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Tales from 1880s Nashville
Marmaduke B. Morton (1859-1943)
as published in the Nashville Banner, 1930, with selections of published text and images from the 1880s Edited by
E. Thomas Wood
This edition copyright ©2005 by E. Thomas Wood, 4035 Sneed Road, Nashville, TN 37215. (615) 298-4716; firstname.lastname@example.org. Prototype produced for use in a Nashville history evening class at Montgomery Bell Academy, October 2005. Subject to revision.
Table of Contents
Gallery: Street Life, Then and Now Introduction…………………………....page 1 I. II. The Reawakening…………………...….page 5 Gentlemen’s Pursuits…............................page 15
III. A City on Stage…......................................page 21 IV. Talk of the Town…..................................page 27 V. On the Waterfront …...............................page 35 VI. Onward and Upward ...............................page 39 VII. Pomp and Pumphouses….......................page 45 VIII. Civic Titans …...........................................page 51 IX. Ascent of the Governed….......................page 57 X. Authority Figures…...................................page 63 XI. Clubby Characters…..................................page 69 XII. Pulpit Personalities….................................page 75
published in 1885 or 1886 by Enterprise Publishing Company. .This and following streetscapes are from Nashville: An Illustrated Review of its Progress and Importance.
Today’s Union Street, east from the corner with Fifth Avenue. Photo by E. Thomas Wood.
Today’s Fifth Avenue, south from the corner with Union Street.
. from the corner with Church Street.Today’s Second Avenue.
. looking east from the corner with Fourth Avenue.Today’s Church Street.
when he would be passing by. The site is presently home to a Marriott hotel located in the former headquarters of J. as seen from the Maxwell House hotel across the corner.” (from the Daily American. “If you could not find a man in his office or at his residence. October 31. and before that of Third National Bank. who was to make an appearance near the end of his 1886 campaign against brother Alf Taylor. 1886) . This rendering shows a crowd awaiting gubernatorial candidate Bob Taylor.The Nashville Daily American’s building at Cherry (today’s Fourth) and Church Streets.C.” Morton writes. Bradford & Co. “all you had to do was to stand on this corner for half an hour or so..
his account of one of the most dramatic decades of urban progress in the city’s history has been available at the library for anyone who wanted to read it. I can think of numerous historians in recent decades who would have plunged eagerly into Morton’s memoirs. You cannot imagine my delight. you’re not alone. had they known where to look. a freak of linguistic nature. my first thought was that such rich historical source material really ought to see the light of day. but my inference from the usage you’ll find in this book is that anagosity is the talent of knowing at least a little something about everyone and everything you encounter in your daily life. a tedious process to which most researchers subject themselves only when they have some idea of what they will find. either. it’s a lusus naturae. the knowledge of which confers upon the knower the very quality that the word defines. It’s like a butterfly with nine wings. I believe you’ll agree. I soon found that I would have to make my own rules about how to treat Morton’s text. I did not want to . Maybe. Normally.000-word series in the autumn of 1930. the only way to peruse them is on microfilm. As a matter of historical principle. after reading his ramblings on the ensuing pages. that he achieved anagosity.) When I found one of Morton’s articles in my garage-library. well. as a hopeless nerd leafing through old newspapers in his garage while musing about arcane corners of the English language. As I explain in the footnote on page 8. you’ve got me about right. Fact is. I decided to collect the material into this little book so that it will be available to future historians and to anyone else with an interest in Nashville’s history. nobody has known it was there. I would never have stumbled on this material if I had not bought a crumbling volume of 1930 Banners off of eBay a couple of years ago. If you have never heard the word before. Here we have a word. (If you are picturing me. it’s not even found as an archaic instance in the world’s great English-language dictionaries. the Banner. 27.Introduction Anagosity. Morton penned his twelve-part. Hence my choice of a title for this collection of rediscovered memories and comments about Nashville in the 1880s. For three quarters of a century. No index of any kind exists for Nashville’s newspapers of the early and mid-20 th century. I really have no idea how to define it. We may not know exactly what it means. at this moment. It’s not an extinct species of word. in his 32 nd year as managing editor of Nashville’s evening newspaper. To have the likes of “anagosity” in your vocabulary is to be a person of anagosity. It’s not just any verbal mutation. but it’s clearly a virtue to which Marmaduke Beckwith Morton aspired. But for most of that time. and I am the lepidopterist who has found it in the wild.
His reminiscences wander from topic to topic unfettered by any intent to set them out in any logical order. Yet I suspect that even at age 71. I have resisted the natural urge of an editor to trim away the more florid of Morton’s rhetorical embellishments. and listening as the old gentleman holds forth. . Treat them as you would any reminiscences given a half-century after the event. he could not bring himself to come right out and say what he felt. A journalist’s silence in the face of institutionalized evil is tantamount to complicity. Here is a man who supposedly once prevented a lynching by giving a longwinded speech to the mob. and the occasional sentence fragment and outright non-sequitur. C. Morton when I observe that he seems to have written without an outline. I see hints that Morton viewed the fate of Nashville’s black folk in the 1880s. I feel able to render that harsh judgment because I have had to face up to my own complicity in myriad little evils during my years as a journalist. even when I encountered passages that are tedious or repetitive. as deeply unjust. he is capable of saying things that range from the impolite to the deeply offensive. In places I can see how his prose might have benefited from a little deft doctoring. You the reader can choose whether to let the discontinuities bother you or. Napier. safe from any retribution for heresy against the South’s unwritten race codes. When people of color come to mind. He’s not always so loveable. I have added footnotes to correct errors of fact wherever I have detected them. Morton sometimes says things that make us wince. in my opinion. Reading between the lines. but I suspect the old man’s stature in the newsroom was such that nobody dared do him that favor. is what goes unsaid. of course. to imagine yourself sitting on the porch. Here’s a man who at times displays clear respect in writing about the African-American community as a whole and about individual members such as J. watching the beads of summer moisture trickle down the sides of your julep cup.2 abridge it. as I do. I’ll let the reader decide which bits of the text qualify for which characterization. Race is the issue in most of these instances. but I would caution researchers against treating any of Morton’s assertions as gospel. and perhaps in his own day. the maddeningly incessant application of the sobriquet “live wire” to anyone who ever displayed a spark of energy in the ‘80s. It may help to picture him taking a pull on that corncob pipe to punctuate each change of subject. But he is a man of his time and place. I hope I don’t appear uncharitable to Mr. the elaborations of detail that run on just a bit too long. affording the sheriff time to get away with the prisoner. As did my grandfathers and the Grampses of many who will read this memoir. More damning than those statements.
Managing Editor.3 T Marmaduke Beckwith Morton (1859-1943) (Tennessee State Library and Archives). I indulge him as I indulged my grandfathers. The incentives to keep one’s mouth shut in the interest of newsroom harmony. Reporter. after all. 1888. 1889-91. advertiser happiness or some other base cause are strong and seductive. and I respect him as I respected them. Nashville Daily American. He is. family. 1898-1937. I wouldn’t have gone to all this trouble if I didn’t find the old chap quite good company. . Still. Nashville Democrat. Nashville Banner.
along with a smattering of comments about how good he was at what he did. Nicki holds our daughter Eloise. there were two stories that grabbed my attention in the Banner of September 21. The other was the front-page announcement that a young staff writer named Freddie Russell would become sports editor of the paper. Russell was not the only protégé of Morton to go on to greater things – Ralph McGill. If it sounds as though I feel a certain kinship to Uncle Marmaduke. — E . 1998. later the crusading editor and publisher of the Atlanta Constitution.4 You see. In the staff photo that appeared on the front of that day’s Banner. Mr. Mr. 1930. was another. completed their service to the Banner on February 20. One was the initial installment of Morton’s series. and my wife Nicki. Thomas Wood . then aged three weeks. the day its last edition rolled off the presses at 1100 Broadway. and many friends who were collectively a family to each other. Russell stands a row behind. He would remain on the job until he. then 91 years of age. perhaps you can understand why. But Fred Russell was the link between Morton’s Banner and the Banner that was part of my life.
