, 211-215
alone and unsupported and with possessions far
inferior to his, and how he willingly accepted to be
at a disadvantage when he might have taken ad-
vantage of them.
a
For he had a nephew who had 212
accompanied him when he migrated from his native
land, an unreliable and hesitating person, ever in-
clining this way and that, sometimes fawning on
him with loving greetings, sometimes rebellious and
refractory through the inconsistency of his different
moods. Therefore his servants too were quarrel- 213
some and turbulent, as they had no one to control
them, and this was particularly the case with the
shepherds who were stationed at a distance from their
master ; thus breaking out of control in their wil-
fulness they were ever quarrelling with the Sage's
herdsmen who many times gave way to them be-
cause of their master's gentleness. Then, advancing
to a senseless audacity which knew no shame, they
grew rampant and fostered in their hearts the flame
of a passion beyond hope of conciliation until they
compelled their opponents to begin defending them-
selves against the injustice. When the fight had 214
become very serious, the man of worth, hearing how
the aggressors had been countered, and knowing
that his own party was more distinguished in strength
and number, did not allow the quarrel to be termin-
ated by a victory, as he did not wish to distress his
nephew through seeing his own party defeated. So
he took up his stand between them and reconciled
the disputants by proposals of agreement, good not
only for the present but for the future. For he 215
knew that if they lived together and shared the same
dwelling-place they would engage in obstinate con-
tention, for ever stirring up wars and factions against
105
PHILO
μ ή τ ο ύ τ ο γ έ ν ο ιτ ο , σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν ύ π έ λ α β ε ν ε ίν α ι π α ρ α ι-
τ ή σ α σ θ α ,ι τ ο ό μ ο δ ία ιτ ο ν κ α ι τ ή ν ο ΐκ η σ ιν ο ια ζ ε ΰ ζ α ΐ'
κ α ι μ ε τ α π ε μ φ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ιδ ο ύ ν α ίρ ε σ ιν α ύ τ ώ
δ ίδ ω σ ι τ ή ς ά μ ε ίν ο ν ο ς χ ώ ρ α ς , ά σ μ ε ν ο ς ο μ ο λ ό γ ω ν ή ν
α ν ε π ιλ έ ξ η τ α ι μ ε ρ ίδ α λ ή φ ε σ θ α ι- κ ε ρ δ α ν ε ΐν γ ά ρ
216 κ έ ρ δ ο ς μ έ γ ισ τ ο ν , τ ή ν ε ίρ ή ν η ν . κ α ίτ ο ι τ ις α ν έ τ ε ρ ο ς
ά σ θ ε ν ε σ τ έ ρ ω π α ρ α χ ω ρ ή σ ε ιε ν ο ύ τ ιν ο σ ο ΰ ν ισ χ υ ρ ό -
τ ε ρ ο ς ω ν ; τ ις δ ε ν ικ ά ν δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ς β ο ύ λ ο ιτ ά ν
ή τ τ α σ θ α ι, μ ή σ υ γ χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς τ ω δ ύ ν α σ θ α ι; μ ό ν ο ς
δ έ ο ύ τ ο ς τ ό ά ρ ισ τ ο ν , ο ύ κ ε ν ρ ώ μ η κ α ι π λ ε ο ν ε ξ ία
τ ιθ έ μ ε ν ο ς ά λ λ ' ε ν ά σ τ α σ ιά σ τ ω β ίω κ α ι τ ό γ ε έ π *
α υ τ ό ν ή κ ο ν μ έ ρ ο ς ή σ υ χ ά ζ ο ν τ ι π ά ν τ ω ν ε δ ο ξ ε ν ε ίν α ι
θ α ν μ α σ ιώ τ α τ ο ς .
217 XXXVIII. Ε π ε ιδ ή τ ο ίν υ ν ώ ς ε π * ά ν θ ρ ω π ο υ ή
λ έ ξ ις ε γ κ ω μ ια σ τ ικ ή λ έ λ ε κ τ α ι, μ η ν ύ ο ν τ α ι δ έ κ α ι
τ ρ ό π ο ι φ υ χ ή ς κ α τ ά τ ο ύ ς ά π ό τ ώ ν ρ η τ ώ ν ε π ι τ ά
ν ο η τ ά μ ε τ ί ,ό ν τ α ^, ά ρ μ ό τ τ ο ν ά ν ε ΐη κ α ι τ ο ύ τ ο υ ς
218 ά ν ε ρ ε υ ν ή σ α ι. μ ύ ρ ιο ι μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ε ίσ ιν ά π ό μ υ ρ ίω ν
α φ ο ρ μ ώ ν κ α τ ά π α ν τ ο δ α π ά ς ιδ έ α ς π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν σ υ ν -
ισ τ ά μ ε ν ο ι, δ ύ ο δ ' ο ι ν υ ν ι μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ε ς έ π ικ ρ ίν ε σ θ α ι
τ ρ ό π ο ι, ώ ν ό μ έ ν π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς , ο δ έ ν ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ς ,
π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς μ έ ν ό τ ά π ρ ώ τ α κ α ι η γ ε μ ο ν ικ ά τ ή
φ ύ σ ε ι τ ιμ ώ ν , ν ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ς δ έ ό τ ά ύ π ή κ ο α κ α ι ε ν
219 έ σ χ α τ ια Ζ ς ε ξ ε τ α ζ ό μ ε ν α , π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ α μ έ ν ο ΰ ν κ α ι
η γ ε μ ο ν ικ ά φ ρ ό ν η σ ις κ α ι σ ω φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η κ α ι δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η
[ 32] κ α ί α ν δ ρ ε ία κ α ι π α ν δ τ ι π ε ρ ι ά ρ ε τ ή ν \ κ α ι α ί κ α τ
9
ά ρ ε τ ή ν π ρ ά ξ ε ις * ν ε ώ τ ε ρ α δ έ π λ ο ύ τ ο ς κ α ι δ ό ξ α κ α ι
α ρ χ ή κ α ι ε υ γ έ ν ε ια , ο ύ χ ή α λ η θ ή ς , ά λ λ ' ή ν ο ι π ο λ λ ο ί
ν ο μ ίζ ο υ σ ι, κ α ι Ο σ α ά λ λ α τ ή ν τ ρ ίτ η ν μ ε τ ά τ ά φ υ χ ικ ά
106
ON ABRAHAM, 215-219
each other. To prevent this, he thought it ex-
pedient to refuse to continue their living together
and to arrange for their dwelling at a distance from
each other. So, sending for his nephew, he gave
him a choice of the better district, gladly agreeing
that he should take whatever part he chose ; for
he considered that he would thereby get peace, the
greatest of gains. And yet who else would give 216
way in any single point to the weaker if he were the
stronger ? Who, when he could conquer, would be
willing to''be defeated and not avail himself of his
power ? He alone took for his ideal not the exercise of
strength and self-aggrandizement but a life free from
strife and so far as lay with him of tranquillity, and
thereby he showed himself the most admirable of men.
XXXVIII. The actual words of the story are an 217
encomium on Abraham as a man ; but, according to
those who proceed from the literal to the spiritual,
characters of soul are indicated also, and therefore
it will be well to investigate them too. Such char- 218
acters are numberless, proceeding from numberless
starting-points and arising from every kind and
variety of circumstance ; but those now to be ex-
amined are two only, one higher and senior and one
lower and junior. The senior is that character which
honours things primal and dominant in their nature,
the junior that which honours things subject and
lowest in the list. Now the senior and dominant 219
are wisdom and temperance and justice and courage
and virtue regarded as a whole and actions inspired
by virtue, but the junior are wealth and reputation
and office and good birth, good not in the true sense
but in the sense which the multitude give to it, and
everything else which coming after the things of
VOL. VI ε 107
PHILO
κ α ι σ ω μ α τ ικ ά τ ά ξ ιν ε ϊλ η χ ε ν , ή τ ις ε υ θ ύ ς ε σ τ ί κ α ι
220 τ ε λ ε υ τ α ία , τ ο ύ τ ω ν ο ΰ ν τ ώ ν τ ρ ό π ω ν ε κ ά τ ε ρ ο ς έ χ ε ι
κ α θ ά π ε ρ τ ιν ά ς π ο ίμ ν α ς κ α ι ά γ έ λ α ς , ό μ έ ν τ ώ ν ε κ τ ό ς
ό ρ ε γ ό μ ε ν ο ς ά ρ γ υ ρ ο ν , χ ρ υ σ ό ν , ε σ θ ή τ α ς , π ά ν τ α ό σ α
τ ο υ π λ ο υ τ ε ΐν ύ λ α ι κ α ι π α ρ α σ κ ε υ α ί, κ α ι π ά λ ιν ό π λ α ,
μ η χ α ν ή μ α τ α , τ ρ ιή ρ ε ις , ίπ π ικ ή ν κ α ι π ε ζ ικ ή ν κ α ι
ν α υ τ ικ ή ν δ ύ ν α μ ιν , τ ά ς π ρ ο ς ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ν ά φ ο ρ μ ά ς ,
ε ξ ώ ν π ε ρ ιγ ίν ε τ α ι τ ό β ε β α ίω ς κ ρ α τ ε ΐν , ό δ έ κ α λ ο '
κ ά γ α θ ία ς ε ρ α σ τ ή ς τ ά κ α θ
9
ε κ ά σ τ η ν ά ρ ε τ ή ν δ ό γ μ α τ α
221 κ α ι τ ά σ ο φ ία ς α υ τ ή ς θ ε ω ρ ή μ α τ α . π ρ ο -
σ τ ά τ α ι δ έ κ α ι ε π ιμ ε λ η τ α ϊ τ ο ύ τ ω ν ε κ α τ ε ρ ω ν ε ίσ ί
τ ίν ε ς ο ΐα θ ρ ε μ μ ά τ ω ν π ο ιμ έ ν ε ς , τ ώ ν μ έ ν ε κ τ ό ς ο ι φ ιλ ο -
χ ρ ή μ α τ ο ι κ α ι φ ιλ ό δ ο ξ ο ι κ α ι σ τ ρ α τ η γ ιώ ν τ ε ς κ α ι ό σ ο ι
τ ή ν ε π ι τ ο ις π λ ή θ ε σ ι δ υ ν α σ τ ε ία ν ά γ α π ώ σ ι, τ ώ ν δ έ
π ε ρ ι φ υ χ ή ν Ο σ ο ι φ ιλ ό κ α λ ο ι κ α ι φ ιλ ά ρ ε τ ο ι, μ ή τ ά
ν ό θ α π ρ ο τ ώ ν γ ν η σ ίω ν ά λ λ α τ ά γ ν ή σ ια π ρ ο τ ώ ν
222 ν ό θ ω ν α γ α θ ά α ίρ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ι. γ ίν ε τ α ι ο ΰ ν φ υ σ ικ ή τ ις
α ύ τ ο ΐς ή δ ια μ ά χ η μ η δ έ ν ε γ ν ω κ ό σ ι τ ώ ν α υ τ ώ ν , ά λ λ '
ά π ά δ ο υ σ ι κ α ι δ ια φ ε ρ ο μ ε ν ο ις ά ε ι π ε ρ ι π ρ ά γ μ α τ ο ς
σ υ ν ε κ τ ικ ω τ ά τ ο υ τ ώ ν ε ν β ίω , τ ο ύ τ ο S' ε σ τ ίν ή κ ρ ίσ ις
223 τ ώ ν π ρ ο ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν α γ α θ ώ ν , ά χ ρ ι μ έ ν ο ΰ ν τ ίν ο ς
ε π ο λ ε μ ε ΐτ ο ή φ υ χ ή κ α ι τ ή ν σ τ ά σ ιν τ α ύ τ η ν ε χ ώ ρ ε ι
μ ή π ω κ ε κ α θ α ρ μ ε ν η π α ν τ ε λ ώ ς , ά λ λ ' έ τ ι τ ώ ν π α θ ώ ν
κ α ι ν ο σ η μ ά τ ω ν π α ρ ε υ η μ ε ρ ο ύ ν τ ω ν τ ο ύ ς υ γ ια ίν ο ν τ α ς
λ ό γ ο υ ς ' ά φ
9
ο ΰ δ έ ή ρ ξ α τ ο δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ α γ ίν ε σ θ α ι κ α ι
ρ ώ μ η κ ρ α τ α ιο τ έ ρ α τ ο ν έ π ιτ ε ιχ ισ μ ό ν τ ώ ν ε ν α ν τ ίω ν
δ ο ξ ώ ν κ α θ α ιρ ε ΐν , π τ ε ρ υ ξ α μ έ ν η κ α ι φ ρ ο ν ή μ α τ ο ς
ύ π ο π λ η σ θ ε ΐσ α τ ο ν τ ά ς ε κ τ ό ς ύ λ α ς τ ε θ α υ μ α κ ό τ α
τ ρ ό π ο ν ε ν α ύ τ η δ ια τ ε ιχ ίζ ε ι κ α ι δ ια ζ ε ύ γ ν υ σ ι κ α ι ώ ς
β
Or " was the subject of attack, and allowed the revolt to
108
ON ABRAHAM, 219-223
soul and body takes the third place which is neces-
sarily also the last. Each of the two characters pos- 220
sesses what we may call flocks and herds. The
devotee of things external has silver, gold, raiment,
all the materials of wealth and the means for pro-
curing them, and again arms, engines, triremes,
cavalry, infantry and naval forces, the foundations
of sovereignty which produce security of power.
The lover of moral excellence has the principles of
each separate virtue and the truths discovered by
wisdom itself. Now those who preside 221
and have charge over each of these two are, as it
were, herdsmen of cattle. The externals are cared for
by lovers of wealth or glory, the would-be generals and
all who hanker for power over multitudes, the things
of the soul by lovers of moral excellence and virtue,
who prefer the genuine goods to the spurious and not
the spurious to the genuine. So there is a natural 222
conflict between them since they have no common
principle but are for ever jangling and quarrelling
about the most important thing in life, and that is the
decision what are the true goods. For a time the soul 223
was in a state of war, and was the scene of this conflict,
0
for as yet it was not perfectly purified, but its passions
and distempers still prevailed over its healthy prin-
ciples. But from the time when it began to grow
more powerful and demolish by superior strength
the works with which the opposing doctrines threat-
ened it, it spreads its wings, and, its spirit grown to
fullness, sets a wall and barrier between it and that side
of its character which has given its admiration to the
gear of external things. And it talks with it as with
proceed," i.e. the soul is here identified, as it certainly is
below, with its own better side.
109
PHILO
224 ά ν θ ρ ώ π ω δ ια λ ε γ ο μ έ ν η φ η σ ίν ά μ ή χ α ν ο ν δ μ ο δ ία ιτ ο ν
ε ΐν α ί σ ε κ α ι ό μ ό σ π ο ν δ ο ν ε ρ α σ τ ή σ ο φ ία ς κ α ι α ρ ε τ ή ς ,
ΐθ ι δ ή κ α ι μ ε τ ο ικ ισ ά μ ε ν ο ς μ α κ ρ ά ν ά π ο ζ ε ύ χ θ η τ ι,
μ η δ ε μ ία ν έ χ ω ν κ ο ιν ω ν ία ν , ά λ λ α μ η δ β σ χ ε ΐν δ υ ν ά -
μ ε ν ο ς · ο σ α γ ά ρ ύ π ο λ α μ β ά ν ε ις ε ΐν α ι δ ε ξ ιά , τ α ϋ τ
ο ίε τ α ι ε κ ε ίν ο ς ε υ ώ ν υ μ α , κ α ι ο σ α τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν σ κ α ιά ,
τ α ύ τ α π α ρ έ κ ε ίν ω ν ε ν ό μ ισ τ α ι δ ε ξ ιά .
225 XXXIX. Ο ύ τ ο ίν υ ν ε ιρ η ν ικ ό ς κ α ϊ φ ιλ ο δ ίκ α ιο ς
α υ τ ό μ ό ν ο ν η ν ο α σ τ ε ίο ς , ά λ λ α κ α ι α ν δ ρ ε ίο ς κ α ι
π ο λ ε μ ικ ό ς · ο ύ χ έ ν ε κ α τ ο ϋ π ο λ ε μ ε ΐν —ο ύ γ ά ρ δ ύ σ ε ρ ις
ή ν
1
κ α ι φ ιλ ό ν ε ικ ο ς ,—ά λ λ ' υ π έ ρ β έ β α ιο υ τ ή ς π ρ ο ς τ ό
226 ^ ^
ο ν €
ψ ή
ν Ύ
1$> V
v ο ι
α ν τ ίπ α λ ο ι κ α θ ή ρ ο υ ν . \ σ α φ έ -
σ τ α τ η δ έ π ίσ τ ις τ ά π ρ α χ θ έ ν τ α . τ ή ν π ρ ο ς α ν α τ ο λ ά ς
μ ο ΐρ α ν τ ή ς ο ικ ο υ μ έ ν η ς rerrapes μ ε γ ά λ ο ι β α σ ιλ ε ίς
ε ίλ ή χ ε σ α ν , ο ΐς ύ π ή κ ο υ ε ν έ θ ν η τ ά έ ώ α , τ ά τ ε έ κ τ ο ς
κ α ι ε ν τ ό ς Έ ύ φ ρ ά τ ο υ . τ ά μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ά λ λ α δ ιέ μ ε ν ε ν
ά σ τ α σ ία σ τ α π ε ιθ α ρ χ ο ϋ ν τ α τ ο ις τ ώ ν β α σ ιλ έ ω ν έ π ι-
τ ά γ μ α σ ι κ α ϊ τ ο υ ς ε τ η σ ίο υ ς δ α σ μ ο ύ ς ά π ο φ α σ ίσ τ ω ς
ε ίσ φ έ ρ ο ν τ α · μ ό ν η δ έ ή Σ ιο δ ο μ ιτ ώ ν χ ώ ρ α , π ρ ιν κ α τ α -
φ λ ε χ θ ή ν α ι, π α ρ α λ ύ ε ιν ή ρ ξ α τ ο τ ή ν ε ίρ ή ν η ν ά π ό -
227 σ τ α σ ιν έ κ π ο λ λ ο ύ δ ια ν ο ο ύ μ ε ν η , π ά ν υ γ ά ρ ο ύ σ η ς
ε ύ δ α ίμ ο ν ο ς π έ ν τ ε β α σ ιλ ε ίς έ π ε κ ρ ά τ ο υ ν τ ά ς τ ε π ό λ ε ις
κ α ι τ ή ν γ ή ν δ α σ ά μ ε ν ο ι π ο λ λ ή ν μ έ ν ο ύ κ ο ΰ σ α ν ,
ε ύ σ τ α χ υ ν δ έ κ α ϊ ε ύ δ ε ν δ ρ ο ν κ α ι κ α ρ π ώ ν π ε ρ ιπ λ έ ω ν
δ γ ά ρ τ α ΐς ά λ λ α ις τ ό μ έ γ ε θ ο ς , τ ο ϋ θ ' ή α ρ ε τ ή Σ ο δ ό -
μ ο ις π α ρ έ σ χ ε ν , δ θ ε ν κ α ι π λ ε ίο υ ς έ ρ α σ τ ά ς έ σ χ ε ν
228 η γ ε μ ό ν α ς τ ό κ ά λ λ ο ς α υ τ ή ς /caraway eVras
1
. ο ΰ τ ο ι
τ ο ν ά λ λ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν τ ο υ ς έ π ιτ α χ θ έ ν τ α ς φ ό ρ ο υ ς ά π ε -
1
MSS. ώ ν or omit.
β
This evidently gives an allegorical interpretation to Gen.
110
ON ABRAHAM, 224- 228
a man and says : "It is impossible that thou and 224
the lover of wisdom and virtue should have a common
home and common ties. Away, change thy dwelling
and betake thyself afar off, for thou hast not, or
rather canst not have, fellowship with him. For all
that thou holdest to be on the right he thinks to be
on the left, and conversely what to thee is on the
wrong side in his judgement stands on the right."
a
XXIX. So, then, the man of worth was not merely 225
peaceable and a lover of justice but courageous and
warlike, not for the sake of warring, for he was not
quarrelsome or cantankerous, but to secure peace
for the future, the peace which the opponents were
destroying. The clearest proof of this is his actions.
b
226
That part of the inhabited world which lies towards
the east was in the hands of four great kings who held
in subjection the nations of the Orient on both sides
of the Euphrates. Now the other nations continued
to be free from sedition, obeying the orders of the
king, and paying their taxes without demur. Only
the country of the Sodomites, before it was consumed
by fire, began to undermine this peaceful condition
by a long-standing plan of revolt. For, as it was 227
exceedingly prosperous, it was ruled by five kings
who taxed the cities and the land, which though not
large was rich in corn and well wooded and teeming
with fruits, for the position which size gave to other
countries, was given to Sodom by its goodliness, and
hence it had a plurality of rulers who loved it and were
fascinated by its charm. These hitherto rendered 228
the appointed tributes to the collectors of revenue
xiii. 9 "if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to
the right; or if thou wilt take the right hand, then I will go
to the left."
6
For §§ 225-235 see Gen. xiv.
Ill
PHILO
δ ίδ ο σ α ν rots' ε κ λ ο γ ε ύ σ ι τ ώ ν χ ρ η μ ά τ ω ν , τ ο ύ ς δ υ ν α τ ω -
τ έ ρ ο υ ς ώ ν ή σ α ν ύ π α ρ χ ο ι τ ιμ ώ ν τ ε ς ά μ α κ α ι δ ε δ ιό τ ε ς '
έ π ε ί δ έ έ κ ο ρ έ σ θ η σ α ν α γ α θ ώ ν κ α ί, ό π ε ρ φ ιλ ε ΐ, κ ό ρ ο ς
ν β ρ ιν έ γ έ ν ν η σ ε , π λ έ ο ν τ ή ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς φ ρ ο ν ή σ α ν τ ε ς
ά π α υ χ ε ν ίζ ο υ σ ι τ ό π ρ ώ τ ο ν , ε ΐθ * ο ία κ α κ ο ί δ ο ύ λ ο ι
δ ε σ π ό τ α ις τ ο ΐς ε α υ τ ώ ν ε π ιτ ίθ ε ν τ α ι σ τ ά σ ε ι π ισ τ ε ύ -
229 σ α ν τ ε ς ή ρ ώ μ η . ο ι δ έ τ ή ς ε α υ τ ώ ν ε υ γ ε ν ε ία ς ύ π ο -
μ ν η σ θ ε ν τ ε ς κ α ι φ ρ α ζ ά μ ε ν ο ι δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ α χ ε ιρ ι μ ά λ α
κ α τ α φ ρ ο ν η τ ικ ώ ς ή ε σ α ν ώ ς α ύ τ ο β ο ε ί π ε ρ ιε σ ό μ ε ν ο ι
κ α ι σ υ μ π λ α κ έ ν τ ε ς τ ο ύ ς μ έ ν ε υ θ ύ ς ε ίς φ υ γ ή ν ά ν ε -
σ κ ε δ α σ α ν , τ ο ύ ς δ έ ε π ισ τ ρ ο φ ά δ η ν κ τ ε ίν ο ν τ ε ς ή β η δ ό ν
δ ια φ θ ε ίρ ο υ σ ιν , α ιχ μ α λ ώ τ ω ν δ έ π ο λ ύ ν ο χ λ ο ν ά γ α -
γ ό ν τ ε ς μ ε τ ά τ ή ς ά λ λ η ς λ ε ία ς δ ιε ν ε μ ο ν τ ο ' π ρ ο σ α π -
ά γ ο υ σ ι μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι τ ο υ σ ο φ ο ύ τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ιδ ο ύ ν ε ις μ ία ν
τ ή ς π ε ν τ α π ό λ ε ω ς ο ύ κ ε κ π ο λ λ ο ύ μ ε τ ω κ η κ ό τ α .
230 XL. τ ο ύ τ ο μ η ν υ θ έ ν ύ π ό τ ίν ο ς τ ώ ν ε κ
τ ή ς τ ρ ο π ή ς δ ια σ ω θ έ ν τ ω ν χ α λ ε π ώ ς α υ τ ό ν ή ν ία σ ε
κ α ι ο ύ κ ε τ ή ρ ε μ ε ι δ ιά τ ο ύ τ ο σ υ γ κ ε χ υ μ έ ν ο ς κ α ι
ζ ώ ν τ α π ε ν θ ώ ν τ ό ά ρ γ α λ ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ν ή ε ί τ ε θ ν ε ώ τ α
έ π ύ θ ε τ ο ' τ έ λ ο ς μ έ ν γ ά ρ , ώ ς α υ τ ό π ο υ δ η λ ο ΐ τ ο υ -
ν ο μ α , τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ο ν β ίο ν α π ά ν τ ω ν κ α ι μ ά λ ισ τ α
κ α κ ώ ν ή δ ε ι τ ή ν τ ε λ ε υ τ ή ν , μ υ ρ ία δ έ τ ώ ν ά β ο υ λ ή τ ω ν
231 ε φ ε δ ρ ε ύ ο ν τ α τ ο ΐς ζ ώ σ ι. δ ιώ κ ε ιν δ ' ε ύ τ ρ ε π ιζ ό μ έ ν ο ς
ε π ι τ ώ ρ ύ σ α σ θ α ι τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ιδ ο ύ ν ή π ό ρ ε ι σ υ μ μ ά χ ω ν ,
ά τ ε ζ έ ν ο ς ώ ν κ α ί μ έ τ ο ικ ο ς κ α ί μ η δ ε ν ό ς τ ο λ μ ώ ν τ ο ς
ά μ α χ ο ις δ υ ν ά μ ε σ ι τ ο σ ο ύ τ ω ν β α σ ιλ έ ω ν κ α ί ά ρ τ ι
232 ν ε ν ικ η κ ό τ ω ν ε ν α ν τ ιο ύ σ θ α ι. κ α ιν ο τ ά τ η ν δ ' έ ξ ε ΰ ρ ε
σ υ μ μ α χ ία ν —π ό ρ ο ς γ ά ρ ε ν ά π ό ρ ο ις , ό τ α ν δ ικ α ίω ν
κ α ί φ ιλ ά ν θ ρ ω π ω ν έ ρ γ ω ν ε φ ιή τ α ί τ ις , ε υ ρ ίσ κ ε τ α ι—·
β
Or "to the strength " (which they wrongly supposed
themselves to have). But this is awkward. 1 should like
to read <μ ά λ λ ο ν >
112
ON ABRAHAM, 228- 232
out of both respect for and fear of the higher poten-
tates whose satraps they were. But, when they had
been surfeited with good things, and as so often
happens satiety had begotten insolence, they grew
ambitious beyond their powers and first shook off
the yoke and then, like bad slaves, attacked their
masters, trusting to sedition or violence.* But these 229
masters, mindful of their higher birth and armed
with more powerful force, advanced in great dis-
dain to the attack, expecting to conquer them with
the utmost ease. And, when they engaged, some
they sent flying helter-skelter at once, others they
mowed down in wholesale massacre, while a great
number were taken prisoners and distributed with
the rest of the booty. Among these they took the
nephew of the Sage, who had migrated not long before
into one of the five cities. XL. When 230
this was reported to Abraham by one of those who
escaped from the rout, it distressed him exceedingly.
He could no longer rest, so severe was the shock,
and mourned for the living with greater sorrow than
if he had heard of his death. For he knew that
death or decease, as the name itself shows, is the
end of everything in life, and particularly of its ills,
while the troubles which lie in wait for the living are
numberless. But, when he made ready to pursue 231
the enemy to rescue his nephew, he was at a loss
for allies, since he was a stranger and an immigrant,
and no one dared to oppose the invincible forces of
the kings, considering their number and their recent
victory. But he obtained allies in quite a new232
quarter, for resource is found where resource is none,
when one is set on deeds of justice and kindness. He
113
PHILO
σ υ ν α γ α γ ώ ν γ ά ρ τ ο υ ς ο ίκ έ τ α ς κ α ϊ τ ο ις ά ρ γ υ ρ ω ν ή τ ο ις
π ρ ο σ τ ά ξ α ς ο ίκ ο ι κ α τ α μ έ ν ε ιν —ε δ ε ισ ε γ ά ρ ε ξ α υ τ ώ ν
α ύ τ ο μ ο λ ία ν —τ ο υ ς ο ίκ ό τ ρ ιβ α ς κ α τ α λ έ γ ε ι κ α ι δ ια -
ν ε ίμ α ς ε ις έ κ α τ ο ν τ α ρ χ ία ς τ ρ ισ ίν έ π ή ε ι τ ά ξ ισ ιν ,
ο ύ τ α ύ τ α ις π ε π ο ιθ ώ ς —π ο λ λ ο σ τ ή γ ά ρ ή ν μ ο ίρ α τ ώ ν
[ 34]
π α
Ρ ^
τ ο
^
ς
β α σ ιλ ε ϋ σ ιν —, ά λ λ α τ ώ ύ π ε ρ μ ά χ ω κ α ι
π ρ ο α γ ω ν ισ τ ή τ ο ϋ \ δ ικ α ίο υ θ ε ώ . σ υ ν τ ε ίν ω ν ο ΰ ν
έ σ π ε υ δ ε μ η δ έ ν τ ά χ ο υ ς ά ν ιε ίς , έ ω ς κ α ιρ ο φ υ λ α κ ή σ α ς
ν υ κ τ ό ς ε π ιπ ίπ τ ε ι τ ο ις π ο λ ε μ ίο ις δ ε δ ε ιπ ν ο π ο ιη μ έ ν ο ις
ή δ η κ α ι π ρ ο ς ύ π ν ο ν μ έ λ λ ο υ σ ι τ ρ έ π ε σ θ α ί' κ α ι τ ο υ ς
μ έ ν έ ν ε ύ ν α ΐς ίέ ρ ε υ ε , τ ο υ ς δ ' ά ν τ ιτ α χ θ έ ν τ α ς ά ρ δ η ν
ά ν ή ρ ε ι, π ά ν τ ω ν δ ' έ ρ ρ ω μ έ ν ω ς έ π ε κ ρ ά τ ε ι τ ώ θ α ρ -
234 ρ α λ έ ω τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς μ ά λ λ ο ν ή τ α ΐς π α ρ α σ κ ε υ α ΐς . κ α ι
ο ύ π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ά ν ή κ ε ν , έ ω ς τ ή ν μ έ ν ά ν τ ίπ α λ ο ν σ τ ρ α -
τ ιά ν β α σ ιλ ε ϋ σ ιν α ύ τ ο ΐς ή β η δ ό ν ά ν ε λ ώ ν π ρ ο τ ο ϋ
σ τ ρ α τ ο π έ δ ο υ κ α τ ε σ τ ό ρ ε σ ε , τ ο ν δ έ ά δ ε λ φ ιδ ο ϋ ν α ν -
ή γ α γ ε μ ε τ ά λ α μ π ρ α ς κ α ι ε π ιφ α ν έ σ τ α τ η ς ν ίκ η ς
ά π α σ α ν τ ή ν ΐπ π ο ν κ α ι τ ή ν τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν π λ η θ ύ ν ύ π ο -
235 ζ υ γ ιώ ν κ α ι λ ε ία ν ά φ θ ο ν ω τ ά τ η ν π ρ ο σ π α ρ α λ α β ώ ν . δ ν
θ ε α σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ο μ έ γ α ς ιε ρ ε ύ ς τ ο ϋ μ ε γ ίσ τ ο υ θ ε ο ΰ
έ π α ν ιό ν τ α κ α ι τ ρ ο π α ιο φ ο ρ ο ϋ ν τ α σ ώ ο ν μ ε τ ά σ ώ ο υ
τ ή ς ιδ ία ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς —ο ύ δ έ ν α γ ά ρ τ ώ ν σ υ ν ό ν τ ω ν
ά π έ β α λ ε —, κ α τ α π λ α γ ε ϊς τ ό μ έ γ ε θ ο ς τ ή ς π ρ ά ξ ε ω ς
κ α ι δ π ε ρ ε ικ ό ς ε ν ν ο η θ ε ίς , ώ ς ο ύ κ ά ν ε υ θ ε ία ς έ π ι-
φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ς κ α ι σ υ μ μ α χ ία ς κ α τ ω ρ θ ώ θ η , τ ά ς χ ε ίρ α ς
ά ν α τ ε ίν α ς ε ις τ ο ν ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν ε ύ χ α ΐς α υ τ ό ν γ ε ρ α ίρ ε ι κ α ι
έ π ιν ίκ ια ε θ υ ε κ α ι π ά ν τ α ς τ ο υ ς σ υ ν α ρ α μ έ ν ο υ ς τ ώ
ά γ ώ ν ι λ α μ π ρ ώ ς ε ίσ τ ία , γ ε γ η θ ώ ς κ α ι σ υ ν η δ ό μ ε ν ο ς
ώ ς €7τ ' ο ίκ ε ίω κ α τ ο ρ θ ώ μ α τ α κ α ι ή ν τ ώ ο ν τ ι ο ίκ ε ΐο ν
α
So LXX (η ρ ίθ μ η σ ε ). E. V. " led forth."
114
ON ABRAHAM, 232- 235
collected his servants and, after bidding those who
had been acquired by purchase to remain at home,
since he feared that they might desert, he made a
roll-call
a
of those who were home-bred, distributed
them into centuries and advanced with three bat-
talions. Yet he did not trust in these, for they were
but a small fraction of the kings' forces, but in God,
the champion and defender of the just. So he 233
pressed forward eagerly and never abated his speed
until, watching for his chance, he attacked the enemy
by night when they had supped and were preparing
to go to sleep. Some fell helpless victims to him in
their beds, others who took arms against him were
completely annihilated, and all were mightily over-
come more by his courage of soul than by the re-
sources at his command. Nor did he stay his hand 234
until he had completely slaughtered the opposing
army with their kings as well and left them lying
in front of the camp. His nephew he brought back
in the triumph of his brilliant and magnificent vic-
tory, taking too with him all the horses of the cavalry
and the whole multitude of the other beasts and
spoil in vast plenty. When the high priest of the 235
most high God saw him approaching with his trophies,
leader and army alike unhurt, for he had lost none
of his own company, he was astonished by the feat,
and, thinking, as indeed was natural, that such success
was not won without God's directing care and help
to their arms, he stretched his hands to heaven and
honoured him with prayers on his behalf and offered
sacrifices of thanksgiving for the victory and feasted
handsomely those who had taken part in the contest,
rejoicing and sharing their gladness as though the
success were his own ; and so indeed it was, for " the
115
PHILO
α ύ τ ω *
u
κ ο ιν ά " γ ά ρ κ α τ ά τ ή ν π α ρ ο ιμ ία ν " τ ά
φ ίλ ω ν ," π ο λ ύ δ έ π λ έ ο ν τ ά τ ώ ν α γ α θ ώ ν , ο ϊς έ ν τ έ λ ο ς
ε ύ α ρ ε σ τ ε ΐν θ ε ώ .
236 XLI. Τ α ύ τ α μ έ ν ο υ ν α ι ρ η τ α ϊ γ ρ α φ α ϊ π ε ρ ι-
έ χ ο υ σ ιν . α σ ώ μ α τ α δ έ ό σ ο ι κ α ι γ υ μ ν ά θ ε ω ρ ε ΐν τ ά
π ρ ά γ μ α τ α δ ύ ν α ν τ α ι, ο ι φ υ χ ή μ ά λ λ ο ν ή σ ώ μ α τ ι
ζ ώ ν τ ε ς , φ ή σ ο υ σ ι τ ώ ν ε ν ν έ α β α σ ιλ έ ω ν τ ο ύ ς μ έ ν
τ έ τ τ α ρ α ς ε ίν α ι τ ά ς έ ν ή μ ιν τ ώ ν τ ε τ τ ά ρ ω ν π α θ ώ ν
δ υ ν ά μ ε ις , η δ ο ν ή ς , ε π ιθ υ μ ία ς , φ ό β ο υ , λ ύ π η ς , τ ο ύ ς
δ έ π έ ν τ ε τ ά ς Ισ α ρ ίθ μ ο υ ς α ισ θ ή σ ε ις , ο ρ α σ ιν , ά κ ο ή ν ,
237 γ ε ΰ σ ιν , ό σ φ ρ η σ ιν , ά φ ή ν . τ ρ ό π ο ν γ ά ρ τ ιν α β α σ ι-
λ ε ύ ο υ σ ι κ α ι ά ρ χ ο υ σ ιν η μ ώ ν ά ν η μ μ έ ν α ι τ ό κ ρ ά τ ο ς ,
ά λ λ ' ο ύ χ ο μ ο ίω ς * υ π ή κ ο ο ι γ ά ρ α ι π έ ν τ ε τ ώ ν τ ε τ -
τ ά ρ ω ν ε ισ ί κ α ϊ φ ό ρ ο υ ς α ύ τ α ΐς κ α ϊ δ α σ μ ο ύ ς ά ν α γ -
238 κ α ίο υ ς φ έ ρ ο υ σ ιν υ π ό φ ύ σ ε ω ς ό ρ ισ θ έ ν τ α ς . έ ζ ώ ν
γ ά ρ α ν ΐδ ω μ ε ν ή ά κ ο ύ σ ω μ ε ν ή ό σ φ ρ α ν θ ώ μ ε ν ή
γ ε υ σ ώ μ ε θ α ή ά φ ώ μ ε θ α , λ ϋ π α ι κ α ϊ ή δ ο ν α ϊ κ α ϊ φ ό β ο ι
Κ α ϊ έ π ιθ υ μ ία ι σ υ ν ίσ τ α ν τ α ι, μ η δ ε ν ό ς τ ώ ν π α θ ώ ν
κ α θ
9
α υ τ ό σ θ ε ν ό ν τ ο ς , ε ι μ ή έ χ ο ρ η γ ε ΐτ ο τ α ΐς δ ιά τ ώ ν
239 α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν π α ρ α σ κ ε υ α ΐς . α ύ τ α ι γ ά ρ ε κ ε ίν ω ν δ υ ν ά -
μ ε ις ε ίσ ίν , ή δ ιά χ ρ ω μ ά τ ω ν κ α ϊ σ χ η μ ά τ ω ν ή δ ιά
φ ω ν ή ς τ ή ς έ ν τ ώ λ έ γ ε ιν ή ά κ ο ύ ε ιν ή δ ιά χ υ λ ώ ν ή
δ ι α τ μ ώ ν ή τ ώ ν έ ν ά π τ ο ίς , ά μ α λ α κ ά κ α ϊ σ κ λ η ρ ά
[ 35] ή τ ρ α χ έ α \ κ α ϊ λ ε ία ή θ ε ρ μ ά κ α ϊ φ υ χ ρ ά * τ α ύ τ α γ ά ρ
π ά ν τ α δ ιά τ ώ ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν έ κ ά σ τ ω τ ώ ν π α θ ώ ν
240 χ ο ρ η γ ε ίτ α ι, κ α ϊ μ έ χ ρ ι μ έ ν ο ι λ ε χ θ έ ν τ ε ς α π ο δ ίδ ο ν -
τ α ι φ ό ρ ο ι, μ έ ν ε ι τ ο ις β α σ ιλ ε ΰ σ ιν ή ό μ α ιχ μ ία , ό τ α ν
δ έ μ η κ έ θ * ο μ ο ίω ς σ υ ν τ ε λ ώ ν τ α ι, σ τ ά σ ε ις ε υ θ ύ ς κ α ϊ
π ό λ ε μ ο ι σ υ ν ίσ τ α ν τ α ι* τ ο ύ τ ο δ έ σ υ μ β α ίν ε ιν έ ο ικ ε ν ,
ό τ α ν ά φ ικ ν ή τ α ι τ ό έ π ώ δ υ ν ο ν γ ή ρ α ς , έ ν ω τ ώ ν μ έ ν
π α θ ώ ν ά σ θ ε ν έ σ τ ε ρ ο ν ο υ δ έ ν γ ίν ε τ α ι, τ ά χ α δ έ κ α ϊ τ ή ς
π α λ α ιά ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς κ ρ α τ α ιό τ ε ρ ο ν , ά μ υ δ ρ α ϊ δ έ ό φ ε ις
116
ON ABRAHAM, 235- 240
belongings of friends are held in common," as the
proverb says, and this is far more true of the belong-
ings of the good whose one end is to be well-pleasing
to God.
XLI. This is what we find in the scriptures read 236
literally; but those who can contemplate facts
stripped of the body and in naked reality, those who
live with the soul rather than with the body, will say
that of these nine kings, four are the power exer-
cised within us by the four passions, pleasure, desire,
fear and grief, and that the five are the five senses,
sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. For these 237
nine are in a sense invested with sovereignty and are
our kings and rulers but not all in the same way.
For the five are subject to the four, and are forced
to pay them the tolls and tributes determined by
nature. Griefs and pleasures and fears and desires 238
arise out of what we see or hear or smell or taste
or touch, and none of the passions would have
any strength of itself if it were not furnished with
what the senses supply ; for these supplies constitute 239
the forces of the passions, taking the form of colours
and shapes, or sounds spoken or heard, or flavours,
or scents, or the qualities attached to things tangible,
soft and hard or rough and smooth or warm and cold,
all of which are supplied through the senses to each
of the passions. And while the said tributes are 240
rendered the alliance between the kings holds good,
but when they are no longer paid discord and wars
at once arise, and this obviously happens when old
age with its pains arrives. For then, while none of the
passions is weaker, and perhaps is even stronger than
of old, yet the eyes are dim and the ears dull of
117
PHILO
κ α ί ώ τ α δ ν σ ή κ ο α κ α ί ε κ ά σ τ η τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν
ά μ β λ υ τ έ ρ α , μ η κ έ θ * ο μ ο ίω ς έ κ α σ τ α ά κ ρ ιβ ο ΰ ν κ α ί
δ ικ ά ζ ε ιν δ υ ν α μ έ ν η μ η ο * Ισ α τ ω π λ ή θ ε ι
1
ν π ο τ ε λ ε ίν
ε ίκ ό τ ω ς ο ΰ ν ε ^α σ ^β ι ^σ α σ α ι π ά ν τ α τ ρ ό π ο ν κ α ί κ λ ι-
θ ε ίσ α ι δ ι α υ τ ώ ν υ π ό τ ώ ν α ν τ ιπ ά λ ω ν π α θ ώ ν ρ α δ ίω ς
241 α ν α τ ρ έ π ο ν τ α ι. φ υ σ ικ ώ τ α τ α δ έ ε κ ε ίν ο
ε ϊρ η τ α ι, ό τ ι τ ώ ν π έ ν τ ε β α σ ιλ έ ω ν δ ύ ο μ έ ν ε ίς φ ρ έ α τ α
ε μ π ίπ τ ο υ σ ι, τ ρ ε ις δ έ π ρ ο ς φ υ γ ή ν ώ ρ μ η σ α ν α φ ή μ έ ν
γ ά ρ κ α ί γ ε ύ σ ις ά χ ρ ι τ ώ ν τ ο υ σ ώ μ α τ ο ς β α θ ύ τ α τ ω ν
ά φ ικ ν ο ύ ν τ α ι σ π λ ά γ χ ν ο ις π α ρ α π έ μ π ο υ σ α ι τ ά ο ικ ε ία
π ρ ο ς δ ιο ίκ η σ ιν , ο φ θ α λ μ ο ί δ έ κ α ί ώ τ α κ α ί ο σ φ ρ η σ ις
ε ζ ω τ ά π ο λ λ ά β α ίν ο υ σ α ι ά π ο δ ιδ ρ ά σ κ ο υ σ ι τ ή ν δ ο υ -
242 λ ε ία ν τ ο υ σ ώ μ α τ ο ς . ο ΐς ά π α σ ιν έ φ -
ε δ ρ ε ν ω ν ό α σ τ ε ίο ς , ε π ε ιδ ή κ α τ ε ίδ ε τ ά σ ύ μ μ α χ α κ α ί
φ ίλ α π ρ ο μ ικ ρ ο ύ ν ο σ ο ΰ ν τ α κ α ί π ό λ ε μ ο ν ά ν τ ε ιρ ή ν η ς
τ α ίς ε ν ν έ α ^α σ ι λ β ι α ι ς · γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ν , π ρ ο ς τ ά ς π έ ν τ ε
τ ώ ν τ ε τ τ ά ρ ω ν π ε ρ ί κ ρ ά τ ο υ ς α ρ χ ή ς ά μ ιλ λ ω μ έ ν ω ν ,
έ ξ α π ιν α ίω ς κ α ιρ ο φ ν λ α κ ή σ α ς ε π ιτ ίθ ε τ α ι, φ ιλ ο τ ιμ ο ύ -
μ ε ν ο ς δ η μ ο κ ρ α τ ία ν , τ ή ν ά ρ ίσ τ η ν τ ώ ν π ο λ ιτ ε ιώ ν ,
α ν τ ί τ υ ρ α ν ν ίδ ω ν κ α ί δ υ ν α σ τ ε ιώ ν ε ν τ ή φ υ χ ή κ α τ α -
σ τ ή σ α σ θ α ι κ α ί τ ό ε ν ν ο μ ο ν κ α ί τ ό δ ίκ α ιο ν α ν τ ί
π α ρ α ν ο μ ία ς κ α ί α δ ικ ία ς , α ΐ τ έ ω ς έ π ε κ ρ ά τ ο υ ν .
243 έ σ τ ι δ ' ο ύ π λ ά σ μ α μ ύ θ ο υ τ ό λ ε χ θ έ ν ,
α λ λ ά π ρ ά γ μ α τ ώ ν ά φ ε υ δ ε σ τ ά τ ω ν ε ν ή μ ίν α ύ τ ο ίς
θ ε ω ρ ο ν μ ε ν ο ν π ο λ λ ά κ ις μ έ ν γ ά ρ ό μ ό ν ο ια ν τ ή ν π ρ ο ς
τ ά π ά θ η δ ια τ η ρ ο ύ σ ιν α ί α ισ θ ή σ ε ις χ ο ρ η γ ο ύ σ α ι τ ά
1
I suggest ir\rjp€i (" equal to the full quota ") : Mangey
π ά θ ε ι or π ά θ β σ ι.
° See note on § 99 above.
6
For Philo's admiration for democracy, by which he seems
to mean each part of the state possessing its proper amount
of power, see note on Quod Deus 176.
c
The happy coincidence of the number of the kings with
118
ON ABRAHAM, 240- 243
hearing and each of the other senses blunted, so
that it cannot in the same way judge each thing
with accuracy or make the same contribution in
amount as before. And so, weakened all round as
they are and already giving way of themselves, it is
natural that they should be easily routed by the
opposing passions. There is much philo- 241
sophical truth" in the saying that of the five kings
two fell into the wells and three took to flight.
For touch and taste descend to the lowest recesses
of the body and transmit to its inward parts what may
properly be dealt with by them ; but eyes and ears
and smell for the most part pass outside and escape
enslavement by the body. All this the 242
man of worth was watching from his lair, and when
he saw trouble festering, where but now was alliance
and friendship, and war instead of peace arising
between the nine kingdoms, with the four com-
peting against the five for the sovereign power, he
seized his opportunity and suddenly made the
attack, ambitious to establish in the soul democracy,
h
the best of constitutions, instead of the rule of
tyrants and overlords, and legality and justice
instead of lawlessness and injustice which hitherto
prevailed. All this is no fable of my in- 243
vention, but a fact, and that one of the surest which
we may observe in ourselves.
0
For the senses, though
often they may maintain concord with the passions
and provide them with the objects which they per-
the accepted four passions and five senses naturally attracts
Philo to this ingenious allegory. The weak point seems to
be that in the story the rebellion of the five against the four
is not due to the influence of Abraham, as in the allegory
the refusal of the senses to minister to the passions is due to
reason.
119
PHILO
α ισ θ η τ ά α ύ τ ο ΐς , π ο λ λ ά κ ις δ έ κ α ι σ τ α σ ιά ζ ο υ σ ι μ η κ έ τ
ά ξ ιο ϋ σ α ι τ ά ΐσ α τ ε λ ε ΐν ή μ ή δ υ ν ά μ ε ν α ι δ ι ά τ ό π α ρ -
ε ΐν α ι τ ο ν σ ω φ ρ ο ν ισ τ ή ν λ ό γ ο ν δ ς έ π ε ιδ ά ν ά ν α λ ά β η
τ ή ν α ύ τ ο ϋ π α ν τ ε υ χ ία ν , τ ά ς ά ρ ε τ ά ς κ α ι τ ά τ ο ύ τ ω ν
δ ό γ μ α τ α κ α ι θ ε ω ρ ή μ α τ α , δ ύ ν α μ ιν ά ν α ν τ α γ ώ ν ισ τ ο ν ,
ε ρ ρ ω μ ε ν έ σ τ α τ α κ ρ α τ ε ί* φ θ α ρ τ ά γ ά ρ ά φ θ ά ρ τ ω σ υ ν -
244 ο ικ ε ΐν ο ύ θ έ μ ις . α ί μ έ ν ο ΰ ν ε ν ν έ α δ ν ν α σ τ ε ΐα ι
τ ε τ τ ά ρ ω ν π α θ ώ ν κ α ι π έ ν τ ε α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν φ θ α ρ τ α ί τ ε
κ α ι φ θ ο ρ ά ς α ι τ ι α ι , ο δ ' ό ρ μ η τ η ρ ίω χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς τ α ΐς
ά ρ ε τ α ΐς λ ό γ ο ς ιε ρ ό ς κ α ι θ ε ιο ς ό ν τ ω ς , έ ν α ρ ιθ μ ώ
τ α τ τ ό μ ε ν ο ς δ ε κ ά δ ι τ ή π α ν τ ε λ ε ία , π ρ ο ς ά μ ιλ λ α ν
έ λ θ ώ ν , έ ρ ρ ω μ ε ν ε σ τ έ ρ α δ υ ν ά μ ε ι τ ή κ α τ ά θ ε ό ν χ ρ ώ -
μ ε ν ο ς ά ν ά κ ρ ά τ ο ς ν ικ ά τ ά ς ε ίρ η μ έ ν α ς δ υ ν α σ τ ε ία ς .
245 ^^11. | Ύ ^ρ ό ν ω δ ' ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν α ύ τ ώ τ ε λ ε υ τ ά ή γ υ ν ή
θ υ μ η ρ ε σ τ ά τ η κ α ι τ ά π ά ν τ α ά ρ ισ τ η , μ υ ρ ία δ ε ίγ μ α τ α
τ ή ς φ ιλ α ν δ ρ ία ς έ ν ε γ κ α μ έ ν η , τ ή ν σ υ ν α ύ τ ώ τ ώ ν
σ υ γ γ ε ν ώ ν ά π ό λ ε ιφ ιν , τ ή ν έ κ τ ή ς ο ικ ε ία ς ά ν ε ν δ ο ία -
σ τ ο ν μ ε τ ά σ τ α σ ιν , τ ά ς έ π ι τ ή ς α λ λ ο δ α π ή ς σ υ ν ε χ ε ίς
κ α ι ε π α λ λ ή λ ο υ ς π λ ά ν α ς , τ ά ς κ α τ ά λ ιμ ό ν έ ν δ ε ια ς ,
246 τ ά ς έ ν π ο λ έ μ ο ις σ υ σ τ ρ α τ ε ία ς . ά ε ι γ ά ρ κ α ι π α ν -
τ α χ ο ύ π α ρ ή ν ο ύ δ έ ν α τ ό π ο ν ή κ α ιρ ό ν ά π ο λ ε ίπ ο υ σ α ,
κ ο ιν ω ν ό ς ό ν τ ω ς β ίο υ κ α ι τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ο ν β ίο ν π ρ α γ -
μ ά τ ω ν , ε ξ ίσ ο υ δ ικ α ιο ϋ σ α μ ε τ έ χ ε ιν α γ α θ ώ ν ο μ ο ύ
κ α ι κ α κ ώ ν ο ύ γ ά ρ ώ σ π ε ρ έ ν ια ι τ ά ς μ έ ν κ α κ ο -
77ρ ά γ ια ς ά π ε δ ίδ ρ α σ κ ε , τ α ΐς δ ' ε ύ τ υ χ ία ις έ φ ή δ ρ ε υ ε ν ,
ά λ λ α τ ο ν έ ν ά μ φ ο τ έ ρ α ις κ λ ή ρ ο ν ώ ς ε π ιβ ά λ λ ο ν τ α
κ α ι ά ρ μ ό τ τ ο ν τ α γ α μ ε τ ή μ ε τ ά π ρ ο θ υ μ ία ς π ά σ η ς ά ν -
247 ε δ έ χ ε τ ο . XLIII. π ο λ λ ά δ έ έ χ ω ν έ γ κ ώ -
α
For the perfection of ten as used in Scripture, cf. De
Cong. 89 if. (where Gen. xiv. is quoted among other ex-
120
ON ABRAHAM, 243-247
ceive, often too revolt and are unwilling any longer
to pay the same dues or unable to do so because of
the presence of reason, the chastener. For when
reason puts on its panoply of the virtues and the
doctrines and the lore which embody them, armed
with this irresistible power it mightily overcomes.
For corruptible and incorruptible may not live
together. Now the nine overlords, the four passions 244
and the five senses, are corruptible and the sources
of corruption, but the truly divine and holy Word,
whose stronghold is in the virtues, whose place in the
order of number is tenth, the supremely perfect
number,
a
comes to the contest and with the help of
the mightier power of God wins an easy victory over
the said overlords.
XLII. After this in the course of time he lost the 245
wife who was the darling of his heart and gifted with
every excellence. She showed her wifely love by
numberless proofs, by sharing with him the severance
from his kinsfolk, by bearing without hesitation the
departure from her homeland, the continual and
unceasing wanderings on a foreign soil and privation
in famine, and by the campaigns in which she accom-
panied him. Everywhere and always she was at his 246
side, no place or occasion omitted, his true partner in
life and life's events, resolved to share alike the good
and ill. She did not, like some other women, run
away from mishaps and lie ready to pounce on pieces
of good luck, but accepted her portion of both with
all alacrity as the fit and proper test of a wedded wife.
XLIII.
6
Many a story I could relate in 247
amples). For its arithmetical virtues cf. De Dec. 20 ff. See
App. p. 598.
* For §§ 247-254 see Geu. xvi. 1-6.
121
PHILO
μ ια τ ή ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ο υ δ ιε ξ ιέ ν α ι, ε ν ό ς ύ π ο μ ν η σ θ ή σ ο μ α ι,
δ γ ε ν ή σ ε τ α ι κ α ι τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν σ α φ έ σ τ α τ η π ίσ τ ις .
ά γ ο ν ο ς γ ά ρ ο ύ σ α κ α ι σ τ ε ίρ α , ο ε ίσ α σ α μ ή κ α τ ά τ ο
π α ν τ ε λ έ ς έ ρ η μ ο ς γ ε ν ε ά ς 6 θ ε ο φ ιλ ή ς ο ΐκ ο ς ά π ο -
248 λ ε ιφ θ ή , π ρ ο σ ε λ θ ο ΰ σ α τ ώ ά ν ο ρ ί φ η σ ι τ ά δ ε · "π ο λ ύ ν
μ έ ν ή δ η χ ρ ό ν ο ν σ υ μ β ιο ΰ μ ε ν ά λ λ ή λ ο ις ε ύ α ρ ε σ τ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς ,
ο υ δ έ χ ά ρ ιν κ α ι α υ τ ο ί σ υ ν ε λ η λ ύ θ α μ ε ν κ α ι ή φ ύ σ ις
τ ή ν α ν δ ρ ό ς κ α ι γ υ ν α ικ ό ς ή ρ μ ό σ α τ ο κ ο ιν ω ν ία ν ,
τ έ κ ν ω ν γ ε ν ε σ ις ο ύ κ έ σ τ ιν , ά λ λ ' ο ύ δ ' ε ισ α ΰ θ ις ε ξ
249 ε μ ο ύ γ ε υ π ε ρ ή λ ικ ο ς ή δ η γ ε γ ο ν υ ία ς ε λ π ίζ ε τ α ι, μ ή
δ ή π α ρ α π ό λ α υ ε τ ή ς ε μ ή ς ά γ ο ν ία ς μ η δ * έ ν ε κ α τ ή ς
π ρ ο ς έ μ έ ε ύ ν ο ια ς α υ τ ό ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ς ε ίν α ι π α τ ή ρ
κ ε κ ώ λ υ σ ο ' ζ η λ ο τ υ π ία γ ά ρ ο ύ κ α ν γ έ ν ο ιτ ο μ ο ι π ρ ο ς
έ τ έ ρ α ν , ή ν ο ύ δ ι* έ π ιθ υ μ ία ν ά λ ο γ ο ν ά ξ η , ν ό μ ο ν δ έ
250 φ ύ σ ε ω ς έ κ π ιμ π λ ά ς ά ν α γ κ α ΐο ν . ο υ χ ά ρ ιν ο ύ χ ύ π ε ρ -
θ ή σ ο μ α ι ν υ μ φ ο σ τ ο λ ε ΐν ώ ς τ ό έ ν δ έ ο ν έ μ ο ι μ έ λ λ ο υ σ α ν
έ κ π λ η ρ ο ϋ ν κ α ι ε ΐ γ ε ά π α ν τ ^σ ε ι α ^ α ί π ε ρ ι σ π ο ρ ά ς
τ έ κ ν ω ν ε ύ χ α ί, σ ά μ έ ν έ σ τ α ι τ ά γ ε ν ν ώ μ ε ν α γ ν ή σ ια ,
251 θ έ σ ε ι δ έ π ά ν τ ω ς έ μ ά . π ρ ο ς δ έ τ ό ά ν ύ π ο π τ ο ν τ ή ς
ζ η λ ο τ υ π ία ς ε μ ή ν , ε ι β ο ύ λ ε ι, θ ε ρ ά π α ιν α ν ά γ α γ ο ϋ , τ ό
μ έ ν σ ώ μ α δ ο ύ λ η ν , έ λ ε υ θ έ ρ α ν δ έ κ α ι ε υ γ ε ν ή τ ή ν
δ ιά ν ο ια ν , η ς έ κ π ο λ λ ώ ν χ ρ ό ν ω ν π ε ΐρ α ν ε λ α β ο ν κ α ι
β ά σ α ν ο ν , ά φ * η ς η μ έ ρ α ς τ ό π ρ ώ τ ο ν ε ις τ ή ν ε μ ή ν
ο ίκ ία ν ή χ θ η , γ έ ν ο ς μ έ ν Α ίγ υ π τ ία ν , τ ή ν δ έ π ρ ο -
252 α ίρ ε σ ιν Έ β ρ α ία ν . έ σ τ ι μ έ ν ή μ ΐν ο υ σ ία π ο λ λ ή κ α ι
ά φ θ ο ν ο ς π λ ο ύ τ ο ς , ο ύ χ ώ ς μ ε τ ο ίκ ο ις —ή δ η γ ά ρ τ ώ ν
α υ τ ο χ θ ό ν ω ν τ ο υ ς έ ν ε ύ τ υ χ ία ις λ α μ π ρ α ΐς ύ π ε ρ β ά λ -
λ ο μ ε ν —, κ λ η ρ ο ν ό μ ο ς δ ' ο υ δ ε ί ς ά π ο δ έ δ ε ικ τ α ι κ α ι
δ ιά δ ο χ ο ς , κ α ίτ ο ι γ ε ε ίν α ι δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ς , α ν τ α ΐς έ μ α ΐς
253 π α ρ α ιν έ σ ε σ ι π ε ισ θ ή ς ." ο δ έ θ α υ μ ά σ α ς τ ή ς γ υ ν α ι-
κ ό ς έ τ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν τ ή ν ά ε ΐ κ α ιν ο υ μ έ ν η ν φ ιλ α ν δ ρ ία ν κ α ι
ν ε ά ζ ο υ σ α ν κ α ι τ ό π ε ρ ί τ ο ϋ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ α ς έ ξ ε τ α σ τ ικ ό ν
122
ON ABRAHAM, 247- 253
praise of this woman, but one I will mention which
will be the clearest proof that the others are true.
Being childless and barren and fearing lest the house
beloved of God should be left entirely desolate, she 248
came to her husband and said : " Long have we
lived together in mutual goodwill. But the purpose
for which we ourselves came together and for which
nature formed the union of man and wife, the birth
of children, has not been fulfilled, nor is there any
future hope of it, through me at least who am now
past the age. But do not let the trouble of my 249
barrenness extend to you, or kind feeling to me keep
you from becoming what you can become, a father,
for I shall have no jealousy of another woman, whom
you will take not for unreasoning lust but in fulfil-
ment of nature's inevitable law. And therefore I 250
shall not be backward to lead to you a bride who will
supply what is lacking in myself. And if our prayers
for the birth of children are answered the offspring
will be yours in full parenthood, but surely mine
also by adoption. But to avoid any suspicion of 251
jealousy on my part take if you will my handmaiden,
outwardly a slave, inwardly of free and noble race,
proved and tested by me for many years from the day
when she was first brought to my house, an Egyptian
by birth, but a Hebrew by her rule of life. We have 252
much substance and abundance of wealth, not on
the usual scale of immigrants, for in this we now
outshine those of the native inhabitants who are
noted for their prosperity, but no heir or successor
has appeared, though there may be if you follow
my advice." Abraham with increased admiration 253
for the wifely love, which never grew old and was
ever showing itself anew, and her careful forethought
123
PHILO
κ α ί π ρ ο μ η θ έ ς ά γ ε τ α ι τ ή ν υ π * α υ τ ή ς δ ο κ ιμ α σ θ ε ΐσ α ν
[ 37] ά χ ρ ι τ ο υ π α ιδ ο π ο ιή σ α σ θ α ι, \ ώ ς δ ' ο ι σ α φ έ σ τ α τ α
δ ιη γ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ί φ α σ ιν , ά χ ρ ι τ ο υ μ ό ν ο ν έ γ κ ύ μ ο ν α γ ε ν έ -
σ θ α ι· γ ε ν ο μ έ ν η ς δ ' ο ύ κ ε ις μ α κ ρ ά ν , ά τ τ ο σ χ έ σ θ α ι δ ιά
τ ε φ υ σ ικ ή ν έ γ κ ρ ά τ ε ια ν κ α ι τ ή ν τ ιμ ή ν , ή ν ά π έ ν ε μ ε
254 τ ή γ α μ ε τ ή . γ ίν ε τ α ι μ έ ν ο ΰ ν υ ιό ς ε κ τ ή ς θ ε ρ α π α ι-
ν ίδ ο ς ε υ θ ύ ς τ ό τ ε , γ ίν ε τ α ι δ έ κ α ι μ α κ ρ ο ΐς χ ρ ό ν ο ις
ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν γ ν ή σ ιο ς ά π ε γ ν ω κ ό σ ι τ ή ν ε ξ α λ λ ή λ ω ν γ έ ν ε -
σ ιν , ά θ λ ο ν κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία ς ε λ π ίδ ο ς π ά σ η ς τ ε λ ε ιό τ ε ρ ο ν
τ ο υ φ ιλ ο δ ώ ρ ο υ θ ε ο ύ π α ρ ά σ χ ο ν τ ο ς .
255 XLIV. Ύ ο σ α ύ τ α μ έ ν ά π ό χ ρ η δ ε ίγ μ α τ α π ε ρ ι τ ή ς
γ υ ν α ικ ό ς ε ίρ ή σ θ α ι, π λ ε ίω δ ' ε σ τ ίν ε γ κ ώ μ ια τ ο υ
σ ο φ ο ύ , ώ ν ό λ ίγ ω π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν έ ν ια δ ιε ξ ή λ θ ο ν . λ έ ξ ω δ έ
κ α ί τ ό π ε ρ ί τ ή ν τ ε λ ε υ τ ή ν τ ή ς γ υ ν α ικ ό ς ο ύ κ ά ξ ιο ν
256 έ ρ γ ο ν ή σ υ χ α σ θ ή ν α ι. τ ο ια ύ τ η ν γ ά ρ ά π ο β α λ ώ ν κ ο ι-
ν ω ν ό ν τ ο υ σ ύ μ π α ν τ ο ς β ίο υ , ο ια ν έ δ ε ιξ ε ν ό λ ό γ ο ς κ α ί
μ η ν ύ ο υ σ ιν ο ι χ ρ η σ μ ο ί, τ ή ς λ ύ π η ς έ π α π ο δ υ ο μ έ ν η ς
ή δ η κ α ί κ α τ ά τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς κ ο ν ιο μ έ ν η ς ώ σ π ε ρ α θ λ η τ ή ς
ε π ε κ ρ ά τ η σ ε ρ ώ σ α ς κ α ί θ α ρ σ ύ ν α ς ε ΰ μ ά λ α τ ο ν
ά ν τ ίπ α λ ο ν φ ύ σ ε ι τ ώ ν π α θ ώ ν λ ο γ ισ μ ό ν , φ σ υ μ β ο ύ λ ω
π α ρ ά π ά ν τ α τ ο ν β ίο ν χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς τ ό τ ε δ ια φ ε ρ ό ν τ ω ς
ή ξ ίω σ ε π ε ίθ ε σ θ α ι τ ά β έ λ τ ισ τ α π α ρ α ιν ο ύ ν τ ι κ α ί
257 σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν τ α , ή ν δ έ τ α υ τ ί· μ ή τ ε π λ έ ο ν τ ο υ μ ε τ ρ ίο υ
σ φ α δ ά ζ ε ιν ώ ς ε π ί κ α ιν ό τ α τ η κ α ί ά γ ε ν ή τ ω σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά
μ ή τ ε ά π α θ ε ία κ α θ ά π ε ρ μ η δ ε ν ό ς ο δ υ ν η ρ ο ύ σ υ μ β ε β η -
κ ό τ ο ς χ ρ ή σ θ α ι, τ ό δ έ μ έ σ ο ν π ρ ο τ ώ ν ά κ ρ ω ν έ λ ό -
μ ε ν ο ν μ ε τ ρ ιο π α θ ε ΐν π ε ιρ ά σ θ α ι, τ ή μ έ ν φ ύ σ ε ι τ ό
ο ίκ ε ΐο ν χ ρ έ ο ς ά π ο λ α β ο ύ σ η μ ή δ υ σ χ ε ρ α ίν ο ν τ α , τ ό
α
Presumably as related in the traditions of which Philo
speaks in Mos. i. 4. Naturally they credited Abraham with
all the continence possible, and, indeed, it might fairly be
inferred from Gen. xvi. 6.
124
ON ABRAHAM, 253- 257
for the future, took the mate whom she had approved
and kept her till she had borne a child, or, as the
surest version of the story runs,
a
only till she became
pregnant, and when this occurred not long after he
abstained from her through his natural continence
and the honour which he paid to his lawful spouse.
So a son was born just at that time to the hand- 254
maiden, but long afterwards the wedded pair, who
had despaired of the procreation of children, had a
son of their own, a reward for their high excellence,
a gift from God the bountiful, surpassing all their
hopes.
XLIV.
b
We need give no further proofs of the 255
merits of this wife. More numerous are those of
the Sage, some of which I have praised in detail a
little earlier. But I will speak of one which concerns
the death of his wife, in which his conduct should
not be passed over in silence. When he had lost 256
his life-long partner, whose qualities have been de-
scribed in our discourse and are related in the oracles,
when sorrow was making itself ready to wrestle with
his soul, he grappled with it, as in the arena, and
prevailed. He gave strength and high courage to
the natural antagonist of passion, reason, which he
had taken as his counsellor throughout his life and
now particularly was determined to obey, so ex-
cellent and profitable were its exhortations. The 257
advice was that he should not grieve over-bitterly
as at an utterly new and unheard-of misfortune, nor
yet assume an indifference as though nothing painful
had occurred, but choose the mean rather than the
extremes and aim at moderation of feeling, not resent
that nature should be paid the debt which is its due,
* For §§ 255-261 see Gen. xxiii.
125
PHILO
δ έ σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό ς ή σ υ χ η κ α ι π ρ ά ω ς έ π ε λ α φ ρ ίζ ο ν τ α *
258 μ α ρ τ υ ρ ία ι δ έ τ ο ύ τ ω ν iv τ α ΐς ιε ρ α ΐς
β ίβ λ ο ις κ α τ ά κ ε ιν τ α ι, α ς ο ύ θ έ μ ις ψ ε υ δ ο μ α ρ τ υ ρ ιώ ν
ά λ ώ ν α ι, μ η ν ύ ο υ σ α ι ο τ ι β ρ α χ έ α τ ώ σ ώ μ α τ ι έ π ι-
δ α κ ρ ύ σ α ς θ ά τ τ ο ν ά π α ν έ σ τ η τ ο υ ν ε κ ρ ο ύ , τ ό π ε ν θ ε ΐν
έ π ι π λ έ ο ν , ώ ς έ ο ικ ε ν , ά λ λ ό τ ρ ιο ν ή γ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ς σ ο φ ία ς ,
ύ φ ' ή ς ά ν ε δ ιδ ά χ θ η τ ο ν θ ά ν α τ ο ν ν ο μ ίζ ε ιν μ ή σ β έ σ ιν
ψ ν χ ή ς , ά λ λ α χ ω ρ ισ μ ό ν κ α ι δ ιά ζ ε υ ξ ιν ά π ό σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ,
ό θ ε ν ή λ θ ε ν ά π ιο ύ σ η ς * ή λ θ ε δ έ , ώ ς έ ν τ ή κ ο σ μ ο π ο ιία .
259 δ ε δ ή λ ω τ α ι, π α ρ ά θ ε ο ΰ . κ α θ ά π ε ρ δ έ ο υ δ ε ίς α ν
ά χ θ ο ιτ ο τ ώ ν μ ε τ ρ ίω ν χ ρ έ ο ς ή π α ρ α κ α τ α θ ή κ η ν
ά π ο τ ίν ω ν τ ώ π ρ ο ε μ έ ν ω , τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν τ ρ ό π ο ν ο υ δ έ τ ή ς
φ ύ σ ε ω ς ά π ο λ α μ β α ν ο ύ σ η ς τ ά ο ικ ε ία χ α λ ε π α ίν ε ιν
260 ω ε τ ο δ ε ΐν , ά λ λ α τ ο ις ά ν α γ κ α ίο ις ά σ μ ε ν ίζ ε ιν . ώ ς δ '
ή κ ο ν ο ι έ ν τ έ λ ε ι τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ή ν χ ώ ρ α ν σ υ ν α λ γ ή -
σ ο ν τ ε ς , ίδ ό ν τ ε ς ο υ δ έ ν τ ώ ν έ ν έ θ ε ι π α ρ * α ύ τ ο ΐς
γ ιν ο μ έ ν ω ν έ π ι τ ο ις π ε ν θ ο ϋ σ ιν ,
1
ο υ κ ό λ ό φ υ ρ σ ιν , ο ύ
θ ρ ή ν ο ν , ο ύ κ ο π ε τ ό ν , ο ύ κ α ν δ ρ ώ ν , ο ύ γ υ ν α ικ ώ ν , ά λ λ α
τ ή ς σ υ μ π ά σ η ς ο ικ ία ς ε υ σ τ α θ ή κ α ϊ ν η φ ά λ ιο ν κ α τ -
ή φ ε ια ν , έ θ α ύ μ α ζ ο ν ο ύ μ ε τ ρ ίω ς κ α ι τ ο ν ά λ λ ο ν β ίο ν
261 π ρ ο κ α τ α π ε π λ η γ μ έ ν ο ι τ ο υ α ν δ ρ ό ς , ε ϊτ ο ύ σ τ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς
έ ν έ α υ τ ο ΐς τ ά τ ή ς α ρ ε τ ή ς α ύ τ ο ΰ μ ε γ έ θ η κ α ι κ ά λ λ η —
π ά ν τ α γ ά ρ η ν ε ξ α ίρ ε τ α —π ρ ο σ ε λ θ ό ν τ ε ς έ ξ ε φ ώ ν η σ α ν
[ 38] | " β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς π α ρ ά θ ε ο ΰ ε ΐ σ ύ έ ν ή μ ιν ," α λ η θ έ σ τ α τ α
λ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς * α ί μ έ ν γ ά ρ ά λ λ α ι ^α σ τ λ β Γ α ι π ρ ό ς α ν -
θ ρ ώ π ω ν κ α θ ίσ τ α ν τ α ι, π ο λ έ μ ο ις κ α ι σ τ ρ α τ ε ία ις κ α ι
κ α κ ο ΐς ά μ υ θ ή τ ο ις , ά π ε ρ ά ν τ ε π ιφ έ ρ ο υ σ ιν ά λ λ η λ ο -
κ τ ο ν ο ΰ ν τ ε ς ο ι δ υ ν α σ τ ε ιώ ν έ φ ιέ μ ε ν ο ι, π ε ζ ά ς κ α ι
ίπ π ικ ά ς κ α ι ν α υ τ ικ ά ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ις έ π ιτ ε ιχ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς * τ ή ν
δ έ τ ο ΰ σ ο φ ο ΰ β α σ ιλ ε ία ν ό ρ έ γ ε ι θ ε ό ς , η ν π α ρ α λ α β ώ ν
ο σ π ο υ δ α ίο ς ο ύ δ ε ν ι μ έ ν α ίτ ιο ς γ ίν ε τ α ι κ α κ ο ΰ , π ά σ ι
1
Perhaps read π έ ν θ ε σ ιν as Cohn suggests.
126
ON ABRAHAM, 257- 261
but quietly and gently lighten the blow.
a
The testimonies for this are to be found in the holy 258
books which may never be convicted of false witness.
They show that after weeping for a little over the
corpse he quickly rose up from it, holding further
mourning, it appears, to be out of keeping with
wisdom, which taught him that death is not the
extinction of the soul but its separation and detach-
ment from the body and its return to the place
whence it came ; and it came, as was shown in the
story of creation, from God.
6
And, as no reasonable 259
person would chafe at repaying a debt or deposit
to him who had proffered it, so too he must not fret
when nature took back her own, but accept the in-
evitable with equanimity. Now, when the chief 260
men of the country came to sympathize and saw
nothing of the sort of mourning which was customary
with themselves, no wailing, no chanting of dirges,
no beating of breasts either of men or of women, but
a quiet sober air of sorrow pervading the whole
house, they were profoundly amazed, though indeed
the rest of his life had struck them with admiration.
Then, as the greatness and glory of his virtue in all 261
its pre-eminence were more than they could keep to
themselves, they approached him and exclaimed :
" Thou art a king from God among us." The words
were indeed true, for other kingdoms are established
among men with wars and campaigns and numberless
ills which the ambitious for power inflict on each
other in mutual slaughter, with forces of foot and
horse and ships which they raise for the strife. But
the kingdom of the Sage comes by the gift of God,
and the virtuous man who receives it brings no harm
α
See App. pp. 598-599. * i.e. in De Op. 135.
127
PHILO
δ έ τ ο ΐς ύ π η κ ό ο ις α γ α θ ώ ν κ τ ή σ ε ω ς ο μ ο ύ κ α ί χ ρ ή -
σ ε ω ς , ε ίρ ή ν η ν κ α ί ε ύ ν ο μ ία ν κ α τ α γ γ έ λ λ ω ν .
262 XLV. Έ σ τ ι δ έ κ α ί ά ν ά γ ρ α π τ ο ς έ π α ιν ο ς α ύ τ ώ
χ ρ η σ μ ο ΐς μ α ρ τ υ ρ η θ ε ίς , ο υ ς Μ ω υ σ ή ς έ θ ε σ π ίσ θ η ,
1
δ ι*
ο υ μ η ν ύ ε τ α ι ό τ ι " ε π ίσ τ ε υ σ ε τ ω θ ε ώ ," ό π ε ρ λ ε χ -
θ ή ν α ι μ ε ν β ρ α χ ύ τ α τ ό ν ε σ τ ίν , έ ρ γ ω δ έ /k/?aia>07}vcu
263 μ έ γ ισ τ ο ν . τ ίν ι γ ά ρ ά λ λ ω π ισ τ ε υ τ έ ο ν ; ά ρ α γ ε
ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ις ή δ ό ξ α ις κ α ι τ ιμ α ΐς ή π ε ρ ιο υ σ ία π λ ο ύ τ ο υ
κ α ι ε υ γ έ ν ε ια ή υ γ ε ία κ α ι ε υ α ισ θ η σ ία ή ρ ώ μ η κ α ι
κ ά λ λ ε ι σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ; ά λ λ α ά ρ χ ή μ έ ν π ά σ α σ φ ά λ ε ρ ο ν
μ ύ ρ ιο υ ς έ χ ο υ σ α τ ο ύ ς λ ο χ ώ ν τ α ς ε φ έ δ ρ ο υ ς * ε ί δ έ π ο υ
κ α ι β ε β α ιω θ ε ίη , μ ε τ ά μ υ ρ ίω ν ό σ ω ν κ α κ ώ ν , ά δ ρ ώ σ ι
κ α ι π ά σ χ ο υ σ ιν ο ι ε ν τ α ΐς ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ις , β ε β α ιο ύ τ α ι.
264 δ ό ξ α ι δ έ κ α ι τ ιμ α ι κ τ ή μ α σ φ α λ ε ρ ώ τ α τ ο ν , ε ν ά κ ρ ί-
τ ο ις ή θ ε σ ι κ α ι π τ η ν ο ΐς λ ό γ ο ις α ν ε ξ έ τ α σ τ ω ν α ν θ ρ ώ -
π ω ν σ α λ ε ύ ο ν κ α ν ε ί π α ρ α μ έ ν ο ι, γ ν ή σ ιο ν α γ α θ ό ν
265 ε χ ε ιν ο ύ π έ φ υ κ ε . π λ ο ύ τ ο ι δ έ κ α ι ε ύ γ έ ν ε ια ι π ρ ο σ -
ο ρ ίζ ο ν τ α ι
2
μ έ ν κ α ι τ ο ΐς φ α υ λ ο τ ά τ ο ις · ε ί δ έ κ α ι
μ ό ν ο ις σ π ο υ δ α ίο ις , ε γ κ ώ μ ια π ρ ο γ ό ν ω ν κ α ι τ ύ χ η ς
266 ά λ λ ' ο ύ τ ώ ν ε χ ό ν τ ω ν ε ίσ ιν . ά λ λ ' ο ύ δ
έ π ι τ ο ΐς π ε ρ ι τ ό σ ώ μ α μ έ γ α φ ρ ο ν ε ΐν ά ξ ιο ν , ε ν ο ΐς
τ ά ά λ ο γ α ζ ώ α π λ ε ο ν ε κ τ ε ί· τ ις γ ά ρ α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ισ χ υ -
ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ς ή ρ ω μ α λ ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ς τ α ύ ρ ο υ μ έ ν ε ν ή μ έ ρ ο ις , ε ν
δ ' ά γ ρ ίο ις λ έ ο ν τ ο ς ; τ ις δ ' ό ξ υ ω π έ σ τ ε ρ ο ς ίέ ρ α κ ο ς ή
α ε τ ο ύ ; τ ις δ έ π ε ρ ι ά κ ο ή ν ε υ τ υ χ ή ς ο ύ τ ω ς , ώ ς τ ώ ν
ζ ώ ω ν τ ό ν ω θ έ σ τ α τ ο ν , ό ν ο ς ; τ ις δ έ π ε ρ ι τ ά ς ο σ φ ρ ή -
σ ε ις κ υ ν ό ς α κ ρ ιβ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ς , ό ν φ α σ ιν ο ι κ υ ν η γ ε τ ικ ο ί
1
This use of θ ε σ π ίζ ω in the passive with the person pro-
phesying as subject is very unusual. This passage is the
only example given in L. & S. revised. I should prefer to
read έ θ έ σ π ισ ε .
2
MSS. π ρ ο σ ο ρ μ ίζ ο ν τ α ι.
128
O N A B R A H A M , 261-266
t o anyone, b u t t he acqui si t i on and enj o yment o f good
t hi ngs t o al l hi s subj ect s, t o who m he is t he her al d o f
peace and o r de r .
a
X L V . Ther e is anot her r ecor d o f prai se at t est ed 262
by words f r o m Moses* pr ophet i c l i ps. I n t hese i t is
st at ed t ha t he " t r us t e d i n Go d. " No w t ha t is a l i t t l e
t h i n g i f measured i n wor ds, b u t a ver y gr eat t h i n g i f
made good by act i on. For i n what else shoul d one 263
t r us t ? I n hi gh offices or f ame and honours or abund-
ance o f weal t h and nobl e b i r t h or heal t h and efficacy
o f t he senses or st r engt h and beaut y o f body ? But
office is who l l y precari ous, beset by countless foes who
l i e i n wai t f or i t , and i f by chance i t is secured t he
secur i t y is accompani ed by countless i l l s i n whi ch
those i n hi gh posi t i ons are ei t her t he agent s or t he
vi ct i ms. Fame and honour are a most precari ous 264
possession, tossed about on t he reckless t emper s and
f l i g h t y words o f careless men : and, when i t abi des,
i t cannot o f i t s o wn nat ur e cont ai n genui ne good.
As f or weal t h and hi gh b i r t h , t he y at t ach t hemsel ves 265
even t o t he most wort hl ess o f me n, and even i f t he y
were conf i ned t o t he vi r t uous t he y wo ul d be a com-
pl i me nt no t t o t he act ual possessors b u t t o t hei r
ancestors and t o f o r t une. Ag a i n , nei t her 266
shoul d we pr i de ourselves gr eat l y on bo di l y endow-
ment s i n whi ch t he unreasoni ng ani mal s have t he
advant age over us ; f or what ma n is st r onger or mor e
muscul ar t ha n t he b u l l among domest i c and t he l i o n
among wi l d beasts ? Wh o has a keener si ght t ha n
t he hawk or t he eagle ? or who is so f avour ed i n
powers o f hear i ng as t h a t st upi dest o f ani mal s, t he
ass ? A n d as f or smel l , who has mor e accurat e di s-
cer nment t ha n t he ho und, whi c h, as t he hunt smen
β
See App. p. 599.
129
PHILO
ρ ιν η λ α τ ο ύ ν τ α τ ο ΐς μ α κ ρ ά ν π τ ώ μ α σ ιν ε ύ σ κ ό π ω ς ε π ι-
τ ρ έ χ ε ιν ο ύ π ρ ο ϊδ ό μ ε ν ο ν ; Ο π ε ρ γ ά ρ ό φ ις έ τ έ ρ ο ις ,
τ ο ύ τ ο μ υ κ τ ή ρ ε ς κ ν σ ΐ θ η ρ ε υ τ ικ ο ΐς κ α ι ίχ ν ε υ τ ικ ο ΐς .
267 υ γ ιε ιν ό τ α τ α γ ε μ η ν κ α ί ώ ς ε ν ι μ ά λ ισ τ α ά ν ο σ α
π λ ε ί σ τ α τ ώ ν ά λ ο γ ω ν ζ ώ ω ν ε σ τ ίν , iv δ έ τ ω π ε ρ ί
κ ά λ λ ο υ ς ά γ ω ν ι κ α ί τ ώ ν α ψ ύ χ ω ν ε ν ιά μ ο ι 8ο κ € ν ικ ά ν
δ ύ ν α σ θ α ι τ ά ς α ν δ ρ ώ ν ό μ ο ΰ κ α ί γ υ ν α ικ ώ ν ε ύ μ ο ρ φ ία ς
κ α ί ύ π € β ά λ λ €ΐν , α γ ά λ μ α τ α κ α ί ξ ό α ν α κ α ί ζ ω γ ρ α -
φ ή μ α τ α κ α ί σ υ ν ό λ ω ς ό σ α γ ρ α φ ικ ή ς έ ρ γ α κ α ί π λ α σ
τ ικ ή ς iv ε κ α τ έ ρ α τ έ χ ν η κ α τ ο ρ θ ο ύ μ €ν α , π ε ρ ί ά
σ π ο υ δ ά ζ ο υ σ ιν "Ε λ λ η ν ε ς ο μ ο ύ κ α ί β ά ρ β α ρ ο ι π ρ ο ς
κ ό σ μ ο ν τ ώ ν π ό λ €ω ν iv τ ο ΐς έ π ιφ α ν ε σ τ ά τ ο ις χ ω ρ ίο ις
268 ά ν α τ ιθ έ ν τ ε ς . XLVI. μ ό ν ο ν ο ΰ ν ά φ ε υ δ έ ς
[ 39] | κ α ί β έ β α ιο ν α γ α θ ό ν ή π ρ ο ς θ ε ό ν π ίσ τ ις , π α ρ -
η γ ό ρ η μ α β ίο υ , π λ ή ρ ω μ α χ ρ η σ τ ώ ν ε λ π ίδ ω ν , ά φ ο ρ ία
μ έ ν κ α κ ώ ν , α γ α θ ώ ν δ έ φ ο ρ ά , κ α κ ο δ α ιμ ο ν ία ς ά π ό -
γ ν ω σ ις , γ ν ώ σ ις ε υ σ έ β ε ια ς , κ λ ή ρ ο ς ε υ δ α ιμ ο ν ία ς ,*
φ υ χ ή ς iv ά π α σ ι β ε λ τ ίω σ ις έ π ε ρ η ρ ε ισ μ έ ν η ς κ α ί
ε φ ιδ ρ υ μ έ ν η ς τ ω π ά ν τ ω ν α ίτ ίω κ α ί δ υ ν α μ έ ν ω μ έ ν
269 π ά ν τ α , β ο υ λ ο μ έ ν ω δ έ τ ά ά ρ ισ τ α , κ α θ ά π ε ρ γ ά ρ ο ι
μ έ ν δ ι
9
ό λ ισ θ η ρ ά ς ο δ ο ύ β α δ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς υ π ο σ κ ε λ ίζ ο ν τ α ι
κ α ί π ίπ τ ο υ σ ιν , ο ι δ έ δ ιά ξ η ρ ά ς κ α ί λ ε ω φ ό ρ ο υ ά -
π τ α ισ τ α ) χ ρ ώ ν τ α ι π ο ρ ε ία , ο ύ τ ω ς ο ι δ ιά τ ώ ν σ ω -
μ α τ ικ ώ ν μ έ ν κ α ί τ ώ ν ε κ τ ό ς τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν ά γ ο ν τ ε ς
ο υ δ έ ν ά λ λ ' ή π ίπ τ ε ιν α υ τ ή ν ε θ ίζ ο υ σ ιν —ο λ ισ θ η ρ ά
γ ά ρ τ α ύ τ α γ ε κ α ί π ά ν τ ω ν ά β ε β α ιό τ α τ α ,—ο ι δ έ δ ιά
τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ά ς ά ρ ε τ ά ς θ ε ω ρ η μ ά τ ω ν ε π ί θ ε ό ν σ π ε ύ -
δ ο ν τ ε ς α σ φ α λ ή κ α ί ά κ ρ ά δ α ν τ ο ν ό δ ό ν ε ύ θ ύ ν ο υ σ ιν , ώ ς
ά φ ε υ δ έ σ τ α τ α φ ά ν α ι, ό τ ι ό μ έ ν ε κ ε ίν ο ις π ε π ισ τ ε υ κ ώ ς
ά π ισ τ ε ΐ θ ε ώ , ό δ ' ά π ισ τ ω ν ε κ ε ίν ο ις π ε π ίσ τ ε υ κ ε θ ε ώ .
° Or " plenitude.'*
6
A somewhat inadequate rendering for ά π ό ^ν ω σ ις * which
130
ON ABRAHAM, 266-269
tell us, led unerringly by the scent, races to the distant
quarry which it has not seen ; for what sight is to
other animals the nostrils are to the hounds used for
hunting or tracking. Health ? Why, most of the un- 267
reasoning animals are exceedingly healthy and as far
as possible free from disease. Beauty ? In the com-
petition for this, I should say that some lifeless
objects can beat and surpass the comeliness both of
men and women. Such are the images and statues
and pictures and in general all the creations of the
painters and the sculptors which achieve success in
either art and rouse the enthusiasm of Greeks and
barbarians alike, who set them up in the most con-
spicuous places to adorn their cities.
XLVI. Faith in God, then, is the one sure and in- 268
fallible good, consolation of life, fulfilment
a
of bright
hopes, dearth of ills, harvest of goods, inacquaintance
b
with misery, acquaintance with piety, heritage of
happiness, all-round betterment of the soul which is
firmly stayed on Him Who is the cause of all things
and can do all things yet only wills the best. For, 269
just as those who walk on a slippery road are tripped
up and fall, while others on a dry highway tread with-
out stumbling, so those who set the soul travelling
along the path of the bodily and the external are but
learning it to fall, so slippery and utterly insecure are
all such things; while those who press onward to God
along the doctrines of virtue walk straight upon a
path which is safe and unshaken, so that we may say
with all truth that belief in the former things is dis-
belief in God, and disbelief in them belief in God.
generally means " despair," and, in connexion with κ α κ ο δ α ι
μ ο ν  α τ , "confidence of the absence.'* Philo, however, evi-
dently intends an antithesis of form as well as of sense.
