Lord of the Flies Chapter 1- Sound of the Shell 1) Plot After the air crashes, Ralph and Piggy

meet each other. Piggy is very talkative and easy to get nervous; however, Ralph does not want to talk to Piggy much. Ralph ignores Piggy while he is keeping saying that his auntie tells him not to swim or rum because of the asthma. They accidently find the shell with deep green colour. They use sound of the conch gather the rest of the survivor together. Piggy is responsible for the names. Jack, his choir, and other people have a meeting and start to know each other. Ralph is elected as a leader of the group. The chief tells Jack that he still has the power of the choir, the hunters. Other children follow their lead. They explore the island and find out that it is an inhabitant island. A pig is trapped by the creepers. Jack is trying to kill the pig with his knife, but he does not have enough strength and brevity to kill the piglet. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Ralph – appearance: “The boy with fair hair lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his way towards the lagoon.” (1); “What he saw of the fair-haired boy with the creamy shell on his knees did not seem to satisfy him” (16). – leadership: “and another thing. We can’t have everybody, talking at once. We will have to have ‘hands up’ like at school” (31). – about twelve years old: “[Ralph] was old enough, twelve years and a few months, to have made him awkward.” (5). – Piggy – He was over-protected by his family: he keeps saying “’My auntie told me not to run,’ he explained, ‘on account of my asthma.’” (3). – He wears glasses: “He wiped his glasses and adjusted them on his bottom nose.” (5). – naiive: “”. – easy to get nervous: “Piggy muttered the name to himself and shouted it to Ralph, who was not interested because he was still blowing. His face was dark with the violent pleasure of making this stupendous noise, and his heart was making the stretched shirt shake. The shouting in the forest was nearer.” (13). – asthma: “’My auntie told me not to run,’ he explained, ‘on account of my asthma.’” (3). – Jack – powerful in the group: “The choir belongs to [Jack], of course.” (19). – Simon – shy: “When they had done laughing, Simon stroked Ralph’s arm shyly; and they had to laugh again” (22) – Maurice: “” 3) Setting – an island

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with many natural resources: “The top of this was covered with a thin layer of soil and coarse grass and shaded with young palm trees” (6-7). tropical: “then he leapt back on the terrace, pulled off his shirt, and stood there among the skull-like coco-nuts with green shadows from the palms and the forest sliding over his skin.”

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time – in the future: Kids can survive from the air crash. Literary Devices – personification – “Clouds of birds rose from the tree-tops, and the something squealed and ran in the undergrowth” (12). – simile – “Ralph lolled in the water. Sleep enveloped him like the swathing mirages that were wrestling with the brilliance of the lagoon” (9). – “a rock, almost detached, standing like a fort, facing them across the green with one bold, pink bastion.” (26). – “Inside was peacock water, rocks and weed showing as in an aquarium” (26). – foreshadow – Jack is not going to obey the chief, Ralph, at least once: Ralph says “The choir belongs to you, of course.” (19) after the voting. – symbol – the shell – established power: “What he saw of the fair-haired boy with the creamy shell on his knees did not seem to satisfy him” (16). Thematic Statement People often judge others by their appearance. Significant Passages – “You can see now that he might make a boxer, as far as width and heaviness of eyes that proclaimed no devil.” (5). – Ralph is naughty but innocent. Personal Response I wonder if the idea of LOST comes from this novel because the settings are on an island without populated. The film, LOST, people’s plane crashes on a mystery island. They begin to live on the island. Similarly, Ralph and the rest fall from a plane accident to an island. On both islands have plenty resources. Moreover, minor characters admire the main character. Jack is chosen as a leader in the film, and so does Ralph in the Lord of the Flies. In both groups, leaders, Ralph and Jack, try their best to keep the group working. There are many similarities between the film, LOST, and the novel, Lord of the Flies.