5 he decade from 1880 to 1890 marked the most pronounced period of the reawakening of the Old South. hungry and unprotected women and children wondered when it all would end. Then came ten years more of desolation and oppression under carpetbag rule. 3 A reference to the “redeemer” cadre of Democratic politicians that won election in Tennessee starting in 1869. when the eighties dawned. Troops had left Tennessee in 1869.2 The South at last had won its freedom. The “Rebel Brigadiers” were in Congress. Coal and iron mines were opened. bringing former Confederate personalities back to civil life and marking the beginning of the end for the postwar experiment in integration of African-Americans into the political process. cotton mills and other industries were established.3 the A besom is a small broom of twigs. railroads were being constructed everywhere and rolling stock was being purchased with feverish haste. and double in population.” 2 The Compromise of 1877 had marked the end of Reconstruction. that sufficient sidetracks to hold them could not be constructed. All this had ended four years ago. foundries. Traffic was congested. and subsequently elsewhere in the South. trampled upon by hostile armies. Morton is echoing Isaiah xiv. 1 T . towns sprang up as if by magic in old cotton fields and rocky gorges. It seemed that if ever enough cars could he had to move the freight. cities began to boom. carrying off livestock. as rendered in the Geneva and King James Versions of the Bible: “I will sweepe it with the besome of destruction. having in their wake burned houses and fences and other improvements. besoms1 of destruction. when the fanatics and skum of the North sought to break the spirit of the Old South. Southern Democrats yielded their claims about the disputed presidential election of 1876 in return for the removal of remaining Federal troops from the South. 23. while shelterless. furnaces. The South had passed through four years of devastating Civil War. business was moving.
Chattanooga & St. Nashville was the South’s banker and trade center. thwarting Cole’s ambitions. and reanimation of the land he loved. He was joined by his cousin. when Memphis became a city. he announced that his Nashville. and though he lost this fight. & St. Louis. & St. Cole (1827-1899) appeared to have pulled off a commercial coup with far-reaching consequences for Nashville. Maj. Within a month. Cheek. The recent passing of Maj. E. During this stirring period Nashville was the dynamo of the Southland. in connection with his grocery. approachable and powerful. Joel O. Edmund W. among them some of the giants of the days “before the war.. This was when Birmingham was born. T. C. L. Order succeeded chaos. prosperity succeeded poverty. L. Men from a distance came and outside capital came. She supplied much of the money that went to build up cities and industries. B. he came out with flying colors. Railway. established the firm of C. and he was long her wealthiest and one of her most progressive citizens. T. He had the love and respect of the people of his home city. and when the smoke of countless industries ascended into heaven. .” Col. then began the 4 As the eighties dawned. W. She had many men of keen intellect. The old planter moved to town and gave his brain and strength to the upbuilding. & N. One notable figure who still lives in Nashville and who loves the people of Nashville and the Southland with all his heart is that of Joel O. after the old planter had shown that there was opportunity and a good field for investment. and it was the leaders of the Old South who did it—not Northern blood and Northern money. St. when the whistle of the steam engine and that of the mine and factory could be heard.6 colonels and the captains were leading the industrial army. who was a fine specimen of a man. Cheek. He had dared lock horns with the powerful L.4 He had come up from obscurity by his own efforts. all the way to the seaport of Savannah. It was the men of the Old South during the eighties who were building the New South. C. vigor and enterprise. Cheek. Ky. The Major has passed on but this firm is still in active business. while he was president of the N. Cole was one of these. Her leaders were of the best and presented a brilliant galaxy. Louis Railroad had gained control over a continuous route running from the gateway of the agricultural West. Her citizens furnished brains and enterprise to help in the upbuilding of the neighboring states. In December 1879. Cheek & Sons. by way of Nashville. Stahlman who had been a decided factor in the development of this section for over fifty years. He came to Nashville from Kentucky fifty-eight years ago and was conducting a thriving wholesale grocery business in the early eighties. and was always democratic. however. former allies of Cole had conspired with the rival Louisville & Nashville Railroad to allow it to acquire a controlling interest in the N. C. E. Later on they separated and Major Cheek. who had been a prosperous drygoods merchant in Glasgow. calls to mind the fact that few are left of the men who made things hum in the eighties. as writers from the other side of Mason and Dixon’s Line are fond of claiming. with the little straggling village of Elyton as her mother. when Atlanta awoke.
John J. Cheek became one of the outstanding business men of the country. * “levant and couchant. C. but even the dumb beasts have somehow arrived at the conclusion that Tennessee is fair game. for Nashville was the distributing point for a large part of the Southern country. Her wholesale houses in every line sent goods by the car load to every section. R. Nat Baxter. Ruminating on a New Decade Nashville Daily American. Caldwell was a young man who was coming fast. And that is not the worst of it.. damage feasant” — Terms of English common law to define just what acts a beast may happen to carry out on the property of someone not its owner — basically. W. and a force enlisted in every forward movement. Volney James was active in various enterprises. and tearing things up. added to her other ills. H. Judge Robert Ewing was the leading member of the City Board of Public Works and engaged in business enterprises. The praiseworthy efforts of our worthy Capitol Superintendent to preserve the grounds in his care are commendable. Tennessee is troubled by cows. William O. He was in his late thirties and early forties. & St. which fit into the Revolution. the owls and the bats will be in possession. Price. were among the young men who were beginning to make themselves felt. 1880 From a notice posted on the gate of the Capitol we infer that. eating and sleeping. Gen. William Duncan and Edgar Jones. Burtorff [Buttorff] in the industrial field. Vertrees had already-attained eminence as a lawyer and was active and effective in politics. levant and couchant. Leland Hume. trodden upon by jackasses. Keith. damage feasant. The Maxwell House corner was the most frequented street crossing. The Maxwell House was the heart of Nashville. until Maxwell House Coffee became one of the most popular coffee brands in America. James Geddes. . Judge J. T. Jr. Maj. It’s cows now. shed brave blood in Mexico and furnished good men to two sides in the late difference of opinion. if there Is not some change in affairs. followed the Stars and Stripes in the Indian wars and did service at New-Orleans. Persons who own cows around the Capitol are warned that if they are found. but had not yet quite arrived.. John W. McConnico and others. and Samuel J. E. but before we get through with it. nibbled to death by goslings. K. Shooks. Thomas. who are still in the land of the living. should be browsed on by repudiators. The American paper office was diagonally across the street. president of the N. superintendent of the L. It is a sad state of affairs that this proud old State.* on those grounds they will be duly impounded. M. A. Mack Anderson. leading and farsighted bankers and business men. The writer most likely encountered this terminology in William Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765-69). and then have her capitol pastured over by vagrom cows.7 development of the coffee blending and roasting business. a political business and social headquarters. James E. Vertrees. and Mr. L.. A few of those who are gone out of the many who were in the line of battle were Maj. The city was building and extending rapidly. & N. This was perhaps the period of Major Stahlman’s greatest activity: and at no time during his long career was he inactive. January 3. Kings of Commerce were here. Maj.
E.W. a desperate Negro cut his throat. standing collar saved his life. third vice-president of the L. like the word anagogy. R. He knew the mules like brothers. and were supplements to the very crude city directory. The mule cars “with rings on their fingers and bells on their toes” would come tinkling by.” The two other examples on record of “anagosity” shed little further light on its meaning. Outside. hightempered and genial of men. and various other lines of business were thriving on Rue Deaderick. and was largely patronized by the market gardeners on the Square. B. He had been a stagecoach driver before his degeneration. A few days after he became patrolman. and held court regularly. Aris Brown and J. He was more prudent after that. allegorical. Maj. The present Squire J. One of the most popular. 17 Sept. and the drivers like friendly enemies. now sage. but it has since been desecrated by the removal of the porch and columns from 5 “Anagosity” is not found in either the Oxford English Dictionary or Merriam-Webster. Allen was a young constable and very active in raiding gambling houses.5 They knew the town and where everybody lived.” . and streams of profanity came forth whenever a luckless drayman obstructed his progress. now statesman. Bailey Brown. and moral senses a fourth and ultimate spiritual or mystical sense. In those days it was two blocks long and about eighteen feet from curb to curb. the reader of the lessons in church. Bryan is a man of immense ‘anagosity’—now prelate. among them Squires Peter Harris.. afterwards patrolman and sergeant of metropolitan police force. Vernon (Ky. all you had to do was to stand on this corner for half an hour or so. from whose ancestors Deaderick Street was named. & N. Stahlman. had his offices in this building. Marks. It was busy and crowded. If you could not find a man in his office or at his residence. He was of herculean frame and no one ever saw fit to accept his cordial invitations. there. and best known of these was George Smith. a prelector. one employed to read aloud. William J.. now soldier. Right in the center of the street crossing was a turntable where the little mules turned their cars around to go in different directions. 20 July 1907: “Mr. but was never thoroughly tamed. and the court house habitués. He would “cuss out” his passengers.8 where the Independent Life Building now stands.” (OED). Most of the City Magistrates had offices. Dangerfield Deaderick. Or it may imply preternatural wisdom. He soon emerged front the hospital with a deep scar on his neck. where also was the law office of Former Governor Albert S. “Rue Deaderick” was one of Nashville’s best known streets. the old Maxwell House presented an imposing appearance. when he would be passing by. which Merriam-Webster defines as “interpretation of a word. and was the most profane.” The Washington Post. as the religious term anagnost applies to “a reader. He was irascible. It may suggest that a person is well-read. passage. Harry Adam’s saloon was the countryman’s delight. but otherwise as good as new. is a gentleman of anagosity as brother Walton would say and one who stands by his friends. but his stiff. Mt. The streetcar drivers were men of anagosity. and always expressed a desire to fight it out with his enemies with knives in a dark room. or text [as of Scripture or poetry] that finds beyond the literal.) Signal. was superintendent of the street car service. 1897: “J. James of Crab Orchard.