131
PHILO
270 α λ λ * ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν τ ή ν π ρ ό ς τ ό δ ν π ισ τ ιν α ύ τ ω μ α ρ τ υ -
ρ ο ύ σ ιν ο ι χ ρ η σ μ ο ί, τ ή ν β α σ ιλ ίδ α τ ώ ν α ρ ε τ ώ ν , α λ λ ά
κ α ι π ρ ώ τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν ά π ε φ ή ν α ν τ ο " π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ν " τ ώ ν
π ρ ο α ύ τ ο ΰ τ ρ ιπ λ ά σ ια κ α ι π ο λ λ α π λ ά σ ια ε τ η β ιω -
σ ά ν τ ω ν , ώ ν ο ύ δ ε ν α π α ρ ε ιλ ή φ α μ ε ν ά ζ ιω θ έ ν τ α τ α ύ τ η ς
271 τ ή ς π ρ ο σ ρ ή σ ε ω ς . κ α ι μ ή π ο τ ε ίκ ό τ ω ς ' ό γ ά ρ
α λ ή θ ε ια π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς ο υ κ έ ν μ ή κ ε ι χ ρ ό ν ω ν ά λ λ ' έ ν
έ π α ιν ε τ ώ κ α ι τ ε λ ε ίω β ίω θ ε ω ρ ε ίτ α ι, τ ο υ ς -μ έ ν ο υ ν
α ιώ ν α π ο λ ύ ν τ ρ ίφ α ν τ α ς έ ν τ ή μ ε τ ά σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ζ ω ή
δ ίχ α κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία ς π ο λ υ χ ρ ο ν ίο υ ς π α ΐδ α ς λ ε κ τ έ ο ν ,
μ α θ ή μ α τ α π ο λ ιά ς ά ξ ια μ η δ έ π ο τ ε π α ιδ ε υ θ έ ν τ α ς , τ ο ν
δ έ φ ρ ο ν ή σ ε ω ς κ α ι σ ο φ ία ς κ α ι τ ή ς π ρ ό ς θ ε ό ν π ίσ τ ε ω ς
έ ρ α σ θ έ ν τ α λ έ γ ο ι τ ις α ν έ ν δ ίκ ω ς ε ίν α ι π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ν ,
272 π α ρ ω ν υ μ ο ΰ ν τ α τ ώ π ρ ώ τ ω . τ ώ γ ά ρ ο ν τ ι π ρ ώ τ ο ς ό
σ ο φ ό ς τ ο ΰ α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν γ έ ν ο υ ς , ώ ς κ υ β ε ρ ν ή τ η ς μ έ ν
έ ν ν η ί, ά ρ χ ω ν δ ' έ ν π ό λ ε ι, σ τ ρ α τ η γ ό ς δ ' έ ν π ο λ έ μ ω ,
κ α ι φ υ χ ή μ έ ν έ ν σ ώ μ α τ ι, ν ο υ ς δ ' έ ν ψ υ χ ή , κ α ι π ά λ ιν
ο υ ρ α ν ό ς μ έ ν έ ν κ ό σ μ ω , θ ε ό ς δ ' έ ν ο ύ ρ α ν ώ .
273 δ ς τ ή ς π ρ ό ς α υ τ ό ν π ίσ τ ε ω ς ά γ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ο ν ά ν δ ρ α
π ισ τ ιν ά ν τ ιδ ίδ ω σ ιν α ύ τ ω , τ ή ν δ ί,' ό ρ κ ο υ β ε β α ίω σ ιν
ώ ν ύ π έ σ χ ε τ ο δ ω ρ ε ώ ν , ο ύ κ έ τ ι μ ό ν ο ν ώ ς ά ν θ ρ ώ π ω
θ ε ό ς , ά λ λ ά κ α ι ώ ς φ ίλ ο ς γ ν ω ρ ίμ ω δ ια λ ε γ ό μ ε ν ο ς ·
φ η σ ι γ ά ρ " κ α τ έ μ α υ τ ο ΰ ώ μ ο σ α ," π α ρ * ω ο λ ό γ ο ς
ό ρ κ ο ς έ σ τ ιν , έ ν ε κ α τ ο ΰ τ ή ν δ ιά ν ο ια ν ά κ λ ιν ώ ς κ α ι
2 14 π α γ ίω ς έ τ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ή π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν έ ρ η ρ ε ΐσ θ α ι. π ρ ε -
σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς μ έ ν ο ΰ ν κ α ϊ π ρ ώ τ ο ς έ σ τ ι τ ε κ α ι λ ε γ έ σ θ ω
ο α σ τ ε ίο ς , ν ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ς δ έ κ α ϊ έ σ χ α τ ο ς π ά ς ά φ ρ ω ν ,
τ ά ν ε ω τ ε ρ ο π ο ιά κ α ι έ ν έ σ χ α τ ια ΐς τ α τ τ ό μ ε ν α
275 μ α τ ιώ ν .
[ 40] Τ α ύ τ α | μ έ ν ο ύ ν έ π ι τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο ν ε ιρ ή σ θ ω , τ ώ δ έ
π λ ή θ ε ι κ α ι μ ε γ έ θ ε ι τ ώ ν ε π α ίν ω ν έ π ιτ ιθ ε ίς ώ σ π ε ρ
τ ιν ά κ ε φ α λ ή ν τ ο ΰ σ ο φ ο ύ φ η σ ιν , ό τ ι τ ο ν θ ε ίο ν ν ό μ ο ν
132
ON ABRAHAM, 270-275
But not only do the oracles attest his possession of 270
the queen of virtues, faith in the existent, but he is
also the first whom they speak of as elder,
a
though
those who lived before him tripled or many times
multiplied his years. Yet of none of them do we hear
that he was held worthy of the title and rightly, for the
true elder is shown as such not by his length of days
but by a laudable and perfect life. Those who have 271
passed a long span of years in the existence of the
body without goodness or beauty of life must be
called long-lived children who have never been
schooled in the learning worthy of grey hairs ; but he
who is enamoured of sound sense and wisdom and
faith in God may be justly called elder, a name of
like significance to " first.'' For indeed the wise man 272
is the first of the human race, as a pilot in a ship or a
ruler in a city or a general in war, or again as a soul
in a body and a mind in a soul, or once more heaven
in the world or God in heaven. That God 273
marvelling at Abraham's faith in Him repaid him with
faithfulness by confirming with an oath the gifts which
He had promised, and here He no longer talked with
him as God with man but as a friend with a familiar.
For He, with Whom a word is an oath, yet says " By
Myself have I sworn,"
6
so that his mind might be
established more securely and firmly even than it was
before. So, then, the man of worth is elder and first, 274
and so must he be called ; but younger and last is
every fool who pursues the ways which belong to
rebellious youth and stand lowest in the list.
So much for all this, but to these praises of the Sage, 275
so many and so great, Moses adds this crowning say-
ing " that this*man did the divine law and the divine
α
Gen. xxiv. 1; LXX. π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο *, E. V. " old."
6
Gen. xxii. 16.
133
PHILO
κ α ι τ ά θ ε ια π ρ ο σ τ ά γ μ α τ α π ά ν τ α έ π ο ίη σ ε ν 6 ά ν ή ρ
ο ύ τ ο ς , ο ύ γ ρ ά μ μ α σ ιν ά ν α δ ιδ α χ θ ε ίς , ά λ λ ' ά γ ρ ά φ ω TTJ
φ ύ σ ε ι σ π ο υ δ ά σ α ς ύ γ ια ιν ο υ σ α ^ κ α ι ά ν ό σ ο ις ό ρ μ α ΐς
ε π α κ ο λ ο υ θ ή σ α ν π ε ρ ι δ έ ώ ν 6 θ ε ό ς ο μ ο λ ο γ ε ί, τ ι
π ρ ο σ ή κ ε ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ο υ ς ή /?€/?α ιό τ α τ α π ισ τ ε ύ ε ιν ;
276 τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ς 6 β ίο ς τ ο ϋ π ρ ώ τ ο υ κ α ι ά ρ χ η γ ε τ ο υ τ ο ϋ
έ θ ν ο υ ς ε σ τ ίν , ώ ς μ έ ν ε ν ιο ι φ ή σ ο υ σ ι, ν ό μ ιμ ο ς , ώ ς
8' ο π α ρ * ε μ ο ϋ λ ό γ ο ς έ δ ε ιξ ε , ν ό μ ο ς α υ τ ό ς ώ ν κ α ι
θ ε σ μ ό ς ά γ ρ α φ ο ς .
134
ON ABRAHAM, 275-2Ϋ 6
commands. "
α
He did them, not taught by written
words, but unwritten nature gave him the zeal to
follow where wholesome and untainted impulse led
him. And when they have God's promises before
them what should men do but trust in them most
firmly ? Such was the life of the first, the founder 276
of the nation, one who obeyed the law, some will say,
but rather, as our discourse has shown, himself a law
and an unwritten statute.
α
Gen. xxvi. 5.
135
ON JOSEPH
(DE IOSEPHO)
I NTRODUCTI ON TO DE IOSEPHO
THE place of this treatise in the series, as well as the
remarkable contrast between the character of Joseph as
here represented and the Joseph of the allegorical com-
mentary, have been discussed in the General Introduction
to this volume. The treatise after a few words about the
preparation given by the shepherd's craft for government
tells the story of Joseph's dream, his brothers' jealousy,
their sale of him to the merchants who in turn sold him to
Potiphar and the false report which they made to Jacob
(1-27). It contains the first two of the set speeches which
are a distinguishing feature of the treatise, viz. Reuben's
remonstrance (17-21) and Jacob's lamentation (23-27).
The allegorization which follows treats a few scattered
points and not the story as a whole. That politicians have
to deal with institutions which are conventional rather than
natural is indicated by Joseph's name of " Addition "
(to Nature), that they must be resourceful by his coat of
many colours, that they are often a prey to vanity by the
false story that wild beasts had devoured him, that they
are often bought and sold by the two sales (28-36) ; and
it is to be noted that though the main purpose of the
treatise is to show the ideal statesman, these mostly deal
with the baser side of political life. When the story is
resumed it relates his history in Potiphar's house till his
imprisonment, in the course of which we have the eloquent
but rather absurd remonstrance of Joseph to Potiphar's
wife (37-53). The subjoined allegories are much more
relevant than the earlier ones to the substance of the story
and to the higher side of the politician. We may see the
spiritual barrenness of the multitude and its tendency to
138
ON JOSEPH
cater for pleasure in Potiphar, the eunuch and cook, its
demands on the statesman in Potiphar's wife and the
refusal of the true statesman to cringe in Joseph's rejections
of her overtures (54-79). In 80-124 the story is carried on
through Joseph's life in prison, his interpretation of the
dreams and his release and exaltation. Then from 125-147
follows what is not so much an allegory in the proper
sense as a meditation on the thought that all life is a dream
and the task of a true statesman is to discover and set
forth the truths which lie behind this dream. After this
we have a few more definitely allegorical interpretations of
some of the incidents of Joseph's exaltation as illustrating
the attitude of the democracy to the politician, and an
attempt to show that the different treatment by Pharaoh
of the cook (Potiphar), the butler and the baker represent
the different ways in which the body-loving mind regards
luxuries and necessities (148-156). From this point onwards
to the end the story runs on continuously through the
adventures of Joseph and his brethren as it appears in
Genesis with, of course, much amplification both of inci»
dents and speeches.
VOL. VI 139
Β Ι Ο Σ Π Ο Λ Ι Τ Ι Κ Ο Υ Ο Π Ε Ρ Ε Σ Τ Ι Π Ε Ρ Ι
Ι Ω Σ Η Φ
j I. Τ ρ ε ις μ ε ν ε ίσ ιν ίδ έ α ι, δ ι ώ ν τ ό ά ρ ισ τ ο ν τ έ λ ο ς ,
μ ά θ η σ ις , φ ύ σ ις , ά σ κ η σ ις , τ ρ ε ις δ έ κ α ι σ ο φ ώ ν ο ι
π ρ ε σ β ύ τ α τ ο ι κ α τ ά Μ ω υ σ ή ν ε π ώ ν υ μ ο ι τ ο ύ τ ω ν ώ ν
τ ο υ ς β ίο υ ς ά ν α γ ε γ ρ α φ ώ ς , τ ο ν τ ε ε κ δ ιδ α σ κ α λ ία ς κ α ι
τ ο ν α ύ τ ο μ α θ ή κ α ι τ ο ν ά σ κ η τ ικ ό ν , τ έ τ α ρ τ ο ν κ α τ ά τ ό
έ ζ ή ς α ν α γ ρ ά φ ω τ ο ν π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ν , ο ύ π ά λ ιν έ π ώ ν υ μ ο ν
έ ν α τ ώ ν φ υ λ ά ρ χ ω ν δ ια σ υ ν ισ τ ^σ α ^ έ κ π ρ ώ τ η ς η λ ικ ία ς
2 σ υ γ κ ρ ο τ η θ έ ν τ α . ή ρ ξ α τ ο μ έ ν τ ο ι σ υ γ κ ρ ο τ ε ΐσ θ α ι π ε ρ ι
έ τ η γ ε γ ο ν ώ ς έ π τ α κ α ίδ ε κ α τ ο ις κ α τ ά π ο ιμ ε ν ικ ή ν
θ ε ω ρ ή μ α σ ιν , α σ υ ν ά δ ε ι τ ο ις π ε ρ ι π ό λ ιν δ θ ε ν ο ΐμ α ι
κ α ι τ ό π ο ιη τ ικ ό ν γ έ ν ο ς " π ο ιμ έ ν α ς λ α ώ ν " τ ο υ ς
β α σ ιλ ε ίς ε ΐω θ ε ν ό ν ο μ ά ζ ε ιν 6 γ ά ρ τ ή ν π ο ιμ ε ν ικ ή ν
κ α τ ω ρ θ ω κ ώ ς ά ρ ισ τ ο ς α ν ε ΐη κ α ι β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς , τ ή ς
κ α λ λ ίσ τ η ς ζ ώ ω ν α γ έ λ η ς , α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν , τ ή ν έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν
123 έ ν τ α ΐς έ λ ά τ τ ο ν ο ς σ π ο υ δ ή ς ά ζ ία ις ά ν α δ ιδ α χ θ ε ίς * κ α ι
κ α θ ά π ε ρ τ ώ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ι π ο λ ε μ α ρ χ ε ΐν κ α ι σ τ ρ α τ η γ ε ΐν
ά ν α γ κ α ιό τ α τ ο ν α ί π ε ρ ι τ ά κ υ ν η γ έ σ ια μ ε λ έ τ α ι, τ ο ν \
[ 4>2] α υ τ ό ν τ ρ ό π ο ν κ α ι ο ΐς έ λ π ϊς έ π ιτ ρ ο π ε ϋ σ α ι π ό λ ε ω ς
ο ίκ ε ιό τ α τ ο ν π ο ιμ ε ν ικ ή π ρ ο ά γ ω ν τ ις ο ύ σ α έ π ισ τ α -
α
Gen. xxxvii. 2 .
b
II. i. 263 and often elsewhere
140
ON JOSEPH
THAT IS, THE LIFE OF THE STATESMAN
I . The factors which produce consummate excel- 1
lence are three in number: learning, nature, prac-
tice. And these names are represented in three
of the wise men to whom Moses gives the senior
place. Since I have described the lives of these
three, the life which results from teaching, the life of
the self-taught and the life of practice, I will carry
on the series by describing a fourth life, that of
the statesman. This name again has its representa-
tion in one of the patriarchs who, as Moses shews,
was trained to his calling from his earliest youth.
This training was first given to him at about the age 2
of seventeen by the lore of the shepherd's craft,
a
which corresponds closely to the lore of statesman-
ship. And therefore I think the order of poets
often speaks of kings as shepherds of peoples,
6
for
success in shepherding will produce the best king,
since through the charge of flocks which deserve
less thought and care he has been taught the charge
of the noblest flock of living creatures—mankind.
And, just as to the future leaders in wars, or in com- 3
manding armies, practice in the hunting-field is most
necessary, so to those who hope to superintend a
state nothing is so suitable as shepherding, which
gives practice in the exercise of authority and
141
PHILO
4 σ ία ς κ α ι σ τ ρ α ιη γ ία ς . έ ν ο ρ ώ ν ο υ ν 6 π α τ ή ρ α ύ τ ω
φ ρ ό ν η μ α ε υ γ ε ν έ ς κ α ϊ μ ε ίζ ο ν ή κ α τ ίδ ιώ τ η ν έ θ α ύ -
μ α ζ ε κ α ϊ π ε ρ ιε ίπ ε κ α ι τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν υ ιώ ν μ ά λ λ ο ν
έ σ τ ε ρ γ ε ν , ε π ε ιδ ή ό φ ίγ ο ν ο ς η ν , ό π ε ρ ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς ή τ τ ο ν
ά γ ω γ ό ν έ σ τ ιν ε ις ε ύ ν ο ια ν κ α ι ά τ ε φ ιλ ό κ α λ ο ς ώ ν
έ ζ ω π ύ ρ ε ι τ ή ν τ ο ΰ π α ιδ ό ς φ ύ σ ιν έ ξ α ιρ έ τ ο ις κ α ι
π ε ρ ιτ τ α ΐς έ π ιμ ε λ ε ία ις , ίν α μ ή έ ν τ ύ φ η τ α ι μ ό ν ο ν ,
δ ά λ λ α κ α ι θ ά τ τ ο ν έ κ λ α μ ψ η . II. φ θ ό ν ο ς
δ έ ο ά ε ι τ α ις μ ε γ ά λ α ις ε ύ π ρ α γ ία ις α ν τ ίπ α λ ο ς κ α ι
τ ό τ ε π ά σ ι τ ο ις μ έ ρ ε σ ιν ο ίκ ία ν κ α τ ο ρ θ ο ΰ σ α ν έ π ι-
θ έ μ ε ν ο ς δ ιέ σ τ η σ ε κ α θ * ε ν ό ς π ο λ λ ο ύ ς α δ ε λ φ ο ύ ς
ά λ ε ίψ α ς , ο ι τ ή π ρ ό ς ε κ ε ίν ο ν ε ύ ν ο ια τ ο ΰ π α τ ρ ό ς
ίσ ό ρ ρ ο π ο ν δ ύ σ ν ο ια ν έ π ε δ ε ίκ ν υ ν τ ο μ ισ ο ΰ ν τ ε ς ό σ ο ν
έ σ τ έ ρ γ ε τ ο ' τ ό δ έ μ ίσ ο ς ο υ κ έ ξ ε λ ά λ ο υ ν , ά λ λ ' έ ν
έ α υ τ ο ΐς έ τ α μ ίε υ ο ν , Ο θ ε ν ε ίκ ό τ ω ς ά ρ γ α λ ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ν
έ φ ύ ε τ ο ' τ ά γ ά ρ σ τ ε γ ό μ ε ν α π ά θ η μ ή δ ια π ν έ ο ν τ α τ ο ις
6 έ π ισ χ ο ΰ σ ι λ ό γ ο ις β α ρ ύ τ ε ρ α , χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς ο υ ν ά κ ά κ ο ις
τ ο ις ή θ ε σ ι κ α ι τ ή ν ύ π ο ικ ο υ ρ ο ΰ σ α ν ε χ θ ρ α ν έ κ τ ώ ν
α δ ε λ φ ώ ν ο ύ σ υ ν ιε ίς , ό ν α ρ ιδ ώ ν α ϊσ ιο ν , ώ ς δ ή ε ϋ ν ο ις
δ ιη γ ε ίτ α ι* " έ δ ο ξ α " γ ά ρ φ η σ ιν " ά μ ή τ ο υ κ α ιρ ό ν
έ φ ε σ τ ά ν α ι κ α ι π ά ν τ α ς η μ ά ς ά φ ικ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς ε ίς τ ό
π ε δ ίο ν έ π ι τ ή ν τ ο ΰ κ α ρ π ο ΰ σ υ λ λ ο γ ή ν δ ρ έ π α ν α
λ α β ό ν τ α ς θ ε ρ ίζ ε ιν , α ίφ ν ίδ ιο ν δ έ τ ό μ έ ν έ μ ό ν δ ρ ά γ μ α
ύ π α ν ίσ τ α σ θ α ι κ α ι μ ε τ ε ω ρ ισ θ έ ν ό ρ θ ο ΰ σ θ α ι, τ ά δ έ
υ μ έ τ ε ρ α ώ σ π ε ρ ά π ό σ υ ν θ ή μ α τ ο ς έ π ιδ ρ α μ ό ν τ α τ ε -
θ η π έ ν α ι κ α ι μ ε τ ά τ ιμ ή ς τ ή ς π ά σ η ς π ρ ο σ κ υ ν ε ίν ."
β
This can hardly be right: though σ τ ρ α τ η γ ία is sometimes
used in the civic sense of the praetorship, Philo is not likely
to have used so predominantly military a word where the civic
is in antithesis to the military. Two MSS. have δ η μ α γ ω γ ί α *,
but neither is this a very suitable word. What is wanted is
η γ ε μ ο ν ία ς , or its equivalent. See also App. p. 600.
142
ON JOSEPH, 4-6
generalship.
0
So his father, observing in him a noble 4
spirit which rose above ordinary conditions, rend-
ered to him high admiration and respect, while his
love for this child of his later years—and nothing
conduces to affection more than this—exceeded his
love for his other sons. And being himself a lover
of excellence, by special and exceptional attentions
he fostered the fire of the boy's nature, in the hope
that it would not merely smoulder but burst rapidly
into flame. II.
6
But envy, which is ever 5
the enemy of high success, in this case too set to
work and created division in a household where every
part had been happily flourishing, and stirred up
the many brethren against the one. They displayed
ill-will to Joseph as a counterpoise to his father's
goodwill, and equalled his love with their hatred.
0
They did not, however, proclaim that hatred aloud,
but kept it a secret among themselves, and thus it
naturally grew to greater bitterness. For emotions
which are cooped up and find no vent become more
violent because expression is stifled. Joseph in the 6
simple innocence of his nature had no notion of the
enmity which was lurking in his brothers' hearts, and,
believing them to be friendly, told them a significant
dream which he had seen. " I thought," he said,
" that harvest-time was with us, and that we had all
come to the plain to gather in the crops. We had
taken our sickles and were reaping, when suddenly
my sheaf rose and stood bolt upright, while yours,
as though at a signal, rushed up in astonishment and
did homage to mine with every mark of honour."
6
§§ 5-27 follow fairly closely the narrative of Gen. xxxvii.
c
Literally ** hating him as much as he was loved " (by his
father).
143
PHILO
7 ol ok ε ις σ ύ ν ε σ ιν α κ ρ ιβ ε ίς κ α ι δ ε ι ν ο ί δ ιά σ υ μ -
β ό λ ω ν Ιχ ν η λ α τ ή σ α ι π ρ ά γ μ ά δ η λ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν
1
ε ίκ ο σ ι σ τ ο -
χ α σ μ ο ΐς " μ ή ν ο μ ίζ ε ις " ε φ α σ α ν " έ σ ε σ θ α ι β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς
η μ ώ ν κ α ι κ ύ ρ ιο ς ; τ α ύ τ α γ ά ρ 8ιά τ ή ς κ α τ ε φ ε υ σ μ έ ν η ς
φ α ν τ α σ ία ς ύ π α ιν ίτ τ η ." τ ό 8ε μ ίσ ο ς έ τ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν
έ ζ ω π υ ρ ε ΐτ ο π ρ ο σ λ α μ β ά ν ο ν α ε ί τ ιν α κ α ιν ή ν π ρ ό φ α σ ιν
8 ε ις σ υ ν α ύ ξ η σ ιν . ο δ έ ο ύ 8έ ν ύ π ώ ό μ ε ν ο ς ο λ ίγ α ις
ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν ή μ ε ρ α ις ο ν α ρ 18ώ ν έ τ ε ρ ο ν κ α τ α π λ η κ τ ικ ώ -
τ ε ρ ο ν τ ο ϋ π ρ ο τ έ ρ ο υ τ ο ις ά 8ε λ φ ο ΐς ά ν έ φ ε ρ ε ν ω ε τ ο
γ ά ρ ή λ ιο ν κ α ι σ ε λ ή ν η ν κ α ι έ ν 8ε κ α α σ τ έ ρ α ς ή κ ο ν -
τ α ς π ρ ο σ κ υ ν ε ΐν α υ τ ό ν , ώ ς τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α θ α υ μ ά σ α ν τ α
τ ό γ ε γ ο ν ό ς έ ν α π ο θ έ σ θ α ι τ ή δ ι ά ν ο ι α τ α μ ιε ύ ο ν τ α κ α ϊ
9 σ κ ο π ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν τ ό έ σ ό μ ε ν ο ν . έ μ β ρ ιθ ώ ς δ ' έ ν ο υ θ έ τ ε ι
τ ο ν π α ΐ8α κ α τ ά 8έ ο ς τ ο ϋ μ ή τ ι δ ια μ α ρ τ ε ΐν κ α ι
φ η σ ιν " ά ρ α 8υ ν η σ ό μ ε θ α έ γ ώ κ α ι ή μ ή τ η ρ κ α ι
ο ι α δ ε λ φ ο ί π ρ ο σ κ υ ν ή σ α ί σ ε ;—δ ιά μ ε ν γ ά ρ ή λ ιο υ
τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α , δ ι ά δ έ σ ε λ ή ν η ς τ ή ν μ η τ έ ρ α , δ ι ά δ έ
[ 43] τ ώ ν έ ν 8ε κ α α σ τ έ ρ ω ν τ ο υ ς \ έ ν 8ε κ α α δ ε λ φ ο ύ ς ύ π ο -
σ η μ α ίν ε ιν έ ο ικ α ς —*ο μ η δ ε ε ις ν ο υ ν π ο τ ε έ λ θ ο ι τ ο ν
σ ο ν , ώ π α ΐ, λ α θ ο ϋ σ α δ έ κ α ι ή μ ν ή μ η τ ώ ν φ α ν έ ν -
τ ω ν ύ π ε ξ έ λ θ ο ί' τ ό γ ά ρ τ ή ν έ π ι τ ο ις ο ίκ ε ίο ις έ λ π ίζ ε ιν
κ α ι κ α ρ α δ ο κ ε ΐν ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ν ά π ε υ κ τ ό ν ά γ α ν π α ρ * έ μ ο ι
κ ρ ιτ ή , ν ο μ ίζ ω δ έ κ α ι π α ρ ά π ά σ ιν , δ σ ο ις ίσ ό τ η τ ο ς
10 μ έ λ ε ι κ α ι σ υ γ γ ε ν ικ ώ ν δ ικ α ίω ν " ε ύ λ α β η -
θ ε ις δ ' ο π α τ ή ρ , μ ή τ ις ε κ τ ή ς σ υ ν δ ι α ι τ η σ ε ω ^ έ π ι-
γ έ ν η τ α ι τ α ρ α χ ή κ α ι σ τ ά σ ις τ ο ις ά δ ε λ φ ο ΐς μ ν η σ ικ α -
κ ο ϋ σ ιν ύ π ε ρ τ ώ ν ό ν ε ιρ ά τ ω ν τ ώ θ ε α σ α μ έ ν ω , τ ο υ ς μ ε ν
ε κ π έ μ π ε ι π ο ιμ α ν ο ϋ ν τ α ς , τ ο ν δ ε ο ίκ ο ι π α ρ ε φ ύ λ α τ τ ε ν
ά χ ρ ι κ α ιρ ο ύ τ ο ϋ π ρ ο σ ή κ ο ν τ ο ς , ε ίδ ώ ς Ο τ ι τ ώ ν τ ή ς
1
Most MSS. π ρ α ,Ύ μ α . δ η λ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ι* which Cohn in his trans-
lation adopted (taking it with δ ιά σ υ μ β ό λ ω ν ). The order of
words seems to me to favour his earlier view.
144
ON JOSEPH, 7-10
His brothers, being men of keen intelligence, skil- 7
ful at interpreting symbols and thus by probable
conjectures discovering the obscure, replied : " Do
you think that you will be our lord and king ? For
that is what you hint at in this lying vision/' And
their hatred, ever finding some new ground to aug-
ment it, was still more kindled against him. He, 8
suspecting nothing, a few days after saw and told
his brothers another dream even more astounding
than the former. In this he dreamt that the sun
and moon and eleven stars came and did him homage.
This caused surprise to his father, who laid up the
matter in his mind and carefully watched to see what
the outcome would be. But, fearing that the boy 9
had made a serious mistake/* he chid him severely,
saying, " You seem to mean by the sun your father
and by the moon your mother and by the eleven
stars your eleven brothers. Can it be that I and
your mother and your brothers shall do you homage ?
Let no such thought ever enter your mind, my son,
and let the memory of what you saw insensibly fade
away. For the idea of hoping and eagerly expecting
to gain dominion over your family is very odious in
my judgement, and I think that all who care for
equality and justice between kinsfolk must agree."
Then, dreading lest continued associa- 10
tion should breed disturbance and broils among the
brothers through the grudge which they bore against
the dreamer for his visions, Jacob sent them away
to tend the sheep, but kept him at home for such
season as should prove needed. He knew that time
α
Or " fearing that he himself had made a mistake " (in
setting store upon the dream).
145
PHILO
ψ υ χ ή ς π α θ ώ ν κ α ι ν ο σ η μ ά τ ω ν λ έ γ ε τ α ι ε ίν α ι χ ρ ό ν ο ς
ια τ ρ ό ς , ικ α ν ό ς κ α ι π έ ν θ ο ς ά ν ε λ ε ΐν κ α ι θ υ μ ό ν σ β έ σ α ι
κ α ι φ ό β ο ν θ ε ρ ά π ε υ σ α ν π ά ν τ α γ ά ρ ε ξ ε υ μ α ρ ίζ ε ι κ α ι
11 ό σ α κ α τ ά τ ή ν φ ύ σ ιν δ υ σ ία τ α . ώ ς δ ' ε τ ό π α σ ε μ η δ έ ν
ε τ ι τ α ΐς δ ια ν ο ία ις α υ τ ώ ν ε χ θ ο ς ύ π ο ικ ο υ ρ ο ύ ν , ε κ π έ μ -
π ε ι τ ο ν υ ίό ν ά μ α μ έ ν τ ο ύ ς α δ ε λ φ ο ύ ς ά σ π α σ ό μ ε ν ο ν ,
ά μ α δ έ κ α ι δ η λ ώ σ ο ν τ α , π ώ ς έ χ ο υ σ ιν α υ τ ο ί τ ε κ α ί α ί
τ ώ ν θ ρ ε μ μ ά τ ω ν ά γ έ λ α ι.
12 III. Τ α ύ τ η ν τ ή ν ό δ ό ν α ρ χ ή ν σ υ ν έ β η γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι
μ ε γ ά λ ω ν κ α κ ώ ν τ ε α ύ κ α ι α γ α θ ώ ν π α ρ
9
ε λ π ίδ α ς
έ κ α τ έ ρ ω ν . ό μ έ ν γ ά ρ τ α ΐς ε π ισ κ ή ψ ε σ ι π ε ιθ α ρ χ ώ ν
τ ο ύ π α τ ρ ό ς ή ε ι π ρ ο ς τ ο ύ ς α δ ε λ φ ο ύ ς , ο ι δ έ μ α κ ρ ό θ ε ν
ά φ ικ ν ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν ίδ ό ν τ ε ς ά λ λ ο ς ά λ λ ω δ ιε λ ά λ ο υ ν ο υ δ έ ν
ε ύ φ η μ ο ν , ό π ο τ ε ο ϋ δ ' ό ν ο μ α σ τ ι π ρ ο σ α γ ο ρ ε ύ ε ιν ή ξ ίο υ ν
α υ τ ό ν , ά λ λ ' ό ν ε ιρ ο π λ ή γ α κ α ι " ε ν υ π ν ια σ τ ή ν " κ α ι
τ ο ια ύ τ α έ π ε φ ή μ ιζ ο ν κ α ι έ π ι τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο ν π ρ ο ή γ ο ν
ο ρ γ ή ς , ώ σ τ ε κ α ι τ ο ν έ π * α ύ τ ώ φ ό ν ο ν ο ύ π ά ν τ ε ς ά λ λ '
ο ι π λ ε ίο υ ς έ β ο ν λ ε υ ο ν κ α ι υ π έ ρ τ ο υ μ ή κ α τ α φ ω ρ α -
θ ή ν α ι ρ ιπ τ ε ΐν ά ν ε λ ό ν τ ε ς ε γ ν ώ κ ε σ α ν ε ίς ό ρ υ γ μ α γ ή ς
β α θ ύ τ α τ ο ν π ο λ λ α ι δ έ ε ίσ ι π ε ρ ι τ ο ν τ ό π ο ν ύ δ α τ ο ς
13 ό μ β ρ ίο υ δ ε ζ α μ ε ν α ί. κ α ι μ ικ ρ ο ύ τ ό μ έ γ ισ τ ο ν ά γ ο ς ,
ά δ ε λ φ ο κ τ ο ν ία ν , ε ίρ γ ά σ α ν τ ο , ε ί μ ή π α ρ η γ ο ρ ία ις τ ο ύ
π ρ ε σ β υ τ ά τ ο υ μ ό λ ις έ π ε ίσ θ η σ α ν , ό ς π α ρ ή ν ε ι μ ή
έ φ ά ψ α σ θ α ι τ ο υ μ ιά σ μ α τ ο ς , ά λ λ ' α υ τ ό μ ό ν ο ν ε ις ε ν
τ ώ ν ο ρ υ γ μ ά τ ω ν ρ ίψ α ι, δ ια ν ο ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς τ ι σ ω τ ή ρ ιο ν ,
ίν α λ α β ώ ν μ ε τ ά τ ή ν ά ν α χ ώ ρ η σ ιν α π α θ ή π α ν τ ό ς
14 κ α κ ο ύ π α ρ α π έ μ ψ η τ ω π α τ ρ ί. σ υ ν α ιν ε σ ά ν τ ω ν δ έ , ό
μ έ ν π ρ ο σ ιώ ν ή σ π ά ζ ε τ ο , ο ι δ έ ώ ς π ο λ έ μ ιο ν σ υ λ -
146
ON JOSEPH, 10- 14
is said to be the physician of the distempers and ail-
ments of the soul and is able to remove grief, to
quench anger and to heal fear, for time relieves
everything, even what is naturally hard to cure.
But when he guessed that they would have ceased 11
to harbour enmity in their hearts, he sent him partly
to salute his brothers and partly to bring him word
how it fared with themselves and the flocks under
their charge.
III. This journey proved to be the source of great 12
evil and great good, both exceeding anything that
could have been expected. For Joseph, in obedi-
ence to his father's commands, went to his brethren,
but they, when they saw him coming afar off, talked
to each other, and their language was very sinister.
They did not even deign to speak of him by his
name, but called him the dream-driveller and the
vision-monger and similar terms. Their anger
reached such a pitch that they plotted by a majority,
though not unanimously, to murder him, and in
order to avoid detection they determined to throw
his dead body into a very deep pit in the ground.
In that region there are many such, made to hold
the rain-water. And they were only deterred from 13
committing that most accursed of deeds, fratricide,
by the exhortation of the eldest among them, to
which they reluctantly yielded. He urged them to
keep their souls clear from the abominable act, and
merely to throw him into one of the deep pits,
thinking to contrive some means for saving him and
hoping when they had gone away to take him up
and send him to their father quite unharmed. When 14
they had agreed to this, Joseph approached and
saluted them, but they caught hold of him as though
147
PHILO
λ α β ό ν τ ε ς ά π α μ π ίσ χ ο υ σ ι τ ή ν έ σ θ ή τ α κ α ι τ ο ν μ ε ν
κ α θ ιμ ώ σ ιν ε ίς β α θ ε ΐς β ό θ ρ ο υ ς , τ ή ν δ ' έ ρ ίφ ο υ α ΐμ α τ ι
φ ο ιν ίζ α ν τ ε ς δ ια τ τ ε μ π ο ν τ α ι τ ω π α τ ρ ι π ρ ό φ α σ ιν ώ ς
υ π ό θ η ρ ίω ν δ α π α ν η θ έ ν τ ο ς .
15 IV. Ε κ ε ίν η δ ε τ ή ή μ ε ρ α κ α τ ά τ ίν α σ υ ν τ υ χ ία ν
έ μ π ο ρ ο ι τ ίν ε ς ώ δ ο ιπ ό ρ ο υ ν τ ώ ν έ θ ο ς ε χ ό ν τ ω ν ά π *
1
Α ρ α β ία ς ε ις Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν κ ο μ ίζ ε ιν φ ό ρ τ ο ν ο ΐς ά ν ε λ κ ύ -
σ α ν τ ε ς τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν π ιπ ρ ά σ κ ο υ σ ιν , ή γ η σ α μ έ ν ο υ τ ή ν
γ ν ώ μ η ν τ ο ΰ κ α θ
9
ή λ ικ ία ν τ ε τ ά ρ τ ο υ * κ α ι γ ά ρ ο ύ τ ο ς
μ ο ι δ ο κ ώ δ ε ίσ α ς , μ ή π ο θ * υ π ό τ ώ ν ό ρ γ ή ν ά μ ε ίλ ικ τ ο ν
έ π
9
α ύ τ ω ζ ω π υ ρ ο ύ ν τ ω ν δ ο λ ο φ ο ν η θ ή , σ υ ν ε β ο ύ λ ε υ -
[ 44] σ ε ν ά π ο δ ό σ θ α ι δ ο υ λ ε ία ν ύ π α λ λ α τ τ ό μ έ ν ο ς \ θ α ν ά τ ο υ ,
16 κ ο υ φ ό τ ε ρ ο ν κ α κ ό ν μ ε ίζ ο ν ο ς , ό δ έ π ρ ε σ β ύ τ α τ ο ς —
ο ύ γ ά ρ π α ρ ή ν π ιπ ρ α σ κ ο μ έ ν ο υ —δ ια κ ύ φ α ς κ α ι μ ή
κ α τ ιδ ώ ν , δ ν ά π ο λ ε λ ο ίπ ε ι π ρ ο μ ικ ρ ο ΰ , έ β ό α κ α ι
έ κ ε κ ρ ά γ ε ι κ α ι τ ά ς έ σ θ ή τ α ς π ε ρ ιρ ρ η ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς ά ν ω κ α ι
κ ά τ ω κ α θ ά π ε ρ έ μ μ α ν ή ς έ φ έ ρ ε τ ο τ ά ς χ ε ίρ α ς κ ρ ο τ ώ ν
κ α ι τ ά ς τ ρ ίχ α ς τ ίλ λ ω ν , " τ ί π έ π ο ν θ ε ; " λ έ γ ω ν *
17 " ε ίπ α τ ε , ζ ή ή τ έ θ ν η κ ε ν ; ε ι μ έ ν ο υ κ έ σ τ ι, δ ε ίξ α τ ε
μ ο ι τ ο ν ν ε κ ρ ό ν , ΐν
9
έ π ιδ α κ ρ ύ σ α ς τ ώ π τ ώ μ α τ ι λ ω -
φ ή σ ω τ ή ς σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς * ίδ ώ ν κ ε ίμ ε ν ο ν π α ρ η γ ο ρ η θ ή σ ο -
μ α ι. τ ί κ α ι ν ε κ ρ ώ μ ν η σ ίκ α κ ο υ μ ε ν ; π ρ ό ς τ ο ύ ς
ε κ π ο δ ώ ν φ θ ό ν ο ς ο υ δ ε ίς φ ύ ε τ α ι, ε ι δ έ ζ ή , π ο ΐ γ ή ς
ά π ε λ ή λ υ θ ε ; φ υ λ ά τ τ ε τ α ι π α ρ ά τ ίσ ιν ; ο ύ γ ά ρ δ ή
κ ά γ ώ κ α θ ά π ε ρ ε κ ε ίν ο ς έ ν ύ π ο φ ία ις ε ιμ ί, ώ ς am-
is σ τ ε ΐσ θ α ι." ε ίπ ό ν τ ω ν δ ' ο τ ι TreVparat /α χ ί τ ή ν τ ι /χ ή ν
έ π ιδ ε ικ ν υ μ έ ν ω ν , " κ α λ ή ν έ μ π ο ρ ία ν " ε ΐπ ε ν " έ σ τ ε ί-
λ α σ θ ε * τ ά κ έ ρ δ η δ ^α ν β ^ώ / χ ^α · τ ο ις ά ν δ ρ α π ο δ ισ τ α ΐς
π ε ρ ι κ α κ ία ς ά θ λ ω ν ά μ ιλ λ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ι σ τ ε φ α ν η φ ο ρ ώ μ ε ν ,
β
Or " a fine business you have embarked on."
148
ON JOSEPH, 14- 18
he were an enemy in battle and stripped him of his
coat. They then let him down by ropes into the
open depths. His coat they dyed red in the blood
of a kid, and sent it to his father with the story that
wild beasts had made away with him.
IV. Now it chanced that day that some merchants 15
belonging to a caravan which was wont to carry wares
from Arabia to Egypt were travelling that way. To
these they sold their brother, after hauling him up,
the leader in this plan being the fourth eldest brother.
He, I imagine, feared that Joseph might be treacher-
ously murdered by the others who were inflamed
with such merciless wrath against him, and therefore
advised them to sell him and thus substitute the 16
lesser evil of slavery for the greater evil of death. The
eldest brother had not been present at the sale. When
he looked down into the pit and did not see the boy
whom he had left there a short time before, he cried
aloud and shouted, rent his garments and rushed up
and down like a madman, beating his hands together
and tearing his hair. " Tell me," he cried, " what 17
has become of him. Is he alive or dead ? If he is no
more, shew me his dead body, that I may weep over
the corpse and thus make the calamity seem lighter.
If I see him lying here I shall be comforted. Why
do we still bear a grudge to the dead ? Envy cannot
fasten on the departed. But if he is alive where on
earth has he gone ? In whose charge is he kept ?
Tell me, for you cannot suspect me as well as him that 18
you should refuse me your confidence." When they
said that he had been sold, and shewed the price that
had been paid, " A fine bargain you have made,"
a
he
said. " Let us divide the profits. We have com-
peted with slave-dealers for the prize of wickedness ;
149
PHILO
π ρ ο σ υ π ε ρ β ά λ λ ο ν τ ε ς α υ τ ο ύ ς ώ μ ό τ η τ ι σ ε μ ν υ ν ώ μ ε θ α *
κ α τ ά α λ λ ό τ ρ ιω ν ε κ ε ίν ο ι σ υ ν τ ίθ ε ν τ α ι, κ α τ ά δ ' ο ικ ε ίο -
19 τ ά τ ω ν κ α ι φ ιλ τ ά τ ω ν ή μ ε ΐς . κ ε κ α ιν ο ύ ρ γ η τ α ι μ έ γ α
ό ν ε ιδ ο ς , π ε ρ ιβ ό η τ ο ς α ισ χ ύ ν η , μ ν η μ ε ία κ α λ ο κ α γ α -
θ ία ς ο ι π α τ έ ρ ε ς η μ ώ ν π α ν τ α χ ο ύ τ ή ς ο ικ ο υ μ έ ν η ς
ά π έ λ ιπ ο ν , ά π ο λ ε ίφ ο μ ε ν κ α ι ή μ ε ΐς α π ισ τ ία ς κ α ι
μ ισ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ς α θ ε ρ ά π ε υ τ ο υ ς δ ια β ο λ ά ς · φ θ ά ν ο υ σ ι
γ ά ρ α ί τ ώ ν μ ε γ ά λ ο υ ρ γ η θ ίν τ ω ν φ ή μ α ι π α ν τ α χ ό σ ε ,
τ ώ ν μ ε ν ε π α ιν ε τ ώ ν ^α υ /Λ α ζ ό /^evai, τ ώ ν δ ' υ π α ιτ ίω ν
20 φ ό γ ο υ κ α ι κ α τ η γ ο ρ ία ς τ υ γ χ ά ν ο υ σ α ι. τ ίν α ά ρ α
τ ρ ό π ο ν ο π α τ ή ρ η μ ώ ν τ ή ν π ε ρ ι τ ώ ν σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό τ ω ν
ά κ ο ή ν δ έ ξ ε τ α ι; τ ρ ισ μ α κ α ρ ίω κ α ι τ ρ ισ ε υ ο α ίμ ο ν ι
τ ο ν κ α θ
9
ή α ς β ίο ν ά β ίω τ ο ν π α ρ έ σ χ η σ θ ε . τ ο ν
π ρ α θ έ ν τ α τ ή ς δ ο υ λ ε ία ς ή τ ο υ ς π ε π ρ α κ ό τ α ς τ ή ς
ώ μ ό τ η τ ο ς ο ίκ τ ιε ΐτ α ι; π ο λ ύ μ ά λ λ ο ν ε υ ο ΐδ α η μ ά ς ,
έ π ε ι κ α ϊ τ ο ϋ ά δ ικ ε ΐσ θ α ι τ ο ά δ ικ ε ΐν χ α λ ε π ώ τ ε ρ ο ν
τ ό μ έ ν γ ά ρ δ υ σ ΐ β ο η θ ε ίτ α ι τ ο ις μ ε γ ίσ τ ο ις , ε λ έ ω κ α ϊ
έ λ π ίδ ι, τ ό δ ' ο υ δ ε τ έ ρ ο υ μ ε τ έ χ ο ν ά π α σ ιν η τ τ ά τ α ι
21 τ ο ις κ ρ ιτ α ΐς . α λ λ ά τ ί τ α ύ τ α θ ρ η ν ώ ν α π η χ ώ ; β έ λ -
τ ιο ν ή σ υ χ ά ζ ε ιν , μ ή κ α ι α υ τ ό ς π α ρ α π ο λ α ν σ ω τ ιν ό ς
ά π ε υ κ τ ο ϋ ' τ ρ α χ ύ τ α τ ο ι γ ά ρ (έ σ τ ε } ε ις ό ρ γ ή ν κ α ι
α π α ρ α ίτ η τ ο ι κ α ι π ν ε ΐ λ α μ π ρ ό ς έ τ ι ό έ ν έ κ ά σ τ ω
θ υ μ ό ς ."
22 V. Ώ ς δ ' ή κ ο υ σ ε ν ό π α τ ή ρ ο ύ τ ά λ η θ έ ς , δ τ ι
π έ π ρ α τ α ι ο υ ιό ς α ύ τ ο ϋ , τ ό δ έ φ ε ϋ δ ο ς , δ τ ι τ έ θ ν η κ ε
κ α ι ώ ς ύ π ό θ η ρ ίω ν έ ξ α ν ά λ ω τ α ι, π λ η χ θ ε ις τ ά μ έ ν
ώ τ α δ ιά τ ώ ν λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ω ν , τ ο υ ς δ ' ο φ θ α λ μ ο ύ ς δ ιά
τ ο ϋ φ α ν έ ν τ ο ς —ό γ ά ρ χ ιτ ώ ν α ύ τ ο ϋ κ α τ ε σ χ ισ μ έ ν ο ς \
[45] κ α ι κ α τ η κ ισ μ έ ν ο ς κ α ι π ο λ λ ώ α ί^ια τ ι π ε φ ο ιν ιγ μ έ ν ο ς
έ κ ε κ ό μ ισ τ ο —, σ υ γ χ υ θ ε ις ύ π ό τ ή ς π ε ρ ιπ α θ ή σ ε ω ς
α
Or
4 4
his life under the conditions which we have created."
150
ON JOSEPH, 18-22
let us wear the crown, and glory that we surpass them
in cruelty, for their designs are aimed against aliens,
ours against our nearest and dearest. A great and 19
novel reproach has been brought about, a far-famed
disgrace. Our fathers left behind in every part of
the world records of their noble conduct; we shall
leave behind us beyond all retrieving the scandal of
our faithlessness and inhumanity. For, when deeds
of grave import are done, the rumours of them reach
everywhere, causing admiration where they are
praiseworthy, censure and contumely when they are
guilty. How will our father receive the report of the 20
event ? Thrice blessed he was and thrice happy, and
ye have made his life with us
a
intolerable. Which
will he pity most, the sold for his enslavement or the
sellers for their cruelty ? Surely us far more than
him, since it is less grievous to suffer wrong than to
do it.
5
The former is assisted by two mighty forces,
pity and hope ; the latter has no part in either, and
in the judgement of all comes off the worst. But why 21
do I lament thus wildly ? It were better to hold my
peace, lest I too come in for a share in some horrible
fate. For ye are exceedingly savage of temper and
merciless, and the fierceness in each heart is still in
full blast."
V. When his father heard, not the truth that his 22
son had been sold, but the lie that he was dead and
had seemingly been devoured by wild beasts, the
words that he heard and the sight that he saw fell like
a blow on his ears and eyes. For Joseph's tunic had
been brought to him rent and marred and stained
scarlet with much blood. Collapsing under his great
But I should prefer to read as Mangey suggests τ ό κ α θ ' ή μ α δ
= " as far as we can do it."
b
See App. p. 600.
151
PHILO
α χ α ν ή ς έ π ι π λ ε ίσ τ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν ε κ ε ίτ ο , μ η δ * δ σ ο ν τ ή ν
κ ε φ α λ ή ν έ π ά ρ α ι δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ς , θ λ ιβ ο ύ σ η ς κ α ί έ κ τ ρ α χ η -
23 λ ιζ ο ύ σ η ς τ ή ς σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς . ε ΐθ * ώ σ π ε ρ τ ιν ά π η γ ή ν
δ α κ ρ ύ ω ν ε ξ α ίφ ν η ς ά ν ιε ϊς μ ε τ ο ιμ ω γ ή ς π ίκ ρ α ς
π α ρ ε ιά ς κ α ι γ έ ν ε ια κ α ι σ τ έ ρ ν α κ α τ έ ν ιπ τ ε κ α ι τ ά ς
π ε ρ ι α υ τ ό ν ε σ θ ή τ α ς ά μ α τ ο ια ϋ τ * έ π ιλ έ γ ω ν " ο ύ χ ό
θ ά ν α τ ο ς μ ε λ υ π ε ί, τ έ κ ν ο ν , ά λ λ ' ό τ ο ύ τ ο υ τ ρ ό π ο ς
1
- ε ι
ε π ι γ ή ς ε τ ά φ η ς τ ή ς σ ή ς , π α ρ η γ ο ρ ο ύ μ η ν , έ θ ε ρ ά -
π ε υ σ α , ε ν ο σ ή λ ε υ σ α π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν , ά π ο θ ν ή σ κ ο ν τ ι τ ε -
λ ε υ τ α ίω ν α σ π α σ μ ώ ν ε κ ο ιν ώ ν η σ α , τ ο ύ ς ο φ θ α λ μ ο ύ ς
σ υ ν έ κ λ ε ισ α , έ π ε δ ά κ ρ υ σ α κ ε ιμ έ ν ω τ ω ν ε κ ρ ώ , π ο λ υ -
τ ε λ ώ ς έ κ ή δ ε υ σ α , τ ώ ν ν ο μ ιζ ο μ έ ν ω ν ο υ δ έ ν π α ρ -
24 έ λ ιπ ο ν . ά λ λ ' ε ί κ α ι ε π ι τ ή ς ξ έ ν η ς , ε ΐπ ο ν ά ν τ ό
ο ίκ ε ΐο ν ό φ λ η μ α τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς ά π ο λ α β ο ύ σ η ς , ω ο ύ τ ο ς ,
μ ή κ α τ ή φ ε ΐ' π ρ ο ς ζ ώ ν τ α ς α ί π α τ ρ ίδ ε ς , α π ο θ α ν ό ν τ ω ν
δ έ π α σ α γ ή τ ά φ ο ς · ώ κ ύ μ ο ρ ο ς ο ύ δ ε ις ή π ά ν τ ε ς
ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ι, κ α ι γ ά ρ ό μ α κ ρ ο β ιώ τ α τ ο ς ό λ ιγ ο χ ρ ό ν ιο ς
25 ά ν τ ε ξ ε τ α ζ ό μ ε ν ο ς α ίώ ν ι. ε ί δ έ δ ή κ α ι β ια ίω ς κ α ί
ε ξ ε π ιβ ο υ λ ή ς έ δ ε ι θ ν ή σ κ ε ιν , ή ν ά ν μ ο ι κ ο υ φ ό τ ε ρ ο ν
κ α κ ό ν , ύ π * α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ά ν α ιρ ε θ έ ν τ ο ς , ο ι κ τ ε ίν α ν τ ε ς
ν ε κ ρ ό ν α ν ή λ έ η σ α ν , ώ ς β τ τ α / χ ^σ α σ ί α ι κ ό ν ιν κ α ι τ ό
σ ώ μ α σ υ γ κ ρ ύ φ α ι· ε ί δ έ κ α ι π ά ν τ ω ν ε γ ε γ έ ν η ν τ ο
ω μ ό τ α τ ο ι, τ ί π λ έ ο ν ε ΐχ ο ν ή ρ ίψ α ν τ ε ς ά τ α φ ο ν ά π -
α λ λ ά τ τ ε σ θ α ι; τ ώ ν δ ' ε ν ό δ ώ π α ρ ιό ν τ ω ν ίσ ω ς τ ις
έ π ισ τ ά ς κ α ι θ ε α σ ά μ ε ν ο ς , ο ΐκ τ ο ν τ ή ς κ ο ιν ή ς λ α β ώ ν
φ ύ σ ε ω ς , ε π ιμ ε λ ε ία ς κ α ι τ α φ ή ς ή ζ ίω σ ε . ν υ ν ϊ δ ',
ώ ς λ ό γ ο ς , ά τ ιθ ά σ ο ις κ α ί σ α ρ κ ο β ό ρ ο ις θ η ρ σ ιν ε υ ω χ ία
κ α ί θ ο ίν η γ έ γ ο ν α ς γ ε υ σ α μ έ ν ο ις κ α ι έ σ τ ια θ ε ΐσ ι τ ώ ν
1
MSS. τ ά φ ο ι.
β
Cf. De Abr. 257.
b
Perhaps a somewhat distorted reminiscence of α ν δ ρ ώ ν
yap ε π ιφ α ν ώ ν π ά σ α yrj τ ά φ ο ς Thuc. ii. 43.
152
ON JOSEPH, 22-26
emotion, he lay for a great while with closed lips, not
even able to lift his head, so utterly did the calamity
afflict and break him down. Then, suddenly pouring 23
forth tears like a fountain, he watered his cheeks and
chin and breast and his own raiment, while bitterly
wailing, and uttered such words as these : " Child,
it is not your death which grieves me, but the manner
of it. If you had been buried in your own land, I
should have comforted and watched and nursed your
sick-bed, exchanged the last farewells as you died
3
closed your eyes, wept over the body as it lay there,
given it a costly funeral and left none of the customary
rites undone. Nay, even if it had been on foreign 24
soil, I should have said to myself:
1
Man, be not
downcast that nature has recovered the forfeit that
was her due.'
α
Separate countries concern the living:
every land is the tomb of the dead.
5
Death comes
early to none, or rather it comes early to all, for
few are the years of the longest-lived compared with
eternity. And, indeed, if you needs must have died 25
by violence or through premeditation, it would have
been a lighter ill to me, slain as you would have been
by human beings, who would have pitied their dead
victim, gathered some dust and covered the corpse.
And then if they had been the cruellest of men, what
more could they have done but cast it out unburied
and go their way, and then perhaps some passer-by
would have stayed his steps, and, as he looked, felt
pity for our common nature and deemed the tendance
of burial to be its due. But, as it is, you have be-
come, in common phrase, a rich banquet for savage
carnivorous beasts who have found my own flesh and
blood to their taste, and feasted thereon. I am long 26
153
PHILO
26 ε μ ώ ν σ π λ ά γ χ ν ω ν , α θ λ η τ ή ς ε ίμ ι τ ώ ν ά β ο υ λ ή τ ω ν ,
ε ικ ή γ ε γ ύ μ ν α σ μ α ι π ο λ λ α ΐς κ α κ ο π α θ ε ία ις , ά λ ώ μ ε ν ο ς ,
ζ ε ν ιτ ε ύ ω ν , θ η τ ε ύ ω ν , ά ν α γ κ α ζ ό μ έ ν ο ς , ά χ ρ ι κ α ι ψ υ χ ή ς
ε π ιβ ο υ λ ε υ ό μ ε ν ο ς ύ φ
9
ώ ν ή κ ισ τ * ε χ ρ ή ν κ α ι π ο λ λ ά
μ έ ν ε ΐδ ο ν , π ο λ λ ά δ ' ή κ ο υ σ α , μ υ ρ ία δ ' α υ τ ό ς ε π α θ ο ν
τ ώ ν α ν ή κ ε σ τ ω ν , ε φ ' ο ΐς π α ιδ ε υ θ ε ις μ ε τ ρ ιο π α θ ε ΐν
ο ύ κ ε γ ν ά μ φ θ η ν ά λ λ ' ο υ δ έ ν τ ο ϋ σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό τ ο ς ά -
φ ο ρ η τ ό τ ε ρ ο ν , δ μ ο υ τ ή ν ρ ώ μ η ν τ ή ς ψ υ χ ή ς ά ν α τ έ -
27 τ ρ ο φ ε κ α ι κ α θ ή ρ η κ ε . τ ι γ ά ρ μ ε ίζ ο ν ή ο ίκ τ ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν
π έ ν θ ο ς ; ή μ έ ν έ σ θ ή ς τ ο ϋ π α ιδ ό ς δ ια κ ε κ ό μ ισ τ α ί μ ο ι
τ ώ π α τ ρ ί, τ ο ϋ δ έ ο ύ μ έ ρ ο ς , ο ύ μ έ λ ο ς , ο ύ β ρ α χ ύ
λ ε ίψ α ν ο ν ά λ λ ' ο μ έ ν δ λ ο ς δ ι δ λ ω ν δ εδ α τ τ ά ν ^τ α ι
μ η δ έ τ α φ ή ς δ υ ν η θ ε ίς μ ε τ α λ α χ ε ΐν , ή δ ' ο ύ δ
9
α ν
ε ίσ π ε μ φ θ ή ν α ί μ ο ι δ ο κ ε ΐ τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν , ε ι μ ή π ρ ο ς
α ν ία ς ύ π ό μ ν η σ ιν κ α ι ώ ν ύ π έ μ ε ιν ε κ α ίν ω σ ιν , ε ις ά -
λ η σ τ ο υ ς κ α ι σ υ ν έ χ ε ις έ μ ο ι σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς ." κ α ι 6 μ έ ν
[ 46] τ ο ια ϋ τ ά π ω δ ύ ρ ε τ ο . ο ι δ ' έ μ π ο ρ ο ι \ π ιπ ρ ά σ κ ο υ σ ι
τ ο ν π α ιδ α έ ν Α ίγ ύ π τ ω τ ώ ν ε υ ν ο ύ χ ω ν τ ιν ϊ τ ο ϋ
β α σ ιλ έ ω ς , δ ς έ σ τ ιν ά ρ χ ιμ ά γ ε ιρ ο ς .
28 VI. "Α ξ ιο ν μ έ ν τ ο ι μ ε τ ά τ ή ν ρ η τ ή ν δ ιή γ η σ ιν κ α ϊ
τ ά έ ν ύ π ο ν ο ία ις π ρ ο σ α π ο δ ο ϋ ν α ι· σ χ ε δ ό ν γ ά ρ τ ά
π ά ν τ α ή τ ά π λ ε ίσ τ α τ ή ς ν ο μ ο θ ε σ ία ς ά λ λ η γ ο ρ ε ΐτ α ι.
6 τ ο ίν υ ν έ π ικ ρ ιν δ μ ε ν ο ς τ ρ ό π ο ς π α ρ ά μ έ ν *Έ *β ρ α ίο ις
9
Ιω σ ή φ κ α λ ε ίτ α ι, π α ρ ά δ ' "Έ λ λ η σ ι " κ υ ρ ίο υ π ρ ό σ -
θ ε σ ις ," ε ύ θ υ β ο λ ώ τ α τ ο ν (ό ν ο μ α } κ α ι τ ώ δ η λ ο υ μ έ ν ω
π ρ ά γ μ α τ ι ο ίκ ε ιό τ α τ ο ν π ρ ο σ θ ή κ η γ ά ρ έ σ τ ι τ ή ς τ ό
κ ύ ρ ο ς α π ά ν τ ω ν ά ν η μ μ έ ν η ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς ή κ α τ ά δ ή μ ο υ ς
α
So LXX. Ε . V. " An officer of Pharaoh's, the captain of
the guard."
154»
ON JOSEPH, 26-28
trained in the athletics of adversity, drilled by many
a random stroke of misfortune, a wanderer, a stranger,
a serf, a thrall, my very life and soul a mark for the
malice of those by whom I should least have been so
treated. Many desperate calamities I have seen and
heard : thousands of them have I experienced my-
self, but trained to moderate my feelings at such I
remained unmoved. But none was more unbearable
than this event which has overturned and destroyed
the strength of my soul. For what sorrow could be 27
greater or more pitiful ? My son's raiment has been
conveyed to me, his father, but not a part of him, not
a limb, not a tiny fragment. But, while he has been
utterly made away with beyond even any possibility
of burial, his raiment too would not have been sent
to me at all save to remind me of my sorrow, and to
make his sufferings live again as calamities constant
and indelible to myself." Thus did he bewail. But
the merchants sold the boy in Egypt to one of the
king's eunuchs who was his chief cook.
a
VI. After this literal account of the story, it will 28
be well to explain the underlying meaning, for,
broadly speaking, all or most of the law-book is an
allegory. The kind of character then here under dis-
cussion is called in the Hebrew "Joseph," but in our
language is "addition of a lord," a most significant
title well suited to the thing which it indicates, since
polity as seen in the various peoples is an addition
to nature who is invested with a universal lordship.
6
b
The interpretation of Joseph as = " Addition " has ap-
peared in De Mut. 89 and De Som. ii. 47 without any
appendage. There, however, it is applied to adventitious
wealth, luxuries and the like. Here the appendage "of a
lord" helps Philo in the political interpretation which he
gives. See further App. p. 600.
155
PHILO
29 π ο λ ιτ ε ία , ή μ ε ν γ ά ρ μ ε γ α λ ό π ο λ ις δ δ ε ο κ ό σ μ ο ς
ε σ τ ι κ α ι μ ια χ ρ ή τ α ι π ο λ ιτ ε ία κ α ι ν ό μ ω ε ν ί' λ ό γ ο ς
δ ε ε σ τ ι φ ύ σ ε ω ς π ρ ο σ τ α κ τ ικ ό ς μ ε ν ω ν π ρ α κ τ έ ο ν ,
α π α γ ο ρ ε υ τ ικ ό ς δ ε ώ ν ο ύ π ο ιη τ έ ο ν α ί δ έ κ α τ ά
τ ό π ο υ ς α ύ τ α ι π ό λ ε ις ά π ε ρ ίγ ρ α φ ο ί τ ε ε ίσ ιν α ρ ιθ μ ώ
κ α ι π ο λ ιτ ε ία ις χ ρ ώ ν τ α ι δ ια φ ε ρ ο ύ σ α ις κ α ι ν ό μ ο ις
ο υ χ ί τ ο ις α ύ τ ο ΐς , ά λ λ α γ ά ρ π α ρ * ά λ λ ο ις ε θ η κ α ι
30 ν ό μ ιμ α π α ρ ε ξ ε υ ρ η μ έ ν α κ α ι π ρ ο σ τ ε θ ε ιμ ε ν α . α ίτ ιο ν
δ έ τ ό ά μ ικ τ ο ν κ α ι ά κ ο ιν ώ ν η τ ο ν ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν Ε λ λ ή ν ω ν
π ρ ο ς β α ρ β ά ρ ο υ ς ή β α ρ β ά ρ ω ν π ρ ο ς "Ε λ λ η ν α ς , ά λ λ α
κ α ι τ ό ε κ α τ ε ρ ο υ γ έ ν ο υ ς ίδ ια π ρ ο ς τ ό ό μ ό φ υ λ ο ν ε ΐθ *
ώ ς έ ο ικ ε τ ά α ν α ίτ ια α ίτ ιώ μ ε ν ο ι, κ α ιρ ο ύ ς ά β ο υ λ η -
τ ο υ ς , ά γ ο ν ία ν κ α ρ π ώ ν , τ ό λ υ π ρ ό γ ε ω ν , τ ή ν θ έ σ ιν δ τ ι
π α ρ ά λ ιο ς ή μ ε σ ό γ ε ιο ς ή κ α τ ά ν ή σ ο ν ή κ α τ ά ή π ε ιρ ο ν
ή ο σ α τ ο ύ τ ο ις ο μ ο ιό τ ρ ο π α , τ ά λ η θ έ ς ή σ υ χ ά ζ ο υ σ ιν
ε σ τ ι ο ή π λ ε ο ν ε ξ ία κ α ι ή π ρ ο ς α λ λ ή λ ο υ ς α π ι σ τ ί α , ο ι
α ς ο ύ κ ά ρ κ ε σ θ έ ν τ ε ς τ ο ις τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς θ ε σ μ ο ΐς τ ά
δ ό ξ α ν τ α σ υ μ φ ε ρ ε ιν κ ο ιν ή τ ο ις ό μ ο γ ν ώ μ ο σ ιν ό μ ίλ ο ις
31 τ α ύ τ α ν ό μ ο υ ς ε π ε φ ή μ ισ α ν . ώ σ τ ε ε ίκ ό τ ω ς π ρ ο σ -
θ ή κ α ι μ ά λ λ ο ν α ί κ α τ ά μ έ ρ ο ς π ο λ ιτ ε ΐα ι μ ια ς τ ή ς
κ α τ ά τ ή ν φ ύ σ ιν π ρ ο σ θ ή κ α ι μ έ ν γ ά ρ ο ι κ α τ ά π ό λ ε ις
ν ό μ ο ι τ ο ϋ τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς ο ρ θ ο ύ λ ό γ ο υ , π ρ ο σ θ ή κ η
δ ε ε σ τ ι π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ς ά ν ή ρ τ ο ϋ β ιο ϋ ν τ ο ς κ α τ ά φ ύ σ ιν .
32 VII. ο ύ κ ά π ό σ κ ο π ο ύ μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ϊ
χ ιτ ώ ν α π ο ικ ίλ ο ν ά ν α λ α μ β ά ν ε ιν λ έ γ ε τ α ι
9
π ο ικ ίλ ο ν
γ ά ρ π ο λ ιτ ε ία κ α ι π ο λ ύ τ ρ ο π ο ν , μ υ ρ ία ς δ σ α ς ε ν δ ε χ ο -
μ έ ν η μ ε τ α β ο λ ά ς , π ρ ο σ ώ π ο ις , π ρ ά γ μ α σ ιν , α ίτ ία ις ,
α
This term for the Stoic ideal of the world conceived of as
a state and expressed in the name κ ο σ μ ο π ο λ ίτ η * has been used
in De Op. 19 and appears again in Mos. ii. 51. It is not
quoted from any other writer than Philo in this sense. Cf.
also μ € <ιλ ο π ο λ ίτ η ϊ De Op. 143.
156
ON JOSEPH, 29-32
For this world is the Megalopolis or "great city,"
0
29
and it has a single polity and a single law, and this
is the word or reason of nature, commanding what
should be done and forbidding what should not be
done. But the local cities which we see are unlimited
in number and subject to diverse polities and laws by
no means identical, for different peoples have different
customs and regulations which are extra inventions
and additions. The cause of this is the reluctance to 30
combine or have fellowship with each other, shewn
not only by Greeks to barbarians and barbarians to
Greeks, but also within each of them separately in
dealing with their own kin. And then we find them
alleging causes for this which are no real causes, such
as unfavourable seasons, want of fertility, poverty
of soil or how the state is situated, whether it is
maritime or inland or whether it is on an island or on
the mainland and the like. The true cause they never
mention, and that is their covetousness and mutual
mistrusts, which keep them from being satisfied with
the ordinances of nature, and lead them to give the
name of laws to whatever approves itself as ad-
vantageous to the communities which hold the same
views. Thus naturally particular polities are rather 31
an addition to the single polity of nature, for the
laws of the different states are additions to the right
reason of nature, and the politician is an addition
to the man whose life accords with nature.
VII. Further, he is quite properly said to assume a 32
coat of varied colours,
6
for political life is a thing
varied and multiple, liable to innumerable changes
brought about by personalities, circumstances,
b
Gen. xxxvii. 3. Observe that the point has not been
mentioned in the narrative.
157
PHILO
π ρ ά ξ ε ω ν ίδ ιό τ η σ ι, κ α ιρ ώ ν κ α ί τ ό π ω ν δ ια φ ο ρ α ΐς .
33 ώ σ π ε ρ γ ά ρ κ υ β ε ρ ν ή τ η ς τ α ΐς τ ώ ν π ν ε υ μ ά τ ω ν μ ε τ ά -
β ο λ α ΐς σ υ μ μ ε τ α β ά λ λ ε ι τ ά ς π ρ ο ς ε ΰ π Χ ο ια ν β ο η θ ε ία ς ,
ε υ θ υ ν ώ ν τ ό σ κ ά φ ο ς ο ύ χ έ ν ί τ ρ ό π ω , κ α ί ια τ ρ ό ς ο ύ
μ ια χ ρ ή τ α ι θ ε ρ α π ε ία π ρ ο ς α π α ν τ ά ς τ ο ύ ς κ ά μ ν ο ν τ α ς ,
ά λ λ ' ο υ δ έ π ρ ο ς έ ν α , τ ο υ π ά θ ο υ ς μ ή ε π ιμ έ ν ο ν τ ο ς ,
ά λ λ ' έ π ιτ η ρ ώ ν α ν έ σ ε ις , ε π ιτ ά σ ε ις , π λ η ρ ώ σ ε ις , κ ε -
ν ώ σ ε ις , α ιτ ίω ν μ ε τ α β ο λ ά ς π ο ικ ίλ λ ε ι τ α ύ τ α
1
π ρ ο ς
[ 47] σ ω τ η ρ ία ν π ο τ έ μ έ ν τ α υ τ ι π ο τ έ δ έ τ α υ τ ι | π ρ ο σ -
34 φ έ ρ ω ν , ο ύ τ ω ς , ο ΐμ α ι, κ α ι τ ο ν π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ν ά ν α γ κ α ΐο ν
ε ίν α ι τ ιν α π ο λ υ ε ιδ ή κ α ι π ο λ ύ μ ο ρ φ ο ν , έ τ ε ρ ο ν μ έ ν
κ α τ ε ίρ ή ν η ν , έ τ ε ρ ο ν δ ' ε ν π ο λ έ μ ω , ά λ λ ο ν δ έ έ π ι-
σ υ ν ισ τ α μ έ ν ω ν ο λ ίγ ω ν ή π ο λ λ ώ ν , τ ώ ν μ έ ν ο λ ίγ ω ν
ε ύ τ ό ν ω ς κ α τ ε ξ α ν ισ τ ά μ ε ν ο ν , μ ε τ ά δ έ π ε ιθ ο ύ ς τ ο ΐς
π ο λ λ ο ίς ο μ ιλ ο ύ ν τ α , κ α ι ό π ο υ μ έ ν μ ε τ ά κ ιν δ ύ ν ο υ τ ό
ε ίν α ι,
2
δ ιά τ ό κ ο ιν ω φ ε λ έ ς φ θ ά ν ο ν τ α τ ο ύ ς ά λ λ ο υ ς
α υ τ ο υ ρ γ ία , Ο π ο υ δ έ π ό ν ω ν ή σ κ έ φ ις , έ τ έ ρ ο ις ύ π -
35 η ρ ε τ ε ΐν έ ξ ισ τ ά μ ε ν ο ν . ε υ μ έ ν τ ο ι τ ό φ ά ν α ι π ιπ ρ ά -
σ κ ε σ θ α ι τ ο ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν ό μ έ ν γ ά ρ δ η μ ο κ ό π ο ς κ α ι
δ η μ η γ ό ρ ο ς ά ν α β ά ς ε π ι τ ό β ή μ α , κ α θ ά π ε ρ τ ά π ι-
π ρ α σ κ ό μ ε ν α τ ώ ν ά ν δ ρ α π ό δ ω ν , δ ο ύ λ ο ς ά ν τ ε λ ε υ θ έ ρ ο υ
γ ίν ε τ α ι δ ιά τ ώ ν τ ιμ ώ ν , α ς δ ο κ ε ΐ λ α μ β ά ν ε ιν , ά π -
36 α χ θ ε ις ύ π ό μ υ ρ ίω ν δ ε σ π ο τ ώ ν . ό δ ' α υ τ ό ς κ α ι
θ η ρ ιά λ ω τ ο ς etaayerar θ η ρ ίο ν δ έ ά τ ίθ α σ ο ν ή
λ ο χ ώ σ α κ ε ν ο δ ο ξ ία σ υ ν α ρ π ά ζ ο υ σ α κ α ι δ ια φ θ ε ίρ ο υ σ α
1
Unless aveaeis etc. can represent processes rather than
symptoms, in which case we should have to change, as
Mangey suggested, α ιτ ίω ν into α ιτ ίω ν , τ α ύ τ α is quite illogical.
Cohn suggests π ά ν τ α or τ ά . The latter is adopted in the
translation.
2
This τ ό elvai seems quite impossible and the reading of
some MSS. τ ο υ ε ίν α ι (" danger to existence "), though thought
possible by Cohn, does not commend itself. I suggest for
158
ON JOSEPH, 32-36
motives, individualities of conduct, differences in
occasions and places. The pilot is helped to a success- 33
ful voyage by means which change with the changes
of the wind, and does not confine his guidance of the
ship to one method. The physician does not use a
single form of treatment for all his patients, nor
even for an individual if the physical condition does
not remain unaltered, but he watches the lowering
and the heightening of the strain, its alternations
of fullness and emptiness and all the changes of
symptoms,
a
and varies his salutary processes, some-
times using one kind and sometimes another. And 34
so too the politician must needs be a man of many
sides and many forms. He must be a different man
in peace from what he is in war, another man as
those who venture to oppose him are few or many,
resisting the few with vigorous action but using
persuasion in his dealings with the many, and when
danger is involved he will, to effect the common
good, outstrip all others in his personal activity, but
when the prospect is one of labour merely he will
stand aside and leave others to serve him. Again it 35
is rightly said that this person is sold, for when the
would-be popular orator mounts the platform, like
a slave in the market, he becomes a bond-servant
instead of a free man, and, through the seeming
honours which he receives, the captive of a thousand
masters. Again, he is also represented as the prey 36
of wild beasts, and indeed the vainglory which lies
in ambush and then seizes and destroys those who
° Lit. " causes."
consideration rb Ι έ ν α ι δ ια τ ο υ κ ο ιν ω φ ε λ ο ύ ς (according to the
common idiom of ίέ ν α ι δ ιά ). " When the path of serving the
commonweal involves danger," etc,
159
PHILO
τ ο ύ ς χ ρ ω μ έ ν ο υ ς . ο ί δ
9
ώ ν η σ ά μ ε ν ο ι κ α ι π ιπ ρ ά σ κ ο υ -
σ ιν ο ύ γ ά ρ ε ις δ ε σ π ό τ η ς τ ώ ν π ο λ ιτ ε υ ό μ ε ν ω ν , ά λ λ '
ό χ λ ο ς , ε ζ ε τ έ ρ ω ν έ τ ε ρ ο ι κ α τ ά τ ιν α ς ε φ ε δ ρ ε ία ς κ α ι
δ ια δ ο χ ά ς * ο ί δ έ τ ρ ίπ ρ α τ ο ι κ α κ ώ ν θ ε ρ α π ό ν τ ω ν
τ ρ ό π ο ν ά λ λ ά τ τ ο υ σ ι τ ο ύ ς κ υ ρ ίο υ ς ο ύ χ υ π ο μ έ ν ο ν τ ε ς
τ ο ύ ς π ρ ο τ έ ρ ο υ ς δ ιά τ ή ν ά φ ίκ ο ρ ο ν κ α ι φ ιλ ό κ α ιν ο ν
τ ώ ν η θ ώ ν ά ν ω μ α λ ία ν .
37 VIII. Τ ο σ α υ τ α κ α ι π ε ρ ι τ ο ύ τ ω ν . ό μ έ ν τ ο ι
ν ε α ν ία ς ε ίς Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν ά χ θ ε ις κ α ι γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ς , ώ ς
ε λ έ χ θ η , π α ρ
9
ε ύ ν ο ύ χ ω δ ε σ π ό τ η , τ ή ς κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία ς
κ α ι ε υ γ ε ν ε ία ς π ε ΐρ α ν ό λ ίγ α ις ή μ έ ρ α ις δ ο ύ ς τ ή ν έ π ι
τ ο ις ό μ ο δ ο ύ λ ο ις α ρ χ ή ν π α ρ α λ α μ β ά ν ε ι κ α ϊ σ υ μ π ά σ η ς
τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς τ ή ν έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν ή δ η γ ά ρ ό κ τ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ς
έ τ ε κ μ η ρ ιο ϋ τ ο δ ιά π ο λ λ ώ ν , ώ ς ο ύ κ ά ν ε υ θ ε ία ς έ π ι-
φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ς ε κ ε ίν ο ς έ κ α σ τ α λ έ γ ε ι τ ε κ α ι π ρ ά τ τ ε ι.
38 τ ώ μ έ ν ο ύ ν δ ο κ ε ΐν υ π ό τ ο ΰ π ρ ια μ έ ν ο υ κ α θ ίσ τ α τ ο
τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς ε π ίτ ρ ο π ο ς , έ ρ γ ω δ έ κ α ι τ ο ις ά λ η θ ε ία ις
υ π ό φ ύ σ ε ω ς μ ν ω μ έ ν η ς α ύ τ ω π ό λ ε ω ν κ α ι έ θ ν ο υ ς κ α ι
χ ώ ρ α ς μ ε γ ά λ η ς ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ν έ δ ε ι γ ά ρ τ ο ν μ έ λ λ ο ν τ α
έ σ ε σ θ α ι π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ν έ γ γ υ μ ν ά σ α σ θ α ι κ α ϊ έ ν α σ κ η θ ή ν α ι
π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν τ ο ις κ α τ
9
ο ίκ ο ν ο μ ία ν ο ικ ία τ ε γ ά ρ π ό λ ις
έ σ τ ιν έ σ τ α λ μ έ ν η κ α ι β ρ α χ ε ία κ α ι ο ικ ο ν ο μ ία σ υ ν -
η γ μ έ ν η τ ις π ο λ ιτ ε ία , ώ ς κ α ι π ό λ ις μ έ ν ο ΐκ ο ς μ έ γ α ς ,
39 π ο λ ιτ ε ία δ έ κ ο ιν ή τ ις ο ικ ο ν ο μ ία . δ ι
9
ώ ν μ ά λ ισ τ α
π α ρ ίσ τ α τ α ι τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν ο ίκ ο ν ο μ ικ ό ν τ ε ε ίν α ι κ α ι
π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ν , κ α ν τ ά π λ ή θ η κ α ι μ ε γ έ θ η τ ώ ν υ π ο -
κ ε ιμ έ ν ω ν δ ια λ λ ά τ τ η * κ α θ ά π ε ρ έ π ι ζ ω γ ρ α φ ιά ς έ χ ε ι
° The false statement, as in De Som. ii. 65, is treated as
true for the purposes of allegory. Cf. De Mig. 21.
6
§§ 37-53 follow the narrative of Gen. xxxix.
c
See note on De Abr. 99.
160
ON JOSEPH, 36-39
indulge it is a savage beast.
a
Once more his pur-
chasers sell him again, for politicians have not one
but a multitude of masters who buy them one from
another, each waiting to take his turn in the suc-
cession, and those who are thus sold again and again
like bad servants change their masters, because,
capricious and fitful in character as they are and
ever hankering after novelty, they cannot endure
their old lords.
VIII.
h
Enough on this subject also. To resume the 37
story, when the youth had been brought to Egypt and
as I have said placed with the eunuch as his master,
he gave proof in a few days of his nobility of char-
acter and nature, and therefore he received authority
over his fellow-servants and the charge of the whole
household; for his owner had already observed many
signs that everything which he said or did was
under God's directing care. So, while in outward 38
appearance it was his purchaser who appointed him
steward of his household, in fact and reality it was
nature's
c
doing, who was taking steps to procure for
him the command of whole cities and a nation and
a great country. For the future statesman needed
first to be trained and practised in house manage-
ment ; for a house is a city compressed into small
dimensions, and household management may be
called a kind of state management, just as a city too
is a great house and statesmanship the household
management of the general publico All this shews 39
clearly that the household manager is identical with
the statesman, however much what is under the
purview of the two may differ in number and size.
The same holds with sculpture and painting, for the
* See App. p. 600.
161
PHILO
κ α ι π λ α σ τ ικ ή ς ' 6 γ ά ρ α γ α θ ό ς ά ν δ ρ ια ν τ ο π ο ιό ς ή ζ ω -
γ ρ ά φ ο ς , ε ά ν τ € π ο λ λ ά κ α ι κ ο λ ο σ σ ια ία μ ε γ έ θ η
κ α τ α σ κ ε υ ά ζ η , iav τ € ο λ ίγ α κ α ι β ρ α χ ύ τ ε ρ α , τ ή ν
α υ τ ή ν έ π ιδ ε ικ ν ύ μ έ ν ο ς τ έ χ ν η ν 6 α υ τ ό ς ε σ τ ι.
40 IX. Σ ιφ ό δ ρ α δ έ ε υ δ ό κ ιμ ω ν iv τ ο ις κ α τ ά τ ή ν
ο ικ ο υ ρ ία ν ε π ιβ ο υ λ ε ύ ε τ α ι π ρ ο ς τ ή ς τ ο ϋ δ ε σ π ό τ ο υ
[ 48] γ υ ν α ικ ό ς έ π ιβ ο υ λ ή ν τ ή ν ε ξ έ ρ ω τ ο ς \ α κ ο λ ά σ τ ο υ ,
τ ή γ ά ρ ε ύ μ ο ρ φ ία ε π ιμ α ν ε ΐσ α τ ο ϋ ν ε α ν ίσ κ ο υ κ α ι
ά κ α θ έ κ τ ω ς π ε ρ ι τ ό π ά θ ο ς λ υ τ τ ώ σ α τ ο υ ς π ε ρ ι
μ ίξ ε ω ς λ ό γ ο υ ς π ρ ο σ ε φ ε ρ ε ν ε ρ ρ ω μ ε ν ω ς ε ν α ν τ ιο υ μ ε ν ω
κ α ϊ μ η δ ' δ λ ω ς π ρ ο σ ίε σ θ α ι ύ π ο μ ε ν ο ν τ ι δ ιά τ ή ν ε κ
φ ύ σ ε ω ς κ α ι μ ε λ έ τ η ς έ ν υ π ά ρ ξ α σ α ν κ ο σ μ ιό τ η τ α κ α ι
41 σ ω φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ν . ε π ε ι δ έ ζ ω π υ ρ ο ύ σ α κ α ι ά ν α φ λ ε γ ο υ σ α
τ ή ν ε κ ν ο μ ο ν ε π ιθ υ μ ία ν ά ε ι μ έ ν ά π ε π ε ιρ ά τ ο , ά ε ι δ '
ά π ε τ ύ γ χ α ν ε , β ία λ ο ιπ ό ν π ρ ο σ π α θ ο ύ σ α έ χ ρ ή τ ο κ α ι
λ α β ο μ ε ν η τ ή ς ά μ π ε χ ό ν η ς ε ύ τ ό ν ω ς ά χ ρ ι τ ή ς ε ύ ν ή ς
ε π ε σ π ά σ α τ ο ρ ω μ η κ ρ α τ α ιο τ ε ρ α , τ ο ϋ π ά θ ο υ ς ίσ χ ύ ν
έ π ιδ ιδ ό ν τ ο ς , δ κ α ι τ ο υ ς α σ θ ε ν έ σ τ α τ ο υ ς ε ΐω θ ε ν ε υ -
42 ρ ο υ ν . ό δ έ τ ή ς π α ρ ο ύ σ η ς ά κ α ιρ ία ς γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ς δ υ -
ν α τ ώ τ ε ρ ο ς τ ά ς ε λ ε υ θ έ ρ ιο υ ς κ α ι α ξ ία ς τ ο ϋ γ έ ν ο υ ς
έ ρ ρ η ξ ε φ ω ν ά ς , " τ ι β ιά ζ η ; " λ έ γ ω ν " έ ξ α ιρ έ τ ο ις
έ θ ε σ ι κ α ι ν ο μ ίμ ο ις χ ρ ώ μ ε θ α ή μ ε ΐς ο ι Ε β ρ α ίω ν
43 α π ό γ ο ν ο ι, τ ο ις ά λ λ ο ις ε φ ε ΐτ α ι μ ε τ ά τ ή ν τ ε σ σ α ρ ε σ -
κ α ιδ ε κ ά τ η ν ή λ ικ ία ν π ό ρ ν α ις κ α ι χ α ^α ι τ υ 7Γ α ι ? κ α ι
τ α ΐς δ σ α ι μ ισ θ α ρ ν ο ϋ σ ιν έ π ι τ ο ις σ ώ μ α σ ι μ ε τ ά π ο λ -
λ ή ς α δ ε ία ς χ ρ ή σ θ α ι, π α ρ * ή μ ΐν δ έ ο ΰ δ ' ε τ α ίρ α ζ ή ν
έ ξ ε σ τ ιν , ά λ λ α κ α τ ά τ ή ς ε τ α ιρ ο ύ σ η ς ώ ρ ισ τ α ι δ ίκ η
θ ά ν α τ ο ς , π ρ ο δ ή σ υ ν ό δ ω ν ν ο μ ίμ ω ν ό μ ιλ ία ν ε τ έ ρ α ς
γ υ ν α ικ ό ς ο ύ κ ϊσ μ ε ν , ά λ λ ' ά γ ν ο ι γ ά μ ω ν ά γ ν α ΐς
° Cf. Deut. xxiii. 17. The passage hardly suggests this
162
ON JOSEPH, 39-43
good statuary or painter, whether the works which
he produces are many and of colossal size or few and
smaller, is the same man exhibiting the same skill.
IX. But while he was winning a high reputation 40
in household affairs, his master's wife made him the
object of her designs, which were prompted by
licentious love ; for wrought up to madness by the
beauty of the youth, and putting no restraint upon
the frenzy of her passion, she made proposals of
intercourse to him which he stoutly resisted and
utterly refused to accept, so strong was the sense
of decency and temperance which nature and the
exercise of control had implanted in him. And, 41
since, as she fed the fire of lawless lust till it burst
into a blaze, her constant efforts to gain him as
constantly failed, at last in an accession of passion
she was fain to employ violence. She caught hold
of his outer garment and powerfully drew him to
her bed by superior force, since passion which often
braces even the weakest gave her new vigour. But 42
he shewed power which was more than a match for
the untoward situation and burst into speech with
a frankness worthy of his race. " What/' he said,
"are you forcing me to ? We children of the Hebrews
follow laws and customs which are especially our own.
Other nations are permitted after the fourteenth 43
year to deal without interference with harlots and
strumpets and all those who make a traffic of their
bodies, but with us a courtesan is not even permitted
to live, and death is the penalty appointed for women
who ply this trade.
a
Before the lawful union we know
no mating with other women, but come as virgin men
extreme interpretation, but Philo repeats it η ί )ί Spec.
Leg. iii. 51.
