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Reviewer: Embryo (Lec) - Chapter 1 [Part II] (continuation) Fundamental Processes and Concepts in Development Morphogenesis Entire group

p of processes that mold the external and internal configuration of an embryo Pattern formation VS morphogenesis o pattern formation laying down of the morphogenetic blueprint o morphogenesis realization of the plans Drosophila molecular basis of pattern formation Tight genetic control in Drosophila Genetic Hierarchy is as follows: 1) Maternal effect genes establish the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the early embryo 2) Zygotic gap genes define broad regions in the egg 3) Pair rule genes define 7 segments 4) Segment polarity genes define 14 segments 5) Homeotic genes determine the regional characteristics of each segment Positional information means that a given cell is able to: 1) Recognize its position in a coordinate system that is set up within the primordium of a structure and; 2) differentiate according to its position Intercellular Communication Ability of the components of a biological community to generate signals and to respond in turn to signals from other members of that community Gap junctions where the membrane of one cell is in intimate contact with that of another Cell Movements At numerous periods during embryonic life, cells or groups of cells move from one part of the embryo to another Individual cells in embryos commonly migrate by means of amoeboid movements o In amoeboid movement, the cell continually tests its surroundings and its activity is characterized by the presence of a ruffled membrane along the leading surface A unique form of individual cell movement occurs in early avian embryos wherein the primordial germ cells move from the wall of the yolk sac into the bloodstream and are carried via the blood to the gonads

Note: neural crest = ectoderm; primary germ cells = endoderm Movement as a sheet principally a property of cells, particularly those of the ectodermal germ layer Cell Death (Apoptosis) A necessary component of many phases of development Hormones sometimes play an important role in stimulating the death of cells In the case of the CNS, death is the fate of motor nerve cells that fail to make functional contact with a muscle fiber The Clonal Mode of Development Clone a group of cells arising from a single precursor Basis of the clonal selection theory (Burnet) After introduction of a foreign antigen into the body, a single immunologically competent cell undergoes a massive proliferative response and subsequently produces antibody against the antigen Regulation and Regeneration If part of a structure is lost, the loss is recognized and reparative processes are set in motion Regulation restoration of the missing material if loss occurs before differentiation of the structure has set in Regulation is the basis for the development of identical twins Morphogenetic fields o Areas of the body that are able to reconstitute lost portion o A region of the body in which the cells as a group are somehow cognizant of the overall nature of the structure to be formed Regeneration process of replacement if differentiation of recognizable structures has already occurred One of the main features of a regenerating system is the formation of a mass of primitive-appearing cells the regeneration blastema that demonstrate many of the properties of the embryonic primordium of the structure Growth Simplest definition: increase in mass Differential growth commonly all parts of the embryo do not grow at the same rate

Striking feature of young embryos: rapid growth of the head region Two major patterns of growth in animals: 1) Determinate growth o The body grows to a certain point that is characteristic of the species and sex, then the growth ceases o Common mode in mammals 2) Indeterminate growth o Growth continues throughout the life span, although at a reduced rate in later life o More common in more ancestral vertebrates, such as fishes Recapitulation Biogenetic law of Mller and Haeckel the story of individual development sketches for us an approximate outline of the evolutionary changes passed through by our forebears An animal in its individual development passes through a series of constructive stages like those in the evolutionary development of the race to which it belongs Ontogeny is an abbreviated recapitulation of phylogeny Ontogenetic recapitulation a conservative process which retains the basic ontogenetic stages of more primitive forms Heredity and Environment Heredity establishes the inherent potentialities of a developmental system or an individual Environment determines how far an individual can go toward a full realization of this inheritance Note: There are conditions in which heredity and environment interact Methods Used in the Study of Embryonic Development Direct Observation of Living Embryos