Smiling sons of Africa’s sunny clime were there to do your bidding. but none came. The management was without reproach. and discussed other subjects.” . One of the fiercest of these. Gentry. Inside all was sombre elegance. Both were men of ability and approved courage. of the public. Henry (William Sydney Porter) in 1909. could be heard. electric lights and brass cuspidors in the lobby. Men loafed in easy chairs and talked politics. John H. The imposing old structure is now belted about with small business establishments. Neill S. with all the witchery of the Old South. Colyar. All political leaders had headquarters in the Maxwell House. In the late eighties. At the curbings on all adjacent streets was an array of hacks. with brass buttons. as the spotless bartender stood behind the speckless counter and poured amber mixtures from decanters. Behind them were the spacious parlors. Henry. but not often. A. Henry’s story. & N. Brown and many other titans of the old regime.” a snide account of a Nashville visit published by O. time table and a lithograph of Lookout Mountain in each one of the great rooms above. Many expected a duel as a result. was between Col. tiling. pushing. An air of refinement pervaded their entire environment. Upstairs on what would now be called the mezzanine floor the curly heads and bustled bodies of women. Isham G. and a new L. When the legislature or a State political convention was in session the hostelry was a mass. wearing a uniform of blue. and John C. Meredith P. Savage and Col.6 which was so thoroughly denounced by Nashville people when it was published. commonly called “night hawks.9 between which much oratory has flown out upon multitudes congregated on Cherry Street (now Fourth Avenue). when they were rival candidates. of jostling. the memory of which lasted as long as life continued with those who saw and heard it. the attention full of exquisite Southern courtesy.000 worth of new marble pillars. while the impact of billiard balls and the clinking of ice in cut glass tumblers. Harris. the service as slow as the progress of a snail and as good-humored as Rip Van Winkle. Many were the heated debates that took place. pistols would begin to flash. they looked pitifully small and insignificant. arguing and sometimes fighting humanity. But the scene was not always so peaceful. Parenthetically it may he said that the best description of the Maxwell House of this period is found in O. The dining room was a specimen of architectural beauty. Occasionally.” for the accommodation. and there viands fit for the gods were served by a small army of Negro waiters. the protagonist describes his unnamed lodgings as follows: “The hotel was one of the kind described as ‘renovated.’ That means $20. S. pushed in where there were once a German beer shop. Gustavus A. 6 In “A Municipal Report. They were driven by dignified Negroes. and a gorgeous old red liquor saloon. John Bell. This custom had prevailed since the days of Andrew Johnson. the speakers standing against the railing on the second floor and facing an audience below in the rotunda and crowded around them. could be seen peeping over the railing into the rotunda to see what their husbands and sweethearts were doing. when the ladies discarded their bustles with hanging draperies.
A boom in agricultural productivity.” Samuel J. 10 A ladies’ nightgown. Colyar. “My committee has not enough sense to pass upon it. and looked every inch a master of men. himself a tariff Democrat. high-tariff Congressman from Pennsylvania. 9 The tariff debates of the 1880s were precursors of the protectionism-vs. to which an important bill had been referred. when he had concluded his speech.” replied the Senator. “I have pigeon-holed that bill in my pocket. He spoke extemporaneously and unwillingly in response to frequent calls. 1885-89. Democratic senator from Delaware. Alexander walked forward and picked Rivers up in his arms and started to drop him over the banisters to the stone floor below. Many ladies were present. Postmaster General. He was followed by his private secretary.S. 17th President of the U. along with advances in transportation. Randall. who once said he wore his party robes loosely.” United States Senator Thomas F. U. and when. Nothing was heard of the bill for some time and a reporter went to Rivers and asked him what. made one of the most eloquent speeches ever heard in Nashville. 1857-74. It’s not Lamar.S. if any action. He and Rivers had disagreed about some legislation. 1880-81. These low-tariff advocates were arrayed against manufacturing interests that wanted to maintain high tariffs on the importing of goods that might be cheaper than American-made products. gave many farmers and the railroads reason to support free trade with countries that might import American produce (and export goods for the railroads to carry inland).-free trade controversies of the 21st century. He was an active man of medium size. In course of his remarks he severely criticized Alexander. it was said. taken. Bayard8 also once delivered a statesman-like address from this rostrum. S.S.. Democratic. He said Johnson walked across the street to the Merchants’ Exchange Saloon. A. He spoke under the auspices of Col. 11 Unionist and Republican congressman from East Tennessee. commanding figure.”10 which did not become his lank. the dean of THE BANNER editorial force. 12 Military Governor of Tennessee during federal occupation. 1862-65. Cooke. 1865-69. Rivers was chairman of a committee. his committee had. an intense man with a scintillating genius. Others crowded around and effected a rescue. and when he had finished. a report would be made. was a young fellow then and was so much impressed that he trailed off after Johnson. U. long The full identity of this Senator Alexander is unknown. was State Senator from Giles. Senator Alexander7 was over six feet tall. who. but the many of the aspiring manufacturers of Nashville must have taken a keen interest in protectionist arguments. who went wild over the secretary’s speech. It was said the ladies “mistook the tail for the dog. 7 8 . Horace Maynard11 and Andrew Johnson12 spoke in the Maxwell House during the seventies: Johnson was a sledge-hammer speaker. Ned Carmack twitted him with wearing a party “Mother Hubbard. Secretary of State. made an eloquent speech on the tariff9 at the Grand Opera House in the eighties. and the latter saw fit to address the crowd at the Maxwell House one night. John C. Freetrade sentiments predominated in the primarily agricultural South. 1869-85.10 One more incident of the rotunda: Flournoy Rivers. raw-boned and powerful.