163
PHILO
π α ρ θ έ ν ο ις π ρ ο σ ε ρ χ ό μ ε θ α π ρ ο τ ε θ ε ιμ έ ν ο ι τ έ λ ο ς ο ύ χ
44 ή δ ο ν ή ν α λ λ ά γ ν η σ ίω ν π α ίδ ω ν σ π ο ρ ά ν . ε ίς δ η
τ α ύ τ η ν κ α θ α ρ ε ύ σ α ς τ ή ν ή μ ε ρ α ν ο ύ κ ά ρ ξ ο μ α ι π α ρ α -
ν ο μ ε ΐν ά π ό μ ο ιχ ε ία ς , τ ο ύ μ ε γ ίσ τ ο υ τ ώ ν ά δ ικ η -
μ ά τ ω ν , ο φ ε ιλ ώ ν , ε ί κ α ι τ ο ν ά λ λ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν ύ π ή ρ χ ο ν
ε κ δ ε δ ιη τ η μ έ ν ο ς κ α ι ν ε ό τ η τ ο ς ό ρ μ α ίς ή γ μ έ ν ο ς κ α ι
τ ή ν έ γ χ ώ ρ ιο ν ε ζ η λ ω κ ώ ς τ ρ υ φ ή ν , ό μ ω ς ά λ λ ό τ ρ ιο ν μ ή
θ η ρ ά ν γ ά μ ο ν ε φ ' ω τ ις α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ο ύ φ ο ν α ; π ε ρ ί
γ ά ρ τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν ε ίω θ ό τ ε ς δ ια φ ε ρ ε σ θ α ι μ ό ν ο ν τ ο ύ θ *
ό μ ο γ ν ω μ ο ν ο ύ ν τ ε ς π α ν τ α χ ο ύ π ά ν τ ε ς ά ξ ιο ν θ α ν ά τ ω ν
μ υ ρ ίω ν ε ν ό μ ισ α ν ά κ ρ ιτ ο υ ς ε κ δ ίδ ο ν τ ε ς τ ο ύ ς ά λ ό ν τ α ς
45 τ ο ΐς π ε φ ω ρ α κ ό σ ι. σ ύ δ ' ε π ιδ α φ ιλ ε υ ο μ ε ν η κ α ί
τ ρ ίτ ο ν
1
π ρ ο σ τ ίθ η ς μ ο ι μ ία σ μ α κ ε λ ε ύ ο υ σ α μ ή μ ο ι-
χ ε ύ ε ιν μ ό ν ο ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι δ ε σ π ο ιν α ν κ α ι δ ε σ π ό τ ο υ
γ υ ν α ίκ α δ ια φ θ ε ίρ ε ιν * ε ί μ ή ά ρ α τ ο ύ τ ο υ χ ά ρ ιν π α ρ -
ή λ θ ο ν ε ίς τ ή ν ύ μ ε τ ε ρ α ν ο ίκ ία ν , ιν * ά π ο σ τ ά ς τ ώ ν
υ π η ρ ε σ ιώ ν , α ς δ ε ι θ ε ρ ά π ο ν τ α π α ρ ε χ ε ιν , μ ε θ ύ ω
κ α ι ε μ π α ρ ο ιν ώ τ α ΐς ε λ π ίσ ι τ ο ύ π ρ ια μ έ ν ο υ ν ο θ ε ύ ω ν
46 α υ τ ο ύ γ ά μ ο ν , ο ίκ ία ν , σ υ γ γ έ ν ε ια ν . α λ λ ά γ ά ρ ο ύ χ
ώ ς δ ε σ π ό τ η ν μ ό ν ο ν α λ λ ά κ α ι ώ ς ε ύ ε ρ γ έ τ η ν ή δ η
τ ιμ ά ν π ρ ο ά γ ο μ α ι* π ά ν τ ε π ιτ ε τ ρ ο φ ε μ ο ι τ ά ο ικ ε ία ,
ο υ δ έ ν ο ύ μ ικ ρ ό ν ο ύ μ έ γ α ύ π ε ξ ή ρ η τ α ι τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν
δ ίχ α σ ο υ τ ή ς γ υ ν α ικ ό ς * ά ν θ ' ώ ν ά ξ ιο ν α υ τ ό ν ε ν ο ΐς
[ 49] π α ρ α ιν ε ίς ά μ ε ίψ α σ θ α ι; κ α λ ά ς \ ώ ς ε ο ικ ε ν ά ν τ ιπ α ρ -
έ ξ ω δ ω ρ ε ά ς τ α ΐς π ρ ο ϋ π η ρ γ μ έ ι as χ ά ρ ισ ιν ο ικ ε ία ς .
47 ό μ έ ν δ ε σ π ό τ η ς α ίχ μ ά λ ω τ ο ν ό ν τ α μ ε κ α ι ξ έ ν ο ν τ α ΐς
ε ύ ε ρ γ ε σ ία ις ε λ ε ύ θ ε ρ ο ν κ α ί ά σ τ ό ν τ ό γ ο ύ ν έ π * α υ τ ό ν
1
So MSS. : Cohn τ ρ ιτ τ ό ν . If τ ρ ίτ ο ν is kept the three μ ιά σ μ α τ α
will be (1) harlotry, (2) adultery, (3) adultery with α master's
wife. With τ ρ ιτ τ ό ν they will presumably be (1) adultery,
(2) adultery with a mistress, (3) adultery with a master's
164
ON JOSEPH, 43- 47
to virgin maidens. The end we seek in wedlock is
not pleasure but the begetting of lawful children.
To this day I have remained pure, and I will not take 44
the first step in transgression by committing adultery,
the greatest of crimes. For even if I had always
hitherto lived an irregular life, drawn by the appetites
of youth and following after the luxury of this land,
I ought not to make the wedded wife of another
my prey. Who does not thirst for the blood of the
adulterer ? For while men are accustomed to differ
on other matters they are all and everywhere of one
mind on this ; they count the culprits worthy of a
multitude of deaths, and deliver them unjudged into
the hands of those who have discovered their guilt.
But you in your extravagance would impose upon 45
me a third pollution when you bid me not only
commit adultery but also defile my mistress and my
master's wife. You cannot think that for this pur-
pose I came into your house, to decline the duties
which a servant should render and play like a
drunkard and a sot with the hopes of the master who
bought me by debasing his bed, his household and
his kin. Indeed I am called on to honour him not 46
only as a master but further as a benefactor. He has
entrusted to me all his belongings and nothing at all
great or small has been withdrawn from me save
you, his wife. Is it well that I should requite him
for this by doing what you urge me to do ? A fine
gift this would seem to be, a suitable return for
preceding favours ! The master found me a captive 47
and an alien, and has made me by his kindnesses a
free man and a citizen as far as he can do it. Shall
wife. But no stress is laid on any distinction between these
two in the sequel.
165
PHILO
ή κ ο ν μ έ ρ ο ς ά π ε ιρ γ ά σ α τ ο , έ γ ώ δ ' ο δ ο ύ λ ο ς ώ ς ζ έ ν ω
κ α ι α ίχ μ α λ ώ τ ω π ρ ο σ ε ν ε χ θ ή σ ο μ α ί τ ώ δ ε σ π ό τ η ;
τ ίν ι ψ υ χ ή π α ρ α δ ε ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ό ά ν ο σ ιο ύ ρ γ η μ α τ ο ΰ τ ο ;
π ρ ο σ β λ έ ψ ω δ έ τ ίσ ιν ό φ θ α λ μ ο ΐς ό σ ιδ η ρ ο ύ ς έ γ ώ ;
τ ό σ υ ν ε ιδ ό ς έ λ λ α μ β α ν ό μ ε ν ο ν ό ρ θ ο ΐς ο μ μ α σ ιν ο υ κ
έ ά σ ε ι π ρ ο σ β λ έ π ε ιν , κ α ν δ υ ν η θ ώ λ α ν θ ά ν ε ιν λ ή σ ο μ α ι
δ ' ο υ δ α μ ώ ς * ε ίσ ι γ ά ρ έ ξ ε τ α σ τ α ι μ ύ ρ ιο ι τ ώ ν λ ά θ ρ α
48 δ ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν , ο ΐς ο ύ θ έ μ ις ή σ υ χ ά ζ ε ιν . έ ώ λ έ γ ε ιν ο τ ι,
κ α ν μ η δ ε ις έ τ ε ρ ο ς α ϊσ θ η τ α ι ή σ υ ν α ισ θ ό μ ε ν ο ς μ ή
κ α τ ε ίπ η , μ η ν υ τ ή ς ο υ δ έ ν ή τ τ ο ν α υ τ ό ς γ ε ν ή σ ο μ α ι κ α τ
έ μ α υ τ ο ύ τ ώ χ ρ ώ μ α τ ι, τ ώ β λ έ μ μ α τ ι, τ ή φ ω ν ή ,
κ α θ ά π ε ρ μ ικ ρ ώ π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ε ΐπ ο ν , υ π ό τ ο ύ σ υ ν ε ιδ ό τ ο ς
ε λ ε γ χ ό μ ε ν ο ς * ε ι δ έ κ α ι μ η δ ε ις κ α τ ε ρ ε ΐ, τ ή ν π ά ρ ε δ ρ ο ν
τ ο ύ θ ε ο ύ δ ίκ η ν κ α ϊ τ ώ ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν έ φ ο ρ ο ν ο ύ τ ε
ε ο ιμ ε ν ο υ τ α ιο ο υ μ ε υ α ;
49 Χ . Π ο λ λ ά τ ο ι α ύ τ α σ υ ν ε ίρ ο ν τ ο ς κ α ι φ ιλ ο σ ο -
φ ο ύ ν τ ο ς , έ κ ε κ ώ φ η τ ο π ρ ό ς ά π α ν τ α * δ ε ιν α ι γ ά ρ α ι
έ π ιθ υ μ ία ι κ α ι τ ά ς ά κ ρ ιβ ε σ τ ά τ α ς τ ώ ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν
έ π ισ κ ιά σ α ι* ό π ε ρ σ υ ν ιδ ώ ν ά π ο δ ιδ ρ ά σ κ ε ι τ ά Ιμ ά τ ια
κ α τ α λ ιπ ώ ν έ ν τ α ΐς χ ε ρ σ ιν α υ τ ή ς , ώ ν έ π ε ίλ η π τ ο ,
50 τ ο ύ τ ο π α ρ έ σ χ ε ν α ύ τ η τ ό έ ρ γ ο ν ε ύ ρ ε σ ιλ ο γ ε ΐν π ρ ο -
φ ά σ ε ις σ κ ε π τ ό μ ε ν η κ α τ ά τ ο ύ ν ε α ν ίσ κ ο υ , α ΐς α υ τ ό ν
ά μ υ ν ε ΐτ α ι* π α ρ α γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω γ ά ρ έ ξ α γ ο ρ ά ς τ ώ α υ τ ή ς
ά ν δ ρ ι κ α θ υ π ο κ ρ ιν ο μ έ ν η τ ή ν σ ώ φ ρ ο ν α κ α ι κ ο σ μ ία ν
κ α ι τ ο ις ά κ ο λ ά σ τ ο ις ε τ π τ η δ β ι ί /χ α σ ι π ά ν υ δ υ σ χ ε ρ α ί-
ν ο υ σ α ν " ή γ α γ ε ς
99
ε φ η " θ ε ρ ά π ο ν τ α ή μ ιν π α ΐδ α
Ε β ρ α ΐο ν , δ ς ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν ή δ η τ ή ν σ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν δ ιέ φ θ α ρ -
κ ε ν ε υ χ ε ρ ώ ς κ α ι ά ν ε ξ ε τ ά σ τ ω ς έ π ιτ ρ έ φ α ν τ ο ς α ύ τ ω
τ ή ν ο ίκ ία ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι έ μ ο ύ ά π ε τ ό λ μ η σ ε ν α ίσ χ ύ ν α ι
61 τ ο σ ώ μ α . τ α ΐς γ ά ρ ό μ ο δ ο ύ λ ο ις ο ύ κ έ ζ ή ρ κ ε σ ε ν
α ύ τ ω χ ρ ή σ θ α ι μ ό ν α ις ά σ ε λ γ ε σ τ ά τ ω κ α ι λ α γ ν ισ τ ά τ ω
γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω , π ε ιρ ά ν δ έ κ α ι τ ή ν δ έ σ π ο ιν α ν έ π ε χ ε ίρ η σ ε ν
166
ON JOSEPH, 47-51
I, the slave, deal with the master as though he were
an alien and a captive ? What would be my inward
feelings if I agreed to this unholy act ? What my
looks when I face him, iron-hearted though I be ?
No, conscience will take hold of me and not suffer
me to look him straight in the face
a
even if I can
escape detection. And that cannot be, for there are
thousands to sit in judgement on my secret doings
who must not remain silent; not to mention that, 48
even if no other knows of it or reports the knowledge
which he shares with me, all the same I shall turn
informer against myself through my colour, my look,
my voice, convicted as I said just now by my con-
science. And even if no one denounce me, have we
no fear or respect for justice, the assessor of God,
justice who surveys all our doings ? "
b
X. Thus he spoke long and wisely, but she re- 49
mained deaf to it all. For lust is powerful to becloud
even the keenest of the senses. And seeing this he
fled leaving in her hands the garments which she
had grasped. This action of his gave her the op- 50
portunity to invent a story and devise charges against
the youth to punish him. When her husband came
in from the market she put on the air of a chaste
and modest woman who regards licentious practices
with the utmost indignation. " You brought to us,"
she said, "a Hebrew lad as servant, who has not only
corrupted your soul when you lightly and thought-
lessly entrusted your household to him, but has had
the audacity to dishonour my body. For not content 51
with taking merely the women who were his fellow-
servants, so utterly lewd and lascivious has he shown
himself, he has attempted to violate me by force,
β
Or " with unchanged eyes."
6
See App. pp. 600-601.
16T
PHILO
έ μ έ κ α ι β ιά ζ ε σ θ α ι. κ α ί τ ά δ ε ίγ μ α τ α τ ή ς φ ρ ε ν ο β λ α -
β ε ία ς ε ν α ρ γ ή κ α ι δ ή λ α έ σ τ ί' π ε ρ ιπ α θ ή σ α σ α γ ά ρ ώ ς
έ ζ ε φ ώ ν η σ α τ ο υ ς έ ν δ ο ν β ο η θ ο ύ ς ε π ικ α λ ο ύ σ α , π τ ο η -
θ ε ίς δ ι ά τ ό ά π ε ρ ίσ κ ε π τ ο ν τ ή ν έ σ θ ή τ α κ α τ α λ ιπ ώ ν
ά π ο δ ιδ ρ ά σ κ ε ι φ ό β ω σ υ λ λ ή ψ ε ω ς ." ή ν κ α ι ε π ιδ ε ι-
κ ν υ μ έ ν η π ίσ τ ιν ε δ ό κ ε ι π ρ ο σ φ έ ρ ε ιν τ ώ ν λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ω ν .
52 ά π € α λ η θ ή ν ο μ ίσ α ς ό δ ε σ π ό τ η ς ε ίν α ι κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι τ ο ν
ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν ε ίς ε ίρ κ τ ή ν ά π α γ α γ ε ΐν δ υ σ ι τ ο ΐς μ ε γ ίσ -
τ ο ις ά μ α ρ τ ώ ν , έ ν ι μ έ ν Ο τ ι μ ή μ ε τ α δ ο ύ ς α π ο λ ο γ ία ς
ά κ ρ ίτ ω ς κ α τ έ γ ν ω τ ο ύ μ η δ έ ν ή δ ικ η κ ό τ ο ς ώ ς τ ά
μ έ γ ισ τ α π α ρ α ν ο μ ή σ α ν τ ο ς , έ τ έ ρ ω δ έ Ο τ ι ή έ σ θ ή ς , ή ν
π ρ ο ν φ ε ρ ε ν ή γ υ ν ή ώ ς ά π ο λ ε ιφ θ ε ΐσ α ν ύ π ό τ ο ύ
ν ε α ν ίσ κ ο υ , π ίσ τ ις ή ν β ία ς , ο ύ χ ή ν ε κ ε ίν ο ς ε ίρ γ ά ζ ε τ ο ,
α λ λ ά τ ή ν ύ π ο μ ο ν ή ν
1
ή ν ύ π έ μ ε ιν ε ν ε κ τ ή ς γ υ ν α ικ ό ς ·
β ια ζ ο μ έ ν ο υ μ έ ν γ ά ρ έ ρ γ ο ν ή ν τ ή ν ά μ π ε χ ό ν η ν τ ή ς
6
2 δ ε σ π ο ίν η ς κ α τ έ χ ε ιν , β ια σ θ έ ν τ ο ς δ έ τ ή ν ιδ ία ν ά φ α ιρ ε -
50] θ ή ν ο Ί · σ υ γ γ ν ω σ τ ό ς | δ ' ίσ ω ς τ ή ς ά γ α ν ά π α ιδ ε υ -
σ ία ς , ά τ ε τ ή ν δ ία ιτ α ν ε ν μ α γ ε ιρ ε ία ) π ο ιο ύ μ ε ν ο ς
α ίμ α τ ο ς κ α ί κ α π ν ο ύ κ α ι τ έ φ ρ α ς ά ν ά π λ ε ω ,
2
τ ο ύ
λ ο γ ισ μ ο ύ κ α ιρ ό ν ο ύ κ έ χ ο ν τ ο ς έ ν η ρ ε μ ε ΐν κ α ι σ χ ό λ α -
ζ ε ν έ α υ τ ώ δ ιά τ ό π ε φ ύ ρ θ α ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ή ο ύ χ ή τ τ ο ν τ ο ύ
σ ώ μ α τ ο ς .
54 XI. Ύ ρ ε ΐς ή δ η χ α ρ α κ τ ή ρ α ς τ ο ύ π ο λ ιτ ικ ο ύ δ ιε τ ύ -
π ω σ ε , τ ο ν τ ε π ο ιμ ε ν ικ ό ν κ α ι τ ο ν ο ίκ ο ν ο μ ικ ό ν κ α ί
τ ο ν κ α ρ τ ε ρ ικ ό ν . π ε ρ ι μ έ ν ο ΰ ν τ ώ ν π ρ ο τ έ ρ ω ν ε ΐρ η -
τ α ι δ υ ε ΐν , ό δ ' ε γ κ ρ α τ ή ς ο ύ χ ή τ τ ο ν ε κ ε ίν ω ν π ρ ο ς
65 π ο λ ιτ ε ία ν σ υ ν τ ε ίν ε ι, π ρ ο ς μ έ ν ο ύ ν ά π α ν τ α τ ά τ ο ύ
β ίο υ π ρ ά γ μ α τ α λ υ σ ιτ ε λ έ ς ε γ κ ρ ά τ ε ια κ α ί σ ω τ ή ρ ιο ν ,
1
Not only awkward, but ungrammatical. It would be
simpler with Mangey to expunge τ η ν ύ π . than, as Wendland
suggests, to substitute τ η ς ε π ίβ ο υ λ η ς .
2
MSS. ά ν ά π λ ε ω ς or -ω ν ,
168
ON JOSEPH, 51-55
me his mistress. The proofs of his insane depravity
are clear and evident, for when in my great agitation
I cried aloud and called those who were indoors to
my aid, he was so scared at my unexpected action

that he left his garment behind and fled in fear of
arrest." This garment she showed and made as
though she were proffering a proof of her tale.
Joseph's master, believing this to be true, ordered 52
him to be carried away to prison, and in this lie com-
mitted two great errors. First he gave him no
opportunity of defence, and convicted unheard this
entirely innocent person as guilty of the greatest
misconduct. Secondly, the raiment which his wife
produced as left by the youth was a proof of violence
not employed by him but suffered at her hands.
For if force were used by him he would retain his
mistress's robe, if against him he would lose his own.
But his master may perhaps be pardoned for his 53
gross ignorance, since his days were spent in a
kitchen full of blood and smoke and cinders, where
the reason even more, or at least no less, than the
body lives amid confusion and has no chance of
quietly retiring into itself.
XI. Moses has now set before us three character- 54
istics of the statesman, his shepherd-craft, his
household-management, his self-control. We have
dealt with the two first, but the last-named has quite
as much bearing on statesmanship. While in all the 55
affairs of life self-mastery is a source of profit and
β
This is an unusual sense for α π ε ρ ίσ κ ε π το ς which regularly
means with Philo " reckless " or ** inconsiderate." It is pos-
sible, though less likely, that it may mean here " in his
thoughtlessness," i.e. he did not consider what evidence he
would leave behind him.
169
PHILO
π ρ ο ς δ έ τ ά π ό λ ε ω ς κ α ι δ ια φ ε ρ ό ν τ ω ς , ώ ς ά φ θ ό ν ω ς
τ ο ις β ο υ λ ο μ έ ν ο ις μ α ν θ ά ν ε ιν π ά ρ ε σ τ ι κ α ι π ρ ο χ ε ιρ ό -
66 τ α τ α . τ ις γ ά ρ α γ ν ο ε ί τ ά ς ε ξ ά κ ρ α σ ία ς ε θ ν ε σ ι κ α ι
χ ώ ρ α ις κ α ι ο λ ο ις κ λ ίμ α σ ι τ ή ς ο ικ ο υ μ έ ν η ς έ ν γ ή κ α ι
θ α λ ά τ τ η γ ιν ο μ έ ν α ς σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς ; τ ώ ν γ ά ρ π ο λ έ μ ω ν
ο ι π λ ε ίο υ ς κ α ι μ έ γ ισ τ ο ι δ ι* έ ρ ω τ α ς κ α ι μ ο ιχ ε ία ς κ α ι
γ υ ν α ικ ώ ν ά π ά τ α ς σ υ ν έ σ τ η σ α ν , ύ φ ' ώ ν τ ό π λ ε ίσ τ ο ν
κ α ι ά ρ ισ τ ο ν έ ξ α ν α λ ώ θ η τ ο υ τ ε Ε λ λ η ν ικ ο ύ κ α ι
β α ρ β α ρ ικ ο ύ γ έ ν ο υ ς κ α ι τ ώ ν π ό λ ε ω ν ή ν ε ό τ η ς
57 έ φ θ ά ρ η . ε ΐ 8έ τ ά ε ξ ά κ ρ α σ ία ς σ τ ά σ ε ις ε μ φ ύ λ ιο ι
κ α ι π ό λ ε μ ο ι κ α ι κ α κ ά έ π ι κ α κ ο ΐς α μ ύ θ η τ α , 8ή λ ο ν
δ τ ι τ ά έ κ σ ω φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ς ε υ σ τ ά θ ε ια κ α ι ε ιρ ή ν η κ α ι
τ ε λ ε ίω ν κ τ ή σ ις α γ α θ ώ ν κ α ι ά π ό λ α υ σ ις .
58 XII. "Α ξ ιο ν μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι τ ά 8ιά τ ο ύ τ ω ν έ μ φ α ιν ό -
μ ε ν α κ α τ ά τ ό ά κ ό λ ο υ θ ο ν 7τ α ρ α σ τ η σ α ι . 6 π ρ ιά μ ε ν ο ς
τ ο ν έ π ικ ρ ιν ό μ ε ν ο ν ε υ ν ο ύ χ ο ς ε ΐν α ι λ έ γ ε τ α ι* δ ε ό ν τ ω ς *
6 γ ά ρ ώ ν ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς τ ο ν π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ν δ χ λ ο ς έ σ τ ι π ρ ο ς
ά λ ή θ ε ια ν ε υ ν ο ύ χ ο ς , ο σ α μ έ ν τ ώ δ ο κ ε ΐν έ χ ω ν τ ά
γ ε ν ν η τ ικ ά , τ ά ς δ ' ε ις τ ό γ ε ν ν ά ν δ υ ν ά μ ε ις α φ η ρ η -
μ έ ν ο ς , κ α θ ά π ε ρ κ α ι ο ι τ ά ς δ φ ε ις ύ π ο χ υ θ έ ν τ ε ς ο φ θ α λ -
μ ο ύ ς έ χ ο ν τ ε ς τ ή ς δ ι ' ο φ θ α λ μ ώ ν ε ν ε ρ γ ε ία ς σ τ έ ρ ο ν τ α ι
69 β λ έ π ε ιν ο ύ δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ι, τ ις ο ΰ ν ή π ρ ο ς δ χ λ ο ν ε υ -
ν ο ύ χ ω ν ό μ ο ιό τ η ς ; δ τ ι ά γ ο ν ο ς έ σ τ ι σ ο φ ία ς δ ο κ ώ ν
έ π ιτ η δ ε ύ ε ιν ά ρ ε τ ή ν δ τ α ν γ ά ρ μ ιγ ά δ ω ν κ α ι σ υ γ -
κ λ ύ δ ω ν π λ ή θ ο ς α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ε ις τ α ύ τ ό ν σ υ ν έ λ θ η , λ έ γ ε ι
μ έ ν τ ά δ έ ο ν τ α , φ ρ ο ν ε ί δ έ κ α ι π ρ ά τ τ ε ι τ ά ν α ν τ ι α , τ ά
ν ό θ α π ρ ο τ ώ ν γ ν η σ ίω ν α π ο δ ε χ ό μ ε ν ο ς , έ ν ε κ α τ ο υ
δ ό ξ η ς μ έ ν ή τ τ ά σ θ α ι, τ ό δ ' ά λ η θ ε ία κ α λ ό ν μ ή έ π ι-
60 τ η δ ε ύ ε ιν . δ θ ε ν κ α ι—τ ο π α ρ α λ ο γ ώ τ α τ ο ν —γ υ ν ή τ ώ
0
Philo is no doubt thinking primarily of the Trojan War,
and it is not unlike him to magnify this into a plural. Still
170
ON JOSEPH, 55-60
safety, it is particularly so in affairs of state, as those
who will may learn from plentiful and obvious ex-
amples. Who does not know the misfortunes which 56
licentiousness brings to nations and countries and
whole latitudes of the civilized world on land and
sea ? For the majority of wars, and those the
greatest, have arisen through amours and adulteries
and the deceits of women, which have consumed the
greatest and choicest part of the Greek race and the
barbarian also, and destroyed the youth of their cities.
a
And, if the results of licentiousness are civil strife and 57
war, and ill upon ill without number, clearly the
results of continence are stability and peace and
the acquisition and enjoyment of perfect blessings.
XII. We should now, however, in due course 58
show the lessons revealed to us by this story. The
purchaser of the subject of our examination is said
to be a eunuch; rightly so, for the multitude which
purchases the statesman is in very truth a eunuch,
possessing to all appearance the organs of genera-
tion but deprived of the power of using them, just
as those who suffer from cataract have eyes but lack
the active use of them and cannot see. How then 59
does the multitude resemble eunuchs ? It is be-
cause the multitude is unproductive of wisdom,
though it seems to practise virtue. For when a
mixed crowd of heterogeneous persons comes
together, it says what is right, but it thinks and
does the opposite. It prefers the spurious to the
genuine, because it is under the dominion of appear-
ances and does not practise what is truly excellent.
And, therefore, also, paradoxical though it be, this 60
he can hardly have failed to have Antony and Cleopatra also
in mind.
VOL. vi ο 171
PHILO
ε ύ ν ο ύ χ ω τ ο ύ τ ω σ υ ν ο ικ ε ί· μ ν ά τ α ι γ ά ρ ό χ λ ο ς έ π ι-
θ υ μ ία ν , ώ σ π ε ρ ά ν ή ρ γ υ ν α ίκ α , δ ι* ή ς έ κ α σ τ α κ α ι
λ έ γ ε ι κ α ι π ρ ά τ τ ε ι σ ύ μ β ο υ λ ο ν α υ τ ή ν π ο ιο ύ μ ε ν ο ς
α π ά ν τ ω ν ρ η τ ώ ν κ α ι α π ο ρ ρ ή τ ω ν μ ικ ρ ώ ν τ ε α ΰ κ α ι
μ ε γ ά λ ω ν , ή κ ισ τ α π ρ ο σ έ χ ε ιν ε ΐω θ ώ ς τ ο ΐς ε κ λ ο γ ι-
61 σ μ ο ΰ . π ρ ο σ φ υ έ σ τ α τ α μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι ά ρ χ ι-
μ ά γ ε ιρ ο ν α υ τ ό ν κ α λ ε ΐ' κ α θ ά π ε ρ γ ά ρ ο υ δ έ ν έ τ ε ρ ο ν
ε π ιτ η δ ε ύ ε ι μ ά γ ε ιρ ο ς ή τ ά ς ά ν η ν ύ τ ο υ ς κ α ι π ε ρ ιτ τ ά ς
γ α σ τ ρ ό ς ή δ ο ν ά ς , τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν τ ρ ό π ο ν κ α ι ό π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ς
ό χ λ ο ς τ ά ς δ ι* α κ ο ή ς τ έ ρ φ ε ις τ ε κ α ι θ ρ ύ φ ε ις , ύ φ * ώ ν
ο ι τ ό ν ο ι τ ή ς δ ια ν ο ία ς χ α λ ώ ν τ α ι κ α ί τ ρ ό π ο ν τ ιν ά \
g2 τ ά ν ε ύ ρ α τ ή ς ψ υ χ ή ς ε κ λ ύ ε τ α ι, τ ή ν δ έ π ρ ο ς ια τ ρ ο ύ ς
μ α γ ε ίρ ω ν δ ια φ ο ρ ά ν τ ις ο ύ κ ο ΐδ ε ν ; ο ι μ έ ν τ ά
υ γ ιε ιν ά , κ α ν μ ή π ρ ο σ η ν ή τ υ γ χ ά ν η , μ ό ν α δ ιά
σ π ο υ δ ή ς τ ή ς π ά σ η ς ε ύ τ ρ ε π ίζ ο ν τ α ι, ο ι δ ' έ μ π α λ ιν
63 μ ό ν α τ ά η δ έ α τ ο ύ σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν τ ο ς ά λ ο γ ο ύ ν τ ε ς . ία -
τ ρ ο ΐς μ έ ν ο ύ ν έ ο ίκ α σ ιν ε ν δ ή μ ω ν ό μ ο ι κ α ι ο ι κ α τ ά
ν ό μ ο υ ς ά ρ χ ο ν τ ε ς β ο υ λ ε υ τ α ί τ ε κ α ι δ ικ α σ τ α ΐ φ ρ ο ν τ ί-
ζ ο ν τ ε ς τ ή ς τ ώ ν κ ο ιν ώ ν σ ω τ η ρ ία ς κ α ι α σ φ α λ ε ία ς
ά κ ο λ ά κ ε υ τ ο ι, ό ψ α ρ τ υ τ α ΐς δ έ ο ι π ο λ υ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ι τ ώ ν
ν ε ω τ έ ρ ω ν ό μ ιλ ο ι· μ έ λ ε ι γ ά ρ α ύ τ ο ΐς ο ύ τ ά σ υ ν ο ί-
σ ο ν τ α , α λ λ ά π ώ ς τ ή ν ε ν τ ω π α ρ ό ν τ ι κ α ρ π ώ σ ο ν τ α ι
64 μ ό ν ο ν ή δ ο ν ή ν . XIII. έ ρ α δ ' ώ ς α κ ό λ α σ τ ο ς γ υ ν ή
κ α ι ή τ ώ ν Ο χ λ ω ν ε π ιθ υ μ ία τ ο ύ π ο λ ιτ ικ ο ύ κ α ίφ η σ ιν
α ύ τ ώ · " π α ρ ε λ θ ώ ν , ώ ο ύ τ ο ς , ε ίς ό χ λ ο ν , ω σ υ ν ο ικ ώ ,
π ά ν τ ω ν ε κ λ α θ ο ύ τ ώ ν ιδ ίω ν η θ ώ ν , ε π ιτ η δ ε υ μ ά τ ω ν ,
λ ό γ ω ν , έ ρ γ ω ν , ε ν ο ΐς ε τ ρ ά φ η ς · ε μ ο ι δ έ π ε ιθ α ρ χ ε ί
κ α ι ε μ έ θ ε ρ ά π ε υ ε κ α ι ό σ α δ ι' η δ ο ν ή ς ε σ τ ί μ ο ι
65 π ρ ά τ τ ε , α ύ σ τ η ρ ό ν γ ά ρ κ α ι α ύ θ έ κ α σ τ ο ν κ α ι α λ η -
θ ε ία ς έ τ α ΐρ ο ν κ α ι ά κ ρ ιβ ο δ ίκ α ιο ν , ο γ κ ω κ α ι σ ε μ -
α
See Α ρ ρ . ρ . 601.
172
ON JOSEPH, 60-65
eunuch is mated with a wife. For the multitude woos
desire as a man woos a woman, and makes her his
medium in all that he says and does, and takes her
as his counsellor in all things great and small, whether
decency sanctions them or not, and is wont to pay
little heed to the promptings of reason.
Very aptly too does Moses call him a chief cook ; Q\
for, just as the cook is solely occupied in endlessly
providing superfluous pleasures for the belly, so is
the multitude, considered as politicians, in choosing
what charms and pleases the ears, and thus the
tension of the understanding is relaxed and the
sinews of the soul, so to speak, unstrung. As for 62
the difference between cooks and physicians, it is
a matter of common knowledges The physician
devotes all his energies solely to preparing what is
wholesome, even if it is unpalatable, while the
cook deals with the pleasant only and has no thought
of what is beneficial. Now in a democracy, physi- 63
cians are represented by laws, and those who rule
in accordance with the law, members of councils
and juries who consider the safety and security of
the common weal and are proof against flattery ;
cooks by the swarming crowd of younger spirits,
for they do not care what will be beneficial but only
how they may reap pleasure for the moment. XIII.
And like a licentious woman the desire of the multi- 64
tudes makes love to the statesman. " Forward,
6
lad," she says, " forward, to my mate, the multitude.
Forget your own old ways, the habits, the words,
the actions in which you were bred. Obey me, wait
on me and do all that gives me pleasure. The stern, 65
strict, uncompromising friend of truth, stiff and solemn
6
Or
4 4
when you address . . , forget."
173
PHILO
ν ό τ η τ ι π ρ ό ς ά π α ν τ α χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ν κ α ϊ π ρ ό ς μ η δ έ ν
ε ϊκ ο ν τ α , μ ό ν ο υ π ε ρ ιε χ ό μ ε ν ο ν ά ε ι τ ο υ σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν τ ο ς
ά ν ε υ θ ε ρ α π ε ία ς τ ώ ν ά κ ρ ο ω μ έ ν ω ν , ο υ κ α ν έ χ ο μ α ι.
66 δ ια β ο λ ά ς δ ' έ ρ α ν ιώ κ α τ ά σ ο υ μ υ ρ ία ς /cat
1
π ρ ό ς τ ο ν
έ μ ό ν ά ν δ ρ α τ ό ν ο χ λ ο ν , τ ο ν σ ο ν δ ε σ π ό τ η ν ά χ ρ ι
γ ά ρ ν υ ν ά π ε λ ε υ θ ε ρ ιά ζ ε ιν δ ο κ ε ΐς μ ο ι κ α ι ο τ ι δ ο ΰ λ ο ς
τ υ ρ α ν ν ικ ο ύ γ έ γ ο ν α ς δ ε σ π ό τ ο υ λ ία ν α γ ν ο ε ίς , ε ι δ έ
ή δ ε ις , ό τ ι α ύ τ ο π ρ α γ ία μ έ ν ο ίκ ε ιό τ α τ ο ν έ λ ε υ θ έ ρ ω ,
ο ίκ έ τ η δ ' ά λ λ ό τ ρ ιο ν , έ π ε π α ίδ ε υ σ ο α ν α ύ θ ά δ ε ια ν μ ε θ -
έ μ ε ν ο ς ε ίς έ μ έ β λ έ π ε ιν τ ή ν ε κ ε ίν ο υ γ υ ν α ίκ α , έ π ι-
θ υ μ ία ν , κ α ι δ ρ ά ν τ ά π ρ ό ς ά ρ έ σ κ ε ια ν τ ή ν έ μ ή ν ,
67 δ ι' ώ ν μ ά λ ισ τ α ε ύ α ρ ε σ τ ή σ ε ις . XIV. ό
δ έ π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ς ό ν τ ω ς ο υ κ α γ ν ο ε ί μ έ ν , ό τ ι δ ε σ π ο τ ικ ή ν
έ ζ ο υ σ ία ν έ χ ε ι ό δ ή μ ο ς , α υ τ ό ν δ ' ο ύ χ ο μ ο λ ο γ ή σ ε ι
δ ο ΰ λ ο ν ά λ λ ' ε λ ε ύ θ ε ρ ο ν κ α ι . . ,
2
τ ή ν τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς
ά ρ έ σ κ ε ια ν . ά λ λ ' ά ν τ ικ ρ υ ς έ ρ ε ΐ·
t l
δ η μ ο κ ο π ε ΐν ο ύ τ *
ε μ α θ ο ν ο ύ τ * έ π ιτ η δ ε ύ σ ω π ο τ έ , π ό λ ε ω ς δ έ π ρ ο -
σ τ α σ ία ν κ α ι έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν ε χ ε ιν ε γ χ ε ιρ ισ θ ε ίς , ώ ς
α γ α θ ό ς ε π ίτ ρ ο π ο ς ή π α τ ή ρ ε ϋ ν ο υ ς * ά δ ό λ ω ς κ α ι
68 κ α θ α ρ ώ ς ά ν ε υ τ ή ς έ χ θ ρ α ς ύ π ο κ ρ ίσ ε ω ς . τ α ύ τ α
φ ρ ο ν ώ ν έ ξ ε τ α σ θ ή σ ο μ α ι μ η δ έ ν ύ π ο σ τ έ λ λ ω ν μ η δ έ
σ υ γ κ ρ ύ π τ ω ν φ ω ρ ό ς τ ρ ό π ο ν , ά λ λ α τ ό σ υ ν ε ιδ ό ς
α ύ γ ά ζ ω ν ώ ς έ ν ή λ ίω κ α ι φ ω τ ί' φ ώ ς γ ά ρ ή α λ ή θ ε ια *
φ ο β η θ ή σ ο μ α ι δ ' ο υ δ έ ν ώ ν α ν έ π α ν α τ ε ίν η τ α ι, κ α ν
θ ά ν α τ ο ν α π ε ιλ ή · θ α ν ά τ ο υ γ ά ρ έ μ ο ί κ α κ ό ν ά ρ γ α λ ε ώ -
1
Cohn, who prints κ α ι, notes " excludendum videtur" It
certainly seems pointless. If retained, it must mean that
the charges are disseminated in general as well as made
to the master in particular.
2
Something is clearly lost; Mangey's τ τ &ν τ α δ ρ ω ν τ α κ α τ ά
will make good sense.
3
Here, too, Cohn indicates a lacuna and suggests δ ρ ά σ ω
174
ON JOSEPH, 65-68
and inflexible in all his dealings, who clings to the
beneficial only and pays no court to his audience,
is to me intolerable. And I will collect any number 66
of charges against you to produce before my husband,
the multitude, your master. For hitherto you have
seemed to me to act as if at liberty and you are
quite unaware that you have become the slave of
a despotic master. But if you had known that in-
dependence may be quite properly possessed by the
free man, but is denied to the slave, you would
have schooled yourself to abandon your self-will and
to look to me, Desire, his wife, and do what may
please me as the best way to secure his favour."
XIV. Now the true statesman knows 67
quite well that the people has the power of a master,
yet he will not admit that he is a slave, but regards
himself as a free man and shapes his activities to
please his own soul. He will frankly say, " I have
never learned to cringe to the people, and I will
never practise it. But since the leadership and
charge of the state is put into my hands I will
know how to hold it as a good guardian or an affec-
tionate father, guilelessly and sincerely without the
dissimulation which I hate. Being thus minded, I 68
will not be found cloaking and hiding anything as a
thief might do, but I will keep my conscience clear
as in the light of the sun, for truth is light. I will
fear none of the tyrant's menaces, even though he
threaten me with death, for death is a less evil than
or χ ρ η μ α τ ιω . It does not seem to me necessary. It is
not difficult to understand 'έ μ α θ ο ν κ α ι έ π ιτ η δ ε ύ σ ω . To under-
stand an affirmative out of a negative is a looseness which
may be found in good writers. A good example occurs in
the opening lines of Horace's Satires.
175
PHILO
69 τ ε ρ ο ν ύ π ό κ ρ ισ ις . ή ν υ π ο μ έ ν ω τ ο ϋ χ ά ρ ιν ; κ α ι γ ά ρ
ε ι δ ε σ π ό τ η ς ό δ ή μ ο ς , ά λ λ ' ο ύ κ ε γ ώ δ ο ύ λ ο ς , ε υ -
π α τ ρ ίδ η ς δ ' ε ι κ α ι τ ις ά Χ λ ο ς ε φ ιέ μ ε ν ο ς ε γ γ ρ α φ ή ς
τ ή ς ε ν τ ώ μ ε γ ίσ τ ω κ α ι ά ρ ίσ τ ω π ο λ ιτ ε ύ μ α τ ι τ ο ύ δ ε
7
^ τ ο ϋ κ ό σ μ ο υ . δ τ α ν \ γ ά ρ μ ή δ ώ ρ α , μ ή π α ρ α -
κ λ ή σ ε ις , μ ή τ ιμ ώ ν έ ρ ω ς , μ ή α ρ χ ή ς ε π ιθ υ μ ία , μ ή
α λ α ζ ο ν ε ία , μ ή ό τ ο ϋ δ ο κ ε ΐν ίμ ε ρ ο ς , μ ή α κ ο λ α σ ία ,
μ ή ά ν α ν δ ρ ία , μ ή α δ ικ ία , μ η δ έ ν ά λ λ ο τ ώ ν ο σ α ε κ
π ά θ ο υ ς ή κ α κ ία ς ύ π ά γ η τ α ι, τ ίν ο ς ε τ ι φ ο β η θ ή σ ο μ α ι
71 δ ε σ π ο τ ε ία ν ; ή δ ή λ ο ν δ τ ι τ ή ν ά π * α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ; ά λ λ '
ο ύ τ ο ι γ ε τ ή ν σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ε π ιγ ρ ά φ ο ν τ α ι κ υ ρ ε ία ν , ο ύ τ ή ν
κ α τ * ε μ ε ' ε γ ώ γ ά ρ ά π ό τ ο ϋ κ ρ ε ίτ τ ο ν ο ς , τ ή ς ε ν
ε μ α υ τ ώ δ ια ν ο ία ς , χ ρ η μ α τ ίζ ω , κ α θ * ή ν π α ρ ε σ κ ε ύ -
α σ μ α ι β ιο ΰ ν ο λ ίγ α φ ρ ο ν τ ίζ ω ν τ ο ϋ θ ν η τ ο ύ σ ώ μ α τ ο ς ,
δ κ α ν δ σ τ ρ έ ο υ δ ίκ η ν π ε ρ ιπ ε φ υ κ ό ς ε π η ρ ε ά ζ η τ α ι π ρ ό ς
τ ίν ω ν , ά φ ε ιμ ε ν ο ς
1
τ ώ ν έ ν δ ο ν δ ε σ π ο τ ώ ν τ ε χ α λ ε -
π ώ ν κ α ι δ ε σ π ο ίν ω ν , ο ύ κ ά ν ιά σ ο μ α ι τ ή ν β α ρ υ τ ά τ η ν
72 α ν ά γ κ η ν ε κ π ε φ ε υ γ ώ ς . ε ά ν ο ΰ ν δ ικ ά ζ ε ιν δ ε η , δ ι-
κ ά σ ω μ ή τ ε π λ ο υ σ ίω π ρ ο σ θ ε μ έ ν ο ς δ ιά τ ή ν π ε ρ ιο υ -
σ ία ν μ ή τ ε π ε ν η τ ι δ ιά τ ο ν ε π ι τ α ΐς ά τ υ χ ία ις ε λ ε ο ν ,
α λ λ ά τ ά τ ώ ν κ ρ ιν ό μ ε ν ω ν α ξ ιώ μ α τ α κ α ι σ χ ή μ α τ α
π α ρ α κ α λ υ φ ά μ ε ν ο ς ά δ ό λ α >? β ρ α β ε ύ σ ω τ ό φ α ν η σ ό -
73 μ ε ν ο ν δ ίκ α ιο ν , ε ά ν τ ε β ο υ λ ε ύ ω , γ ν ώ μ α ς ε ίσ η γ ή -
σ ο μ α ι τ ά ς κ ο ιν ω φ ε ?.ε ΐς , κ α ν μ ή π ρ ό ς ή δ ο ν ή ν ώ σ ιν
ε ά ν τ ε ε κ κ λ η σ ιά ζ ω , τ ο ύ ς θ ώ π α ς λ ό γ ο υ ς ε τ ε ρ ο ις
κ α τ α λ ιπ ώ ν τ ο ις σ ω τ η ρ ίο ις χ ρ ή σ ο μ α ι κ α ι σ υ μ -
φ ε ρ ο υ σ ιν , ε π ίτ ιμ ω ν , ν ο υ θ ε τ ώ ν , σ ω φ ρ ο ν ίζ ω ν , ο ύ κ
α ύ θ ά δ ε ια ν μ α ν ιώ δ η κ α ι π α ρ ά φ ο ρ ο ν ά λ λ ά ν ή φ ο υ σ α ν
74 π α ρ ρ η σ ία ν ε π ιτ ε τ η δ ε υ κ ώ ς . ε ι δ έ μ ή χ α ίρ ε ι τ ις τ α ΐς
β ε λ τ ιώ σ ε σ ιν , ε π ιτ ιμ ά τ ω κ α ι γ ο ν ε ϋ σ ι κ α ι ε π ιτ ρ ό π ο ις
1
So Manffey: most MSS. ά φ β ψ έ ν ο ν , which Cohn retains,
others -ω ν . The masculine seems to me necessary for the sense.
176
ON JOSEPH, 69-74.
dissimulation. And why should I submit to it ? 69
For, though the people be a master, I am not a
slave, but as highly-born as any, one who claims
enrolment among the citizens of that best and
greatest state, this world. For when neither presents 70
nor appeals nor craving for honours nor desire for
office nor spirit of pretentiousness nor longing for
reputation, nor incontinence, nor unmanliness, nor
injustice, nor any other creation of passion and vice
can subdue me, what domination is still left for me
to fear ? Clearly, it can only be that of men, but 71
men, while they assume the sovereignty of my body,
are not sovereigns of the real I. For I take my
title from the better part, the understanding within
me, and by that I am prepared to live with little
thought of the mortal body, the shell-like growth
which encases me. And, though some may mal-
treat it, yet, if I be free from the hard masters and
mistresses within, I shall suffer no affliction, since I
have escaped the cruellest tyranny of all. If then 72
I have to serve on a jury, I will give my verdict
without favouring the rich because of his abundant
wealth, or the poor through pity of his misfortunes,
but drawing a veil over the dignity or the out-
ward appearance of the litigants I will in all honesty
award what shall appear just. If I act as a councillor 73
I will introduce such proposals as are for the common
good, even if they be not agreeable. If I speak in
the general assembly I will leave all talk of flattery
to others and resort only to such as is salutary and
beneficial, reproving, warning, correcting in words
studied to shew a sober frankness without foolish and
frantic arrogance. He who does not gladly receive 74
improving advice must to be consistent censure
177
PHILO
κ α ι δ ιδ α σ κ ά λ ο ις κ α ι π ά σ ι τ ο ις κ η δ ε μ ό σ ιν , δ τ ι τ έ κ ν α
γ ν ή σ ια κ α ι ο ρ φ α ν ο ύ ς π α ΐδ α ς κ α ι φ ο ιτ η τ ά ς κ α κ η -
γ ο ρ ο ϋ σ ιν , ε σ τ ι δ ' ore κ α ι τ ύ π τ ο υ σ ιν , ο ΐς ο ύ τ ε
β λ α σ φ η μ ία ν ο ΰ θ
9
ύ β ρ ιν δ σ ιο ν έ π ιφ η μ ίζ ε ιν , ά λ λ α
75 τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν τ ά φ ιλ ία ς κ α ι ε ύ ν ο ια ς ο ν ό μ α τ α , π ά ν υ
γ ά ρ ά ν ά ζ ιο ν τ ο ν π ο λ ιτ ικ δ ν ε μ έ κ α ι τ ά τ ο ϋ δ ή μ ο υ
π ά ν τ α ε π ιτ ε τ ρ α μ μ έ ν ο ν ε ν τ ο ις π ε ρ ι τ ο ϋ σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν -
τ ο ς λ ο γ ισ μ ο ΐς χ ε ίρ ο ν α γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι τ ιν ό ς τ ή ν ία τ ρ ικ ή ν
76 τ έ χ ν η ν έ π ιτ η δ ε ύ ο ν τ ο ς . ε κ ε ίν ο ς γ ά ρ ο υ δ έ ν τ ή ς π ε ρ ι
τ ο ν θ ε ρ α π ε υ ό μ ε ν ο ν λ α μ π ρ ό τ η τ ο ς έ ν τ α ΐς ν ο μ ιζ ο -
μ έ ν α ις ε ύ τ υ χ ία ις φ ρ ο ν τ ίσ α ς , ο ϋ θ
9
δ τ ι ε υ γ ε ν ή ς ή ν ή
π ο λ υ χ ρ ή μ α τ ο ς ο ΰ θ
9
δ τ ι τ ώ ν κ α τ
9
α υ τ ό ν ε ν δ ο ξ ό τ α τ ο ς
β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς ή τ ύ ρ α ν ν ο ς , ε ν ό ς π ε ρ ιέ χ ε τ α ι μ ό ν ο υ τ ο ϋ
σ ώ σ α ι κ α τ ά δ ύ ν α μ ιν , κ α ν δ έ η τ ο μ α ΐς ή κ α ύ σ ε σ ι
χ ρ ή σ θ α ι, κ α ίε ι τ ε κ α ι τ έ μ ν ε ι τ ο ν ά ρ χ ο ν τ α κ α ι
77 δ ε σ π ό τ η ν 6 υ π ή κ ο ο ς κ α ι λ ε γ ό μ ε ν ο ς δ ο ύ λ ο ς , έ γ ώ δ '
ο ύ χ έ ν α ά ν δ ρ α π ό λ ιν δ ' δ λ η ν κ ά μ ν ο υ σ α ν π α ρ α λ α β ώ ν
υ π
9
ά ρ γ α λ ε ω τ έ ρ ω ν ν ό σ ω ν , α ς κ α τ ε σ κ ε ύ α σ α ν α ί
σ υ γ γ ε ν ε ίς έ π ιθ υ μ ία ι, τ ι π ρ ά σ σ ε ιν ο φ ε ίλ ω ; π ρ ο έ μ ε ν ο ς
τ ά σ υ ν ο ίσ ο ν τ α π ά σ ι κ ο ιν ή τ ά τ ο ϋ δ ε ΐν ο ς ή τ ο ϋ δ ε ιν ό ς
ώ τ α θ ε ρ α π ε ύ ε ιν ά ν ε λ ε υ θ έ ρ ω κ α ι σ φ ό δ ρ α δ ο υ λ ο π ρ ε π ε ΐ
κ ο λ α κ ε ία ; τ ε θ ν ά ν α ι μ ά λ λ ο ν α ν έ λ ο ίμ η ν ή π ρ ό ς
[ 53] ή δ ο ν ή ν τ ι φ θ ε γ ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς \ έ π ικ ρ ύ φ α ι τ ή ν ά λ ή θ ε ια ν
κ α ι τ ο υ σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν τ ο ς ά μ ε λ ή σ α ι.
78
11
π ρ ό ς τ α ϋ θ
9
"
ώ ς ο τ ρ α γ ικ ό ς φ η σ ιν
ιτ ω μ ε ν π υ ρ , ιτ ω ο ε ψ α σ γ α ν ο ν . —
" π ίμ π ρ α , κ ά τ α ιθ ε σ ά ρ κ α ς , έ μ π λ ή σ θ η τ ί μ ο υ
π ίν ω ν κ ε λ α ιν ό ν α ίμ α * π ρ ό σ θ ε γ ά ρ κ ά τ ω
γ ή ς ε ΐσ ιν ά σ τ ρ α , γ ή δ ' ά ν ε ισ ε ις α ιθ έ ρ α ,
π ρ ιν έ ξ έ μ ο ϋ σ ο ι θ ώ π * ά π α ν τ ή σ α ι λ ό γ ο ν ."
178
ON JOSEPH, 74-78
parents and guardians and teachers and all persons
in charge, because they reprimand and sometimes
even beat their own children or orphan-wards or
pupils, though really it is against all morality to call
such treatment evil-speaking or outrage instead of
friendliness and benevolence. For it were a quite 75
unworthy thing that I, the statesman, to whom are
committed all the interests of the people, should,
in planning for their benefit, shew myself inferior to
anyone who practises the physician's art. He cares 76
not how brilliant is the good fortune, as men hold
it, which attends his patient or that he is high-born
or wealthy or the most glorious king or despot of
his time, but devotes himself to one object only, to
save him to the best of his ability, even if he must
use cautery or surgery, and he applies the fire or
the knife, he the subject to his ruler, he the so-
called slave to his master. And I, who am called 77
to attend not on a single person but on the whole
state afflicted by the more powerful distempers
which its inbred lusts have produced, what ought
I to do ? Shall I sacrifice the future welfare of all
and minister to the cares of this man and that man
with flattery utterly slave-like and unworthy of the
free ? I would rather lie dead than with some
pleasant words conceal the truth and disregard real
welfare. As the tragedian says : 78
So then come fire, come sword.
a
Burn me, consume my flesh, drink my dark blood,
Take fill of me; for sooner shall the stars
Go 'neath the earth, and earth go up to sky
Than thou shalt from these lips hear fawning word,
β
The first line is from Eur. Phoenissae 521. The others
also from Eur. Quoted Leg. All. iii. 202 and Quod Probus 99,
where the speaker is given as Heracles.
179
PHILO
79 ό ν τ ω ς ο ΰ ν ή ρ ρ ε ν ω μ έ ν ο ν τ ο φ ρ ό ν η μ α κ α ϊ ε κ τ ό ς
π ά ν τ ω ν π α θ ώ ν ίσ τ ά μ ε ν ο ν , η δ ο ν ή ς , φ ό β ο υ , λ ύ π η ς ,
ε π ιθ υ μ ία ς , ά ν δ ρ α π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ν ό δ ε σ π ό τ η ς δ ή μ ο ς ο ύ κ
α ν έ χ ε τ α ι, σ υ λ λ α β ώ ν δ ' ώ ς ε χ θ ρ ό ν κ ο λ ά ζ ε ι τ ο ν ε ΰ -
ν ο υ ν κ α ι φ ίλ ο ν , π ρ ο ε κ ε ίν ο υ τ ιμ ω ρ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς ε α υ τ ό ν
τ ή μ ε γ ίσ τ η τ ώ ν τ ιμ ω ρ ιώ ν , ά π α ιδ ε υ σ ία , 81* ή ν ο ύ κ
έ μ α θ ε ν ά ρ χ ε σ θ α ι, τ ό κ ά λ λ ισ τ ο ν κ α ί β ιω φ ε λ ε σ τ α τ ο ν ,
ε ξ ο ΰ π ε ρ ιγ ίν ε τ α ι κ α ί τ ό ά ρ χ ε ιν .
80 XV.   π ο χ ρ ώ ν τ ω ς δ ή κ α ι π ε ρ ί τ ο ύ τ ω ν δ ιε ιλ ε γ -
μ ε ν ο ι τ ά ε ξ ή ς ϊδ ω μ ε ν . ό δ ια β λ η θ ε ις ν ε α ν ία ς ύ π ό
τ ή ς ε ρ ω μ έ ν η ς γ υ ν α ικ ό ς τ ω δ ε σ π ό τ η π λ α σ α μ ε ν η ς
α ν τ ίσ τ ρ ο φ ο υ ς α ιτ ία ς , α ΐς ή ν έ ν ο χ ο ς α υ τ ή , μ η δ '
α π ο λ ο γ ία ς τ υ χ ώ ν ε ίς ε ίρ κ τ ή ν α π ά γ ε τ α ι* κ α ι γ ε ν ό -
μ ε ν ο ς ε ν τ ω δ ε σ μ ω τ η ρ ίω τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο ν α ρ ε τ ή ς μ έ γ ε θ ο ς
ε π ε δ ε ίξ α τ ο , ώ ς κ α ι τ ο ύ ς π ο ν η ρ ό τ α τ ο υ ς τ ώ ν ε κ ε ί
τ ε θ η π έ ν α ι κ α ι κ α τ α π λ ή τ τ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι π α ρ η γ ό ρ η μ α
τ ώ ν σ υ μ φ ο ρ ώ ν ύ π ο λ α μ β ά ν ε ιν ά λ ε ξ ίκ α κ ο ν ε ύ ρ η κ έ ν α ι
81 τ ο ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν . ό σ η ς δ ' α π α ν θ ρ ω π ιά ς ο ι ε ίρ κ τ ο -
φ ύ λ α κ ε ς γ έ μ ο υ σ ι κ α ι ώ μ ό τ η τ ο ς , ο ύ δ ε ις ά γ ν ο ε ΐ' φ ύ σ ε ι
τ ε γ ά ρ α ν η λ ε ε ίς ε ίσ ι κ α ι μ ε λ έ τ η σ υ γ κ ρ ο τ ο ύ ν τ α ι
θ η ρ ιο ύ μ ε ν ο ι κ α θ * έ κ ά σ τ η ν ή μ έ ρ α ν π ρ ο ς α γ ρ ιό τ η τ α ,
χ ρ η σ τ ό ν μ έ ν ο υ δ έ ν ά λ λ ' ο ύ δ ' ε κ τ ύ χ η ς ό ρ ώ ν τ ε ς ή
λ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς ή δ ρ ώ ν τ ε ς , ό σ α δ έ / ?«χ ι ό τ α τ α κ α ι χ α λ ε π ώ -
82 τ α τ α . κ α θ ά π ε ρ γ ά ρ ο ι τ ά σ ώ μ α τ α ε ύ π α γ ε ΐς , ό τ α ν
τ ή ν ε ξ α θ λ η τ ικ ή ς ά σ κ η σ ιν π ρ ο σ λ ά β ω σ ι, ν ε υ ρ ο ύ ν τ α ι
δ ύ ν α μ ιν ά ν α ν τ α γ ώ ν ισ τ ο ν κ α ι ε ύ ε ξ ία ν ύ π ε ρ β ά λ λ ο υ -
σ α ν κ τ ώ μ ε ν ο ι, τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν τ ρ ό π ο ν , Ο τ α ν α τ ίθ α σ ο ς
κ α ι α μ ε ίλ ικ τ ο ς φ ύ σ ις ά σ κ η σ ιν ε ίς τ ό ά ν ή μ ε ρ ο ν
π ρ ο σ λ ά β η , δ ιχ ό θ ε ν ά β α τ ο ς κ α ί α π ρ ό σ ιτ ο ς ο ϊκ τ ω
180
ON JOSEPH, 79-82
When the statesman stands thus aloof from all 79
passions, from pleasure, from fear, from pain, from
desire, with the spirit of a true man, the despot-
people cannot away with him, but takes him and
chastises as an enemy its friend and well-wisher.
And thus it lays upon itself rather than on its
victim the greatest of punishments, indiscipline,
whereby it fails to learn the lesson of submission to
government, that lesson most excellent and of life-
long profit, which he who learns learns also how to
govern.
XV.
α
Having sufficiently discussed these matters, 80
let us proceed to the next. The youth who had
been brought into disgrace with his master by the
false charges of a lovesick woman, charges which
were the counterpart of those to which she was
liable herself, was carried away to gaol without even
any opportunity of making his defence. In the prison
he displayed such a wealth of virtue that even the
vilest of the inmates were astounded and over-
awed, and considered that they had found in him
a consolation for misfortunes and a defence against
future ills. Everyone knows how full of inhumanity 81
and cruelty gaolers are ; pitiless by nature and case-
hardened by practice, they are brutalized day by
day towards savagery, because they never even by
chance see or say or do any kindness, but only the
extremes of violence and cruelty. Just as men 82
of well-built physique, if they add to this athletic
training, grow sinewy and gain irresistible strength
and unequalled robustness, so, whenever any un-
civilized and unsoftened nature adds practice to its
harshness, it becomes doubly impervious and in-
β
For §§ 80-124 see Gen. xxxix. 20-xli. 45.
181
PHILO
83 γ ίν ε τ α ι, χ ρ η σ τ ώ π ά θ ε ι κ α ι φ ιλ α ν θ ρ ώ π ω . ώ σ π ε ρ
γ ά ρ ο ι τ ώ ν α γ α θ ώ ν ό μ ιλ η τ α ΐ β ε λ τ ιο ΰ ν τ α ι τ ο υ ς
τ ρ ό π ο υ ς χ α ίρ ο ν τ ε ς τ ο ις σ ν ν ο ΰ σ ιν , ο ύ τ ω κ α ι ο ί τ ο ις
π ο ν η ρ ο ΐς σ ν ζ ώ ν τ ε ς ά π ο μ ά τ τ ο ν τ α ί τ ι τ ή ς ε κ ε ίν ω ν
κ α κ ία ς ' ο ε ιν ό ν γ ά ρ τ ό έ θ ο ς ε ζ ο μ ο ιώ σ α ι κ α ι β ιά σ α -
84 σ θ α ι π ρ ό ς φ ύ σ ιν . σ υ ν δ ια τ ρ ίβ ο υ σ ιν ο ύ ν ο ί ε ίρ κ τ ο -
φ ύ λ α κ ε ς λ ω π ο δ ύ τ α ις , κ λ έ π τ α ις , τ ο ιχ ω ρ ύ χ ο ις , ύ β ρ ι-
σ τ α ΐς , β ια ίο ις , φ θ ο ρ ε ΰ σ ιν , ά ν δ ρ ο φ ό ν ο ις , μ ο ιχ ο ΐς , ίε ρ ο -
σ ύ λ ο ις , ώ ν ά φ
9
ε κ ά σ τ ο υ σ π ώ ν τ α ί τ ι μ ο χ θ η ρ ία ς
κ α ι σ υ ν ε ρ α ν ίζ ο υ σ ι κ α ι ε κ τ ή ς π ο λ υ μ ιγ ο ΰ ς κ ρ ά σ ε ω ς
^ ε ν ά π ο τ ε λ ο ΰ σ ι π ά μ φ υ ρ τ ο ν κ α ι π α μ μ ία ρ ο ν κ α κ ό ν .
^ XVI. ά λ λ ' ό μ ω ς ο τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ς \ η μ ε ρ ω θ ε ίς υ π ό τ ή ς
τ ο ΰ ν ε α ν ίσ κ ο υ κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία ς ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν ά δ ε ια ς κ α ι
ε κ ε χ ε ιρ ία ς μ ε τ ε δ ω κ ε ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι α ρ χ ή ς τ ή ς ε φ *
ά π α σ ι τ ο ις δ ε σ μ ώ τ α ις , ώ ς λ ό γ ω μ ε ν έ ν ε κ α π ρ ο σ χ ή -
μ α τ ο ς έ μ μ έ ν ε ιν ε ίρ κ τ ο φ ύ λ α ξ , τ ή ν δ ' έ ν έ ρ γ ο ις τ ά ζ ιν
π α ρ α κ ε χ ω ρ η κ έ ν α ι τ ώ ν ε α ν ία , δ ι ή ς ο ύ κ ο λ ίγ α
86 σ υ ν έ β α ιν ε τ ο ύ ς ά π α χ θ έ ν τ α ς ώ φ ε λ ε ΐσ θ α ι. τ ό γ ο ΰ ν
χ ω ρ ίο ν ο ύ δ
9
ό ν ο μ ά ζ ε ιν ε τ ή ζ ίο υ ν ε ίρ κ τ ή ν , ά λ λ α
σ ω φ ρ ο ν ισ τ ή ρ ιο ν ά ν τ ι γ ά ρ β α σ ά ν ω ν κ α ι τ ιμ ω ρ ιώ ν ,
α ς ν ύ κ τ ω ρ κ α ι μ ε θ * ή μ έ ρ α ν ύ π έ μ ε ν ο ν τ υ π τ ό μ ε ν ο ι
κ α ϊ κ α τ α δ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ι κ α ι τ ί κ α κ ό ν ο ύ π ά σ χ ο ν τ ε ς ,
λ ό γ ο ις κ α ι δ ό γ μ α σ ι τ ο ις φ ιλ ο σ ο φ ία ς έ ν ο υ θ ε τ ο ΰ ν τ ο
κ α ι τ α ΐς ά ν υ σ ιμ ω τ έ ρ α ις π α ν τ ό ς λ ό γ ο υ π ρ ά ξ ε σ ι τ ο ΰ
87 δ ιδ ά σ κ ο ν τ ο ς , τ ο ν γ ά ρ α ύ τ ο ΰ β ίο ν σ ω φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ς κ α ι
π ά σ η ς α ρ ε τ ή ς ο ία γ ρ α φ ή ν ά ρ χ έ τ υ π ο ν ε ϋ δ ε δ η μ ιο υ ρ -
γ η μ έ ν η ν έ ν μ έ σ ω θ ε ις ε π έ σ τ ρ ε φ ε κ α ι τ ο ύ ς π α ν υ
δ ο κ ο ΰ ν τ α ς ά ν ιά τ ω ς ε χ ε ιν , ο ΐς μ α κ ρ ο ί ν ό σ ο ι τ ή ς
ψ υ χ ή ς έ λ ώ φ η σ α ν ή δ η κ α κ ίζ ο υ σ ιν έ π ι τ ο ις π ε π ρ α γ -
182
ON JOSEPH, 82-87
accessible to the kindly and humane emotion of pity.
For, even as those who consort with the good are 83
improved in character by the pleasure they take in
their associates, so those who live with the bad take
on some impression of their vice. Custom has a
wonderful power of forcing everything into the
likeness of nature. Gaolers then spend their days 84
with footpads, thieves, burglars, men of violence and
outrage, who commit rape, murder, adultery and
sacrilege, and from each of these they imbibe and
accumulate something of their villainy, out of
which miscellaneous amalgam they produce a single
body of evil, a fusion of every sort of pollution.
XVI. But nevertheless one of this kind, tamed by 85
the nobility of the youth, not only allowed him
some security from violence and hardship, but gave
him the command of all the prisoners ; and thus
while he remained nominally and for the sake of
appearance the keeper of the gaol, he resigned to
Joseph the actual office, which thus became the
source of no small benefit to those who were in con-
finement. Thus even the place, as they felt, could 86
not rightly be called a prison, but a house of correc-
tion. For instead of the tortures and punishments
which they used to endure night and day under the
lash or in manacles or in every possible affliction,
they were rebuked by his wise words and doctrines
of philosophy, while the conduct of their teacher
effected more than any words. For by setting before 87
them his life of temperance and every virtue, like
an original picture of skilled workmanship, he con-
verted even those who seemed to be quite incur-
able, who as the long-standing distempers of their
soul abated reproached themselves for their past
183
PHILO
μ έ ν ο ις α υ τ ο ύ ς κ α ϊ μ ε τ α ν ο ο ϋ σ ι κ α ϊ τ ο ια ϋ τ έ π ιφ θ ε γ -
γ ο μ έ ν ο ις -
4<
π ο ύ π ο τ * ά ρ ' ή ν π ά λ α ι τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο ν α γ α θ ό ν ,
ο ύ τ ή ν α ρ χ ή ν έ σ φ ά λ η μ ε ν ; ιδ ο ύ γ ά ρ έ π ιλ ά μ φ α ν τ ο ς
α ύ τ ο ϋ , ώ ς π ρ ο ς κ ά τ ο π τ ρ ο ν τ ή ν ά κ ο σ μ ία ν ό ρ ώ ν τ ε ς
α υ τ ώ ν α ισ χ υ ν ό μ ε θ α ."
88 XVII. Ύ ο ϋ τ ο ν τ ο ν τ ρ ό π ο ν β ε λ τ ιο ύ μ ε ν ω ν ε ισ -
ά γ ο ν τ α ι δ ύ ο ε υ ν ο ύ χ ο ι τ ο ϋ β α σ ιλ έ ω ς , ό μ έ ν ά ρ χ ι-
ο ιν ο χ ό ο ς , ό δ έ ά ρ χ ισ ιτ ο π ο ιό ς , ε ν ο ΐς έ π ε τ ρ ά π η σ α ν
κ α τ η γ ο ρ η θ έ ν τ ε ς κ α ι κ α τ α γ ν ω σ θ ε ν τ ε ς . ό δ έ κ α ι
τ ο ύ τ ω ν τ ή ν ε π ιμ ε λ ε ια ν ή ν κ α ι τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν ε π ο ιε ΐτ ο ,
ε υ χ ό μ ε ν ο ς δ π ω ς ο ίο ς τ ε ή μ η δ έ ν χ ε ίρ ο υ ς τ ώ ν ά ν -
89 ε π ιλ ή π τ ω ν ά π ε ρ γ ά σ α σ θ α ι τ ο υ ς ύ φ ' ε α υ τ ώ . χ ρ ό ν ο υ
δ ' ο ύ μ α κ ρ ο ύ δ ιε λ θ ό ν τ ο ς , ε π ιώ ν τ ο υ ς δ ε σ μ ώ τ α ς ό ρ α
σ υ ν ν ο ία ς κ α ι κ α τ η φ ε ία ς γ ε μ ο ν τ α ς μ ά λ λ ο ν ή π ρ ό -
τ ε ρ ο ν τ ο υ ς ε υ ν ο ύ χ ο υ ς κ α ϊ σ τ ο χ α σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ε κ τ ή ς
σ φ ο δ ρ ά ς λ ύ π η ς π ρ ο σ π ε π τ ω κ ε ν α ι τ ι ν ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ν ε π υ ν -
90 θ ν ε τ ο τ ή ν α ίτ ία ν . ά π ο κ ρ ιν α μ έ ν ω ν δ ε , ώ ς ό ν ε ίρ ο υ ς
ίδ ό ν τ ε ς ά σ η ς κ α ϊ α δ η μ ο ν ία ς π ε π λ ή ρ ω ν τ α ι, μ η δ ε ν ό ς
ο ν τ ο ς τ ο ϋ δ ια κ ρ ιν ο ϋ ν τ ο ς , " θ α ρ σ ε ΐτ ε " έ φ η " κ α ι δ ι-
η γ ε ΐσ θ ε , γ ν ώ ρ ιμ ο ι γ ά ρ έ σ ο ν τ α ι β ο υ λ ο μ ε ν ο υ θ ε ο ϋ '
β ο ύ λ ε τ α ι δ έ τ ά σ υ ν ε σ κ ια σ μ ε ν α τ ώ ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν
ά ν α κ α λ ύ π τ ε ιν τ ο ΐς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν π ο θ ο ϋ σ ιν "
91 ε ΐτ α π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ς ό ά ρ χ ιο ιν ο χ ό ο ς φ η σ ίν " έ δ ο ζ α
μ ε γ ά λ η ν ά μ π ε λ ο ν έ κ π ε φ υ κ έ ν α ι τ ρ ιώ ν π υ θ μ έ ν ω ν
ε ν ε ύ ε ρ ν ε σ τ α τ ο ν σ τ έ λ ε χ ο ς , τ ε θ η λ υ ΐα ν κ α ι β ο τ ρ υ η -
φ ο ρ ο ΰ σ α ν ώ ς ε ν ά κ μ ή τ ή ς ό π ώ ρ α ς , ύ π ο π ε ρ κ α ζ ο ύ σ η ς
δ έ τ ή ς σ τ α φ υ λ ή ς δ ρ ε φ α σ θ α ι τ ώ ν β ο τ ρ ύ ω ν κ α ι ε ις
έ κ π ω μ α β α σ ιλ ικ ό ν ά π ο θ λ ίβ ε ιν , ο π ε ρ ίκ α ν ώ ς έ χ ο ν
92 α κ ρ ά τ ο υ π ρ ο σ ε ν ε γ κ ε ΐν τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ΐ." ό δ έ μ ικ ρ ό ν
ε π ισ χ ώ ν " ε ύ τ υ χ ία ν " ε ιπ ε ν "ή φ α ν τ α σ ία σ ο ι κ α τ -
α γ γ έ λ λ ε ι κ α ϊ τ ή ς π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ς ά ν ά λ η φ ιν α ρ χ ή ς · α ί
γ ά ρ τ ρ ε ις ρ ίζ α ι τ ή ς α μ π έ λ ο υ τ ρ ε ις η μ έ ρ α ς ύ π ο -
184
ON JOSEPH, 87-92
and repented with such utterances as these : " Ah,
where in old days was this great blessing which at
first we failed to find ? See, when it shines on us
we behold as in a mirror our misbehaviour and are
ashamed/'
XVII. While they were thus growing in goodness, 88
two eunuchs of the king were brought in, the chief
butler and the chief baker, both of them accused and
condemned for dereliction of duties. Joseph paid
the same attention to them as to the others, in his
earnest wish to raise if possible those under him to
the level of those who were innocent of offence. And 89
after no long time on visiting the prisoners he saw
that they were full of depression and dejection, even
more than before, and, guessing from their extreme
sadness that something unusual had befallen them,
he asked the reason. When they answered that they 90
had had dreams which filled them with sore trouble
and distress because there was no one to interpret
them, he said to them : " Cheer up, and tell me these
dreams, for their meaning will be known, if God wills,
and He does will to unveil what is hidden to those who
desire the truth." Then the chief butler 91
spoke first and said : " I dreamt that I saw a great
vine, an exceedingly fine stalk growing from three
roots. It was thriving and covered with grapes as in
the height of the vintage season, and from a cluster
which was turning ripe black I plucked some grapes
and squeezed them into the royal cup, and when it
had plenty of liquor I brought it to the king.'' Joseph 92
paused for a little, and then said : " Your vision is
an announcement to you of good fortune and the
recovery of your former office. The three roots of
185
PHILO
γ ρ ά φ ο υ σ ι, μ ε θ * α ς ύ π ο μ ν η σ θ ή σ ε τ α ί σ ο υ 6 β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς
κ α ι μ ε τ α π ε μ ψ ά μ ε ν ο ς ε ν θ έ ν δ ε π α ρ έ ξ ε ι μ ε ν ά μ ν η σ τ ία ν ,
ε π ιτ ρ έ ψ ε ι δ έ τ ή ς α υ τ ή ς μ ε τ α π ο ιε ΐσ θ α ι τ ά ξ ε ω ς , κ α ι
υ π έ ρ β ε β α ιώ σ ε ω ς τ ή ς α ρ χ ή ς ο ίν ο χ ο ή σ ε ις ά ν α ο ο ύ ς
έ κ π ω μ α τ ω δ ε σ π ό τ η ." κ α ί ό μ έ ν ε γ ε γ ή θ ε ι τ α ύ τ
93 ά κ ο υ σ α ς . XVIII. ο δ ' ά ρ χ ισ ιτ ο π ο ιό ς \
[ 55] ά π ο δ ε ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ή ν δ ιά κ ρ ισ ιν , ώ ς κ α ί α υ τ ό ς ε υ τ υ χ έ ς
ό ν α ρ ίδ ώ ν —ή ν δ ' ο ύ μ ε τ ρ ίω ς π α λ ίμ φ η μ ο ν —, α π α τ η -
θ ε ίς τ α ΐς έ τ ε ρ ο υ χ ρ η σ τ α ΐς ε λ π ίσ ι φ η σ ίν " ά λ λ α
κ ά γ ώ κ α ν η φ ο ρ ε ΐν ε δ ο ξ α κ α ί τ ρ ία π λ ή ρ η κ α ν ά π ε μ -
μ ά τ ω ν κ ο μ ίζ ε ιν ε π ί τ ή ς κ ε φ α λ ή ς , τ ό δ ' ά ν ω τ ά τ ω
π λ ή ρ ε ς ε ίν α ι π α ν τ ο ίω ν γ ε ν ώ ν , ο ΐς έ θ ο ς ε σ τ ί χ ρ ή ~
σ θ α ι τ ο ν β α σ ιλ έ α —π ο ικ ίλ α ς δ ' ε ίν α ι τ ά ς π ρ ο ς δ ία ιτ α ν
β α σ ιλ ικ ή ν σ ιτ ο π ό ν ω ν π ε ρ ιε ρ γ ία ς —, ό ρ ν ε ις δ έ κ α θ -
ιπ τ α μ έ ν ο υ ς ά ρ π ά ζ ε ιν ά π ό τ ή ς κ ε φ α λ ή ς κ α ί ά π λ ή σ τ ω ς
έ μ φ ο ρ ε ΐσ θ α ι, μ έ χ ρ ις ο ύ π ά ν τ ά ν α λ ώ σ α ι κ α ί μ η δ έ ν
94 τ ώ ν ε ύ τ ρ έ π ισ θ έ ν τ ω ν ύ π ο λ ιπ έ σ θ α ι" ο δ έ έ β ο υ -
λ ό μ η ν μ έ ν " ε ίπ ε " μ ή π α ρ α σ τ ή ν α ί σ ο ι τ ή ν φ α ν -
τ α σ ία ν ή φ α ν ε ΐσ α ν ή σ υ χ α σ θ ή ν α ι ή , ε ί κ α ί δ ιη γ ε ΐτ ό
τ ις , μ α κ ρ ά ν γ ο ύ ν , ίν α μ ή κ α τ α κ ο ύ σ α ιμ ι, τ ώ ν ε μ ώ ν
ώ τ ω ν γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι τ ή ν δ ιή γ η σ ιν ό κ ν ώ τ ε γ ά ρ , ε ί κ α ί
τ ις ά λ λ ο ς , ε ίν α ι κ α κ ώ ν ά γ γ ε λ ο ς σ υ ν α λ γ ώ τ ε τ ο ΐς
ε ν σ υ μ φ ο ρ α ΐς , έ ν ε κ α φ ιλ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ς ο ύ χ ή κ ισ τ α τ ώ ν
95 υ π ο μ ε ν ό ν τ ω ν ό δ υ ν ώ μ έ ν ο ς , ά λ λ ' ε π ε ιδ ή τ ο ΐς ο ν ε ίρ ω ν
κ ρ ιτ α ΐς ά λ η θ ε ύ ε ιν ά ν α γ κ α ΐο ν θ ε ια λ ό γ ια δ ιε ρ μ η -
ν ε ύ ο υ σ ι κ α ί π ρ ο φ η τ ε ύ ο υ σ ι, λ έ ξ ω μ η δ έ ν ύ π ο σ τ ε ιλ ά -
μ ε ν ο ς ' ά ψ ε υ δ ε ΐν γ ά ρ ε π ί μ έ ν π ά ν τ ω ν ά ρ ισ τ ο ν , ε π ί
96 δ έ τ ώ ν θ ε ίω ν α π ο φ θ ε γ μ ά τ ω ν κ α ί ό σ ιώ τ α τ ο ν . τ ά
τ ία κ α ν α σ ύ μ β ο λ ο ν τ ρ ιώ ν ή μ ε ρ ω ν ε σ τ ίν έ π ισ χ ώ ν
186
ON JOSEPH, 92-96
the vine denote three days, after which the king will
remember you and send for you from this place. He
will then grant you free pardon, and allow you to take
your old post, and to confirm you in the office you will
act as butler and offer the cup to your master." The
chief butler rejoiced on hearing this.
XVIII. The chief baker, for his part, approved the 93
interpretation, and, thinking that he himself had had
a lucky dream, though in reality it was very much the
reverse, and misled by the comforting hopes of the
other, proceeded as follows : "I too had a dream. I
thought I was carrying three baskets—full of bake-
mrnt". nn my hri\n the uppermost full of all the
different kinds which are regularly provided for
the use of the king, for the delicacies produced by
the caterers for the king's table are varied and elabor-
ate. Then birds flew down and snatched them from
my head, and gobbled them insatiably until all was
consumed and nothing of the provisions was left."
Joseph replied : "I could have wished that this 94
vision had never been seen by you, or, if seen, had
remained unmentioned, or, if its story were told, that
at least it should have been told far away from my
ears to prevent my hearing it. For no one shrinks
more than I from being a messenger of ill-tidings.
I sympathize with those in misfortune, and kindly
affection makes me feel as much pain as the actual
sufferers. But the interpreters of dreams must needs 95
tell the truth, since they are prophets expounding
divine oracles, and I will therefore speak without
reserve ; for, while veracity is best in all matters, in
dealing with God's messages, anything else is pro-
fanity.
0
The three baskets are symbols of three days. 96
β
ό σ ω ν here in the sense of what is demanded by religion.
187
PHILO
τ α ύ τ α ς 6 β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς ά ν α σ κ ο λ ο π ισ θ ή ν α ί σ ε κ α ι τ ή ν
κ ε φ α λ ή ν ά π ο τ μ η θ ή ν α ι κ ε λ ε ύ σ ε ι κ α ι κ α τ α π τ ά μ ε ν α
δ ρ ν ε α τ ώ ν σ ώ ν ε ύ ω χ η θ ή σ ε τ α ι σ α ρ κ ώ ν , ά χ ρ ις α ν
97 ο λ ο ς ε ξ α ν α λ ω θ ή ς κ α ι 6 μ έ ν ώ σ π ε ρ ε ικ ό ς σ υ γ -
χ υ θ ε ις ά ν α τ έ τ ρ α π τ ο , κ α ρ α ο ο κ ώ ν τ ή ν ό ρ ισ θ ε ΐσ α ν
π ρ ο θ ε σ μ ία ν κ α ι τ ή δ ιά ν ο ια τ ά ς α ν ία ς π ρ ο σ δ ε χ ό -
μ έ ν ο ς , ώ ς δ ' α ί τ ρ ε ις ή μ ε ρ α ι δ ιή λ θ ο ν , γ ε ν έ θ λ ιο ς
ε π έ σ τ η τ ο ϋ β α σ ιλ έ ω ς , ε ν ή π ά ν τ ε ς ο ι κ α τ ά τ ή ν
χ ώ ρ α ν έ π α ν η γ ύ ρ ιζ ο ν , δ ια φ ε ρ ό ν τ ω ς δ ' ο ι π ε ρ ι τ ά
98 β α σ ίλ ε ια , ε σ τ ιω μ έ ν ω ν ο ν ν τ ώ ν ε ν τ έ λ ε ι κ α ι τ ή ς
θ ε ρ α π ε ία ς ε ύ ω χ ο υ μ ε ν η ς ώ σ π ε ρ ε ν δ η μ ο θ ο ιν ία , τ ώ ν
κ α τ ά τ ό δ ε σ μ ω τ ή ρ ιο ν ε υ ν ο ύ χ ω ν ύ π ο μ ν η σ θ ε ις ά χ θ ή -
ν α ι κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι κ α ι θ ε α σ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ά κ τ ή ς τ ώ ν ο ν ε ίρ ω ν
δ ια κ ρ ίσ ε ω ς ε π ισ φ ρ α γ ίζ ε τ α ι, π ρ ο σ τ ά ζ α ς τ ο ν μ έ ν ά ν α -
σ κ ο λ ο π ισ θ ή ν α ί τ ή ν κ ε φ α λ ή ν ά π ο τ μ η θ έ ν τ α , τ ώ δ έ
τ ή ν α ρ χ ή ν ή ν δ ιε ιπ ε π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ά π ο ν ε ΐμ α ι.
99 XIX. Κ α τ α λ λ α γ ε Ις δ έ ό ά ρ χ ιο ιν ο χ ό ο ς ε κ λ α ν -
θ ά ν ε τ α ι τ ο ϋ τ ά ς κ α τ α λ λ α γ ά ς π ρ ο ε ιπ ό ν τ ο ς κ α ι
έ κ α σ τ α τ ώ ν σ υ μ π ε σ ό ν τ ω ν α τ υ χ η μ ά τ ω ν ε π ικ ο υ φ ί-
σ α ν τ ο ς , ϊσ ω ς μ έ ν ε π ε ιδ ή π α ς α χ ά ρ ισ τ ο ς ά μ ν ή μ ω ν
ε σ τ ίν ε υ ε ρ γ ε τ ώ ν , ίσ ω ς δ έ κ α ι κ α τ ά π ρ ό ν ο ια ν θ ε ο ϋ
β ο υ λ η θ έ ν τ ο ς τ ά ς ε ύ π ρ α γ ία ς τ ώ ν ε α ν ία μ ή δ ι ' ά ν -
100 θ ρ ώ π ο υ γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ή δ ι ' ε α υ τ ο ύ . μ ε τ ά γ ά ρ
δ ιε τ ή χ ρ ό ν ο ν τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ι τ ά μ έ λ λ ο ν τ α τ ή χ ώ ρ α
σ υ μ β α ίν ε ιν α γ α θ ά κ α ι κ α κ ά δ ιτ τ α ΐς ^α ν τ α σ ί α υ δ ι*
ο ν ε ίρ ο υ θ ε σ π ίζ ε τ α ι τ α ύ τ ό ν ύ π ο σ η μ α ιν ο ύ σ α ις έ ν ε κ α
101 β ε β α ιο τ έ ρ α ς π ίσ τ ε ω ς , έ δ ο ζ ε γ ά ρ έ π τ ά β ό α ς ά ν έ ρ -
π ε ιν έ κ τ ο ϋ π ο τ α μ ο ύ , π ίο ν α ς κ α ι σ φ ό δ ρ α ε ύ σ ά ρ κ ο υ ς
κ α ι κ α λ ά ς ό φ θ ή ν α ι, κ α ι π α ρ ά τ α ΐς ο χ θ α ις ν έ μ ε σ θ α ί'
[ 56] μ ε θ * α ς ε τ έ ρ α ς α ρ ιθ μ ό ν ΐσ α ς , \ ά σ α ρ κ ο υ ς τ ρ ό π ο ν
τ ιν ά κ α ι κ α τ ε σ κ ε λ ε τ ε υ μ έ ν α ς κ α ι ε ίδ ε χ θ ε σ τ ά τ α ς ,
ά ν ε λ θ ε ΐν κ α ι σ υ ν ν έ μ ε σ θ α ι τ α ΐς π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ις * ε ΐτ
188
ON JOSEPH, 96-101
When these have passed, the king will order you to
be impaled and beheaded, and the birds will feast
upon your flesh until you are entirely devoured."
The baker, as might be expected, was confounded 97
and upset, having the appointed day before his eyes
and mentally anticipating its pangs. But, when the
three days had passed, came the king's birthday,
when all the inhabitants of the country held festive
gatherings, and particularly those of the palace. So, 98
while the dignitaries were banqueting, and the ser-
vants were regaling themselves as at a public feast,
the king remembered the eunuchs in the prison and
bade them be brought to him. And, when he saw
them, he ratified what had been forecast in the in-
* terpretation of the dreams, by ordering one to be
beheaded and impaled and the other to be restored
to his former office.