Chapter 2- Fire on the Mountain

1) Plot The second meeting is held in the afternoon. Ralph announces that if anyone wants to talk, he has to get the pink conch. The order is established. When Piggy gets the chance to say, he points out that they might stay on the island for a long time; however, Ralph is an optimistic person. He believes that his father is going to rescue them from the island. Littluns tell Ralph that they see the “beastie” coming out at night. Ralph denies the opinion. Everyone does not know what to do, so they just follow Jack to the mountain in order to set the fire. Piggy complains about everything; therefore, Jack steps out and takes away his talking opportunity. Ralph tries to fix the relationship between Piggy and Jack. He masses up. He is not able to persuade people to believe his belief. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Ralph – organized: “And another thing. We can’t have everybody talking at once. We’ll have to have ‘Hands up’ like at school” (31) – – Piggy – needs people’s help: “ ‘My specs!’ howled Piggy. ‘Give me my specs!’” (40)” – Jack – creates disorder: “ ‘My specs!’ howled Piggy. ‘Give me my specs!’” (40) – he does not like Piggy: “[Piggy’s] voice rose to a shriek of terror as Jack snatched the glasses off his face”(40) – Simon – shy: “You’re chief. You tell ‘em off” (51) 3) Setting – the island – is described as “Treasure Island-”, “swallows and Amazons-”, and “Coral Island-” (33) 4) Literary Devices – foreshadowing – “He wants to know what you’re going to do about the snake-thing.” (34). – personification – “Acres of black and yellow smoke rolled steadily towards the sea.” (45) – simile – “How could I within them little ‘uns running round like insects?” (46) 5) Thematic Statement Children around six to twelve can hardly control their action. 6) Significant Passages – “A snake-thing. Ever so big. He saw it.” (34)

7) Personal Response I was impressed by children’s meeting because they create and order. During the second meeting, Ralph says “And another thing. We can’t have everybody talking at once. We will have to have ‘hands up’ like at school” (31). A twelve-year-old kid gives a solution to the disorder meeting. At first, everyone follows it. For example, on the top of the mountain, “[Jack] handed the conch back to Ralph and sat down” (33) after he speaks. However, when Piggy has the conch and speaks, Jack shouts at him “So you shut up” (42).Ralph interrupts their conversation and says “where the conch is, that’s a meeting” (42). They are not mature enough to control themselves. Some people need to stop the quarrel. Even though they have a rule in the group, they are still around six to twelve. Chapter 3- Huts on the Beach 1) Plot This chapter starts with Jack. He hunts the pig alone, but he does not get anything. Jack goes back to where Simon and Ralph stay. He tells Ralph that the work is not dividing evenly- some people are playing and some people are working really hard. Jack keeps saying they need meat, and he will go hunting. However, Ralph thinks he should keep the fire burning on the top. Then their relationship breaks. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Ralph – concentrate: “Ralph was standing by a contraption of palm trunks and leaves, a rude shelter that faced the lagoon and seemed very near to falling down, he did not notice when Jack spoke” (50) – Jack – not brave: “ ‘I went on,’ said Jack. ‘ I let them go. I had to go on. I-’” (51) – Simon – appearance: “Simon was burned by the sun to a deep tan that glistened with sweat.” (57); “He was small, skinny boy, his chin pointed, and his eyes so bright they had deceived Ralph into thinking him delightfully gay and wicked.” (57) – different perspective thing: “’As if,’ said Simon, ‘the beastie, the beastie or the snakething , was real. Remember?’”(53) – generous: “Simon. He helps.” (55) 3) Setting – the island – frightened: “ ‘As if,’ said Simon, ‘the beastie, the beastie or the snake-thing, was real. Remember?” (53)