The saloon occupied the former residence of United States Supreme Court Justice John Catron. Cooke rather liked the hanging.” After the interview was written Mr.. The victim of the law’s vengeance was a man by the name of Ray. . Randall. the sheriff drew the body back through the hole in the scaffold. [who] was hanged for the assassination of a young man.. Randall still awake. J. The main evidence relied upon by the prosecution was the half-burned or scorched wadding of a gun. Randall and write the interview on the train. making sleep impossible. This same John Cooke had been detailed by THE BANNER to go to Bowling Green to meet Randall the night before he was to speak here. Scrap of Banner Plays Part in Conviction of Assassin Nashville Banner. “That’s all right. The trial was perhaps the most remarkable known to the judicial records of Tennessee. The next morning he was to turn it in at THE BANNER office and catch the early train for Pulaski to report a hanging. COOKE In “The Colorful Eighties” last Sunday reference was made to the experience of a reporter in interviewing Samuel J. a telegraph operator. Randall read it over and said: “That is the best interview of mine any reporter ever wrote. It is occupied by a pressing and cleaning establishment. Where it stood is now 219 Fourth Avenue. with the aid of his deputies. Randall was the finest and greatest man in the world. I was the reporter…. sit down and write what I dictate. his death resulting from strangulation. When he boarded the latter’s train after midnight he found Mr. The hanging occurred near Pulaski in the presence of thousands of spectators. the knot slipped and caught Ray under the chin. my boy. When the trap was sprung. 1930 By J.11 since a vague memory. turning in the copy at THE BANNER office an hour before the usual time for beginning the daily work. and catching the seven o’clock train for Pulaski to attend the execution of a man convicted of murder. adjusted the knot under the left ear and with their hands dropped the man through the trap door. come right in. Randall of Pennsylvania on the tariff between midnight and daylight on a special train running forty miles an hour. Cooke told him he had been sent to interview him on the tariff but all he knew about the tariff was how to spell it and he did not know what to ask him. It was in this house that Judge Catron is said to have entertained La Fayette during his visit to Nashville in 1824. the fall failing to break his neck. but was afraid of Mr. I am interviewed by reporters every day in Washington. He was instructed to interview Mr. That was the way reporters worked in the eighties. He begged the sheriff to shoot him to end his suffering.” Cooke thought then. having had a front tacked on to it. and drank a glass brimfull of French brandy. Ray was the only subscriber of THE BANNER in that part of Giles County in which he lived. North. Instead. and still thinks Samuel J. September 28. He said the engineer had blown the whistle every minute and a half since they left Louisville. and the scorched wadding picked up under the window through which the assassin fired showed that it had been torn from THE BANNER…. The hanging itself was a clumsy performance. To be continued next Sunday.
and the decoration of stores and residences was indulged in with great unanimity. and veterans of the Florida and Mexican wars. The military display was a brilliant one. A company of soldiers in old Continental uniform. . The industrial arts where illustrated everywhere in the procession. and the stores and houses adjacent to the hotels have been appropriated for the accommodation of guests. April 25. The festivities were ushered in by a salute of 100 guns from Capitol Hill at sunrise. and historic spots made memorable by encounters with the Indians in the days of early settlement. in the new building constructed for that purpose. with battle-torn flags. Opposite: An interior view of the Expo building (Tennessee State Library and Archives). were greeted with cheers all along the line of march…. 1880 The one hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the City of Nashville. was celebrated to-day by the most imposing street pageant ever witnessed in this State. The Centennial industrial Exposition. The centennial procession was one hour in passing a given point. Nashville’s Anniversary The New York Times. the turn-out of colored members of various societies making a pleasing variety. was formally opened with appropriate ceremonies this evening. first incorporated as a town in 1780. located where Nashville’s Federal Courthouse now stands at Eighth and Broad. were indicated by placards. The city is overrun with strangers. The display of bunting was profuse.Above: The purpose-built headquarters of the Nashville Centennial Exposition of 1880.… The old landmarks about the city.
Hood at Traveler’s Rest.” politics. at the northwest corner of Printers’ and Bank . In the throng during the races could be seen Col. He was the son of Judge John Overton. between Third and Fourth Avenue and north of Jo Johnston. 1930 N ashville was a “wide open” town in the eighties. a red light district that flourished from the Public Square down First Avenue to and beyond the L. and occasionally the venerable figure of Col. would often drop in. adorned with bright ribbons of every color of the rainbow. & N. Henry Spain. Ike Johnson. and the clinking of glasses from the saloon.15 Nashville Banner. At night it was a busy hive of swarming horsemen. Cockrill. “horse races and race horses. would be hung on wires from rail to rail across the rotunda. his hospitable home. Ben S. betting men. Railroad. and across Third Avenue. but its disgraceful glories had departed. the chief financier in the construction of the Maxwell House. and was only incidentally interested in the races. and out Line Street (now Jo Johnston). The purses encased in silk and satin. could be seen. Saloons. The voices of the men selling auction pools reverberated from the billiard room. William H. amid the hum of human voices. and he had entertained Gen. Spot McCarthy would be there when he could get away from his gambling house. September 28. It was during the races that the Maxwell House shone resplendent in gala attire. the Senate. master of Belle Meade. Gen. the shuffling of feet on the marble floor. Col. Jim Palmer. Many notable horsemen and lovers of the turf came from far and near. Van Leer Kirkman and many others. Jackson. Alf Burton. John Overton. pool sellers and curiosity seekers. Overton was interested as a breeder in all fine stocks. gambling houses. during the Battle of Nashville. “Smoky Row” had had its place in song and story. Andrew Jackson‘s friend and mentor.
George Darden. secretary. a little stronger than the usual brew. Cockrill. H. Arthur St. when after his trials and liberation. Frank James. Railroad track was a favorite resort for the sporting fraternity. C. acting on behalf of the prosecution. and once had a run-in with Col. got into more serious trouble. Charlie Hillman and Tom Lellyett would be about. using emphatic languages called him down for jockeying and threatened to put him out of the race if he did not behave himself. where an innocent eating house now makes its domicile. but he refused to leave until the friend went back and brought two more ten dollar bills with which to secure the release of John and Tom. Later the West Side race track superseded the old race course. OLD SALOONS As before intimated. On Christmas eggnog was the favorite. Its location was at the present site of Centennial Park. but sporting blood coursed through his veins and he would bet on anything. Colyar’s eldest son. when he lived in Nashville. Col. used to attend and participate in the races. had a race track down the river near where the big cement plant now is located.. & N. Gillock was secretary. Clair Colyar. a Jew on trial for the murder of a young female employee at the factory he owned. son of Col.” on the other “First Chance. was quite an attraction. Jr. Col. In 1899. In 1889.” Most of those passing along the highways took a chance. full of life. though they did not belong to the sporting gentry. Linck’s Hotel on north Third Avenue at the L. Colyar. You could always get a good drink and a good meal at Linck’s. One potential witness testified that Colyar. John Colyar13. James came again to Nashville to attend the races. In the early eighties the Nashville Blood Horse Association. In the spring there was a great run of bock beer. One night they made a miss-step and landed in the old station house on Front Street and Locust. On every road leading to Nashville was a saloon. They were three young fellows. he was accused of plotting to kidnap a prosecution witness in a New York murder case and to hoodwink the governor of Tennessee into extraditing the man as an escaped inmate. In many respects he was as guileless as a child. Cockrill was a judge at the races and James was riding his own horse in a gentle-man’s race. Ben Cockrill. In 1913. S. the outlaw. Col. A mob eventually took Frank from the jail and lynched him. Colyar turned up in Atlanta amid the notorious case of Leo Frank. offered her $1. On one side of the sign was printed. was a reporter for various local newspapers who died in 1895. and William Linck. A. Colyar. 13 . a fugitive from justice. his father had him committed to an insane asylum to avoid jail time for a series of petty frauds carried out against associates of the Colonel in New York and Washington.16 alleys. One of his favorite sports was “pitching dollars” with his guests. “Last Chance. also apple John B. liquor selling was a flourishing industry. and out for a good time. the proprietor. There were from 100 to 150 saloons in the city. Cockrill did not know the identity of the rider for some years afterward.000 to identify Frank as the killer. and when cold weather came in the late fall and early winter “hot Tom and Jerry” was served. A friend went down with ten dollars to bail Charlie out.