XIX. But, when he was reconciled to his master, 99
the chief butler forgot him who had predicted the
reconciliation and alleviated all the misfortunes which
befell him ; perhaps because the ungrateful are
always forgetful of their benefactors, perhaps also
in the providence of God Who willed that the happy
events which befell the youth should be due to God
rather than to man. For after two years the future 100
of his country for both good and ill was revealed to
the king when dreaming, in two visions with the same
significance, repeated in order to carry stronger con-
viction. He dreamt that seven oxen came up from 101
the river, fat and well covered with flesh and fair
to look upon, and browsed beside the banks. After
them seven others, mere skeletons, and fleshless,
so to speak, and loathsome in appearance, came up
and browsed with the former seven. Then suddenly
189
PHILO
έ ξ α π ιν α ίω ς ύ π ό τ ώ ν χ ε ιρ ό ν ω ν κ α τ α β ρ ω θ ή ν α ι τ ά ς
ά μ ε ίν ο υ ς κ α ι μ η δ έ ν ά λ λ α μ η δ έ τ ό β ρ α χ ύ τ α τ ο ν τ α ΐς
έ μ φ ο ρ η θ ε ίσ α ις π ρ ό ς ό γ κ ο ν έ π ιδ ο ΰ ν α ι τ ά ς γ α σ τ έ ρ α ς ,
102 ά λ λ ' ή μ ά λ λ ο ν ή ο ύ χ ή τ τ ο ν έ σ τ ά λ θ α ι. π ε ρ ια ν α σ τ ά ς
δ έ κ α ϊ κ ο ιμ η θ ε ίς π ά λ ιν έ τ ε ρ α π λ η χ θ ή ν α ι φ α ν τ α σ ία *
ν ο μ ίσ α ι γ ά ρ έ π τ ά π υ ρ ο ΰ σ τ ά γ υ ς έ κ π ε φ υ κ ό τ α ς ε ν ό ς
π υ θ μ έ ν ο ς , ίσ α ιτ ά τ ο υ ς τ ο ΐς μ ε γ έ θ ε σ ιν , α ύ ξ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς
κ α ι τ ε θ η λ ό τ α ς α ΐρ ε σ θ α ι π ρ ό ς ύ φ ο ς μ ά λ ε ύ ρ ω σ τ ο υ ς *
ε ΐθ * έ τ ε ρ ο υ ς έ π τ ά λ ε π τ ο ύ ς κ α ι α σ θ ε ν ε ίς ά ν α π ε φ υ -
κ έ ν α ι π λ η σ ίο ν , ύ φ ' ώ ν έ π ιδ ρ α μ ό ν τ ω ν κ α τ α π ο θ ή ν α ι
103 τ ο ν ε ΰ σ τ α γ υ ν π υ θ μ έ ν α , τ α ύ τ η ν ίδ ώ ν τ ή ν Ο ψ ιν , τ ό
λ ε ιπ ό μ ε ν ο ν τ ή ς ν υ κ τ ό ς ά υ π ν ο ς δ ια τ ε λ έ σ α ς —ή γ ε ιρ ο ν
γ ά ρ α ι φ ρ ο ν τ ίδ ε ς κ ε ν τ ο ϋ σ α ι κ α ι τ ιτ ρ ώ σ κ ο υ σ α ι—
3
μ ε τ α π έ μ π ε τ α ι τ ο ύ ς σ ο φ ισ τ ά ς ά μ α τ ή έ ω κ α ι τ ή ν
104 φ α ν τ α σ ία ν δ ιη γ ε ίτ α ι, μ η δ ε ν ό ς δ έ σ τ ο χ α σ μ ο ΐς ε ίκ ο σ ι
τ ά λ η θ έ ς ί χ ν ^λ α τ ή σ α ι δ υ ν α μ έ ν ο υ , π α ρ ε λ θ ώ ν ό ά ρ χ ι-
ο ιν ο χ ό ο ς φ η σ ίν " ώ δ έ σ π ο τ α , τ ο ν ά ν δ ρ α ό ν ζ η τ ε ίς
έ λ π ίς έ σ τ ιν ε ύ ρ ή σ ε ιν ά μ α ρ τ ό ν τ α ς έ μ έ κ α ϊ τ ο ν ά ρ χ ι-
σ ιτ ο π ο ιό ν έ κ έ λ ε υ σ α ς ε ίς τ ό δ ε σ μ ω τ ή ρ ιο ν ά π α χ θ ή -
ν α ι, έ ν ω τ ο υ ά ρ χ ιμ α γ ε ίρ ο υ θ ε ρ ά π ω ν ή ν * Ε β ρ α ίο ς ,
ω τ ιν ι δ ιη γ η σ ά μ ε θ α έ γ ώ τ ε κ ά κ ε ΐν ο ς ό ν ε ίρ α τ α τ ά
φ α ν έ ν τ α ή μ ιν ό δ ' ο ύ τ ω ς ε ύ θ υ β ό λ ω ς κ α ι ε ύ σ κ ό π ω ς
δ ιέ κ ρ ιν ε ν , ώ ς Ο σ α π ρ ο ε ΐπ ε ν έ κ α τ έ ρ ω σ υ μ β ή ν α ι, τ ω
μ έ ν ή ν ύ π έ μ ε ιν ε τ ιμ ω ρ ία ν , έ μ ο ϊ δ έ τ ό σ ο υ τ υ χ ε ΐν
105 ίλ ε ω κ α ι ε υ μ ε ν ο ύ ς ." XX. ο μ έ ν ο υ ν
β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς ά κ ο υ σ α ς π ρ ο σ τ ά τ τ ε ι σ υ ν τ ε ίν ο ν τ α ς ά ν α -
κ α λ ε ΐν τ ο ν ν ε α ν ία ν . ο ί δ ' ά π ο κ ε ίρ α ν τ ε ς —β α θ ε ΐα ι
γ ά ρ ή σ α ν α ύ τ ω χ α ΐτ α ι κ α θ ε ιρ γ μ έ ν ω κ ε φ α λ ή ς κ α ι
γ ε ν ε ίο υ —κ α ι ά ν τ ί ρ υ π ώ σ η ς λ α μ π ρ ά ν έ σ θ ή τ α ά ν τ ι-
δ ό ν τ ε ς κ α ι τ ά λ λ α φ α ιδ ρ ύ ν α ν τ ε ς ε ίσ ά γ ο υ σ ιν α υ τ ό ν
106 π ρ ό ς τ ο ν β α σ ιλ έ α * ό ς έ κ τ ή ς Ο ψ ε ω ς τ ε κ μ η ρ ά μ ε ν ο ς
190
ON JOSEPH, 101- 106
the better seven were devoured by the worse, and
yet these after swallowing the others shewed not the
smallest increase in bulk of belly but were even more,
or at least not less, shrunken. The king awoke and 102
then slept again, and was beset by another vision.
He thought that seven ears of wheat had sprung out
of a single stalk. They were very equal in size and
grew and throve and rose to a considerable height,
fine and strong. Then seven others sprang up near
them, thin and feeble, which overran and swallowed
up the stalk which bore the good ears. After seeing 103
this the king remained sleepless for the rest of the
night, kept awake by the thoughts which pricked and
stung him. At dawn he sent for his wise men and
told them the vision, and when no one could make any 104
likely conjecture which could give a clue to the truth,
the chief butler came forward and saicl: " Master,
we may hope to find the man whom you seek. When
I and the chief baker had offended, we were by your
orders cast into prison where there was a Hebrew
servant of the chief cook, to whom we two told the
dreams which we had seen, and he interpreted them
so exactly and skilfully that all that he had predicted
happened to each of us, to him the penalty which he
suffered, to me my admission to your clemency and
favour." XX. The king on hearing this 105
bade them hasten and summon the youth. They
obeyed, but first they had him shaven and shorn, for
in his confinement the hair had grown long and thick
on his head and chin. Then they put on him a bright
and clean raiment instead of his filthy prison clothes,
and smartened him in other ways and thus brought
him to the king. The king, judging him by his ap- 106
pearance to be a man of free and noble birth, for the
191
PHILO
ά ν δ ρ α ε λ ε ύ θ ε ρ ο ν κ α ι ε υ γ ε ν ή —χ α ρ α κ τ ή ρ ε ς γ ά ρ ε π ι·*
φ α ίν ο ν τ α ι τ ίν ε ς τ ω σ ώ μ α τ ι τ ώ ν ό ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν ο ύ χ
ο ρ α τ ο ί π α σ ιν , ά λ λ ' ο ΐς τ ό τ ή ς δ ια ν ο ία ς Ο μ μ α
ό ξ υ δ ο ρ κ ε ΐ—" μ α ν τ ε ύ ε τ α ι " ε ΐπ ε ν " ή ψ υ χ ή μ ο υ π ε ρ ι
τ ο ύ μ ή ε ίς ά π α ν ά σ α φ ε ία τ ο ύ ς ό ν ε ίρ ο υ ς έ π ισ κ ια -
σ θ η σ ε σ θ α ι· δ ε ίγ μ α γ ά ρ σ ο φ ία ς ο ν ε α ν ία ς ο ύ τ ο ς
ύ π ο φ α ίν ε ι, δ ια κ α λ ύ φ ε ι τ ή ν ά λ ή θ ε ια ν , ο ία φ ω τ ι
σ κ ό τ ο ς ε π ισ τ ή μ η τ ή ν ά μ α θ ία ν τ ώ ν π α ρ
9
ή μ ιν
σ ο φ ισ τ ώ ν ά π ο σ κ ε δ ά σ ε ι." κ α ί τ ο ύ ς ό ν ε ίρ ο υ ς δ ι-
107 η γ ε ΐτ ο . ό δ έ τ ά ζ ίω μ α τ ο ύ λ έ γ ο ν τ ο ς ο υ δ έ ν
κ α τ α π λ α γ ε ϊς ώ σ π ε ρ ύ π η κ ό ω β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς , ά λ λ ' ο ύ χ
υ π ή κ ο ο ς β α σ ιλ ε ΐ, π α ρ ρ η σ ία σ υ ν α ίδ ο ΐ χ ρ ώ μ έ ν ο ς
δ ιε λ ε γ ε τ ο κ α ί φ η σ ιν " ό σ α μ έ λ λ ε ι π ο ιε ΐν ό θ ε ό ς
ε ν τ ή χ ώ ρ α , π ρ ο μ ε μ ή ν υ κ ε σ ο ι. τ ά ς μ ε ν τ ο ι δ ιτ τ ά ς
φ α ν τ α σ ία ς μ ή ύ π ο λ ά β η ς ε ίν α ι δ ιτ τ ο ύ ς ό ν ε ίρ ο υ ς · ε ις
ε σ τ ι, τ ή ν ά ν α δ ίπ λ ω σ ιν έ χ ω ν ο ύ π ε ρ ιτ τ ή ν , ά λ λ α π ρ ο ς
108 ε λ ε γ χ ο ν β ε β α ιο τ έ ρ α ς π ίσ τ ε ω ς , α ί τ ε γ ά ρ π ίο ν ε ς
ε π τ ά β ό ε ς κ α ί ο ι ε ϋ β λ α σ τ ο ι κ α ί ε ύ θ α λ ε ΐς ε π τ ά \
[ 57] σ τ ά χ υ ε ς έ ν ια υ τ ο ύ ς ε π τ ά δ η λ ο ύ σ ιν ε ύ θ η ν ία ς κ α ι
ε ύ ε τ η ρ ία ς κ α ι ε π τ ά ε τ έ ρ ο υ ς λ ιμ ο ύ α ί έ π α ν ιο ύ σ α ι
ε π τ ά β ό ε ς λ ε π τ α ι κ α ι ε ιδ ε χ θ ε ίς κ α ι ο ι π α ρ ε φ θ α ρ -
109 μ έ ν ο ι κ α ι μ ε μ υ κ ό τ ε ς ε π τ ά σ τ ά χ υ ε ς . ή ζ ε ι μ έ ν ο ύ ν
ε π τ α ε τ ία π ρ ό τ ε ρ α π ο λ λ ή ν κ α ι ά φ θ ο ν ο ν έ χ ο υ σ α
ε ύ κ α ρ π ία ν , π λ η μ μ ύ ρ α ις μ έ ν ά ν ά π α ν έ τ ο ς τ ο ύ π ο τ α -
μ ο ύ λ ιμ ν ά ζ ο ν τ ο ς τ ά ς ά ρ ο ύ ρ α ς , τ ώ ν δ έ π ε δ ίω ν ώ ς
ο ύ π ω π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ε ύ τ ο κ ία χ ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν ή ζ ε ι δ έ μ ε τ ά
τ α ύ τ α ε π τ α ε τ ία π ά λ ιν ε ν α ν τ ία χ α λ ε π ή ν έ ν δ ε ια ν κ α ι
σ π ά ν ιν τ ώ ν α ν α γ κ α ίω ν έ π ιφ έ ρ ο υ σ α , μ ή τ ά ν α χ ε ο -
μ έ ν ο υ τ ο ύ π ο τ α μ ο ύ μ ή τ ε τ ή ς γ ή ς λ ιπ α ιν ο μ έ ν η ς , ώ ς
τ ή ς π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ς ε ύ θ η ν ία ς έ κ λ α θ έ σ θ α ι κ α ι ε ΐ τ ι λ ε ί-
110 φ α ν ο ν π α λ α ι ά ς ε ύ ε τ η ρ ία ς ή ν ά ν α λ ω θ ή ν α ι. τ ά μ έ ν
ο ύ ν ε κ τ η ς δ ια κ ρ ίσ ε ω ς τ ο ια ύ τ ε σ τ ίν , ύ π ιη χ ε ΐ δ έ
192
ON JOSEPH, 106- 110
persons of those whom we see exhibit characteristics
which are not visible to all, but only to those in whom
the eye of the understanding is quick to discern, said :
" My soul has a prophetic inkling that my dreams
will not for ever remain veiled in obscurity, for in
this youth there are signs and indications of wisdom.
He will reveal the truth, and as light disperses dark-
ness his knowledge will disperse the ignorance of our
wizards." So he told him the dreams.
Joseph, nothing awed by the high dignity of the 107
speaker, spoke to him with frankness combined with
modesty, rather as a king to a subject than as a sub-
ject to the king. " God has given you," he said,
" warning of all that He is about to do in the land.
But do not suppose that the two visions are two
dreams. There is one dream repeated, though the
repeating is not superfluous, but given to convince
you more firmly of its trustworthiness. For both the 108
seven fat oxen and the seven well-grown and flourish-
ing ears indicate seven years of abundance and pro-
sperity, while the seven oxen that came up after, thin
and loathly, and the seven blasted and shrunken ears
mean seven other years of famine. The first period 109
of seven years, then, will come bringing a large and
plentiful wealth of crops, while the river each year,
with its rising waters, turns the fields into pools and
the plains have a fertility never known before. But
after this will come in its turn another period of seven
years of the opposite kind, bringing severe dearth
and lack of the means of living, with the river ceasing
to overflow and the fields to get their fatness, so that
men will forget the former prosperity and every trace
of the old abundance will be blotted out. Such are 110
the facts which appear from the interpretation, but
193
PHILO
μ ο ι κ α ι έ κ λ α λ ε ΐ τ ό θ ε ίο ν ύ π ο β ά λ λ ο ν τ ά ώ ς iv ν ό σ ω
σ ω τ ή ρ ια * ν ό σ ο ς δ έ π ό λ ε ω ν κ α ι χ ω ρ ίω ν ή β α ρ ύ τ α τ η
λ ιμ ό ς , ή κ α τ α σ κ ε υ α σ τ έ ο ν ά σ θ έ ν ε ια ν , ίν α μ η τ ε -
111 λ ε ίω ς ρ ω σ θ ε ΐσ α τ ο υ ς ο ίκ ή τ ο ρ α ς έ κ φ ά γ η . π ώ ς ο ΰ ν
α σ θ ε ν ή σ ε ι; τ ο υ κ α ρ π ο ύ τ ώ ν ε π τ ά ε τ ώ ν , ε ν ο ΐς ή
ε υ φ ο ρ ία , τ ό π λ ε ο ν ά ζ ο ν μ ε τ ά τ ά ς α υ τ ά ρ κ ε ις τ ο ις
π λ ή θ ε σ ι τ ρ ο φ ά ς —ε σ τ α ι δ ' ΐσ ω ς μ έ ρ ο ς π έ μ π τ ο ν —
θ η σ α υ ρ ισ τ έ ο ν ε ν π ό λ ε ι κ α ι κ ώ μ α ις , μ ή μ ε τ α κ ο μ ί-
ζ ο ν τ α ς τ ά θ έ ρ η μ α κ ρ ό θ ε ν , ά λ λ ' έ ξ ώ ν α ν ή χ ω ρ ίω ν ,
έ ν έ κ ε ίν ο ις φ υ λ ά τ τ ο ν τ α ς π ρ ό ς τ ή ν τ ώ ν ο ικ ο ύ ν -
112 τ ω ν π α ρ η γ ο ρ ία ν σ υ γ κ ο μ ίζ ε ιν δ έ τ ο ν κ α ρ π ό ν α ύ τ ο ΐς
δ ρ ά γ μ α σ ι μ ή τ ε ά λ ο ώ ν τ α ς μ ή τ ε σ υ ν ό λ ω ς κ α θ α ίρ ο ν τ α ς ,
τ ε τ τ ά ρ ω ν έ ν ε κ α * ε ν ό ς μ έ ν τ ο υ σ κ έ π η χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ν
π ρ ό ς π λ ε ίω χ ρ ό ν ο ν δ ια μ έ ν ε ιν ά δ ιά φ θ ο ρ ο ν έ τ ε ρ ο υ δ έ
τ ο υ κ α θ * έ κ α σ τ ο ν έ ν ια υ τ ό ν γ ίν ε σ θ α ι τ ή ς ε ύ θ η ν ία ς
ύ π ό μ ν η σ ιν , ά λ ο ώ ν τ ω ν κ α ϊ λ ικ μ ώ ν τ ω ν ή γ ά ρ μ ίμ η -
σ ις τ ώ ν π ρ ό ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν α γ α θ ώ ν δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ν έ μ ε λ -
113 λ ε ν ή δ ο ν ή ν ά π ε ρ γ ά ζ ε σ θ α ι* τ ρ ίτ ο υ δ έ τ ο ϋ μ η δ
9
ε ις
α ρ ιθ μ ό ν έ λ θ ε ΐν , έ ν σ τ ά χ υ σ ι κ α ι δ ρ ά γ μ α σ ιν ά δ η λ ο υ
κ α ι ά π ε ρ ιγ ρ ά φ ο υ τ ο ϋ κ α ρ π ο ύ υ π ά ρ χ ο ν τ ο ς , ιν α μ ή
π ρ ο α ν α π έ σ ω σ ιν α ί δ ι ά ν ο ι α ι τ ώ ν ε γ χ ω ρ ίω ν έ ν τ α ΐς
ά ν α λ ώ σ ε σ ι τ ο ϋ σ υ λ λ ο γ ισ θ έ ν τ ο ς , ά λ λ ' ε υ θ υ μ ία χ ρ ώ -
μ ε ν ο ι τ ή σ ιτ ίω ν ά μ ε ίν ο ν ι τ ρ ο φ ή —τ ρ έ φ ε ι γ ά ρ έ ν τ ο ις
μ ά λ ισ τ α έ λ π ίς —έ π ικ ο υ φ ίζ ω σ ι τ ή ν έ κ τ ή ς έ ν δ ε ια ς
β α ρ ε ΐα ν ν ό σ ο ν τ ε τ ά ρ τ ο υ δ έ τ ο ϋ κ α ι τ ο ις θ ρ έ μ -
α
For this regular use of ύ π η χ έ ίν in Philo for a voice heard
inwardly see note on De Som. i. 164.
b
Or " country districts "; cf. the common use of the word
for farms or estates.
c
There is no authority for this statement in Genesis, or the
arguments adduced for it. But Philo may well have heard
or read of precedents.
d
i.e. when we thresh the annual allowance from the store
194
ON JOSEPH, 110-113
I also hear the promptings
a
of the divine voice, de-
vising safeguards for the disease, as we may call it;
and famine in cities and localities is the severest of
diseases, and we must provide means of weakening
it lest it grow to full strength and devour the in-
habitants. How, then, shall it be weakened ? What 111
is left over from the harvest of the seven years of
abundance after the necessary allowance for feeding
the multitudes, which perhaps will be a fifth, should
be stored in the city and villages, without transport-
ing the crops to a distance, but keeping them in the
places where they have been produced, to encourage
the inhabitants. And the crops should be brought 112
in just as they are in the sheaves, without threshing
them or purging them in any way,
c
for four reasons.
First, that being thus under shelter they will last
longer without spoiling ; secondly, that every year
when they are threshed and winnowed they will serve
as a reminder of the prosperous time, for we always
find that imitation
d
of our real blessings has brought a
repetition of the pleasure ; thirdly, the grain cannot 113
even be reckoned when it is contained in ears and
sheaves, and therefore is an uncertain and incalcul-
able quantity. This will prevent the minds of the
inhabitants from being prematurely depressed, when
they see that the grain, which is a known quantity,
6
is being gradually consumed. On the contrary, they
will have courage, nourished on a food which is better
than corn, since hope is the best of nourishments,
and take more lightly the heavy scourge of want.
Fourthly, to provide a store of fodder for the cattle
we copy what we do in the ordinary harvest and therefore
are reminded of it. But Cohn in his translation adopts
Mangey's ύ π ό μ ν η σ ι*.
e
Lit. " which has been calculated."
195
PHILO
μ α σ ι χ ιλ ό ν τ ε τ α /χ ιε υ σ Λ χ ι, τ ώ ν ά χ υ ρ ω ν κ α ι ά θ έ ρ ω ν
114 ε κ τ ή ς τ ο ϋ κ α ρ π ο ϋ κ α θ ρ σ ε ω ς δ ια κ ρ ιν ο μ έ ν ω ν . έ π ι-
μ ε λ η τ ή ν δ έ τ ο ύ τ ω ν χ ε ιρ ο τ ο ν η τ έ ο ν ά ν δ ρ α φ ρ ο ν ιμ ώ -
τ α τ ο ν κ α ι σ υ ν ε τ ώ τ α τ ο ν κ α ι iv π ά σ ι δ ό κ ιμ ο ν , δ ς
γ έ ν ο ιτ α ν ικ α ν ό ς ά μ ισ ώ ς κ α ι ά ν ε π ά φ ω ς ε ύ τ ρ ε π ή
τ ά λ ε χ θ έ ν τ α π ο ΐ€ΐν μ η δ ε μ ία ν α ίσ θ η σ ιν τ ο ις π λ ή -
θ ε σ ιν έ ν δ ιδ ο ύ ς π ε ρ ι τ ο ϋ γ ε ν η σ ο μ έ ν ο υ λ ιμ ο ΰ ' χ α λ ε π ό ν
γ ά ρ τ ό π ρ ο ά μ ν ο ν τ α ς τ α ΐς φ υ χ α ΐς ά ν α π ε σ ε ΐν δ υ σ -
115 ε λ π ισ τ ία . iav δ έ τ ις έ π ιζ η τ ή τ ή ν α ίτ ία ν , φ ή σ ε ι
δ ε ΐν , κ α θ ά π ε ρ έ ν ε ιρ ή ν η π ρ ο ν ο ε ΐν τ ώ ν έ ν τ ώ
[ 58] π ο λ έ μ ω π α ρ α σ κ ε υ ώ ν , κ α ι έ ν \ ε ύ π ο ρ ία ις τ ώ ν κ α τ *
έ ν δ ε ια ν ά δ η λ ο υ ς δ έ ε ίν α ι π ο λ έ μ ο υ ς κ α ι λ ιμ ο ύ ς
κ α ι σ υ ν ό λ ω ς τ ο υ ς κ α ιρ ο ύ ς τ ώ ν ά β ο υ λ ή τ ω ν , ε ις
ο υ ς ά ν α γ κ α ΐο ν ε ίν α ι π α ρ ε σ κ ε υ ά σ θ α ι, ά λ λ α μ ή
γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω ν τ ό τ ε τ ή ν θ ε ρ α π ε ία ν ζ η τ ε ΐν , δ τ ο υ δ έ ν
ό φ ε λ ο ς ."
116 XXI. 'Α κ ο υ σ α ς δ έ ό β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς κ α ι τ ή ν τ ώ ν
ο ν ε ίρ ω ν δ ιά κ ρ ισ ιν ε ύ θ υ β ό λ ω ς κ α ι ε ύ σ κ ό π ω ς σ τ ο χ α -
ζ ο μ έ ν η ν τ ή ς α λ η θ ε ία ς κ α ι τ ή ν σ υ μ β ο υ λ ία ν ο σ α τ ώ
δ ο κ ε ΐν ώ φ ε λ ιμ ω τ ά τ η ν κ α τ ά τ ή ν τ ο ϋ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ο ς
ά δ η λ ο υ π ρ ό ν ο ια ν , τ ο ύ ς σ υ ν ό ν τ α ς έ γ γ υ τ έ ρ ω π ρ ο σ -
ε λ θ ε ΐν κ ε λ ε ύ σ α ς , ιν α μ ή κ α τ α κ ο ύ ο ι, " ά ρ * " ε ΐπ ε ν ,
" ά ν δ ρ ε ς , ε ύ ρ ή σ ο μ ε ν τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν , δ ς έ χ ε ι
117 π ν ε ύ μ α θ ε ίο ν έ ν έ α υ τ ώ ;" σ υ ν ε π α ιν ο ύ ν τ ω ν δ έ κ α ι
σ υ ν ε υ φ η μ ο υ ν τ ώ ν , ά π ιδ ώ ν ε ις τ ο ν π α ρ ε σ τ ώ τ α " ε γ -
γ ύ ς " ε ΐπ ε ν " έ σ τ ιν δ ν π α ρ α ιν ε ίς ά ν α ζ η τ ε ΐν , ο ύ
μ α κ ρ ά ν ά φ έ σ τ η κ ε ν ο φ ρ ό ν ιμ ο ς κ α ι σ υ ν ε τ ό ς , δ ν έ δ ε ι
κ α τ ά τ ά ς σ ά ς ύ φ η γ ή σ ε ις σ κ ο π ε ΐν , α υ τ ό ς ώ ν τ υ γ -
χ ά ν ε ις * ο ύ γ ά ρ ά ν ε υ θ ε ο ϋ τ α ϋ τ ά π ο φ θ έ γ γ ε σ θ α ί μ ο ι
δ ο κ ε ΐς . ΐθ ι δ ή κ α ι π α ρ α λ ά μ β α ν ε τ ή ν τ έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν
τ ή ς έ μ ή ς ο ικ ία ς κ α ι τ ή ν Α ιγ ύ π τ ο υ π ά σ η ς έ π ι-
118 τ ρ ο π ή ν . ε ύ χ έ ρ ε ια ν δ ' ο υ δ ε ίς μ ο υ κ α τ α γ ν ώ σ ε τ α ι
196
ON JOSEPH, 113- 118
when the bran and chaff are separated through the
purging of the grain. And to take charge of all this 114
you must appoint a man of the utmost prudence and
good sense and well-approved all round, one who will
be competent, without exciting hatred or open resist-
ance, to make the preparations here described with-
out giving the multitude any idea of the coming
famine. For it would be a grievous thing if they
should faint in anticipation and lose heart through
lack of hope. And, if anyone asks the reason for 115
these measures, he should be told that, just as in
peace we must exercise forethought in preparing for
war, so, too, in years of plenty must we provide against
dearth. Wars and famines and times of adversity in
general are uncertain, and we must stand ready to
meet them, not wait till they have come and look for
the remedy when nothing is available."
XXI. The king having heard both his interpreta- 116
tion of the dreams, so exactly and skilfully divining
the truth, and his advice to all appearance most
profitable in its foresight for the uncertainties of the
future, bade his companions come closer to him so
that Joseph might not hear, and said : " Sirs, shall
we find another man such as this, who has in him the
spirit of God ? " When they with one accord praised 117
and applauded his words, he looked at Joseph who
was standing by, and said: " He whom you bid us
seek is near at hand, the man of prudence and sense
is not far distant. He for whom according to your
advice we should look is yourself, for I think that
God is with you in the words you speak. Come,
then, and take the charge of my house, and the
superintendence of all Egypt. And no one will 118
condemn me for hastiness, for I am not actuated by
197
PHILO
μ ή φ ιλ α υ τ ία χ ρ ω μ έ ν ο υ , π ά θ ε ι δ υ σ ιά τ ω * α ΐ τ ε
γ ά ρ μ ε γ ά λ α ι τ ώ ν φ ύ σ ε ω ν χ ρ ό ν ο ις ο ύ δ ο κ ιμ ά ζ ο ν τ α ι
μ α κ ρ ο ΐς , ο γ κ ω δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς /?ια ζό /Λ €ν α ι φ θ ά ν ε ιν ε ις
ά π ο δ ο χ ή ν α υ τ ώ ν ά ν υ π έ ρ θ ε τ ο ν , τ ά τ ε π ρ ά γ μ α τ α
μ έ λ λ η σ ιν κ α ι δ ια τ ρ ιβ ή ν ο ύ κ α ν έ χ ε τ α ι, τ ώ ν κ α ιρ ώ ν
119 ε π ε ιγ ό ν τ ω ν ε ίς τ ά ς α ν α γ κ α ία ς π α ρ α σ κ ε υ ά ς " ε ΐτ
α υ τ ό ν κ α θ ίσ τ η σ ι τ ή ς β α σ ιλ ε ία ς δ ιά δ ο χ ο ν , μ ά λ λ ο ν δ ',
ε ι χ ρ ή τ ά λ η θ ε ς ε ίπ ε ΐν , β α σ ιλ έ α , τ ό μ έ ν Ο ν ο μ α τ ή ς
α ρ χ ή ς . υ π ο λ ε ιπ ό μ ε ν ο ς α ύ τ ω , τ ή ς δ ' έ ν ε ρ γ ο ις
η γ ε μ ο ν ία ς έ κ σ τ ά ς έ κ ε ίν ω κ α ι τ ά λ λ α π ρ ά τ τ ω ν ό σ α
120 έ π ι τ ιμ ή τ ο ΰ ν ε α ν ίο υ . δ ίδ ω σ ιν ο ΰ ν α ύ τ ω σ φ ρ α γ ίδ α
β α σ ιλ ικ ή ν κ α ι ίε ρ ά ν έ σ θ ή τ α κ α ι κ ύ κ λ ο ν χ ρ υ σ ο ΰ ν
π ε ρ ιδ έ ρ α ιο ν κ α ι έ π ι δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ίο ν τ ώ ν α ρ μ ά τ ω ν ά ν α -
β ιβ ά σ α ς κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι π ε ρ ιε λ θ ε ΐν τ ή ν π ό λ ιν , π ρ ο ε ρ χ ο μ έ ν ο υ
κ ή ρ υ κ ο ς κ α ι δ η λ ο ύ ν τ ο ς τ ο ις ά γ ν ο ο ΰ σ ι τ ή ν χ ε ιρ ο -
121 τ ο ν ία ν . μ ε τ ο ν ο μ ά ζ ε ι δ ' α υ τ ό ν ά π ό τ ή ς ό ν ε ιρ ο κ ρ ι-
τ ικ ή ς έ γ χ ω ρ ίω γ λ ώ τ τ η π ρ ο σ α γ ο ρ ε ύ σ α ς κ α ι έ γ γ υ α
π ρ ό ς γ ά μ ο ν α ύ τ ω τ ή ν έ π ιφ α ν ε σ τ ά τ η ν τ ώ ν κ α τ
9
Α ϊγ υ π τ ο ν ιε ρ έ ω ς
c
Η λ ι ο υ θ υ γ α τ έ ρ α , τ α ΰ τ έ γ έ ν ε τ ο ,
π ε ρ ι έ τ η γ ε γ ο ν ό τ ο ς ή δ η τ ρ ιά κ ο ν τ α .
122 τ ο ια ύ τ α τ ώ ν ε υ σ ε β ώ ν τ ά τ έ λ η * κ α ν γ ά ρ κ λ ιθ ώ σ ιν ,
ο ύ κ ε ίς ά π α ν π ίπ τ ο υ σ ιν , α λ λ ά δ ια ν α σ τ ά ν τ ε ς ό ρ θ ο ύ ν -
τ α ι π α γ ίω ς κ α ι β ε β α ίω ς , ώ ς μ η κ έ θ * ύ π ο σ κ ε λ ι-
123 σ θ ή ν α ι. τ ις γ ά ρ α ν π ρ ο σ ε δ ό κ η σ ε μ ια η μ έ ρ α τ ο ν
α υ τ ό ν ά ν τ ι μ έ ν δ ο ύ λ ο υ δ ε σ π ό τ η ν , ά ν τ ι δ έ δ ε σ μ ώ τ ο υ
[ 59] π ά ν τ ω ν ά ζ ιο ν ικ ό τ α τ ο ν , \ κ α ι τ ο ν ύ π ο δ ιά κ ο ν ο ν
ε ίρ κ τ ο φ ύ λ α κ ο ς υ π ά ρ χ ο ν β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ε σ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι ά ν τ ι
τ ή ς ε ίρ κ τ ή ς τ ά β α σ ίλ ε ια ο ίκ ή σ ε ιν , τ ά π ρ ώ τ α τ ώ ν
έ π ι τ ιμ α ΐς φ ε ρ ό μ ε ν ο ν ά ν τ ι τ ώ ν ε ίς ά τ ιμ ία ν ε σ χ ά τ ω ν ;
124 ά λ λ ' ό μ ω ς κ α ι γ έ γ ο ν ε τ α ύ τ α κ α ι γ ε ν ή σ ε τ α ι π ο λ -
λ ά κ ις , ό τ α ν δ ο κ ή τ ώ θ ε ώ * μ ό ν ο ν έ ν τ υ φ έ σ θ ω τ ι
198
ON JOSEPH, 118- 124
self-confidence, that passion so hard to cure. Great
natures take no long time to prove themselves, but
by the massiveness of their power force others to give
them a rapid and immediate acceptance ; and the
facts of the case do not admit of delay and procras-
tination, since the needs of the time urge us on to
make the necessary preparations." He then ap- 119
pointed him viceroy of the kingdom, or rather, if
the truth be said, king, reserving indeed to himself
the name of the office, but resigning to him the actual
sovereignty and doing everything else that might-
give the young man honour. So, then, he bestowed 120
on him the royal seal and put upon him a sacred
robe and a golden necklace, and setting him on his
second chariot bade him go the round of the city
with a crier walking in front who proclaimed the
appointment to those who did not know of it. He 121
also gave him another name in the language of the
country, based on his art of dream interpretation,
and betrothed him to the most distinguished of the
ladies of Egypt, the daughter of the priest of the
Sun. These events happened when he was about
thirty years old. Such is the latter end 122
of the pious ; though they be bent they do not
altogether fall, but arise and stand upright firm and
strong, never to be brought low any more. For 123
who would have expected that in a single day the
same man would turn from slave to master, from a
prisoner to the highest of dignitaries, that the gaoler's
underling would be the king's vice-regent and lodge
in the palace instead of the gaol, thus winning the
foremost place of honour instead of the lowest of
dishonour ? But nevertheless these things have 124
happened and will often happen when God so wills.
199
PHILO
κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία ς έ μ π ύ ρ ε ύ μ α τ α ΐς φ ν χ α ΐς Ο π ε ρ ά ν α γ «
κ α ΐό ν π ο τ ε ρ ιπ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ν έ κ λ ά μ φ α ι.
125 XXII.

Ε π ε ί δ έ π ρ ό κ ε ιτ α ι μ ε τ ά τ ή ν ρ η τ ή ν
ά π ό δ ο σ ιν κ α ί τ ή ν τ ρ ο π ικ ω τ έ ρ α ν έ ξ ε τ ά ζ ε ιν , λ ε κ τ έ ο ν
α χ ρ ή κ α ί π ε ρ ί α υ τ ή ς , ίσ ω ς μ έ ν ο ΰ ν γ ε λ ά σ ο ν τ α ί
τ ίν ε ς τ ώ ν δ ικ α ιο τ έ ρ ω ν ά κ ο ύ σ α ν τ ε ς * ε γ ώ δ ' έ ρ ώ
μ η δ έ ν ύ π ο σ τ ε ιλ ά μ ε ν ο ς , Ο τ ι 6 π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ς π ά ν τ ω ς
ό ν ε ιρ ο κ ρ ιτ ικ ό ς ε σ τ ίν , ο υ χ ί τ ώ ν β ω μ ο λ ό χ ω ν ο υ δ έ
τ ώ ν ε ν α δ ο λ ε σ χ ο ΰ ν τ ω ν κ α ι έ ν σ ο φ ισ τ ε υ ό ν τ ω ν ε π ι
μ ισ θ ώ κ α ι τ ή ν τ ώ ν κ α θ * ϋ π ν ο ν φ α ν τ α σ ιώ ν δ ιά κ ρ ισ ιν
α ρ γ υ ρ ισ μ ο ϋ π ρ ό β λ η μ α π ε π ο ιη μ έ ν ω ν , ά λ λ α τ ο ν
κ ο ιν ό ν κ α ι π ά ν δ η μ ο ν κ α ι μ ε γ α ν ό ν ε ιρ ο ν ο ύ κ ο ιμ ω -
μ έ ν ω ν μ ό ν ο ν ά λ λ α κ α ι ε γ ρ η γ ο ρ ό τ ω ν ε ίω θ ώ ς ά κ ρ ι-
126 β ο ϋ ν . ο δ έ ο ν ε ιρ ο ς ο ύ τ ο ς , ώ ς ά φ ε υ δ ε σ τ α τ α φ ά ν α ι,
ο τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ε σ τ ί β ίο ς * ώ ς γ ά ρ ε ν τ α ΐς κ α θ *
ύ π ν ο ν <^α ν τ α σ ι'α ΐ5 β λ έ π ο ν τ ε ς ο ύ β λ έ π ο μ ε ν κ α ί
α κ ο ύ ο ν τ ε ς ο ύ κ ά κ ο ύ ο μ ε ν κ α ί γ ε υ ό μ ε ν ο ι ή ά π τ ό μ ε ν ο ι
ο ύ τ ε γ ε υ ό μ ε θ α ο ύ τ ε ά π τ ό μ ε θ α λ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς τ ε ο ύ
λ έ γ ο μ ε ν κ α ί π ε ρ ιπ α τ ο ύ ν τ ε ς ο ύ π ε ρ ιπ α τ ο ύ μ ε ν κ α ί
τ α ΐς ά λ λ α ις κ ιν ή σ ε σ ι κ α ί σ χ έ σ ε σ ι χ ρ ή σ θ α ι δ ο κ ο ΰ ν τ ε ς
ο υ δ ε μ ία τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν χ ρ ώ μ ε θ α —κ ε ν α ί δ ' ε ίσ ί τ ή ς
δ ια ν ο ία ς π ρ ο ς ο υ δ έ ν ύ π ο κ ε ίμ ε ν ο ν α λ ή θ ε ια μ ό ν ο ν
ά ν α ζ ω γ ρ α φ ο ύ σ η ς κ α ί ά ν ε ιδ ω λ ο π ο ιο ύ σ η ς τ ά μ ή ό ν τ α
ώ ς Ο ν τ α ,—ο ύ τ ω κ α ί τ ώ ν π α ρ * ή μ ΐν ε γ ρ η γ ο ρ ό τ ω ν α ί
^α ν τ α σ ια ι τ ο ΐς έ ν υ π ν ίο ις έ ο ίκ α σ ιν ή λ θ ο ν , ά π ή λ θ ο ν ,
έ φ ά ν η σ α ν , ά π ε π ή δ η σ α ν , π ρ ιν κ α τ α λ η φ θ ή ν α ι β ε -
127 β α ίω ς ά π έ π τ η σ α ν . έ ρ ε υ ν η σ ά τ ω δ ' έ κ α σ τ ο ς α υ τ ό ν
κ α ί τ ο ν έ λ ε γ χ ο ν ο ίκ ο θ ε ν ά ν ε υ τ ώ ν π α ρ * ε μ ο ύ π ί-
σ τ ε ω ν ε ΐσ ε τ α ι, κ α ί μ ά λ ισ τ ε ί τ ις π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς ή δ η
γ ε γ ο ν ώ ς τ υ γ χ ά ν ο ι* ο ύ τ ο ς ή ν ό π ο τ έ β ρ έ φ ο ς κ α ί
μ ε τ ά τ α ύ τ α π α ις , ε ΐτ * έ φ η β ο ς , ε ίτ α μ ε ιρ ά κ ιο ν , κ α ί
128 ν ε α ν ία ς α ύ θ ις , ε ΐτ * ά ν ή ρ , κ α ί γ έ ρ ω ν ύ σ τ α τ ο ν · ά λ λ α
200
ON JOSEPH, 124- 128
Only there must be some live coal of nobility smoulder-
ing in the soul, which sure, if it be fanned into
flame, to blaze into light.
XXII. But since it is our purpose to examine the 125
more allegorical meaning after the literal, I must
say what is needful on that also. Perhaps some of
the more thoughtless will laugh at my words ; but
I will say quite plainly that the statesman is most
certainly an interpreter of dreams, not one of the
parasites, nor one of the praters who shew off their
cleverness for hire and use their art of interpreting
the visions given in sleep as a pretext for making
money ; but one who is accustomed to judge with
exactness that great general universal dream which
is dreamt not only by the sleeping but also by the
,waking.
a
This dream in veriest truth is human life : 126
/for, just as in the visions of sleep, seeing we see not,
,' hearing we hear not, tasting and touching we neither
j taste nor touch, speaking we speak not, walking we
ι walk not, and the other motions which we make or pos-
I tures we adopt we do not make or adopt at all, but
they are empty creations of the mind which without
any basis of reality produces pictures and images of
things which are not, as though they were, so, too, the
visions and imaginations of our waking hours resemble
dreams. They come ; they go ; they appear; they
speed away ; they fly off before we can securely grasp
them ; let every man search into his own heart and 127
he will test the truth of this at first hand, with no
need of proof from me, especially if he is now advanced
in years. This is he who was once a babe, after this
a boy, then a lad, then a stripling, then a young man,
then a grown man and last an old man. But where 128
α
For some discussion of §§ 125-147 see App. pp. 601-60.2.
201
PHILO
π ο ϋ π ά ν τ ' ε κ ε ίν α ; ο υ κ ε ν μ ε ν π α ιο Λ τ ό β ρ έ φ ο ς
ύ π ε ξ ή λ θ ε ν , 6 δ έ π α ις ε ν π α ρ ή β ω , 6 δ ' έ φ η β ο ς ε ν
μ ε ιρ α κ ίω , τ ό δ έ μ ε ιρ ά κ ιο ν ε ν ν ε α ν ία , ε ν ά ν δ ρ ι δ ' ό
ν ε α ν ία ς , ά ν ή ρ δ ' ε ν γ έ ρ ο ν τ ι, γ ή ρ α δ ' έ π ε τ α ι τ ε -
129 λ ε υ τ ή ; τ ά χ α μ έ ν τ ο ι τ ά χ α κ α ι τ ώ ν η λ ικ ιώ ν έ κ α σ τ η
π α ρ α χ ω ρ ο ύ σ α τ ο ϋ κ ρ ά τ ο υ ς τ ή μ ε θ * έ α υ τ ή ν π ρ ο α π ο -
θ ν ή σ κ ε ι, τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς η μ ά ς ά ν α δ ιδ α σ κ ο ύ σ η ς ή σ υ χ η
μ ή δ ε δ ιέ ν α ι τ ο ν έ π ι π ά σ ι θ ά ν α τ ο ν , ε π ε ιδ ή τ ο υ ς π ρ ο -
τ έ ρ ο υ ς ε ύ μ α ρ ώ ς ή ν έ γ κ α μ ε ν , τ ο ν β ρ έ φ ο υ ς , τ ο ν
π α ιδ ό ς , τ ο ν έ φ η β ο υ , τ ο ν μ ε ιρ α κ ίο υ , τ ο ν ν ε α ν ίο υ , τ ο ν
α ν δ ρ ό ς , ώ ν ο υ δ ε ίς έ τ ' έ σ τ ι γ ή ρ ω ς έ π ισ τ ά ν τ ο ς .
130 XXIII. τ ά δ ' ά λ λ α ο σ α π ε ρ ι τ ο σ ώ μ α
ο ύ κ ε ν ύ π ν ια ; ο ύ κ ά λ λ ο ς μ έ ν έ φ ή μ ε ρ ο ν , π ρ ιν ά ν -
l
6 0
J θ ή σ α ι μ α ρ α ιν ό μ ε ν ο ν ; υ γ ε ία δ έ \ ά β έ β α ιο ν δ ιά τ ά ς
έ φ ε δ ρ ο υ ς α σ θ ε ν ε ία ς ; ισ χ ύ ς δ ' ε ύ ά λ ω τ ο ν ν ό σ ο ις έ κ
μ υ ρ ίω ν π ρ ο φ ά σ ε ω ν ; ή τ ' α κ ρ ίβ ε ια τ ώ ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν
ο ύ π α γ ία ρ ε ύ μ α τ ο ς έ ν σ τ ά σ ε ι β ρ α χ έ ο ς α ν α τ ρ έ π ε τ α ι;
131 τ ή ν δ έ τ ώ ν ε κ τ ό ς ά σ ά φ ε ια ν τ ις ο ύ κ
ο ΐδ ε ; μ ια ή μ ε ρ α π λ ο ύ τ ο ι μ ε γ ά λ ο ι π ο λ λ ά κ ις ά π ε ρ -
ρ ύ η σ α ν τ ά π ρ ω τ ε ία τ ώ ν έ ν τ α ΐς ά ν ω τ ά τ ω τ ιμ α ΐς
έ ν ε γ κ ά μ ε ν ο ι μ ύ ρ ιο ι π ρ ό ς ή μ ε λ η μ έ ν ω ν κ α ι α φ α ν ώ ν
ά δ ο ξ ία ν μ ε τ έ β α λ ο ν ά ρ χ α ι β α σ ιλ έ ω ν α ί μ έ γ ισ τ α ι
132 κ α θ η ρ έ θ η σ α ν β ρ α χ ε ία κ α ιρ ο ύ ρ ο π ή . ε γ γ υ ά τ α ι μ ο υ
τ ο ν λ ό γ ο ν Δ ιο ν ύ σ ιο ς ό έ ν Κ ,ο ρ ίν θ ω , δ ς Σ ικ ε λ ία ς
μ έ ν τ ύ ρ α ν ν ο ς ή ν , έ κ π ε σ ώ ν δ έ τ ή ς η γ ε μ ο ν ία ς ε ις
Κ ,ό ρ ιν θ ο ν κ α τ α φ ε ύ γ ε ι κ α ι γ ρ α μ μ α τ ισ τ ή ς ό τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο ς
133 ή γ ε μ ώ ν γ ίν ε τ α ι. σ υ ν ε γ γ υ ά τ α ι κ α ι Υ ^ρ ο ΐσ ο ς ό
Α υ δ ία ς β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς , π λ ο υ σ ιώ τ α τ ο ς β α σ ιλ έ ω ν , δ ς έ λ -
π ίσ α ς τ ή ν Τ Ιε ρ σ ώ ν κ α θ ε λ ε ΐν α ρ χ ή ν ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν τ ή ν
° Cf. Be Cher. 114.
b
The Ύ ρ α μ μ α η σ τ ή ς is lower than the "γ ρ α μ μ α τ ικ ό ς , cf. the
202
ON JOSEPH, 128-133
are all these gone ? Has not the baby vanished in
the boy, the boy in the lad, the lad in the stripling,
the stripling in the youth, the youth in the man, the
man in the old man, while on old age follows death ?
a
Perhaps, indeed, each of the stages, as it resigns its 129
rule to its successor, dies an anticipatory death,
nature thus silently teaching us not to fear the death
which ends all, since we have borne so easily the
earlier deaths :—that of the babe, of the boy, of the
lad, of the stripling, of the man, who are all no more
when old age has come. XXIII. And the other 130
things of the body are they not dreams ? Is not
beauty but for a day, withering before it flowers ;
health insecure because of the infirmities that lie
ready to attack it; strength an easy victim of the
diseases which arise from numberless causes ;
accuracy of senses unstable and easily upset by the
onset of some little humour ? As for the 131
external goods, who does not know their uncertainty ?
Magnificent fortunes have often been dissolved in a
single day. Multitudes who have won the first place
with the highest honour have passed over to the un-
glorious lot of the unmeritable and obscure. The
greatest kings have seen their empires overthrown
when occasion gives a slight turn to the scale. What 132
I say is vouched for by Dionysius of Corinth, who was
the tyrant of Sicily, but when he fell from power fled
to Corinth and there this great sovereign became
a teacher of the rudiments.
6
Another witness is 133
Croesus, the king of Lydia, wealthiest of monarchs,
who hoped to overthrow the empire of the Persians,
definition of Ύ ρ α μ μ α τ ισ τ ικ ή as Ύ ρ α μ μ α τ ικ η α τ ε λ ε σ τ έ ρ α , Ώ β
Cong. 148. Cicero, Tusc. iii. 27, merely says of Dionysius
" docebat pueros."
VOL. VI Η 203
PHILO
ο ίκ ε ια ν π ρ ο σ α π έ β α λ ε ν , ά λ λ α κ α ϊ ζ ω γ ρ η θ ε ϊς έ μ έ λ '
134 λ η σ ε κ α τ α π ίμ π ρ α σ θ α ι. μ ά ρ τ υ ρ ε ς τ ώ ν ε ν υ π ν ίω ν
ο ύ κ ά ν δ ρ ε ς μ ό ν ο ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι π ό λ ε ις , έ θ ν η , χ ώ ρ α ι, ή
Ε λ λ ά ς
1
, ή β ά ρ β α ρ ο ς , ή π ε ιρ ώ τ α ι, ι ^σ ι ώ τ α ι , ή
Ε υ ρ ώ π η , ή 'Α σ ία , δ ύ σ ις , α ν α τ ο λ ή . μ ε μ έ ν η κ ε
γ ά ρ ο υ δ έ ν ο ύ δ α μ ο ϋ τ ο π α ρ ά π α ν έ ν ό μ ο ίω , τ ρ ο π α ΐς
δ έ κ α ϊ μ ε τ α β ο λ α ΐς έ χ ρ ή σ α τ ο π ά ν τ α δ ιά π ά ν τ ω ν .
135 Α ίγ υ π τ ο ς π ο τ ε π ο λ λ ώ ν ε θ ν ώ ν ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ν ε ΐχ ε ν ,
ά λ λ α ν υ ν έ σ τ ι δ ο ύ λ η . Μ ,α κ ε δ ό ν ε ς ο ύ τ ω ς έ π ι κ α ιρ ώ ν
ή κ μ α σ α ν , ώ ς ά π ά σ η ς ά ν ά ψ α σ θ α ι τ ή ς ο ικ ο υ μ έ ν η ς
τ ό κ ρ ά τ ο ς , ά λ λ ά ν ϋ ν τ ο ις έ κ λ ο γ ε ΰ σ ι τ ώ ν χ ρ η μ ά τ ω ν
τ ο ύ ς emrav^eVTa? ύ π ό τ ώ ν κ υ ρ ίω ν δ α σ μ ο ύ ς έ τ η -
136 σ ίο υ ς ε ίσ φ έ ρ ο υ σ ι. π ο ϋ δ έ ή τ ώ ν Υ Υ τ ο λ ε μ α ίω ν ο ικ ία
κ α ϊ ή κ α θ * έ κ α σ τ ο ν τ ώ ν δ ια δ ό χ ω ν ε π ιφ ά ν ε ια μ έ χ ρ ι
γ ή ς κ α ϊ θ α λ ά τ τ η ς π ε ρ ά τ ω ν έ κ λ ά μ φ α σ α ; π ο ϋ δ ' α ί
τ ώ ν α υ τ ο ν ό μ ω ν ε θ ν ώ ν κ α ϊ π ό λ ε ω ν έ λ ε υ θ ε ρ ία ι; π ο ϋ
δ ' έ μ π α λ ιν α ί δ ο υ λ ε ΐα ι τ ώ ν υ π η κ ό ω ν ; ο ύ Υ ίέ ρ σ α ι
μ έ ν Τ ία ρ θ υ α ίω ν έ π ε κ ρ ά τ ο υ ν , ν υ ν ϊ δ έ ΐίε ρ σ ώ ν ΪΙα ρ -
θ υ α ΐο ι δ ιά τ ά ς τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ε ιω ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν σ τ ρ ο φ ό ς
κ α ϊ τ ά ς ά ν ω κ α ι κ ά τ ω π ε τ τ ε ία ς κ α ι μ ε τ α θ έ σ ε ις
137 α υ τ ώ ν ; ά ν α π λ ά τ τ ο υ σ ιν έ ν ιο ι μ α κ ρ ά ς τ ιν α ς κ α ϊ
ά π ε ρ ά τ ο υ ς ε υ τ υ χ ία ς έ α υ τ ο ΐς , α ί δ ' ά ρ χ α ϊ μ ε γ ά λ ω ν
κ α κ ώ ν ε ίσ ΐ' κ α ϊ σ π ε ύ δ ο ν τ ε ς ώ ς έ π * α γ α θ ώ ν κ λ ή ρ ο -
ν ο μ ία ν ε ύ ρ ίσ κ ο υ σ ι δ ε ιν ά ς κ α κ ο π ρ ά γ ια ς , κ α ϊ τ ο υ -
ν α ν τ ίο ν κ α κ ό ν π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ή σ α ν τ ε ς ά γ α θ ο ΐς έ ν έ τ υ χ ο ν .
138 ά θ λ η τ α ϊ δ υ ν ά μ ε σ ι κ α ϊ ρ ώ μ α ις κ α ϊ ε ύ ε ζ ία ις σ ω μ ά τ ω ν
μ έ γ α φ ρ ο ν ο ϋ ν τ ε ς , ά ν ε ν δ ο ία σ τ ο ν ν ίκ η ν έ λ π ισ α ν τ ε ς ,
έ ξ α γ ώ ν ιο ι π ο λ λ ά κ ις έ γ έ ν ο ν τ ο μ ή δ ο κ ιμ α σ θ έ ν τ ε ς ή
κ α τ α σ τ ά ν τ ε ς ε ις τ ο ν α γ ώ ν α ή τ τ ή θ η σ α ν , ο ι δ '
ά π ο γ ν ό ν τ ε ς κ α ϊ δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ίω ν έ φ ίζ ε σ θ α ι τ ά π ρ ώ τ α
α
Cf. QuodDeus 173 f.
204
1
i.e. of Alexander.
ON JOSEPH, 133- 138
and not only lost his own as well but was taken
prisoner and on the point of being burnt alive. That 134
these are dreams is attested not only by single men,
but by cities, nations, countries, by Greeks, by the
world of the barbarians, by dwellers on the mainland,
by dwellers on islands, by Europe, by Asia, by West,
by East.
a
For nothing at all anywhere has remained
in the same condition ; everywhere all has been
subject to changes and vicissitudes. Egypt once 135
held the sovereignty over many nations, but now is
in slavery. The Macedonians in their day of success
flourished so greatly that they held dominion over
all the habitable world, but now they pay to the tax-
collectors the yearly tributes imposed by their
masters. Where is the house of the Ptolemies, and 136
the fame of the several Successors
6
whose light once
shone to the utmost boundaries of land and sea ?
Where are the liberties of the independent nations
and cities, where again the servitude of the vassals ?
Did not the Persians once rule the Parthians, and
now the Parthians rule the Persians ? So much do
human affairs twist and change, go backward and
forward as on the draught-board. Some picture for 137
their future a long and unlimited run of luck, and
the outcome is great calamity, and when they press
eagerly to secure what they think to be their heritage
of good they find terrible misfortunes, while on the
contrary when they expect evil what they meet
with is good. Athletes mightily proud of the 138
strength and muscle and robustness of their bodies,
hoping for undoubted victory, have often failed to
pass the test and been excluded from the arena, or
if admitted, have been vanquished, while others who
despaired of taking even the second place have won
205
PHILO
139 τ ώ ν ά θ λ ω ν σ τ ε φ α ν η φ ο ρ ο ύ ν τ ε ς ή ρ α ν τ ο . θ έ ρ ο υ ς ά ν α χ *
θ έ ν τ ε ς τ ιν έ ς —ο γ ά ρ κ α ιρ ό ς ε ύ π λ ο ία ς —έ ν α υ ά γ η σ α ν ,
έ τ ε ρ ο ι δ έ χ ε ιμ ώ ν ο ς ά ν α τ ρ α π ή σ ε σ θ α ι π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ώ ν τ α ς
α κ ιν δ ύ ν ω ς ά χ ρ ι λ ιμ έ ν ω ν π α ρ ε π έ μ φ θ η σ α ν . ώ ς ε φ *
ο μ ο λ ό γ ο υ μ ε ν α κ έ ρ δ η σ υ ν τ ε ίν ο υ σ ιν ε ν ιο ι τ ώ ν έ μ -
π ο ρ ω ν ά γ ν ο ο ΰ ν τ β ς τ ά ς έ φ ε δ ρ ο υ ς ζ η μ ία ς , έ μ π α λ ιν
λ ο γ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ι β λ α β ή σ ε σ θ α ι μ ε γ ά λ ω ν ά π έ λ α υ σ α ν \
^140
(
^
>
Φ

^

^' ο ύ τ ω ς ά δ η λ ο ι μ έ ν α ί τ ύ χ α ι π ρ ο ς ε κ ά -
τ ε ρ α , τ ά δ ' α ν θ ρ ώ π ε ια ώ ς έ π ι ζ υ γ ο ύ τ α λ α ν τ ε ύ ε τ α ι
β ά ρ ε σ ιν ά ν ίσ ο ις έ π ικ ο υ φ ιζ ό μ ε ν α κ α ι κ α θ έ λ κ ο ν τ α '
δ ε ιν ή δ ' α σ ά φ ε ια κ α ι π ο λ ύ σ κ ό τ ο ς κ α τ α κ έ χ υ τ α ι τ ώ ν
π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν ώ ς δ ' ε ν β α θ ε ΐ ύ π ν ω π λ α ζ ό μ ε θ α μ η δ έ ν
έ μ π ε ρ ιε λ θ ε ΐν α κ ρ ίβ ε ια λ ο γ ισ μ ο ύ δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ι μ η δ *
ε ύ τ ό ν ω ς κ α ι π α γ ίω ς έ π ιδ ρ ά ξ α σ θ α ί τ ίν ο ς , σ κ ια ΐς γ ά ρ
141 ε ο ικ ε κ α ί φ ά σ μ α σ ι. κ α ι ώ σ π ε ρ ε ν τ α ΐς π ο μ π α ΐς τ ά
π ρ ώ τ α π α ρ έ ρ χ ε τ α ι φ ε ύ γ ο ν τ α τ ά ς Ο ψ ε ις κ ά ν τ ο ΐς
χ ε ιμ ά ρ ρ ο ις τ ό φ ε ρ ό μ ε ν ο ν ρ ε ύ μ α φ θ ά ν ε ι π α ρ α δ ρ α μ ό ν
ό ζ ύ τ η τ ι τ ά χ ο υ ς τ ή ν κ α τ ά λ η ψ ιν , ο ύ τ ω κ α ι τ ά ε ν τ ω
β ίω π ρ ά γ μ α τ α φ ε ρ ό μ ε ν α κ α ι π α ρ ε ζ ιό ν τ α φ α ν τ ά ζ ε -
τ α ι μ έ ν ώ ς υ π ο μ έ ν ο ν τ α , μ έ ν ε ι δ ' ο υ δ ' έ π * ά κ α ρ έ ς ,
142 ά λ λ ' ά ε ι ύ π ο σ ύ ρ ε τ α ι. κ α ι ο ι ε γ ρ η γ ο ρ ό τ ε ς ,
ό σ α γ ε π ρ ο ς τ ό ε ν τ α ΐς κ α τ α λ ή ψ ε σ ιν ά β έ β α ιο ν
ο υ δ έ ν τ ώ ν κ ο ιμ ω μ έ ν ω ν δ ια φ έ ρ ο ν τ ε ς , ά π α τ ώ ν τ ε ς
ε α υ τ ο ύ ς ικ α ν ο ί ν ο μ ίζ ο υ σ ιν ε ΐν α ι τ ά ς φ ύ σ ε ις τ ώ ν
π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν ά π λ α ν έ σ ι λ ο γ ισ μ ο ΐς ό ρ ά ν ο ΐς ε κ ά σ τ η
τ ώ ν α ισ θ ή σ ε ω ν ε ίς έ π ισ τ ή μ η ν έ μ π ό δ ιο ς , δ ε κ α ζ ο μ έ ν η
θ ε ά μ α σ ιν , ά κ ο ύ σ μ α σ ι, χ υ λ ώ ν π ο ιό τ η σ ιν , α τ μ ώ ν
ίδ ιό τ η σ ι, π ρ ο ς ά π ε ρ α π ο κ λ ίν ο υ σ α σ υ ν ε φ έ λ κ ε τ α ι κ α ι
τ ή ν ό λ η ν φ υ χ ή ν ο ύ κ έ ώ σ α ό ρ θ ο ύ σ θ α ι κ α ι α π τ α ίσ τ ω ς
ο ία δ ιά λ ε ω φ ό ρ ω ν ο δ ώ ν π ρ ο έ ρ χ ε σ θ α ί' τ ό δ ' ύ φ η λ ο -
206
ON JOSEPH, 139-142
the first prize and worn the crown. Some who 139
embarked in summer, the safe sailing season, have
been shipwrecked; others who sailed in winter,
expecting to be capsized, have reached the harbour
in security. Of merchants, some hurry to what seems
certain gain, and little know the disasters that await
them. Again, when they reckon that they will
suffer loss, they win great profits. Thus fortunes 140
are uncertain either way, and human affairs swing
as on a scale with unequal weights, carried lightly
up or pressing the balance down, and terrible is the
uncertainty and vast the darkness which envelops
the events of life. We flounder as though in deep
sleep, unable to compass anything by accurate
reasoning or to grasp it vigorously and firmly, for
all are like shadows and phantoms. And as in 141
processions the front part passes on and is lost to
sight, and in the winter torrents the stream in its
course speeds past us and by its violence and rapidity
outstrips our observation, so too the events of life
rush along past us, and though they make a show of
remaining do not stay even for a moment, but are
ever swept away. And those who 142
are awake, who in the uncertainty of apprehension
differ nothing from the sleeping, deceive themselves
and think that they are capable of discerning differ-
ences in the nature of things by incontrovertible
processes of reason. Each sense impedes their attain-
ment of knowledge, seduced whether by the sights
it sees or by the sounds it hears, or by varieties of
flavours, or by scents of different quality, to which
it turns aside and is dragged along with them, and
prevents the soul as a whole from standing erect
and advancing without stumbling as along a high
207
PHILO
τ ά π ε ιν ο ν κ α ι μ ε γ α λ ό μ ικ ρ ο ν κ α ι π ά ν ό σ ο ν ά ν ισ ο -
τ η τ ι κ α ι α ν ω μ α λ ία σ υ γ γ ε ν έ ς α π ε ρ γ ά ζ ε τ α ι κ α ι σ κ ο τ ο -
δ ιν ιά ν α ν α γ κ ά ζ ε ι κ α ι π ο λ ύ ν ε μ π ο ιε ΐ ϊλ ιγ γ ο ν .
143 XXIV. τ ο σ α ύ τ η ς ο ύ ν τ α ρ α χ ή ς κ α ι
α τ α ξ ία ς ε τ ι δ έ α σ ά φ ε ια ς γ έ μ ο ν τ ο ς τ ο ΰ β ίο υ , π α ρ -
ε λ θ ό ν τ α δ ε ι τ ό ν π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ν ώ σ π ε ρ τ ιν ά σ ο φ ό ν τ ή ν
ό ν ε ιρ ο κ ρ ιτ ικ ή ν τ ά μ ε θ η μ ε ρ ιν ά ε ν ύ π ν ια κ α ι φ ά σ μ α -
τ α τ ώ ν έ γ ρ η γ ο ρ έ ν α ι δ ο κ ο ύ ν τ ω ν δ ια κ ρ ίν ε ιν ε ίκ ο σ ι
σ τ ο χ α σ μ ο ΐς κ α ι ε ύ λ ό γ ο ις π ιθ α ν ό τ η σ ι π ε ρ ι ε κ ά σ τ ο υ
ά ν α δ ιδ ά σ κ ο ν τ ά , ο τ ι τ ο ύ τ ο κ α λ ό ν , ε κ ε ίν ο α ίσ χ ρ ό ν ,
τ ο ΰ τ ο α γ α θ ό ν , κ α κ ό ν ε κ ε ίν ο , τ ο υ τ ί δ ίκ α ιο ν , ά δ ικ ο ν
τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν , κ α ι τ ά λ λ α τ α ύ τ η , τ ό φ ρ ό ν ιμ ο ν , τ ό
ά ν δ ρ ε ΐο ν , τ ό ε υ σ ε β έ ς , τ ό ο σ ιο ν , τ ό σ υ μ φ έ ρ ο ν , τ ό
ώ φ έ λ ιμ ο ν , κ α ϊ π ά λ ιν τ ό α ν ω φ ε λ έ ς , τ ό ά λ ό γ ισ τ ο ν ,
τ ό ά γ ε ν ν έ ς , τ ό ά σ ε β ε ς , τ ό ά ν ό σ ιο ν , τ ό ά σ ύ μ φ ο ρ ο ν ,
144 τ ό β λ α β ε ρ ό ν , τ ό φ ίλ α υ τ ο ν .
1
κ α ι έ τ ι π ρ ό ς τ ο ύ τ ο ις
2
ά λ λ ό τ ρ ιο ν τ ο ΰ τ ο , μ ή ε π ιθ υ μ ε ί* ϊδ ιο ν τ ο ΰ τ ο , χ ρ ώ μ ή
π α ρ α χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς * π ε ρ ιο υ σ ιά ζ ε ις , μ ε τ α δ ίδ ο υ * π λ ο ύ τ ο υ
γ ά ρ τ ό κ ά λ λ ο ς ο ύ κ έ ν β α λ α ν τ ίο ις , ά λ λ ' έ ν τ ή τ ώ ν
χ ρ η ζ ό ν τ ω ν ε π ικ ο υ ρ ία * ο λ ίγ α κ έ κ τ η σ α ι, μ ή φ θ ο ν ε ί
τ ο ις ε χ ο υ σ ι* π έ ν η τ α γ ά ρ β ά σ κ α ν ο ν ο ύ δ ε ις ά ν έ λ ε ή -
σ α ι* ε ύ δ ο ζ ε ΐς κ α ι τ €τ ί /Α ·η σ α ι , μ ή κ α τ α λ α ζ ο ν ε ύ ο υ *
τ α π ε ιν ό ς ε ι τ α ΐς τ ύ χ α ις , ά λ λ ά τ ό φ ρ ό ν η μ α μ ή κ α τ α -
π ιπ τ έ τ ω * π ά ν τ α σ ο ι κ α τ ά ν ο υ ν χ ω ρ ε ί, μ ε τ α β ο λ ή ν
ε ύ λ α β ο ΰ * π τ α ίε ις π ο λ λ ά κ ις , χ ρ η σ τ ά έ λ π ιζ ε * π ρ ό ς
1
The two lists balance so closely that one may be tempted
to make the balance complete, and Cohn suggests the omis-
sion of τ ό α ν ω φ ε λ έ ς at the beginning of the second and the
insertion of τ ό φ ιλ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν . The argument does not seem
to me convincing. Perhaps, too, φ ιλ ό θ ε ο ν rather than φ ΐλ -
ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν is the reverse of Philo's φ ίλ α υ τ ο ν . Cf. Quod
Bet. 32.
2
The transition to a totally different kind of question
208
ON JOSEPH, 142-144
road. And thus the senses produce the confusion
of high with low and great with small, and all that
is akin to inequality and irregularity, and the soul's
sight swims perforce in the great dizziness which they
create. XXIV. Since, then, human life 143
is full of this vast confusion and disorder and un-
certainty also, the statesman must come forward,
and, like some wise expounder of dreams, interpret
the day-time visions and phantoms of those who
think themselves awake, and with suggestions com-
mended by reason and probability shew them the
truth about each of these visions : that this is beau-
tiful, that ugly, this just, that unjust, and so with
all the rest; what is prudent, courageous, pious,
religious, beneficial, profitable, and conversely what
is unprofitable, unreasonable, ignoble, impious, ir-
religious, deleterious, harmful, selfish.** And he will 144
give other lessons, such as, This is another's, do not
covet it; This is your own, use it but do not misuse
it; You have abundance of wealth, give a share to
others, for the excellence of wealth consists not in
a full purse but in succouring the needy ; Your
possessions are small, be not jealous of the rich, for
envious poverty gets pity from none ; You have
high reputation and have received honour, be not
arrogant; Your fortunes are lowly, let not your
spirits sink also ; All goes with you as you would
have it, be prepared for change ; You have made
many a trip, hope for a better time, for with men
a
Or perhaps better " self-assertive."
seems a little abrupt. It may be observed that what we
might expect, viz. ά λ λ α ο ΐο ν , would very easily be lost before
aWbrpiov.
209
PHILO
145 γ ά ρ τ ά ν α ν τ ία τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν α ϊ τ ρ ο π α ί. σ ε λ ή ν η
μ έ ν γ ά ρ κ α ι ή λ ιο ς κ α ι 6 σ υ μ π ά ς ο υ ρ α ν ό ς σ α φ ε ίς κ α ι
ά ρ ιδ ή λ ο υ ς έ χ ε ι τ ά ς τ ρ α ν ό τ η τ α ς , ά τ ε π ά ν τ ω ν τ ώ ν \
[ 62] κ α τ * α υ τ ό ν ό μ ο ιω ν μ ε ν ό ν τ ω ν κ α ι τ ο ΐς τ ή ς α λ η θ ε ία ς
α υ τ ή ς μ ε τ ρ ο υ μ έ ν ω ν κ α ν ό σ ιν ε ν τ ά ξ ε σ ιν ε ν α ρ μ ο ν ίο ις
κ α ι σ υ μ φ ω ν ιώ ν τ α ΐς ά ρ ίσ τ α ις , τ ά δ ' ε π ίγ ε ια π ο λ -
λ ή ς α τ α ξ ία ς γ ε μ ο ν τ α κ α ι τ α ρ α χ ή ς ά σ ύ μ φ ω ν α κ α ι
α ν ά ρ μ ο σ τ α , ώ ς κ υ ρ ιώ τ α τ α φ ά ν α ι, Ο τ ι τ α ϋ τ α μ έ ν
β α θ ύ σ κ ό τ ο ς κ α τ ε ίλ η φ ε ν , ε κ ε ίν α δ ' ε μ φ ε ρ ε τ α ι τ η λ -
α υ γ ε σ τ ά τ ω φ ω τ ί, μ ά λ λ ο ν δ ' α υ τ ό φ ώ ς ε σ τ ίν ε ίλ ι-
146 κ ρ ιν έ σ τ α τ ο ν κ α ι κ α θ α ρ ώ τ α τ ο ν . ε ί γ ο ύ ν β ο υ λ η θ ε ίη
δ ια κ ύ π τ ε ιν ε ίσ ω τ ις τ ώ ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν , ε ύ ρ ή σ ε ι τ ο ν
ο ύ ρ α ν ό ν ή μ ε ρ α ν α ίώ ν ιο ν , ν υ κ τ ό ς κ α ι π ά σ η ς σ κ ιά ς
ά μ ε τ ο χ ο ν , ά τ ε π ε ρ ιλ α μ π ό μ ε ν ο ν ά σ β ε σ τ ο ις κ α ι
147 ά κ η ρ ά τ ο ις ά δ ια σ τ ά τ ω ς φ έ γ γ ε σ ιν . ο σ ω τ ε ο ια -
φ ε ρ ο υ σ ιν ο ι π α ρ * ή μ ΐν ε γ ρ η γ ο ρ ό τ ε ς τ ώ ν κ ο ιμ ω -
μ ε ν ω ν , τ ο σ ο ύ τ ω κ α ϊ ε ν ά π α ν τ ι τ ω κ ό σ μ ω τ ά ο υ ρ ά ν ια
τ ώ ν ε π ιγ ε ίω ν , τ ά μ έ ν ε γ ρ η γ ό ρ σ ε ι χ ρ ώ μ ε ν α ά κ ο ι-
μ ή τ ω δ ιά τ ά ς α π λ α ν ε ίς κ α ι ά π τ α ισ τ ο υ ς κ α ι ε ν
ά π α σ ι κ α τ ο ρ θ ο ύ σ α ς ε ν ε ρ γ ε ία ς , τ ά δ ' ύ π ν ω κ α τ ε χ ό -
μ ε ν α , κ α ν ε ί π ρ ο ς β ρ α χ ύ δ ια ν α σ τ α ίη , π ά λ ιν κ α θ ε λ κ ό -
μ ε ν α κ α ι κ α τ α δ α ρ θ ά ν ο ν τ α δ ιά τ ό μ η δ έ ν ε ύ θ υ τ ε ν ώ ς
δ ύ ν α σ θ α ι τ ή ψ υ χ ή β λ ε π ε ιν , ά λ λ α π λ ά ζ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι
π ε ρ ιπ τ α ίε ιν * ε π ισ κ ο τ ε ΐτ α ι γ ά ρ ψ ε υ δ έ σ ι δ ό ξ α ις , ύ φ *
ώ ν ό ν ε ιρ ώ τ τ ε ιν ά ν α γ κ α ζ ό μ ε ν α κ α ί τ ώ ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν
ύ σ τ ε ρ ίζ ο ν τ α ο υ δ έ ν π α γ ίω ς κ α ί β ε β α ίω ς ικ α ν ά
148 κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε ιν ε σ τ ί. XXV. σ υ μ -
β ο λ ικ ώ ς μ ε ν τ ο ι κ α ι ε π ι τ ό δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ΐο ν τ ώ ν β α σ ιλ ικ ώ ν
α ρ μ ά τ ω ν ά ν α β α ίν ε ιν λ έ γ ε τ α ι δ ι* α ίτ ιο ν τ ο ιά ν δ ε * ο
π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ς τ ά δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ΐα φ έ ρ ε τ α ι β α σ ιλ έ ω ς · ο ύ τ ε γ ά ρ
ιδ ιώ τ η ς ε σ τ ίν ο ύ τ ε β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς , ά λ λ ' ά μ φ ο ΐν μ ε θ ό ρ ιο ς ,
ίδ ιώ τ ο υ μ έ ν ώ ν κ ρ ε ίτ τ ω ν , έ λ ά τ τ ω ν δ ' ε ίς α ρ χ ή ν
210
ON JOSEPH, 145- 148
things turn to their opposite ; The sun and moon and 145
the whole heaven stand out in such clear and plain
distinctness because everything there remains the
same and regulated by the standards of truth itself
moves in harmonious order and with the grandest
of symphonies; while earthly things are brimful of
disorder and confusion and in the fullest sense of the
words discordant and inharmonious, because in them
deep darkness reigns while in heaven all moves in
most radiant light, or rather heaven is light itself
most pure and unalloyed. And indeed if one be 146
willing to look into the inner realities he will find
that heaven is an eternal day, wherein there is no
night or any shadow, because around it shine without
ceasing unquenchable and undefiled beams of light.
And the same difference that there is here in people 147
when asleep and when awake exists in the universe
as a whole between the heavenly and the earthly,
for the former is kept in unsleeping wakefulness by
active forces which do not err or stumble and go
always aright, but the earthly life is sunk in sleep,
and even if it wake up for a little is dragged down
again and falls asleep, because it can see nothing
steadily with its soul but wanders and stumbles about
darkened as it is by false opinions which compel it
to dream, and thus never catching up with realities
it is incapable of apprehending anything firmly and
securely. XXV. Again there is a sym- 148
bolic meaning in saying that Joseph mounts on the
king's second chariot, and the reason is this. The
statesman takes a second place to the king, for he is
neither a private person nor a king, but something
between the two. He is greater than a private
person but less than a king in absolute power, since
211
PHILO
α ύ τ ε ξ ο ύ σ ιο ν β α σ ιλ έ ω ς , τ ώ δ ή μ ω β α σ ιλ ε ι χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς ,
υ π έ ρ ο ύ π ά ν τ α π ρ ά τ τ ε ιν π ρ ο ή ρ η τ α ι κ α θ α ρ ά κ α ι
149 α δ ο λ ω τ ά τ η π ίσ τ ε ι. φ έ ρ ε τ α ι δ έ ώ ς έ φ *
ά ρ μ α τ ε ίο υ δ ίφ ρ ο υ μ ε τ έ ω ρ ο ς ύ π ό τ ε τ ώ ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν
κ α ι τ ώ ν ό χ λ ω ν ε ις ύ φ ο ς α ίρ ό μ ε ν ο ς , κ α ι μ ά λ ισ θ *
ο τ α ν κ α τ ά ν ο υ ν έ κ α σ τ α μ ικ ρ ά κ α ι μ ε γ ά λ α χ ω ρ ή ,
μ η δ ε ν ό ς ά ν τ ιπ ν έ ο ν τ ο ς μ η δ * ά ν τ ισ τ α τ ο ϋ ν τ ο ς , ά λ λ ' ώ ς
ε ν ε ύ π λ ο ία π ά ν τ ω ν σ ω τ η ρ ίω ς ύ π ό θ ε ο ύ κ υ β ε ρ ν ω -
μ έ ν ω ν , ο ν τ ε δ ίδ ω σ ιν ο β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς δ α κ τ ύ -
λ ιο ν , έ ν α ρ γ έ σ τ α τ ο ν δ ε ίγ μ α π ίσ τ ε ω ς έ σ τ ιν , ή ν π ε π ί-
σ τ ε υ κ ε ν δ τ ε β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς δ ή μ ο ς τ ώ π ο λ ιτ ικ ώ κ α ι ο
π ο λ ιτ ικ ό ς τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ύ ο ν τ ι δ ή μ ω .
150 ο δ έ π ε ρ ι τ ο ν τ ρ ά χ η λ ο ν χ ρ υ σ ο ύ ς κ ύ κ λ ο ς ε ύ δ ο ξ ία ν
ο μ ο ύ κ α ι κ ό λ α σ ιν έ ο ικ ε ν ύ π ο σ η μ α ίν ε ιν έ ω ς μ έ ν
γ α ρ τ ά κ α τ ά τ ή ν π ο λ ιτ ε ία ν ε ύ ο δ ε ΐ π ρ ά γ μ α τ α α ύ τ ώ ,
γ α ύ ρ ο ς έ σ τ ι κ α ι σ ε μ ν ό ς ύ π ό τ ώ ν ό χ λ ω ν τ ιμ ώ μ ε ν ο ς *
ε π ε ιδ ά ν δ β π τ α ίσ μ α σ υ μ β ή , μ ή κ α τ ά π ρ ο α ίρ ε σ ιν
—τ ο ύ τ ο γ ά ρ ύ π α ίτ ιο ν —, ά λ λ ά τ υ χ η ρ ό ν , δ π ε ρ έ σ τ ι
σ υ γ γ ν ω σ τ ό ν , ο υ δ έ ν ή τ τ ο ν έ λ κ ε τ α ι κ ά τ ω δ ιά τ ο ϋ
π ε ρ ια υ χ ε ν ίο υ κ ό σ μ ο υ κ α ι τ α π ε ιν ο ϋ τ α ι, μ ό ν ο ν ο ύ κ
έ π ιλ έ γ ο ν τ ο ς τ ο ϋ δ ε σ π ό τ ο υ * " τ ο ν π ε ρ ια υ χ έ ν ιο ν τ ο ύ -
τ ο ν κ ύ κ λ ο ν έ δ ω ρ η σ ά μ η ν σ ο ι κ α ι κ ό σ μ ο ν κ α τ ο ρ θ ο υ -
μ έ ν ω ν τ ώ ν έ μ ώ ν κ α ι ά γ χ ό ν η ν ά π ο τ υ γ χ α ν ο μ έ ν ω ν ."
XXVI. | "ΐίκ ο υ σ α μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α θ * έ τ έ ρ α ν ίδ έ α ν
τ ρ ο π ικ ώ τ ε ρ ο ν τ ά π ε ρ ι τ ο ν τ ό π ο ν ά κ ρ ιβ ο ύ ν τ ω ν . ή ν
δ έ τ ο ιά δ ε * τ ο ν β α σ ιλ έ α τ ή ς Α ιγ ύ π τ ο υ τ ο ν ή μ έ τ ε ρ ο ν
ν ο υ ν έ λ ε γ ο ν ε ίν α ι, τ ο ν τ ή ς κ α θ * έ κ α σ τ ο ν σ ω μ α τ ικ ή ς
χ ώ ρ α ς η γ ε μ ό ν α , δ ς ο ία β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς ά ν ή π τ α ι τ ό κ ρ ά τ ο ς .
152 ω γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω φ ιλ ο σ ω μ ά τ ω τ ρ ία τ ά π λ ε ίσ τ η ς ά ξ ιο ύ -
μ ε ν α σ π ο υ δ ή ς δ ι α π ο ν ε ί τ α ι , σ ιτ ία κ α ϊ Ο ψ α κ α ι π ο τ ά ,
212
ON JOSEPH, 148- 152
he has the people for his king, and to serve that king
with pure and guileless good faith is the task he has
set before him. He rides, too, aloft seated 149
on a chariot, raised on high both by the affairs he
handles and the multitude around him, especially
when everything great and small goes as he would
have it, when from none comes any counterblast or
opposition, and under the safe pilotage of God all is
well with the voyage. And the ring which
the king gives is the clearest sign of the good faith
which the king-people places in the statesman and
the statesman in the king-people.
The golden chain around his neck seems to indicate 150
both high fame and punishment, for while affairs of
state fare well in his hands he is proud and dignified
and honoured by the multitude, but when disaster
befalls him, not indeed of his set purpose which would
imply guilt, but by chance which is a venial matter,
he is all the same dragged down to the dust by the
decoration round his neck, and as he falls you may
almost hear his master say : " I gave you this neck
circlet both as a decoration when my business
prospers and as a halter when it goes amiss."
a
XXVI. I have heard, however, some scholars give 151
an allegorical exposition of this part of the story
in a different form. It was as follows. The king
of Egypt, they said, was our mind, the ruler of
the land of the body in each of us over which he
is invested with kingly power. When this mind 152
becomes enamoured of the body, its efforts are ex-
pended on three things which it deems most worthy
of its care and trouble, bread, meat and drink ; and,
α
The incidents of Joseph's exaltation discussed in these
sections are treated somewhat differently in De Som. ii. 43-47.
213
PHILO
π α ρ ό κ α ι τ ρ ισ ί χ ρ ή τ α ι τ ο ις τ ώ ν λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ω ν ε π ιμ ε λ ή »
τ α ΐς , ά ρ χ ισ ιτ ο π ο ιώ κ α ι ά ρ χ ιο ιν ο χ ό ω κ α ι α ρ χ ι-
μ ά γ ε ιρ α )· π ρ υ τ α ν ε ύ ε ι γ ά ρ 6 μ έ ν τ ά π ε ρ ι έ δ ω δ ή ν , 6
δ έ τ ά π ε ρ ι π ό σ ιν , 6 δ ' €7τ ι τ €τ α κ τ α ι τ ο ις π ε ρ ι α υ τ ά
153 τ ά ο ψ α ή δ ύ σ μ α σ ιν . π ά ν τ ε ς δ ε ε ισ ιν ε υ ν ο ύ χ ο ι, ε π ε ι-
δ ή 6 φ ιλ ή δ ο ν ο ς ά γ ο ν ο ς ε σ τ ι τ ώ ν α ν α γ κ α ιο τ ά τ ω ν ,
σ ω φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η ς , α ιδ ο ΰ ς , ε γ κ ρ ά τ ε ια ς , δ ικ α ιο σ ύ ν η ς , ά π ά -
σ η ς α ρ ε τ ή ς · ο υ δ έ ν γ ά ρ ο ύ τ ω ς έ χ θ ρ ό ν ά λ λ ο ά λ λ ω , ώ ς
α ρ ε τ ή η δ ο ν ή , δ ι ' ή ν ά λ ο γ ο ϋ σ ιν ο ι π ο λ λ ο ί ώ ν μ ό ν ο ν
ά ξ ιο ν π ε φ ρ ο ν τ ικ ε ν α ι, τ α ΐς ά κ α θ ε κ τ ο ις έ π ιθ υ μ ία ις
154 χ α ρ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ι κ α ϊ ο ΐς α ν π ρ ο σ τ ά τ τ ω σ ιν ε ΐκ ο ν τ ε ς . 6
μ έ ν ο ύ ν ά ρ χ ιμ ά γ ε ιρ ο ς ο ύ τ ε ις δ ε σ μ ώ τ η ρ ιο ν α π -
ά γ ε τ α ι ο ύ τ ε τ ιν ι π ε ρ ιπ ίπ τ ε ι λ ύ μ η δ ιά τ ό μ ή σ φ ό δ ρ α
τ ώ ν α ν α γ κ α ίω ν ε ίν α ι τ ά ς π α ρ α ρ τ ύ σ ε ις ο ύ χ ή δ ο ν ά ς
ο ύ σ α ς ά λ λ ' ε ύ σ β ε σ τ α η δ ο ν ώ ν ύ π ε κ κ α ύ μ α τ α , δ ύ ο
δ έ τ ώ ν π ε ρ ι τ ή ν ά θ λ ιο ν γ α σ τ έ ρ α π ρ α γ μ α τ ε υ ο μ έ ν ω ν ,
ά ρ χ ισ ιτ ο π ο ιό ς κ α ι ά ρ χ ιο ιν ο χ ό ο ς , ε π ε ιδ ή τ ά σ υ ν ε κ -
τ ι κ τ ώ τ α τ α τ ώ ν ε ις τ ό ζ ή ν χ ρ η σ ίμ ω ν έ σ τ ι β ρ ώ σ ις κ α ι
π ό σ ις , ώ ν ε π ιμ ε λ ε ία ς μ έ ν ά ζ ιο υ μ έ ν ω ν ο ι π ρ ο ε σ τ ώ τ ε ς
ε ίκ ό τ ω ς ε π α ίν ω ν τ υ γ χ ά ν ο υ σ ιν , ο λ ιγ ω ρ ο υ μ έ ν ω ν δ έ
155 ο ρ γ ή ς κ α ι κ ο λ ά σ ε ω ς ά ξ ιο ϋ ν τ α ι. δ ια φ ο ρ ά δ έ κ ά ν
τ α ΐς κ ο λ ά σ ε σ ιν , δ τ ι δ ιά φ ο ρ ο ς ή χ ρ ε ία , σ ιτ ίω ν μ έ ν
α ν α γ κ α ιό τ α τ η , ο ίν ο υ δ έ ο ύ π ά ν υ χ ρ ή σ ιμ η * κ α ι γ ά ρ
ά κ ρ α τ ο υ δ ίχ α ζ ώ σ ιν ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ι ν α μ α τ ια ίω ύ δ α τ ι
166 π ο τ ώ χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ι. δ ι ' ή ν α ίτ ιο ν π ρ ό ς μ έ ν τ ο ν ά ρ χ ι-
ο ιν ο χ ό ο ν γ ίν ο ν τ α ι κ α τ α λ λ α γ α ί κ α ι σ υ μ β ά σ ε ις ώ ς
α ν ά μ α ρ τ ό ν τ α π ε ρ ι τ ό έ λ α τ τ ο ν μ έ ρ ο ς , α σ ύ μ β α τ α
δ έ κ α ι ά κ α τ ά λ λ α κ τ α τ ά π ρ ό ς τ ο ν ά ρ χ ισ ιτ ο π ο ιό ν
έ σ τ ιν ά χ ρ ι θ α ν ά τ ο υ λ α μ β ά ν ο ν τ α τ ή ν ό ρ γ η ν ώ ς α ν
π ε ρ ι τ ό μ έ γ ισ τ ο ν ά δ ικ ή σ α ν τ α ' τ ε λ ε υ τ ή γ ά ρ έ π ε τ α ι
σ ιτ ίω ν σ π ά ν ε ι* ο ύ χ ά ρ ιν κ α ι δ π ε ρ ι τ α ϋ τ έ ζ α μ α ρ -
τ ώ ν ε ίκ ό τ ω ς θ ν ή σ κ ε ι κ ρ ε μ α σ θ ε ίς , δ μ ο ιο ν κ α κ ό ν
214
ON JOSEPH, 152- 156
therefore, it provides three offices to provide for
these, a chief baker, a chief butler and a chief cook,
for the first presides over the food, the second over
the drink, the third over the seasoning which adds
relish to the actual meat. All are eunuchs, since 153
the lover of pleasure is barren of all the chief neces-
sities, temperance, modesty, self-restraint, justice and
every virtue; for no two things can be more hostile to
each other than virtue is to pleasure, which makes the
many disregard what alone deserves their care, satisfy
their unbridled lusts and submit to whatever those
lusts command. So, then, the chief cook is not haled 154
to prison and meets with no maltreatment, because
the extra seasonings he prepares are not of the most
indispensable kind and are not pleasure, but incite-
ments to pleasure, which kindle only to be quenched.
Not so with the other two whose business lies with
the miserable belly, namely the chief baker and the
chief butler. For the most essential of the needs
of life are food and drink, and those who take charge
of them are naturally held to deserve praise if they
treat the charge as worthy of their care, but anger
and punishment if they neglect it. The punishment 155
also differs in the two cases because the usefulness
of the two differs, being absolutely vital in regard to
bread-food, less so in regard to wine, for men can live
without strong liquor by drinking fresh water, and 156
therefore it is possible to make terms of reconcilia-
tion with the chief butler as an offender in a less
important matter. Not so with the chief baker who,
being guilty in what is all-important, is the object of
an anger which demands his life. For death is the
consequence of lack of bread-food, and therefore the
offender in this is properly put to death by hanging,
215
PHILO
ώ δ ιέ θ η κ ε π α θ ώ ν κ α ϊ γ ά ρ α υ τ ό ς ά ν ε ρ έ μ α σ ε κ α ϊ
π α ρ έ τ ε ιν ε τ ο ν π ε ιν ώ ν τ α Χ ιμ ώ .