4) Literary Devices – symbol – fire: “The best thing we can do is get ourselves rescued” (54) – metaphor:“With the fading of the light the riotous colours died and the heat and the urgency colour died away” (58) – foreshadowing:“Darkness poured out, submerging the ways between the trees till they were dim and strange as the bottom of the sea” (59) – personification“The deep sea breaking miles away on the reef made an undertone less perceptible than the susurration of the blood” (58) 5) Thematic Statement Hope is important for people to keep waiting for help. 6) Significant Passages “Darkness poured out, submerging the ways between the trees till they were dim and strange as the bottom of the sea” (59) 7) Personal Response I predict Jack and Ralph will soon split instead of working together. In the first chapter, Ralph gives Jack the coir, hunters. Later on, Jack does not agree with Ralph’s plan. Jack thinks meat is more important; however, Ralph put being rescued in the first place. After Jack hunts down a piglet, Ralph gets mad that Jack and his group. A Chinese proverb-two tigers cannot live on a mountain-indicates that it is impossible for two leaders to control an area peacefully. For example, in the play Macbeth, Macbeth kills all threats towards his position because he does not want other people to be the king. First, he assassinates King Duncan. Then, he kills Banquo and Macduff’s family since he is unwilling to let go his power. In Lord of the Flies, Jack seems to follow Ralph’s order, yet Jack is full of ambition to hunt the pig. He cannot fully control his action. If I were in Ralph’s position, I would not give Jack full choir power. Chapter 4-Painted Faces and Long hair 1) Plot Ralph gives orders to Jack and his choir to hunt and keep the fire on the top of the island. He also gives command to the rest of the children to build the shelter. While Ralph is not around the beach, Henry becomes the leader in a group of two, Percival and Johnny. Roger and Maurice swim and leave the fire. Jack wants to hunt pigs, so he calls his team to go into the forest instead of keeping the fire. At the same time, Piggy and Ralph see a ship that may save them. They expect the ship will see the smoke. However, the fire is off, and the ship leaves. Ralph gets mad at Jack’s absent. Ralph faces a dilemma, which he has to choose between being rescue and food. Jack and Ralph argue about the uneven job for everyone, but Ralph says when the shelter is finished, everyone will have an even job. In the evening, they cook the pig, but Ralph feels isolation. He wants to make everything to the right track; therefore, he calls for another meeting.

2) Key/ Significant characters – Ralph

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thinks being rescued is the most important than anything: “Ralph blundered on, savaging himself, as the wisp of the smoke moved on” (71).

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Jack – appearance: “Freckles and sandy eyebrows appeared” (66). – Piggy – life experience: “We could make a sundial. We could put a stick in the sand, and then-” (67). – Roger and Maurice – irresponsible: “Roger and Maurice came out of the forest. They were relieved from duty at the fire and had come down for a swim” (62) Setting – the island Literary Devices – metaphor:“They accepted the pleasures of morning, the bright sun, the whelming sea and sweet air, as a time when play was good and life so full that hope was not necessary and therefore forgotten.” (60); personification:“a darker shadow crept beneath the swarthiness of his skin” (65). – simile – “be plucked apart, run like rain-drops on a wire or be repeated” (60). Thematic Statement Everyone in the group is important Significant Passages

7) Personal Respond I do not understand why Ralph does not forgive Jack. When Ralph keeps saying “you let the fire out” (73), Jack feels guilty. Simply, he just wants to get food for the group. However, Ralph is focusing on everyone safety. Moreover, Ralph complains, “the job was too much. We needed everyone” (75), but Ralph does not change plan. Ralph has to understand that hunting is not one person’s job. If Ralph has stepped back a little bit, their relationship would be closer. Everyone on the island agrees with Jack. “We need a meeting” (76) by Ralph. In contrast, if the fire is gone, they will never be rescued. Jack is not mature and selfish. Because of the argument, Ralph stays aside and feels isolated while everyone is singing and playing in front of the fire. Chapter 5-Beast from Water 1) Plot Ralph calls another meeting. He wants everyone to work in different area such as, water, keeping the fire, building shelters, and keeping the fire. Jack says that if the beast is on the island, why he does not see any of it when he is hunting. Piggy thinks that it might be some psychological break down. The littlun make their points to Ralph and express how frighten they are. Percival suggests that the beast might come from the sea and then sleeps near their camp. The older boys think that they are possibly dreamwalkers. Jack and other boys have a tribe dance in their camp, and eat the pig. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Jack

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selfish: “There was a self-conscious giggling among the hunters. Ralph turned on them passionately.” (86).