was noted for his wisdom. The loafers around the stables referred all disputed points to him. was popular in cold weather. saddle horses that could go any one of the fast saddle gaits in four minutes. in the corner of the old Masonic Theater Building. blacks—a dappled black was a star beauty—rich chestnut sorrels and occasionally a star. He delivered his dictum with becoming gravity.14 The livery stable keeper. Sandy Carter‘s old place. sorrels. blood bays. Most of the courting was done in buggies. Some of the buggies had yellow side bars and these were in much demand by the young bloods. Milsom & Walsh. everywhere. Pleas Smith‘s livery bill mounted to $2. In the eighties Nashville had a number of deep snows. He had buggy horses. were the Southern Turf. the Maxwell House saloon. but afterwards conducted by Alex Longinette on Church Street. During the hot weather buggies and carriages would be darting. Henry Linck‘s and James Killilea‘s.17 toddies containing each a floating. and had an unutterable contempt for anyone who did not “know” a horse. Wealthy men who lived in the country frequently left a standing order at their respective livery stables: “If anybody wants to come to my house. with not-so-unpleasant associations: It might mean there were cookies in the oven. on the west side of Fourth Avenue. Fritz Burkholt‘s beer saloon in the basement at the Maxwell House corner. He had sleek. built by Ike Johnson. milk white. conducted after Carter’s death by Johnny Archibald. Among the noted saloons of the time. the Climax. over which Henry Brown presided for many years. There were dozens of them and they had an odor all their own—not so bad at that. but the young fellow was usually greatly embarrassed and much confused in his halting speech. between Church and Union Streets. where the cafe is now located. LIVERY STABLES A feature of Nashville was the livery stables. the politest man who ever mixed a drink.000 per annum. Funny. His buggies and carriages were spick and span. baked apple. One would have imagined that there never was and 14 The pungent. “The Bucket of Blood” in Black Bottom and “the Jingerling” saloon in North Nashville. He looked horsey. with hand-painted necktie. some of which lasted until the enactment of the Eighteenth Amendment. barnyard smell of hartshorn (ammonium bicarbonate) was also a familiar kitchen odor to many of Morton’s readers.000 or $3. like the man who dispensed drinks in white collar and immaculate shirt. on Fourth Avenue opposite the Maxwell House. Hartshorn served a leavening purpose similar to that of today’s baking soda and baking powder. let him have a horse and buggy and charge it to me.” It was said that Capt. grays. bright and shiny. the Anchor. on Church Street and the Maxwell House Alley. Ike Johnson proprietor. . In those days your male ancestors were expected to “pop the question” and the crisis usually came as the horse walked through some shady lane. with a strong admixture of hartshorn. and the “night hawk” hacks crawling.
and went with him everywhere. William H. but “made the grade. however. Hanmer was sitting on deck. reading his paper and enjoying the breeze from the Cumberland. a little pickaninny six or eight years old. Hanmer and a friend were passing the slave market on the Public Square where slaves were being sold by auction. “Let’s buy a Negro. Hanmer. sleighs with jingling bells would appear on every street. I don’t belong ter you no mo: Marse Horace done gambled me off. “I jes cum ter tell you goodbye. His establishment was on Front Street (now First Avenue) near Bridge Avenue. when a Negro stableboy approached hurriedly and announced: “A man out dare in front in a buggy. At the river end were wide-open doors. was sitting in the back end of the stable. One of the strangest of these built-on-the-spur-of-the-moment vehicles was an old “dug-out” canoe that made its advent one winter. left the boat and postponed his trip home until he could . It was Cap.. They used to tell a joke on General Jackson and Hanmer. he slept in the room with him.18 never would be a sleigh in Nashville. The livery stables had them in concealment. He was an old bachelor. They also had many business transactions. waited on him. “What have you been doing. when Bob appeared.” Away back in antiquity one day Cap. and though the General was the victim he enjoyed it thoroughly himself. Besides these. and so Cap. General Jackson was a man of great dignity who spoke with deliberation. kept bachelor apartments across the street. and enjoyed making speeches when the occasion presented. Jackson of Belle Meade were great friends. said fer me to tell you dat Gineral Jackson wanted to see you. On the occasion Cap. But Bob loved his new master. But when the winds howled and the snows came in winter.” The sleighs-for-hire were rented with horses attached at $5 per hour and the boys with their fur-clad sweethearts had the time of their lives. Bob never knew the name of his former master his mother.” “Without looking up Hanmer replied: “Ask him whether it is Andrew or Stonewall. Withal. having a mutual tie in their great love for horses. He and Gen. The front opened on the street.” Bob replied. It excited much merriment. bought Bob. as the boat was about to start home Mr. and he and his brother. you little rascal?” asked the master. many improvised sleighs made of goods boxes and plow handles appeared. as if by magic. Marse Cap. and many private citizens had them stowed away. Hanmer‘s favorite place to sit and read the afternoon BANNER. he was thoroughly Democratic and approachable. “Nothin. On one of their trips to New Orleans. a delightfully cool place on hot summer afternoons.” With many imprecations Cap.” one of them suggested. from whom he was separated forever by one of the horrors of slavery. the rear on the river bluff. CAP HANMER A famous old liveryman was Cap. and all the offscourings were raked or swept into the river. drawn by a pair of horses. Horace.
The latter was a progressive colored man. one of the last to go. toward the river from First Baptist Church. and. Gen. Luke P. now an automobile establishment. C. W. To be continued next Sunday. He occupied a like position during the administrations as Governor of Proctor Knott. died of a broken heart. and assistant in his humble capacity at all the Governor’s social functions. a brother of J. even if available. Then a Republican. Simon Bolivar Buck and John Young Brown. 15 Later the site of the main entrance to the Municipal Auditorium. and Elias Napier’s on Broadway at the corner of Seventh Avenue.” Space forbids a history. he took Bob with him to be porter at the executive offices. Bradley was elected Governor and Bob went into the discard. returning to Louisville. Napier. however. After “the freedom” Bob became a waiter at the Maxwell House. and when Dr. These were Black’s. Woodfin’s on Broadway. should be mentioned. near where the Bijou Theater is now located15. A few. Blackburn.19 get his “little nigger” back. occupying part of the site of the high school building. on Third Avenue between Church and Commerce Streets. O. where he was a favorite of Andrew Johnson and other great men of that time. Patterson & Carmichael’s. . Blackburn went to Frankfort as Governor. He then went to Louisville. Ky. of all the famous old liverystables. where again he became a hotel waiter and made friends with Dr. To his last breath he cherished a great affection for his old master and always spoke of him as “Marse Cap. Bennett’s and Trousdale’s stables of North Fourth Avenue.
and raising his silk hat said: “Grover. Hayes. stood behind him. nor overawed by his official position. the day before Roosevelt arrived in Nashville by train for a visit of a few hours. W.” Mr. An apparently verbatim transcription of his speeches in the Chicago Daily Tribune (October 23. Cleveland‘s eye. against the carriage and the horses. He spoke from the east side of the Capitol building. The Panic of 1907 began with bank runs in New York on October 21. Jackson at Belle Meade. 1930 uring the eighties one President of the United States and one former President visited Nashville. old boy. Cleveland a reception at the Maxwell House while Mr. The crowd pushed and crowded around. the BANNER veteran.16 President Cleveland included Nashville in his itinerary when he made his swing through the South. Cooke. a bright Nashville newspaper man. Cleveland were the guests of Gen. Cleveland smiled and said: “Thank you. called on him at the White House. but Cleveland did not mind it.” Illustrating this trait of the great Democratic President: Jack Gross. spoke in Nashville and at Andrew Jackson‘s grave and helped precipitate a financial panic by his Nashville speech. He was ever Rubbish. These were Grover Cleveland and Rutherford B. a rugged Kentucky politician. President William McKinley came during the Centennial and later President Theodore Roosevelt came. Cleveland sat in a carriage on Church Street in front of the ladies’ entrance and looked bored. 1907. placed his paper on the President’s back and reported his speech. They did not have many conveniences for reporters in those days and John C.21 Nashville Banner. October 5. In course of a voluble conversation Gross slapped the President on the knee. During this visit Mr. was finally pushed tight in behind the horses. Finally he caught Mr. and Mrs. I am glad to see you. Charley Robert. The ladies gave Mrs. That would be lèse majesté now. 16 D . 1907) offers no suggestion that the President said anything at Nashville to worsen the crisis. H. and always liked a man who was not afraid of him.