157 XXVII. Ύ ο σ α ϋ τ α κ α ι π ε ρ ι τ ο ύ τ ο υ , δ μ έ ν τ ο ι
β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ύ π α ρ χ ο ς κ α τ α σ τ α θ ε ίς κ α ι τ ή ς Α ιγ ύ π τ ο υ
τ ή ν έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν κ α ϊ π ρ ο σ τ α σ ία ν λ α β ώ ν έ ξ ή ε ι γ ν ω ρ ι-
σ θ η σ ό μ ε ν ο ς ά π α σ ι τ ο ις έ γ χ ω ρ ίο ις κ α ι τ ο υ ς λ ε γ ό -
μ ε ν ο υ ς ν ο μ ο ύ ς ε π ιώ ν κ α τ ά π ό λ ε ις π ο λ ύ ν α ύ τ ο ϋ
π ό θ ο ν έ ν ε ιρ γ ά ζ ε τ ο τ ο ις ό ρ ώ σ ιν , ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν τ α ΐς
ώ φ ε λ ε ία ις , α ς ε κ ά σ τ ο ις π α ρ ε ΐχ ε ν , α λ λ ά κ α ι τ α ΐς
π ε ρ ι τ ή ν δ φ ιν τ ε κ α ι τ ή ν ά λ λ η ν ό μ ιλ ία ν ά λ έ κ τ ο ις
158 κ α ι έ ζ α ιρ ε τ ο ις χ ά ρ ισ ιν . έ π ε ι δ έ κ α τ ά τ ή ν τ ώ ν
ό ν ε ιρ α τ ω ν σ ύ γ κ ρ ισ ιν
1
έ ν έ σ τ η π ρ ό τ ε ρ α τ ή ς ε ύ θ η ν ία ς
[ 64] ή ε π τ α ε τ ία , τ ό π έ μ π τ ο ν | τ ώ ν κ α ρ π ώ ν α ν ά π α ν έ τ ο ς
σ υ ν ά γ ω ν δ ιά τ ε τ ώ ν υ π ά ρ χ ω ν
2
κ α ι τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν , ο ι
π ρ ό ς τ ά ς δ η μ ο σ ία ς χ ρ ε ία ς υ π η ρ ε τ ο ύ ν α ύ τ ώ , τ ο σ α ύ -
τ η ν ή θ ρ ο ισ ε π λ η θ ύ ν δ ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν , δ σ η ν ο υ δ ε ίς π ω
π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν γ ε ν ο μ έ ν η ν έ μ έ μ ν η τ ο ' π ίσ τ ις δ έ σ α φ έ σ τ α τ η
τ ό μ η δ ' ά ρ ιθ μ η θ ή ν α ι δ ύ ν α σ θ α ι, κ α ίτ ο ι μ υ ρ ία τ ιν ώ ν
π ο ν η θ έ ν τ ω ν , ο ΐς ε π ιμ ε λ έ ς , π ε ρ ιε ρ γ ία δ ια ρ ιθ μ ή σ α -
159 σ θ α ι. δ ιε ξ ε λ θ ό ν τ ω ν δ έ τ ώ ν έ π τ ά ε τ ώ ν , έ ν ο ΐς ε ύ -
φ ό ρ η σ ε ν ή π ε δ ιά ς , α ρ χ ή ν έ λ ά μ β α ν ε ν 6 λ ιμ ό ς , δ ν
ε π ιβ α ίν ο ν τ α κ α ι σ υ ν α υ ξ ό μ ε ν ο ν ο ύ κ έ χ ώ ρ η σ ε ν Α ί-
γ υ π τ ο ς * ά ν α χ ε ό μ ε ν ο ς γ ά ρ κ α ι τ ά ς έ ξ η ς ά ε ι π ό λ ε ις
κ α ι χ ώ ρ α ς έ π ικ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ω ν ά χ ρ ι π ε ρ ά τ ω ν κ α ι τ ώ ν
π ρ ό ς έ ω κ α ι τ ώ ν π ρ ό ς δ υ σ μ ά ς έ φ θ α σ ε τ ή ν ο ι-
160 κ ο υ μ έ ν η ν έ ν κ ύ κ λ ω π ά σ α ν κ α τ α σ χ ώ ν . λ έ γ ε τ α ι γ ο ϋ ν
1
Cohn would read δ ιά κ ρ ίσ ιν , but cf. De Mig. 19 rds α λ η θ ε ίς
κ α ϊ σ α φ €$ τ ώ ν π ρ α μ ά τ ω ν σ υ γ κ ρ ίσ ε ις (referring also to Joseph's
dreams) elvai κ α τ ά 6e6v.
2
Perhaps read τ ο π ά ρ χ ω ν , the word used (in the form
τ ο π ά ρ χ ψ ) in Gen. xli. 34.
216
ON JOSEPH, 156- 160
suffering what he has made others to suffer, for
indeed he has hanged and racked the starving man
with hunger.
XXVII. So much for this.
a
To continue the story, 157
Joseph, thus appointed viceroy to the king and
promoted to the superintendence of Egypt, took
a journey to make himself known to all the people
of the country. He visited the nomes,
&
as they are
called, city by city, and made his presence very wel-
come to those who saw him, not only through the
benefits which they received from him, but through
the remarkable and exceptional charm of his ap-
pearance and his general deportment. When the 158
first seven years of plenty came, as his reading of
the dreams had predicted, he employed the (local)
prefects and others who served him in providing
for the public needs to collect a fifth part of the
fruits every year, and the quantity of sheaves which
he amassed surpassed anything within the memory
of men. The clearest proof of this is that it was
impossible even to count them, though some persons
who were interested in it spent a vast amount of
labour in making elaborate calculations. But when 159
the seven years during which the plains bore plenti-
fully were ended, the famine began and spread and
grew till Egypt could not hold it. It overran suc-
cessively the cities and countries which lay in its
path to the utmost limits of east and west, and rapidly
made itself master of the whole civilized world round
Egypt. In fact, it is said that never did so great a 160
β
From this point on to § 257 Philo's narrative follows
Gen. xli. 46-xlvii. 12 without serious interruption.
6
The name regularly given to the districts of Egypt.
See L. & S.
217
PHILO
μ η δ έ π ο τ ε κ ο ιν ή ν ό σ ο ς κ α τ α σ κ ή φ α ι τ ο σ α ύ τ η , κ α θ ά -
π ε ρ ή ν Ια τ ρ ώ ν π α ίδ ε ς ό ν ο μ ά ζ ο υ σ ιν ε ρ π ή ν α · κ α ι γ ά ρ
α ύ τ η π ά σ ι τ ο ΐς μ έ ρ ε σ ιν έ π ιφ ο ιτ ώ σ α τ ή ν κ ο ιν ω ν ία ν
τ ώ ν ή λ κ ω μ έ ν ω ν σ ω μ ά τ ω ν ό λ η ν δ ι' ό λ ω ν σ τ ο ιχ η δ ό ν
161 π υ ρ ό ς τ ρ ό π ο ν έ π ιν έ μ ε τ α ι. τ ο ύ ς ο ΰ ν ά φ ' ε κ ά σ τ η ς
δ ο κ ιμ ω τ ά τ ο υ ς α ίρ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ι σ ιτ ώ ν α ς ε ξ έ π ε μ π α ν ε ις
Κ ίγ υ π τ ο ν ή δ η γ ά ρ ή π ρ ό ν ο ια τ ο ΰ ν ε α ν ίσ κ ο υ π α ν τ α -
χ ό σ ε δ ιη γ γ έ λ λ ε τ ο τ α μ ιε υ σ α μ ε ν ο υ τ ρ ο φ ά ς ά φ θ ο ν ο υ ς
162 ε ις κ α ιρ ό ν έ ν δ ε ια ς , ό δ ε τ ό μ έ ν π ρ ώ τ ο ν κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι
ά ν ο ιχ θ ή ν α ι τ ο ύ ς σ ω ρ ο ύ ς α π α ν τ ά ς , ύ π ο λ α μ β ά ν ω ν ε ύ -
θ υ μ ο τ έ ρ ο υ ς π α ρ α σ κ ε υ ά σ ε ιν τ ο ύ ς ίδ ό ν τ α ς κ α ι τ ρ ό π ο ν
τ ιν ά τ ά ς φ υ χ ά ς ά ν α θ ρ έ φ ε ιν π ρ ο τ ώ ν σ ω μ ά τ ω ν
έ λ π ίσ ι χ ρ η σ τ α ΐς , έ π ε ιτ α δ ιά τ ώ ν έ π ιτ ρ α π έ ν τ ω ν τ ά ς
σ ιτ α ρ χ ία ς έ π ώ λ ε ι τ ο ΐς ε χ ο υ σ ιν ώ ν η τ ικ ώ ς , σ τ ο χ α ζ ό -
μ ε ν ο ς τ ο ΰ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ο ς ά ε ι κ α ϊ τ ό έ π ιό ν ο ρ ώ ν τ ο ΰ
π α ρ ό ν τ ο ς ά κ ρ ιβ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ν .
163 XXVIII. Έ ν δ έ τ ο ύ τ ω κ α ι ό π α τ ή ρ , ύ π ο σ π α ν ι-
ζ ό ν τ ω ν ή δ η τ ώ ν α ν α γ κ α ίω ν , ά γ ν ο ώ ν τ ή ν τ ο ΰ π α ιδ ό ς
ε ύ τ υ χ ία ν ε κ π έ μ π ε ι δ έ κ α τ ώ ν υ ιώ ν έ π ι σ ιτ ω ν ία ν τ ό ν
ν ε ω τ α τ ο ν ο ίκ ο ι κ α τ α σ χ ώ ν , δ ς ή ν ό μ ο μ ή τ ρ ιο ς ά δ β λ -
164 φ ό ς τ ώ β α σ ιλ έ ω ς υ π ά ρ χ ω , κ α ι ο ί μ έ ν ε ίς Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν
έ λ θ ό ν τ ε ς έ ν τ υ γ χ ά ν ο υ σ ιν ώ ς ά λ λ ο τ ρ ίω τ ά δ ε λ φ ώ κ α ι
τ ή ν π ε ρ ι α υ τ ό ν ά ζ ίω σ ιν κ α τ α π λ α γ έ ν τ ε ς ε θ ε ι π α λ α ίω
π ρ ο σ κ υ ν ο ΰ σ ιν , ή δ η κ α ι τ ώ ν ό ν ε ιρ ά τ ω ν α ύ τ ο ΰ λ α μ β α -
165 ν ό ν τ ω ν β ε β α ίω σ ιν . ό δ έ τ ο ύ ς π ε π ρ α κ ό τ α ς θ ε α σ ά -
μ ε ν ο ς ε υ θ ύ ς έ γ ν ώ ρ ισ ε ν α π α ν τ ά ς υ π ό μ η δ ε ν ό ς α υ τ ό ς
γ ν ω ρ ισ θ ε ίς τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν , μ ή β ο υ λ η θ έ ν τ ο ς π ω τ ο ΰ
θ ε ο ΰ τ ά λ η θ έ ς ά ν α φ ή ν α ι δ ιά τ ιν α ς α ν α γ κ α ία ς α ί τ ι α ς
α ς τ ό τ ε β έ λ τ ιο ν ή ν ή σ υ χ ά ζ ε σ θ α ι, ά λ λ ' ή τ ή ν ό φ ιν
218
ON JOSEPH, 160- 165
scourge fall upon the whole community. In this it
resembled what the medical schools call herpes, which
attacks every part and spreads in successive stages
like a fire over the whole framework of the festering
body. Accordingly from each city the most ap- 161
proved persons were chosen and sent to Egypt, for
already the story of Joseph's foresight in storing up
abundance of food against a time of dearth had
penetrated to every quarter. He first ordered all 162
the stores to be thrown open, thinking that he would
thus increase the courage of those who saw them,
and, so to speak, feed their souls with comforting
hopes before he fed their bodies. Afterwards,
through the commissioners of victualling he sold to
those who wished to buy, still always forecasting the
after-time and keeping a keener eye on the future
than on the present.
XXVIII. In these circumstances, his father, too, 163
as the necessities of life were now growing scarce,
little knowing his boy's good fortune, sent ten of his
sons to buy corn, but kept at home the youngest, the
uterine brother of the king's viceroy. The ten came 164
to Egypt and had an interview with their brother,
thinking him to be a stranger, and awestruck at his
dignified position bowed to him in the old-fashioned
way, and thus at the very outset brought his dreams
to fulfilment.
0
He, seeing those who had sold him, 165
immediately recognized them all, though none of
them recognized him. It was not God's will to
reveal the truth as yet, for cogent reasons which
were best at the time kept secret, and therefore He
β
Philo is probably thinking of Gen. xlii. 9 " Joseph re-
membered the dreams which he dreamed of them, and said
unto them, Ye are spies."
219
PHILO
ά λ λ ά ξ α ν τ ο ς ε ίς σ ε μ ν ό τ ε ρ ο ν ε ΐδ ο ς τ ο υ τ ή ν χ ώ ρ α ν
έ π ιτ ρ α π έ ν τ ο ς ή π α ρ α τ ρ έ ψ α ν τ ο ς τ ά ς α κ ρ ιβ ε ίς κ α τ ά -
166 λ ή ψ ε ις τ ή ς δ ια ν ο ία ς τ ώ ν ό ρ ώ ν τ ω ν . ε ΐτ ο ύ χ ώ σ π ε ρ
ν έ ο ς κ α ί τ ο σ α ύ τ η ς η γ ε μ ο ν ία ς δ ιά δ ο χ ο ς α ρ χ ή ν τ ή ν
μ ε τ ά β α σ ιλ έ α π ρ ώ τ η ν ά ν α ψ ά μ ε ν ο ς , ε ίς δ ν ά ν α τ ο λ α ί
[ 65] κ α ί δ ύ σ ε ις α π έ β λ ε π ο ν , \ η λ ικ ία ς ά κ μ ή κ α ί μ ε γ έ θ ε ι
τ ή ς ε ξ ο υ σ ία ς έ π α ρ θ ε ίς , κ α ιρ ό ν έ χ ω ν α μ ύ ν η ς ε μ ν η σ ι-
κ ά κ η σ ε ν , ά λ λ ' ε γ κ ρ α τ ώ ς τ ό π ά θ ο ς ε ν ε γ κ ώ ν κ α ί
τ α μ ιε υ σ ά μ ε ν ο ς α υ τ ο ύ τ ή ψ υ χ ή μ ε τ ά π ο λ λ ο ύ τ ο ύ
π ρ ο μ η θ ο ύ ς έ π ε μ ό ρ φ α ζ έ ν ά λ λ ο τ ρ ίω σ ιν κ α ί β λ ε μ μ α σ ι
κ α ι φ ω ν ή κ α ι τ ο ΐς ά λ λ ο ις κ α θ υ π ο κ ρ ιν ό μ ε ν ο ς τ ο ν
δ υ σ χ ε ρ α ίν ο ν τ α " ο υ δ έ ν " ε ΐπ ε ν , " ώ ο ύ τ ο ι, φ ρ ο ν ε ίτ ε
ε ίρ η ν ικ ό ν , α λ λ ά τ ις τ ώ ν β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ε χ θ ρ ώ ν κ α τ ά -
σ κ ο π ο ύ ς υ μ ά ς έ ξ έ π ε μ ψ ε ν , φ κ α κ ά ς υ π η ρ ε σ ία ς ό μ ο -
λ ο γ ή σ α ν τ ε ς ύ π η ρ ε τ ή σ ε ιν λ ή σ ε σ θ α ι μ έ ν ώ ή θ η τ ε ,
λ α ν θ ά ν ε ι δ ' ο υ δ έ ν τ ώ ν δ ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν έ π * ε ν έ δ ρ α , κ α ν
167 β α θ ε ΐ σ κ ό τ ω σ υ σ κ ιά ζ η τ α ι." π ε ιρ ω μ έ ν ω ν
δ ' ά π ο λ ο γ ε ΐσ θ α ι κ α ι δ ιε ξ ιό ν τ ω ν , ώ ς ε π \ ά γ ε ν ή τ ο ις
κ α τ η γ ο ρ ο ύ ν τ α ι, μ ή τ ε γ ά ρ π α ρ ά δ υ σ μ ε ν ώ ν ή κ ε ιν
μ ή τ α υ τ ο ί τ ο ΐς ε γ χ ω ρ ίο ις ά π έ χ θ ε σ θ α ι μ η δ ' ά ν
ύ π ο μ ε ΐν α ί π ο τ ε τ ο ια ύ τ η ν δ ^α κ ο ν ία ν , ε ίν α ι γ ά ρ τ ά ς
φ ύ σ ε ις ε ιρ η ν ικ ο ί κ α ί μ ε μ α θ η κ έ ν α ι σ χ ε δ ό ν ε ξ έ τ ι
ν η π ίω ν π α ίδ ω ν τ ιμ ά ν ε ύ σ τ ά θ ε ια ν π α ρ * ό σ ιω τ ά τ ω
κ α ι θ ε ο φ ιλ έ σ τ α τ α ) π ά τ ρ ί, φ δ ώ δ ε κ α γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω ν
υ ιώ ν έ ν α μ έ ν τ ο ν ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ν ο ύ κ έ χ ο ν τ α π ω ή λ ικ ία ν
α π ο δ η μ ία ς ο ίκ ο ι /cara/xetvat, δ έ κ α δ έ τ ο ύ ς δ ρ ώ -
μ ε ν ο υ ς ή α ς ε ν τ α ύ θ α ύ π ά ρ χ ε ιν , τ ο ν δ έ λ ο ιπ ό ν
ε κ π ο δ ώ ν γ ε γ ε ν ή σ θ α ι-—, XXIX. τ α ύ τ *
220
ON JOSEPH, 165-167
either changed and added grandeur to the appear-
ance of the regent or else perverted the understand-
ing of the brothers from properly apprehending what
they saw. Then, though, young as he was, promoted 166
to so high a command, invested with the first office
after the king, looked up to by east and west, flushed
with the vigour of his prime and the greatness of
his power, with the opportunity of revenge in
his hands, he might well have shewn vindictiveness,
he did not do so. He bore up firmly against his
feelings, and, keeping them under the manage-
ment of his soul, with a carefully considered purpose,
he feigned disfavour and with looks and voice and
the rest of his demeanour counterfeited indignation.
" Sirs," he said, " your intentions are not peaceful.
You have been sent as spies by one of the king's
enemies, to whom you have agreed to render this
base service thinking that you would escape de-
tection. But no treacherous action passes un-
detected, however profound the obscurity in which
it is shrouded." The brothers attempted 167
to defend themselves, and maintained that the
charges had no foundation of fact. They had not
been sent, they said, by ill-disposed persons, and
they themselves had no hostility to the people of the
country and could never have brought themselves
to undertake such employment, being men of peace-
ful nature who had learned almost from infancy
to value a steady and quiet life under a father of
scrupulous conduct and highly favoured by God.
" This father has had twelve sons, the youngest of
whom has stayed at home, being not of an age to
travel. Ten are we whom you see before you here,
and the twelfth has passed away."
221
PHILO
ά κ ο υ σ α ς ώ ς έ π ι τ ε θ ν ε ώ τ ι έ α υ τ ώ π α ρ ά τ ώ ν ά π ο ~
168 δ ο μ έ ν ω ν τ ι τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν ά ρ α έ π ε π ό ν θ ε ι; κ α ϊ γ ά ρ
ε ι μ ή έ ξ ε λ ά λ η σ ε τ ό τ ε τ ό π α ρ α σ τ ά ν π ά θ ο ς , ά λ λ α
τ ο ύ τ ο ις ύ π ο τ υ φ ο μ έ ν ω κ α ι ζ ω π υ ο υ έ ν ω π ά ν τ ω ς τ ά
ε ν τ ό ς έ κ α ίε τ ο , β α θ ε ΐ δ ' δ μ ω ς ή θ ε ι φ η σ ιν α ύ τ ο ΐς '
" ε ι τ ώ ο ν τ ι μ ή κ α τ α σ κ ε φ ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ή ν γ ή ν ά φ ΐχ θ ε ,
π ρ ό ς π ίσ τ ιν τ ή ν έ μ ή ν ύ μ €ς μ έ ν έ ν τ α υ θ ο ΐ δ ια τ ρ ίφ α τ ε
β ρ α χ ύ ν τ ιν α χ ρ ό ν ο ν , ό δ έ ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ς α δ ε λ φ ό ς υ μ ώ ν
ά φ ικ έ σ θ ω μ ε τ α κ λ η θ ε ις έ π ισ τ ο λ ιμ α ίο ις γ ρ ά μ μ α σ ιν .
169 έ ά ν δ ' έ ν ε κ α τ ο ϋ π α τ ρ ό ς έ π ε ίγ η σ θ ε ά π ιέ ν α ι φ ο β η -
σ ο μ έ ν ο υ τ ά χ α τ ή ν μ α κ ρ ά ν υ μ ώ ν δ ιά ζ ε υ ξ ιν , ο ι μ έ ν
ά λ λ ο ι π ά ν τ ε ς ά π ά ρ α τ ε , κ α τ α μ ε ιν ά τ ω δ ' ε ις ό μ η ρ ε ύ -
σ ω ν , ά χ ρ ις α ν έ π α ν έ λ θ η τ ε σ υ ν τ ώ ν ε ω τ ά τ ω * τ ιμ ω ρ ία
δ έ κ α τ ά τ ώ ν μ ή π ε ιθ α ρ χ ο ύ ν τ ω ν ή ά ν ω τ ά τ ω π ρ ο -
170 κ ε ίσ ε τ α ι θ ά ν α τ ο ς ." κ α ι ό μ έ ν τ ο ια ΰ τ ά π ε ιλ ή σ α ς
ύ π ο β λ ε π ό μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι β α ρ ε ία ς ο ρ γ ή ς δ ε ίγ μ α τ α π α ρ ά -
σ χ ω ν ο σ α τ ώ δ ο κ ε ΐν ά π η λ λ ά τ τ ε τ ο * ο ι δ έ σ υ ν ν ο ία ς
κ α ι κ α τ η φ ε ία ς γ ε μ ισ θ έ ν τ ε ς έ κ ά κ ιζ ο ν ε α υ τ ο ύ ς έ ν ε κ α
τ ή ς π ρ ό ς τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν ε π ιβ ο υ λ ή ς " ε κ ε ίν ο " λ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς
" τ ά δ ίκ η μ α τ ώ ν π α ρ ό ν τ ω ν έ σ τ ι κ α κ ώ ν α ίτ ιο ν , τ ή ς
ε φ ό ρ ο υ δ ίκ η ς τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ε ιω ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν ή δ η τ ι
μ η χ α ν ω μ έ ν η ς κ α θ * η μ ώ ν β ρ α χ ύ ν γ ά ρ ή σ υ χ ά σ α σ α
χ ρ ό ν ο ν δ ια ν ίσ τ α τ α ι τ ή ν ά μ ε ίλ ικ τ ο ν κ α ι ά π α ρ α ίτ η τ ο ν
α υ τ ή ς έ π ιδ ε ικ ν υ μ έ ν η φ ύ σ ιν τ ο ις ά ζ ίο ις κ ο λ ά σ ε ω ς .
171 π ώ ς γ ά ρ ο ύ κ ά ξ ιο ι; ο ι δ ε ό μ ε ν ο ν κ α ι π ο τ ν ιώ μ ε ν ο ν
τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν ο ι α ν η λ ε ε ίς ύ π ε ρ ε ίδ ο μ ε ν ο υ δ έ ν μ έ ν
έ ξ α μ α ρ τ ό ν τ α , φ α ν τ α σ ία ς δ έ τ ά ς κ α θ * ύ π ν ο ν δ ιά τ ό
φ ιλ ο ίκ ε ιο ν ώ ς σ υ ν ή θ ε σ ιν ά ν ε ν ε γ κ ό ν τ α , υ π έ ρ ώ ν ο ι
θ η ρ ιω δ έ σ τ α τ ο ι κ α ι π ά ν τ ω ν ά γ ρ ιώ τ α τ ο ι δ υ σ χ ε ρ α ί-
[ 66] ν ο ν τ ε ς ή μ ε ΐς ο ύ χ ό σ ια —δ ε ι γ ά ρ \ ά φ ε υ δ ε ΐν —ε ίρ γ α -
172 σ ά μ ε θ α . τ ο ιγ α ρ ο ΰ ν κ α ι τ α ύ τ α κ α ι έ τ ι χ ε ίρ ω τ ο ύ -
α
Or " with consummate acting." See App. p. 602.
222
ON JOSEPH, 168- 172
XXIX. When he heard this and found himself
spoken of as dead by those who had sold him, what
do we suppose were the sensations of his soul ?
Though he gave no utterance to the emotion which 168
he felt, yet inwardly he was consumed by the secret
fire which their words had kindled. In spite of this,
he said, assuming a very impressive air,
a
"If it is
true that you have not come to spy out the land,
do you as a proof of good faith to me abide here for
a short time and let your youngest brother be sum-
moned hither by letter. But, if you are anxious 169
to depart for the sake of your father who will per-
haps be alarmed at his long separation from you,
let all the rest set off but one remain to serve as a
hostage until you return with the youngest. And
any disobedience in this will entail the extreme
penalty of death." Thus he threatened with grim 170
looks, and giving to all appearance signs of great
anger took his departure. But they, filled with
gloom and depression, began to reproach them-
selves for their plot against their brother. " That
wrong we did," they said, " is the cause of our
present evil plight. Justice, the surveyor of human
affairs, is now devising our downfall. For a little while
she kept quiet, but now is awake and shews her im-
placable and inexorable nature to those who deserve
punishment. And who deserves it more than we, 171
who mercilessly disregarded the prayers and sup-
plications of our brother, though he had committed
no offence, but merely in family affection recounted
to us as his intimates the visions of his sleep, in
resentment for which, with unparalleled brutality
and savagery, we wrought what truth forces us
to admit were unholy deeds ? And, therefore, let us 172
22$
PHILO
τ ω ν π ε ίσ ε σ θ α ι π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ώ μ ε ν , ο ϊτ ιν ε ς μ ό ν ο ι σ χ ε δ ό ν
ε ξ α π ά ν τ ω ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ε ύ π α τ ρ ίδ α ι λ ε γ ό μ ε ν ο ι δ ιά
τ α ς π ά τ ε ρ ω ν κ α ι π ά π π ω ν κ α ι π ρ ο γ ό ν ω ν υ π ε ρ β ά λ -
λ ο υ σ α ς ά ρ ε τ ά ς ή σ χ ύ ν α μ ε ν τ ή ν σ υ γ γ ε ν ε ια ν ε π ιφ α ν έ ς
173 Ο ν ε ιδ ο ς κ τ ή σ α σ θ α ι σ π ο υ δ ά σ α ν τ ε ς ο δ έ π ρ ε σ β ύ -
τ α τ ο ς τ ώ ν α δ ε λ φ ώ ν , ο ς κ α ι ε ν ά ρ χ ή , σ υ ν τ ιθ έ μ ε ν ω ν
τ ή ν ε π ιβ ο υ λ ή ν , ή ν α ν τ ιο υ τ ο , " ε π ι δ ή π ε π ρ α γ μ έ ν Ο ις "
ε ΐπ ε ν "α ν ω φ ε λ ε ίς α ί μ ^τ α μ ,β 'λ β ια ι· π α ρ ε κ ά λ ο υ ν ,
ίκ έ τ ε υ ο ν , ε ξ ε τ ά ζ ω ν ό σ ο ν ε σ τ ί τ ό ά ν ο σ ιο ύ ρ γ η μ α , μ ή
θ υ μ ώ χ α ρ ίζ ε σ θ α ι* σ υ ν α ιν ε ΐν δ ε ο ν , τ α ΐς ά β ο υ λ ία ις
174 ε α υ τ ώ ν ε ΐξ α τ ε . τ ο ιγ α ρ ο ϋ ν κ α ρ π ο ύ μ ε θ α τ ή ς α ύ θ -
α δ ε ία ς κ α ι α σ ε β ε ία ς τ ά π ίχ ε ιρ α ' ζ η τ ε ίτ α ι μ έ ν ή ε π *
έ κ ε ίν ω τ υ ρ ε υ θ ε ΐσ α ε π ιβ ο υ λ ή , ό δ έ ζ η τ ώ ν ο ύ κ ε σ τ ίν
ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς , ά λ λ ' ή θ ε ό ς ή λ ό γ ο ς ή ν ό μ ο ς θ ε ιο ς "
175 XXX. τ α ύ τ α δ ' ή κ ο υ ε ν ο π ρ α θ ε ις
α δ ε λ φ ό ς ή σ υ χ η δ ια λ α λ ο ύ ν τ ω ν , ε ρ μ η ν ε ω ς μ ε τ α ξ ύ
ο ν τ ο ς * κ α ι ν ικ η θ ε ίς ύ π ό τ ο ύ π ά θ ο υ ς , μ έ λ λ ω ν δ α -
κ ρ ύ ε ιν , ώ ς μ ή γ έ ν ο ιτ ο κ α τ α φ α ν ή ς , α π ο σ τ ρ έ φ ε τ α ι κ α ι
π ρ ο χ ε α ς θ ε ρ μ ά κ α ί ε π ά λ λ η λ α δ ά κ ρ υ α κ α ί π ρ ο ς
ο λ ίγ ο ν ε π ικ ο υ φ ισ θ ε ίς , τ ή ν ό φ ιν ά π ο μ α ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς , ε π ι-
σ τ ρ έ φ ε ι κ α ί κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι τ ο ν η λ ικ ία δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ν τ ώ ν
α δ ε λ φ ώ ν ε ν ό φ ε σ ι τ α ΐς α π ά ν τ ω ν δ ε θ ή ν α ι, τ ο ν α ύ τ ώ
κ α τ ά λ λ η λ ο ν —ό γ ά ρ ε ν π λ ε ίο σ ι δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ς τ ω π α ρ ε -
σ χ ά τ ω κ α τ ά λ λ η λ ο ς , ε π ε ί κ α ι τ ω τ ε λ ε υ τ α ία ) ο π ρ ώ τ ο ς
176 —' ίσ ω ς μ ε ν τ ο ι κ α ι δ ιό τ ι τ ή ν π λ ε ίσ τ η ν μ ο ΐρ α ν ε δ ο ξ ε
τ ώ ν ά μ α ρ τ η θ ε ν τ ω ν ε ίσ ε ν ε γ κ ε ΐν μ ό ν ο ν ο ύ σ υ ν τ α γ μ α τ -
α ρ χ ώ ν κ α ι τ ο ύ ς ά λ λ ο υ ς ά λ ε ίφ ω ν ε π ι δ υ σ μ ε ν ε ια ν
ε ί γ ά ρ σ υ ν ε τ ά χ θ η τ ω π ρ ε σ β υ τ ά τ ω χ ρ η σ τ ά κ α ι
° Gen. xlii. 23 " they knew not that Joseph understood, for
there was an interpreter between them." By missing out
the first half of this Philo obscures the point. Presumably
he means the same as Genesis, viz.. that they ventured on
224
ON JOSEPH, 172- 176
expect to suffer this, and even more than this, we
who though almost alone among men we owe our
title of nobly-born to the surpassing virtues of father,
grandfather and ancestors, have shamed our kin
and hastened to load ourselves with infamy and
disgrace." The eldest of the brothers, who origin- 173
ally opposed them when they were forming their
plot, said : " Remorse for what is done is useless. I
proved to you the enormity of the crime and begged
and exhorted you not to give way to your wrath, but
when you should have accepted my advice you let
your evil counsels have their way. And so we are 174
reaping the rewards of our self-will and impiety.
The plot we hatched for him is under inquisition,
but the inquisitor is no man but God or the word
or law of God." XXX. As they talked 175
thus quietly, since an interpreter was acting for
them,
a
the brother whom they had sold heard what
they said, and, overcome by his emotion and on the
point to weep, turned aside to avoid discovery and
let the teaVs stream warm and fast. Then, some-
what relieved, he wiped them from his face, turned
round and bade the second eldest of the brothers
to be bound in the sight of them all. This brother
corresponded to himself, for the second of a large
number corresponds to the last but one as the eldest
does to the last. But perhaps too he thought that 176
that brother had the greatest responsibility for the
wickedness, since he might be almost called the officer
of the company and the ringleader of their spite,
For if he had ranged himself with the eldest when
this quiet conversation, because they supposed that he would
not understand them in the absence of the interpreter, who
had acted before.
225
PHILO
φ ιλ ά ν θ ρ ω π ο , β ο υ λ ε υ ο μ έ ν ω , ν ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ς μ έ ν ε κ ε ίν ο υ ,
τ ώ ν δ ' ά λ λ ω ν π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς ώ ν , ίσ ω ς ά ν ίσ ω ς ε π -
ε σ χ ε θ η τ ά δ ίκ η μ α , τ ώ ν τ ή ν ά ν ω τ ά τ ω τ ά ξ ιν κ α ί τ ιμ ή ν
ε χ ό ν τ ω ν σ υ μ π ν ε ό ν τ ω ν κ α ι ό μ ο γ ν ω μ ο ν ο ύ ν τ ω ν π ε ρ ι
π ρ ά γ μ α τ ο ς , δ κ α ν
1
κ α θ * α υ τ ό π ο λ λ ή ν ρ ο π ή ν σ υ ν ε φ -
177 ε ίλ κ ε τ ο ' ν υ ν ί δ ' ά π ο σ τ ά ς τ ή ς ή μ ε ρ ο υ κ α ι ά μ ε ίν ο ν ο ς
τ ά ξ ε ω ς π ρ ο ς τ ή ν ά ν ή μ ε ρ ο ν κ α ι χ α λ ε π ή ν η ύ τ ο μ ό λ η σ ε
κ α ι τ α ύ τ η ς α π ο δ ε ιχ θ ε ίς ή γ ε μ ώ ν ο ύ τ ω ς ε θ ά ρ σ υ ν ε
τ ο ύ ς σ υ ν ε φ α π τ ό μ ε ν ο υ ς τ ο ύ π α ρ α ν ο μ ή μ α τ ο ς , ώ ς
ά ν ε ν δ ό τ ω ς τ ο ν ε π ίλ η π τ ο ν ά θ λ ο ν δ ι α ^λ η σ α ι . δ ι ά
τ α ύ τ * ε ξ α π ά ν τ ω ν μ ό ν ο ς ο ύ τ ο ς δ ε θ ή ν α ί μ ο ι δ ο κ ε ΐ.
178 ο ι δ * ά λ λ ο ι τ ή ν ο ΐκ α δ ε ε π ά ν ο δ ο ν ή δ η π α ρ ε υ τ ρ ε π ί-
ζ ο ν τ α ι, κ ε λ ε ύ σ α ν τ ο ς τ ο ύ τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς ε π ιτ ρ ό π ο υ τ ο ΐς
π υ ρ ο π ω λ ο ύ σ ι τ ά α γ γ ε ία τ ώ ν α δ ε λ φ ώ ν ώ ς ξ έ ν ω ν
ά π α ν τ α π λ η ρ ώ σ α ι κ α ί ή ν ε λ α β ο ν τ ιμ ή ν ε π ί τ ώ ν
σ τ ο μ ίω ν λ ά θ ρ α κ α τ α θ ε ΐν α ι μ ή π ρ ο ε ιπ ό ν τ α ς ο ΐς
ά π ε δ ίδ ο σ α ν κ α ι τ ρ ίτ ο ν τ ι π ρ ο σ ε π ιδ α φ ιλ ε ύ ε σ θ α ι
τ ρ ο φ ά ς , α ϊ γ ε ν ο ιν τ * ά ν ίκ α ν α ι κ α τ ά τ ή ν ό δ ό ν ,
ε ξ α ίρ ε τ ο υ ς υ π έ ρ τ ο υ π α ρ α π ε μ φ θ ή ν α ι τ ή ν σ ιτ ω ν ία ν
179 ά μ ε ίω τ ο ν . ό δ ο ιπ ο ρ ο ύ ν τ ω ν δ έ κ α ί τ ο ν ε ν δ ε σ μ ο ΐς
ά δ ε λ φ ό ν ώ ς ε ικ ό ς ο ίκ τ ιζ ο μ ε ν ω ν , ο ύ χ ή τ τ ο ν δ ' ε π ί
τ ω π α τ ρ ί κ α τ η φ ο ύ ν τ ω ν , ε ί π ά λ ιν ά κ ο ύ σ ε τ α ι σ υ μ -
[ 67] φ ο ρ ά ς , κ α θ * ε κ ά σ τ η ν ό δ ό ν \ ε λ α τ τ ο υ μ ε ν η ς κ α ι
ά π ο κ ε ιρ ο μ ε ν η ς α υ τ ο ύ τ ή ς ε ύ π α ιδ ία ς , κ α ί λ ε γ ό ν τ ω ν
" ά λ λ ' ο υ δ έ π ισ τ ε ύ σ ε ι δ ε δ ε σ θ α ι, π ρ ό φ α σ ιν δ ' ε ίν α ι
τ ά δ ε σ μ ά τ ε λ ε υ τ ή ς ύ π ο λ ή φ ε τ α ι δ ιά τ ό τ ο ύ ς ά π α ξ
π λ η γ ε ν τ α ς ε ίς τ ά α υ τ ά π ρ ο σ π τ α ίε ιν ," ε σ π έ ρ α κ α τ ά -
λ α μ β ά ν ε ι κ α ί τ ώ ν υ π ο ζ υ γ ίω ν κ α θ ε λ ό ν τ ε ς τ ά ά χ θ η
τ ά μ έ ν ε π ε κ ο ύ φ ιζ ο ν , α υ τ ο ί δ έ β α ρ υ τ ε ρ α ς τ α ΐς φ υ χ α ΐς
1
My correction: MSS. and Cohn κ α ί. Mangey α ν έ φ ε ίλ κ ε τ ο
for σ ν ν ε φ ξ ίλ κ ε τ ο .
226
ON JOSEPH, 176-179
he counselled kindness and humanity, being, though
younger than he, older than the others, the wrong-
doing might well have been stopped. For the two
highest in position and honour would have been united
in sentiment and purpose on the question, and this of
itself would have had great weight to turn the scale.
As it was, he left the mild, the better, side, and 177
deserted to the cruel and savage side, and being
appointed their leader so encouraged his fellow-
malefactors that they played out without flinching
the criminal contest. It was for this reason, I think,
that he alone of them all was put in bonds.
As the others were now preparing for their journey 178
homewards, the regent ordered the corn-factors to
fill all their sacks, thus treating them as guests, and
secondly to place secretly in the mouth of each sack
the price which had been paid, without giving in-
formation of this repayment to the recipients, and
thirdly to bestow an additional bounty, namely a
special stock of provisions sufficient for the journey,
so that the corn purchased might be brought to its
destination undiminished. The brothers journeyed 179
on, pitying as was natural the one whom they left in
bonds, and no less depressed at the thought of their
father, how he would again hear of misfortune and
feel that every journey diminished and curtailed his
wealth of children. " Indeed," they said,
1
' he will
not even believe that he has been put in bonds, but
think that bonds are a pretext to cloak death, since
those who have once received a blow often find them-
selves brought up against the same calamity." As
they thus talked, evening overtook them, and when
they had unloaded their beasts, though these were
relieved, they themselves felt the burden of their
227
PHILO
φ ρ ο ν τ ίδ α ς έ δ έ χ ο ν τ ο · φ ιλ ε ΐ γ ά ρ iv τ α ΐς ά ν α -
π α ύ λ α ις τ ώ ν σ ω μ ά τ ω ν ε ν α ρ γ ε σ τ έ ρ α ς τ ώ ν ά β ο υ λ ή τ ω ν
ή δ ιά ν ο ια λ α μ β ά ν ο υ σ α φ α ν τ α σ ία ς χ α λ ε π ώ ς ά γ α ν
180 θ λ ίβ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι π ιέ ζ ε σ θ α ι. XXXI. λ ύ σ α ς δ ε τ ις ε ν
ά γ γ ε ΐο ν ό ρ α π α ρ ά τ ώ σ τ ο μ ίω β α λ ά ν τ ιο ν ύ π ό μ ε σ τ ο ν
α ρ γ υ ρ ίο υ κ α ι δ ια ρ ιθ μ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ε ϋ ρ ισ κ ε ν δ σ η ν τ ο υ
σ ίτ ο υ κ α θ ή κ ε τ ιμ ή ν ά π ο δ ε δ ο μ έ ν η ν α ύ τ ώ κ α ι κ α τ ά -
181 π λ α γ ε ις τ ο ις ά δ ε λ φ ο ΐς ά ν ε φ ε ρ ε ν . ο ι δ ' ο ύ χ ά ρ ιν
ά λ λ ' ε ν έ δ ρ α ν ύ π ο τ ο π ή σ α ν τ ε ς ή θ ύ μ ο υ ν κ α ι β ο υ λ ό -
μ ε ν ο ι π ά ν τ α τ ά α γ γ ε ία δ ιε ρ ε υ ν ή σ α σ θ α ι φ ό β ω
δ ιώ ξ ε ω ς ά ρ α ν τ ε ς ή τ ά χ ισ τ α σ υ ν έ τ ε ιν ο ν κ α ι μ ό ν ο ν
ο ύ κ α π ν ε υ σ τ ί θ έ ο ν τ ε ς π ο λ υ ή μ ε ρ ο ν ό δ ό ν ε π ιτ ε μ ό ν τ ε ς
182 ά ν ύ ο υ σ ιν . ε ϊτ ά λ λ α χ ό θ ε ν ά λ λ ο ι τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α ο ύ κ
ά δ α κ ρ υ τ ϊ π ε ρ ιλ α β ό ν τ ε ς έ φ ίλ ο υ ν έ κ ά σ τ ω π ε ρ ίπ λ ε κ α -
μ ε ν ο ν κ α ι π ε ρ ιχ ε ό μ ε ν ο ν έ κ θ ύ μ ω ς , κ α ίτ ο ι τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς
ή δ η τ ι μ α ν τ ε υ ο μ έ ν η ς ά β ο ύ λ η τ ο ν κ α ι γ ά ρ π ρ ο σ ιό ν τ α ς
κ α ι δ ε ξ ιο υ μ έ ν ο υ ς κ α τ ε ν ό ε ι κ α ι τ ο ν ύ π ο λ ε ιφ θ έ ν τ α
υ ιό ν ώ ς ύ σ τ ε ρ η κ ό τ α τ ή ς β ρ α δ υ τ ή τ ο ς ή τ ιά τ ο κ α ι
π ρ ο ς τ ά ς ε ισ ό δ ο υ ς α π έ β λ ε π ε σ π ε ύ δ ω ν τ ο ν α ρ ιθ μ ό ν
183 τ ώ ν τ έ κ ν ω ν π λ ή ρ η θ ε ά σ α σ θ α ι. μ η δ ε ν ό ς δ ' έ ξ ω θ ε ν
έ τ ι π ρ ο σ ε π ιφ ο ιτ ώ ν τ ο ς , δ ιε π τ ο η μ έ ν ο ν ίδ ό ν τ ε ς " τ ώ ν
ά β ο υ λ ή τ ω ν " έ φ α σ α ν , " ώ π ά τ ε ρ , α ν ια ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ς τ ή ς
μ α θ ή σ ε ω ς ό ε ν δ ο ια σ μ ό ς έ σ τ ί' μ α θ ώ ν μ έ ν γ ά ρ τ ις
ό δ ό ν ε ύ ρ ε ν ε ις σ ω τ η ρ ία ν , ή δ ' α μ φ ίβ ο λ ο ς ά γ ν ο ια
δ υ σ ο δ ία ς κ α ι α π ο ρ ία ς α ίτ ιο ν * ά κ ο υ ε δ ή σ φ ό δ ρ α μ έ ν
184 α ν ια ρ ο ύ δ ιη γ ή μ α τ ο ς , α ν α γ κ α ίο υ δ έ λ ε χ θ ή ν α ι. ο
σ υ μ π ε μ φ θ ε ϊς ή μ ΐν α δ ε λ φ ό ς έ π ι σ ιτ ω ν ία ν κ α ι μ ή
έ π α ν ε λ η λ υ θ ώ ς ζ ή μ έ ν —δ ε ι γ ά ρ τ ο ν ώ ς έ π ι τ ε θ ν ε ώ τ ι
ά π α λ λ ά ξ α ι σ ο υ μ ε ίζ ο ν α φ ό β ο ν —, ζ ώ ν δ ' έ ν Α ίγ ύ π τ ω
° More literally " from different sides," or perhaps " taking
hold of different parts."
228
ON JOSEPH, 179-184
cares weigh heavier on their souls. For when the
body takes rest the mind receives clearer visions of
adversities and is grievously afflicted and oppressed
thereby. XXXI. One of them, loosing a particular 180
sack, saw at its mouth a purse nearly full of silver,
and, counting it, found that the exact price which
he had paid for the corn had been restored to him.
Filled with astonishment, he told his brothers, who,
suspecting that it was not a gift but a trap, were dis-
mayed. And though they fain would have examined 181
all the sacks, so great was their fear of pursuit that
they started off and hurried on with all speed, and
racing along with hardly a pause for breath made a
short matter of accomplishing a journey of many days.
Then grouped around
a
their father they embraced 182
him, weeping the while, and kissed him as he clung
to each and folded them passionately in his arms,
though his soul already had a boding of some calamity.
For he took note of them as they approached and
greeted him, and, thinking that the son who was
actually left behind was playing the laggard, he
blamed him for his slowness and kept looking to
the different approaches in his eagerness to see the
number of his children complete. And, seeing his 183
agitation when no one else appeared from outside,
they said : "In calamity, to learn the truth is less
painful than to doubt. He who has learned the truth
may find the way to safety ; the ignorance of doubt
produces the perplexity which finds no path. Listen,
then, to a story, which, painful though it be, must
needs be told. The brother who was sent with us to 184
buy corn and has not returned is alive—you must cast
from your mind the worse fear of his death—but,
though alive, he remains in Egypt with the regent
229
PHILO
κ α τ α μ έ ν ε ι π α ρ ά τ ώ τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς έ π ιτ ρ ό π ω , δ ς ε ίτ έ κ
δ ια β ο λ ή ς ε ίτ ε κ α ι ύ π ο τ ο π ή σ α ς α υ τ ό ς α ίτ ία ν ή μ ιν
185 ώ ς κ α τ α σ κ ό π ο ις έ π έ φ ε ρ ε ν . ά π ο λ ο γ ο υ μ έ ν ω ν
1
δ έ ό σ α
ό κ α ιρ ό ς κ α ι π ε ρ ί τ ε σ ο υ τ ο ΰ π α τ ρ ό ς δ ιε ζ ιό ν τ ω ν
1
κ α ι
τ ώ ν ά π ο λ ε ιπ ο μ έ ν ω ν α δ ε λ φ ώ ν , ε ν ό ς μ έ ν τ ο ΰ τ ε θ ν ε ώ -
τ ο ς , έ τ ε ρ ο υ δ έ τ ο ΰ π α ρ ά σ ο ι δ ια τ ρ ίβ ο ν τ ο ς , δ ν ε φ α μ ε ν
ε τ ι ν έ ο ν ό ν τ α δ ιά τ ή ν ή λ ικ ία ν ο ίκ ο ι
2
κ α τ α μ ε ΐν α ι,
π ά ν τ α ά π α μ π ίσ χ ο ν τ ε ς κ α ι ά π ο γ υ μ ν ο ΰ ν τ ε ς τ ά τ ή ς
σ υ γ γ ε ν ε ία ς ε ίς τ ό ά ν ύ π ο π τ ο ν ο υ δ έ ν ή ν ύ σ α μ ε ν , ά λ λ '
έ φ η μ ό ν η ν α ν α ύ τ ω π ισ τ ιν ά φ ε υ δ ο ΰ ς ο μ ο λ ο γ ία ς
γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι τ ή ν ώ ς α υ τ ό ν ά φ ιζ ιν τ ο ΰ ν ε ω τ ά τ ο υ π α ιδ ό ς ,
ο ύ χ ά ρ ιν κ α ι τ ό ν δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ν κ α τ ε σ χ η κ έ ν α ι ρ ύ σ ιό ν τ ε
186 κ α ι έ ν έ χ υ ρ ο ν ε κ ε ίν ο υ , τ ό μ έ ν ο υ ν έ π ίτ α γ μ α π ά ν τ ω ν
ά ν ια ρ ό τ α τ ο ν , ό δ έ κ α ιρ ό ς α υ τ ό π ρ ο σ τ ά τ τ ε ι μ ά λ λ ο ν
[ 68] τ ο ΰ κ ε λ ε ύ ο ν τ ο ς , ω \ π ε ισ τ έ ο ν έ ζ α ν ά γ κ η ς δ ιά
τ ά τ τ ι τ ^δ ε ι α , μ ό ν η ς Α ιγ ύ π τ ο υ χ ο ρ η γ ο ύ σ η ς α υ τ ά
187 τ ο ΐς λ ιμ ώ π ιε σ θ ε ΐσ ιν ." XXXII. ο δ έ
β α ρ ύ τ α τ ο ν ά ν α σ τ ε ν ά ξ α ς " τ ίν α π ρ ώ τ ο ν " ε ΐπ ε ν " ο λ ο -
φ ύ ρ ω μ α ι; τ ό ν π α ρ έ σ χ α τ ο ν , δ ς ο ύ τ ε λ ε υ τ α ίο ς ά λ λ α
π ρ ώ τ ο ς έ λ α χ ε τ ή ν τ ώ ν σ υ μ φ ο ρ ώ ν τ ά ζ ιν ; ή τ ό ν
δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ν , δ ς τ ά δ ε υ τ ε ρ ε ΐα τ ώ ν κ α κ ώ ν ή ρ α τ ο , π ρ ο
θ α ν ά τ ο υ δ ε σ μ ά ; ή τ ό ν ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ν , δ ς ά π ε υ κ τ α ιο -
τ ά τ η ν ό δ ό ν ά φ ίζ ε τ α ι, έ ά ν ά ρ α ά π ίη , τ α ΐς τ ώ ν
α δ ε λ φ ώ ν κ α κ ο π ρ α γ ία ις ο ύ σ ω φ ρ ο ν ισ θ ε ίς ; έ γ ώ δ έ
κ α τ ά μ έ λ η κ α ι μ έ ρ η δ ια ρ τ ώ μ ε ν ο ς —μ έ ρ η γ ά ρ τ έ κ ν α
γ ο ν έ ω ν —ε ίς ά π α ιδ ία ν κ ιν δ υ ν ε ύ ω π ε ρ ιε λ θ ε ΐν ο π ο λ ύ -
188 π α ις κ α ι ε ϋ π α ις ά χ ρ ι π ρ ο μ ικ ρ ο ύ ν ο μ ισ θ ε ίς ." ό δ έ
π ρ ε σ β ύ τ α τ ο ς " ε ίς ό μ η ρ ε ία ν " ε φ η " σ ο ι δ ύ ο υ ιο ύ ς
δ ίδ ω μ ι, ο υ ς κ α ι μ ό ν ο υ ς έ γ έ ν ν η σ α * τ ο ύ τ ο υ ς ά π ό -
κ τ ε ιν ο ν , έ ά ν μ ή σ ώ ο ν α π ο δ ώ τ ό ν έ γ χ ε ιρ ισ θ η σ ό μ ε ν ο ν
1
The ungrammatical genitives should perhaps be corrected
to nominatives.
2
MSS. ο ϊκ α δ ε .
230
ON JOSEPH, 184- 188
of the land, who, either on some accusations laid by-
others, or on his own suspicions, charged us with
being spies. We made all the defence which the
occasion called for. We told him of you, our father, 185
and the brothers who were absent from our company,
how one of them was dead and the other was abiding
with you, who, as we said, was still quite young and
therefore on account of his age kept at home. But
when we thus laid bare without concealment all the
facts about our family we made no headway in re-
moving his suspicion. He told us that the only
proof which he would accept of the truth of our asser-
tions was that the youngest son should be sent to him,
and that to ensure this he detained the second son
as pledge and security for the other. This command 186
is painful beyond everything, but is laid upon us less
by him who issued it than by the needs of the time,
which we must perforce obey to get those provisions
which Egypt alone supplies to people who are hard
pressed by famine." XXXII. Their 187
father gave a deep groan, and said : " Whom should
I lament for first ? My youngest but one, who was
not the last but the first to be placed on the list of
unfortunates, or the second eldest who won the second
prize of evils, bonds in place of death, or the youngest
who, if he does go, will go on a journey of truly evil
omen, unlessoned by the misfortunes of his brothers ?
While I, divided limb by limb and part by part, since
the child is part of its parent, am like to survive child-
less, I who but lately was held to be the father of
a fine and numerous family." His eldest son then 188
said : " I give you my two sons, my only children, as
hostages. Slay them if I do not restore to you in
safety the brother whom you will entrust to my hand,
231
PHILO
ά δ ε λ φ ό ν , δ ς ά φ ικ ό μ ε ν ο ς ε ίς Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν δ ύ ο π ε ρ ιπ ο ιη -
θ ε ί τ ά μ έ γ ισ τ α ή μ ΐν , ε ν μ έ ν π ίσ τ ιν σ α φ ή τ ο υ μ ή
κ α τ α σ κ ό π ο υ ς μ η δ έ π ο λ ε μ ίο υ ς ε ΐν α ι, έ τ ε ρ ο ν δ έ τ ό
τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν τ ο ν ε ν δ ε σ μ ο ΐς ά π ο λ α β ε ΐν δ υ ν η θ ή ν α ι."
189 σ φ ό δ ρ α δ ' ά χ θ ο μ έ ν ο υ τ ο υ π α τ ρ ό ς κ α ι λ έ γ ο ν τ ο ς
ά γ ν ο ε ΐν ,
1
ό τ ι δ υ ε ΐν ό ν τ ω ν ό μ ο μ η τ ρ ίω ν ο μ έ ν ή δ η
τ έ θ ν η κ ε ν , ό δ ' έ ρ η μ ο ς κ α ι μ ό ν ο ς ά π ο λ ε ιφ θ ε ις
ε ύ λ α β ή σ ε τ α ι τ ή ν ό δ ό ν κ α ι ζ ώ ν π ρ ο α π ο θ α ν ε ΐτ α ι τ ω
δ έ ε ι κ α τ ά τ ή ν φ ο β ε ρ ώ ν ε κ ε ίν ω ν ύ π ό μ ν η σ ιν , α
σ υ ν έ β η τ ο ν π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν π α θ ε ΐν , τ α ύ τ α λ έ γ ο ν τ ο ς , τ ο ν
ε ύ τ ο λ μ ό τ α τ ο ν κ α ι ά ρ χ ικ ό ν φ ύ σ ε ι κ α ι δ υ ν α τ ό ν
ε ιπ ε ίν —ή ν δ έ κ α θ * ή λ ικ ία ν ά π ό τ ο ύ π ρ ώ τ ο υ τ έ τ α ρ -
τ ο ς —π ρ ο σ τ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ι δ ιε ρ μ η ν ε ύ ε ιν έ π ε ισ α ν τ ά δ ο -
190 κ ο ύ ν τ α π α σ ιν . έ δ ό κ ε ι δ έ τ ώ ν μ έ ν α ν α γ κ α ίω ν
ύ σ τ ε ρ ιζ ό ν τ ω ν —ο γ ά ρ κ ο μ ισ θ ε ίς π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ς σ ίτ ο ς
έ π ιλ ε λ ο ίπ ε ι—, κ ρ α τ ο ύ ν τ ο ς δ έ τ ο υ λ ιμ ο ΰ κ α ι π ιέ -
ζ ο ν τ ο ς , ώ ν η σ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς ά π ιέ ν α ι, μ ή β α δ ιε Ζ σ θ α ι δ έ τ ο ύ
ν ε ω τ ά τ ο υ κ α τ α μ έ ν ο ν τ ο ς * τ ο ν γ ά ρ τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς έ π ί-
τ ρ ο π ο ν ά π η γ ο ρ ε υ κ έ ν α ι δ ίχ α τ ο ύ τ ο υ π α ρ α γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι.
191 λ ο γ ϊσ ά μ ε ν ο ς δ έ ά τ ε σ ο φ ό ς ά ν ή ρ , ώ ς
έ σ τ ιν ά μ ε ιν ο ν έ ν α π ρ ο έ σ θ α ι τ ω τ ο ύ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ο ς
ά δ ή λ ω κ α ι ά μ φ ιβ ό λ ω π ρ ο τ ή ς ό μ ο λ ο γ ο υ μ έ ν η ς τ ώ ν
τ ο σ ο ύ τ ω ν α π ώ λ ε ια ς , ή ν υ π ο μ έ ν ε ι π α ς ο ίκ ο ς έ ν δ ε ια
192 π ιε σ θ ε ίς , ά ν ιά τ ω ν ό σ ω , φ η σ ιν α ύ τ ο ΐς * " ά λ λ ' ε ί τ ή ς
ε μ ή ς β ο υ λ ή σ ε ω ς ε π ικ ρ α τ έ σ τ ε ρ α τ ά τ ή ς α ν ά γ κ η ς
ε σ τ ίν , ε ίκ τ έ ο ν ίσ ω ς γ ά ρ ίσ ω ς ή φ ύ σ ις ο ικ ο ν ο μ ε ί τ ι
β έ λ τ ιο ν , δ μ ή π ω τ α ΐς δ ια ν ο ία ις η μ ώ ν π α ρ α φ α ίν ε ιν
193 ά ξ ιο ι, λ α β ό ν τ ε ς ο ύ ν κ α ι τ ο ν ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ν , ώ ς π ρ ο -
ή ρ η σ θ ε , ά π ιτ ε , μ ή μ έ ν τ ο ι τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν δ ν κ α ι π ρ ό σ θ ε ν
τ ρ ό π ο ν π ά λ α ι μ έ ν γ ά ρ α ρ γ υ ρ ίο υ μ ό ν ο ν έ δ ε ι π ρ ο ς
1
ayvoeiv in this sense is strange: Cohn suggests ά π ο κ ν ε ΐν ,
Mangey (better) a^Lyvoeiv: I would also suggest as nearer
232
ON JOSEPH, 188-193
whose coming to Egypt will procure us two very great
gains, first the clear proof that we are not spies or
enemies, secondly the power to recover our brother
from bondage." The father was much distressed, and 189
said that he knew not what to do, since of the two full
brothers one was already dead and the other left
desolate and alone would dread the journey and suffer a
living death through fright recalling the horrors which
had befallen his precursor. When he thus spoke, they
put forward the fourth in age, the most courageous of
them all, a man princely in nature and powerful
of speech, and persuaded him to act as spokesman
of what they all thought. This was, that, since the 190
necessaries of life were running short, as the first
stock of corn which they had brought was exhausted
and the stress of the famine pressed hard upon them,
they should set out to buy more corn but would not
do so if their youngest brother stayed behind, since
the ruler of the land had forbidden them to appear
without him. Their father, reckoning in 191
his wisdom that it was better to surrender one to the
mercy of an obscure and dubious future than that many
should suffer the undoubted destruction which the
stress of famine, that fatal scourge, would inflict upon
the whole household, said: " Nay, if the call of necessity 192
is stronger than my wishes, I must yield, for haply
it may be that nature has some better gift in store,
which as yet she refuses to reveal to our mind. Take, 193
then, the youngest as you propose, and depart, but
not in the same fashion as before, for on the former
occasion when you were unknown and had not met
to the MSS. ά έ ν ό ε ι, "what was in his mind." The τ α ύ τ α
\ayovTos is anacoluthic in any case.
233
PHILO
σ ίτ ω ν lav α γ ν ο ο ύ μ ε ν ο ις ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς κ α ι μ η δ έ ν π ω
π ε π ο ν θ ό σ ιν ά ν ή κ ε σ τ ο ν , ν υ ν ι δ έ κ α ι δ ώ ρ ω ν , τ ρ ιώ ν
[ 69] έ ν ε κ α , τ ή ς τ ε \ π ρ ο ς τ ο ν η γ ε μ ό ν α κ α ι σ ιτ ά ρ χ η ν
α ρ ε σ κ ε ία ς , ύ φ * ο ύ γ ν ω ρ ίζ ε σ θ α ί φ α τ ε , κ α ι τ ο ν τ ό ν
έ ν δ ε σ μ ο ΐς ά π ο λ α β ε ΐν θ ά τ τ ο ν π ο λ λ ά κ α τ α β β ν τ α ^
α ύ τ ο ΰ λ ύ τ ρ α κ α ι τ ο ΰ τ ή ν ύ π ό ν ο ια ν τ ή ς κ α τ α σ κ ο π ή ς
194 ώ ς έ ν ι μ ά λ ισ τ α ίά σ α σ θ α ι. π ά ν τ ω ν ο υ ν ό σ ω ν ή
η μ ε τ έ ρ α γ ή φ έ ρ ε ι λ α β ό ν τ ε ς ώ σ π ε ρ τ ιν ά ς ά π α ρ χ ά ς
κ ο μ ίζ ε τ ε τ ώ ά ν θ ρ ώ π ω κ α ι δ ισ σ ό ν ά ρ γ ύ ρ ιο ν , τ ό τ ε
ά π ο δ ο θ έ ν π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν , δ ίσ ω ς ά γ ν ο ια τ ιν ό ς ά π ε δ ό θ η ,
195 κ α ι έ τ ε ρ ο ν α ύ τ α ρ κ ε ς ε ίς σ ίτ ω ν Ια ν . έ π ιφ έ ρ ε σ θ ε μ έ ν -
τ ο ι κ α ι τ ά ς η μ ε τ έ ρ α ς ε ύ χ ά ς , α ς π ρ ό ς τ ό ν σ ω τ ή ρ α
π ο ιο ύ μ ε θ α θ ε ό ν , ίν α κ α ι ε ύ ά ρ ε σ τ ο ι τ ο ΐς έ γ χ ω ρ ίο ις
ξ ε ν ιτ ε ύ ο ν τ ε ς ή τ ε κ α ϊ έ π α ν έ ρ χ η σ θ ε σ ώ ο ι τ ά ς α ν α γ -
κ α ία ς π α ρ α κ α τ α θ ή κ α ς , υ ιο ύ ς , α π ο δ ίδ ο ν τ ε ς π α τ ρ ί,
τ ό ν τ ε κ α τ α λ ε ιφ θ έ ν τ α π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν έ ν δ ε σ μ ο ΐς κ α ι
δ ν σ υ ν ε π ά γ ε σ θ ε ν υ ν ι ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ν κ α ι π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν
ά π ε ιρ ο ν " ά ρ α ν τ ε ς δ έ σ υ ν έ τ ε ιν ο ν ε ίς Α ϊγ υ π τ ο ν .
196 XXXIII. Ε ι τ ' ό λ ίγ α ις ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν ή μ έ ρ α ις ά φ ικ ο -
μ έ ν ο υ ς ίδ ώ ν ό τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς ε π ίτ ρ ο π ο ς ή σ θ η π ά ν υ κ α ι
κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι τ ώ τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς έ π ιμ ε λ ο υ μ έ ν ω π ο λ υ τ ε λ έ ς
ά ρ ισ τ ο ν ε ύ τ ρ ε π ίζ ε ιν κ α ι τ ο ύ ς ά ν δ ρ α ς ε ίσ ά γ ε ιν ά λ ώ ν
197 κ α ι τ ρ α π έ ζ η ς μ ε θ έ ξ ο ν τ α ς . ε ισ α χ θ έ ν τ ε ς δ έ κ α ι έ φ *
ό τ ω μ ή σ υ ν α ισ θ ό μ ε ν ο ι δ ιε π τ ό η ν τ ο κ α ι σ υ γ χ υ θ έ ν τ ε ς
έ τ ό π α ζ ο ν έ π ι κ λ ο π ή μ έ λ λ ε ιν σ υ κ ο φ α ν τ ε ΐσ θ α ι ώ ς
ύ φ ε λ ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ή ν τ ο ΰ σ ίτ ο υ τ ιμ ή ν , ή ν π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν έ ν
τ ο ΐς ά γ γ ε ίο ις ά ν ε ΰ ρ ο ν ε ίτ α τ ώ τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς ε π ι-
μ ε λ η τ ή π ρ ο σ ε λ θ ό ν τ ε ς ά π ε λ ο γ ο ΰ ν τ ο π ε ρ ι ο ύ μ η δ ε ίς
έ τ ό λ μ α κ α τ η γ ο ρ ε ΐν τ ό σ υ ν ε ιδ ό ς ίώ μ ε ν ο ι κ α ι ά μ α
π ρ ο φ έ ρ ο ν τ ε ς έ π ε δ ε ίκ ν υ ο ν τ ό ά ρ γ ύ ρ ιο ν ε ις ά π ό δ ο σ ιν .
234
ON JOSEPH, 193-197
with any fatal disaster you only needed money to pay
for the corn, but now you must take presents also for
three reasons, to propitiate the governor and chief
victualler to whom you say you are known, to hasten
the delivery of the prisoner with a considerable ran-
som, and to remedy the suspicion that you are spies
as much as you can. Take, then, samples of all 194
the products of our land, firstfruits, as it were, and
a double sum of money, to make good what was re-
stored to you on your former visit, perhaps through
someone's oversight, and also enough for purchasing
the corn. Carry with you, further, my own prayers 195
which I offer to the God of our salvation that you, as
strangers in the land, may be well-pleasing to the
inhabitants, and also may return in safety and restore
to your father the sureties which he has been forced
to pledge, even his sons, both him who before was
left behind in bondage and the one whom you now
take with you, the youngest so inexperienced in
life."
XXXIII. They set off, and hastened to Egypt. 196
On their arrival a few days afterwards the governor
saw them and was greatly pleased. He bade the
steward of his household prepare a sumptuous meal
and bring them in to partake of his salt and board.
Conducted thus, with no knowledge of what was 197
intended, they were scared and perturbed, guessing
that they were to be libelled as thieves for having
filched the price of the corn which they had found in
the sacks on the first occasion. Then they approached
the steward and made their defence, clearing their
consciences of a matter on which no one was ventur-
ing to charge them, and at the same time they pro-
duced and shewed him the money which they had
VOL. VI 1
235
PHILO
198 6 δ έ χ ρ η σ τ ο ΐς κ α ι φ ιλ α ν θ ρ ώ π ο ις λ ό γ ο ις ε ύ θ υ μ ο -
τ έ ρ ο υ ς α υ τ ο ύ ς έ π ο ίε ι φ ά σ κ ω ν " ο ύ δ ε ις ά σ ε β η ς
ε σ τ ίν ο ύ τ ω ς , ώ ς τ ά ς τ ο ϋ θ ε ο ϋ χ ά ρ ιτ α ς σ υ κ ο φ α ν τ ε ΐν ,
δ ς ΐλ ε ω ς ε ΐη ' θ η σ α υ ρ ο ύ ς γ ά ρ ε ν τ ο ις ύ μ ε τ ε ρ ο ις
ώ μ β ρ η σ ε ν ά γ γ ε ίο ις ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν τ ρ ο φ ά ς ά λ λ α κ α ι
199 π λ ο ϋ τ ο ν έ ξ ε τ ο ίμ ο υ δ ιδ ο ύ ς ." ο ι 8έ π α ρ η γ ο ρ η θ έ ν τ ε ς
ε ν τ ά ξ ε ι δ ιε τ ίθ ε σ α ν ά ο ίκ ο θ ε ν έ π η ν έ γ κ α ν τ ο δ ώ ρ α
κ α ι π α ρ α γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω τ ώ δ ε σ π ό τ η τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς π ρ ο σ -
ε φ ε ρ ο ν π υ ν θ α ν ο μ ε ν ω δ ε , π ώ ς ε χ ο ιε ν κ α ι ε ι ο π α τ ή ρ
ζ ή , π ε ρ ί ο ύ π ρ ό σ θ ε ν ε λ ε γ ο ν , α π ο κ ρ ίν ο ν τ α ι π ε ρ ι μ ε ν
α υ τ ώ ν ο υ δ έ ν , π ε ρ ι δ ε τ ο ϋ π α τ ρ ό ς δ τ ι ζ ή κ α ι ύ γ ια ί-
200 ν ε ι. κ α τ ε υ ξ ά μ ε ν ο ς δ ' έ κ ε ίν ω κ α ι θ ε ο φ ιλ έ σ τ α τ ο ν π ρ ο σ -
ε ιπ ώ ν , τ ο ν ό μ ο μ ή τ ρ ιο ν π ε ρ ιβ λ ε φ ά μ ε ν ο ς ά δ ε λ φ ό ν
ώ ς ε ΐδ ε ν , ο ύ κ α τ α σ χ ώ ν ά λ λ ' ή δ η ν ικ ώ μ ε ν ο ς ύ π ό τ ο ϋ
π ά θ ο υ ς , π ρ ιν γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι κ α τ α φ α ν ή ς , ε π ισ τ ρ έ φ ε τ α ι
κ α ι δ ρ α μ ώ ν π ρ ό φ α σ ιν ε π ί τ ι τ ώ ν κ α τ ε π ε ιγ ό ν τ ω ν —
έ κ λ α λ ή σ α ι γ ά ρ τ ά λ η θ έ ς κ α ιρ ό ς ο ύ κ ή ν —έ ν μ υ χ ώ τ ιν ι
τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς ά ν α κ λ α υ σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ά π ο χ ε ΐ τ ή ν τ ώ ν δ α κ ρ ύ ω ν
201 φ ο ρ ά ν . XXXIV. ε ίτ ά π ο ν ιφ ά μ ε ν ο ς λ ο γ ισ μ ώ τ ή ς
α ν ία ς ε π ε κ ρ ά τ η σ ε κ α ι π ρ ο σ ε λ θ ώ ν ε ίσ τ ία τ ο ύ ς ξ έ ν ο υ ς
ά π ο δ ο ύ ς π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν κ α ι τ ο ν ά ν τ ι τ ο ϋ ν ε ω τ ά τ ο υ
κ α τ α σ χ ε θ έ ν τ α ε ις ό μ η ρ ε ία ν σ υ ν ε ισ τ ιώ ν τ ο δ έ κ α ι
202 ά λ λ ο ι τ ώ ν π α ρ
9
Α ίγ υ π τ ίο ις δ ο κ ίμ ω ν . α ί
δ ' ύ π ο δ ο χ α ι κ α τ ά τ ά π ά τ ρ ια έ κ ά σ τ ο ις έ γ ίν ο ν τ ο ,
χ α λ ε π ό ν η γ ο υ μ έ ν ο υ π α λ α ιο ύ ς ν ό μ ο υ ς π α ρ ιδ ε ΐν , κ α ι
τ α ύ τ α έ ν ε υ ω χ ία τ ιν ί, έ ν θ α τ ώ ν α η δ ιώ ν α ί ή δ ο ν α ι
2
^ π λ ε ίο υ ς . \ ε ξ ή ς δ έ π ρ ο σ τ ά ξ α ν τ ο ς κ α τ ά τ ά ς η λ ικ ία ς
κ α θ έ ζ ε σ θ α ι, μ ή π ω τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν έ ν τ α ΐς σ υ μ -
π ο τ ικ α ΐς σ υ ν ο υ σ ία ις κ α τ α κ λ ίσ ε ι χ ρ ω μ έ ν ω ν , έ θ α ύ -
α
Perhaps based on Gen. xliii. 32 " they set on for him by
himself, and them by themselves, and for the Egyptians by
themselves."
236
ON JOSEPH, 198-203
brought for repayment. But he raised their courage 198
with kind and friendly words. " No one," he said,
"is so impious as to libel the bounties of God Whose
mercy I invoke. For He has poured treasure intp
your sacks, thereby providing not only sustenance
but wealth to spend as you need it." Thus en-199
couraged, they proceeded to set out in order the gifts
they had brought from home, and when the master
of the house arrived they offered them to him. He
asked them how they were, and whether the father
of whom they spoke before still lived, in answer to
which they said nothing about themselves but told
him that their father was alive and well. Joseph 200
invoked a blessing on him and pronounced him most
favoured by God, and then, when, looking round, he
saw Benjamin, his own mother's son, he could not
contain himself, but, overcome by emotion, turned
aside before he could be observed, and hastened,
nominally on some pressing business, as the time for
disclosure had not come, into a corner of the house
and there burst into weeping and let the tears stream
forth. XXXIV. Then he washed his face, and, reason 201
prevailing over his troubled feelings, approached his
guests and led them to the feast, having first restored
the prisoner who had been detained as hostage for the
youngest. Other Egyptian dignitaries feasted with
them. The method of entertainment 202
followed in each case ancestral practice,
0
since he
strongly disapproved of neglecting old customs,
particularly at a festivity where the pleasures out-
number the disagreeables. When the guests were 203
seated, arranged by his commands in order of age, as
at that date it was not the custom to recline at con-
237
PHILO
μ α ζ ο ν , el Α ιγ ύ π τ ιο ι ζ η λ ω τ ά ι τ ώ ν α υ τ ώ ν Έ / ?ρ α ί ο ι ?
ε ί σ ί τ ά ζ €ω ς τ ε π € ρ ο ν τ ικ ό τ € κ α ι τ ά ς π ρ € β υ τ έ ρ ω ν
204 κ α ι ν €ω τ έ ρ ω ν τ ιμ ά ς δ ι α κ ρ ί ν ε ι ^ ε π ι σ τ α μ έ ν ο ι , τ ά χ α
μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι τ ο ν ά λ λ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν , έ φ α σ κ ο ν , τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς
ά μ α θ έ σ τ € ο ν τ ά π € ι δ ία ιτ α ν ά γ ο ύ σ η ς , ο ά ν ή ρ ο ΰ τ ο ς
τ ο ΐς κ ο ιν ο ΐς έ π ισ τ ά ς ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν τ ο ΐς μ €ά λ ο ις π ρ ά γ -
μ α σ ιν ή ρ μ ο σ €ν € τ α ξ ία ν , δ ι* ώ ν τ ά €ΐρ ή ν η ς κ α ι
π ο λ έ μ ο υ κ α τ ο ρ θ ο ύ σ θ α ι π έ φ υ κ €ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι τ ο ΐς
ε υ τ ε λ έ σ τ ε ρ ο is ε ί ν α ι δ ο κ ο ύ σ ιν , ώ ν τ ά π λ ε ί σ τ α iv
π α ι δ ι α ί ^· ιλ α ρ ό τ η τ α γ ά ρ έ π ιζ η τ ο ύ σ ιν ε ύ ω χ ία ι
σ ε μ ,ν ό ν ά γ α ν κ α ί α ύ σ τ η ρ ό ν σ υ μ π ό τ η ν ή κ ισ τ α π ά ρ α -
205 δ ε χ ό / ζ ε ν α ι . τ ο ιο ύ τ ο υ ς ε π α ίν ο υ ς ή ρ ε μ α σ υ ν ε ιρ ό ν τ ω ν ,
τ ρ ά τ τ ε ζ α ι μ έ ν ο ύ σ φ ό δ ρ α π ο λ υ τ ε λ ε ί ς ε ι σ κ ο μ ίζ ο ν τ α ι,
δ ιά τ ο ν λ ιμ ό ν ο ύ κ ά ξ ιώ σ α ν τ ο ς τ ο ύ ζ €ν ο δ ό χ ο υ τ α ΐς
έ τ ε ρ ω ν ά τ υ χ ία ις έ ν τ ρ υ φ α ν α υ τ ο ί δ ' ά τ ε σ ύ ν € ιν
ά κ ρ ιβ α ΐς κ α ι τ ο ύ τ ε ι ? τ ά ε γ κ ώ μ ια π α ρ €ά μ β α ν ο ν ,
ώ ς ά π ε ι ρ ο κ α λ ί α ν , π ρ ά γ μ α έ π ίφ θ ο ν ο ν , ά π έ σ τ ρ α π τ α ι,
λ έ γ ο ν τ €· ώ ς κ α ι τ ό τ ο ύ σ υ ν α λ γ ο ύ ν τ ο ς τ ο ΐς δ ε ο -
μ έ ν ο ις κ α ι τ ό τ ο ύ έ σ τ ιά τ ο ρ ο ς σ χ ή μ α δ ι α σ ώ ζ ε ι
μ €0 ό ρ ιο ν ά μ φ ο ΐν τ ι0 €ς α υ τ ό ν κ α ί τ ή ν έ ν έ κ α τ έ ρ ω
206 μ έ μ φ ιν έ κ φ € γ ω ν . α ί μ έ ν ο ύ ν π α ρ α σ κ ε υ α ί τ ό
ά μ ισ έ ς €ΐχ ο ν π ρ ό σ φ ο ρ ο ι τ ω κ α ιρ ώ γ €ο ν υ ΐα ι· τ ό δ '
ε λ λ ιπ έ ς ά ν α π λ ή ρ ο υ ν α ί σ υ ν ε χ ε ί ς φ ιλ ο φ ρ ο σ ύ ν α ι π ρ ο -
π ό σ ε σ ι ν , € χ α ΐς , π α ρ α ι ν ε σ ε σ ι τ α ΐς ε ι ς ά ν ά λ η φ ιν , ά
τ ο ΐς έ λ α υ θ έ ρ ο ις κ α ι μ ή ά μ ο ύ σ ο ις τ ό ή θ ο ς ή δ ίω τ ώ ν
ό σ α π ε ρ ί έ δ ω δ ή ν κ α ι π ό σ ιν ε ύ τ ρ ε π ι ζ ο υ σ ι ν ο ι φ ίλ -
  See Gen. xliii. 33, where the statement that they were
placed in order of seniority is followed by " the men marvelled
one with another."
b
Philo may have found a ground for this in the phrase
238
ON JOSEPH, 203-206
vivial gatherings, they were surprised to find that
the: Egyptians affected the same fashions as the
Hebrews, and were careful of order of precedence,
and knew how to discriminate between younger and
older in the honours which they paid them.
a
"It may 204
be," they said, " that in other times the style of life
in this country was less civilized, until this man, when
put over the state, introduced good order not only
in the important matters which give rise to success
in peace and war, but in those regarded as less
important which mainly belong to the lighter side
of life. For festivities demand cheerfulness and
have no room for the over-grave and austere guest."
While they thus quietly descanted in his praise the 205
tables were brought in, not over-sumptuously laden,
6
because their host, on account of the famine, dis-
liked the thought of luxury while others were suffer-
ing want; and they themselves had the sound sense
to include in their eulogies this also, that he had
shunned the odious fault of tasteless display. He
had preserved, they said, the attitude both of a
sympathizer with the needy and of the host at a feast,
had set himself in the mean between the two and
escaped censure on either count. The arrangements, 206
then, did not offend good taste, but were suitable to
the occasion, and any deficiency was made good by
the constant signs of kind feeling shewn in toasts
and good wishes and invitations to take refreshment,
things which to liberal and cultured temperaments
give more pleasure than all the preparations of food
and drink provided by the lovers of high feasting for
" s e t on b r e a d " i n cont rast t o t he mor e el aborat e pr epar a-
t i ons o f Gen. x v i i i . He appar ent l y f orget s t ha t t he st eward
had been or der ed t o pr o vi de a sumpt uous meal (§ 196).
239
PHILO
ε σ τ ιά τ ο ρ ε ς κ α ι φ ιλ ό δ ε ιπ ν ο ι τ ά μ η δ ε μ ιά ς ά ξ ια σ π ο υ -
δ ή ς ε ίς ό λ ιγ ο φ ρ ό ν ω ν έ π ίδ ε ιξ ιν π ο μ π ο σ τ ο λ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς .
207 XXXV. Ύ ή δ ' ύ σ τ ε ρ α ία ά μ α τ ή έ ω μ ε τ α π ε μ φ ά -
μ ε ν ο ς τ ο ν έ π ίτ ρ ο π ο ν τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι τ ά α γ γ ε ία
τ ώ ν α ν δ ρ ώ ν ο σ α έ π η ν έ γ κ α ν τ ο γ ε μ ίσ α ι σ ίτ ο υ κ α ι
π ά λ ιν έ π ι τ ώ ν σ τ ο μ ίω ν τ ή ν τ ιμ ή ν έ ν β α λ α ν τ ίο ις
κ α τ α θ ε ΐν α ι, ε ίς δ έ τ ό τ ο ϋ ν ε ω τ ά τ ο υ κ α ι τ ό κ ά λ -
λ ισ τ ο ν τ ώ ν α ρ γ υ ρ ώ ν έ κ π ω μ α , ω π ίν ε ιν ε θ ο ς ε ΐχ ε ν
208 α υ τ ό ς , κ α ι ο μ έ ν τ ά π ρ ο σ τ α χ θ έ ν τ α π ρ ο θ ύ μ ω ς έ π -
ε τ έ λ ε ι μ η δ έ ν α μ ά ρ τ υ ρ α π α ρ α λ α μ β ά ν ω ν , ο ι δ ' ο υ δ έ ν
τ ώ ν κ ρ ύ φ α γ ε γ ο ν ό τ ω ν ε ίδ ό τ ε ς ά ν ε ζ ε ύ γ ν υ σ α ν έ π ι τ ο ις
209 π α ρ * ε λ π ίδ α ς ά γ α θ ο ΐς ά π α σ ι χ α ίρ ο ν τ ε ς , α μ έ ν γ ά ρ
π ρ ο σ ε δ ό κ η σ α ν , τ α ύ τ α ή ν έ π ι κ λ ο π ή τ ο ϋ ά π ο -
δ ο θ έ ν τ ο ς α ρ γ υ ρ ίο υ σ υ κ ο φ α ν τ ία ν έ ξ ε ιν , ά δ ε λ φ ό ν τ ο ν
ό μ η ρ ε ύ ο ν τ α μ ή ά π ο λ ή φ ε σ θ α ι, π ρ ο σ α π ο β α λ ε ΐν κ α ι
τ ο ν ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ν ίσ ω ς ύ π ό τ ο ϋ σ π ο υ δ ά σ α ν τ ο ς α υ τ ό ν
210 ά χ θ ή ν α ι β ία κ α τ α σ χ ε θ έ ν τ α , τ ά δ ' ά π ο β ά ν τ α α ισ ίω ν
[ 71] τ ε λ ε ιό τ ε ρ α ε υ χ ώ ν τ ό π ρ ό ς \ τ ώ μ ή σ υ κ ο φ α ν τ η θ ή ν α ι
τ ρ α π έ ζ η ς κ α ι ά λ ώ ν , ά σ ύ μ β ο λ α γ ν η σ ίο υ φ ιλ ία ς
ά ν θ ρ ώ π ο ις ά ν ε ύ ρ η τ α ι, μ ε τ α λ α χ ε ΐν , τ ό κ ο μ ίσ α σ θ α ι
τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν ά ν ύ β ρ ισ τ ο ν , μ η δ ε ν ό ς έ ν τ υ χ ό ν τ ο ς κ α ι
δ ε η θ έ ν τ ο ς , τ ό κ α ι τ ο ν ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ν ά γ α γ ε ΐν π ρ ό ς τ ο ν
π α τ έ ρ α σ ώ ο ν , έ κ π ε φ ε υ γ ό τ α ς μ έ ν τ ά ς έ π ι κ α τ α -
σ κ ό π ω ν υ π ό ν ο ια ς , ά φ θ ο ν ο ν δ έ τ ρ ο φ ώ ν π λ ή θ ο ς έ π ι-
φ ε ρ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς , χ ρ η σ τ ά δ έ κ α ϊ π ε ρ ι τ ο ϋ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ο ς
λ ο γ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο υ ς * ε ι γ ά ρ έ π ιλ ίπ ο ι τ ά π ιτ ή δ ε ια π ο λ λ ά κ ις ,
έ φ α σ κ ο ν , ο ύ κ έ θ ' ώ ς π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν π ε ρ ιδ ε ε ΐς ά λ λ α γ ε γ η -
θ ό τ ε ς ώ ς π ρ ό ς ίδ ιο ν ά λ λ ' ο ύ ξ έ ν ο ν τ ο ν τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς
240
ON JOSEPH, 206-210
themselves and others, who make a parade of what
is unworthy of care and attention with the ostentation
natural to men of little mind.
XXXV. On the next day at dawn he sent for the 207
steward of the house and bade him fill with corn all
the sacks which the men had brought, and again put
the purchase-money in purses at the mouths of the
sacks, and also to place in that of the youngest his
finest piece of silver, the cup out of which he was
accustomed to drink himself. The steward readily 208
carried out his orders without anyone else being
present, and they, knowing nothing of these secret
doings, set off in high spirits at all their good fortune
so far beyond their hopes. What they had expected 209
was to find themselves the victims of a false charge
of stealing the money which had been restored to
them, to fail to recover their brother who was left
as hostage and perhaps also in addition to lose the
youngest who might be forcibly detained by the
governor who had urged his coming. What had 210
happened surpassed their most sanguine wishes. In-
stead of being subjected to accusation, they had been
made partners in the board and salt which men have
devised as the symbols of true friendship. They had
recovered their brother inviolate without any inter-
vention or entreaty. They were bringing, too, the
youngest safe and sound to his father, and while they
had escaped the suspicion of being spies they were
taking with them a rich abundance of food and more-
over had comfortable prospects for the future. " For
if provisions should chance to fail," they reasoned,
" we shall leave home not in extreme fear as before
but with joyful hearts, knowing that we shall find in
the governor of the country not a stranger but a per-
241
PHILO
211 έ π ίτ ρ ο π ο ν ά π ο δ η μ ή σ ο μ ε ν . XXXVI. α λ λ ά
γ ά ρ ο ύ τ ω δ ια κ ε ιμ έ ν ω ν κ α ι τ ο ι α ύ τ α τ α ΐς φ ν χ α ΐς
ά ν α π ο λ ο ύ ν τ ω ν , α ιφ ν ίδ ιο ς κ α ι α π ρ ο σ δ ό κ η τ ο ς τ α ρ α χ ή
κ α τ α λ α μ β ά ν ε ι. π ρ ο σ τ α χ θ ε ις γ ά ρ ο τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς
ε π ιμ ε λ η τ ή ς , ε π α γ ό μ ε ν ο ς θ ε ρ α π ό ν τ ω ν π λ ή θ ο ς ο υ κ
ο λ ίγ ο ν , κ α τ α σ ε ίω ν τ ά ς χ ε ίρ α ς κ α ι μ ε ν ε ιν ύ π ο σ η μ α ί-
212 ν ω ν έ β ο η δ ρ ό μ ε ι. κ α ι σ ν ν τ ε ίν α ς ά σ θ μ α τ ο ς π λ ή ρ η ς
" ε π ε σ φ ρ ά γ ισ θ ε " ε ίπ ε " κ α ι τ ά ς π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ς κ α θ
α υ τ ώ ν α ίτ ια ς · α γ α θ ά κ α κ ο ΐς ά μ ε ιφ ά μ ε ν ο ι π ά λ ιν τ ή ν
α υ τ ή ν ό δ ό ν τ ώ ν α δ ικ η μ ά τ ω ν ε τ ρ ά π ε σ θ ε ' τ ή ν τ ο υ
σ ίτ ο υ τ ιμ ή ν ύ π ε ξ ε λ ό μ ε ν ο ι κ α ί μ ε ίζ ο ν ε τ ι π ρ ο σ ε ξ -
ε ιρ γ ά σ α σ θ ε · π ο ν η ρ ία γ ά ρ τ υ χ ο ύ σ α α μ ν η σ τ ία ς έ π ι-
213 δ ίδ ω σ ι. τ ό κ ά λ λ ισ τ ο ν κ α ι τ ιμ ιώ τ α τ ο ν ε κ π ω μ α τ ο υ
δ ε σ π ό τ ο υ , ε ν ω π ρ ο π ό σ ε ις π ρ ο ϋ π ιν ε ν ύ μ ΐν , κ ε κ λ ό -
φ α τ ε ο ι λ ία ν ε υ χ ά ρ ισ τ ο ι, ο ι λ ία ν ε ιρ η ν ικ ο ί, ο ι μ η δ '
ό ν ο μ α κ α τ α σ κ ο π ή ς ε ίδ ό τ ε ς , ο ι δ ιτ τ ό ν ά ρ γ ύ ρ ιο ν ε ίς
α π ό δ ο σ ιν τ ο υ π ρ ο τ έ ρ ο υ κ ε κ ο μ ικ ό τ ε ς , έ ν έ δ ρ α ν ώ ς
ε ο ικ ε κ α ι δ έ λ ε α ρ ε π ί θ ή ρ α ν κ α ι ά ρ π α γ ή ν π λ ε ιό -
ν ω ν , ά λ λ ' ο ύ κ ε ίς ά π α ν ε ύ ο δ ε ΐ κ α κ ία , λ α ν θ ά ν ε ιν δ '
214 ά ε ι τ ε χ ν ά ζ ο υ σ α κ α τ α φ ω ρ ά τ α ι." τ α ύ τ α σ υ ν ε ίρ ο ν τ ο ς ,
α χ α ν ε ίς έ π ά γ η σ α ν , λ ύ π η ς κ α ι φ ό β ο υ , τ ώ ν ά ρ γ α -
λ ε ω τ ά τ ω ν κ α κ ώ ν , ε ξ α ίφ ν η ς έ π ιπ ε σ ό ν τ ω ν , ώ ς μ η δ έ
δ ι α ρ α ι τ ο σ τ ό μ α δ ύ ν α σ θ α ί' τ ώ ν γ ά ρ α π ρ ο σ δ ό κ η τ ω ν
κ α κ ώ ν α ί π ρ ο σ β ο λ α ϊ κ α ι τ ο ΐς δ ε ιν ο ΐς π ε ρ ι λ ό γ ο υ ς
215 ά φ ω ν ία ν ε μ π ο ιο ύ σ ι. π α ρ ε ιμ έ ν ο ι δ ' ό μ ω ς υ π έ ρ τ ο ύ
μ ή δ ο κ ε ΐν ά λ ισ κ ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ώ σ υ ν ε ιδ ό τ ι κ α θ η σ υ χ ά ζ ε ιν
" π ώ ς " ε φ α σ α ν " ά π ο λ ο γ η σ ό μ ε θ α κ α ι π ρ ο ς τ ίν α ;
σ ύ γ ά ρ μ έ λ λ ε ις ε σ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι δ ικ α σ τ ή ς ο κ α τ ή γ ο ρ ο ς ,
δ ς ώ φ ε ιλ ε ς κ α ι έ τ ε ρ ω ν α ίτ ιω μ έ ν ω ν ή μ ΐν σ υ ν -
α γ ο ρ ε ύ ε ιν έ ξ ώ ν έ π ε ιρ ά θ η ς · ή τ ό μ έ ν ά ρ γ ύ ρ ιο ν τ ό
242
ON JOSEPH, 211-215
sonal friend." XXXVI. While they were 211
in this mood, and their souls occupied with these re-
flections, a sudden and unexpected discomfiture over-
took them. For the steward, by order of his master,
with a considerable body of servants, appeared in
pursuit waving his hands and beckoning to them to
halt. And when he arrived, all eagerness and panting 212
hard, " You have set the seal," he said, " to the
earlier charges made against you. You have re-
turned evil for good and once more set your feet
in the same path of iniquity. You have filched the
price of the corn and committed in addition a still
worse crime, for villainy grows if it receives condona-
tion. You have stolen the finest and most valuable 213
of my master's cups in which he pledged you, you,
who were so exceedingly grateful, so exceedingly
peace-loving, you who did not so much as know the
meaning of * spy/ you who brought double money
to pay what was due before, apparently as a trap and
snare to serve you in your quest for still more plunder.