Ralph – growing: “Again he fell into that strange mood of speculation that was so foreign to him. If faces were different when lit from above or below-what was a face? What was anything?” (83); “I can’t think. Not like Piggy” (83). 3) Setting – the night: darkness and fear 4) Literary Devices – smile: “He had learnt as a practical business that fundamental statements like this had to be said at least twice, before everyone understood them” (84); “…and drop words like heavy round stones among the little groups that crouched or squatted” (84). – metaphor: “Ralph was a specialist in thought now, and could recognize thought in another” (83). – imagery: “The lightest thing was the pale beach” (96). – personification: “the wind pressed his grey shirt against his chest” (82). 5) Thematic Statement Children are easily influenced by the environment. 6) Significant Passages “I can’t think. Not like Piggy” (83) 7) Personal Respond Ralph’s growing grabs my attention after arguing with Jack. The statement, “Once more that evening Ralph had to adjust his values. Piggy could think” (83) shows that Ralph considers more about thinking. He faces his problem and finds a way to reduce it. Ralph loses his confidence being a leader. Last chapter, Ralph is unable to deal with Jack. In order to regain other people’s trust, he blows the conch. “Batter late than never”, Ralph points out the situation point by point, so everyone understands him clearly. The dynamic character, Ralph, becomes a mature twelve-year-old leader. Chapter 6-Beast from Air 1) Plot When the boys are sleeping, the serious battle is fighting in the sky. Sam and Eric are watching the fire, but they fall asleep. After they wake up they hear the strange voice, so they run back to the camp and tell Ralph that there are some mysterious things in the mountain watching them. Next morning, Ralph decides to go to some unexplored area. Piggy and littluns stay in the camp, Ralph and others go explore the place. They make sure no beast is around the castle and play for a while. They do not want to go back to the fire after Ralph announces they should go, yet Jack leads everyone to the fire.

2) Key/ Significant characters – Jack – unreasonable: “we don’t need the conch any more. We know who ought to say things” (110-111)

Ralph – tries hard to be a qualified leader: “I’m chief. We’ve got to make certain. Can’t you see the mountain? There’ s no signal showing. There may be a ship out there.” (118) 3) Setting – the island – mysterious – in the air: the horrible fighting between the beast 4) Literary Devices – imagery at the beginning of the chapter (103). – personification: “The leaves were roaring like the sea” (107). – simile: “The leaves were roaring like the sea” (107). 5) Thematic Statement Children are honest than adults. 6) Significant Passages “Ralph took the conch from where it lay on the polished seat and held it to his lips; but then he hesitated and gig not blow.” (108). 7) Personal Respond The shift between atmospheres of the night and the beast is very interesting. When “a silver moon rose over the horizon” (103), the author use many literary devices to modify the “peaceful” night. Suddenly, the mood has changed. “the figure sat on the mountain-top and bowed and sank and bowed again” (104). After the peaceful description of the night, Sam and Eric are watching the fire. They see an enormous “beastie”, so they run back to the shelter and tell Ralph everything they see. The fear is created in the group, but they do not know what creature they are dealing with. The contrast between the peaceful night and the dreadful news makes the terror more clear. Chapter 7-Shadows and Tall Tree 1) Plot They decide to go to the bottom of the mountain to see what the beast is. On their way there, Jack sees the trail of pigs, which evokes his interests to hunt. He starts to trace the footprints. By the time they get to the destination, it is night. Simon goes back to tell Piggy that they are not going back to the shelter tonight. They see a creature in the darkness, and they runs away with fear. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Ralph – missing his home: the flashback on page 121 – Jack – eager to control the group: “At that word the boys forgot their urge to be gone and turned back to sample this fresh rub of two spirits in the dark” (131) 3) Setting – the island – disorder – fear

4) Literary Devices – repetition: “he would like to have a pair of scissors and cut this hair-he flung the mass back-cut this filthy hair right back to half a inch. He would like to have a bath, a proper wallow with soap” (119). – simile: “The darkness seemed to flow round them like a tide” (132); “plaster down the seaweed like shinning hair” (121-122). – flashback: p 121 5) Thematic Statement A little issue causes the whole group to split. 6) Significant Passages “Why do you hate me?” (129). 7) Personal Respond Now I understand why people say “curiosity kills a cat”. The kids go into the unexplored area to check if the monster is there. “Behind the silver of moon had drawn clear of the horizon. Before them, something like a great ape was sitting asleep with its head between its knees.” (135). Children are afraid what will happen on the island after seeing the creature. People are interested in everything they do not know. For example, when my friend tells me that he or she is going to go out with another friend, I ask who he or she is going out with even though it has nothing to do with me. In the chapter, the children do not know what they are dealing with, but before the monster’s feature shows up, they know they are going to face an enormous creature. Fear is created. Children are frightened; however, they cannot stop their curiosity, and then approach the beast’s place. Kids know it is very dangerous there, but they still go over and find out everything they want to know. Chapter 8-Gift for the Darkness 1) Plot Ralph has a serious fight with Jack and split the group into two. This stimulates Jack’s ambition to be a leader, so he decides to leaves the group and forms his own group. Simon suggests they should face the unknown thing on the mountain, but everyone is afraid to go. Then, Piggy thinks they should build the fire along the beach, so they do not have to go into the mountain and face the horrible beast. Jack hunts a pig down. After, he announces that he is going to hold a party in his camp on the other side of the beach in order to attract more members. Every time, Ralph tells Jack how important is to be rescued, but Jack is stubborn and consists to hunt. Simon finds the Lord of the Flies and talks to him