Volney James. and both Mr. West Nashville was projected as a great industrial and residential town. Stahlman. he lived elegantly and talked in millions. In the late eighties. H. The first directors of the Nashville Land Improvement Company. railroad and real estate baron primarily responsible for developing the east coast of Florida starting in the late 1880s. Col. S. came to Nashville during the eighties. a prominent Louisville educator. who promoted West Nashville (“New Town”) and Waverly Place. Pierce and associates constructed there a charcoal iron furnace with a commercial alcohol plant. Maj. These unrepentant victims devised a plan to get rid of the judge. T. Acklen. President. being attracted by the wonderful development in progress in the South. was in Washington. Pierce. Judge Granville Ridley was judge of the Criminal court and had been “making it hot” for gamblers and other lawbreakers. H. Fite. BOOMS AND BOOMERS Many capitalists. D. former President Rutherford B. Dr. “Beg your pardon. Col. It has since become a part of the City of Nashville. which engineered the new town. Mr. A. Colyar. They secured the assistance of Colonel Blackman to organize a coal company. Davis. Pierce and Gen. . Palmer. Professor Kirby. M. Kirby. H. His clothing was the last word in style. Steger. “Mr. many of them in private cars. M. H. Steel. E. Flagler‘s17 righthand man in the development of Florida. Iron and Railway Company found itself during this period. He engineered. “what’s the name?” Mr. and called on the President. Elegant offices were opened in the 17 Henry Morrison Flagler (1830-1913). Hayes came to Nashville to attend a meeting of the Prison Reform Congress. Thomas Menees. among them Col. a princely man. Col. S. He made the Maxwell House his headquarters. W. only a few of whom are now living. were: Dr. Washington and L. and is one of the most prominent manufacturing centers of the South. G.” said the friend. who was to introduce him. When their turn came they were rushed into the President’s office. Maj. M.22 afterwards Cleveland‘s right-hand man in Kentucky. Pierce. W. Wright. Thos. It had what was then a swell club house. Thruston. It sprang into being in 1887. Then there were numerous boomer promoters. T. Cockrill. J. Kirby of Louisville. Alfred Blackman was a picturesque figure. E. Colyar served terms as president. a coal company which had a brief and unusual career with a sharp political angle.” said the old educator. H. Cole. M. Cleveland laughed heartily. Eugene Lewis. They were met and entertained by such men as William M. among many other projects. Dr. allow me to introduce Prof. and never forgot Prof. M. D. a reliable and intelligent man who was afterwards Mr. singly and in groups. Duncan and Col. Duncan. B. S. L. and was much interested in the surging mob of humanity as he stood in the anteroom with a friend. He was an absent-minded man. The Tennessee Coal. Personally he was an exceedingly attractive man. M. Alfred F. Blackman and others. P. H. T.
May 20.23 Maxwell House. The flour is all out. the Masonic Theater on Church Street. who had an eye on the Republican nomination for the Presidency of the United States.” The husband telephoned forthwith for a barrel of the best flour in the market to be sent to his home instanter. DeWitt Talmadge.” They offered him a large body of alleged Tennessee coal land at an attractive figure. The plotters had put up this money and the first year’s salary was to be paid in advance. for you must reap the benefits as well as myself. Russell A. then at their zenith. but kept it to myself until today. and to substantiate this statement. which resulted in litigation. withdrew his resignation and resumed his position as Judge of the Criminal Court. I do hope it won’t crush you.18 In fact. I am determined you shall know it. Another deal was put over about this time. at the northwest corner Union Street and Fifth Avenue. Alger was a millionaire. and the Theater Vendôme. They offered this position to Judge Ridley. The land and the painted rocks were inspected and the deal closed. west of the Maxwell House. where the Bijou is now located. . Henry Watterson lectured on the tariff at the State Capitol. 18 Roughly the location of the Provence café in the downtown Public Library. Beecher lectured at the Grand Opera House. THEATERS AND ACTORS During the decade many great actors and lecturers came to Nashville.000 a year. The four prominent theaters were the Olympic. I thought that by this method you would not forget it. which brought out all the facts. but it is my duty to do so. but later discovered the ruse. He concluded to make an investment in the fast-moving South. and an attorney. when it has reached a crisis and I cannot keep it any longer. Judge Ridley accepted the offer and resigned as judge. it is the same building. but he “fell among thieves. had painted exposed rocks black. with instructions that it should not be opened until he got to his place of business: “I am forced to tell you something that I know will trouble you. 1882 A Broad-street merchant’s wife yesterday gave him the following letter. Northern statesman. north of Cedar Street. I Need to Tell You Something Nashville Daily American. let the result be what it may. whose salary would be $10. I have known for a week that this trial was coming. and beautiful stock certificates were issued. on Fourth Avenue. The Grand Opera House. where Loew’s Vendôme now stands. You must not censure me too harshly. Please send me some this afternoon. There was to be a complete organization. Among the latter were Henry Ward Beecher and T. They said the coal was cropping out everywhere. Honey. The first stroke of a pick on a painted rock exposed the fraud. Mr.
leader of a popular minstrel show. became famous for his performances in a stage adaptation of the Alexandre Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo that made its debut in 1883. Oliver Milsom. John 25. Alessandro Salvini (1861-1896). Field24. Salvini the younger20. 22 Maurice Barrymore (born Herbert Blythe. Emma Abbott. 1847-1905). who knew every actor on the road. just as now they hope to become sports editor. 25 Lotta Mignon Crabtree (1847-1924). and Bishop Warren A. Col. Annie Pixley. Modjeska23.24 The “play was the thing” in those days. 21 James O’Neill. Hoke. Mary Anderson. then Dr.19 Following are some of the actors who appeared in Nashville during this decade: McKee Rankin. Candler had just preached As the ad on this page shows. and all cub reporters hoped one day to become a dramatic critic. Emma Abbott opened the Vendôme. was then a bright. Barrymore22. A. Hatfield. Candler. Sol Smith Russell. 24Alfred Griffith Field (born Albert G. Al G. pastor of McKendree Church. The Vendôme was supposed to be the last word in playhouse architecture and Nashville was very proud of it. and all the leading actors of the world came to Nashville. Three of the best known of the dramatic critics were Charles Robert. Sheetz. Milton Noble. Milsom was running the Masonic Theater in 1886. 1848-1921). Dr. actress and singer. 23 Helena Modjeska (1840-1909). Doak was fond of writing about the heavy actors. W. A noted episode was the clash between Emma Abbott. scion of the performing family. famed actress and acting teacher.S. son of the famous Italian-born actor Tomasso Salvini and himself a well-known stage star in the late 1900s. M. Lotta There were many others. Robert Mantel. Joseph Jefferson. the last manager of the Vendôme. McCullough. young chap working for Mr. Milsom. father of playwright Eugene O’Neill. Peck and Robert L. The position of dramatic critic was important. O’Neil [O’Neill]21. Candler. Edwin Booth. was the manager. Polish-born actress who won a wide following in the U. William H. 19 20 . H.
who had been a member of a Nashville stock company. There were many . Emma Abbott arose in the back of the church with tears in her eyes and voice and replied to him. On one occasion an inquisitive male secreted himself in the gallery of the theater where Mrs. where legs and lingerie were exposed. “Bob” Hoke was the diplomat chosen by the American to report the performance. no male was allowed to attend. and who of that time does not remember the quaint humor of Sol Smith Russell. when he stood on a rock in the billowy Mediterranean. but many of the others were great and all those mentioned were popular. though it was a great sensation for the Nashville newspapers and for the press throughout the country. and. ‘the world is mine. He sung an aesthetic song of artistic grace and beauty. Miller was telling and showing the ladies all about it. and saying that she was a Christian and a church member. a handsomely dressed and well-built dress reformer. Such dancers were advertised very conservatively and reported very diplomatically. and the advertisement emphasized the artistic effect. On one occasion a noted skirt dancer was to appear. did not create the storm that was raised by skirt dancing. When the girls got to playing this game. would ask: “Has he said. and the game had to be reported by a female. when like a clap of thunder out of a clear sky. and that her every act in the presentation of her art was a prayer and an act of worship. stretched forth his arms and ex-claimed: “The whole world is mine!” The little boys who had not the price of admission would stand around the entrance.’ yet?” MODEST MAIDENS In those days basketball came about. Ballet dancing was in vogue. protesting. and the incident at the church was closed. and no man was admitted. Edwin Booth was the greatest actor of them all. and said the lady had weights in her skirts that caused them to flap together when a high kick was essayed. with legs invisible. thus preventing any “unseemly” display. and as men passed back and forth between the theater and a nearby saloon. Dr.25 a sermon criticizing the stage. coursing through his veins? O’Neal [O’Neill] was the small boy’s hero in “The Count of Monte Cristo. Her reforms were mainly devoted to lingerie. and while frowned upon by conservatives. which they patronized freely between the acts. pointing an accusing finger exclaimed: “A man! A man!” The performance was suspended while the male animal beat an inglorious retreat. Joe Jefferson. Profound silence fell upon the church as she concluded. with the milk of human kindness. She descried the interloper as he peered over the back of a bench. created quite a stir. for fear he might see too much that was forbidden. was fairly worshipped by the masses. Janess Miller. There were then no bathing beaches in Nashville. Candler refrained from replying to her remarks.” who that ever saw him in this play can forget the grand heroics on his emergence from the sea. as a youth.
for fear some man might be looking. . allowed to bathe at home in sections. It generally took her a long time to learn.” patronized exclusively by boys and men. with baggy legs drawn together at the ankle with a puckering string. These suits were of flannel. Had a boy appeared in one he would have been immediately expelled from the brotherhood as a “sissy. When they went to the seashore they were allowed to go into the surf in bathing suits. Old manners gone. Some of them thought it unbecoming in a lady to strip all the clothes off her body. even when no one was present except herself.” much less to have essayed to swim. There were no bathing suits. however. and hold her up while she learned to swim. A boy was allowed to put his hand under her body after they were in the water. Girls were.” To be continued next Sunday. red or blue. “Old times are changed.26 “swimming holes.” It would have been perfectly scandalous for a girl to have appeared at a “swimmin’ hole. In one of these bathing suits a girl looked like the devil.