But wickedness does not prosper in the long run ;
it is ever scheming to remain hid but is detected in
the end." While he continued in this strain, they 214
stood paralysed and speechless, suddenly seized by
those most painful inflictions, grief and fear, so that
they could not even open their mouths. For the
onset of unexpected ills can render even eloquent
speakers mute. Yet, unnerved as they were, they 215
did not wish their silence to be construed as a sign
that their conscience convicted them, and therefore
they replied : " How shall we defend ourselves, and
to whom ? You will be our judge, you who are also
our accuser, who from your experience of us should
rather be the advocate did others arraign us. Could
243
PHILO
ε ύ ρ ε θ έ ν έ ν τ ο ις ά γ γ ε ίο ις π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς ε λ έ γ -
χ ο ν τ ο ς έ κ ο μ ίσ α μ ε ν ά π ο δ ώ σ ο ν τ ε ς , τ ο σ α ύ τ η δ ' έ χ ρ η -
σ ά μ ε θ α τ ώ ν τ ρ ό π ω ν μ ε τ α β ο λ ή , ώ ς τ ο ν ξ ε ν ο δ ό χ ο ν
ά μ ε ίφ α σ θ α ι ζ η μ ία ις κ α ι κ λ ο π α ΐς ; ά λ λ ' ο ύ τ ε γ ε γ ο ν ε
216 τ ο ϋ τ ο μ ή τ ε ις ν ο υ ν ε λ θ ο ι π ο τ έ τ ο ν ή μ έ τ ε ρ ο ν . δ ς
δ ' α ν έ χ ω ν ά λ ω τ ό έ κ π ω μ α τ ώ ν α δ ε λ φ ώ ν , θ ν η -
σ κ έ τ ω ' θ α ν ά τ ο υ γ ά ρ τ ά δ ίκ η μ α , ε ι γ έ γ ο ν ε ν δ ν τ ω ς ,
τ ιμ ώ μ ε θ α δ ιά π ο λ λ ά * π ρ ώ τ ο ν μ έ ν δ τ ι π λ ε ο ν ε ξ ία
κ α ι τ ό τ ώ ν α λ λ ό τ ρ ιω ν έ π ιθ υ μ ε ΐν π α ρ α ν ο μ ώ τ α τ ο ν ,
δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ν δ τ ι τ ο υ ς ώ φ ε λ η κ ό τ α ς β λ ά π τ ε ιν έ π ιχ ε ιρ ε ΐν
ά ν ο σ ιώ τ α τ ο ν , τ ρ ίτ ο ν δ έ δ τ ι τ ο υ ς μ έ γ α φ ρ ο ν ο ϋ ν τ α ς
[72 ] έ π * ε υ γ έ ν ε ια τ ό τ ώ ν π ρ ο γ ό ν ω ν α ξ ίω μ α \ κ α θ α ιρ ε ΐν
ε ρ γ ο ις ύ π α ιτ ίο ις τ ο λ μ ά ν δ ν ε ιδ ο ς α ΐσ χ ισ τ ο ν * ο ΐς
ά π α σ ιν έ ν ο χ ο ς ώ ν , ε ΐ τ ις η μ ώ ν ύ φ ή ρ η τ α ι, θ α ν ά τ ω ν
217 μ υ ρ ίω ν ά ξ ια π ε π ρ α χ ώ ς τ ε λ ε υ τ ά τ ω ." XXXVII. κ α ι
ά μ α λ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς τ ά ά χ θ η τ ώ ν υ π ο ζ υ γ ίω ν κ α θ α ιρ ο ΰ σ ι
κ α ι π ρ ο τ ρ έ π ο ν τ α ι μ ε τ ά π ά σ η ς ε π ιμ ε λ ε ία ς έ ρ ε υ ν ά ν .
ό δ έ ο ύ κ ά γ ν ο ώ ν έ ν τ ώ τ ο ϋ ν ε ω τ ά τ ο υ κ α τ α κ ε ίμ ε ν ο ν
ά τ ε α υ τ ό ς λ ά θ ρ α θ ε ις έ σ ο φ ίζ ε τ ο κ α ι τ ή ν α ρ χ ή ν ά π ό
τ ο ϋ π ρ ε σ β υ τ ά τ ο υ π ο ιη σ ά μ ε ν ο ς έ ξ η ς κ α τ ά σ τ ο ΐχ ο ν
ε π α κ ο λ ο υ θ ώ ν τ α ΐς ή λ ικ ία ις έ σ κ ό π ε ι, π ρ ο φ έ ρ ο ν τ ο ς
έ κ α σ τ ο υ κ α ι έ π ιδ ε ικ ν υ μ έ ν ο υ τ ά ά γ γ ε ΐα , μ έ χ ρ ι τ ο ϋ
τ ε λ ε υ τ α ίο υ , π α ρ * ω κ α ι τ ό ζ η τ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν ά ν ε υ ρ έ θ η ,
ώ ς ίδ ό ν τ α ς α θ ρ ό ο υ ς ά ν ο ιμ ώ ξ α ι κ α ι τ ά ς έ σ θ ή τ α ς
δ ια ρ ρ ή ξ α ν τ α ς έ κ δ α κ ρ ύ ε ιν έ π ισ τ έ ν ο ν τ α ς κ α ι ζ ώ ν τ α
τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν έ τ ι π ρ ο θ ρ η ν ο ϋ ν τ α ς κ α ϊ ο ύ χ ή τ τ ο ν
α υ τ ο ύ ς κ α ι τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α , δ ς π ρ ο ύ λ ε γ ε τ ά ς σ υ μ -
β η σ ο μ έ ν α ς τ ώ υ ίώ κ α κ ο π ρ α γ ία ς , δ ι α ς β ο ν λ ο μ έ ν ο ις
218 σ υ ν α π ο δ η μ ε ΐν τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν ο ύ κ ε π έ τ ρ ε π ε . κ α τ -
244
ON JOSEPH, 215- 217
it be that after bringing in repayment the money
we found in our sacks though no one challenged us,
we completely changed our characters, so as to re-
quite our entertainer by mulcting and robbing him ?
No, we have not done so, and may no such thought
ever enter our mind. Let whoever of the brothers is 216
proved to have the cup be put to death, for death is
the penalty at which we assess the crime if it really has
been committed, for several reasons. First, because
covetousness and the desire for what is another's is
against all law ; secondly, because to attempt to
injure benefactors is a most unholy deed ; thirdly,
because to those who pride themselves on their high
lineage it is a most shameful reproach if they do not
shrink from ruining the prestige of their ancestors
by deeds of guilt. And since, if any one of us has
committed this theft, he is liable on all these counts,
let him die since his deed deserves a thousand deaths."
XXXVII. With these words they pulled the packs 217
from off their beasts, and bade him search with all
diligence. He, who knew well that the cup was lying
in the sack of the youngest son, since he had secretly
put it there himself, tricked them by beginning his
examination with the eldest, and continued in regular
order according to their age, as each produced and
shewed his sack, until he reached the last. When
the object of the search was actually found in his
possession, a wail arose from the whole body at the
sight. They rent their clothes and wept and groaned,
mourning for the death which awaited the brother
who was still alive, and no less for themselves and
their father who foretold the misfortunes which would
befall his son and had therefore for a time refused to
consent to their wish that their brother should travel
245
PHILO
η φ ο ΰ ν τ ε ς δ έ κ α ι σ υ γ κ ε χ υ μ έ ν ο ι τ ή ν α υ τ ή ν ύ π έ σ τ ρ ε φ ο ν
ό δ ό ν ε ις τ ή ν π ό λ ιν έ κ π ε π λ η γ μ έ ν ο ι τ ω σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό τ ι
κ α ι τ ο π ρ ά γ μ α έ π ιβ ο υ λ ή ν ά λ λ ' ο ύ φ ιλ α ρ γ υ ρ ία ν
α δ ε λ φ ο ύ ν ο μ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς - ε ίτ α τ ω τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς ε π ιτ ρ ό π ω
π ρ ο σ α χ θ ε ν τ ε ς φ ιλ ά δ ε λ φ ο ν ε ύ ν ο ια ν ά π ό γ ν η σ ίο υ π ά -
219 θ ο υ ς ε π ιδ ε ίκ ν υ ν τ α ι. π ρ ο σ π ε σ ό ν τ ε ς γ ά ρ α θ ρ ό ο ι τ ο ΐς
ε κ ε ίν ο υ γ ό ν α σ ιν ώ ς κ λ ο π ή π ά ν τ ε ς έ ν ο χ ο ι, ο μ η δ *
ε ιπ ε ίν θ έ μ ις έ π * α υ τ ώ ν ,
1
έ δ α κ ρ υ ρ ρ ό ο υ ν , ίκ έ τ ε υ ο ν ,
ε α υ τ ο ύ ς έ ξ ε δ ίδ ο σ α ν , έ κ ο ύ σ ιο ν δ ο υ λ ε ία ν ύ π ισ χ ν ο ΰ ν τ ο ,
δ ε σ π ό τ η ν π ρ ο σ η γ ό ρ ε υ ο ν ε κ ε ίν ο ν , π ρ ο β λ ή τ ο υ ς ,
2
ο ίκ ό -
τ ρ ιβ α ς , α ρ γ υ ρ ω ν ή τ ο υ ς , ο υ δ έ ν π α ρ α λ ε ίπ ο ν τ ε ς τ ώ ν
ο ίκ ε τ ικ ώ ν ο ν ο μ ά τ ω ν , ά ν ε κ ά λ ο υ ν ε α υ τ ο ύ ς .
220 ό δ ' έ τ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ά π ο π ε ιρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς ή θ ε ι β α ρ υ τ ά τ ω
φ η σ ιν α ύ τ ο ΐς · " μ η δ έ π ο τ ε τ ο ΰ τ ο έ ρ γ α σ α ίμ η ν , ώ ς
τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο υ ς ά π ά γ ε ιν ε ν ό ς ά μ α ρ τ ό ν τ ο ς * τ ί γ ά ρ ε ίς
μ ε τ ο υ σ ία ν ά ξ ιο ν κ α λ ε ΐν τ ιμ ω ρ ιώ ν τ ο ύ ς μ ή Τ ώ ν
α δ ικ η μ ά τ ω ν κ ο ιν ο π ρ α γ ή σ α ν τ α ς ; ε κ ε ίν ο ς μ ό ν ο ς ,
221 έ π ε ι κ α ι μ ό ν ο ς έ π ρ α ξ ε , κ ο λ α ζ έ σ θ ω . π υ ν θ ά ν ο μ α ι
μ έ ν ο ΰ ν , ό τ ι π ρ ο τ ή ς π ό λ ε ω ς κ α ι θ ά ν α τ ο ν ώ ρ ίζ ε τ ε
κ α τ ά τ ο ΰ ά λ ό ν τ ο ς · έ γ ώ δ ' έ κ α σ τ α π ρ ό ς τ ό ε π ιε ικ έ ς
ά γ ω ν κ α ι ή μ ε ρ ώ τ ε ρ ο ν έ π ικ ο υ φ ίζ ω τ ή ν τ ιμ ω ρ ία ν
222 δ ο υ λ ε ία ν ό ρ ίσ α ς ά ν τ ι θ α ν ά τ ο υ ." XXXVIII. χ α λ έ -
π ώ ς δ έ τ ή ν ά π ε ιλ ή ν φ ε ρ ό ν τ ω ν κ α ι έ φ * ο ΐς έ σ υ κ ο φ α ν -
τ ο ΰ ν τ ο κ α τ α δ υ ο μ έ ν ω ν ό τ έ τ α ρ τ ο ς κ α θ * ή λ ικ ία ν —ή ν
1
MSS. €τ τ α ύ τ φ .
2
So Cohn and Mangey with some MS. authority. Most
MSS. have π ρ ο σ η λ ύ τ ο υ ς or π ρ ο σ β λ ή τ ο υ ς . See note a.
a
Assuming that π ρ ο β λ ή τ ο υ ς is to be read, its place in the
series as a" servile name," followed by ο ίκ ό τ ρ ιβ α ς and apyvp-
ω ν ή τ ο υ ϊ, suggests that it also describes a special type of
slave. If so, it may perhaps refer to children who had been
exposed in infancy and then annexed by persons who
brought them up as their own slaves. Thus they would
246
ON JOSEPH, 218-222
with them. Downcast and confounded they returned 218
by the same road to the city, aprjalled at the event
and attributing it to a malicious plot and not to the
covetousness of their brother. Then, when brought
before the governor, they shewed their brotherly
good feeling by their genuine emotion. For, falling 219
in a body at his knees, as though they were all guilty
of the theft, a charge the mere mention of which
was an outrage, they wept, they besought him, they
put themselves at his disposal, they volunteered to
submit to enslavement, they called him their master
and themselves his slaves of any and every kind, out-
casts,
0
household bred or purchased in the market;
no servile name did they leave unsaid. . But 220
he, to try them still further, assumed a very severe
b
air and said : " I trust that I may never act thus, and
send so many to captivity for the sin of one. For
what good reason is there for including in the penalties
those who had no share in the offence ? He yonder,
who alone did the deed, let him suffer for it. Now, I 221
am told that before you entered the city
c
death was
the sentence you too approved for the guilty person,
but as I am ever inclined for the moderate andhumaner
course I reduce the punishment and sentence him to
slavery instead of death." XXXVIII. This stern 222
decision had greatly distressed them, utterly de-
jected as they were by the false accusations made
against them, when the fourth in age, who combined
naturally form a third class to ο ίκ ό τ ρ ιβ α * (taken as = oUoyiveLs)
and ά ρ Ύ υ ρ ω ρ ή τ ο υ *. I have not been able to find in Greek or
Roman legislation any allusion to such a status, but see
App. p. 602.
b
Or perhaps " dignified," " impressive," cf De Abr. 210 .
Possibly, as Mangey suggested, readβ α θ υ τ έ ρ ω , cf. § 168 above.
c
Lit, " in front of the city."
247
PHILO
248
δ ε τ ο λ μ η τ ή ς μ ε τ α ίδ ο ϋ ς κ α ι θ α ρ ρ α λ έ ο ς , π α ρ ρ η σ ία ν
τ ή ν ά ν ε υ ά ν α ισ χ υ ν τ ία ς έ π ιτ ε τ η δ ε υ κ ώ ς —π ρ ο σ ε λ θ ώ ν
φ η σ ί' " δ έ ο μ α ι, δ έ σ π ο τ α , μ ή θ υ μ ώ χ α ρ ίσ α σ θ α ι μ η δ '
δ τ ι τ ε τ α ^α ι τ ή ν μ ε τ ά β α σ ιλ έ α τ ά ζ ιν π ρ ο κ α τ α γ ν ώ ν α ι
223 τ τ ρ δ τ ή ς α π ο λ ο γ ία ς η μ ώ ν . π υ ν θ α ν ο μ έ ν ω σ ο ι κ α τ ά
τ ή ν π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ν έ π ιδ η μ ία ν π ε ρ ί τ ε ά δ ε λ φ ο ϋ κ α ι π α -
[73] τ ρ ό ς ά π ε κ ρ ιν ά μ ε θ α ' π α τ ή ρ μ έ ν \ έ σ τ ι π ρ ε σ β ύ τ η ς ,
ο ύ χ ρ ό ν ω μ ά λ λ ο ν γ ε γ η ρ α κ ώ ς ή τ α ΐς έ π α λ λ ή λ ο ις
δ υ σ τ υ χ ία ις , ύ φ * ώ ν γ υ μ ν α ζ ό μ ε ν ο ς α θ λ η τ ο ύ τ ρ ό π ο ν
έ ν π ό ν ο ις κ α ι δ υ σ κ α ρ τ ε ρ ή τ ο ις κ α κ ο π α θ ε ία ις δ ι-
ε τ έ λ ε σ ε ν α δ ε λ φ ό ς δ έ κ ο μ ιδ ή ν έ ο ς ε σ τ ίν , έ κ τ ό π ω ς
σ τ ε ρ γ ό μ ε ν ο ς ύ π ό τ ο ϋ π α τ ρ ό ς , ε π ε ιδ ή κ α ι δ φ ίγ ο ν ό ς
έ σ τ ι κ α ι δ υ ε ΐν γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω ν δ μ ο μ η τ ρ ίω ν ά π ε λ ε ίφ θ η
μ ό ν ο ς , τ ο ϋ π ρ ε σ β υ τ έ ρ ο υ β ια ίω ς α π ο θ α ν ό ν τ ο ς .
224 κ ε λ ε ύ ο ν τ ο ς δ έ σ ο ΰ έ ν θ ά δ ε τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν ά γ α γ ε ΐν κ α ι
ά π ε ιλ ο ϋ ν τ ο ς , ε ι μ ή π α ρ α γ έ ν ο ιτ ο , μ η δ ' ή μ ΐν ε ίς δ φ ιν
έ λ θ ε ΐν έ τ ι τ ή ν σ ή ν έ π ιτ ρ α π ή σ ε σ θ α ι, κ α τ η φ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς
ά π η λ λ α τ τ ό μ ε θ α κ α ι μ ό λ ις ο ΐκ α δ ε έ π α ν ε λ θ ό ν τ ε ς
225 έ δ η λ ο ΰ μ ε ν τ ά ά π ό σ ο υ τ ώ π α τ ρ ί. δ δ έ κ α τ
9
α ρ χ ά ς
μ έ ν ά ν τ έ λ ε γ ε δ ε δ ιώ ς σ φ ό δ ρ α π ε ρ ί τ ώ π α ιδ ί, τ ώ ν
δ ' α ν α γ κ α ίω ν ύ π ο σ π α ν ιζ ό ν τ ω ν κ α ϊ μ η δ ε ν ό ς η μ ώ ν
τ ο λ μ ώ ν τ ο ς έ π ι σ ιτ ω ν ία ν ή κ ε ιν δ ίχ α τ ο ϋ ν ε ω τ ά τ ο υ
δ ιά τ ά ς σ ά ς έ π α ν α τ ά σ ε ις , μ ό λ ις π ε ίθ ε τ α ι τ ο ύ τ ο ν
σ υ ν ε κ π έ μ φ α ι μ υ ρ ία μ έ ν α ίτ ιώ μ ε ν ο ς , δ τ ι ά δ ε λ φ ό ν
ά λ λ ο ν έ χ ε ιν ώ μ ο λ ο γ ή σ α μ ε ν , μ υ ρ ία δ ' ο ίκ τ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ς ,
ε ι μ ε λ λ ή σ ε ι δ «χ ζ €υ )/ι>υ σ 0α ι· ν ή π ιο ς γ ά ρ έ σ τ ι κ α ι
π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν ά π ε ιρ ο ς , ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ή ν ά λ -
226 λ ο £α 7π ρ , ά λ λ α κ α ι τ ώ ν κ α τ ά τ ή ν π ό λ ιν .
1
π ρ ό ς ο ΰ ν
1
The singular seems strange. Mangey wished to correct
either to τ η ν <,ίδ ία ν > π ά λ ιν or ras π ό λ ε ις . The latter is accepted
ON JOSEPH, 222-225
boldness and courage with modesty and practised
frankness of speech without effrontery, approached
him and said : " My lord, I pray you not to give way
to wrath, nor, because you have been appointed to
the second post after the king, to condemn before you
have heard our defence. When you asked us at our 223
first visit of our brother and father, we answered,
' Our father is an old man, aged not so much by years
as by repeated misfortunes, whereby as in a training-
school he has been continually exercised amid labours
and sufferings which have tried him sore. But our
brother is quite young, the idol and darling of his
father, because he is the child of his later years, the
only one left of the two that their mother bore, since
the elder has died a violent death. Now when you 224
bade us bring that brother here, and threatened that
if he did not arrive we should not even be admitted
again to your presence, we departed in dejection,
and, when we got home, only with reluctance told
your orders to our father. He at first opposed them in 225
his great fear for the boy, but, when necessaries grew
scarce and yet none of us dared to come and buy corn
without the youngest because of the stern warning
you had given, he was with difficulty persuaded to
send the boy with us. Many a time did he blame us
for admitting that we had another brother. Many
a time did he pity himself for the coming separation
from the boy, for he is but a child and without experi-
ence, not only of life in a foreign land, but of city
a
life
a
Cohn translates " einheimischen," which would seem to
represent Mangey's TTJ V ιδ ία ν π ό λ ιν (see critical note).
by Cohn in a similar passage in De Decal. 13, where the MSS.
have κ α τ ά π ό λ ιν . (The absence of the article perhaps makes
a difference, and κ α τ ά π ό λ ιν might be read in both passages.)
249
PHILO
ο ύ τ ω δ ια κ ε ίμ ε ν ο ν τ ό ν π α τ έ ρ α π ώ ς α ν ά φ ικ ο ίμ ε θ α ;
τ ίσ ι δ ' ό φ θ α λ μ ο ΐς α υ τ ό ν θ ε ά σ α σ θ α ι δ ίχ α τ ο ύ τ ο υ
δ υ ν η σ ό μ ε θ α ; τ ε λ ε υ τ ή ν ο ίκ τ ίσ τ η ν υ π ο μ έ ν ε ι μ ό ν ο ν
ά κ ο υ σ α ς , ώ ς ο ύ κ έ π α ν ε λ ή λ υ θ ε ν ε ΐθ * ή α ς ά ν δ ρ ο -
φ ό ν ο υ ς κ α ι π α τ ρ ο κ τ ό ν ο υ ς έ κ α σ τ ο ς έ ρ ε ΐ τ ώ ν . φ ιλ -
α π ε χ θ η μ ό ν ω ν κ α ϊ έ π ι τ α ΐς τ ο ια ύ τ α ις σ υ μ φ ο ρ α ΐς
227 έ θ ε λ ο κ α κ ο ύ ν τ ω ν . τ ό δ έ π λ ε ίσ τ ο ν τ ή ς κ α τ η γ ο ρ ία ς
ρ υ ή σ ε τ α ι κ α τ έ μ ο ϋ ' π ο λ λ ά γ ά ρ ύ π ε σ χ ό μ η ν τ ώ π α τ ρ ί
π ρ ο έ σ θ α ι π α ρ α κ α τ α θ ή κ η ν λ α μ β ά ν ε ιν ο μ ο λ ό γ ω ν , ή ν
ά π ο δ ώ σ ε ιν , ό τ α ν ά π α ιτ η θ ώ ' π ώ ς δ ' ά ν , ε ί μ ή έ ζ -
ε υ μ ε ν ισ θ ε ίη ς α υ τ ό ς , ά π ο δ ο ΰ ν α ι δ υ ν α ίμ η ν ; ο ΐκ τ ο ν
δ έ ο μ α ι τ ο ΰ π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ο υ λ α β ε ίν κ α ϊ ε ίς έ 'ν ν ο ια ν έ λ θ ε ΐν
τ ώ ν κ α κ ώ ν ο ΐσ π ε ρ ά ν ι α θ ^σ β τ α ι μ ή κ ο μ ισ ά μ ε ν ο ς δ ν
228 ά β ο υ λ ω ν έ ν ε χ ε ίρ ισ ε ν . ά λ λ α σ υ μ έ ν υ π έ ρ ώ ν ε δ ο ξ α ς
ή δ ικ ή σ θ α ι δ ίκ α ς λ ά μ β α ν ε , δ ώ σ ω δ ' ε θ ε λ ο ν τ ή ς ε γ ώ *
δ ο ΰ λ ο ν ά π ό τ α ύ τ η ς α ν ά γ ρ α φ ε τ ή ς η μ έ ρ α ς , ά σ μ ε ν ο ς
ύ π ο μ ε ν ώ τ ά τ ώ ν ν ε ω ν ή τ ω ν , έ ά ν τ ό π α ιδ ίο ν έ θ ε λ ή σ η ς
229 έ ά σ α ι. λ ή φ ε τ α ι
1
δ ' ο ύ κ α υ τ ό ς τ ή ν χ ά ρ ιν , έ ά ν ά ρ α
δ ιδ ώ ς , ά λ λ ' ο μ ή π α ρ ώ ν έ π ικ ο υ φ ισ θ ε ις τ ώ ν φ ρ ο ν -
τ ίδ ω ν , ο τ ώ ν τ ο σ ο ύ τ ω ν π α τ ή ρ ικ ε τ ώ ν α π ά ν τ ω ν
ίκ έ τ α ι γ ά ρ έ σ μ ε ν κ α τ α π ε φ ε υ γ ό τ ε ς έ π ι τ ή ν σ ή ν
230 ίε ρ ω τ ά τ η ν δ ε ξ ιά ν , η ς μ η δ έ π ο τ ε δ ια μ ά ρ τ ο ιμ ε ν . έ λ ε ο ς
ο υ ν ε ίσ ε λ θ έ τ ω σ ε γ ή ρ ω ς α ν δ ρ ό ς τ ο ύ ς α ρ ε τ ή ς ά θ λ ο υ ς
κ α τ ά π ά σ α ν ή λ ικ ία ν δ ια π ο ν ή σ α ν τ ο ς ' τ ά ς κ α τ ά
Σ ιυ ρ ία ν π ό λ ε ις ε ίς ά π ο δ ο χ ή ν α ύ τ ο ΰ κ α ι τ ιμ ή ν ε π -
έ σ τ ρ ε φ ε , κ α ίτ ο ι ζ ε ν ικ ω τ έ ρ ο ις έ θ ε σ ι κ α ι ν ο μ ίμ ο ις κ α ι
π ο λ ύ δ ιε σ τ ώ σ ι χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς , ο ύ β ρ α χ ε ί τ ιν ι τ ώ ν ε γ χ ω -
ρ ίω ν ή λ λ ο τ ρ ιω μ έ ν ο ς ' ά λ λ ' ή τ ο ΰ β ίο υ κ α λ ο κ α γ α θ ία
κ α ι τ ό σ ύ μ φ ω ν ο ν κ α ι ό μ ο λ ο γ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν π ρ ό ς έ ρ γ α
λ ό γ ω ν κ α ι π ρ ό ς λ ό γ ο υ ς έ ρ γ ω ν έ ζ ε ν ίκ η σ ε ν , ώ ς κ α ι
[ 74] τ ο ύ ς έ ν ε κ α | τ ώ ν π α τ ρ ίω ν μ ή ε υ γ ν ώ μ ο ν α ς μ ε θ -
1
MSS. λ ή ψ η ^
250
ON JOSEPH, 226- 230
in general. Then, since such are our father's feelings, 226
how can we return to him ? How can we look him
in the face without the boy ? He will suffer the
saddest of deaths on merely hearing that he has not
returned, and we shall be called murderers and parri-
cides by all the spiteful people who gloat over such
misfortunes. And the chief stream of obloquy will 227
be directed against me, for I pledged myself with
many forfeits to my father, and declared that I re-
ceived the boy as a deposit which I would restore
when it was demanded from me. But how can I restore
it, unless you yourself are propitiated ? I pray you
to take pity on the old man, and realize the miseries
which he will suffer if he does not recover him whom
he unwillingly entrusted to my hand. But do you 228
exact the penalty for the wrongs which you believe
yourself to have received. I will willingly pay it.
Write me down your slave from this day onwards. I
will gladly endure what the newly-bought endure
if you will spare the child. This boon, if indeed you
2 2
9
grant it, will be a boon not to the boy himself but to
one who is not here present, whom you will relieve
of his cares, the father of all these many suppliants.
For suppliants we are who have fled for refuge to
your most august right hand, which we pray may
never fail us. Take pity, then, on the old age of one
2 3
0
who has spent all his years labouring in the arena of
virtue. The cities of Syria he won over to receive and
honour him, though his customs and usages were
strange to them and very different, and those of the
country alien to him in no small degree. But the
nobility of his life, and his acknowledged harmony of
words with deeds and deeds with words, prevailed so
that even those whom national feelings prejudiced
251
PHILO
231 α ρ μ ό σ α σ θ α ι. τ ο ια ύ τ η ν μ έ λ λ ε ις κ α τ α τ ίθ ε σ θ α ι χ ά ρ ιν ,
ή ς ο ύ κ α ν δ ύ ν α ιτ ό τ ις μ ε ίζ ο ν α λ α β ε ίν τ ις γ ά ρ α ν
γ έ ν ο ιτ ο π α τ ρ ϊ δ ω ρ ε ά μ ε ίζ ω ν ή υ ίό ν ά π ο γ ν ω σ θ έ ν τ α
κ ο μ ίσ α σ θ α ι; "
232 XXXIX. Π ά ν τ α δ ' ή σ α ν α π ό π ε ιρ α κ α ι τ α ύ τ α
κ α ι τ ά π ρ ό τ ε ρ α , π ώ ς έ χ ο υ σ ι τ ο ϋ τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς ε π ι-
τ ρ ό π ο υ σ κ ο π ο ΰ ν τ ο ς ε ύ ν ο ια ς π ρ ο ς τ ο ν ό μ ο μ ή τ ρ ιο ν
ά δ ε λ φ ό ν έ δ ε δ ίε ι γ ά ρ , μ ή φ υ σ ικ ή τ ιν ι α λ λ ο τ ρ ιώ σ ε ι
κ έ χ ρ η ν τ α ι, κ α θ ά π ε ρ ο ι έ κ μ η τ ρ υ ιώ ν γ ε γ ο ν ό τ ε ς π ρ ό ς
233 τ ο ν έ ζ ε τ έ ρ α ς ισ ο τ ίμ ο υ γ υ ν α ικ ό ς ο ικ ο ν . δ ιά τ ο ύ τ ο
κ α ι ώ ς κ α τ α σ κ ό π ο υ ς ή τ ιά τ ο κ α ϊ π ε ρ ι τ ο ϋ γ έ ν ο υ ς
έ π υ ν θ ά ν ε τ ο π ρ ό φ α σ ιν τ ο ϋ γ ν ώ ν α ι, ε ι π ε ρ ίε σ τ ιν ό
α δ ε λ φ ό ς , ά λ λ α μ ή έ ξ ε π ιβ ο υ λ ή ς ά ν ή ρ η τ α ι, κ α ϊ έ ν α
κ α τ έ σ χ ε τ ο ύ ς ά λ λ ο υ ς έ ά σ α ς ά π α ίρ ε ιν ο μ ό λ ο γ η "
σ α ν τ α ς ά γ α γ ε ίν τ ο ν ν ε ώ τ α τ ο ν , δ ν ιδ ε ΐν μ ά λ ισ τ
έ π ό θ ε ι κ α ϊ τ ή ς έ π * α ύ τ ώ χ α λ ε π ή ς κ α ϊ β α ρ ύ τ α τ η ς
234 α ν ία ς ά π α λ λ α γ ^α ^,
1
κ α ϊ ε π ε ιδ ή π α ρ ε γ έ ν ε τ ο κ α ϊ τ ο ν
ά δ ε λ φ ό ν έ θ ε ά σ α τ ο , μ ικ ρ ό ν δ σ ο ν ά ν ε θ ε ϊς τ ή ς φ ρ ο ν -
τ ίδ ο ς , κ α λ έ σ α ς έ π ι ξ ε ν ία ν κ α ϊ ε σ τ ιώ ν π ο λ υ τ ε λ ε σ -
τ έ ρ α ις ε ύ ώ χ ε ι τ ο ν ό μ ο μ ή τ ρ ιο ν π α ρ α σ κ ε υ α ΐς , α π ο -
β λ έ π ω ν ε ίς έ κ α σ τ ο ν κ α ϊ τ ε κ μ α ιρ ό μ ε ν ο ς έ κ τ ή ς
235 δ φ ε ω ς , ε ΐ τ ις α ύ τ ο ΐς ύ π ο ικ ο υ ρ ε ΐ φ θ ό ν ο ς , κ α ϊ ώ ς
ά σ μ ε ν ίζ ο ν τ α ς έ ώ ρ α κ α ϊ ά ν α χ ε ο μ έ ν ο υ ς έ π ι τ ή τ ο ϋ
ν ε ω τ ά τ ο υ τ ιμ ή , δ υ σ ϊν ή δ η μ α ρ τ υ ρ ία ις σ η μ ε ιω -
σ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ό μ η δ έ ν έ χ θ ο ς ύ π ο τ ύ φ ε σ θ α ι κ α ϊ τ ρ ίτ η ν
έ π ε ν ό η σ ε , τ ή ν τ ο ϋ κ ε κ λ έ φ θ α ι δ ο κ ο ϋ ν τ ο ς έ κ π ώ μ α τ ο ς
1
Cohn and Mangey's punctuation seems to me faulty in
this sentence. They place full stops after airaWayrjvai and
φ θ ό ν ο ς (Mangey also after ά ν ή ρ η τ α ι). But surely it is all one
sentence introduced by δ ια τ ο ύ τ ο and stating that all these
steps were taken as a test.
° Benjamin's "mess" was five times as much as any of
252
ON JOSEPH, 231- 235
against him were brought over to his ways. Such 231
is the gratitude which you will earn, and what greater
could be earned ? For what greater boon could a
father have than the recovery of a son of whose safety
he has despaired ? "
XXXIX. All this and what had gone before was 232
intended to test what feeling they shewed under
the eyes of the governor to his own mother's son.
For he feared that they might have had that natural
estrangement which the children of a stepmother
often shew to the family of another wife who was no
less esteemed than their own mother. This was the 233
reason why he accused them of spying, and ques-
tioned them on their kin in order to know whether
that brother was alive and had not been the victim
of a plot, and also why he detained one when he
let the others depart after agreeing to bring the
youngest, whom he greatly yearned to see and thus
shake off the trouble which weighed on him so
heavily. This again was why, though when he 234
came to join them and seeing his brother felt just a
little relieved, he after inviting them to the hospi-
tality of his board entertained his mother's son on
a richer scale than the rest,
a
but meanwhile observed
each of them to judge from their looks whether they
still cherished some secret envy. Finally it was for 235
the same reason that when he saw how pleased and
overjoyed they were at the honour paid to that
brother and thus had established by two testimonies
that there was no smouldering enmity, he devised
this third testimony, namely to pretend that the
theirs, Gen. xliii. 34. Philo has rather strangely omitted
to mention this in his account of the feast. Josephus, Ant.
ii. 125, gives the same reason for the action.
253
PHILO
α ίτ ία ν ά ν α θ ε ίς τ ώ ν ε ω τ ά τ ω · σ α φ έ σ τ α τ ο ς γ ά ρ
έ μ ε λ λ ε ν έ λ ε γ χ ο ς ο ύ τ ο σ ί γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι τ η ς ε κ ά σ τ ο υ
δ ια ν ο ία ς κ α ι ο ίκ ε ιό τ η τ ο ς τ ή ς π ρ ο ς τ ο ν σ υ κ ο φ α ν -
236 τ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν . ε ξ ώ ν α π ά ν τ ω ν ή δ η σ υ ν ε π ε ί-
θ ε τ ο π ε ρ ι τ ο υ μ ή κ α τ α σ τ α σ ιά ζ β σ &α ι μ η δ ' έ π ι-
β ο υ λ ε ύ ε σ θ α ι τ ο ν μ η τ ρ ώ ο ν ο ίκ ο ν λ ο γ ισ μ ό ν τ ε ε ικ ό τ α
κ α ι π ε ρ ι τ ώ ν α ύ τ ώ σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό τ ω ν έ λ ά μ β α ν ε ν , ώ ς
ο ύ κ έ π ιβ ο υ λ α ΐς α δ ε λ φ ώ ν α υ τ ά μ ά λ λ ο ν ε ϊη π ε π ο ν θ ώ ς
ή κ α τ ά π ρ ό ν ο ια ν θ ε ο ύ τ ά μ α κ ρ ά ν έ μ β λ έ π ο ν τ ο ς κ α ι
τ ά μ έ λ λ ο ν τ α ο ύ χ ή τ τ ο ν τ ώ ν π α ρ ό ν τ ω ν ό ρ ώ ν τ ο ς .
237 XL. Ε ί τ ' C77t σ υ μ β ά σ ε ις κ α ί κ α τ α λ λ α γ ά ς ϊε τ ο
ν ικ ώ μ ε ν ο ς ύ π ό φ ιλ ο ικ ε ίο υ π ά θ ο υ ς κ α ί υ π έ ρ τ ο ύ
μ η δ έ ν ό ν ε ιδ ο ς π ρ ο σ β α λ ε ΐν τ ο ΐς ά δ ε λ φ ο ΐς έ ν ε κ α τ ή ς
π ρ ά ξ ε ω ς ο ύ δ έ ν α τ ώ ν Α ιγ υ π τ ίω ν ε δ ικ α ίω σ ε π α ρ ε ΐν α ι
238 κ α τ ά τ ή ν π ρ ώ τ η ν ά ν α γ ν ώ ρ ισ ιν ά λ λ α κ ε λ ε ύ σ α ς
ά π α σ α ν τ ή ν θ ε ρ α π ε ία ν μ ,ε τ α σ τ η ν α ι, π η γ ή ν τ ιν α
δ α κ ρ ύ ω ν ε ξ α ίφ ν η ς ά ν ε ίς κ α ι τ ή δ ε ξ ιά π ρ ο σ ε λ θ ε ΐν
έ γ γ υ τ έ ρ ω σ η μ ή ν α ς , ίν α μ η δ ' ε κ τ ύ χ η ς ε π α κ ο ύ σ α ι
τ ις ά λ λ ο ς δ υ ν η θ ή , φ η σ ίν α ύ τ ο ΐς ' " έ π ε σ κ ια σ μ έ ν ο ν
π ρ ά γ μ α κ α ι χ ρ ό ν ω μ α κ ρ ώ σ υ γ κ ε κ ρ ύ φ θ α ι δ ο κ ο ύ ν
μ έ λ λ ω ν ά ν α κ α λ ύ π τ ε ιν μ ό ν ο ς μ ό ν ο ις ύ μ ΐν ά π α μ -
π ίσ χ ω ' ά δ ε λ φ ό ν δ ν ά π έ δ ο σ θ ε ε ίς Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν , ε κ ε ίν ο ς
239 ο ν ο ρ ά τ ε ν ύ ν π α ρ ε σ τ ώ τ α α υ τ ό ς ε ίμ ι ε γ ώ ** κ α τ α -
π λ α γ έ ν τ ω ν δ ' α υ τ ώ ν π α ρ * ε λ π ίδ α κ α ί δ ιε π τ ο η μ έ ν ω ν
κ α ι ώ σ π ε ρ ο λ κ ή τ ιν ι β ια ίω τ ά ς Ο ψ ε ις ε π ί γ ή ν κ α τ ά -
β ε β λ η κ ό τ ω ν κ α ι π ε π η γ ό τ ω ν ά φ ω ν ω ν κ α ι α χ α ν ώ ν ,
[ 75] " μ ή κ α τ η φ ε ΐτ ε " \ ε ΐπ ε ν , " ά μ ν η σ τ ία ν α π ά ν τ ω ν
π α ρ έ χ ω τ ώ ν ε ίς έ μ έ π ε π ρ α γ μ έ ν ω ν , μ η δ ε ν ό ς ε τ έ ρ ο υ
240 δ ε ΐσ θ ε π α ρ α κ λ ή τ ο υ · α ύ τ ο κ ε λ ε ύ σ τ ω κ α ί έ κ ο υ σ ίω
γ ν ώ μ η π ρ ο ς σ υ μ β ά σ ε ις ε θ ε λ ο ν τ ή ς ά φ ΐγ μ α ι σ υ μ β ο ύ -
λ ο ις
1
χ ρ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ς δ υ σ ί, τ ή τ ε π ρ ο ς τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α
1
MSS. σ υ μ β ό λ ο ις .
254
ON JOSEPH, 235-240
cup had been stolen, and charge the theft to the
youngest. For this would be the clearest way of
testing the real feeling of each, and their attachment
to the brother thus falsely accused. On all these 236
grounds he was now convinced that there was no
factious conspiracy to undo his mother's family, and
also considering what had happened to himself
he came to the conclusion that his experiences
were probably due not so much to their conspir-
ing as to the providence of God Who beholds
distant events and sees the future no less than the
present.
XL. So then, overcome by family affection, he 237
hastened to conclude his reconciliation. And that
no reproach might attach to the brothers for their
action he judged it best that no Egyptian should be
present at the first recognition. Instead he bade all 238
the staff to withdraw, and then suddenly shedding a
flood of tears and beckoning to them with his right
hand to approach nearer so that no one else could
by chance hear him, he said : "I am going to reveal
to you a matter which has been shrouded in darkness
and long time hidden, and I do so while you and I
are all alone. The brother whom you sold into
Egypt is I myself, whom you see standing beside
you." When, astonished and staggered at the un- 239
expected news, they stood rooted to the spot mute
and speechless with eyes cast to the ground as
though drawn by some compelling force, " Be not
downcast," he continued, "I forgive and forget all
what you did to me. Do not ask for any other
advocate. Of my own free, unbidden judgement I 240
have voluntarily come to make my peace with you.
In this I have two fellow-counsellors, my reverence
255
PHILO
ε υ σ έ β ε ια , ώ τ ό π λ ε ίσ τ ο ν τ ή ς χ ά ρ ιτ ο ς ά ν α τ ίθ η μ ι, κ α ι
τ ή φ υ σ ικ ή φ ιλ α ν θ ρ ω π ία , ή π ρ ό ς α π α ν τ ά ς δ ια -
241 φ ε ρ ό ν τ ω ς δ έ π ρ ό ς τ ο ύ ς ά φ ' α ίμ α τ ο ς χ ρ ώ μ α ι. Ci<ai
ν ο μ ίζ ω τ ώ ν σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό τ ω ν ο ύ χ υ μ ά ς ά λ λ α θ ε ό ν
α ίτ ιο ν γ ε γ ε ν ή σ θ α ι β ο υ λ η θ έ ν τ α μ ε τ ώ ν α ύ τ ο ΰ χ α ρ ί-
τ ω ν κ α ι δ ω ρ ε ώ ν ,.ά ς ε ν τ ο ΐς ά ν α γ κ α ιο τ ά τ ο ις κ α ιρ ο ΐς
ή ξ ίω σ ε τ ώ γ έ ν ε ι τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν π α ρ α σ χ ε ΐν , ύ π η -
242 ρ έ τ η ν γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι κ α ι δ ιά κ ο ν ο ι, ε ν α ρ γ ή ς δ έ π ισ τ ιν
δ ύ ν α σ θ ε λ α β ε ίν έ ζ ώ ν ο ρ ά τ ε · π ά σ α ν μ έ ν Α ϊγ υ π τ ο ν
έ π ιτ έ τ ρ α μ μ α ι, τ ιμ ή ν δ έ ε χ ω τ ή ν π ρ ώ τ η ν π α ρ ά τ ώ
β α σ ιλ ε ΐ κ α ι μ έ ν έ ο ν Ο ν τ α π ρ ε σ β ύ τ ε ρ ο ς ώ ν ώ ς π α τ έ ρ α
τ ιμ ά ' θ ε ρ α π ε ύ ο μ α ι τ ε ο ύ χ υ π ό τ ώ ν ε γ χ ω ρ ίω ν μ ό ν ο ν
ά λ λ α κ α ι ύ π ό π λ ε ίσ τ ω ν ά λ λ ω ν ε θ ν ώ ν , Ο σ α κ α ι
ύ π ή κ ο α κ α ι α υ τ ό ν ο μ α * χ ρ ε ία γ ά ρ π ά ν τ α δ ιά τ ή ν
243 ε ν δ ε ια ν π ρ ο ε σ τ ώ τ ο ς . α ρ γ υ ρ ό ς τ ε κ α ι χ ρ υ σ ό ς κ α ι,
τ ό τ ο ύ τ ω ν ά ν α γ κ α ιό τ ε ρ ο ν , α ί τ ρ ο φ α ϊ π α ρ * έ μ ο ι μ ό ν ω
τ α μ ιε ύ ο ν τ α ι δ ια ν έ μ ο ν τ ι κ α ι κ α τ α κ ε ρ μ α τ ίζ ο ν τ ι π ρ ό ς
τ ά ς α ν α γ κ α ία ς χ ρ ε ία ς έ κ ά σ τ ο ις τ ώ ν δ ε ο μ έ ν ω ν , ώ ς
μ ή τ ε τ ι τ ώ ν ε ίς τ ρ υ φ ή ν π ε ρ ιτ τ ε ΰ σ α ι μ ή τ ε τ ι τ ώ ν
244 ε ις έ κ π λ ή ρ ω σ ιν έ ν δ ε ια ς έ π ιλ ιπ ε ΐν . ά λ λ ' ο ύ κ έ ν α β ρ υ -
ν ό μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι σ ε μ ν υ ν ό μ ε ν ο ς τ α υ τ ϊ δ ιε ξ ή λ θ ο ν , ά λ λ '
ιν * α ΐσ θ η σ θ ε , ό τ ι τ ώ ν τ η λ ικ ο ύ τ ω ν ο ύ δ ε ις έ μ ε λ λ ε ν
α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν α ίτ ιο ς ε σ ε σ θ α ι δ ο ύ λ ω κ α ι μ ε τ ά τ α ύ τ α
δ ε σ μ ώ τ η γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω —κ α ι γ ά ρ έ δ έ θ η ν π ο τ έ σ υ κ ο -
φ α ν τ η θ ε ίς —, ά λ λ ' ο τ ά ς έ σ χ ά τ α ς σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς τ ε κ α ϊ
δ υ σ π ρ α γ ία ς μ ε θ α ρ μ ο σ ά μ ε ν ο ς ε ις τ ά ς ά ν ω τ ά τ ω κ α ι
245 π ρ ώ τ α ς ε υ τ υ χ ία ς θ ε ό ς ή ν , ω π ά ν τ α δ υ ν α τ ά , τ α ύ τ α
έ μ ο ΰ δ ια ν ο ο υ μ έ ν ο υ , μ η κ έ τ ι ε ύ λ α β ώ ς έ χ ε τ ε τ ά ς δ υ σ -
φ ρ ο σ ύ ν α ς ε κ π ο δ ώ ν π ο ιη σ ά μ ε ν ο ι κ α ι π ρ ό ς ίλ α ρ ά ν
μ ε τ α β α λ ό ν τ ε ς ε ν θ ν μ ία ν . ε ύ δ ' α ν ε χ ο ι κ α ι π ρ ό ς τ ό ν
π α τ έ ρ α - σ υ ν τ ε ΐν α ι κ α ι π ρ ώ τ ο ν α ύ τ ω τ ά π ε ρ ι τ ή ς
256
ON JOSEPH, 240- 245
for our father, which is chiefly responsible for the
favour I shew you, and the natural humanity which
I feel to all men, and particularly to those of my
blood. (And I consider that the cause of what has 241
happened is not you but God, Who willed to use me
as His servant, to administer the boons and gifts
which He deigns to grant to the human race in the
time of their greatest need. You can have a clear 242
proof of this in what you see. All Egypt is com-
mitted to my hands, and I hold the first place of
honour with the king, and though I am young, and he
my elder, he honours me as a father. I have waiting
on my will not only the inhabitants of the land, but
most of the other nations, whether subject or in-
dependent, for because of the dearth they all need
me at the head. Silver and gold are stored in my 243
keeping alone, and, what is more necessary than
these, the means of sustenance, which I distribute
and parcel out to those who ask, according to their
necessary requirements, so that they have no super-
fluities which might serve for luxury nor lack of what
may satisfy actual want. But I have told you all 244
this, not because I plume and pride myself thereon,
but that you may perceive that no man could have
caused such greatness to come to one who was a
slave and afterwards a prisoner—for I was once in
bonds under a false charge—but He Who turned
my condition of extreme calamity into one of un-
equalled and exalted good fortune was God to
Whom all things are possible. Since I am so dis- 245
posed, fear no more, but cast aside your heaviness of
heart and take a cheerful courage in its stead. It
would be well that you should hasten to our father,
and first of all give him the good tidings that you
257
PHILO
έ μ ή ς ε υ ρ έ σ ε ω ς ε ύ α γ γ ε λ ίσ α σ θ α ι* φ θ ά ν ο υ σ ι γ ά ρ α ί
246 φ ή μ α ι π α ν τ α χ ό σ ε ." XLI. ο ι δ έ κ α τ ά
δ ια δ ο χ ή ν τ ο υ ς ε π α ίν ο υ ς α ύ τ ο ϋ σ υ ν ε ίρ ο ν τ ε ς ά π α ύ -
σ τ ω ς ά χ α λ ίν ο ις σ τ ό μ α σ ιν ε ξ υ μ ν ο ύ ν ά λ λ ο ς ά λ λ ο τ ι
δ ιε ξ ιώ ν , 6 μ ε ν τ ο ά μ ν η σ ίκ α κ ο ν , 6 δ έ τ ο φ ιλ ο ίκ ε ιο ν ,
6 δ έ τ ή ν σ ύ ν ε σ ιν , ά π α ν τ ε ς δ ' α θ ρ ό ο ι τ ή ν ε ύ σ έ β ε ια ν
έ π ι τ ο ν θ ε ό ν α ν α φ ε ρ ό ν τ ο ς τ ά τ έ λ η τ ώ ν κ α τ ο ρ θ ο υ -
μ έ ν ω ν κ α ι μ η κ έ τ ι τ α ΐς ά β ο υ λ ή τ ο ις ά ρ χ α ΐς κ α ι
π ρ ώ τ α ις έ ν σ τ ά σ ε σ ι τ ώ ν μ ή κ α τ ά γ ν ώ μ η ν δ υ σ χ ε ρ ά -
ν α ν τ ο ς κ α ι τ ή ν ύ π ε ρ β ά λ λ ο υ σ α ν μ ε τ α ίδ ο ϋ ς κ α ρ -
247 τ ε ρ ία ν δ ς έ ν τ ο σ α ύ τ α ις γ ε γ ο ν ώ ς ά ν ω μ α λ ία ις ο ύ τ ε
δ ο υ λ ε ύ ω ν β λ ά σ φ η μ ο ν ο υ δ έ ν ε ίπ ε κ α τ ά τ ώ ν α δ ε λ φ ώ ν
ώ ς π ε π ρ α κ δ τ ω ν ο ύ τ ε ίς ε ίρ κ τ ή ν ά π α γ ό μ ε ν ο ς ύ π '
ά θ υ μ ία ς έ ξ ε λ ά λ η σ έ τ ι τ ώ ν α π ο ρ ρ ή τ ω ν ο ύ τ ε π ο λ ύ ν
[ 76] χ ρ ό ν ο ν έ κ ε ΐ κ α τ α μ έ ν ω ν , ο ΐα \ φ ιλ ε ΐ, τ ο ις δ ε σ μ ώ τ α ις
έ θ ο υ ς δ ν τ ο ς τ ά ς ίδ ια ς α τ υ χ ία ς ά ν α μ ε τ ρ ε ΐσ θ α ι, ά π -
248 ε γ ύ μ ν ω σ ε ν ά λ λ ' μ η δ έ ν ε ίδ ώ ς τ ώ ν α ύ τ ώ σ υ μ β ε -
β η κ ό τ ω ν , ά λ λ ' ο ύ δ ' δ τ ε τ ά δ ν ε ίρ α τ α δ ιέ κ ρ ιν ε ν ή τ ο ις
ε ύ ν ο ύ χ ο ις ή τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ΐ, κ α ιρ ό ν έ χ ω ν ε ίς μ ή ν υ σ ιν
έ π ιτ ή δ ε ιο ν , έ φ θ έ γ ξ α τ ό τ ι π ε ρ ι τ ή ς ιδ ία ς ε υ γ ε ν ε ία ς ,
θ ί )δ ' δ τ ε β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ύ π α ρ χ ο ς έ χ ε ιρ ο τ ο ν ε ΐτ ο κ α ι τ ή ς _
Α ιγ ύ π τ ο υ π ά σ η ς τ ή ν έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν κ ο ί π ρ ο σ τ α σ ία ν
π α ρ ε λ ά μ β α ν ε ν , ιν α μ ή δ ό ξ η τ ις ε ίν α ι τ ώ ν ή μ έ λ η -
μ έ ν ω ν κ α ι α φ α ν ώ ν , ά λ λ ά τ ώ ο ν τ ι ε υ π α τ ρ ίδ η ς , ο ύ
φ ύ σ ε ι δ ο ύ λ ο ς , ά λ λ ' έ π ιβ ο υ λ ά ς ύ φ * ώ ν ή κ ισ τ έ χ ρ ή ν
249 α ν ή κ ε σ τ ο υ ς ύ π ο μ ε μ ε ν η κ ώ ς κ α ι σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς . ε τ ι δ έ
π ρ ό ς τ ο ύ τ ο ις έ ρ ρ ύ η π ο λ ύ ς έ π α ιν ο ς ίσ ό τ η τ ο ς α ύ τ ο ϋ
κ α ι δ ε ξ ιό τ η τ ο ς ' τ ά ς γ ά ρ τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν α λ α ζ ο ν ε ία ς κ α ι
α
§§ 246-249 have no basis in Genesis. The nearest corre-
sponding text is xlv. 15 " and after that his brethren talked
258
ON JOSEPH, 245-249
have found me, for rumours travel fast in all direc-
tions." XLI.
α
The brothers, letting their 246
tongues run freely, ceased not to sound his praises
point by point. Each one had a different theme,
one his readiness to forgive, one his family affection,
one his prudence, while all united in praising his
piety in attributing to God the success which crowned
his career and abandoning all resentment at the
unwelcome experiences which had attended its dis-
tressing opening and earliest stages. They praised
also the pre-eminent self-restraint of his modest
reticence. He had passed through all these vicissi- 247
tudes, yet neither while in slavery did he denounce
his brothers for selling him nor when he was haled
to prison did he in his despondency disclose any
secret, nor during his long stay there make any
revelations of the usual kind, since prisoners are
apt to descant upon their personal misfortunes. He 248
behaved as though he knew nothing of his past ex-
periences, and not even when he was interpreting
their dreams to the eunuchs or the king, though he
had a suitable opportunity for disclosing the facts,
did he say a word about his own high lineage. Nor
yet, when he was appointed to be the king's viceroy
and was charged with the superintendence and head-
ship over all Egypt, did he say anything to prevent
the belief that he was of obscure and ignoble station,
whereas he was really a noble, no slave by birth, but
the unfortunate victim of the ruthless conspiracy of
those who should have been the last to treat him so.
In addition there was a great outflow of praise of 249
his fairness and kind behaviour, for they knew the
with him." Did Philo read or think he read π ε ρ ί for npbs
α υ τ ό ν ?
259
PHILO
ά π α ιδ ε υ σ ία ς η γ ε μ ό ν ω ν ε ίδ ό τ ε ς έ θ α ύ μ α ζ ο ν τ ό ά ν ε π ί-
φ α ν τ ο ν κ α ι ά τ ρ α γ ώ δ η τ ο ν κ α ι ώ ς ε υ θ ύ ς Ιδ ώ ν κ α τ α
τ ή ν π ρ ο τ έ ρ α ν ό δ ό ν ά π ο κ τ ε ΐν α ι δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ς ή τ ό γ ο ϋ ν
τ ε λ ε υ τ α ΐο ν λ ιμ ώ τ τ ο υ σ ι τ ρ ο φ ά ς μ ή π α ρ α σ χ ε ΐν π ρ ο ς
τ ω μ ή τ ιμ ω ρ ή σ α σ θ α ι κ α ι ώ ς χ ά ρ ιτ ο ς ά ξ ίο ις δ ω ρ ε ά ν
έ δ ω κ ε τ ά π ιτ ή δ ε ια τ ή ν τ ιμ ή ν α υ τ ώ ν ά π ο δ ο θ ή ν α ι
250 κ ε λ ε ύ σ α ς . ο ύ τ ω μ έ ν τ ο ι τ ά τ ή ς ε π ιβ ο υ λ ή ς κ α ι
π ρ ά σ ε ω ς ε ις ά π α ν ή γ ν ο ή θ η κ α ι δ ιέ λ α θ ε ν , ώ σ θ * ο ι ε ν
τ έ λ ε ι τ ώ ν Α Ιγ υ π τ ίω ν σ υ ν ή δ ο ν τ ο , ώ ς π ρ ώ τ ο ν ά ρ τ ι
τ ώ ν α δ ε λ φ ώ ν τ ο ύ π ρ ο ε σ τ ώ τ ο ς ή κ ό ν τ ω ν , κ α ι ε π ι
ξ ε ν ία ν έ κ ά λ ο υ ν κ α ι φ θ ά ν ο ν τ ε ς ε ύ η γ γ ε λ ίζ ο ν τ ο τ ώ
β α σ ιλ ε ΐ, κ α ι π ά ν τ α δ ιά π ά ν τ ω ν έ γ ε μ ε χ α ρ ά ς ο ύ κ
έ λ α τ τ ο ν ή ε ϊπ ε ρ ε ύ φ ό ρ η σ ε ν ή π ε δ ιά ς κ α ι ο λ ιμ ό ς ε ις
251 β ύ θ η ν ία ν μ ε τ έ β α λ ε . XLII. γ ν ο ύ ς δ ' ό β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς ,
Ο τ ι κ α ι π α τ ή ρ έ σ τ ιν α ύ τ ώ κ α ί ή γ ε ν ε ά π ο λ υ -
ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ς , π ρ ο τ ρ έ π ε ι /χ β τ α ν α σ τ η ν α ι π α ν ο ικ ϊ τ ή ν
β α θ υ γ ε ιο τ ά τ η ν Α ιγ ύ π τ ο υ μ ο ΐρ α ν ό μ ο λ ο γ ή σ α ς δ ε -
δ ω ρ ή σ θ α ι τ ο ΐς ά φ ιξ ο μ έ ν ο ις . ά π ή ν α ς ο ΰ ν κ α ι ά ρ μ α -
μ ά ξ α ς κ α ι π λ ή θ ο ς υ π ο ζ υ γ ίω ν ε π η χ θ ισ μ έ ν ω ν τ ά π ι-
τ ή δ ε ια δ ίδ ω σ ι τ ο ΐς ά δ ε λ φ ο ΐς κ α ι θ ε ρ α π ε ία ν ίκ α ν ή ν ,
ίν α μ ε τ α σ φ α λ ε ία ς ά γ ά γ ω σ ι τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α .
252 Τ Ια ρ α γ ε ν ο μ έ ν ω ν δ έ κ α ι τ ά π ε ρ ι τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν
ά π ισ τ α κ α ι μ ε ίζ ο ν α ε λ π ίδ ω ν δ ιη γ ο υ μ έ ν ω ν , ο ύ π ά ν υ
π ρ ο σ ε ΐχ ε ' κ α ν γ ά ρ ο ι λ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς ά ξ ιο π ισ τ ό τ α τ ο ι, ά λ λ '
ή γ ε τ ο ύ π ρ ά γ μ α τ ο ς υ π ε ρ β ο λ ή ρ α δ ίω ς σ υ ν α ιν ε ΐν ο ύ κ
253 έ π έ τ ρ ε π ε ν . ιδ ώ ν δ έ ο π ρ ε σ β ύ τ η ς τ ά ς ε ν τ ο ιο ύ τ ω
α
Lit. "the last thing at any rate," i.e. the extreme of
clemency which could be expected. Cohn takes it with
λ ιμ ώ τ τ ο υ σ ι—" in the extremity of famine." The position of
yovv seems to me to be against this. Mangey postea certe^
presumably meaning " at the conclusion of the interview."
260
ON JOSEPH, 249-253
arrogance and gross rudeness of other governors, and
admired the absence of obtrusiveness and bluster-
ing. They remembered how directly he saw them
on their former expedition, though he might have
put them to death or at the very least
a
refused to
provide them with food against the famine, so far
from taking vengeance he treated them as worthy
of his favour and gave them the victuals for nothing
by bidding the price to-
N
be restored to them. In 250
fact the story of their conspiracy and selling of him
to slavery was so completely unknown and remained
so secret that the chiefs of the Egyptians rejoiced to
hear that the brothers of the governor had now for
the first time come to visit him. They invited them
to share their hospitality and hastened to bring the
good news to the king, and universal joy reigned
everywhere, no less than if the fields had borne
fruit and the famine had been changed into abun-
dance. XLII. When the king learned that his 251
viceroy had a father and that his family was very
numerous, he urged that the whole household should
leave its present home, and promised to give the
most fertile part of Egypt to the expected settlers.
He therefore gave the brothers carts and wagons
and a great number of beasts laden with provisions,
and an adequate body of servants, that they might
bring their father safely.
When they arrived home and told the story of 252
their brother, so incredible and beyond anything he
could have hoped for, he gave no heed to them at
all, for, however worthy of credit the speakers might
be, the extravagance of the tale did not allow him
to assent to it readily. But, when the old man saw253
the equipments suited for an occasion of the kind,
261
PHILO
κ α ιρ ώ π α ρ α σ κ ε υ α ς κ α ι χ ο ρ η γ ία ς τ ω ν α ν α γ κ α ίω ν
ά φ θ ο ν ο υ ς τ ο ΐς π ε ρ ι τ ο ύ τ ο ν λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ο ις ε ύ τ υ χ ή μ α σ ι
σ υ ν α δ ο ύ σ α ς ύ μ ν ε ι τ ο ν θ ε ό ν , δ τ ι τ ο δ ο κ ο ύ ν έ κ λ ε λ ο ι-
254 π έ ν α ι μ έ ρ ο ς τ ή ς ο ικ ία ς ά π ε π λ ή ρ ω σ ε ν . ή δ έ χ α ρ ά
κ α ι φ ό β ο ν ε υ θ ύ ς έ γ ε ν ν η σ ε τ ή φ υ χ ή π ε ρ ι τ ή ς τ ώ ν
π α τ ρ ίω ν ε κ δ ια ιτ ή σ ε ω ς * ή δ ε ι γ ά ρ κ α ι ν ε ό τ η τ α
ε ύ ό λ ισ θ ο ν φ ύ σ ε ι κ α ι ξ ε ν ιτ ε ία ς τ ή ν ε ίς τ ό ά μ α ρ τ ά ν ε ιν
ε κ ε χ ε ιρ ία ν κ α ι μ ά λ ισ τ α τ ή ς ε ν Α ίγ ύ π τ ω χ ώ ρ α ς
[77] τ υ φ λ ω τ τ ο ύ σ η ς π ε ρ ι τ ο ν α λ η θ ή θ ε ό ν έ ν ε κ α \ τ ο ϋ
γ ε ν η τ ά κ α ι θ ν η τ ά θ ε ο π λ α σ τ ε ΐν κ α ι π ρ ο σ έ τ ι π λ ο ύ τ ο υ
κ α ι δ ό ξ η ς ε π ιθ έ σ ε ις (α ς )
1
δ λ ιγ ό φ ρ ο σ ι δ ια ν ο ία ις ε π ι-
τ ίθ ε ν τ α ι κ α ι δ ιό τ ι ά π ο λ ε ιφ θ ε ίς , μ η δ ε ν ό ς τ ώ ν έ κ
τ ή ς π α τ ρ ώ α ς ο ικ ία ς σ υ ν ε ξ ε λ η λ υ θ ό τ ο ς
2
σ ω φ ρ ο ν ισ τ ο ϋ ,
μ ό ν ο ς ώ ν κ α ι έ ρ η μ ο ς δ ιδ α σ κ ά λ ω ν α γ α θ ώ ν έ τ ο ιμ ο ς
255 ε σ τ α ι π ρ ό ς τ ή ν τ ώ ν ό θ ν ε ίω ν μ ε τ α β ο λ ή ν . ο ύ τ ω ς
ο ύ ν δ ιά κ ε ίμ ε ν ο ν ίδ ώ ν ω μ ό ν ω δ υ ν α τ ό ν ά ό ρ α τ ο ν
φ υ χ ή ν ό ρ ά ν ε λ ε ο ν λ α μ β ά ν ε ι κ α ι κ ο ιμ ω μ έ ν ω ν ύ κ τ ω ρ
ε π ιφ α ν ε ίς φ η σ ί' " μ η δ έ ν ε ύ λ α β ο ϋ π ε ρ ι τ ή ς ε ίς
Α ϊγ υ π τ ο ν ά φ ίξ ε ω ς * α υ τ ό ς η γ ε μ ο ν ε ύ σ ω τ ή ς ό δ ο ϋ
π α ρ έ χ ω ν τ ή ν ά π ο δ η μ ία ν α σ φ α λ ή κ α ι ε ύ ά ρ ε σ τ ο ν
α π ο δ ώ σ ω μ έ ν τ ο ι κ α ι τ ο ν τ ρ ιπ ό θ η τ ο ν υ ίό ν , δ ς π ο τ ε
τ ε θ ν ά ν α ι ν ο μ ισ θ ε ίς έ κ π ο λ υ ε τ ία ς ο ύ ζ ώ ν μ ό ν ο ν ά λ λ α
κ α ι χ ώ ρ α ς τ ο σ α ύ τ η ς ή γ ε μ ώ ν α ν α φ α ίν ε τ α ι." π λ η ρ ω -
θ ε ίς δ ' ε ύ ε λ π ισ τ ία ς ά μ α τ ή έ ω γ ε γ η θ ώ ς έ π έ σ π ε υ δ ε ν .
256 ο δ ' υ ιό ς ά κ ο υ σ α ς —σ κ ο π ο ί γ ά ρ κ α ι φ ρ α σ τ ή ρ ε ς τ ή ς
ό δ ο ϋ π ά ν τ έ δ ή λ ο υ ν —ο ύ μ α κ ρ ά ν τ ώ ν ο ρ ίω ν α π -
έ χ ο ν τ α
3
δ ιά τ α χ έ ω ν ά π ή ν τ α τ ώ π α τ ρ ί' κ α ι κ α τ ά τ ή ν
κ α λ ο υ μ έ ν η ν 'ΐΐρ ώ ω ν π ό λ ιν έ ν τ υ χ ό ν τ ε ς έ π ιπ ίπ τ ο υ σ ιν
1
My insertion. The sentence evidently needs correction,
which Cohn would make by expunging ε π ιτ ίθ ε ν τ α ι.
2
Most MSS. σ υ ν ε ζ ε \η \υ θ 6τ ω ν or one έ ξ ε \η \ν θ 6τ ο %.
3
So MSS., Cohn, and Mangey; but? ά π έ χ ο ν τ ι.
262
ON JOSEPH, 253-256
and that the lavish supplies of all that was needed
agreed with the story they told him of his son, he
praised God that He had filled the seeming gap in his
house. But joy also straightway begat fear in his 254
soul at the thought of leaving his ancestral way of
life. For he knew how natural it is for youth to lose
its footing and what licence to sin belongs to the
stranger's life, particularly in Egypt where things
created and mortal are deified, and in consequence
the land is blind to the true God. He knew what
assaults wealth and renown make on minds of little
sense, and that left to himself, since his father's house
supplied no monitor to share his journey, alone and
cut off from good teaching, he would be readily
influenced to change to alien ways. Such were his 255
feelings when He Whose eye alone can see the
invisible soul took pity, and in his sleep at night
appeared to him and said, "Fear not to go to Egypt.
I Myself will guide thee on the road and make the
journey safe and to thy pleasure. Further, I will
restore to thee the son for whom thou hast so greatly
yearned,
a
who once was thought dead, but now, after
many years, is found not only alive but a ruler of that
great country." Then, filled with high hopes, he
hastened at dawn to set forth rejoicing. But his son 256
when he heard it, informed of all by the scouts who
watched the road, proceeded with all speed to meet
his father when he was not far from the boundary.
And when the two met at the place called the Heroes'
° Gen. xlvi. 4 " and Joseph shall put his hands upon thine
eyes," Did Philo fail to understand this phrase, which does
not occur again in the LXX ? The idea of closing the eyes of
the dead, otherwise expressed, was of course familiar to him
in the classics, cf. § 23 above.
263
PHILO
ά λ λ ή λ ο ι,ς τ ά ς κ ε φ ά λ α ς έ π ι τ ώ ν α υ χ έ ν ω ν έ ρ ε ίσ α ν τ ε ς
κ α ι τ ά ς έ σ θ ή τ α ς δ ά κ ρ υ σ ι φ ύ ρ ο ν τ ε ς π ο λ υ χ ρ ο ν ίω ν
ά σ π α σ μ ά τ ω ν ά π λ ή σ τ ω ς ε ν ε φ ο ρ ο ΰ ν τ ο κ α ι μ ό λ ις
257 π α υ σ ά μ ε ν ο ι σ υ ν ε τ ε ιν ο ν ά χ ρ ι τ ώ ν β α σ ιλ ε ίω ν , θ ε α σ ά -
μ ε ν ο ς δ έ ό β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς κ α ι τ ή ν Ο ψ ιν κ α τ α π λ α γ ε ίς τ ή ς
σ ε μ ν ό τ α τ ο ς ώ ς ο ύ χ υ π ά ρ χ ο υ π α τ έ ρ α ά λ λ ' έ α υ τ ο ϋ
μ ε τ ά π ά σ η ς α ίδ ο ϋ ς κ α ι τ ιμ ή ς έ δ ε ξ ιο ΰ τ ο * κ α ι μ ε τ ά
τ ά ς έ ν έ θ ε ι κ α ι ε ξ α ίρ ε τ ο υ ς φ ιλ ο φ ρ ο σ ύ ν α ς δ ίδ ω σ ιν
α ύ τ ω γ ή ς ά π ο τ ο μ ή ν ά ρ ε τ ώ σ α ν κ α ι σ φ ό δ ρ α ε ύ κ α ρ π ο ν ,
τ ο ύ ς τ ε υ ιο ύ ς α ύ τ ο ΰ π υ ν θ α ν ό μ έ ν ο ς ε ίν α ι κ τ η ν ο -
τ ρ ό φ ο υ ς τ ή ν π ο λ λ ή ν ο ύ σ ία ν έ χ ο ν τ α ς έ ν θ ρ έ μ μ α σ ι
κ α θ ίσ τ η σ ιν έ π ιμ ε λ η τ ά ς τ ώ ν ίδ ιω ν α ίπ ό λ ια κ α ι β ο υ -
κ ό λ ια κ α ι π ο ίμ ν α ς κ α ι μ υ ρ ία ς ό σ α ς ά γ έ λ α ς έ γ χ ε ιρ ίσ α ς
α ύ τ ο ΐς .
258 XLIII. Ό δ έ ν ε α ν ία ς τ ο σ α ύ τ η π ίσ τ ε ω ς έ χ ρ ή σ α τ ο
υ π ε ρ β ο λ ή , ώ σ τ ε τ ώ ν κ α ιρ ώ ν κ α ι τ ώ ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν
ε ίς ά ρ γ υ ρ ισ μ ό ν π α ρ ε χ ό ν τ ω ν π λ ε ίσ τ α ς ό σ α ς ά φ ο ρ μ ά ς ,
δ υ ν η θ ε ίς δ ι ' ο λ ίγ ο υ π λ ο υ σ ιώ τ α τ ο ς τ ώ ν κ α τ
9
α υ τ ό ν
γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι, τ ό ν γ ν ή σ ιο ν ώ ς α λ η θ ώ ς π ρ ο τ ο ΰ ν ό θ ο υ
π λ ο ΰ τ ο ν κ α ι τ ό ν β λ έ π ο ν τ α π ρ ο τ ο ΰ τ υ φ λ ο ύ θ α υ μ ά σ α ς
ά π α ν τ α τ ό ν ά ρ γ υ ρ ο ν κ α ι χ ρ υ σ ό ν , ό σ ο ν έ κ τ ή ς τ ιμ ή ς
ή θ ρ ο ισ ε τ ο ΰ σ ίτ ο υ , έ ν τ ο ΐς β α σ ιλ έ ω ς έ θ η σ α υ ρ ίζ ε τ ο
τ α μ ιε ίο ις ο ύ δ ε μ ία ν δ ρ α χ μ ή ν ν ο σ φ ισ ά μ ε ν ο ς , ά λ λ ά
μ ό ν α ις α ρ κ ε σ θ ε ίς τ α ΐς δ ω ρ ε α ΐς , α ΐς α μ ε ιβ ό μ ε ν ο ς
259 ε κ ε ίν ο ς ά ν τ ε χ α ρ ίζ ε τ ο . κ α θ ά π ε ρ τ ε ο ίκ ία ν μ ία ν
α
So LXX. E.V. Goshen.
b
§§ 258-260 are a very free version of Gen. xlvii. 13-26.
Joseph's honesty is deduced from verse 14 " Joseph brought
264
ON JOSEPH, 256-259
City
a
they laid their heads upon each other's neck
and while the tears smeared their raiment lingered
long in embraces of which they could not take their
fill, and, when at last they brought themselves to
cease therefrom, pressed onwards to the king's court.
When the king beheld him, overcome by his vener- 257
able appearance, he welcomed him with all modesty
and respect, as though he were the father not of his
viceroy but of himself. And, after the usual, and
more than the usual, courtesies had passed, he gave
him a portion of land, rich of soil and very fruitful.
And, learning that the sons were graziers who had
much substance of cattle, he appointed them keepers
of his own, and put into their charge flocks and
herds innumerable of goats and oxen and sheep.
XLIII.
b
Now the young man's honesty was ex- 258
ceedingly great, so much so that, though the times
and state of affairs gave him very numerous oppor-
tunities for gaining wealth, and he might have soon
become the richest of his contemporaries, his rever-
ence for the truly genuine riches rather than the
spurious, the seeing rather than the blind, led him
to store up in the king's treasuries all the silver and
gold which he collected from the sale of corn and
refuse to appropriate to himself a single drachma,
contented with nothing more than the gifts with
which the king repaid his services. The excellence 259
all the money into Pharaoh's house." Philo omits the stages
by which the property and land of the Egyptians passed
into the king's hand, and the tax of one-fifth of the produce
imposed upon them. That the gift of seed was only made in
the seventh year of the famine might be fairly inferred from
the LXX in verse 24 " and the land shall have its produce "
(£<rr<u δ έ -γ ε ν ν ή μ α τ α α υ τ ή ς ). The appointment of overseers has
no parallel in Genesis.
265
PHILO
Α ϊγ υ π τ ο ν κ α ϊ σ υ ν α υ τ ή χ ώ ρ α ς ε τ έ ρ α ς κ α ϊ έ θ ν η
π ιε σ θ έ ν τ α τ ώ Χ ιμ ώ π α ν τ ό ς Χ ό γ ο υ κ ρ ε ΐτ τ ο ν έ π ε τ ρ ό -
π ε υ σ ε ν ο ά ν ή ρ ο ύ τ ο ς κ α τ ά τ ό π ρ έ π ο ν δ ια ν έ μ ω ν τ ά ς
τ ο φ ά ς κ α ι α φ ο ρ ώ ν ο υ κ ε ις τ ό π α ρ ό ν μ ό ν ο ν Χ υ σ ι-
τ ε Χ έ ς α λ λ ά κ α ϊ τ ή ν π ρ ό ς τ ό μ έ Χ λ ο ν ώ φ έ Χ ε ια ν .
260 ή ν ίκ α γ ο ΰ ν ό έ β δ ο μ ο ς έ ν ια υ τ ό ς τ ή ς έ ν δ ε ια ς έ ν έ σ τ η ,
[ 78] μ ε τ α π ε μ φ ά μ ε ν ο ς τ ο υ ς γ ε ω ρ γ ο ύ ς —ή δ η γ ά ρ \ τ ή ς
ε υ φ ο ρ ία ς κ α ϊ ε ύ θ η ν ία ς έ Χ π ις ή ν —έ δ ίδ ο υ κ ρ ιθ ά ς τ ε
κ α ι π ύ ρ ο υ ς ε ίς σ π έ ρ μ α τ α φ ρ ο ν τ ίσ α ς τ ο ϋ μ η δ έ ν α
ν ο σ φ ίσ α σ θ α ι κ α τ α θ ε ΐν α ι δ έ
1
ε ίς τ ά ς ά ρ ο ύ ρ α ς α
έ Χ α β ε ν , ό π τ ή ρ α ς κ α ι ε φ ό ρ ο υ ς έ π ιΧ έ ζ α ς ά ρ ισ τ ίν δ η ν ,
ο ι τ ή ν σ π ο ρ ά ν π α ρ α φ υ λ ά ξ ο υ σ ι.
261 Μ ε τ ά δ ε τ ο ν Χ ιμ ό ν χ ρ ό ν ο ις μ α κ ρ ο ΐς ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν
τ ε Χ ε υ τ ή σ α ν τ ο ς τ ο ϋ π α τ ρ ό ς , ύ π ο ν ο ία π Χ η χ θ έ ν τ ε ς
ο ι α δ ε λ φ ο ί κ α ι δ ε ίσ α ν τ ε ς , μ ή τ ι χ α Χ ε π ό ν π ά θ ω σ ι
μ ν η σ ικ α κ ία ,
2
π ρ ο σ ε Χ θ ό ν τ ε ς έ δ έ ο ν τ ο Χ ιπ α ρ ώ ς έ π -
262 α γ ό μ ε ν ο ι γ υ ν α ίκ α ς κ α ι γ ε ν ε ά ν . ό δ ' έ π ιδ α κ ρ ύ σ α ς
φ η σ ίν " ο μ έ ν κ α ιρ ό ς ικ α ν ό ς ύ π ό ν ο ια ν κ α τ α σ κ ε υ ά -
σ α ι τ ο ις α φ ό ρ η τ α ε ρ γ α σ α μ έ ν ο ις κ α ι μ ή δ ι ' ε τ έ ρ ο υ
μ ά Χ Χ ο ν ή τ ο ϋ σ υ ν ε ιδ ό τ ο ς έ λ ε γ χ ο μ έ ν ο ις · ή γ ά ρ
τ ε Χ ε υ τ ή τ ο ϋ π α τ ρ ό ς τ ο ν ά ρ χ α ΐο ν φ ό β ο ν , δ ν π ρ ο τ ώ ν
κ α τ α Χ λ α γ ώ ν ε ΐχ ε τ ε , κ ε κ α ίν ω κ ε ν , ώ ς τ ο ϋ μ ή Χ υ π ή σ α ι
τ ο ν π α τ έ ρ α χ ά ρ ιν τ ή ν ά μ ν η σ τ ία ν έ μ ο ϋ π α ρ ά σ χ ο ν τ ο ς .
263 ε γ ώ δ έ τ ο ν τ ρ ό π ο ν ο ύ χ ρ ό ν ο ις μ ε τ α β ά λ λ ο μ α ι ο ύ δ '
ό μ ο λ ο γ ή σ α ς έ ν σ π ο ν δ ο ς ε ίν α ι δ ρ ά σ ω π ο τ έ τ ά ά -
σ π ο ν δ α * ο ύ γ ά ρ υ π ε ρ θ έ σ ε ις α μ ύ ν η ς έ κ α ιρ ο φ υ λ ά κ ο υ ν ,
ά λ λ ά τ ή ν ε ίς ά π α ν ά π α λ λ α γ ή ν τ ή ς κ ο λ ά σ ε ω ς έ χ α ρ ι-
ζ ό μ η ν έ π ιν έ μ ω ν τ ό μ έ ν τ ι τ ιμ ή τ ο ϋ π α τ ρ ό ς —δ ε ι γ ά ρ
ά φ ε υ δ ε ΐν —, τ ό δ έ τ ι ε ύ ν ο ια τ ή π ρ ό ς υ μ ά ς α ν α γ κ α ία .
1
So Mangey: Cohn and MSS. κ α τ α θ ε ΐν α ι τ ε .
2
MSS. μ ν η σ ικ α κ ία ς .
266 .
ON JOSEPH, 259-264
with which he managed Egypt, as though it were a
single household, and also the other famine-stricken
lands and nations was beyond all words, and he dis-
pensed the lands and food as was suitable, looking not
only to present profit but also to future advantage.
Accordingly, when the seventh year of dearth came, 260
having now reason to hope for plentiful harvests, he
sent for the farmers and gave them barley and wheat
as seed, and at the same time, to ensure that no one
should embezzle it instead of putting it in the fields,
he appointed men of high merit as inspectors and
supervisors to watch the sowing.
a
Many years after the famine his father died, and 261
his brothers, attacked by misgivings and fears that
he might still harbour malice and wreak his vengeance
on them, approached him with their wives and families
and made earnest supplication. But he, moved to 262
tears, said : " The occasion might well raise mis-
givings in those whom conscience rather than others
convicts of intolerable misdoing. My father's death
has awakened the old fear which you felt before
our reconciliation, with the idea that I gave you my
pardon only to save my father from sorrow. But time
does not change my character, nor, after promising to
keep the peace with you, will I ever violate it by my
actions. I was not watching for the hour of vengeance 263
repeatedly delayed, but I freely granted you im-
munity from punishment once for all, partly no
doubt influenced, for I must tell the truth, by respect
for my father, but partly by the goodwill which I
cannot but feel towards you. And, even if it were 264
tt
For §§ 261-268 see Gen. 1. 15-end.
VOL. VI
κ
267
PHILO
a
Cohn places the comma after φ ύ σ ε ι, "will live proof
against old age in an immortal existence with a soul," etc.
268
264 el δ έ κ α ϊ π α τ ρ ό ς έ ν ε κ α π ά ν τ έ π ο ίο υ ν τ ά χ ρ η σ τ ά κ α ι
φ ιλ ά ν θ ρ ω π α , φ υ λ ά ξ ω τ α ύ τ α κ α ι π α τ ρ ό ς
1
τ β τ β λ ε υ -
τ η κ ό τ ο ς * τ έ θ ν η κ ε δ ' ο υ δ β ^ π α ρ
9
έ μ ο ι κ ρ ιτ ή τ ώ ν
α γ α θ ώ ν α ν δ ρ ώ ν , ά λ λ α κ α ι ζ ή σ ε τ α ι τ ο ν aei χ ρ ό ν ο ν
ά γ ή ρ ω ς , ά θ α ν ά τ ω φ ύ σ €ΐ φ ν χ ή μ η κ έ τ ι τ α ΐς σ ώ μ α τ ο ς
265 ά ν ά γ κ α ις έ ν δ ε δ ε μ έ ν η . τ ί δ έ δ ε ι μ ό ν ο υ μ € ν ή σ θ α ι
τ ο ΰ γ €ν η τ ο ΰ π α τ ρ ό ς ; ε χ ο μ ε ν τ ό ν ά γ έ ν η τ ο ν , τ ό ν
ά φ θ α ρ τ ο ν , τ ό ν ά ίδ ιο ν , " δ ς έ φ ο ρ α π ά ν τ α κ α ι π ά ν τ ω ν
ε π α κ ο ύ ε ι " κ α ι τ ώ ν ή σ υ χ α ζ ό ν τ ω ν , τ ό ν ά ε ι β λ έ π ο ν τ α
κ α ι τ ά iv μ υ χ ο ΐς τ ή ς δ ια ν ο ία ς , δ ν μ ά ρ τ υ ρ α κ α λ ώ
266 τ ο ΰ σ υ ν €ΐδ ό τ ο ς έ π
9
ά φ ε υ δ έ σ ι κ α τ α λ λ α γ α ΐς . έ γ ώ
γ α ρ , κ α ι μ ή θ α υ μ ά σ η τ έ μ ο υ τ ό ν λ ό γ ο ν , τ ο ΰ θ ε ο ΰ
€ΐμ ι τ ο ΰ τ ά π ο ν η ρ ά β oυ λ eύ μ aτ a υ μ ώ ν ε ίς α γ α θ ώ ν
π € ιο υ σ ία ν μ ε θ α ρ μ ο σ α μ έ ν ο υ . γ ίν ε σ θ ε ο δ ν ά φ ο β ο ι
κ α ι π ρ ό ς τ ό μ έ λ λ ο ν χ ρ η σ ιμ ω τ έ ρ ω ν μ ε θ έ ξ ο ν τ ε ς ή
267 ζ ώ ν τ ο ς έ τ ι τ ο ΰ π α τ ρ ό ς έ κ α ρ π ο ΰ σ θ €." XLIV. τ ο ι-
ο ύ τ ο ις θ α ρ σ ύ ν α ς τ ο ύ ς ά δ €φ ο ύ ς λ ό γ ο ις , έ ρ γ ο ις τ ά ς
ύ π ο σ χ έ σ €ΐς έ β ε β α ίο υ μ ά λ λ ο ν ο υ δ έ ν π α ρ α λ ιπ ώ ν τ ώ ν
ε ις έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν . μ ε τ ά δ έ τ ό ν λ ιμ ό ν , έ π
9
ε ύ θ η ν ία κ α ι ε ύ ε τ η ρ ία τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς ή δ η γ ε γ η θ ό τ ω ν
τ ώ ν ο ίκ η τ ό ρ ω ν , έ τ ιμ ά τ ο π ρ ό ς α π ά ν τ ω ν ά μ ο ιβ ά ς
ά ν τ € τ ιν ό ν τ ω ν υ π έ ρ ώ ν ε ΰ π ε π ό ν θ ε σ α ν έ ν κ α ιρ ο ΐς
268 ά β ο υ λ ή τ ο ις . ή δ έ φ ή μ η ρ υ ε ΐσ α τ ά ς έ ξ η ς π ό λ €ΐς
κ α τ έ π λ η σ € τ ή ς έ π ι τ ώ δ ε τ ώ ά ν δ ρ ΐ ε ύ κ λ ε ία ς . έ τ η
δ έ β ιώ σ α ς δ έ κ α π ρ ό ς τ ο ΐς ε κ α τ ό ν έ τ ε λ ε ύ τ η σ ε ν
ε ΰ γ η ρ ω ς έ π
9
ά κ ρ ο ν έ λ θ ώ ν ε ύ μ ο ρ φ ία ς κ α ι φ ρ ο ν ή -
269 σ €ω ς κ α ι λ ό γ ω ν δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς , μ α ρ τ υ ρ ε ί δ έ τ ό μ έ ν
1
MSS. irpos (or omit): some have τ ε τ ε λ ε ν τ η κ ό τ α for -ό τ ο ς .
ON JOSEPH, 264-269
for my father's sake that I acted with this kindness
and humanity, I will continue in the same now that
he is gone. In my judgement, no good man is dead,
but will live for ever, proof against old age,
a
with a
soul immortal in its nature no longer fettered by the
restraints of the body. But why should I mention 265
that father who is but a creature ? We have the
uncreated Father, the Imperishable, the Eternal,
" Who surveys all things and hears all things,"
b
even
when no word is spoken, He Who ever sees into the
recesses of the mind, Whom I call as witness to my
conscience, which affirms that that was no false
reconciliation. For I,—do not marvel at my words, 266
—belong to God
c
Who converted your evil schemes
into a superabundance of blessings. Rid yourselves,
then, of fear, since in the future greater advantage
will fall to your share than you enjoyed while our
father was still alive." XLIV. With such words he 267
encouraged his brothers, and by his actions he con-
firmed his promises, leaving nothing undone which
could shew his care for their interests.
But, after the famine, when the inhabitants were
now rejoicing in the prosperity and fertility of the
land, he was honoured by them all, who thus re-
quited the benefits which they had received from
him in the times of adversity. And rumour, float- 268
ing into the neighbouring states, filled them with
his renown. He died in a goodly old age, having
lived 110 years, unsurpassed in comeliness, wisdom
and power of language. His personal beauty is 269
b
II. iii. 277, Od. xi. 109, xii. 323 6s τ τ ά ν τ έ φ ο ρ α κ α ι τ τ ά ν τ
έ π α κ ο ύ ε ι (of the sun).
e
So LXX. (Gen. 1. 19). E. V. " Am I in the place of God
(to punish you) ? " Philo has made use of the text in the same
sense De Mig. 22 and 160, De Som. ii. 107.