2) Key/ Significant characters – Piggy – mature: “I dunno, Ralph. We just go on, that’s all. That’s what grown-ups would do” (153). – Ralph

admire: “the three boys sat down. They had a great mass of fruit with them and all of it ptoperly ripe. They grinned at Ralph as he took some and began to eat” (145).

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Jack – aggressive: “I’m not going to be part of Ralph’s lot-”(140) Setting – the island – disorder – dark Literary Devices – simile: “practice had made Jack silent as the shadows” (147). – Allusion: the Lord of the Flies comes out. – Repetition: “I’m warning you. I’m going to get waxy. D’ you see? You’re not wanted. Understand? We are going to have fun on this island! So don’t try it on, my poor misguided boy, or else-” (158) Thematic Statement People are afraid to justify themselves when they are in the crowed. Significant Passages “Oh yes. Without the fire we can’t be rescued. So we must stay by the fire and make smoke.” (156). Personal Respond I wonder why the conch’s colour turns from pink to white. In chapter one, Ralph finds a pink conch from the sea. Pink is a lovely colour. Usually, when people see this colour, they do not hate this colour. It refers to the story: the conch is pink while the kids are getting alone with one and another. They all like Ralph. However, things are changing after Jack’s ambition. The conch becomes white as the time passes. Everyone’s attitude towards Ralph changes from passionate to unreasonable. They do not understand how important is to be rescued. White symbolizes innocent and purity. Therefore, the leader, Ralph, has conflict with Jack about the fire. Jack changes from innocent to evil. This illustrates Ralph’s innocent since he does not betray or abandon the group. The colour of conch refers to Ralph’s position.

Chapter 9-A View to a Death 1) Plot After meeting with Lord of the Flies, he goes to Jack’s tribe because of the fire. Ralph and Piggy realize the older children betray Ralph and go to the party. Jack gives them food and also wants them to join him. Ralph makes him point and tries to keep his




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people and mentions the election on the first day. However, the attraction of meat is stronger than the decision then they make before for children. The storm comes and raided the party. Simon runs to the centre of the dance and tries to tell everyone who the beast is while everyone is enjoying the dance. Suddenly, the beast comes and kills Simon. Children leave Simon’s body on the beach, and his body is dragged into the sea. Key/ Significant characters – Ralph – patient: he tells Jack many times about the importance of being rescued. – Jack – stubborn: he does not realize how important to be rescued Setting – the island – fear – order in the disorder Literary Devices – simile: “The pile of guts was a black blob of flies that buzzed like a saw” (152); “High up among the bulging clouds thunder went off like a gun” (152) – Personification: “Power lay in the brown swell of his forearms; authority sat on his shoulder and chattered in his ear like an ape” (165). Thematic Statement Most time, people think themselves are right. Significant Passages “Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood! Do him in” (168) Personal Respond If I were in Jack‘s position, I would not raid Ralph’s place or even leave the group. After Jack leaves the group, Ralph’s reaction is disappointed: “But the…oh…the fire! Of course, the fire” (156). He does not understand why other people do not realize how important the fire is, even though he tells other kids many times. Everyone always cares about who get the meat and feed the whole group. Piggy, Sam, Simon, and Eric support him. Moreover, Jack steals the fire from Ralph’s camp instead of stealing conch, which is the symbol of a leader. If Jack keeps being stubborn, he will lose everything he has including his life and his chance.