Nashville Banner, October 12, 1930 he eighties witnessed many radical changes in Nashville newspapers, as it did throughout the whole country. News began to become more important than editorials. The Associated Press and other newsgathering agencies were greatly enlarged, and telegraph news began to assume an importance hitherto unknown. Newspapers for a while, feeling proud of this new departure, from heavy editorials, local news and news sent in by mail, began unduly to feature telegraph news. This telegraph news was scant compared with what it is now. All of it was used, and generally on the first page. Now twenty times as much telegraph matter is thrown into the waste basket, as was then used. In the early days of the decade all matter, both news and advertisements. was set by hand; in the closing years the lineotype began to supplant the oldtime printer. Great improvement was made in all mechanical departments. Perfected presses came into general use, and papers were printed from cast plates, instead of directly from the forms. Also, what is now known as “yellow journalism” began to appear New York; and in Nashville big headlines made their advent. Illustrating and cartooning came into prominence on a scale hitherto unknown. The pictures were crude and few, compared with the illustrations in papers of today. They were usually printed from chalk plates. A chalk paste was spread on a steel background, and the picture was outlined on the chalk, which was cut with a steel stylus. The printing was done directly from these plates. While a new day was dawning much of the picturesqueness of the old day remained, The editors thought it their duty to criticize one another daily, and the public watched these controversies with great interest. Maj. Henry Heiss was the pioneer who ushered in the new day. He was a progressive man of ability, courage, and a great facility for making friends. He went at his work like a tiger devouring his prey.
Some of the men prominent in this time of revolutionary progress were Albert Roberts,26 Maj. E. B. Stahlman, Edward Ward Carmack, Col. A. S. Colyar, John J. Vertrees, who was a lawyer of ability, then as now, but who was active in politics, and for a short time editor of the American, Gen. Ira P. Jones, Dr. William M. Clark, Dr. R. A. Halley, Wm. J. Ewing, George H. Armistead, present editor of THE BANNER; Walter Cain, “Billy” Arnold, G. H. Baskette, Col. H. M. Doak, A. J. Grigsby, who is still an active member of THE BANNER staff; John C. Cooke and Edgar M. Foster, then an active youngster.
Albert Roberts was a man of education and refinement, with a forward look. He engineered the consolidation of the Union and American, the Gazette and Republican Banner. He was a forceful writer, and was born to be a humorist; though he failed to follow up his genius in this line. He it was who discovered Ned Carmack. He had been in journalism in Nashville before the Civil War, when dueling was in vogue, and himself had participated as second in one of Poindexter’s duels. He said editors were selected in those days from the bright young men throughout the State who were willing to fight. He said of all the brilliant array of young editors none outshone Carmack, who came from Columbia in the eighties to write editorials under Mr. Roberts. Carmack became discouraged and wanted to quit, but through Mr. Roberts‘ encouragement and persuasion was induced to remain. When Carmack was editor of the Democrat The Nashville Daily American building, Cherry and Colonel Colyar was (Fourth) and Church. The American, the dominant paper in town, was an ancestor of The Tennessean. editor of the American, (From Nashville: An Illustrated Review of its they had a continuous Progress and Importance, published 1885 or 1886). tariff argument, Mr.
Journalist Albert Roberts (1835-1895) edited two Confederate newspapers during the Civil War. At war’s end, he joined the Nashville Republican Banner, of which his father John Roberts was publisher. He is not to be confused with the unrelated Albert Houston Roberts (18681946), Governor of Tennessee from 1919 to 1921.
Carmack favoring a low tariff and Colonel Colyar a high protective tariff. The contest became bitter, as Mr. Carmack used biting sarcasm, and Colonel Colyar retaliated with printed thunderbolts. Finally Colonel Colyar was goaded beyond endurance and wrote Carmack a personal letter, in effect a challenge, in which he denounced him, and concluded by saying: “I will be in town tomorrow.” Carmack published this letter and replied to it in a humorous vein, finishing with the sentence: “And now, my dear Colonel, if you have any business out of town, pray do not re-main on my account.” This editorial created so much hilarity that the Colonel, with great good sense, concluded to let the matter drop.
JOHNNY PAYNE’S INNOVATION
An event of world-wide importance to newspapers occurred in Nashville in 1885. It was the successful use of the typewriter In taking telegraphic messages. John A. Payne, commonly known as “Johnny Payne,” was the pioneer. Addison C. Thomas, superintendent of the traffic department of the Associated Press came to Nashville in May of that year, and found, Payne, a Western Union operator, taking the press reports on a typewriter. He at once captured Payne and took him on a tour of the Associated Press papers through-out the country, and introduced his innovation everywhere. Johnny Payne was born in the fine old mansion at Edgefield Junction, then owned by his father, but now owned by Tony Sudekum. Mr. Sudekum operates a large dairy farm on this place and makes his summer home there. Johnny learned the telegraph business when as a little boy he used to hang around the telegraph office at the old Edgefield Junction, near where the suspension bridge crosses the Cumberland going to Old Hickory. It has been superseded by Amqui.27 Johnny Payne finally became a successful business man in Cincinnati, and died there, May 23, 1924.
TWO WAR HORSES
Two giants of the old regime, who were still in Nashville during the eighties, are worth more than a passing notice. They were Jeremiah George Harris and Maj. Henry Heiss. Born in Groton, Conn., October 23, 1809, Mr. Harris early entered journalism. After the political revolt against Andrew Jackson in Tennessee led by Hugh L. White, the Jackson party brought Mr. Harris to Nashville in 1839 to edit their party organ, the Union. This paper, which had been a small weekly, was changed to a triweekly, and soon exercised a wide influence throughout the South. In 1843 he was commissioned Commercial Agent of the United States in Europe by Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State. He returned to Nashville in 1844 and was editor of the Union until James K. Polk was elected President. He then retired from active journalism, and was
27 The community of Amqui, developed around the time of World War I, supplanted the village of Edgefield Junction, where two rail lined converged in north-eastern Davidson County. Today the area constitutes the northern part of Madison.