269
PHILO
[ 79] κ ά λ λ ο ς τ ο υ σ ώ μ α τ ο ς έ ρ ω ς δ ς έ ζ έ μ η ν ε ν \ έ π * α ύ τ ώ
γ υ ν α ίκ α , τ ή ν δ έ σ ύ ν α σ ιν ή iv τ α ΐς ά μ υ θ ή τ ο ις τ ώ ν
κ α τ ά τ ο ν β ίο ν ά ν ω μ α λ ία ις ό μ α λ ό τ η ς α ύ α ρ μ ο σ τ ία ν
τ ο ΐς ά ν α ρ μ ό σ τ ο ις κ α ί σ υ μ φ ω ν ία ν τ ο ΐς i£ α υ τ ώ ν
ά σ υ μ φ ώ ν ο ις έ ρ γ α σ α μ έ ν η , τ ή ν δ έ τ ώ ν λ ό γ ω ν δ ύ ν α -
μ ιν ή τ € τ ώ ν ό ν α ιρ ά τ ω ν δ ιά κ ρ ισ ις κ α ί ή iv τ α ΐς
ό μ ιλ ία ις α ύ έ π ε ια κ α ί ή π α ρ α κ ο λ ο υ θ ή σ α σ α π ε ιθ ώ , δ ι
ή ν ο ύ δ ά ς τ ώ ν α ρ χ ο μ έ ν ω ν α ν ά γ κ η μ ά λ λ ο ν ή ε κ ώ ν
270 ύ π ή κ ο υ ε . τ ο ύ τ ω ν δ έ τ ώ ν έ ν ια υ τ ώ ν έ π τ α κ α ίδ ε κ α
μ έ ν ά χ ρ ι μ ε ιρ α κ ίο υ δ ιέ τ ρ ιβ ε ν iv τ ή π α τ ρ ώ α ο ικ ία ,
τ ρ ισ κ α ίδ ε κ α δ ' iv τ α ΐς ά β ο υ λ ή τ ο ις σ υ ν τ υ χ ία ις , έ π ι-
β ο υ λ ε υ ό μ έ ν ο ς , π ιπ ρ α σ κ ό μ ε ν ο ς , δ ο υ λ ζ ύ ω ν , σ υ κ ο φ α ν -
τ ο ύ μ β ν ο ς , iv δ ε σ μ ω τ η ρ ίω κ α τ α δ ο ύ μ α ν ό ς , τ ο ύ ς δ '
ά λ λ ο υ ς ό γ δ ο ή κ ο ν τ α iv η γ ε μ ο ν ία κ α ί ε ύ π ρ α γ ία τ ή
π ά σ η , λ ιμ ο ύ κ α ί ε ύ θ η ν ία ς έ φ ο ρ ο ς κ α ί β ρ α β ε υ τ ή ς
ά ρ ισ τ ο ς , τ ά π ρ ο ς έ κ ά τ ε ρ ο ν κ α ιρ ό ν π ρ υ τ α ν ε ύ ε ιν
ίκ α ν ώ τ α τ ο ς .
270
ON JOSEPH, 269-270
attested by the furious passion which a woman con-
ceived for him ; his good sense by the equable
temper he shewed amid the numberless inequali-
ties of his life, a temper which created order in dis-
order and concord where all was naturally discordant;
his power of language by his interpretations of
the dreams and the fluency of his addresses and
the persuasiveness which accompanied them, which
secured him the obedience, not forced but voluntary,
of every one of his subjects. Of these years he spent 270
seventeen up to adolescence in his father's house,
thirteen in painful misfortunes, the victim of con-
spiracy, sold into slavery, falsely accused, chained in
a prison, and the other eighty as a ruler and in
complete prosperity, a most admirable supervisor and
arbiter in times both of famine and plenty, and most
capable of presiding over the requirements of both.
271
f
MOSES I
(DE VI TA MOSIS)
I NTRODUCTI ON TO DE VITA MOSIS I AND II
THE first of these two
α
treatises covers, as is stated at the
beginning of the second, the early life and education of
Moses and the main facts of his work as Ki ng; that is, as
the leader of the Israelites in their escape from Egypt and
adventures in the wilderness. It runs on very straight-
forwardly and does not call for any detailed analysis.
There is only one attempt at allegory, viz. the reflections
on the meaning of the vision of the Burning Bush.
6
The second treatise is far more complicated. It treats
the character of Moses under three heads, the legislative,
the high-priestly and the prophetic, a method which
necessarily precludes any chronological arrangement. The
first division as it stands
0
begins with some general
remarks on the need of these three qualifications as adjuncts
to the ideal king (1-11), and proceeds to base the glory of
Moses as a legislator first on the permanence of his laws
(12-16), secondly on the respect paid to them by other
nations (17-24) in support of which he adds an account of
the making of the Septuagint (25-44). To these is to be
added the greatness of the law-book itself, but this passes
away into a justification of the scheme by which the
a
Treated by all MSS. and all editions before Cohn as
three; the second ending at § 65. This is almost certainly
erroneous. Philo in De Virt. 52 speaks of two books, and the
concluding words of ii. 1 ή ν Be ν υ ν σ υ ν τ ά τ τ ο μ ε ν irepl τ ώ ν
ε π ο μ έ ν ω ν κ α ι α κ ο λ ο ύ θ ω ν , if considered in connexion with the
sequel, clearly imply the same.
* This is hardly an allegory in the usual sense. The vision
is interpreted not in any spiritual or theological way, but
as a figure of the nation's condition at the time. Contrast
with De Fuga, 161 if.
c
On the question whether something has been lost see
App. p. 606.
274
ON MOSES I AND II
l egi sl at i ve el ement i s preceded b y t he hi s t o r i c a l , and t hi s is
f o l l o wed b y a di sser t at i o n o n ho w t h e hi st o r i cal pa r t
records t h e puni s hme nt o f t h e wi c k e d and t h e sal vat i o n o f
t h e g o o d , t h i s l ast i n c l u d i n g a det ai l ed account o f No a h and
t he A r k ( 45-65) .
I n t h e second di v i s i o n t h e di scussi on o f Moses as pr i est
l eads t o a det ai l ed descr i pt i o n o f t he t aber nacl e and i t s
appur t enances (66-108 and 136-140), t h e pr i est ' s vest ur e
w i t h i t s s y mb o l i s m ( 109-135) , t he a ppo i n t me n t o f t he
pr i est s a nd Levi t es (141-158) and t hi s l ast t o an account
o f t h e pa r t pl a y e d b y t he Levi t es i n pu n i s h i n g t he i d o l a t r y
o f t h e Go l den Ca l f ( 159-173) , and finally o f t he v i n d i c a t i o n
o f t h e s u pe r i o r i t y o f t he pr i est s b y t h e bl ossomi ng o f
Aa r o n ' s r o d ( 174-186) .
Th e t h i r d di v i s i o n t r e a t i n g o f Moses as pr o phe t is
subdi vi ded a c c o r di ng as hi s pr o no uncement s are made
f r o m an oracl e gi v e n i n answer t o hi s quest i o n or f r o m hi s
o wn pr o phe t i c i n s pi r a t i o n ( 181-191) . F o u r ex ampl es are
gi v e n o f e a c h : o f t h e f o r me r , (a) t he sent ence on t he
bl asphemer ( 192-208) , (b) o n t h e Sabbat h-br eaker ( 209-220) ,
(c) speci al r egul at i o ns as t o t he Passover (221-232), (d) t he
l a w o f i nhe r i t a nc e (233-245). As ex ampl es o f t he l a t t e r he
gi ves Moses' pr opheci es (a) o f t he de s t r uc t i o n o f t he
Eg y pt i a n s ( 246-257) , (b) o f t he ma nna ( 258-269) , (c) o f t he
sl aught er o f t h e i do l at er s (270-274)
a
and (d) t he dest r uct i o n
o f Ko r a h and hi s co mpani o ns ( 275 - 28 7) . Th e t r eat i se ends
w i t h a f e w sect i ons a bo ut t he end o f Moses. Al t o g e t h e r
t he t wo books, bet ween t h e m, cover mo st o f t he s t o r y o f
Moses as gi v e n i n t he Pe nt a t e uc h, t h e o n l y r eal l y seri ous
omi ssi on be i ng t h a t o f t h e t he o pha ny o n Si n a i .
6
*
 
No t ed however b y Phi l o hi msel f as an ex hor t at i on r at her
t han a pr ophecy.
6
Thi s wo ul d be more i nt el l i gi bl e i f one mi g h t suppose t hat
t he L i f e o f Moses was, f r o m t he first, i nt ended t o be an
i nt egr al pa r t o f t he Ex po si t i o n (see Gen. I n t r o d . pp. x v f . ) ,
since t he st or y o f Si nai is t reat ed at consi derabl e l engt h
i n De Decal. 32 i f .
Ot her omissions are Jet hr o' s vi si t t o Moses, t he deat h o f
Aa r o n , and t he appo i nt ment o f Joshua as successor. Phi l o
hi msel f r emar ks o n hi s omi ssi on o f t he l ast i n De Virt. 52 i f .
275
Π Ε Ρ Ι TOT Β Ι Ο Τ Μ Ω Τ Σ Ε Ω Σ
Λ Ο Γ Ο Σ Π Ρ Ω Τ Ο Σ
^ 1 I. Μ ω ν σ έ ω ς τ ο ν κ α τ ά μ έ ν τ ιν α ς ν ο μ ο θ έ τ ο ν τ ώ ν
Ι ο υ δ α ίω ν , κ α τ ά δ έ τ ιν α ς έ ρ μ η ν έ ω ς ν ό μ ω ν ιε ρ ώ ν ,
τ ό ν β ίο ν ά ν α γ ρ ά φ α ι δ ιε ν ο ή θ η ν , α ν δ ρ ό ς τ ά π ά ν τ α
μ ε γ ίσ τ ο υ κ α ι τ ε λ ε ιο τ ά τ ο ν , κ α ι γ ν ώ ρ ιμ ο ν τ ο ΐς ά ζ ίο ις
2 μ ή ά γ ν ο ε ΐν α υ τ ό ν ά π ο φ ή ν α ι. τ ώ ν μ έ ν γ ά ρ ν ό μ ω ν
τ ό κ λ έ ο ς , ο ν ς ά π ο λ έ λ ο ιπ ε , δ ιά π ά σ η ς τ ή ς ο ίκ ο ν -
μ έ ν η ς π ε φ ο ιτ η κ ό ς ά χ ρ ι κ α ι τ ώ ν τ ή ς γ ή ς τ ε ρ μ ά τ ω ν
έ φ θ α κ ε ν , α ν τ ό ν δ έ ό σ τ ις ή ν έ π * α λ η θ ε ία ς ϊσ α σ ιν ο ύ
π ο λ λ ο ί, δ ια φ θ ό ν ο ν Ισ ω ς κ α ι έ ν ο ύ κ ο λ ίγ ο ις τ ώ ν δ ια -
τ ε τ α γ μ έ ν ω ν ύ π ό τ ώ ν κ α τ ά π ό λ ε ις ν ο μ ο θ ε τ ώ ν έ ν α ν -
τ ίω σ ιν ο ύ κ έ θ ε λ η σ ά ν τ ω ν α υ τ ό ν μ ν ή μ η ς ά ξ ιώ σ α ι τ ώ ν
3 π α ρ
9
"Έ λ λ η σ ι λ ο γ ίω ν ώ ν ο ί π λ ε ίο ν ς τ ά ς δ ν ν ά μ ε ις
α ς έ σ χ ο ν δ ιά π α ιδ ε ία ς ύ β ρ ισ α ν έ ν τ ε π ο ιή μ α σ ι κ α ι
[ 81] τ ο ΐς κ α τ α λ ο γ ά δ η ν \ σ ν γ γ ρ ά μ μ α σ ι κ ω μ ω δ ία ς κ α ι
σ ν β α ρ ιτ ικ ά ς α σ έ λ γ ε ια ς σ ν ν θ έ ν τ ε ς , π ε ρ ιβ ό η τ ο ν α ί-
σ χ ύ ν η ν , ο ν ς έ δ ε ι τ α ΐς φ ύ σ ε σ ι κ α τ α χ ρ ή σ α σ θ α ι π ρ ό ς
τ ή ν τ ώ ν α γ α θ ώ ν α ν δ ρ ώ ν τ ε κ α ι β ίω ν ν φ ή γ η σ ιν , Ιν α
μ ή τ ε τ ι κ α λ ό ν ή σ ν χ ία π α ρ α δ ο θ έ ν ά ρ χ α ΐο ν ή ν έ ο ν
ά φ α ν ισ θ ή λ ά μ ψ α Ί Γ δ ϋ ν ά μ ε ν ο ν μ ή τ α ύ τ ά ς ά μ ε ίν ο ν ς
υ π ο θ έ σ ε ις π α ρ ε λ θ ό ν τ ε ς τ ά ς ά ν α ξ ίο ν ς α κ ο ή ς π ρ ο -
κ ρ ΐν α ι δ ο κ ώ σ ι σ π ο ν δ ά ζ ο ν τ ε ς τ ά κ α κ ά κ α λ ώ ς ά π -
4 α γ γ έ λ λ ε ιν ε ίς ο ν ε ιδ ώ ν έ π ιφ ά ν ε ια ν . ά λ λ ' ε 'γ ω γ ε τ ή ν
276
ON THE LIFE OF MOSES, BOOK I
I. I purpose to write the life of Moses, whom some 1
describe as the legislator of the Jews, others as the
interpreter of the Holy Laws. I hope to bring the
story of this greatest and most perfect of men to
the knowledge of such as deserve not to remain in
ignorance of it; for, while the fame of the laws 2
which he left behind him has travelled throughout
the civilized world and reached the ends of the earth,
the man himself as he really was is known to few.
Greek men of letters have refused to treat him as
worthy of memory, possibly through envy, and also
because in many cases the ordinances of the legis-
lators of the different states are opposed to his. Most 3
of these authors have abused the powers which edu-
cation gave them, by composing in verse or prose
comedies and pieces of voluptuous licence, to their
widespread disgrace, when they should have used
their natural gifts to the full on the lessons taught
by good men and their lives. In this way they might
have ensured that nothing of excellence, old or new,
should be consigned to oblivion and to the extinc-
tion of the light which it could give, and also save
themselves from seeming to neglect the better
themes and prefer others unworthy of attention, in
which all their efforts to express bad matter in good
language served to confer distinction on shameful
277
PHILO
278
0
For §§ 5-17 see Ex. ii. 1-10.
τ ο ύ τ ω ν β α σ κ α ν ία ν υ π ε ρ β ά ς τ ά π ε ρ ι τ ο ν ά ν δ ρ α
μ η ν ύ σ ω μ α θ ώ ν α υ τ ά κ ά κ β ίβ λ ω ν τ ώ ν ιε ρ ώ ν , α ς
θ α υ μ ά σ ια μ ν η μ ε ία τ ή ς α ύ τ ο ϋ σ ο φ ία ς ά π ο λ ε λ ο ιπ ε ,
κ α ι π α ρ ά τ ίν ω ν ά π ό τ ο ϋ έ θ ν ο υ ς π ρ ε σ β υ τ έ ρ ω ν
τ ά γ ά ρ λ ε γ ό μ ε ν α τ ο ις ά ν α γ ιν ω σ κ ο μ έ ν ο ις ά ε ι σ υ ν -
ύ φ α ιν ο ν κ α ι δ ιά τ ο ϋ τ έ δ ο ξ α μ ά λ λ ο ν ε τ έ ρ ω ν τ ά π ε ρ ι
τ ο ν β ίο ν ά κ ρ ιβ ώ σ α ι.
ο II. "Α ρ ξ ο μ α ι δ ' ά φ ' ο ύ π ε ρ ά ν α γ κ α ΐο ν ά ρ ξ α σ θ α ι.
Μ ω υ σ ή ς γ έ ν ο ς μ έ ν έ σ τ ι Χ α λ δ α ΐο ς , έ γ ε ν ν ή θ η δ ' έ ν
Α ίγ ύ π τ ω κ α ι έ τ ρ ά φ η , τ ώ ν π ρ ο γ ό ν ω ν α ύ τ ο ϋ δ ιά
π ο λ υ χ ρ ό ν ιο ν λ ιμ ό ν , δ ς Β α β υ λ ώ ν α κ α ι τ ο ύ ς π λ η σ ιο -
χ ώ ρ ο υ ς έ π ίε ζ ε , κ α τ ά ζ ή τ η σ ιν τ ρ ο φ ή ς ε ίς Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν
π α ν ο ικ ϊ μ ε τ α ν α σ τ ά ν τ ω ν , γ ή ν π ε δ ιά δ α κ α ι β α θ ε ΐα ν
κ α ι π ρ ο ς π ά ν τ α γ ο ν ιμ ω τ ά τ η ν , ώ ν ή α ν θ ρ ω π ιν ή
φ ύ σ ις δ ε ΐτ α ι, κ α ι μ ά λ ισ τ α τ ο ν τ ο ϋ σ ίτ ο υ κ α ρ π ό ν .
6 ο γ ά ρ τ α ύ τ η ς π ο τ α μ ό ς θ έ ρ ο υ ς α κ μ ά ζ ο ν τ ο ς , ή ν ίκ α
τ ο ύ ς ά λ λ ο υ ς φ α σ ι μ ε ιο ϋ σ θ α ι χ ε ίμ α ρ ρ ο υ ς τ ε κ α ι
α ύ θ ιγ ε ν ε ΐς , ε π ιβ α ίν ω ν τ ε κ α ι ά ν α χ ε ό μ ε ν ο ς π λ η μ -
μ υ ρ ε ι κ α ι λ ιμ ν ά ζ ε ι τ ά ς ά ρ ο ύ ρ α ς , α ΐ ύ ε τ ο ϋ μ ή δ ε ό -
μ ε ν α ι φ ο ρ ά ς ά φ θ ο ν ία ν π α ν τ ο ίω ν α γ α θ ώ ν ά ν ά π α ν
έ τ ο ς χ ο ρ η γ ο ϋ σ ιν , ε ι μ ή π ο υ μ ε σ ο λ α β ή σ ε ιε ν ο ρ γ ή
θ ε ο ΰ δ ι' έ π ιπ ο λ ά ζ ο υ σ α ν ά σ έ β ε ια ν τ ώ ν ο ίκ η τ ό ρ ω ν .
7 π α τ ρ ό ς δ έ κ α ι μ η τ ρ ό ς έ λ α χ ε τ ώ ν κ α θ * ε α υ τ ο ύ ς
ά ρ ισ τ ω ν , ο υ ς φ υ λ έ τ α ς δ ν τ α ς ή ό μ ο φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η μ ά λ λ ο ν
ω κ ε ιω σ ε ν η τ ο γ έ ν ο ς . ε ρ ο ο μ η γ ε ν ε ά (ο ) ο ύ τ ο ς
έ σ τ ιν ά π ό τ ο ϋ π ρ ώ τ ο υ , δ ς έ π η λ ύ τ η ς ώ ν τ ο ϋ σ ύ μ -
π α ν τ ο ς ^Ιο υ δ α ίω ν έ θ ν ο υ ς ά ρ χ η γ έ τ η ς έ γ έ ν ε τ ο . III.
8 τ ρ ο φ ή ς δ ' ή ξ ιώ θ η β α σ ιλ ικ ή ς ά π * α ίτ ια ς τ ο ιά σ δ ε '
MOSES I. 4-8
subjects. But I will disregard their malice, and tell 4
the story of Moses as I have learned it, both from
the sacred books, the wonderful monuments of his
wisdom which he has left behind him, and from some
of the elders of the nation ; for I always interwove
what I was told with what I read, and thus believed
myself to have a closer knowledge than others of
his life's history.
II.
a
I will begin with what is necessarily the right 5
place to begin. Moses was by race a Chaldean,
but was born and reared in Egypt, as his ancestors
had migrated thither to seek food with their whole
households, in consequence of the long famine under
which Babylon and the neighbouring populations
were suffering. Egypt is a land rich in plains, with
deep soil, and very productive of all that human
nature needs, and particularly of corn. For the river β
of this country, in the height of summer, when other
streams, whether winter torrents or spring-fed, are
said to dwindle, rises and overflows, and its flood
makes a lake of the fields which need no rain but
every year bear a plentiful crop of good produce
of every kind, if not prevented by some visitation
of the wrath of God to punish the prevailing im-
piety of the inhabitants. He had for his father and 7
mother the best of their contemporaries, members
of the same tribe, though with them mutual affec-
tion was a stronger tie than family connexions. He
was seventh in descent from the first settler, who
became the founder of the whole Jewish nation.
b
III. He was brought up as a prince, a promotion 8
due to the following cause. As the nation of the
* See Ex. vi. 16 ff., where Moses is given as fifth from Jacob
and therefore seventh from Abraham.
279
PHILO
τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς 6 β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς , ε ίς π ο λ υ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ν έ π ι-
δ ιδ ό ν τ ο ς ά ε ι τ ο ϋ έ θ ν ο υ ς , δ ε ίσ α ς μ ή ο ι έ π ο ικ ο ι
π λ ε ίο υ ς γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ι δ υ ν α τ ω τ ε ρ α χ ^ιρ ι τ ο ις α ύ τ ό χ θ ο σ ι
π ε ρ ι κ ρ ά τ ο υ ς α ρ χ ή ς ά μ ιλ λ ώ ν τ α ι, τ ή ν ίσ χ ύ ν α υ τ ώ ν
[ 82] ά φ α ιρ ε ΐν ε π ιν ο ία ις ά ν ο σ ιο υ ρ γ ο ΐς έ μ η χ α ν ά τ ο \ κ α ι
κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι τ ώ ν γ ε ν ν ω μ έ ν ω ν τ ά μ έ ν θ ή λ ε α τ ρ έ φ ε ιν —
έ π ε ι γ υ ν ή δ ιά φ ύ σ ε ω ς ά σ θ έ ν ε ια ν ό κ ν η ρ ό ν ε ίς π ό λ ε -
μ ο ν —, τ ά δ ' ά ρ ρ ε ν α δ ια φ θ ε ίρ ε ιν , ίν α μ ή α ύ ξ η θ ή κ α τ ά
π ό λ ε ις * ε ύ α ν δ ρ ο ϋ σ α γ ά ρ δ ύ ν α μ ις δ υ σ ά λ ω τ ο ν κ α ι
9 δ υ σ κ α θ α ίρ ε τ ο ν €7Γ ΐ τ €ΐ χ ι σ /Α α . γ ε ν ν η θ ε ίς ο ύ ν ο π α ις *
ε υ θ ύ ς ό φ ιν έ ν έ φ α ιν ε ν ά σ τ ε ιο τ έ ρ α ν ή κ α τ ίδ ιώ τ η ν ,
ώ ς κ α ι τ ώ ν τ ο ϋ τ υ ρ ά ν ν ο υ κ η ρ υ γ μ ά τ ω ν , ε φ * δ σ ο ν
ο ίο ν τ ε ή ν , τ ο ύ ς γ ο ν ε ίς ά λ ο γ ή σ α ι* τ ρ ε ις γ ο ϋ ν φ α σ ι
μ ή ν α ς ε φ ε ξ ή ς ο ίκ ο ι γ α λ α κ τ ο τ ρ ο φ η θ ή ν α ι λ α ν θ ά ν ο ν τ α
10 τ ο ύ ς π ο λ λ ο ύ ς , έ π ε ί δ ', ο ΐα έ ν μ ο ν α ρ χ ία ις φ ιλ ε ΐ, κ α ι
τ ά έ ν μ υ χ ο ΐς έ ν ιο ι δ ιη ρ ε ύ ν ω ν σ π ε ύ δ ο ν τ ε ς ά ε ι τ ι
κ α ιν ό ν ά κ ο υ σ μ α π ρ ο σ φ έ ρ ε ιν τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ι, φ ο β η -
θ έ ν τ ε ς μ ή σ ω τ η ρ ία ν έ ν ι μ ν ώ μ ε ν ο ι π λ ε ίο υ ς δ ν τ ε ς
α ύ τ ο ϊ σ ύ ν έ κ ε ίν ω π α ρ α π ό λ ω ν τ α ι, δ ε δ α κ ρ υ μ έ ν ο ι τ ο ν
π α ΐδ α έ κ τ ιθ έ α σ ι π α ρ ά τ ά ς ο χ θ α ς τ ο ϋ π ο τ α μ ο ύ κ α ι
σ τ έ ν ο ν τ ε ς ά π ή ε σ α ν , ο ίκ τ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ι μ έ ν α υ τ ο ύ ς τ ή ς
α ν ά γ κ η ς α ύ τ ό χ ε ιρ ά ς τ ε κ α ϊ τ ε κ ν ο κ τ ό ν ο υ ς ά π ο -
κ α λ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς , ο ίκ τ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ι δ έ κ α ι τ ο ν π α ΐδ α τ ή ς π ά ρ α -
11 λ ο γ ω τ ά τ η ς α π ώ λ ε ια ς , ε ΐθ ', ώ ς ε ικ ό ς έ ν ά λ λ ο κ ό τ ω
π ρ ά γ μ α τ ι, κ α τ η γ ο ρ ο ύ ν α υ τ ώ ν ώ ς μ ε ίζ ο ν ο ς α ίτ ιω ν
σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς * " τ ι γ ά ρ " έ φ α σ κ ο ν " ε υ θ ύ ς γ ε ν ν ώ μ ε ν ο ν
ο ύ κ έ ξ ε θ ή κ α μ ε ν ; τ ο ν μ ή φ θ ά σ α ν τ α τ ρ ο φ ή ς ή μ ε ρ ο υ
μ ε τ α λ α χ ε ΐν ο ύ δ ' ά ν θ ρ ω π ο ν ο ι π ο λ λ ο ί ν ο μ ίζ ο υ σ ιν *
° Ex. Η . 2. The LXX word α σ τ ε ίο ς is quoted in Hebrews xi.
23 and Acts vii. 20. \
280 \
MOSES I. 8-11
newcomers was constantly growing more numerous,
the king of the country, fearing that the settlers,
thus increasing, might shew their superiority by con-
testing the chief power with the original inhabit-
ants, contrived a most iniquitous scheme to deprive
them of their strength. He gave orders to rear the
female infants, since her natural weakness makes
a woman inactive in war, but to put the males to
death, to prevent their number increasing through-
out the cities ; for a flourishing male population
is a coign of vantage to an aggressor which cannot
easily be taken or destroyed. Now, the child from 9
his birth had an appearance of more than ordinary
goodliness,
a
so that his parents as long as they could
actually set at nought the proclamations of the des-
pot. In fact we are told that, unknown to all but
few, he was kept at home and fed from his mother's
breast for three successive months. But, since, as is 10
often the case under a monarch, there were persons
prying into holes and corners, ever eager to carry
some new report to the king, his parents in their
fear that their efforts to save one would but cause
a larger number, namely themselves, to perish with
him, exposed him with tears on the banks of the
river, and departed groaning. They pitied them-
selves being forced, as they said in their self-re-
proach, to be the murderers of their own child, and
they pitied him too, left to perish in this unnatural
way. Then, as was natural in so strangely cruel a 11
situation, they began to accuse themselves of having
made bad worse. " Why did we not cast him away,"
they said, " directly he was born ? The child who
has not survived to enjoy a kind nurture is not usu-
ally reckoned as a human being. But we meddlers
281
PHILO
η μ ε ίς δ ' ο ί π ε ρ ιτ τ ο ί κ α ι τ ρ ε ις μ ή ν α ς ό λ ο υ ς ά ν ε θ ρ έ -
φ α μ ε ν , δ α φ ιλ ε σ τ έ ρ α ς μ έ ν έ α υ τ ο ΐς α ν ία ς , τ ω δ έ
τ ιμ ω ρ ία ς έ κ π ο ρ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς , Χ ν η δ ο ν ώ ν κ α ι ά λ γ η δ ό ν ω ν
έ π ι π λ ε ίσ τ ο ν ά ν τ ιλ α ^/?ά ν €σ ^α ι δ υ ν ά μ ε ν ο ς έ ν α ί-
σ θ ή σ ε ι κ α κ ώ ν ά ρ γ α λ ε ω τ έ ρ ω ν δ ια φ θ ε ίρ η τ α ι."
1 2
IV. Κ α ι ο ί μ έ ν ά γ ν ο ια τ ο ΰ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ο ς ά π ή ε σ α ν
ο ίκ τ ρ ώ κ α τ ε σ χ η μ έ ν ο ι π έ ν θ ε ι, α δ ε λ φ ή δ έ τ ο ΰ ε κ τ ε -
θ έ ν τ ο ς β ρ έ φ ο υ ς έ τ ι π α ρ θ έ ν ο ς υ π ό φ ιλ ο ικ ε ίο υ π ά θ ο υ ς
μ ικ ρ ό ν ά π ο θ ε ν έ κ α ρ α δ ό κ ε ι τ ό ά π ο β η σ ό μ ε ν ο ν ά μ ο ι
δ ο κ ε ΐ π ά ν τ α σ υ μ β ή ν α ι κ α τ ά θ ε ό ν π ρ ο μ η θ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν
13 τ ο ΰ π α ιδ ό ς . θ υ γ ά τ η ρ ή ν τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ΐ τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς
α γ α π η τ ή κ α ι μ ό ν η * τ α ύ τ η ν φ α σ ί γ η μ α μ έ ν η ν έ κ
π ο λ λ ο ΰ χ ρ ό ν ο υ μ ή κ υ ΐσ κ ε ιν τ έ κ ν ω ν ώ ς ε ικ ό ς ε π ι-
θ υ μ ο ύ σ α ν κ α ι μ ά λ ισ τ α γ ε ν ε ά ς ά ρ ρ ε ν ο ς , ή τ ό ν ε ύ δ α ί-
μ ο ν α κ λ ή ρ ο ν τ ή ς π α τ ρ ώ α ς η γ ε μ ο ν ία ς δ ί,α δ β ^β τ α ι
κ ιν δ υ ν ε ύ ο ν τ α έ ρ η μ ία θ υ γ α τ ρ ιδ ώ ν ά λ λ ο τ ρ ιω θ ή ν α ι.
14 κ α τ η φ ο ΰ σ α ν δ έ ά ε ί κ α ι σ τ έ ν ο υ σ α ν ώ ς μ ά λ ισ τ α
ε κ ε ίν η τ ή ή μ ε ρ α τ ώ β ά ρ ε ι τ ώ ν φ ρ ο ν τ ίδ ω ν ά π α γ ο -
ρ ε ΰ σ α ι κ α ι δ ι' έ θ ο υ ς έ χ ο υ σ α ν ο ίκ ο ι κ α τ α μ έ ν ε ιν κ α ι
μ η δ έ τ ά ς κ λ ισ ιά δ α ς ύ π ε ρ β α ίν ε ιν έ ξ ο ρ μ ή σ α ι μ ε τ ά
θ ε ρ α π α ιν ίδ ω ν έ π ι τ ό ν π ο τ α μ ό ν , έ ν θ α ό π α ις έ ξ -
έ κ ε ιτ ο * κ ά π ε ιτ α λ ο υ τ ρ ο ΐς κ α ι π ε ρ ιρ ρ α ν τ η ρ ίο ις χ ρ ή -
[ 83] σ θ α ι μ έ λ λ ο υ σ α ν έ ν τ ώ δ α σ υ τ ά τ ω τ ώ ν ε λ ώ ν \ α υ τ ό ν
Ι δ θ ε ά σ α σ θ α ι κ α ι κ ε λ ε ϋ σ α ι π ρ ο σ φ έ ρ ε ιν . ε ΐτ α ά π ό
κ ε φ α λ ή ς ά χ ρ ι π ο δ ώ ν κ α τ α θ ε ω μ έ ν η ν τ ή ν τ ε ε ύ -
μ ο ρ φ ία ν κ α ι ε ύ ε ξ ία ν ά π ο δ έ χ ε σ θ α ι κ α ι δ ε δ α κ ρ υ μ έ ν ο ν
ό ρ ώ σ α ν έ λ ε ε ΐν , ή δ η τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς τ ε τ ρ α μ μ έ ν η ς α ύ τ η
π ρ ό ς μ η τ ρ ώ ο ν π ά θ ο ς ώ ς έ π ι γ ν η σ ίω π α ιδ ί* γ ν ο ΰ σ α ν
β
See   ρ ρ . ρ . 603.
6
The statements (1) t hat Pharaoh' s daught er was t he onl y
c hi l d of her fat her, (2) t hat she had no c hi l d of her o wn , so
282
MOSES I. 11-15
actually nurtured him for three whole months, thus
procuring more abundant affliction for ourselves and
torture for him, only that when he was fully capable
of feeling pleasure and pain he should perish con-
scious of the increased misery of his sufferings."
a
IV. While they departed ignorant of the future, 12
overcome by grief and sorrow, the sister of the infant
castaway, a girl still unmarried, moved by family
affection, remained at a little distance, waiting to
see what would happen, all this being brought about,
in my opinion, by the providence of God watching
over the child. The king of the country had but 13
one cherished daughter, who, we are told, had been
married for a considerable time but had never con-
ceived a child, though she naturally desired one,
particularly of the male sex, to succeed to the magni-
ficent inheritance of her father's kingdom, which
threatened to go to strangers if his daughter gave
him no grandson.
6
Depressed and loud in lamenta- 14
tion she always was, but on this particular day she
broke down under the weight of cares ; and, though
her custom was to remain at home and never even
cross the threshold, she set off with her maids to the
river, where the child was exposed. Then, as she was
preparing to make her ablutions in the purifying water,
she saw him lying where the marshland growth was
thickest, and bade him be brought to her. There- 15
upon, surveying him from-head to foot, she approved
of his beauty and fine condition, and seeing him
weeping took pity on him, for her heart was now
moved to feel for him as a mother for her own child.
that Moses was heir presumptive to the throne, are additions
to Exodus also either given or implied by Josephus, who adds
much other legendary matter, Ant. ii. 232 ff.
283
PHILO
δ ' ο τ ι τ ώ ν Ε β ρ α ίω ν ε σ τ ί κ α τ α δ ε ισ ά ν τ ω ν τ ο ΰ β α σ ι-
λ έ ω ς τ ο π ρ ό σ τ α γ μ α β ο υ λ ε ύ ε σ θ α ι π ε ρ ι τ ή ς τ ρ ο φ ή ς
α ύ τ ο ΰ · μ ή γ ά ρ α σ φ α λ έ ς ε υ θ ύ ς ε ίν α ι ν ο μ ίζ ε ιν ε ις τ ά
16 β α σ ίλ ε ια ά γ ε ιν . δ ια π ο ρ ο ύ σ η ς δ ' έ τ ι, τ ή ν ά δ ε λ φ ή ν
τ ο ΰ π α ιδ ό ς κ α θ ά π ε ρ ά π ό σ κ ο π ή ς τ ό ν έ ν δ ο ια σ μ ό ν
σ τ ο χ α σ α μ έ ν η ν π υ ν θ ά ν ε σ θ α ι π ρ ο σ δ ρ α μ ο ΰ σ α ν , ε ι β ο υ -
λ ή σ ε τ α ι γ α λ α κ τ ο τ ρ ο φ η θ ή ν α ι τ ο ύ τ ο ν
1
π α ρ ά γ υ ν α ίω
17 τ ώ ν Ε β ρ α ϊκ ώ ν ο ύ π ρ ο π ο λ λ ο ύ κ ν ή σ α ν τ ί' τ ή ς δ έ
β ο ύ λ ε σ θ α ι φ α μ έ ν η ς , τ ή ν α υ τ ή ς κ α ι τ ο ύ β ρ έ φ ο υ ς
μ η τ έ ρ α π α ρ α γ α γ ε ΐν ώ ς ά λ λ ο τ ρ ία ν , ή ν έ τ ο ιμ ό τ ε ρ ο ν
ά σ μ έ ν η ν ύ π ισ χ ν ε ΐσ θ α ι π ρ ό φ α σ ιν ώ ς έ π ι μ ισ θ ώ
τ ρ ο φ ε ύ σ ε ιν , έ π ιν ο ία θ ε ο ΰ τ ο ΰ τ ά ς π ρ ώ τ α ς τ ρ ο φ ά ς
τ ώ π α ίδ ι γ ν ή σ ια ς ε ύ τ ρ ε π ίζ ο ν τ ο ς · ε ίτ α δ ίδ ω σ ιν
ό ν ο μ α θ ε μ έ ν η Μ ,ω ν σ ή ν έ τ ύ μ ω ς δ ιά τ ό έ κ τ ο ύ ύ δ α τ ο ς
α υ τ ό ν ά ν ε λ έ σ θ α ί' τ ό γ ά ρ ύ δ ω ρ μ ώ υ ό ν ο μ ά ζ ο υ σ ιν
Α Ιγ ύ π τ ιο ι.
18 V. 'Ε τ τ β ι δ ' α θ ρ ό α ς ε π ιδ ό σ ε ις κ α ι π α ρ α ν ο ή σ ε ις
λ α μ β ά ν ω ν ο ύ σ ύ ν λ ό γ ω τ ώ κ α τ ά χ ρ ό ν ο ν θ ά τ τ ο ν δ '
ά π ό τ ιτ θ ο ς γ ίν ε τ α ι, π α ρ ή ν ή μ ή τ η ρ ά μ α κ α ι τ ρ ο φ ό ς
κ ο μ ίζ ο υ σ α τ ή δ ο ύ σ η μ η κ έ τ ι γ α λ α κ τ ο τ ρ ο φ ία ς δ ε ό -
19 μ ε ν ο ν , ε υ γ ε ν ή κ α ι ά σ τ ε ΐο ν ό φ θ ή ν α ι. τ ε λ ε ιό τ ε ρ ο ν δ έ
τ ή ς η λ ικ ία ς ίδ ο ΰ σ α κ ά κ τ ή ς ό φ ε ω ς έ τ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν ή
π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν σ π ά σ α σ α ε ύ ν ο ια ς υ ίό ν π ο ιε ίτ α ι τ ά π ε ρ ι τ ό ν
ό γ κ ο ν τ ή ς γ α σ τ ρ ό ς τ ε χ ν ά σ α σ α π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν , ίν α γ ν ή -
σ ιο ς ά λ λ ά μ ή υ π ο β ο λ ιμ α ίο ς ν ο μ ισ θ ή ' π ά ν τ α δ '
έ ξ ε υ μ α ρ ίζ ε ι θ ε ό ς ά α ν έ θ ε λ ή σ η κ α ι τ ά δ υ σ κ α τ -
20 ό ρ θ ω τ α . τ ρ ο φ ή ς ο υ ν ή δ η β α σ ιλ ικ ή ς κ α ι θ ε ρ α π ε ία ς
ά ζ ιο ύ μ ε ν ο ς ο ύ χ ο ία κ ο μ ιδ ή ν ή π ιο ς ή δ ε τ ο τ ω θ α σ μ ο ΐς
1
MSS. τ ο ΰ τ ο (sc. β ρ έ φ ο ς ?).
284
MOSES I. 15 -20
And, recognizing that he belonged to the Hebrews,
who were intimidated by the king's orders, she
considered how to have him nursed, for at present
it was not safe to take him to the palace. While 16
she was still thus debating, the child's sister, who
guessed her difficulty, ran up from where she stood
like a scout, and asked whether she would like to
take for his foster-mother a Hebrew woman who had
lately been with child. When the princess agreed, 17
she brought her own and the babe's mother in the
guise of a stranger, who readily and gladly promised
to nurse him, ostensibly for wages. Thus, by God's
disposing, it was provided that the child's first
nursing should come from the natural source. Since
he had been taken up from the water, the princess
gave him a name derived from this,
a
and called him
Moses, for Muu is the Egyptian word for water.
V. As he grew and thrived without a break, and 18
was weaned at an earlier date than they had reckoned,
his mother and nurse in one brought him to her from
whom she had received him, since he had ceased to
need an infant's milk. He was noble and goodly to
look upon ; and the princess, seeing him so advanced 19
beyond his age, conceived for him an even greater
fondness than before, and took him for her son,
having at an earlier time artificially enlarged the
figure of her womb to make him pass as her real and
not a supposititious child. God makes all that He
wills easy, however difficult be the accomplishment.
So now he received as his right the nurture and 20
service due to a prince. Yet he did not bear himself
a
έ τ ύ μ ω * as regularly in Philo used with reference to the
" etymology " of the word, see note on De Conf. 137. So
again § 130 below.
285
PHILO
κ α ι γ έ λ ω σ ι κ α ι π α ιδ ιο ύ ^, κ α ίτ ο ι τ ώ ν τ ή ν ε π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν
α ύ τ ο ΰ π α ρ ε ιλ η φ ό τ ω ν α ν έ σ ε ις ε χ ε ιν ε π ιτ ρ ε π ό ν τ ω ν
κ α ι μ η δ έ ν έ π ιδ ε ικ ν υ έ ν ω ν σ κ υ θ ρ ω π ό ν , ά λ λ ' α ιδ ώ
κ α ί σ ε μ ν ό τ η τ α π α ρ α φ α ίν ω ν ά κ ο ν σ μ α σ ι κ α ι θ ε ά -
μ α σ ιν , α τ ή ν φ υ χ ή ν ε μ ε λ λ ε ν ώ φ ε λ ή σ ε ιν , π ρ ο σ ε ΐχ ε .
21 δ ιδ ά σ κ α λ ο ι δ ' ε υ θ ύ ς ά λ λ α χ ό θ ε ν ά λ λ ο ι π α ρ ή σ α ν , ο ι
μ έ ν ά π ό τ ώ ν π λ η σ ιο χ ώ ρ ω ν κ α ι τ ώ ν κ α τ
9
Α ϊγ υ π τ ο ν
ν ο μ ώ ν α ύ τ ο κ έ λ ε υ σ τ ο ι, ο ι δ ' ά π ό τ ή ς Ε λ λ ά δ ο ς ε π ι
[ 84] μ ε γ ά λ α ις δ ω ρ ε α ΐς μ ε τ α π ε μ φ θ ε ν τ ε ς ' ώ ν \ ε ν ο ύ
μ α κ ρ ώ χ ρ ό ν ω τ ά ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ις ύ π ε ρ έ β α λ ε ν ε ύ μ ο ιρ ία
φ ύ σ ε ω ς φ θ ά ν ω ν τ ά ς ύ φ η γ ή σ ε ις , ώ ς ά ν ά μ ν η σ ιν ε ίν α ι
δ ο κ ε ΐν , ο ύ μ ά θ η σ ιν , ε τ ι κ α ι π ρ ο σ ε π ιν ο ώ ν α υ τ ό ς τ ά
22 δ υ σ θ ε ώ ρ η τ α , π ο λ λ ά γ ά ρ α ί μ ε γ ά λ α ι φ ύ σ ε ις κ α ιν ό -
τ ο μ ο ϋ σ ι τ ώ ν ε ίς ε π ισ τ ή μ η ν * κ α ι κ α θ ά π ε ρ τ ά ε ύ ε κ -
τ ικ ά τ ώ ν σ ω μ ά τ ω ν κ α ι π ά σ ι τ ο ΐς μ ε ρ ε σ ιν ε υ κ ίν η τ α
φ ρ ο ν τ ίδ ω ν ά π α λ λ ά τ τ ε ι τ ο ύ ς ά λ ε ίπ τ α ς ο υ δ έ ν ή
β ρ α χ έ α π α ρ έ χ ο ν τ α ς τ ώ ν ε ίς ε π ιμ ε λ ε ια ν , ώ σ π ε ρ κ α ι
γ ε ω ρ γ ο ύ ς τ ά ε ΰ β λ α σ τ α κ α ί ε υ γ ε ν ή δ έ ν δ ρ α β ε λ τ ιο ύ -
μ ε ν α δ ι ε α υ τ ώ ν , τ ο ν α υ τ ό ν τ ρ ό π ο ν ε υ φ υ ή ς ψ υ χ ή
π ρ ο α π α ν τ ώ σ α τ ο ΐς λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ο ις ύ φ * α υ τ ή ς μ ά λ λ ο ν ή
τ ώ ν δ ιδ α σ κ ό ν τ ω ν ω φ ε λ ε ίτ α ι κ α ι λ α β ο μ έ ν η τ ιν ό ς
ε π ισ τ η μ ο ν ικ ή ς α ρ χ ή ς κ α τ ά τ ή ν π α ρ ο ιμ ία ν " ίπ π ο ς
23 ε ίς π ε δ ίο ν " ό ρ μ α . α ρ ιθ μ ο ύ ς μ έ ν ο ύ ν κ α ί γ ε ω -
μ ε τ ρ ία ν τ ή ν τ ε ρ υ θ μ ικ ή ν κ α ί ά ρ μ ο ν ικ ή ν κ α ι μ ε -
τ ρ ικ ή ν θ ε ω ρ ία ν κ α ι μ ο υ σ ικ ή ν τ ή ν σ ύ μ π α σ α ν δ ιά τ ε
χ ρ ή σ ε ω ς ο ρ γ ά ν ω ν κ α ι λ ό γ ω ν τ ώ ν ε ν τ α ΐς τ έ χ ν α ις
κ α ι δ ιε ξ ό δ ο ις τ ο π ικ ω τ ε ρ α ις Α ιγ υ π τ ίω ν ο ι λ ό γ ιο ι
α
Josephus on the other hand makes him shew his superi-
ority in his games, Ant. ii. 230.
6
See App. p. 603.
c
Philo may have derived this from his own knowledge of
the scope of education in Egypt in the present and past, but
perhaps also from Plato, Laws 656 D, 799 A, 819 A, where
286
MOSES I. 20- 23
like the mere infant that he was, nor delight in fun
and laughter and sport, though those who had the
charge of him did not grudge him relaxation or shew
him any strictness ;
α
but with a modest and serious
bearing he applied himself to hearing and seeing
what was sure to profit the soul. Teachers at once 21
arrived from different parts, some unbidden from the
neighbouring countries and the provinces of Egypt,
others summoned from Greece under promise of
high reward. But in a short time he advanced
be}^ond their capacities ; his gifted nature fore-
stalled their instruction, so that his seemed a case
rather of recollection than of learning, and indeed
he himself devised and propounded problems which
they could not easily solve. For great natures carve 22
out much that is new in the way of knowledge ; and,
just as bodies, robust and agile in every part, free
their trainers from care, and receive little or none of
their usual attention, and in the same way well-
grown and naturally healthy trees, which improve
of themselves, give the husbandmen no trouble, so
the gifted soul takes the lead in meeting the lessons
given by itself rather than the teacher and is profited
thereby, and as soon as it has a grasp of some of the
first principles of knowledge presses forward like the
horse to the meadow,
6
as the proverb goes. Arith- 23
metic, geometry, the lore of metre, rhythm and
harmony, and the whole subject of music as shown
by the use of instruments or in textbooks and
treatises of a more special character, were imparted
to him by learned Egyptians.
0
These further in-
mathematics, music, and dancing are said to be the subjects
most stressed by Egyptians. C/. , as a summary of all that is
said here, Acts vii. 2 2 " he was instructed in all the wisdom
of the Egyptians."
287
PHILO
π α ρ ε δ ίδ ο σ α ν κ α ι π ρ ο σ έ τ ι τ ή ν δ ιά σ υ μ β ό λ ω ν φ ίλ ο "
σ ο φ ία ν , ή ν iv τ ο ΐς λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ο ις ίε ρ ο ΐς γ ρ ά μ μ α σ ιν
ε π ιδ ε ίκ ν υ ν τ α ι κ α ι δ ιά τ ή ς τ ώ ν ζ ώ ω ν α π ο δ ο χ ή ς , α
κ α ι θ ε ώ ν τ ιμ α ΐς γ ε ρ α ίρ ο υ σ ί' τ ή ν δ ' ά λ λ η ν ε γ κ ύ κ λ ιο ν
π α ιδ ε ία ν "Έ λ λ η ν ε ς ε δ ίδ α σ κ ο ν , ο ι δ ' ε κ τ ώ ν π λ η σ ιο -
χ ώ ρ ω ν τ ά τ ε   σ σ υ ρ ι α γ ρ ά μ μ α τ α κ α ι τ ή ν τ ώ ν
24 ο υ ρ α ν ίω ν Χ α λ δ α ϊκ ή ν ε π ισ τ ή μ η ν . τ α ύ τ η ν κ α ί π α ρ
Α ιγ υ π τ ίω ν α ν ε λ ά μ β α ν ε μ α θ η μ α τ ικ ή ν ε ν τ ο ΐς μ ά -
λ ισ τ α ε π ιτ η δ ε υ ό ν τ ω ν κ α ί τ ά π α ρ * ά μ φ ο τ ε ρ ο ις
α κ ρ ιβ ώ ς ε ν ο ΐς τ ε σ υ μ φ ω ν ο ύ σ ι κ α ί δ ια φ ε ρ ο ν τ α ι
κ α τ α μ α θ ώ ν , ά φ ιλ ο ν ε ίκ ω ς τ ά ς έ ρ ιδ α ς υ π ε ρ β ά ς , τ η ν
ά λ ή θ ε ια ν ε ζ ή τ ε ι, μ η δ έ ν φ ε ύ δ ο ς τ ή ς δ ια ν ο ία ς α υ τ ο ύ
π α ρ α δ ε χ ε σ θ α ι δ υ ν ά μ ε ν η ς , ώ ς ε θ ο ς τ ο ΐς α ίρ ε σ ιο -
μ ά χ ο ις , ο ι τ ο ΐς π ρ ο τ ε θ ε ΐσ ι δ ό γ μ α σ ιν ό π ο ια ά ν τ ύ χ η
β ο η θ ο ύ σ ιν ο ύ κ ε ξ ε τ ά ζ ο ν τ ε ς , ε ί δ ό κ ιμ α , τ ό δ ' α υ τ ό
δ ρ ώ ν τ ε ς τ ο ΐς ε π ί μ ισ θ ώ σ υ ν α γ ο ρ ε ύ ο υ σ ι κ α ί μ η δ έ ν
25 τ ο ύ δ ικ α ίο υ π ε φ ρ ο ν τ ικ ό σ ιν . VI. ή δ η δ έ
τ ο ύ ς ό ρ ο υ ς τ ή ς π α ιδ ικ ή ς η λ ικ ία ς υ π ε ρ β α ίν ω ν ε π -
έ τ ε ιν ε τ ή ν φ ρ ό ν η σ ιν , ο ύ χ ώ ς ε ν ιο ι τ ά ς μ ε ιρ α κ ιώ δ ε ις
ε π ιθ υ μ ία ς α χ α λ ίν ω τ ο υ ς ε ώ ν κ α ίτ ο ι μ ύ ρ ια έ χ ο υ σ α ς
ύ π ε α ύ μ α τ α δ ιά π α ρ α σ κ ε υ ά ς ά φ θ ο ν ο υ ς , ά ς α ί
^α σ ιλ β ια ι χ ο ρ η γ ο ύ σ ιν , ά λ λ α σ ω φ ρ ο σ ύ ν η κ α ι κ α ρ -
τ ε ρ ία ώ σ π ε ρ τ ισ ιν ή ν ία ις ε ν δ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ς α ύ τ ά ς τ ή ν ε ίς
26 τ ο π ρ ό σ ω φ ο ρ ά ν ά ν ε χ α ίτ ιζ ε β ία . κ α ί τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν
μ ε ν τ ο ι π α θ ώ ν έ κ α σ τ ο ν ε ξ ε α υ τ ο ύ μ ε μ η ν ό ς κ α ι
λ ε λ υ τ τ η κ ό ς φ ύ σ ε ι τ ιθ α σ ε ύ ω ν κ ά ξ η μ ε ρ ώ ν ε π ρ ά υ ν ε ν
ε ί δ ε π ο υ δ ια κ ιν η θ ε ίη μ ό ν ο ν ή σ υ χ η κ α ι π τ ε ρ ύ ξ α ιτ ο ,
κ ο λ ά σ ε ις ε μ β ρ ιθ ε σ τ έ ρ α ς π α ρ ε ίχ ε τ ο ή δ ιά λ ό γ ω ν \
α
This would normally be grammar or literature, rhetoric,
logic and perhaps astronomy as distinguished from astrology.
See De Cong. 11 and note; also De Som. i. 205 and note, with
other references. Clement, Strom, i. 23, adds Ι α τ ρ ικ ή .
288
MOSES I. 23- 26
structed him in the philosophy conveyed in symbols,
as displayed in the so-called holy inscriptions and
in the regard paid to animals, to which they even
pay divine honours. He had Greeks to teach him
the rest of the regular school course,*
1
and the in-
habitants of the neighbouring countries for Assyrian
letters
b
and the Chaldean science of the heavenly
» bodies. This he also acquired from Egyptians,
0
who 24
give special attention to astrology. And, when he
had mastered the lore of both nations, both where
they agree and where they differ, he eschewed all
strife and contention and sought only for truth. His
mind was incapable of accepting any falsehood, as is
the way with the sectarians, who defend the doctrines
they have propounded, whatever they may be, with-
out examining whether they can stand scrutiny, and
thus put themselves on a par with hired advocates
who have no thought nor care for justice.
VI. When he was now passing beyond the term of 25
boyhood, his good sense became more active. He
did not, as some, allow the lusts of adolescence
to go unbridled, though the abundant resources
which palaces provide supply numberless incentives
to foster their flame. But he kept a tight hold on
them with the reins, as it were, of temperance and
self-control, and forcibly pulled them back from their
forward course. And each of the other passions, 26
which rage so furiously if left to themselves, he tamed
and assuaged and reduced to mildness ; and if they
did but gently stir or flutter he provided for them
heavier chastisement than any rebuke of words
6
See App. p. 603.
0
This seems to suggest that in Philo's time astrology, as
taught on Chaldaean (i.e. the generally accepted) principles,
differed somewhat from the form current in Egypt.
289
PHILO
[ 85] ε π ιπ λ ή ξ ε ις * κ α ι σ υ ν ό λ ω ς τ ά ς π ρ ώ τ α ς τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς
ε π ιβ ο λ ά ς τ ε κ α ι ο ρ μ ά ς ώ ς ά φ η ν ια σ τ ή ν ϊπ π ο ν ε π -
ε τ ή ρ ε ι δ ε δ ιώ ς , μ ή π ρ ο ε κ δ ρ α μ ο ϋ σ α ι τ ο ν ή ν ιο χ ε ΐν
ο φ ε ίλ ο ν τ ο ς λ ο γ ισ μ ο ύ π ά ν τ α δ ιά π ά ν τ ω ν σ υ γ χ ε ω σ ιν
α ύ τ α ι γ ά ρ ε ίσ ιν α ί α γ α θ ώ ν α ί τ ι α ι κ α ι κ α κ ώ ν , α γ α -
θ ώ ν μ ε ν , δ τ α ν ή γ ε μ ό ν ι λ ό γ ω π ε ιθ α ρ χ ώ σ ι, τ ώ ν δ '
27 ε ν α ν τ ίω ν , ό τ α ν ε ις ά ν α ρ χ ία ν β κ δ ι α ί τ ώ ν τ α ι . κ α τ ά
τ ό ε ικ ό ς ο ύ ν ο ι τ ε σ ν ν δ ια τ ρ ίβ ο ν τ ε ς κ α ι ο ι ά λ λ ο ι
π ά ν τ ε ς ε τ ε θ ή π ε σ α ν , ώ ς ε π ί κ α ιν ώ θ ε ά μ α τ ι κ α τ α -
π λ η τ τ ό μ ε ν ο ι κ α ι τ ις ά ρ α ο έ ν ο ικ ω ν α υ τ ο ύ τ ώ
σ ώ μ α τ ι κ α ι ά γ α λ μ α τ ο φ ο ρ ο ύ μ έ ν ο ς ν ο υ ς ε σ τ ι, π ό τ ε ρ ο ν
α ν θ ρ ώ π ε ιο ς ή θ ε ιο ς ή μ ικ τ ό ς ε ξ ά μ φ ο ΐν , δ ιε ρ ε υ ν ώ -
μ ε ν ο ι, τ ώ μ η δ έ ν ε χ ε ιν τ ο ις π ο λ λ ο ίς δ μ ο ιο ν , ά λ λ '
ύ π ε ρ κ ύ π τ ε ιν κ α ι π ρ ό ς τ ό μ ε γ α λ ε ιό τ ε ρ ο ν ε ξ ή ρ θ α ι,
28 γ α σ τ ρ ί τ ε γ ά ρ ε ξ ω τ ώ ν α ν α γ κ α ίω ν δ α σ μ ώ ν , ο υ ς ή
φ ύ σ ις έ τ α ξ ε ν , ο υ δ έ ν π λ έ ο ν ε χ ο ρ ή γ ε ι, τ ώ ν τ ε υ π ο -
γ α σ τ ρ ίω ν η δ ο ν ώ ν ε ι μ ή μ έ χ ρ ι σ π ο ρ ά ς π α ίδ ω ν
29 γ ν η σ ίω ν ο υ δ έ ε μ ε μ ν η τ ο , γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ς τ ε δ ια φ ε ρ ό ν τ ω ς
α σ κ η τ ή ς ό λ ιγ ο δ ε ε ία ς κ α ι τ ο ν ά β ρ ο δ ία ιτ ο ν β ίο ν ώ ς
ο υ δ ε ίς έ τ ε ρ ο ς χ λ ε υ ά σ α ς —φ υ χ ή γ ά ρ ε π ό θ ε ι μ ό ν η
ζ ή ν , ο ύ σ ώ μ α τ ι—τ ά φ ιλ ο σ ο φ ία ς δ ό γ μ α τ α δ ιά τ ώ ν
κ α θ * ε κ ά σ τ η ν ή μ ε ρ α ν έ ρ γ ω ν ε π ε δ ε ίκ ν υ τ ο , λ έ γ ω ν μ έ ν
ο ΐα ε φ ρ ό ν ε ι, π ρ ά τ τ ω ν δ έ α κ ό λ ο υ θ α τ ο ις λ ε γ ο μ ε ν ο ις
ε ις ά ρ μ ο ν ία ν λ ό γ ο υ κ α ι β ίο υ , ίν * ο ίο ς ό λ ό γ ο ς τ ο ιο ύ -
τ ο ς ό β ίο ς κ α ι ο ΐο ς ό β ίο ς τ ο ιο ύ τ ο ς ό λ ό γ ο ς ε ξ ε τ ά -
ζ ω ν τ α ι κ α θ ά π ε ρ ε ν ό ρ γ ά ν ω μ ο υ σ ικ ώ σ υ ν η χ ο ΰ ν τ ε ς .
30 ο ι μ έ ν ο ύ ν π ο λ λ ο ί, κ α ν α υ τ ό μ ό ν ο ν α ύ ρ α
β ρ α χ ε ία τ ίν ο ς ε υ τ υ χ ία ς π ρ ο σ π ε σ η , φ υ σ ώ σ ι κ α ι
π ν ε ο υ σ ι μ ε γ ά λ α κ α ι κ α τ α λ α ζ ο ν ε υ ό μ ε ν ο ι τ ώ ν ά φ α ν ε -
τ έ ρ ω ν κ α θ ά ρ μ α τ α κ α ι π α ρ ε ν ο χ λ ή μ α τ α κ α ι γ ή ς ά χ θ η
κ α ι ο σ α τ ο ια ύ τ α ά π ο κ α λ ο ϋ σ ιν , ώ σ π ε ρ τ ό ά κ λ ιν έ ς
290
MOSES I. 26-30
could give ; and in general he watched the first
directions and impulses of the soul as one would a
restive horse, in fear lest they should run away with
the reason which ought to rein them in, and thus
cause universal chaos. For it is these impulses which
cause both good and bad—good when they obey
the guidance of reason, bad when they turn from
their regular course into anarchy. Naturally, there- 27
fore, his associates and everyone else, struck with
amazement at what they felt was a novel spectacle,
considered earnestly what the mind which dwelt
in his body like an image in its shrine could be,
whether it was human or divine or a mixture of both,
so utterly unlike was it to the majority, soaring above
them and exalted to a grander height. For on his 28
belly he bestowed no more than the necessary
tributes which nature has appointed, and as for the
pleasures that have their seat below, save for the
lawful begetting of children, they passed altogether
even out of his memory. And, in his desire to live 29
to the soul alone and not to the body, he made a
special practice of frugal contentment, and had an
unparalleled scorn for a life of luxury. He ex-
emplified his philosophical creed by his daily actions.
His words expressed his feelings, and his actions ac-
corded with his words, so that speech and life were
in harmony, and thus through their mutual agree-
ment were found to make melody together as on
a musical intrument. Now, most men, 30
if they feel a breath of prosperity ever so small upon
them, make much ado of puffing and blowing, and
boast themselves as bigger than meaner men, and
miscall them offscourings and nuisances and cum-
berers of the earth and other suchlike names, as if
291
PHILO
τ ή ς ε ύ π ρ α γ ία ς έ ν β ε β α ιώ π α ρ * έ α υ τ ο ΐς ε ύ μ ά λ α
σ φ ρ α γ ισ ά μ ε ν ο ι μ η δ έ μ έ χ ρ ι τ ή ς ν σ τ ε ρ α ία ς ΐσ ω ς ο ια -
31 μ ε ν ο ΰ ν τ ε ς ε ν ό μ ο ίω . τ ύ χ η ς γ ά ρ ά σ τ α θ μ η τ ό τ ε ρ ο ν
ο υ δ έ ν ά ν ω κ α ι κ ά τ ω τ ά α ν θ ρ ώ π ε ια π ε τ τ ε υ ο ύ σ η ς , ή
μ ια π ο λ λ ά κ ις η μ έ ρ α τ ο ν μ έ ν ύ φ η λ ό ν κ α θ α ιρ ε ί, τ ο ν
δ έ τ α π ε ιν ό ν μ ε τ ε ω ρ ο ν ε ξ α ίρ ε ι* κ α ι τ α ύ τ α ό ρ ώ ν τ ε ς
ά ε ι γ ιν ό μ ε ν α κ α ι σ α φ ώ ς ε ίδ ό τ ε ς δ μ ω ς ύ π ε ρ ό π τ α ι μ έ ν
ο ικ ε ίω ν κ α ι φ ίλ ω ν ε ίσ ί, ν ό μ ο υ ς δ έ π α ρ α β α ίν ο υ σ ι,
κ α θ * ο υ ς έ γ ε ν ή θ η σ α ν κ α ι ε τ ρ ά φ η σ α ν , ε θ η δ έ π ά τ ρ ια ,
ο ΐς μ ε μ φ ις ο υ δ ε μ ία π ρ ό σ ε σ τ ι δ ικ α ία , κ ιν ο ϋ σ ιν
ε κ δ ε δ ιη τ η μ έ ν ο ι κ α ι δ ιά τ ή ν τ ώ ν π α ρ ό ν τ ω ν ά π ο δ ο χ ή ν
ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς έ τ ι τ ώ ν α ρ χ α ίω ν μ ν ή μ η ν λ α μ β ά ν ο υ σ ιν .
32 VII. ο δ έ έ π ' α ύ τ δ ν φ θ ά σ α ς τ ο ν δ ρ ο ν τ ή ς α ν θ ρ ω -
π ιν ή ς ε υ τ υ χ ία ς κ α ι θ υ γ α τ ρ ιδ ο ϋ ς μ έ ν τ ο ϋ τ ο σ ο ύ τ ο υ
β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ν ο μ ισ θ ε ίς , τ ή ς δ έ π α π π ώ α ς α ρ χ ή ς δ σ ο ν
[ 86] ο ύ δ έ π ω γ ε γ ο ν ώ ς έ λ π ίσ ι \ τ α ΐς α π ά ν τ ω ν δ ιά δ ο χ ο ς
κ α ι τ ι γ ά ρ ά λ λ ' ή ό ν έ ο ς β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς π ρ ο σ α γ ο ρ ε υ ό -
μ ε ν ο ς , τ ή ν σ υ γ γ ε ν ικ ή ν κ α ι π ρ ο γ ο ν ικ ή ν έ ζ ή λ ω σ ε
π α ιδ ε ία ν , τ ά μ έ ν τ ώ ν ε ίσ π ο ιη σ α μ έ ν ω ν α γ α θ ά , κ α ι ε ι
λ α μ π ρ ό τ ε ρ α κ α ιρ ο ΐς , ν ό θ α ε ίν α ι ύ π ο λ α β ώ ν , τ ά δ έ
τ ώ ν φ ύ σ ε ι γ ο ν έ ω ν , ε ι κ α ι π ρ ο ς ο λ ίγ ο ν α φ α ν έ σ τ ε ρ α ,
33 ο ικ ε ία γ ο ϋ ν κ α ι γ ν ή σ ια * κ α θ ά π ε ρ τ ε κ ρ ιτ ή ς α δ έ -
κ α σ τ ο ς τ ώ ν γ ε ν ν η σ ά ν τ ω ν κ α ι τ ώ ν ε ίσ π ο ιη σ α μ έ ν ω ν
τ ο ύ ς μ έ ν ε ύ ν ο ια κ α ι τ ώ φ ιλ ε ΐν έ κ θ ύ μ ω ς τ ο ύ ς δ '
ε ύ χ α ρ ισ τ ία ις ά ν θ * ώ ν ε ύ έ π α θ ε ν ή μ ε ίβ ε τ ο κ α ι μ έ χ ρ ι
π α ν τ ό ς ή μ ε ίφ α τ α ν , ε ι μ ή κ α τ ε ΐδ ε ν έ ν τ ή χ ώ ρ α
μ έ γ α κ α ιν ο υ ρ γ η θ έ ν ύ π ό τ ο ϋ β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ά σ έ β η μ α .
α
A paraphrase of the fragment of Euripides quoted De
Som. i. 154:
η μ ία yap η μ έ ρ α
rbv μ έ ν κ α θ ε ΐλ ε ν ύ ψ ό θ β ν , τ ο ν δ ' %>' &ν ω .
292
MOSES I. 30-33
they themselves had the permanence of their pros-
perity securely sealed in their possession, though
even the morrow may find them no longer where
they are. For nothing is more unstable than Fortune, 31
who moves human affairs up and down on the
draughtboard of life, and in a single day pulls down
the lofty and exalts the lowly on high;
a
and though
they see and know full well that this is always
happening, they nevertheless look down on their
relations and friends and set at naught the laws
under which they were born and bred, and subvert
the ancestral customs to which no blame can justly
attach, by adopting different modes of life, and, in
their contentment with the present, lose all memory
of the past, VII. But Moses, having 32
reached the very pinnacle of human prosperity, re-
garded as the son of the king's daughter, and in
general expectation almost the successor to his grand-
father's sovereignty, and indeed regularly called the
young king, was zealous for the discipline and culture
of his kinsmen and ancestors. The good fortune of
his adopters, he held, was a spurious one, even though
the circumstances gave it greater lustre ; that of his
natural parents, though less distinguished for the
nonce, was at any rate his own and genuine ; and so, 33
estimating the claims of his real and his adopted
parents like an impartial judge, he requited the
former with good feeling and profound affection, the
latter with gratitude for their kind treatment of
him. And he would have continued to do so through-
out had he not found the king adopting in the
country a new and highly impious course of action.
293
PHILO
34 ξ έ ν ο ι γ ά ρ ή σ α ν , ώ ς έ φ η ν π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν , ο ί
5
Ι ο υ δ α ίο ι, τ ώ ν τ ο ΰ έ θ ν ο υ ς ά ρ χ η γ ε τ ώ ν δ ιά λ ιμ ό ν
α π ο ρ ία τ ρ ο φ ή ς ε κ Β α β υ λ ώ ν ο ς κ α ι τ ώ ν ά ν ω σ α τ ρ α -
π ε ιώ ν ε ίς Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν μ ε τ α ν α σ τ ά ν τ ω ν , κ α ι τ ρ ό π ο ν
τ ιν ά ίκ ε τ α ι κ α τ α π ε φ ε υ γ ό τ ε ς ώ ς έ π * ά σ υ λ ο ν ιε ρ ό ν
τ ή ν τ ε β α σ ιλ έ ω ς π ισ τ ιν κ α ι τ ό ν ά π ό τ ώ ν ο ίκ η τ ό ρ ω ν
35 έ λ ε ο ν . ο ί γ ά ρ ξ έ ν ο ι π α ρ
9
έ μ ο ι κ ρ ιτ ή τ ω ν ύ π ο δ ε ξ α -
μ έ ν ω ν ίκ έ τ α ι γ ρ α φ έ σ θ ω σ α ν , μ έ τ ο ικ ο ι δ έ π ρ ό ς ίκ έ -
τ α ις κ α ι φ ίλ ο ι, σ π ε ύ δ ο ν τ ε ς ε ίς α σ τ ώ ν ίσ ο τ ιμ ία ν κ α ι
γ ε ιτ ν ιώ ν τ ε ς ή δ η π ο λ ίτ α ις , ό λ ίγ ω τ ώ ν α υ τ ο χ θ ό ν ω ν
36 δ ια φ έ ρ ο ν τ ε ς , τ ο ύ τ ο υ ς ο ΰ ν , ο ι τ ή ν μ έ ν ο ίκ ε ία ν
ά π έ λ ιπ ο ν , ε ίς δ ' Α ΐγ υ π τ ο ν ή κ ο ν ώ ς έ ν δ ε υ τ έ ρ α
π α τ ρ ίδ ι μ ε τ α σ φ α λ ε ία ς ο ίκ ή σ ο ν τ ε ς , ό τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς
ή γ ε μ ώ ν ή ν δ ρ α π ο δ ίζ ε τ ο κ α ι ώ ς π ο λ έ μ ο υ ν ό μ ω λ α β ώ ν
α ιχ μ α λ ώ τ ο υ ς ή π ρ ιά μ ε ν ο ς π α ρ ά δ ε σ π ο τ ώ ν , ο ΐς ή σ α ν
ο ίκ ό τ ρ ιβ ε ς , ύ π ή γ ε τ ο κ α ι δ ο ύ λ ο υ ς ά π έ φ α ιν ε τ ο ύ ς ο ύ κ
ε λ ε υ θ έ ρ ο υ ς μ ό ν ο ν ά λ λ α κ α ι ξ έ ν ο υ ς κ α ι ίκ έ τ α ς κ α ι
μ ε τ ο ίκ ο υ ς ο ύ τ ε α ίδ ε σ θ ε ις ο ύ τ ε δ ε ίσ α ς τ ό ν έ λ ε υ -
θ έ ρ ιο ν κ α ι ξ έ ν ιο ν κ α ι ίκ έ σ ιο ν κ α ι έ φ έ σ τ ιο ν θ ε ό ν , δ ς
37 τ ώ ν τ ο ιο ύ τ ω ν έ σ τ ιν έ φ ο ρ ο ς , ε ΐτ έ π ιτ ά γ μ α τ α έ π -
έ τ α τ τ ε β α ρ ύ τ ε ρ α τ ή ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς ά λ λ ο υ ς έ π
9
ά λ λ ο ις
π ό ν ο υ ς π ρ ο σ τ ιθ ε ίς , κ α ι τ ο ΐς ά π α γ ο ρ ε ύ ο υ σ ιν ύ π
9
α σ θ ε ν ε ία ς ο σ ίδ η ρ ο ς ε ΐπ ε τ ο * έ π ισ τ ά τ α ς (yap} τ ώ ν
έ ρ γ ω ν ά ν η λ ε ε σ τ ά τ ο υ ς κ α ι ώ μ ο θ ύ μ ο υ ς ο ύ δ ε ν ι σ υ γ -
γ ν ώ μ η ς μ ε τ α δ ί δ ο ν τ α ς ή ρ ε ΐτ ο , ο υ ς " έ ρ γ ο δ ιώ κ τ α ς "
38 ά π ό τ ο ΰ σ υ μ β ε β η κ ό τ ο ς ώ ν ό μ α ζ ο ν . ε ίρ γ ά ζ ο ν τ ο δ '
ο ί μ έ ν π η λ ό ν ε ίς π λ ίν θ ο ν σ χ η μ α τ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς , ο ί δ έ
π α ν τ α χ ό θ ε ν ά χ υ ρ α σ υ γ κ ο μ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς —π λ ίν θ ο υ γ ά ρ
α
§§ 19-33 cannot be said to have any basis at all in the
biblical narrative, though they give a reasonable sketch of
what Moses might be expected to have felt and done in such
294
MOSES I. 34- 38
α
The Jews, as I have said before, were 34
strangers, since famine had driven the founders of
the nation, through lack of food, to migrate to Egypt
from Babylon and the inland satrapies. They were,
in a sense, suppliants, who had found a sanctuary
in the pledged faith of the king and the pity felt
for them by the inhabitants. For strangers, in my 35
judgement, must be regarded as suppliants of those
who receive them, and not only suppliants but
settlers and friends who are anxious to obtain equal
rights with the burgesses and are near to being
citizens because they differ little from the original
inhabitants. So, then, these strangers, who had left 36
their own country and come to Egypt hoping to live
there in safety as in a second fatherland, were made
slaves by the ruler of the country and reduced to the
condition of captives taken by the custom of war,
or persons purchased from the masters in whose
household they had been bred. And in thus making
serfs of men who were not only free but guests,
suppliants and settlers, he showed no shame or fear
of the God of liberty and hospitality and of justice
to guests and suppliants, Who watches over such as
these. Then he laid commands upon them, severe 37
beyond their capacity, and added labour to labour;
and, when they failed through weakness, the iron
hand was upon them ; for he chose as superintendents
of the works men of the most cruel and savage
temper who showed no mercy to anyone, men whose
name of "task-pursuer" well described the facts.
Some of the workers wrought clay into brick, while 38
others fetched from every quarter straw which served
a situation. From §§ 34-59 we have an amplification of Ex.
ii. 14 end.
295
PHILO
ά χ υ ρ α δ ε σ μ ό ς —, ο ι δ ' ή σ α ν ά π ο τ ε τ α γ μ έ ν ο ι π ρ ο ς
ο ικ ιώ ν κ α ι τ ε ιχ ώ ν κ α ι π ό λ ε ω ν κ α τ α σ κ ε υ ά ς κ α ι ο ιω -
ρ ύ χ ω ν ά ν α τ ο μ ά ς , ύ λ ο φ ο ρ ο ϋ ν τ ε ς α ύ τ ο ϊ μ ε θ ' ή μ έ ρ α ν
κ α ι ν ύ κ τ ω ρ ά ν ε υ δ ια δ ο χ ή ς , ο ύ δ ε μ ία ν έ χ ο ν τ ε ς ά ν ά -
π α υ λ α ν , ά λ λ ' ο ΰ δ ' ό σ ο ν κ α τ α δ α ρ θ ε ΐν α υ τ ό μ ό ν ο ν
[ 87] ε ώ μ ε ν ο ι, \ π ά ν τ α κ α ι τ ά τ ώ ν δ η μ ιο υ ρ γ ώ ν κ α ι τ ά
τ ώ ν υ π ο υ ρ γ ώ ν δ ρ ά ν ά ν α γ κ α ζ ό μ ε ν ο ι, ώ ς ε ν β ρ α χ ε ί
τ ά σ ώ μ α τ α α ύ τ ο ΐς ά π α γ ο ρ ε ύ ε ιν , ά τ ε κ α ι τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς
39 π ρ ο α ν α π ιπ τ ο ύ σ η ς . ά λ λ ο ι γ ο ϋ ν έ π * ά λ λ ο ις έ ξ -
έ θ ν η σ κ ο ν ώ ς υ π ό λ ο ιμ ώ δ ο υ ς φ θ ο ρ ά ς , ο υ ς ά τ α φ ο υ ς
ε ξ ω τ ώ ν ο ρ ίω ν ά π ε ρ ρ ίπ τ ο υ ν ο υ δ έ κ ό ν ιν έ π α μ ή σ α -
σ θ α ι τ ο ΐς σ ώ μ α σ ιν έ ώ ν τ ε ς ά λ λ ' ο υ δ έ δ α κ ρ ϋ σ α ι
σ υ γ γ ε ν ε ίς ή φ ίλ ο υ ς ο ύ τ ω ς ο ίκ τ ρ ώ ς δ ια φ θ α ρ έ ν τ α ς '
ά λ λ ά κ α ι τ ο ΐς ά δ ο υ λ ώ τ ο ις π ά θ ε σ ι τ ή ς φ υ χ ή ς , ά μ ό ν α
σ χ ε δ ό ν έ ξ α π ά ν τ ω ν ε λ ε ύ θ ε ρ α ή φ ύ σ ις ά ν η κ ε , δ ε σ π ο -
τ ε ία ν έ π η π ε ίλ ο υ ν ο ί α σ ε β ε ίς α ν ά γ κ η ς ά ν υ π ο ίσ τ ω
β ά ρ ε ι δ υ ν α τ ω τ έ ρ α ς π ιέ ζ ο ν τ ε ς .
40 VIII. 'Em δ η τ ο ύ τ ο ις ά θ υ μ ώ ν κ α ϊ δ υ σ χ ε ρ α ίν ω ν
δ ιε τ έ λ ε ι μ ή τ * ά μ ύ ν α σ θ α ι τ ο ύ ς ά δ ικ ο ϋ ν τ α ς μ ή τ ε
β ο η θ ε ΐν τ ο ΐς ά δ ικ ο υ μ έ ν ο ις ικ α ν ό ς ώ ν ά δ ' ο ΐό ς τ ε
ή ν , δ ιά λ ό γ ω ν ώ φ έ λ ε ι π α ρ α ιν ώ ν τ ο ΐς μ έ ν έ φ ε σ τ ώ σ ι
μ ε τ ρ ιά ζ ε ιν κ α ϊ τ ό σ φ ο δ ρ ό ν τ ώ ν έ π ιτ α γ μ ά τ ω ν υ π -
avieVcu κ α ϊ χ α λ ά ν , τ ο ΐς δ ' έ ρ γ α ζ ο μ έ ν ο ις φ έ ρ ε ιν τ ά
π α ρ ό ν τ α γ ε ν ν α ίω ς ά ν δ ρ α ς τ ε ε ίν α ι τ ά φ ρ ο ν ή μ α τ α
κ α ϊ μ ή σ υ γ κ ά μ ν ε ιν τ ά ς φ υ χ ά ς τ ο ΐς σ ώ μ α σ ιν , ά λ λ ά
41 χ ρ η σ τ ά π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ά ν έ κ π ο ν η ρ ώ ν π ά ν τ α γ ά ρ μ ε τ α -
β ά λ λ ε ιν τ ά έ ν κ ό σ μ ω π ρ ό ς τ ά ν α ν τ / α , ν έ φ ω σ ιν ε ίς
α ίθ ρ ία ν , π ν ε υ μ ά τ ω ν β ία ς ε ίς α έ ρ α ν ή ν ε μ ο ν , κ λ ύ -
δ ω ν α θ α λ ά τ τ η ς ε ίς ή σ υ χ ία ν κ α ϊ γ α λ ή ν η ν , τ ά δ '
296
MOSES I. 38-41
to bind the brick. Others were appointed to build
houses and walls and cities or to cut canals. They
carried the materials themselves day and night, with
no shifts to relieve them, no period of rest, not even
suffered just to sleep for a bit and then resume their
work. In fact, they were compelled to do all the
work, both of the artisan and his assistants, so that
in a short time loss of heart was followed necessarily
by bodily exhaustion. This was shown by the way 39
in which they died one after the other, as though
they were the victims of a pestilence, to be flung
unburied outside the borders by their masters, who
did not allow the survivors even to collect dust to
throw upon the corpses or even to shed tears for
their kinsfolk or friends thus pitifully done to death.
And, though nature has given to the untrammelled
feelings of the soul a liberty which she has denied
to almost everything else, they impiously threatened
to exert their despotism over these also and sup-
pressed them with the intolerable weight of a con-
straint more powerful than nature.
VIII. All this continued to depress and anger 40
Moses, who had no power either to punish those
who did the wrong or help those who suffered it.
What he could he did. He assisted with his words,
exhorting the overseers to show clemency and relax
and alleviate the stringency of their orders, and the
workers to bear their present condition bravely, to
display a manly spirit and not let their souls share the
weariness of their bodies, but look for good to take
the place of evil. All things in the world, he told 41
them, change to their opposites : clouds to open sky,
violent winds to tranquil weather, stormy seas to
calm and peaceful, and human affairs still more so,
297
PHILO
α ν θ ρ ώ π ε ια κ α ι μ ά λ λ ο ν , δ σ ω κ α ι ά σ τ α θ μ η τ ό τ ε ρ α ,
42 τ ο ιο ν τ ο ις κ α τ ε π ά δ ω ν ώ σ π ε ρ α γ α θ ό ς Ι α τ ρ ό ς ω ε τ ο
τ ά ς ν ό σ ο υ ς κ α ίτ ο ι β α ρ υ τ ά τ α ς ο ϋ σ α ς έ π ικ ο υ φ ιε ΐν
α ί δ ' ο π ό τ ε λ ω φ ή σ ε ια ν , α ύ θ ις ε κ π ε ρ ιτ ρ ο π ή ς έ π ε τ ί-
θ ε ν τ ο φ έ ρ ο υ σ α ί τ ι π ά ν τ ω ς ε κ τ ο υ δ ια -π ^υ σ α ι κ α ιν ό ν
43 κ α κ ό ν ά ρ γ α λ ε ώ τ ε ρ ο ν τ ώ ν π ρ ο τ έ ρ ω ν . ή σ α ν γ ά ρ
τ ίν ε ς τ ώ ν έ φ ε σ τ η κ ό τ ω ν α τ ίθ α σ ο ι σ φ ό δ ρ α κ α ι λ ε λ υ τ -
τ η κ ό τ ε ς , μ η δ έ ν ε ίς α γ ρ ιό τ η τ α τ ώ ν ιο β ό λ ω ν κ α ι
σ α ρ κ ο β ό ρ ω ν δ ια φ έ ρ ο ν τ ε ς , α ν θ ρ ω π ο ε ιδ ή θ η ρ ία , τ ή ν
τ ο ϋ σ ώ μ α τ ο ς μ ο ρ φ ή ν ε ίς δ ό κ η σ ιν ή μ ε ρ ό τ η τ ο ς έ π ι
θ ή ρ α κ α ϊ ά π α τ η π ρ ο β ε β λ η μ έ ν ο ι, σ ιδ ή ρ ο υ κ α ι ά δ ά -
44 μ α ν τ ο ς ά π ε ιθ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ι. τ ο ύ τ ω ν έ ν α τ ο ν /?ια ιο τ α τ ο ^,
ε π ε ιδ ή π ρ ό ς τ ώ μ η δ έ ν έ ν δ ιδ ό ν α ι κ α ι τ α ΐς π α ρ α κ λ ή -
σ ε σ ιν έ τ ι μ ά λ λ ο ν έ ξ ε τ ρ α χ ύ ν ε τ ο , τ ο ύ ς τ ό π ρ ο σ τ α χ θ έ ν
μ ή α π ν ε υ σ τ ί κ α ι ό ξ υ χ ε ιρ ία δ ρ ώ ν τ α ς τ ύ π τ ω ν , π ρ ο π η -
λ α κ ίζ ω ν ά χ ρ ι θ α ν ά τ ο υ , π ά σ α ς α ίκ ιζ ό μ ε ν ο ς α ίκ ία ς ,
α ν α ιρ ε ί δ ικ α ιώ σ α ς ε υ α γ έ ς ε ίν α ι τ ό έ ρ γ ο ν κ α ϊ ή ν
ε υ α γ έ ς τ ο ν έ π ' ό λ έ θ ρ ω ζ ώ ν τ α α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ά π ό λ -
λ υ σ θ α ι.
45 Ύ α ϋ τ ά κ ο υ σ α ς ό β α σ ιλ ε ύ ς ή γ α ν ά κ τ ε ι δ ε ιν ό ν
η γ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς , ο ύ κ ε ΐ τ ις τ έ θ ν η κ ε ν ή ά ν ή ρ η κ ε ν α δ ίκ ω ς ή
δ ικ α ίω ς , ά λ λ ' ε ί ό θ υ γ α τ ρ ιδ ο ϋ ς α ύ τ ώ μ ή σ υ μ φ ρ ο ν ε ΐ
μ η δ έ τ ο ύ ς α υ τ ο ύ ς ε χ θ ρ ο ύ ς κ α ι φ ίλ ο υ ς ύ π ε ίλ η φ ε ν ,
α Λ Λ α μ ισ ε ί μ ε ν ο υ ς α υ τ ό ς σ τ ε ρ γ ε ι, φ ιλ ε ι ο ε ο υ ς
π ρ ο β έ β λ η τ α ι κ α ϊ έ λ ε ε ΐ π ρ ό ς ο υ ς ά τ ρ έ π τ ω ς κ α ι
4 6
α π α ρ α ιτ ή τ ω ς έ χ ε ι. IX. | λ α β ό μ ε ν ο ι δ ' ά π α ξ
α φ ο ρ μ ή ς ο ι ε ν τ έ λ ε ι κ α ι τ ο ν ν ε α ν ια ν υ φ ο ρ ω μ ε ν ο ι—
ή δ ε σ α ν γ ά ρ μ ν η σ ικ α κ ή σ ο ν τ α τ ώ ν α ν ό σ ιο υ ρ γ η μ ά τ ω ν
298
MOSES I. 42- 46
even as they are more unstable. With such soothing 42
words, like a good physician, he thought to relieve
the sickness of their plight, terrible as it was. But,
when it abated, it did but turn and make a fresh
attack and gather from the breathing-space some
new misery more powerful than its predecessors.
For some of the overseers were exceedingly harsh 43
and ferocious, in savageness differing nothing from
venomous and carnivorous animals, wild beasts in
human shape who assumed in outward form the
semblance of civilized beings only to beguile and
catch their prey, in reality more unyielding than iron
or adamant. One of these, the cruellest of all, was 44
killed by Moses, because he not only made no con-
cession but was rendered harsher than ever by his
exhortations, beating those who did not execute his
orders with breathless promptness, persecuting them
to the point of death and subjecting them to every
outrage. Moses considered that his action in killing
him was a righteous action. And righteous it was
that one who only lived to destroy men should
himself be destroyed.
When the king heard this, he was very indignant. 45
What he felt so strongly was not that one man
had been killed by another whether justly or un-
justly, but that his own daughter's son did not
think with him, and had not considered the king's
friends and enemies to be his own friends and
enemies, but hated those of whom he was fond, and
loved those whom he rejected, and pitied those to
whom he was relentless and inexorable. IX. When 46
those in authority who suspected the youth's in-
tentions, knowing that he would remember their
wicked actions against them and take vengeance
VOL. VI L 299
PHILO
α ύ τ ο ΐς κ α ι έ π ι κ α ιρ ώ ν ά μ υ ν ο ύ μ ε ν ο ν —ά ν α π ε π τ α -
μ έ ν ο ις ώ σ ι τ ο ΰ π ά π π ο υ μ υ ρ ία ς δ ια β ο λ ά ς έ π ή ν τ λ ο υ ν ,
ο ι μ ε ν ε ν σ ε ν , ο ι ο ε ν υ ε ν , ω ς κ α ι π ε ρ ι α φ α ιρ έ σ ε ω ς
τ η ς α ρ χ ή ς ε μ π ο ιή σ α ι δ έ ο ς , " ε π ιθ ή σ ε τ α ι " λ έ γ ο ν τ ε ς ,
" ο υ δ έ ν φ ρ ο ν ε ί μ ικ ρ ό ν , ά ε ί τ ι π ρ ο σ π ε ρ ιε ρ γ ά ζ ε τ α ι,
π ρ ο κ α ιρ ο ΰ β α σ ιλ ε ία ς ε ρ α , θ ω π ε ύ ε ι τ ιν ά ς , έ τ ε ρ ο ις
α π ε ιλ ε ί, κ τ ε ίν ε ι χ ω ρ ίς δ ίκ η ς , τ ο ύ ς μ ά λ ισ τ ε ύ ν ο υ ς
σ ο ι π ρ ο β έ β λ η τ α ι. τ ί δ η μ έ λ λ ε ις , ά λ λ ' ο ύ χ ά δ ια -
ν ο ε ίτ α ι δ ρ ά ν ύ π ο τ έ μ ν ε ις ; μ έ γ α τ ο ΐς έ π ιθ ε μ έ ν ο ις α ί
τ ώ ν έ π ιβ ο υ λ ε υ ο μ έ ν ω ν ά ν α β ο λ α ί."