Chapter 10-The Shell and the Glasses 1) Plot The next morning, Ralph realizes only Sam, Eric, some littlun, and Piggy still staying in the camp. He thinks that the beastkills Simon. Piggy and Ralph tells Sam and Eric that they do not join the camp for very long, so they do not know what happen last night at Jack’s camp and why Simon is dead. Jack acts like a harsh leader. He ties a boy

and beats him because the poor boy just gets Jack angry. He raids Ralph’s camp for the fire. The beast comes to the fire at night and kills the Simon. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Piggy – not calm: “I got the conch” (172) – Jack – cruel: he ties up the boys and hits them. 3) Setting – the island – chaos 4) Literary Devices – simile: “A fist withdrew and came back like a piston, so that the whole shelter exploded into light” (185). – personification: “Sitting on the tremendous rocks in the torrid sun” (176). 5) Thematic Statement A person cannot worry about many things at once. 6) Significant Passages “Piggy-Piggy” (184) “I know. They didn’t come for the conch. They came for something else. Ralph-what am I going to do?” (186) 7) Personal Respond If I were Piggy, I would not suggest going to Jack’s place because it is too dangerous. First time Ralph and Piggy go to Ralph’s camp, Jack’s people live more like “savages”. Most savages are not reasonable. Moreover, Jack’s group say and repeat the same rhythmand dance around the camp fire again and again. Piggy and Ralph do not know how Jack treats littluns. If Jack is angry, he ties them up and beats them with a small reason. No one wants to leave under a dictator. The area is full of violence, but peace. People do not want to approach to a place under control by a cruel leader. For example, North Korea is a dictatorship country. People are afraid of getting hurt in the country, so they do not usually go there if necessary. Even though Jack has Piggy’s glasses, Piggy can still learn not to rely on glasses to see the world. Chapter 11-Castle Rock 1) Plot Ralph calls another meeting. Sam, Eric, Piggy and Ralph decide to go to Jack’s camp and get Piggy’s glasses back. When they go to Jack’s camp, Jack ties them up and forces Sam and Eric to join them. Piggy interrupts and tells Jack to let them go with the conch. Roger knocks him off the cliff. Piggy dies. Jack takes a spear towards Ralph and tells him that Jack is the leader. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Ralph – angry: “Ralph moved forward on to the neck. He kicked a stone and it bounded into the water.” (193). – Piggy – innocent: “Piggy wailed ‘Ralph! Don’t leave me!’” (195).

Roger – evil: “High above, Roger took his hands off the lever and leaned out to see what was going on.” (194). 3) Setting – the island – chaos – splits into three area: Ralph’s place, Jack’s place, and the beast’s area 4) Literary Devices – simile: “the beach was swept clean like a blade that has been scoured.” (192). – metaphor: “Beyond the tribe and the twins were a loud and writhing heap” (198) 5) Thematic Statement We have to be aware of some people. While we are talking to them, we have to be more careful. 6) Significant Passages “The painted group moved round Samneric nervously and unhandily. Once more the silvery laughter scattered.” (198). Chapter 12-Cry of the Hunters 1) Plot Ralph goes back to his camp and prepares for the next try. He wants to make his voice heard to Jack, so he sneaks to Jack’s tribe. Sam and Eric watch the Castle Rock. They tell him that Jack is planning attacking Ralph’s camp tonight and give him some meat. Someone hears them talking to Ralph and give him a hand. Ralph hides and sleeps with frightened. Jack’s group sets the fire in Ralph’s camp. However, the fire spreads across the island, so he traps in the fire and dies. The fire grabs navy’s attention. They come to the island and save them. 2) Key/ Significant characters – Jack – savages: “He had glimpsed one of them, striped brown, black and red, and had judged that it was Bill.” (203). – Ralph – disappointed: “We were together then-” (224) – get rescued: “The officer, surrounded by these noises, was moved and a little embarrassed. He turned away to give them time to pull themselves together; and waited, allowing his eyes to rest on the trim cruiser in the distance.” (225)

3) Setting – the island – dark – fire – –

horror chaos

4) Literary Devices – metaphor: “the slanting sticks of sunlight were lost among the rock prevented vegetation” (205). – simile: “But the island was scorched up like dead wood” (224). – Allusion: “Coral Island” (224) – The book, The Coral Island, by RM. Ballantyne 5) Thematic Statement When people are going to set up some traps for others, the deserved fate sometimes gets more serious. 6) Significant Passages “[Ralph]could not bring himself to be specific at first; but then fear and loneliness goaded him” (210).

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