4 7
Τ ο ια ύ τ α δ ιε ξ ιό ν τ ω ν , ύ π α ν ε χ ώ ρ η σ ε ν ε ίς τ ή ν ο μ ο -
ρ ο ν *Κ ρ α β ία ν , έ ν θ α δ ια τ ρ ίβ ε ιν ή ν α σ φ α λ έ ς , ά μ α κ α ι
τ ό ν θ ε ό ν π ο τ ν ιώ μ ε ν ο ς , ίν α τ ο ύ ς μ έ ν έ ζ α μ ή χ α ν ω ν
ρ ύ σ η τ α ι σ υ μ φ ο ρ ώ ν , τ ο ύ ς δ έ μ η δ έ ν π α ρ α λ ύ ο ν τ α ς
τ ώ ν ε ίς έ π ή ρ ε ια ν σ ,ξ ίω ς τ ίσ η τ α ι, π α ρ ά σ χ η δ ' α ύ τ ω
τ α ΰ τ έ π ιδ ε ΐν α μ φ ό τ ε ρ α δ ιπ λ α σ ία σ α ν τ ή ν χ ά ρ ιν .
ο δ έ έ π α κ ο ύ ε ι τ ώ ν ε υ χ ώ ν ά γ ά μ ε ν ο ς α ύ τ ο ΰ τ ό φ ιλ ό -
κ α λ ο ν ή θ ο ς κ α ι μ ισ ο π ό ν η ρ ο ν , ο ύ κ ε ίς μ α κ ρ ά ν τ ά
4 8
κ α τ ά τ ή ν χ ώ ρ α ν , ώ ς θ ε ώ π ρ έ π ο ν , δ ικ ά σ α ς . έ ν ώ
δ έ έ μ ε λ λ ε δ ικ ά ζ ε ιν , τ ο ύ ς α ρ ε τ ή ς ά θ λ ο υ ς Μ ω υ σ ή ς
δ ιή θ λ ε ι τ ό ν ά λ ε ίπ τ η ν έ χ ω ν έ ν έ α υ τ ώ λ ο γ ισ μ ό ν
ά σ τ ε ΐο ν , ύ φ * ο ύ γ υ μ ν α ζ ό μ ε ν ο ς π ρ ό ς τ ο ύ ς ά ρ ισ τ ο υ ς
β ίο υ ς , τ ό ν τ ε θ ε ω ρ η τ ικ ό ν κ α ι π ρ α κ τ ικ ό ν , έ π ο ν ε ΐτ ο
φ ιλ ο σ ο φ ία ς ά ν ε λ ίτ τ ω ν ά ε ι δ ό γ μ α τ α κ α ϊ τ ή ψ υ χ ή
δ ια γ ιν ώ σ κ ω ν ε ύ τ ρ ό χ ω ς κ α ι μ ν ή μ η π α ρ α κ α τ α τ ι-
θ έ μ ε ν ο ς ε ίς τ ό ά λ η σ τ ο ν α υ τ ά κ α ι τ ά ς ο ικ ε ία ς α ύ τ ίκ α
300
MOSES I. 46-48
when the opportunity came, had thus once got a
handle, they poured malicious suggestions by the
thousand from every side into the open ears of his
grandfather, so as to instil the fear that his sove-
reignty might be taken from him. " He will attack
you," they said, "he is highly ambitious. He is
always busy with some further project. He is eager
to get the kingship before the time comes. He
flatters some, threatens others, slays without trial
and treats as outcasts those who are most loyal
to you. Why do you hesitate, instead of cutting
short his projected undertakings ? The aggressor is
greatly served by delay on the part of his proposed
victim."
While such talk was in circulation, Moses retired 47
into the neighbouring country of Arabia, where it was
safe for him to stay, at the same time beseeching God
to save the oppressed from their helpless, miserable
plight, and to punish as they deserved the oppressors
who. had left no form of maltreatment untried, and
to double the gift by granting to himself that he
should see both these accomplished. God, in high
approval of his spirit, which loved the good and
hated evil, listened to his prayers, and very shortly
judged the land and its doings as became His nature.
But, while the divine judgement was still waiting, 48
Moses was carrying out the exercises of virtue with an
admirable trainer, the reason within him, under whose
discipline he laboured to fit himself for life in its
highest forms, the theoretical and the practical. He
was ever opening the scroll of philosophical doctrines,
digested them inwardly with quick understand-
ing, committed them to memory never to be for-
gotten, and straightway brought his personal conduct,
301
PHILO
π ρ ά ξ ε ις έ φ α ρ μ ό τ τ ω ν έ π α ιν ε τ ά ς π ά σ α ς , έ φ ιέ μ ε ν ο ς
ο ύ τ ο ύ δ ο κ ε ΐν ά λ λ ά τ ή ς α λ η θ ε ία ς , δ ιά τ ό π ρ ο κ ε ΐσ θ α ι
σ κ ο π ό ν ε ν α τ ο ν ο ρ θ ό ν τ ή ς φ ύ σ ε ω ς λ ό γ ο ν , δ ς μ ό ν ο ς
49 έ σ τ ϊν α ρ ε τ ώ ν ά ρ χ ή τ ε κ α ί π η γ ή . έ τ ε ρ ο ς
μ έ ν ο ύ ν ό ρ γ ή ν ά μ ε ίλ ικ τ ο ν β α σ ιλ έ ω ς ά π ο δ ιδ ρ ά σ κ ω ν
κ α ι ά ρ τ ι π ρ ώ τ ο ν ε ίς ά λ λ ο δ α π ή ν ά φ ιγ μ έ ν ο ς , μ ή π ω
τ ο ΐς τ ώ ν έ π ιχ ω ρ ίω ν έ θ ε σ ιν έ ν ω μ ιλ η κ ώ ς μ η δ έ
α κ ρ ιβ ώ ς ε π ισ τ α μ έ ν ο ς ο ΐς χ α ίρ ο υ σ ιν ή ά λ λ ο τ ρ ιο ύ ν τ α ι,
κ α ν έ σ π ο ύ δ α σ ε ν η σ υ χ ία χ ρ ώ μ έ ν ο ς ά φ α ν έ σ τ ε ρ ο ν ζ ή ν
τ ο υ ς π ο λ λ ο ύ ς λ α ν θ ά ν ω ν ή β ο υ λ η θ ε ις ε ίς μ έ σ ο ν
π α ρ έ ρ χ ε σ θ α ι τ ο ύ ς γ ο ύ ν δ υ ν α τ ο ύ ς κ α ι τ ο ύ ς π λ ε ίσ τ ο ν
ισ χ ύ ο ν τ α ς λ ιπ α ρ έ σ ι θ ε ρ α π ε ία ις ε ξ ε υ μ ε ν ίζ ε σ θ α ι, π α ρ
9
ώ ν τ ις ω φ έ λ ε ια π ρ ο σ ε δ ο κ ά τ ο κ α ι β ο ή θ ε ια , ε ΐ τ ίν ε ς
60 έ π ε λ θ ό ν τ ε ς ά π ά γ ε ιν π ρ ο ς β ία ν έ π ε ιρ ώ ν τ ο . ό δ έ τ ή ν
ε ν α ν τ ίο ν τ ο ύ ε ικ ό τ ο ς ά τ ρ α π ό ν ή λ α υ ν ε τ α ΐς τ ή ς -
φ υ χ ή ς iyiaivouaai? ό ρ μ α ΐς ε π ό μ ε ν ο ς κ α ι μ η δ ε μ ία ν
έ ώ ν ύ π ο σ κ ε λ ίζ ε σ θ α ί' δ ιό κ α ι τ ή ς ύ π ο ύ σ η ς δ υ ν ά μ ε ω ς
[ 89] έ σ τ ιν δ τ ε π λ έ ο ν έ ν ε α ν ιε ύ ε τ ο \ δ ύ ν α μ ιν ά κ α θ α ίρ ε τ ο ν
τ ό δ ίκ α ιο ν η γ ο ύ μ ε ν ο ς , ύ φ
9
ο ύ π ρ ο τ ρ α π ε ις α ύ τ ο -
κ έ λ ε υ σ τ ο ς ε π ι τ ή ν τ ώ ν α σ θ ε ν έ σ τ ε ρ ω ν σ υ μ μ α χ ία ν
ιε τ ο .
61 Χ . Α έ ξ ω δ έ κ α ι τ ό κ α τ
9
ε κ ε ίν ο ν α ύ τ ώ τ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν
π ρ α χ θ έ ν , ε ί κ α ι μ ικ ρ ό ν ό σ α γ ε τ ώ δ ο κ ε ΐν , ά λ λ ' ο ύ κ
ά π ό φ ρ ο ν ή μ α τ ο ς μ ικ ρ ο ύ , κ τ η ν ο τ ρ ο φ ο ύ σ ιν "Α ρ α β ε ς
κ α ι ν έ μ ο υ σ ι τ ά θ ρ έ μ μ α τ α ο ύ κ ά ν δ ρ ε ς μ ό ν ο ν ά λ λ ά
κ α ι γ υ ν α ίκ ε ς ν έ ο ι τ ε κ α ι π α ρ θ έ ν ο ι π α ρ
9
α ύ τ ο ΐς , ο ύ χ ι
τ ώ ν ή μ ε λ η μ έ ν ώ ν κ α ι ά δ ο ξ ω ν μ ό ν ο ν ά λ λ ά κ α ι τ ώ ν
62 ά γ α ν ε π ιφ α ν ώ ν , ε π τ ά δ ή κ ό ρ α ι π α τ ρ ό ς ιε ρ έ ω ς
π ο ίμ ν η ν ά γ ο υ σ α ι π α ρ ή σ α ν ε π ί τ ιν α π η γ ή ν κ α ι τ ώ ν
ίμ ο ν ιώ ν έ κ δ η σ ά μ ε ν ο ι τ ο ύ ς κ α δ ίσ κ ο υ ς ά λ λ η δ ια δ ε χ ό -
μ ε ν η π α ρ
9
ά λ λ η ς υ π έ ρ τ ή ς ε ν τ ώ π ο ν ε ΐν ισ ο μ ο ιρ ία ς
302
MOSES I. 48- 52
praiseworthy in all respects, into conformity with
them; for he desired truth rather than seeming, be-
cause the one mark he set before him was nature's
right reason, the sole source and fountain of virtues.
Now, any other who was fleeing from 49
the king's relentless wrath, and had just arrived for
the first time in a foreign land, who had not yet be-
come familiar with the customs of the natives nor gained
exact knowledge of what pleases or offends them,
might well have been eager to keep quiet and live
in obscurity unnoticed by the multitude ; or else he
might have wished to come forward in public, and by
obsequious persistence court the favour of men of
highest authority and power, if none others, men who
might be expected to give help and succour should
some come and attempt to carry him off by force.
But the path which he took was the opposite of what 50
we should expect. He followed the wholesome im-
pulses of his soul, and suffered none of them to be
brought to the ground. And, therefore, at times he
showed a gallant temper beyond his fund of strength,
for he regarded justice as strength invincible, which
urged him on his self-appointed task to champion the
weaker.
X. I will describe an action of his at this time, 51
which, though it may seem a petty matter, argues a
spirit of no petty kind. The Arabs are breeders of
cattle, and they employ for tending them not only
men but women, youths and maidens alike, and
not only those of insignificant and humble families
but those of the highest position. Seven maidens, 52
daughters of the priest, had come to a well, and, after
attaching the buckets to the ropes, drew water, taking
turns with each to share the labour equally. They
303
PHILO
μ ,ά λ α π ρ ο θ ύ μ ω ς τ ά ς δ ε ξ α μ ε ν ά ς , α ΐ π λ η σ ίο ν ε κ ε ιν τ ο ,
53 π λ η ρ ο ύ σ ιν . έ π ιφ ο ιτ ή σ α ν τ ε ς δ ' έ τ ε ρ ο ι π ο ιμ έ ν ε ς κ α ι
τ ή ς τ ώ ν π α ρ θ έ ν ω ν α σ θ ε ν ε ία ς ύ π ε ρ ιδ ό ν τ ε ς τ ά ς μ ε ν
έ π ε χ ε ίρ ο υ ν μ ε τ ά τ ή ς π ο ίμ ν η ς έ λ α ύ ν ε ιν , τ ά δ ' ο ικ ε ία
θ ρ έ μ μ α τ α , π ρ ο σ ή γ ο ν ε π ι τ ο ε ύ τ ρ ε π ισ θ έ ν π ο τ ό ν
54 ά λ λ ό τ ρ ιο ν κ α ρ π ω σ ό μ ε ν ο ι π ό ν ο ν . ιδ ώ ν δ έ Μ ω υ σ ή ς
τ ό γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ν —ο ύ γ ά ρ ή ν π ό ρ ρ ω —σ ν ν τ ε ίν α ς έ θ ε ι κ α ι
π λ η σ ίο ν σ τ ά ς " ο ύ π α ύ σ ε σ θ ε " ε ΐπ ε ν " ά δ ικ ο ύ ν τ ε ς ,
τ ή ν έ ρ η μ ία ν ν ο μ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς ε ΐν α ι π λ ε ο ν ε ξ ία ν ; β ρ α χ ίο -
ν α ς κ α ι π ή χ ε ις α ρ γ ο ύ ς τ ρ έ φ ο ν τ ε ς ο ύ κ έ ρ υ θ ρ ιά τ ε ;
χ α ίτ α ι β α θ ε ΐα ι κ α ι σ ά ρ κ ε ς ύ μ ε ΐς έ σ τ ε , ο ύ κ ά ν δ ρ ε ς *
α ί μ έ ν κ ό ρ α ι vca^tetiovrcu μ η δ έ ν ό κ ν ο ν σ α ι τ ώ ν
55 π ρ α κ τ έ ω ν , ο ι δ έ ν ε α ν ία ι κ ο ρ ικ ώ ς ή δ η τ ρ υ φ α τ ε . ο ύ
β α δ ιε ΐσ θ ε ; ο ύ χ ύ π ε κ σ τ ή σ ε σ θ ε τ α ΐς π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν ή κ ο ύ -
σ α ις , ώ ν κ α ί τ ό π ο τ ό ν έ σ τ ι; δ ικ α ίω ς ά ν α ύ τ α ΐς
ε π α ν τ λ ή σ α ν τ ε ς , ίν ά φ θ ο ν ώ τ ε ρ ο ν ύ δ ω ρ ε ϊη , κ α ι τ ό ,
ε ύ τ ρ ε π ισ θ έ ν ά φ ε λ έ σ θ α ι σ π ε ύ δ ε τ ε ; ά λ λ ά μ ά τ ο ν
ο ύ ρ ά ν ιο ν τ ή ς δ ίκ η ς ό φ θ α λ μ ό ν ο ύ κ ά φ ε λ ε ΐσ θ ε β λ έ -
56 π ο ν τ α κ α ι τ ά ε ν τ ο ΐς έ ρ η μ ο τ ά τ ο ις . έ μ έ γ ο ύ ν
έ χ ε ιρ ο τ ό ν η σ ε β ο η θ ό ν ο ύ π ρ ο σ δ ο κ η θ έ ν τ α ' κ α ι γ ά ρ
ε ίμ ι σ ύ μ μ α χ ο ς τ α ΐς ά δ ικ ο ν μ έ ν α ις μ ε τ ά μ ε γ ά λ η ς
χ ε ιρ ό ς , ή ν ο ύ θ έ μ ις π λ ε ο ν έ κ τ α ις ό ρ ά ν α ίσ θ ή σ ε σ θ ε
δ έ α υ τ ή ς ε κ τ ο ύ α φ α ν ο ύ ς τ ιτ ρ ω σ κ ο ύ σ η ς , ε ί μ ή
57 μ ε τ α β ά λ ο ιτ ε τ α ύ τ α δ ιε ξ ιό ν τ ο ς , φ ο β η θ έ ν τ ε ς , έ π ε ϊ
κ #ι λ έ γ ω ν ά μ α ε ν ε θ ο ν σ ία μ ε τ α μ ο ρ φ ο ύ μ έ ν ο ς ε ίς
π ρ ο φ ή τ η ν , μ ή χ ρ η σ μ ο ύ ς κ α ι λ ό γ ια θ ε σ π ίζ ε ι, κ α τ α -
π ε ιθ ε ΐς τ ε γ ίν ο ν τ α ι κ α ι τ ή ν π ο ίμ ν η ν τ ώ ν π α ρ θ έ ν ω ν
ε π ί τ ά ς δ ε ξ α μ ε ν ά ς ά γ ο ν τ α ι π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν μ ε τ α σ τ η σ ά -
58 μ ε ν ο ι τ ά ς ε α υ τ ώ ν . XI. at δ ' έ π α ν ή ε σ α ν
ο ϊκ α δ ε σ φ ό δ ρ α γ ε γ η θ υ ΐα ι κ α ι τ ά σ υ μ β ά ν τ α π α ρ
9
ε λ π ίδ α ς έ κ δ ιη γ ο ύ ν τ ο , ώ ς π ο λ ύ ν ΐμ ε ρ ο ν έ ν ε ρ γ ά σ α -
304
MOSES I. 52-58
had with great industry filled the troughs which lay
near, when some other shepherds appeared on the 53
spot who, disdaining the weakness of the girls, tried
to drive them and their flock away, and proceeded to
bring their own animals to the place where the water
lay ready, and thus appropriate the labours of others.
But Moses, who was not far off, seeing what had hap- 54
pened, quickly ran up and, standing near by, said :
" Stop this injustice. You think you can take ad-
vantage of the loneliness of the place. Are you not
ashamed to let your arms and elbows live an idle life ?
You are masses of long hair and lumps of flesh, not
men. The girls are working like youths, and shirk
none of their duties, while you young men go daintily
like girls. Away with you : give place to those who 55
were here before you, to whom the water belongs.
Properly, you should have drawn for them, to make
the supply more abundant; instead, you are all agog
to take from them what they have provided. Nay,
by the heavenly eye of justice, you shall not take it;
for that eye sees even what is done in the greatest
solitude. In me at least it has appointed a champion 56
whom you did not expect, for I fight to succour these
injured maidens, allied to a mighty arm which the
rapacious may not see, but you shall feel its invisible
power to wound if you do not change your ways." As 57
he proceeded thus, they were seized with fear that
they were listening to some oracular utterance, for as
he spoke he grew inspired and was transfigured into
a prophet. They became submissive, and led the
maidens' flock to the troughs, after removing their
own. XI. The girls went home in high 58
glee, and told the story of the unexpected event to
their father, who thence conceived a strong desire to
305
PHILO
σ θ α ι τ ο ϋ ξ έ ν ο υ τ ώ π α τ ρ ί. κ α τ ε μ έ μ φ ε τ ο γ ο ΰ ν α ύ τ ά ς
έ π α χ α ρ ισ τ ία , τ ο ια ύ τ α λ έ γ ω ν " τ ι π α θ ο ϋ σ α ι μ ε θ -
ίε τ ε , δ έ ο ν ά γ ε ιν ε υ θ ύ ς κ α ι ε ΐπ ε ρ ά ν ε δ ύ ε τ ο λ ιπ α ρ ε ΐν ;
ή τ ιν α μ ισ α ν θ ρ ω π ία ν μ ο υ κ α τ έ γ ν ω τ ε ; ή δ ε ύ τ ε ρ ο ν
[90] π ε ρ ιπ ε σ ε ΐν ά δ ίκ ο ις ο ύ \ π ρ ο σ δ ο κ ά τ ε ; β ο η θ ώ ν ά π ο -
ρ ε ΐν α ν ά γ κ η τ ο ύ ς έ π ιλ ή σ μ ο ν ά ς χ α ρ ίτ ω ν , ά λ λ ' δ μ ω ς
ά ν α δ ρ α μ ο ϋ σ α ι (τ ό γ ά ρ α μ ά ρ τ η μ α μ έ χ ρ ι ν υ ν έ σ τ ιν
ίά σ ιμ ο ν ) ϊτ ε μ ε τ ά σ π ο υ δ ή ς κ α ι κ α λ ε ίτ ε ξ ε ν ίω ν μ έ ν
π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν α ύ θ ις δ έ κ α ι α μ ο ιβ ή ς (ο φ ε ίλ ε τ α ι γ ά ρ α ύ τ ώ
59 χ ά ρ ις ) μ ε θ έ ξ ο ν τ α ." σ υ ν τ ε ίν α σ α ι δ έ κ α τ α λ α μ β ά -
ν ο υ σ ιν α υ τ ό ν ο ύ π ό ρ ρ ω τ ή ς π η γ ή ς κ α ι δ η λ ώ σ α σ α ι
τ ά ά π ό τ ο ϋ π α τ ρ ό ς ο ϊκ α δ ε σ υ μ π ε ίθ ο υ σ ιν ή κ ε ιν . ό
δ έ π α τ ή ρ τ ή ν μ έ ν δ φ ιν ε υ θ ύ ς τ ό δ έ β ο ύ λ η μ α ο λ ίγ ο ν
ύ σ τ ε ρ ο ν fcaTa7rAay€is—ά ρ ίδ η λ ο ι γ ά ρ α ί μ ε γ ά λ α ι
φ ύ σ ε ις κ α ι ο ύ μ ή κ ε ι χ ρ ό ν ο υ γ ν ω ρ ιζ ό μ ε ν α ι—δ ίδ ω σ ι
τ ή ν κ α λ λ ισ τ ε ύ ο υ σ α ν α ύ τ ώ τ ώ ν θ υ γ α τ έ ρ ω ν γ υ ν α ίκ α ,
δ ι ε ν ό ς έ ρ γ ο υ π ά ν θ * ο σ α τ ώ ν ε ίς κ α λ ο κ ά γ α θ ία ν
μ α ρ τ υ ρ ή σ α ς κ α ι ώ ς ά ξ ιέ ρ α σ τ ο ν μ ό ν ο ν τ ό κ α λ ό ν
έ σ τ ι τ ή ς ά φ * ε τ έ ρ ο υ σ υ σ τ ά σ ε ω ς ο ύ δ ε ό μ ε ν ο ν , ά λ λ '
έ ν έ α υ τ ώ π ε ρ ιφ έ ρ ο ν τ ά γ ν ω ρ ίσ μ α τ α .
60 μ ε τ ά δ έ τ ο ν γ ά μ ο ν π α ρ α λ α β ώ ν τ ά ς ά γ έ λ α ς έ π ο ι-
μ α ιν ε π ρ ο δ ιδ α σ κ ό μ ε ν ο ς ε ις ή γ ε μ ο ν ία ν π ο ιμ ε ν ικ ή
γ ά ρ μ ε λ έ τ η κ α ι π ρ ο γ υ μ ν α σ ία β α σ ιλ ε ία ς τ ώ μ έ λ λ ο ν τ ι
τ ή ς ή μ ε ρ ω τ ά τ η ς τ ώ ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν έ π ισ τ α τ ε ΐν α γ έ λ η ς ,
κ α θ ά π ε ρ κ α ι τ ο ις π ο λ ε μ ικ ο ΐς τ ά ς φ ύ σ ε ις τ ά κ υ ν η -
γ έ σ ια —θ ή ρ α ις γ ά ρ έ μ π ρ ο μ ε λ ε τ ώ σ ιν ο ι π ρ ό ς τ ά ς
σ τ ρ α τ α ρ χ ία ς ά λ ε ιφ ό μ ε ν ο ι—
1
τ ώ ν ά λ ο γ ω ν ο ΐά τ ίν ο ς
ύ λ η ς ύ π ο β ε β λ η μ έ ν ω ν π ρ ό ς ά σ κ η σ ιν τ ή ς κ α θ * έ κ ά -
1
Cohn's punctuation (colon after Kvvyyeaia, comma after
ά λ α φ δ μ ε ν ο ι.) is faulty here, τ ώ ν aXoycov κ τ λ . is common to
both shepherding and hunting.
S06
β
Cf. De los. 2 f.
MOSES I. 58-60
see the stranger, which he showed by censuring them
for their ingratitude. " What possessed you," he
said, " to let him depart ? You should have brought
him straight along, and pressed him if he showed
reluctance. Did you ever have to charge me with
unsociable ways ? Do you not expect that you may
again fall in with those who would wrong you ?
Those who forget kindness are sure to lack defenders.
Still, your error is not yet past cure. Run back with
all speed, and invite him to receive from me first
the entertainment due to him as a stranger, secondly
some requital of the favour which we owe to him."
They hurried back and found him not far from the 59
well, and, after explaining their father's message,
persuaded him to come home with them. Their
father was at once struck with admiration of his face,
and soon afterwards of his disposition, for great
natures are transparent and need no length of time
to be recognized. Accordingly, he gave him the
fairest of his daughters in marriage, and, by that one
action, attested all his noble qualities, and showed
that excellence standing alone deserves our love, and
needs no commendation from aught else, but carries
within itself the tokens by which it is known.
After the marriage, Moses took charge of the 60
sheep and tended them, thus receiving his first lesson
in command of others ; for the shepherd's business
is a training-ground and a preliminary exercise in
kingship for one who is destined to command the herd
of mankind, the most civilized of herds, just as also
hunting is for Avarlike natures, since those who are
trained to generalship practise themselves first in the
chase.
a
And thus unreasoning animals are made to
subserve as material wherewith to gain practice in
307
PHILO
repov κ α ιρ ό ν α ρ χ ή ς , τ ο ν τ ε π ο λ έ μ ο υ κ α ι τ ο ν ε ιρ ή ν η ς .
61 ή μ ε ν yap τ ώ ν ά γ ρ ιω ν θ ή ρ α σ τ ρ α τ η γ ικ ό ν κ α τ *
έ χ θ ρ ω ν έ σ τ ι γ ύ μ ν α σ μ α , ή δ έ τ ώ ν ή μ ε ρ ω ν ε π ιμ έ λ ε ια
κ α ι π ρ ο σ τ α σ ία β α σ ιλ ικ ό ν π ρ ο ς υ π η κ ό ο υ ς α γ ώ ν ισ μ α *
δ ιό κ α ι " π ο ιμ έ ν ε ς λ α ώ ν " ο ι β α σ ιλ ε ίς , ο ύ χ ώ ς
ό ν ε ιδ ο ς ά λ λ ' ώ ς υ π ε ρ β ά λ λ ο υ σ α τ ιμ ή , π ρ ο σ α γ ο ρ ε ύ -
62 ο ν τ α ι. κ α ί μ ο ι δ ο κ ε ΐ μ ή π ρ ό ς δ ό ξ α ς τ ώ ν π ο λ λ ώ ν
ά λ λ α π ρ ό ς ά λ ή θ ε ια ν έ ρ ε υ ν ω μ έ ν ω τ ό π ρ ά γ μ α —
γ ε λ ά τ ω δ ' ό β ο υ λ ό μ ε ν ο ς —μ ό ν ο ς α ν γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι β α σ ι-
λ ε ύ ς τ έ λ ε ιο ς ό τ ή ν π ο ιμ ε ν ικ ή ν έ π ισ τ ή μ η ν α γ α θ ό ς ,
έ ν έ λ ά τ τ ο σ ι ζ ώ ο ις π α ιδ ε υ θ ε ις τ ά τ ώ ν κ ρ ε ιτ τ ό ν ω ν *
ά μ ή χ α ν ο ν γ ά ρ τ ά μ ε γ ά λ α π ρ ο τ ώ ν μ ικ ρ ώ ν τ ε λ ε -
σ θ ή ν α ι.
63 XII. Γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ς ο ύ ν τ ώ ν κ α θ * α υ τ ό ν ά γ ε λ α ρ χ ώ ν
ά ρ ισ τ ο ς κ α ι π ο ρ ισ τ ή ς (τ ώ ν ^ ο σ α π ρ ό ς τ ή ν τ ώ ν
θ ρ ε μ μ ά τ ω ν σ υ ν έ τ ε ιν ε ν ώ φ έ λ ε ια ν ικ α ν ό ς έ κ τ ο ϋ
μ η δ έ ν ά π ο κ ν ε ίν ά λ λ ' έ θ ε λ ο υ ρ γ ώ κ α ι α ύ τ ο κ ε λ ε ύ σ τ ω
π ρ ο θ υ μ ία
1
ε ίς δ έ ο ν τ ή π ρ ο σ τ α σ ία χ ρ ή σ θ α ι μ ε τ ά \
[ 91] κ α θ α ρ ά ς
2 ,
κ α ι ά δ ο λ ο υ π ίσ τ ε ω ς η ϋ ξ η σ ε τ ά ς ά γ έ λ α ς *
64 <*>ς ύ π ό τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν ν ο μ έ ω ν ή δ η κ α ι φ θ ο ν ε ΐσ θ α ι
μ η δ έ ν ό μ ο ιό τ ρ ο π ο ν έ ν τ α ΐς ίδ ία ις π ο ίμ ν α ις ό ρ ώ ν τ ω ν ,
α ΐς ε υ τ υ χ έ ς ε ίν α ι έ δ ό κ ε ι ή έ ν ό μ ο ίω μ ο ν ή , τ α ΐς δ έ
τ ό μ ή β ε λ τ ιο ϋ σ θ α ι κ α θ * έ κ ά σ τ η ν ή μ έ ρ α ν έ λ ά τ τ ω σ ις
δ ιά τ ό μ ε γ ά λ α ς ε ίω θ έ ν α ι λ α μ β ά ν ε ιν ε π ιδ ό σ ε ις έ κ μ έ ν
1
MSS. π ρ ο σ τ α σ ία ,
2
MSS. χ α ρ ά *.
α
Possibly, as the German translation takes it, τ ε λ ε σ θ ή ν α ι
may mean simply " accomplished," ** consummated." But
De Sac. 62 oi irpb τ ώ ν μ ε ~γ ά \ω ν τ ο ύ τ ω ν τ α μ ικ ρ ά μ υ σ τ ή ρ ια
μ υ η θ έ ν τ ε ς , cf. De Cher. 49, and other allusions to the
"great" mysteries seem to make it much more probable
that the more picturesque meaning is intended. So Mangey,
who on the strength of these two passages, and the adaptation
308
MOSES I. 60-64
government in the emergencies of both peace and
war ; for the chase of wild animals is a drilling- Q\
ground for the general in fighting the enemy, and the
care and supervision of tame animals is a schooling
for the king in dealing with his subjects, and there-
fore kings are called " shepherds of their people,"
not as a term of reproach but as the highest honour.
And my opinion, based not on the opinions of the g o
multitude but on my own inquiry into the truth of
the matter, is that the only perfect king (let him
laugh who will) is one who is skilled in the knowledge
of shepherding, one who has been trained by manage-
ment of the inferior creatures to manage the superior.
For initiation in the lesser mysteries must precede
initiation in the greater.
0
XII.
b
To return to Moses, he became more skilled 63
than any of his time in managing flocks and providing
what tended to the benefit of his charges. His
capacity was due to his never shirking any duty, but
showing an eager and unprompted zeal wherever it
was needed, and maintaining a pure and guileless
honesty in the conduct of his office. Consequently 64
the flocks increased under him, and this roused
the envy of the other graziers, who did not see
anything of the sort happening in their own flocks.
In their case it was felt to be a piece of luck if
they remained as they had been, but with the flocks
of Moses any failure to make daily improvement was
a set-back, so great was the progress regularly made,
both in fine quality, through increased fatness and firm-
given of them by Clement, would correct τε λ β   σ θ α ι to μ ν ε   σ θ α ι .
But this sense of τε λ ε   σ θ α ι is quite common in Philo, cf.
DeAbr. 122.
* For §§ 63-84 see Ex. iii. 1-iv. 17.
309
PHILO
ε ύ σ α ρ κ ία ς κ α ι π ιό τ η τ ο ς ε ίς κ ά λ λ ο ς , ε ίς δ έ π λ ή θ ο ζ
ε ξ ε ύ τ ο κ ία ς κ α ι τ ώ ν π ε ρ ι δ ία ιτ α ν υ γ ιε ιν ώ ν .
65 ά γ ω ν δ έ
1
τ ή ν π ο ίμ ν η ν ε ίς τ ό π ο ν ε ύ υ δ ρ ό ν τ ε κ α ι
ε ϋ χ ο ρ τ ο ν , έ ν θ α σ υ ν έ β α ιν ε κ α ι π ο λ λ ή ν π ό α ν π ρ ο -
β α τ ε ύ σ ιμ ο ν ά ν α δ ίδ ο σ θ α ι, γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ς π ρ ο ς τ ιν ι ν ά π ε ι
θ έ α μ α έ κ π λ η κ τ ικ ώ τ α τ ο ν ό ρ α . β ά τ ο ς ή ν , α κ α ν θ ώ δ ε ς
τ ι φ υ τ ό ν κ α ι ά σ θ ε ν έ σ τ α τ ο ν ο ύ τ ο ς , ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς π υ ρ
π ρ ο σ ε ν ε γ κ ο ν τ ό ς , ε ξ α ίφ ν η ς ά ν α κ α ίε τ α ι κ α ι π ε ρ ι-
σ χ ε θ ε ϊς ό λ ο ς ε κ ρ ίζ η ς ε ίς ά κ ρ έ μ ο ν α π ο λ λ ή φ λ ο γ ι
κ α θ ά π ε ρ ά π ό τ ίν ο ς π η γ ή ς ά ν ο μ β ρ ο ύ σ η ς δ ιέ μ ε ν ε
σ ώ ο ς , ο ύ κ α τ α κ α ιό μ έ ν ο ς , ο ΐά τ ις α π α θ ή ς ο υ σ ία
κ α ι ο ύ χ ύ λ η π υ ρ ό ς α υ τ ό ς ώ ν , ά λ λ ά τ ρ ο φ ή χ ρ ώ μ ε ν ο ς
66 τ ώ π υ ρ ί. κ α τ ά δ έ μ έ σ η ν τ ή ν φ λ ό γ α μ ο ρ φ ή τ ις
ή ν π ε ρ ίκ α λ λ ε σ τ ά τ η , τ ώ ν ο ρ α τ ώ ν έ μ φ ε ρ ή ς ο ύ δ ε ν ί,
θ ε ο ε ιδ έ σ τ α τ ο ν ά γ α λ μ α , φ ώ ς α ύ γ ο ε ιδ έ σ τ ε ρ ο ν τ ο ύ
π υ ρ ό ς α π α σ τ ρ ά π τ ο υ σ α , ή ν ά ν τ ις ύ π ε τ ό π η σ ε ν
ε ικ ό ν α τ ο ύ ό ν τ ο ς ε ίν α ι* κ α λ ε ίσ θ ω δ έ ά γ γ ε λ ο ς , ό τ ι
σ χ ε δ ό ν τ ά μ έ λ λ ο ν τ α γ ε ν ή σ ε σ θ α ι δ ιή γ γ ε λ λ ε τ ρ α ν ό -
τ ε ρ α φ ω ν ή ς η σ υ χ ία δ ιά τ ή ς μ ε γ ά λ ο υ ρ γ η θ ε ίσ η ς
67 ο φ ε ω ς . σ ύ μ β ο λ ο ν γ ά ρ ό μ έ ν κ α ιό μ ε ν ο ς
β ά τ ο ς τ ώ ν α δ ικ ο ύ μ ε ν ω ν , τ ό δ έ φ λ έ γ ο ν π υ ρ τ ώ ν
ά δ ικ ο ύ ν τ ω ν , τ ό δ έ μ ή κ α τ α κ α ίε σ θ α ι τ ό κ α ιό μ ε ν ο ν
τ ο υ μ ή π ρ ο ς τ ώ ν ε π ιτ ιθ ε μ έ ν ω ν φ θ α ρ ή σ ε σ θ α ι τ ό ύ ς
α δ ικ ο ύ μ ε ν ο υ ς , ά λ λ ά τ ο ΐς μ έ ν ά π ρ α κ τ ο ν κ α ι α ν ω φ ε λ ή
γ ε ν έ σ θ α ι τ ή ν ε π ίθ ε σ ιν , τ ο ΐς δ ε τ ή ν έ π ιβ ο υ λ ή ν
ά ζ ή μ ιο ν , ο δ ε ά γ γ ε λ ο ς π ρ ο ν ο ία ς τ ή ς ε κ ^ θ ε ο ύ τ ά
λ ία ν φ ο β ε ρ ά π α ρ ά τ ά ς α π ά ν τ ω ν ε λ π ίδ α ς κ α τ ά
68 π ο λ λ ή ν ή σ υ χ ία ν έ ξ ε υ μ α ρ ίζ ο ν τ ο ς . XIII. τ ή ν δ έ
ε ίκ α σ ία ν α κ ρ ιβ ώ ς έ π ισ κ ε π τ έ ο ν . ό β ά τ ο ς , ώ ς έ λ έ -
1
MSS. Τ €.
310
MOSES I. 64- 68
ness of flesh, and in number through their fecundity
and the wholesomeness of their food.
Now, as he was leading the flock to a place where the 65
water and the grass were abundant, and where there
happened to be plentiful growth of herbage for the
sheep, he found himself at a glen where he saw a
most astonishing sight. There was a bramble-bush,
a thorny sort of plant, and of the most weakly kind,
which, without anyone's setting it alight, suddenly
took fire ; and, though enveloped from root to twigs
in a mass of fire, which looked as though it were
spouted up from a fountain, yet remained whole, and,
instead of being consumed, seemed to be a substance
impervious to attack, and, instead of serving as fuel
to the fire, actually fed on it. In the midst of the 66
flame was a form of the fairest beauty, unlike any
visible object, an image supremely divine in appear-
ance, refulgent with a light brighter than the light
of fire. It might be supposed that this was the image
of Him that is; but let us rather call it an angel or
herald, since, with a silence that spoke more clearly
than speech, it employed as it were the miracle of
sight to herald future events. For the 67
burning bramble was a symbol of those who suffered
wrong, as the flaming fire of those who did it. Yet
that which burned was not burnt up, and this was a
sign that the sufferers would not be destroyed by
their aggressors, who would find that the aggression
was vain and profitless while the victims of malice
escaped unharmed. The angel was a symbol of
God's providence, which all silently brings relief to
the greatest dangers, exceeding every hope. XIII.
But the details of the comparison must be con- 68
sidered. The bramble, as I have said, is a very
311
PHILO
χ θ η , φ υ τ ό ν α σ θ ε ν έ σ τ α τ ο » ά λ λ ' ο υ δ έ ά κ ε ν τ ρ ο ν , ώ ς
el κ α ι μ ό ν ο ν ε π ιψ α ύ σ ε ιέ τ ις τ ιτ ρ ώ σ κ ε ιν , ο ϋ τ έ ζ -
α ν α λ ώ θ η τ ω φ ύ σ ε ι δ α π α ν η ρ ώ π υ ρ ί, τ ο υ ν α ν τ ίο ν δ έ
έ φ υ λ ά χ θ η π ρ ο ς α υ τ ο ύ κ α ι δ ια μ έ ν ω ν ό π ο ιο ς ή ν π ρ ιν
ά ν α κ α ίε σ θ α ι μ η δ έ ν α π ο β ο λ ώ ν τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν α ύ γ ή ν
^ π ρ ο σ έ λ α β ε . \ τ ο ϋ θ * ά π α ν υ π ο γ ρ α φ ή τ ις έ σ τ ι τ ή ς
ε θ ν ικ ή ς υ π ο θ έ σ ε ω ς ,
1
ή κ α τ * ε κ ε ίν ο ν τ ο ν χ ρ ό ν ο ν
ε π ε ΐχ ε , μ ό ν ο ν ο ύ β ο ώ σ α τ ο ΐς ε ν σ υ μ φ ο ρ α ΐς · " μ ή
ά ν α π ίπ τ ε τ ε , τ ό α σ θ ε ν έ ς υ μ ώ ν δ ύ ν α μ ίς έ σ τ ιν , ή κ α ι
κ ε ν τ ε ΐ κ α ι κ α τ α τ ρ ώ σ ε ι μ ύ ρ ιο υ ς , ύ π ό τ ώ ν ε ξ α ν α λ ώ -
σ α ι γ λ ιχ ο μ έ ν ω ν τ ό γ έ ν ο ς α κ ό ν τ ω ν δ ια σ ω θ ή σ ε σ θ ε
μ ά λ λ ο ν ή ά π ο λ ε ΐσ θ ε , τ ο ΐς κ α κ ο ΐς ο ύ κ α κ ω θ ή σ ε σ θ ε ,
ά λ λ ' Ο τ α ν μ ά λ ισ τ α π ο ρ θ ε ΐν ν ο μ ίσ η τ ις υ μ ά ς , τ ό τ ε
70 μ ά λ ισ τ α π ρ ο ς ε ΰ κ λ ε ια ν έ κ λ ά μ ψ ε τ ε ." π ά λ ιν τ ό π υ ρ
φ θ ο ρ ο π ο ιό ς
2
ο υ σ ία δ ιε λ έ γ χ ο υ σ α τ ο ύ ς ώ μ ο θ ύ μ ο υ ς *
*' μ ή τ α ΐς Ι δ ία ις ά λ κ α ΐς έ π α ίρ ε σ θ ε , τ ά ς ά μ α χ ο υ ς
ρ ώ μ α ς Ι δ ό ν τ ε ς κ α θ α ιρ ο υ μ έ ν α ς σ ω φ ρ ο ν ίσ θ η τ ε * ή μ έ ν
κ α υ σ τ ικ ή δ ύ ν α μ ις τ ή ς φ λ ο γ ό ς ώ ς ζ ύ λ ο ν κ α ί ε τ α ι , τ ο
δ ε φ ύ σ ε ι κ α υ σ τ ό ν ζ ύ λ ο ν ο ία π υ ρ ε μ φ α ν ώ ς κ α ίε ι.,"
71 XIV. Τ ό τ ε ρ ά σ τ ιο ν τ ο ύ τ ο κ α ι τ ε θ α υ μ α τ ο υ ρ γ η -
μ έ ν ο ν δ ε ίξ α ς ό θ ε ό ς τ ώ Μ ω υ σ ε ΐ, π α ρ α ίν ε σ ιν έ ν -
α ρ γ ε σ τ ά τ η ν τ ώ ν μ ε λ λ ό ν τ ω ν ά π ο τ ε λ ε ΐσ θ α ι, κ α ι δ ιά
χ ρ η σ μ ώ ν ά ρ χ ε τ α ι π ρ ο τ ρ έ π ε ιν α υ τ ό ν ε π ι τ ή ν τ ο ύ
έ θ ν ο υ ς σ π ε ύ δ ε ιν έ π ιμ έ λ ε ια ν , ώ ς ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν ε λ ε υ θ ε ρ ία ς
π α ρ α ίτ ιο ν ά λ λ ά κ α ι η γ ε μ ό ν α τ ή ς ε ν θ έ ν δ ε α π ο ικ ία ς
ο ύ κ ε ίς μ α κ ρ ά ν γ ε ν η σ ό μ ε ν ο ν , ο μ ο λ ό γ ω ν ε ν ά π α σ ι
72 σ υ λ λ ή φ ε σ θ α ι. " κ α κ ο υ μ έ ν ω ν γ ά ρ έ κ π ο λ λ ο ύ κ α ι
1
A strange use of the word. Cohn suggests δ ια θ έ σ ε ω ς .
2
I suggest φ θ ο ρ ο π ο ιό ς <φ θ ο ρ ο π ο ΐ€Ϊ τ α ι>. See note a.
a
The absence of a finite verb, for ο υ σ ία can hardly be
predicate, is curious. Also the sense is not brought out,
for the sequel shows that the point is that the fire ultimately
312
MOSES I. 68- 72
weakly plant, yet it is prickly and will wound if one
do but touch it. Again, though fire is naturally
destructive, the bramble was not devoured thereby,
but on the contrary was guarded by it, and remained
just as it was before it took fire, lost nothing at all but
gained an additional brightness. All this is a descrip 69
tion of the nation's condition as it then stood, and we
may think of it as a voice proclaiming to the sufferers:
" Do not lose heart; your weakness is your strength,
which can prick, and thousands will suffer from its
wounds. Those who desire to consume you will be
your unwilling saviours instead of your destroyers.
Your ills will work you no ill. Nay, just when the
enemy is surest of ravaging you, your fame will shine
forth most gloriously." Again fire, the element 70
which works destruction, convicts the cruel-hearted.
a
" Exult not in your own strength " it says. " Behold
your invincible might brought low, and learn wisdom.
The property of flame is to consume, yet it is con-
sumed, like wood. The nature of wood is to be
consumed yet it is manifested as the consumer, as
though it were the fire."
XIV. After showing to Moses this miraculous 71
portent, so clearly warning him of the events that
were to be, God begins in oracular speech to urge
him to take charge of the nation with all speed, in
the capacity not merely of an assistant to their
liberation, but of the leader who would shortly take
them from Egypt to another home. He promised
to help him in everything: " For," he said, " suffering, 72
goes out and leaves the bramble victorious. I strongly
suspect that "is destroyed" has been lost and if so φ θ ο ρ ο -
π ο ιε ϊτ α ι in juxtaposition to φ θ ο ρ ο π ο ιό ς would be preferable to
φ θ ε ίρ ε τ α ι. No such word is quoted in the lexica, but Philo
is quite capable of coining it.
313
PHILO
δ υ σ α ν α σ χ έ τ ο υ ς ύ β ρ ε ις υ π ο μ ε ν ό ν τ ω ν , ο ύ δ ε ν ό ς α ν -
θ ρ ώ π ω ν ο υ τ έ π ικ ο υ φ ίζ ο ν τ ο ς ο υ τ έ λ ε ο ΰ ν τ ο ς τ ά ς
σ υ μ φ ο ρ ά ς , ο ΐκ τ ο ν " φ η σ ίν " α υ τ ό ς ε λ α β ο ν . κ α ι
γ ά ρ (ο ι δ ') ιδ ία έ κ α σ τ ο ν κ α ι π ά ν τ α ς ο μ ο θ υ μ α δ ό ν
ε φ * ίκ ε τ ε ία ς κ α ι λ ιτ ά ς τ ρ α π ο μ ε ν ο υ ς έ λ π ίζ ε ιν τ ή ν
ε ξ έ μ ο ΰ β ο ή θ ε ια ν ε ίμ ι δ έ τ ή ν φ ύ σ ιν ή π ιο ς κ α ι
73 γ ν η σ ίο ις ίκ έ τ α ις ΐλ ε ω ς . ϊθ ι δ ή π ρ ό ς τ ό ν β α σ ιλ έ α
τ ή ς χ ώ ρ α ς μ η δ έ ν ε ύ λ α β η θ ε ις τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν —ό μ έ ν
γ ά ρ π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ς τ έ θ ν η κ ε ν , δ ν ά π ε δ ίδ ρ α σ κ ε ς δ ιά φ ό β ο ν
ε π ιβ ο υ λ ή ς , έ τ ε ρ ο ς δ έ τ ή ν χ ώ ρ α ν έ π ιτ έ τ ρ α π τ α ι μ η -
δ ε ν ό ς τ ώ ν π ρ α γ μ ά τ ω ν σ ο ι μ ν η σ ίκ α κ ω ν —κ α ι τ ή ν τ ο ΰ
έ θ ν ο υ ς γ ε ρ ο υ σ ία ν π ρ ο σ π α ρ α λ α β ώ ν ε ίπ ε χ ρ η σ μ ώ
π ρ ο σ κ ε κ λ ή σ θ α ι υ π * έ μ ο ΰ τ ό έ θ ν ο ς , ίν α κ α τ ά τ ά
π ά τ ρ ια θ ύ σ η τ ρ ιώ ν η μ ε ρ ώ ν ό δ ό ν έ ξ ω τ ώ ν ό ρ ω ν τ ή ς
74 χ ώ ρ α ς π ρ ο ε λ θ ό ν ." ό δ έ ο ύ κ ά γ ν ο ώ ν έ π ι τ ο ΐς λ ε γ ο -
μ έ ν ο ις ά π ισ τ ή σ ο ν τ α ς τ ο ύ ς τ ε ο μ ο φ ύ λ ο υ ς κ α ι τ ο ύ ς
ά λ λ ο υ ς α π α ν τ ά ς " έ ά ν ο ύ ν " φ η σ ί " π υ ν θ ά ν ω ν τ α ι, τ ί
τ ό ό ν ο μ α τ ώ π έ μ φ α ν τ ι, μ η δ ' α υ τ ό ς ε ιπ ε ίν έ χ ω ν ά ρ '
75 ο υ ο ο ς ω Ο ί-α π α τ α ν ; ο ο ε τ ο μ ε ν π ρ ώ τ ο ν Λ ε γ ε
φ η σ ίν " α ύ τ ο ΐς , ό τ ι έ γ ώ ε ίμ ι ό ώ ν , ίν α μ α θ ό ν τ ε ς
δ ια φ ο ρ ά ν ό ν τ ο ς τ ε κ α ι μ ή ο ν τ ο ς π ρ ο σ α ν α δ ιδ α χ θ ώ σ ιν ,
ώ ς ο υ δ έ ν Ο ν ο μ α τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν έ π * έ μ ο ΰ κ υ ρ ιο λ ο γ ε ΐτ α ι,
76 ώ μ ό ν ω π ρ ό σ ε σ τ ι τ ό ε ίν α ι, έ ά ν δ ' α σ θ ε ν έ σ τ ε ρ ο ι
τ ά ς φ ύ σ ε ις ό ν τ ε ς έ π ιζ η τ ώ σ ι π ρ ό σ ρ η σ ιν , δ ή λ ω σ ο ν
[ 93] α ύ τ ο ΐς μ ή μ ό ν ο ν τ ο ΰ θ * ό τ ι \ θ ε ό ς ε ίμ ι, ά λ λ ' ό τ ι κ α ι
τ ρ ιώ ν τ ώ ν ε π ω ν ύ μ ω ν α ν δ ρ ώ ν α ρ ε τ ή ς , θ ε ό ς 'Α β ρ α ά μ
κ α ι θ ε ό ς Ί σ α ά /c κ α ϊ θ ε ό ς Ι α κ ώ β , ώ ν ό μ έ ν τ ή ς
δ ιδ α κ τ ή ς , ό δ έ τ ή ς φ υ σ ικ ή ς , ο δ ε τ ή ς α σ κ η τ ικ ή ς
σ ο φ ία ς κ α ν ώ ν έ σ τ ιν . έ ά ν δ έ έ τ ι ά π ισ τ ώ σ ι, τ ρ ισ ϊ
σ η μ ε ίο ις ά ν α δ ιδ α χ ίε ν τ ε ς μ ε τ α β α λ ο ΰ σ ιν , ά π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν
77 ο ύ τ ε τ ις ε ΐδ ε ν ο ύ τ ε ή κ ο υ σ ε ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν ** ή ν δ έ τ α
314
MOSES I. 72-76
as they do, prolonged ill-treatment, and subjected
to intolerable outrages, with no relief or pity for
their miseries frpm men, I have taken compassion
on them Myself. For I know that each severally,
and all unitedly, have betaken themselves to prayers
and supplications in hope to gain help from Me, and
I am of a kindly nature and gracious to true sup-
pliants. Now go to the king of the land, and fear 73
not at all, for the former king from whom you fled
in fear that he meant mischief is dead, and the land
is in the hands of another who does not remember
any of your actions against you. Take with you also
the elders of the nation, and tell him that the people
has received a command from Me to make a three-
days' journey beyond the bounds of the country,
and there sacrifice according to the rites of their
fathers." Moses knew well that his own nation 74
and all the others would disbelieve his words, and
said : "If they ask the name of him who sent me,
and I cannot myself tell them, will they not think
me a deceiver ? " God replied: " First tell them that 75
I am He Who is, that they may learn the difference
between what is and what is not, and also the further
lesson that no name at all can properly be used of
Me, to Whom alone existence belongs. And, if, 76
in their natural weakness, they seek some title to
use, tell them not only that I am God, but also the
God of the three men whose names express their
virtue, each of them the exemplar of the wisdom
they have gained—Abraham by teaching, Isaac by
nature, Jacob by practice.
0
And, if they still dis-
believe, three signs which no man has ever before
seen or heard of will be sufficient lesson to convert
a
For §§ 75-76 cf. Be Mut. 11 if.
315
PHILO
σ η μ ε ΐα τ ο ιά δ ε * ρ ά β δ ο ν , ή ν ε ΐχ ε ν , ε ίς τ ο ν δ α φ ο ς ρ ΐφ α ι
κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι* ή δ ' α ν τ ίκ α φ ν χ ω θ ε ΐσ α ε ΐρ π ε κ α ϊ τ ώ ν
ά π ό δ ω ν τ ό ή γ ε μ ο ν ικ ώ τ α τ ο ν υ π ε ρ μ ε γ έ θ η ς δ ρ ά κ ω ν
γ ίν ε τ α ι τ ε λ ε ιό τ α τ ο ς - τ α χ έ ω ς δ ' ά π ο χ ω ρ ή σ α ς ά π ό
τ ο ϋ ζ ώ ο ν κ α ι δ ιά δ έ ο ς ή δ η π ρ ό ς φ ν γ ή ν ο ρ μ ώ ν
μ ε τ α κ α λ ε ίτ α ι κ α ϊ θ ε ο ϋ π ρ ο σ τ ά ξ α ν τ ο ς ά μ α τ ε θ ά ρ σ ο ς
78 έ μ π ο ιή σ α ν τ ο ς έ π ιδ ρ ά τ τ ε τ α ι τ ή ς ο υ ρ ά ς , ό δ έ ίλ ν -
σ π ώ μ ε ν ο ς έ τ ι κ α τ ά τ ή ν έ π α φ ή ν ϊσ τ α τ α ι κ α ι π ρ ό ς
μ ή κ ο ς ε ν μ ά λ α τ α θ ε ις ε υ θ ύ ς ε ίς β α κ τ η ρ ία ν μ ε τ -
ε σ τ ο ιχ ε ιο ϋ τ ο τ ή ν α υ τ ή ν , ώ ς θ α ν μ ά ζ ε ιν μ έ ν τ ά ς μ ε τ ά -
β ο λ ά ς ά μ φ ο τ έ ρ α ς , π ο τ έ ρ α δ έ κ α τ α π λ η κ τ ικ ω τ έ ρ α ,
μ ή δ ν ν α σ θ α ι δ ια κ ρ ίν ε ιν , τ ή ς φ ν χ ή ς ισ ο ρ ρ ο π ώ
79 π λ η χ θ ε ίσ η ς φ α ν τ α σ ία , τ ο ύ τ ο μ έ ν δ ή π ρ ώ τ ο ν ,
έ τ ε ρ ο ν δ ' ο ύ κ ε ίς μ α κ ρ ά ν έ θ α ν μ α τ ο ν ρ γ ε ΐτ ο ' τ ώ ν
χ ε ιρ ώ ν τ ή ν έ τ έ ρ α ν π ρ ο σ τ ά τ τ ε ι τ ο ΐς κ ό λ π ο ις έ π ι-
κ ρ ν φ α ν τ α μ ικ ρ ό ν ν σ τ ε ρ ο ν π ρ ο ε ν ε γ κ ε ΐν δ ρ ά σ α ν τ ο ς
δ έ τ ό κ ε λ ε ν σ θ έ ν , ή χ ε ιρ λ ε ν κ ο τ έ ρ α χ ιό ν ο ς έ ξ α π ι-
ν α ίω ς α ν α φ α ίν ε τ α ι* π ά λ ιν δ έ κ α θ έ ν τ ο ς ε ίς τ ο ν ς
κ ό λ π ο υ ς κ α ι ά ν ε ν ε γ κ ό ν τ ο ς , ε ίς τ ή ν α ν τ ή ν χ ρ ό α ν
80 τ ρ έ π ε τ α ι τ ό ο ίκ ε ΐο ν ά π ο λ α β ο ν σ α ε ΐδ ο ς . τ α ύ τ α μ έ ν
ο ν ν ύ π ό μ ό ν ο ν μ ό ν ο ς έ π α ιδ ε ύ ε τ ο , ώ ς π α ρ ά δ ιδ α -
σ κ ά λ ω γ ν ώ ρ ιμ ο ς , έ χ ω ν π α ρ * έ α ν τ ώ τ ά τ ώ ν τ ε ρ ά τ ω ν
ό ρ γ α ν α , τ ή ν τ ε χ ε ίρ α κ α ι τ ή ν β α κ τ η ρ ία ν , ο ΐς
81 π ρ ο ε φ ω δ ιά σ θ η . τ ρ ίτ ο ν δ ' έ π ιφ έ ρ ε σ θ α ι μ έ ν ο ύ κ ή ν
ο υ δ έ π ρ ο δ ιδ ά σ κ ε σ θ α ι, έ μ ε λ λ ε δ ' έ κ π λ ή τ τ ε ιν ο ύ κ
έ λ α τ τ ο ν τ ή ν α ρ χ ή ν τ ο ν γ ίν ε σ θ α ι λ α β ό ν έ ν Α ίγ ύ π τ ω .
ή ν δ έ τ ο ιο ύ τ ο * " τ ο ϋ π ο τ α μ ίο ν " φ η σ ίν
(<
ύ δ α τ ο ς
ό σ ο ν α ν ά ρ ν σ ά μ ε ν ο ς έ π ι τ ή ν γ ή ν έ κ χ έ η ς , α ίμ α
ξ α ν θ ό τ α τ ο ν έ σ τ α ι π ρ ό ς τ ή χ ρ ό α κ α ι τ ή ν δ ύ ν α μ ιν
82 έ τ ε ρ ο ιω θ έ ν ε ίς ά λ λ α γ ή ν π α ν τ ε λ ή ." π ισ τ ό ν δ ' ώ ς
816
MOSES I. 77- 82
them." The signs were such as these. He bade 77
him cast on the ground the rod which he carried, and
this at once took life and began to creep, and be-
came that high chief of the reptile kingdom, a huge
serpent grown to full strength. Moses quickly
leaped away from the creature, and, in his fright, was
starting to fly, when he was recalled by God, and,
at His bidding and inspired by Him with courage,
grasped its tail. It was still wriggling, but stopped 78
at his touch, and, stretching itself to its full length,
was metamorphosed at once into the rod which it
had been before, so that Moses marvelled at the
double change, unable to decide which was the more
astonishing, so evenly balanced was the profound
impression which each made upon his soul. This 79
was the first miracle, and a second followed soon.
God bade him conceal one of his hands in his bosom,
and, after a little while, draw it out. And when
he did as he was bid, the hand suddenly appeared
whiter than snow. He did the same again, put it in
his bosom and then brought it out, when it turned
to its original colour and recovered its proper appear-
ance. These lessons he received when he and God 80
were alone together, like pupil and master, and while
the instruments of the miracles, the hand and the staff,
with which he was equipped for his mission were both
in his own possession. But the third had its birth- 81
place in Egypt. It was one which he could not carry
with him or rehearse beforehand, yet the amaze-
ment which it was sure to cause was quite as great.
It was this: " The water," God said, " which thou
dost draw from the river and pour on the land will
be blood quite ruddy, and not only its colour but its
properties will be completely changed." Moses evi- 82
317
PHILO
έ ο ικ ε κ α ι τ ο ύ τ ά ν ε φ α ίν ε τ ο , ο ύ μ ό ν ο ν δ ιά τ ό τ ο ν
λ έ γ ο ν τ ο ς ά φ ε υ δ έ ς , ά λ λ ά κ α ϊ δ ιά τ ά ή δ η π ρ ο ε π ιδ ε ι-
χ θ έ ν τ α ε π ί Τ € τ ή ς χ ε ιρ ό ς κ α ι τ ή ς β α κ τ η ρ ία ς θ α υ -
83 μ α τ ο υ ρ γ ή μ α τ α . π ισ τ ε ύ ω ν δ ' Ο μ ω ς π α ρ -
η τ ε ΐτ ο τ ή ν χ ε ιρ ο τ ο ν ία ν ίσ χ ν ό φ ω ν ο ν κ α ι β ρ α δ ν γ -
λ ω σ σ ο ν , ο υ κ ε ΰ λ ο γ ο ν , α υ τ ό ν ε ίν α ι φ ά σ κ ω ν κ α ι
μ ά λ ισ τ ά φ ' ο δ λ έ γ ο ν τ ο ς ή κ ο υ ε θ ε ο ύ ' ν ο μ ίσ α ς γ ά ρ
τ ή ν ά ν θ ρ ω π ίν η ν λ ο γ ιό τ η τ α κ α τ ά σ ύ γ κ ρ ισ ιν τ ή ς
θ ε ία ς
1
ά φ ω ν ία ν είν α ι κ α ι ά μ α τ ή ν φ ύ σ ιν ε υ λ α β ή ς ώ ν
[ 94] ύ π ε σ τ έ λ λ ε τ ο \ τ ο ΐς ύ π ε ρ ό γ κ ο ις , τ ά λ ία ν μ ε γ ά λ α
κ ρ ίν ω ν ο ύ κ α θ * α υ τ ό ν , κ α ι π α ρ ε κ ά λ ε ι έ τ ε ρ ο ν έ λ έ σ θ α ι
τ ο ν ε ύ μ α ρ ώ ς έ κ α σ τ α τ ώ ν έ π ισ τ α λ έ ν τ ω ν δ ια π ρ ά ξ α -
84 σ 0α ι δ υ ν η σ ό μ ε ν ο ν . ό δ ' ά π ο δ ε ζ ά μ ε ν ο ς α υ τ ό ν τ ή ς
α ιο ο υ ς α ρ α γ ε α γ ν ο ε ίς ε ιπ ε τ ο ν ο ο ν τ α α ν -
θ ρ ώ π ω σ τ ό μ α κ α ι κ α τ α σ κ ε υ ά σ α ν τ α γ λ ώ τ τ α ν κ α ί
ά ρ τ η ρ ία ν κ α ι τ ή ν ά π α σ α ν λ ο γ ικ ή ς φ ω ν ή ς ό ρ γ α ν ο -
π ο ιία ν ; α υ τ ό ς ε ίμ ι ε γ ώ . μ η δ έ ν ο ύ ν δ ε ίσ η ς * ε μ ο ύ
γ ά ρ ε π ιν ε ύ σ α ν τ ο ς ά ρ θ ρ ω θ ή σ ε τ α ι π ά ν τ α κ α ι μ ε τ α -
β ά λ ε ι π ρ ο ς τ ό μ έ τ ρ ιο ν , ώ ς μ η δ ε ν ό ς ε τ ι έ μ π ο δ ίζ ο ν τ ο ς
ρ ε ΐν ε ν τ ρ ο χ ο ν κ α ι λ ε ΐο ν ά π ό κ α θ α ρ ά ς π η γ ή ς τ ό τ ώ ν
λ ό γ ω ν ν ά μ α . χ ρ ε ία δ ' ε ί γ έ ν ο ιτ ο έ ρ μ η ν έ ω ς , ύ π ο -
δ ια κ ο ν ικ ό ν σ τ ό μ α τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν έ ξ ε ις , ίν * ό μ έ ν τ ώ
π λ ή θ ε ι ά π α γ γ έ λ λ η τ ά ά π ό σ ο ύ , σ ύ δ ' έ κ ε ίν ω τ ά
θ ε ια ."
85 XV. Τ α υ τ ' ά κ ο υ σ α ς —ο ύ γ ά ρ ή ν ε ίς ά π α ν ά ν τ ι-
λ έ γ ε ιν α σ φ α λ έ ς ο ύ δ ' ά κ ίν δ υ ν ο ν —ά ρ α ς έ β ά δ ιζ ε μ ε τ ά
γ υ ν α ικ ό ς κ α ι τ έ κ ν ω ν ό δ ό ν τ ή ν έ π * Α ϊγ υ π τ ο ν , κ α θ *
ή ν ύ π α ν τ ή σ α ν τ α τ ο ν ά δ ε λ φ ό ν π ε ίθ ε ι σ υ ν α κ ο λ ο υ θ ε ΐν
ν π ε ιπ ώ ν τ ά θ ε ια λ ό γ ια · τ ώ δ ' ά ρ α π ρ ο ϋ π ε ίρ γ α σ τ ο ή
1
MSS. α λ η θ ε ία ς .
818
MOSES I. 82- 85
dently felt that this too was credible, not only because
of the infallibility of the Speaker, but through the
proofs he had already been shewn in the miracles of
the hand and the staff. But, though he 83
believed, he tried to refuse the mission, declaring that
he was not eloquent, but feeble of voice and slow of
tongue, especially ever since he heard God speaking
to him ; for he considered that human eloquence
compared with God's was dumbness, and also,
cautious as he was by nature, he shrank from things
sublime and judged that matters of such magnitude
were not for him. And therefore he begged Him
to choose another, who would prove able to execute
with ease all that was committed to him. But God, 84
though approving his modesty, answered : " Dost
thou not know who it is that gave man a mouth, and
formed his tongue and throat and all the organism
of reasonable speech ? It is I Myself: therefore, fear
not, for at a sign from Me all will become articulate
and be brought over to method and order, so that
none can hinder the stream of words from flowing
easily and smoothly from a fountain undefiled. And,
if thou shouldst have need of an interpreter, thou
wilt have in thy brother a mouth to assist thy service,
to report to the people thy words, as thou reportest
those of God to him."
XV.
a
Moses, hearing this, and knowing how un- 85
safe and hazardous it was to persist in gainsaying,
took his departure, and travelled with his wife and
children on the road to Egypt. During the journey
he met his brother, to whom he declared the divine
message, and persuaded him to accompany him.
His brother's soul, in fact, had already, through the
α
For §§ 85-95 see Ex. iv. 27, v. 22, vii. 8-13.
319
PHILO
φ ν χ ή κ α τ * έ π ιφ ρ ο σ ν ν η ν θ ε ο ϋ π ρ ο ς π ε ιθ α ρ χ ία ν , ώ ς
ά ν ε ν δ ο ιά σ τ ω ς σ ν ν α ιν ε ΐν κ α ι έ τ ο ίμ ω ς ε π ε σ θ α ι.
86 π α ρ α γ ε ν ό μ ε ν ο ι δ ' ε ίς Α ΐγ ν π τ ο ν γ ν ώ μ η κ α ι φ ν χ η
μ ια τ ό μ έ ν π ρ ώ τ ο ν τ ο ν ς δ η μ ο γ έ ρ ο ν τ α ς τ ο ϋ έ θ ν ο υ ς
σ ν ν α γ α γ ό ν τ ε ς ε ν ε π ο ρ ρ ή τ ω μ η ν ύ ο ν σ ι τ ο ν ς χ ρ η σ μ ο ύ ς
κ α ϊ ώ ς ε λ ε ο ν κ α ι ο ΐκ τ ο ν λ α β ώ ν α ν τ ώ ν ο θ ε ό ς ε λ ε ν -
θ ε ρ ία ν κ α ϊ τ ή ν έ ν θ έ ν δ ε μ ε τ α ν ά σ τ α σ ιν ε ις ά μ ε ίν ω
χ ώ ρ α ν ο μ ο λ ό γ ω ν α υ τ ό ς ε σ ε σ θ α ι τ ή ς ό δ ο ϋ ή γ ε μ ώ ν
87 ύ π ισ χ ν ε ΐτ α ι. μ ε τ ά δ έ τ α ύ τ α κ α ι τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ΐ θ α ρ -
ρ ο ϋ σ ιν ή δ η δ ι α λ €}/ €σ ^α ι π ε ρ ι τ ο ϋ τ ο ν λ ε ώ ν ίε ρ ο ν ρ -
γ ή σ ο ν τ α ε κ π έ μ φ α ι τ ώ ν ό ρ ω ν δ ε ΐν γ α ρ ε φ α σ κ ο ν ε ν
ε ρ ή μ ω τ α ς π α τ ρ ίο ν ς θ ν σ ία ς eTrtreAea^Tpat, μ ή κ α τ ά
τ α α υ τ ά τ α ΐς τ ώ ν ά λ λ ω ν α ν θ ρ ώ π ω ν γ ιν ο μ έ ν α ς ,
ά λ λ α τ ρ ό π ω κ α ι ν ό μ ω δ ια φ ε ύ γ ο ν τ ι τ ή ν κ ο ιν ό τ η τ α
88 δ ιά τ ά ς τ ώ ν ε θ ώ ν ε ζ α ιρ ε τ ο ν ς ιδ ιό τ η τ α ς , ο δ ' ε ξ
ε τ ι σ π ά ρ γ α ν ω ν π ρ ο γ ο ν ικ ώ τ ύ φ ω τ ή ν φ ν χ ή ν π ε π ιε -
σ μ έ ν ο ς κ α ι μ η δ έ ν α τ ό π α ρ ά π α ν ν ο η τ ό ν θ ε ό ν ε ξ ω τ ώ ν
ο ρ α τ ώ ν ν ο μ ίζ ω ν α π ο κ ρ ίν ε τ α ι π ρ ό ς ύ β ρ ιν ε ιπ ώ ν
( t
τ ις έ σ τ ιν ο ύ χ ρ ή μ ε ν π α κ ο ύ ε ιν ; ο ύ κ ο ΐδ α τ ο ν
λ ε γ ό μ ε ν ο ν τ ο ύ τ ο ν κ α ιν ό ν κ ν ρ ιο ν ο ύ κ έ ξ α π ο σ τ έ λ λ ω
τ ό έ θ ν ο ς έ π ι π ρ ο φ ά σ ε ι ε ο ρ τ ή ς κ α ι θ ν σ ιώ ν ά φ η -
89 ν ιά σ ο ν ." ε ΐθ * ά τ ε χ α λ ε π ό ς κ α ι β α ρ ν μ η ν ις κ α ι
α π α ρ α ίτ η τ ο ς τ ή ν ό ρ γ ή ν κ ε λ ε ύ ε ι τ ο ύ ς τ ο ις έ ρ γ ο ις
έ φ ε σ τ ώ τ α ς π ρ ο π η λ α κ ίζ ε σ θ α ι ώ ς α ν έ σ ε ις κ α ι σ χ ο λ ή ν
ε ν δ ίδ ο ν τ α ς , ά ν έ σ ε ω ς κ α ι σ χ ο λ ή ς ε ίν α ι λ έ γ ω ν τ ό
β ο ν λ ε ύ ε σ θ α ι π ε ρ ι θ ν σ ιώ ν κ α ι ε ο ρ τ ώ ν τ ο ν ς γ ά ρ έ ν
ά ν ά γ κ α ις τ ο ύ τ ω ν ο υ δ έ μ ε μ ν ή σ θ α ι, ά λ λ ' ο ΐς ό β ίο ς
90 έ ν ε υ π ά θ ε ια π ο λ λ ή κ α ι τ ρ ν φ ή . β α ρ ν τ έ ρ α ς ο ν ν ή
π ρ ό τ ε ρ ο ν σ ν μ φ ο ρ ά ς υ π ο μ ε ν ό ν τ ω ν κ α ι έ π ι τ ο ις ά μ φ ι
α
Or perhaps "shrank from publicity." Like mysteries
in general, they had to be performed in secrecy.
320
MOSES I. 85-90
watchful working of God, been predisposed to obedi-
ence, so that without hesitation he assented and
readily followed. When they had arrived in Egypt, 86
one in mind and heart, they first summoned the
senators of the nation secretly, and informed them
of the oracles, and how God had, in pity and com-
passion for them, assured them liberty and departure
from their present to a better country, and promised
to be Himself their leader. After this they were now87
emboldened to talk to the king, and lay before him
their request that he should send the people out of
his boundaries to sacrifice. They told him that their
ancestral sacrifices must be performed in the desert,
as they did not conform with those of the rest of
mankind, but so exceptional were the customs
peculiar to the Hebrews that their rule and method
of sacrifices ran counter to the common course." The 88
king, whose soul from his earliest years was weighed
down with the pride of many generations, did not
accept a God discernible only by the mind, or any
at all beyond those whom his eyes beheld ; and
therefore he answered insolently : " Who is he
whom I must obey ? I know not this new Lord of
whom you speak. I refuse to send the nation forth
to run loose under pretext of festival and sacrifices.
,,
Then, in the harshness and ferocity and obstinacy 89
of his temper, he bade the overseers of the tasks
treat the people with contumely, for showing slack-
ness and laziness. " For just this," he said, " was
what was meant by the proposal to hold festival and
sacrifice—things the very memory of which was lost
by the hard pressed, and retained only by those
whose life was spent in much comfort and luxury."
Thus they endured woes more grievous than ever, 90
321
PHILO
[ 95] Μ ω υ σ ή ν δ υ σ χ ε ρ α ιν ό ν τ ω ν ώ ς \ ά π α τ ε ώ σ ι κ α ι τ ά μ έ ν
λ ά θ ρ α τ ά δ έ φ α ν ε ρ ώ ς κ α κ η γ ο ρ ο ύ ν τ ω ν κ α ι α σ ε β ε ία ς
1
α ίτ ιω μ έ ν ω ν έ π ι τ ώ δ ο κ ε ΐν θ ε ο ΰ κ α τ ε φ ε ΰ σ θ α ι, δ ε ι-
κ ν ύ ε ιν ά ρ χ ε τ α ι Μ ω υ σ ή ς ά π ρ ο ύ δ ιδ ά χ θ η τ έ ρ α τ α /
ν ο μ ίσ α ς τ ο ύ ς θ ε α σ ο μ έ ν ο υ ς έ κ τ η ς έ π ε χ ο ύ σ η ς α π ι-
σ τ ία ς ε ίς π ισ τ ιν τ ώ ν λ ε γ ο μ έ ν ω ν μ ε τ α β α λ ε ΐν .
91 ή δ έ τ ώ ν τ ε ρ ά τ ω ν έ π ίδ ε ιξ ις έ γ έ ν ε τ ο κ α ι τ ώ β α σ ιλ ε ι
δ ιά σ π ο υ δ ή ς κ α ι τ ο ΐς έ ν τ έ λ ε ι τ ώ ν Α ιγ υ π τ ίω ν .
XVI. π ά ν τ ω ν ο ΰ ν τ ώ ν δ υ ν α τ ώ ν σ υ ρ ρ υ έ ν τ ω ν ε ίς τ ά
β α σ ίλ ε ια , λ α β ώ ν τ ή ν β α κ τ η ρ ία ν 6 Μ ω υ σ έ ω ς α δ ε λ -
φ ό ς κ α ι κ α τ α σ ε ίσ α ς μ ά λ α έ π ιδ ε ικ τ ικ ώ ς ε ίς τ ο ΰ δ α φ ο ς
ρ ίπ τ ε ΐ' κ α ι ή μ έ ν δ ρ ά κ ω ν α ύ τ ίκ α γ ίν ε τ α ι, ο ί δ ' έ ν
κ ύ κ λ ω κ α τ ε θ ε ώ ν τ ο κ α ι ά μ α θ α υ μ α σ τ ικ ώ ς έ χ ο ν τ ε ς
92 υ π ό δ έ ο υ ς έ ξ α ν α χ ω ρ ο ΰ ν τ ε ς ά π έ φ ε υ γ ο ν . σ ο φ ισ τ α ι
δ ' ό σ ο ι κ α ι μ ά γ ο ι π α ρ ε τ ύ γ χ α ν ο ν " τ ί κ α τ α π λ ή τ -
τ ε σ θ ε ; " ε ΐπ ο ν " ο ΰ δ ' ή μ ε ΐς τ ώ ν τ ο ιο ύ τ ω ν ά μ ε -
λ ε τ ή τ ω ς έ χ ο μ ε ν , ά λ λ ά χ ρ ώ μ ε θ α τ έ χ ν η δ η μ ιο υ ρ γ ώ
τ ώ ν ο μ ο ίω ν ." ε ΐθ * έ κ α σ τ ο υ β α κ τ η ρ ία ν ή ν ε ΐχ ε
ρ ίφ α ν τ ο ς , δ ρ α κ ό ν τ ω ν π λ ή θ ο ς ή ν κ α ι π ε ρ ι έ ν α τ ό ν
93 π ρ ώ τ ο ν ε ίλ ο ϋ ν τ ο . ό δ ' έ κ π ο λ λ ο ύ τ ο ΰ π ε ρ ιό ν τ ο ς
δ ια ν α σ τ ά ς π ρ ό ς ύ φ ο ς τ ά μ έ ν σ τ έ ρ ν α ε ύ ρ ύ ν ε ι, τ ό δ έ
σ τ ό μ α δ ιο ίξ α ς ό λ κ ο ϋ π ν ε ύ μ α τ ο ς ρ ύ μ η β ια ιο τ ά τ η
κ α θ ά π ε ρ β ό λ ο ν ιχ θ ύ ω ν π ά ν τ α ς έ ν κ ύ κ λ ω σ α γ η ν ε ύ σ α ς
ε π ι σ π ά τ α ι κ α ι κ α τ α π ιώ ν ε ίς τ ή ν ά ρ χ α ία ν φ ύ σ ιν τ ή ς
94 β α κ τ η ρ ία ς μ ε τ έ β α λ ε ν . ή δ η μ έ ν ο ΰ ν έ ν ε κ ά σ τ ο υ τ ή
φ υ χ ή τ ώ ν έ θ ε λ ο κ α κ ο ύ ν τ ω ν τ ό ύ π ο π τ ο ν δ ιή λ ε γ ζ ε ν ή
μ ε γ ά λ ο υ ρ γ η θ ε ΐσ α Ο φ ις , ώ ς μ η κ έ τ ι ν ο μ ίζ ε ιν α ν -
θ ρ ώ π ω ν σ ο φ ίσ μ α τ α κ α ι τ έ χ ν α ς ε ΐν α ι τ ά γ ιν ό μ ε ν α
π ε π λ α σ μ έ ν α ς π ρ ό ς ά π ά τ η ν , ά λ λ ά δ ύ ν α μ ιν θ ε ιο τ έ ρ α ν
95 τ ή ν τ ο ύ τ ω ν α ίτ ία ν , ή π ά ν τ α δ ρ ά ν ε ύ μ α ρ έ ς . έ π ε ι δ έ
1
MSS. ά σ έ β ε ια ν .
32 2  
MOSES I. 90-91·
and were enraged against Moses and his companion as
deceivers, abusing them, sometimes secretly, some-
times openly, and accusing them of impiety in that
they appeared to have spoken falsely of God. Where-
upon Moses began to show the wonders which he had
been previously taught to perform, thinking that the
sight would convert them from the prevailing un-
belief to belief in his words. The exhibi- 91
tion of these wonders to the king and the Egyptian
nobles followed very quickly; (XVI.) so, when
all the magnates had collected at the palace, the
brother of Moses took his staff, and, after waving
it in a very conspicuous manner, flung it on the
ground, where it immediately turned into a serpent,
while the onlookers standing round were filled with
wonder, fell back in fear, and were on the point of
running away. But all the wizards and magicians 92
who were present said : " Why are you terrified ?
We, too, are practised in such matters, and we use
our skill to produce similar results/' Then, as each
of them threw down the staff which he held, there
appeared a multitude of serpents writhing round a
single one ; that one, the first, showed its great 93
superiority by rising high, widening its chest and
opening its mouth, when with the suction of its
breath it swept the others in with irresistible force,
like a whole draught of fishes encircled by the net,
and, after swallowing them up, changed to its original
nature, and became a staff. By this time, the mar- 94
vellous spectacle had refuted the scepticism in every
ill-disposed person's soul, and they now regarded
these events not as the works of human cunning or
artifices fabricated to deceive, but as brought about
by some diviner power to which every feat is easy.
323
PHILO
κ α ϊ ό μ ο λ ο γ ε ΐν ά ν α γ κ α σ θ έ ν τ ε ς ύ π ό τ ή ς τ ώ ν γ ιν ο -
μ έ ν ω ν ε μ φ α ν ο ύ ς ε ν ά ρ γ ε ια ς ο υ δ έ ν ή τ τ ο ν έ θ ρ α σ ύ ν ο ν τ ο ,
τ ή ς α υ τ ή ς α π α ν θ ρ ω π ιά ς κ α ι α σ ε β ε ία ς ώ σ π ε ρ α γ α θ ο ύ
τ ίν ο ς έ π ε ιλ η μ μ έ ν ο ι β ε β α ιό τ α τ ο υ , μ ή τ ε τ ο ύ ς κ α τ α -
δ ο υ λ ω θ έ ν τ α ς α δ ίκ ω ς ε λ ε ο ϋ ν τ ε ς μ ή τ ε τ α δ ια τ ώ ν
λ ό γ ω ν
1
π ρ ο σ τ α τ τ ό μ ε ν α δ ρ ώ ν τ ε ς , ά τ ε δ ή τ ο ϋ θ ε ο ύ
τ ρ α ν ο τ έ ρ α ις χ ρ η σ μ ώ ν α π ο δ ε ίζ ε σ ι τ α ΐς δ ιά σ η μ ε ίω ν
κ α ι τ ε ρ ά τ ω ν τ ό β ο ύ λ η μ α δ ε δ η λ ω κ ό τ ο ς , ε μ β ρ ιθ ε -
σ τ έ ρ α ς έ π α ν α τ ά σ ε ω ς
2
ε δ έ η σ ε κ α ι π λ η γ ώ ν ε σ μ ο ύ , α ΐς
ο ι ά φ ρ ο ν ε ς ν ο υ θ ε τ ο ύ ν τ α ι, ο υ ς λ ό γ ο ς ο ύ κ έ π α ίδ ε υ σ ε .
96 Α έ κ α δ έ ε π ά γ ο ν τ α ι τ ή χ ώ ρ α τ ιμ ω ρ ία ι, κ α τ ά τ ώ ν
τ έ λ ε ια ή μ α ρ τ η κ ό τ ω ν τ έ λ ε ιο ς α ρ ιθ μ ό ς κ ο λ ά σ ε ω ς ' ή ν
9
δ έ κ ό λ α σ ις π α ρ η λ λ α χ υ ΐα τ ά ς έ ν ε θ ε ι. XVII. τ ά
γ ά ρ σ τ ο ιχ ε ία τ ο ϋ π α ν τ ό ς , γ ή κ α ι ύ δ ω ρ κ α ι ά ή ρ κ α ι
[ 96] π ΰ ρ , ε π ιτ ίθ ε ν τ α ι, | δ ικ α ιώ σ α ν τ ο ς θ ε ο ϋ , ο ΐς ά π ε τ ε -
λ έ σ θ η ο κ ό σ μ ο ς , τ ή ν ά σ ε β ω ν χ ώ ρ α ν φ θ α ρ ή ν α ι, π ρ ό ς
έ ν δ ε ιξ ιν κ ρ ά τ ο υ ς α ρ χ ή ς ή κ έ χ ρ η τ α ι, τ ά α υ τ ά κ α ι
σ ω τ η ρ ίω ς έ π ι γ ε ν έ σ ε ι τ ώ ν δ λ ω ν σ χ η μ α τ ίζ ο ν τ ο ς κ α ι
τ ρ έ π ο ν τ ο ς ό π ο τ ε β ο υ λ η θ ε ίη π ρ ό ς τ ή ν κ α τ ά τ ώ ν
97 ά σ ε β ω ν ά π ώ λ ε ια ν . δ ια ν έ μ ε ι δ έ τ ά ς κ ο λ ά σ ε ις , τ ρ ε ις
μ έ ν τ ά ς έ κ τ ώ ν π α χ υ μ ε ρ ε σ τ έ ρ ω ν σ τ ο ιχ ε ίω ν γ ή ς κ α ι
ύ δ α τ ο ς , έ ζ ώ ν ά π ε τ ε λ έ σ θ η σ α ν α ί σ α >/χ α τ ί<κ :α ι π ο ιό -
τ η τ ε ς , έ φ ε ις τ ώ Μ ω υ σ έ ω ς ά δ ε λ φ ώ , τ ά ς δ ' ΐσ α ς έ ζ
α έ ρ ο ς κ α ι π υ ρ ό ς τ ώ ν φ υ χ ο γ ο ν ιμ ω τ ά τ ω ν μ ό ν ω
1
Perhaps read λ ο γ ίω ν , as Mangey according to Cohn
suggested, though I cannot find it in his foot-notes or addenda.
On λ ό γ ο υ (?) see note a.
2
MSS. ε π α ν α σ τ ά σ ε ω ς .
3
Mss. η .
a
This seems to be the sense required, and so Mangey
" divinitus imperata." But it is difficult to extract this from
\6ywv. λ ό γ ο υ " reason " will make good sense, correspond-
324 I
MOSES I. 95-97
But, though they were compelled by the clear evi- 95
dence of the facts to admit the truth, they did not
abate their audacity, but clung to their old inhuman-
ity and impiety as though it were the surest of
blessings. They did not show mercy to those who
were unjustly enslaved, nor carry out the orders
which had divine authority,
a
since God had shown
His will by the proofs of signs and wonders, which
are clearer than oracles. And therefore a severer
visitation was needed, and volley of those blows
whereby fools whom reason has not disciplined are
brought to their senses.
The punishments inflicted on the land were ten— 96
a perfect number for the chastisement of those who
brought sin to perfection. The chastisement was
different from the usual kind, (XVII.) for the elements
of the universe—earth, fire, air, water—carried out
the assault. God's judgement was that the materials
which had served to produce the world should serve
also to destrov the land of the impious; and to show the
mightiness of the sovereignty which He holds, what
He shaped in His saving goodness to create the uni-
verse He turned into instruments for the perdition
of the impious whenever He would. He distributed 97
the punishments in this wise : three belonging to the
denser elements, earth and water, which have gone
to make our bodily qualities what they are, He com-
mitted to the brother of Moses ; another set of three,
belonging to air and fire, the two most productive
ing to ό \oyos below, but in this sense the word does not seem
to be used in the plural. If Χ ο ρ ίω ν is read, we must
suppose that it is contrasted with χ ρ η σ μ ώ ν as covering all
divine intimations, whereas χ ρ η σ μ ώ ν is confined to the spoken
oracle. But this also lacks authority.
325
PHILO
Μ ω υ σ ε ΐ, μ ία ν δ έ κ ο ιν ή ν ά μ φ ο τ έ ρ ο ις έ β δ ό μ η ν ε π ι-
τ ρ έ π ε ι, τ ρ ε ις δ ε τ ά ς ά λ λ α ς ε ίς σ υ μ π λ ή ρ ω σ ιν δ ε κ ά δ α ς
98 ά ν α τ ίθ η σ ιν α ύ τ ώ . κ α ι π ρ ώ τ α ς ε π ιφ έ ρ ε ιν
ά ρ χ ε τ α ι τ ά ς α φ * ύ δ α τ ο ς * ε π ε ιδ ή γ ά ρ τ ό ύ δ ω ρ
Α ιγ ύ π τ ιο ι δ ια φ ε ρ ό ν τ ω ς ε κ τ ε τ ιμ ή κ α σ ιν α ρ χ ή ν τ ή ς
τ ώ ν ό λ ω ν γ ε ν έ σ ε ω ς τ ο ΰ τ ε ίν α ι ν ο μ ίζ ο ν τ ε ς , α υ τ ό
π ρ ώ τ ο ν ή ζ ίω σ ε κ α λ έ σ α ι π ρ ο ς τ ή ν τ ώ ν ά π ο δ ε χ ο -
99 μ έ ν ω ν έ π ίπ λ η ξ ίν τ ε κ α ι ν ο υ θ ε σ ία ν . τ ί ο ύ ν ο ύ κ ε ίς
μ α κ ρ ά ν σ υ ν έ β η ; τ ο ύ Μ ω υ σ έ ω ς α δ ε λ φ ο ύ π ρ ο σ -
τ ά ξ ε ι θ ε ία κ α τ ε ν ε γ κ ό ν τ ο ς τ ή ν β α κ τ η ρ ία ν ε π ι τ ο ν
π ο τ α μ ό ν , ό μ έ ν ε υ θ ύ ς ά π * Α ιθ ιο π ία ς ά χ ρ ι θ α λ ά σ σ η ς
ε ίς α ίμ α τ ρ έ π ε τ α ι, σ υ ν ε ξ α ιμ α τ ο ύ ν τ α ι δ ' α ύ τ ώ
λ ίμ ν α ι, δ ιώ ρ υ χ ε ς , κ ρ ή ν α ι, φ ρ έ α τ α , π η γ α ί, σ ύ μ π α σ α
ή κ α τ
9
Α 'ίγ υ π τ ο ν ο υ σ ία ύ δ α τ ο ς , ώ ς α π ο ρ ία π ο τ ο ΰ
τ ά π α ρ ά τ α ΐς ό χ θ α ις ά ν α σ τ έ λ λ ε ιν , τ ά ς δ ' ά ν α τ ε μ ν ο -
μ έ ν α ς φ λ έ β α ς κ α θ ά π ε ρ ε ν τ α ΐς α ίμ ο ρ ρ α γ ία ις κ ρ ο υ -
ν η δ ό ν α υ λ ο ύ ς ά κ ο ν τ ίζ ε ιν α ίμ α τ ο ς , μ η δ ε μ ιά ς ε ν ο ρ ώ -
100 μ έ ν η ς δ ια υ γ ο ύ ς λ ιβ ά δ ο ς . έ ν α π έ θ ν η σ κ ε δ έ κ α ι τ ά
γ έ ν η τ ώ ν ιχ θ ύ ω ν ά π α ν τ α , ά τ ε τ ή ς ζ ω τ ικ ή ς δ υ ν ά -
μ ε ω ς ε ίς φ θ ο ρ ο π ο ιό ν μ ε τ α β α λ ο ύ σ η ς , ώ ς δ υ σ ω δ ία ς
π ά ν τ α δ