Henry Heiss. Tony. and had fun with him every night. Immediately across the street was the DeMoville drug store. he became. Mr. His commanding figure and dignified bearing are well remembered by the older citizens of Nashville. Though he could never hit a rat. with Thomas Ritchie. then retired and in the enjoyment of a hale and hearty old age. He returned to Nashville and became managing editor of the revived Republican Banner. so he took a shot at the fruit vendor with his rifle. facing on Church Street at Fourth Avenue. but one day he could not make Tony hear. which had been suspended during hostilities. was one of his entertainers. Louis Times.30 appointed disbursing officer in the navy. the ball struck Tony. At the side of the DeMoville building was a little fruit stand presided over by Tony Rovegno. and though it 28 Morton is conflating a father and son here. Many striking experiences fell to his lot during his long service in the navy.1812-1865). managing editor of the Union and American and managing editor of the American. He and the other newspaper boys were in the habit of getting fruit from their friend. Afterwards he was managing editor of the St. so far as known. BILLY ARNOLD’S SIGNAL The American editorial rooms were on the third floor of the building. Pa. President Polk in April. Arnold was in the habit of calling across the street to Tony to bring him some fruit. came to Nashville to visit the widow of his old friend. established the Washington Union. and served two years in the suppression of the slave trade on the West Coast of Africa. John P. 1838. When Bancroft. At the breaking out of the Civil War he returned to Nashville and enlisted as a private in the Confederate Army. President Polk invited him to Washington to edit an administration paper. was with Commodore Perry when he opened Japanese commerce to the world in 1854. April 30. He served with Forrest and Wheeler.. Heiss (ca. born 1838 in Pennsylvania. who. Returning finally to Nashville. He remained in the navy until he returned to Nashville to spend his old age. edited the Nashville Union in the early 1840s. He held the latter position until his retirement. He was early one of the editors of the Nashville Union. who was sometimes paid in complimentary notices in the paper. was managing editor of the American at the time referred to. so Arnold bought a Flobert rifle and used to amuse himself late at night shooting at the rodents. shortly before his death in the late eighties. The rats were very bad in the newspaper office. edited the Nashville Daily American in the 1880s. 1887. He participated actively in the Mexican War. Henry Heiss. as has already been stated. Maj. and when the war ended was serving as a captain with the staff rank of major. He never killed one. father of the present “Billy” Arnold.28 He came to Nashville with his parents when a child. since become a prosperous citizen. where the Noel Hotel now stands. There he. and the rats were not at all afraid of him and his gun. . Harris. was born in Bristol. in succession. the historian. was the father of modern journalism in Nashville. He died in 1886. “Billy” Arnold.
White. R. and engaged in international games. and after he came to Nashville was a frequent contributor to . A. it aroused his hot Italian temper. He went from here to New York. A. and he came storming into Arnold’s office with blood in his eye. Blondner sang a solo. and printed a little leaflet in connection with his work. near Deaderick Street. He was Major Heiss‘ right-hand man. Billy Arnold was a bright young fellow. but finally became city editor and news editor of this paper. both were men of genius. one of the founders of the NASHVILLE BANNER. was one of the most wide-awake reporters in Nashville during the eighties. Cunningham was editor and owner up to the time of his death. and from there to the PostDispatch in St. Cunningham was a special writer under the pen name. Albert Hodges. without departing from the paper’s headline style. now a member of the staff of the Chattanooga News. where he died. on the west side of Fourth Avenue. When he died the newspaper boys conducted his funeral services in McCombs’ undertaking establishment in the old Colonnade building. Knights of Pythias. was an active young fellow in those days. where he was identified with trade journalism. His brother. Clark. He died in Cincinnati a few years ago. was an ornament to the journalistic profession. R. was a clerk in the City Health Department. S. and the boys each paid him a short verbal tribute. G. Donald Padman and Charley Robert were friends and running mates. He went from Nashville to the Courier-Journal. He was first editor of a Lebanon paper. was a hard worker and good all-round newspaper man. C. CHARLEY HODGES AND OTHERS Charley Hodges was an active and competent newspaper man. He went to California. Mrs. He afterwards went to Cincinnati. Charley Robert and William Henry Peck were rival dramatic critics. “S. J.31 stung him only a little. long keeper of records and seal. This finally became the Confederate Veteran. and the public devoured his criticisms with avidity. Louis. L. He was sparkling and witty. of which Mr. The latter. in succession. While there were other dramatic critics just as good as Robert. C. After profuse apologies and much palaver his temper cooled and he departed. He was a reporter on THE BANNER. and right up to the minute. and quite jealous of Peck. Dr. James B. One day he surprised the natives by having every headline on the front page of the paper written in rhyme.” He was chosen secretary of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association. where he became. besides being a good critic. and where he died. He became the champion chess player of the United States. he was perhaps the most popular critic that ever wrote for Nashville newspapers. Padman‘s specialty was witty editorial paragraphs. city editor and managing editor of the Enquirer. Miller. He had the largest personal acquaintance of any man in Tennessee. Robert was a brilliant writer.
and a clear. Shoes were polished at home or by little Negro boys who carried their little boxes with blacking and brushes swung by a strap from their shoulders. there were three newspapers in Nashville — the American. was had was was NEWSIES AND SHINERS This was before the days of shoe-shining and clothes-cleaning and pressing emporiums. † See page 59.” The New Year’s receptions in Nashville were the incentive for the first social reporting. editor of THE BANNER during the latter eighties. Vanderbilt University Library. The first sports writer in the state was W. Baskette. at Special Collections Dept. who was a very literary man. Folder 1. Following Doak. a real estate dealer.† The American was a morning paper. They had an embarrassing habit of pointing significantly to a man’s shoes and crying out: “Shine. The first prohibition newspaper in the South.. Congress from 1911 to 1913. His sister. (1861-1950). Littleton. G. been a boy Confederate soldier. It was this latter paper for which I first worked. He had first written as a humorist under the name “John Happy. Martin Littleton went to New York. J. edited for a long time by [Henry M.”… * Martin Wiley Littleton (1872-1934) served in the U. He represented oil magnate Harry Ford Sinclair in a celebrated criminal trial arising from the Teapot Dome scandal of the 1920s. He originated and long conducted the Banner Query Box. Ewing — writing under the name “Blue Wing. He a factor to be reckoned with during those years of mixed politics. Frazier. Albert Roberts was the editor. His writings were classical in purity. When a young fellow wanted his trousers creased he folded them carefully and placed them under his pillow for the night. was the first woman in the United States to serve as a state superintendent of education — a position she held in Tennessee in 1873 [actually 1882]. Other Nashville papers during this period were the News.S. The Issue. Mister?” Another Newsman Looks Back Excerpts from a 1950 Interview with George Harrison Armistead. H. This weekly was edited by John J. He also a writer of good verse. one of three brothers from Kingston. forceful writer. was established in 1886. In 1885. The latter was an afternoon paper of little importance during its brief career. Typescript in Box 2.* John Littleton was killed by Joe Brooks. Sr. His English was faultless. the Democrat. and the Herald.] Doak. He or his mother got the spots off with benzene or soap and water.32 the press. The Waller Project Papers. though prose was his chosen vehicle. . where he became a famous lawyer and a star speaker for Tammany. the Banner and the World. in a political quarrel. Julia Doak. He a good speaker. Jesse ran for Representative against James S.
I wish you would quit making a fool out of me every day.” was a prominent figure on the streets and around the newspaper offices. I keep you from making a fool out of yourself much oftener than I make a fool of you. who may be seen now almost any time standing an a street corner calling his wares. and said: “Sam. Another of his lines of business was to set a sloppy lunch every night in the morning newspaper offices. as now. Carmack. near the present base-ball park. . “SULPHUR WATER JIM” Jim Hurd. Then. He would send for Work and give him a lecture when this happened. was composed of the newsboys.” in a drawling voice and monotonous tone. a very good one. He sold sulphur water from the old spring in Sulphur Bottom. he was provident. Mr. He carried the water in a demijohn. I’ll tell you one thing. little as he looks like a financier. he sent for Work.33 Another active organization. In those days he was up to the minute. he engineered a combination and always won. When a white boy appeared as a “shoe-shiner” he similarly was “rocked” into oblivion by the Negro bootblacks. commonly known as “Sulphur Water Jim. A noted and active newsboy was Ike Hurst.” Carmack laughed his infectious laugh and dropped the subject. who drew the color line. and. He also carried a little salt to put in the water if customers desired this condiment. which is still with us. and squandered nothing on fine raiment. and only black boys were allowed to shine shoes. around which ice was packed. One day when. five cents. Sam Work was a well-known proofreader. in fact. more exasperated than usual. and when prizes were offered the boy selling the most newspapers.” Sam’s retort was: “Well. He always had money in the bank. and was eternally crying: “Ice-cold sulphur water. Only white boys were allowed to sell papers. It always made Ned Carmack angry when a typographical error appeared in his editorials. Whenever a Negro boy essayed to sell papers the white boys threw rocks at him and drove him off the streets. To be continued next Sunday.
35 Nashville Banner.. St. Pittsburgh and intervening points. it was still great. Many of the buildings still standing in the business section. The railroads had come and were reaching out. and when they arrived they whistled to let the “night-hawk” hacks know they were coming with passengers. as they hurried back and forth. they were swifter than the boats and finally gained the victory. singing and laughing. piled with products and merchandise of every description. 1930 T he eighties saw the last of real. An immense amount of cotton was shipped from Nashville by boat. A great wagon yard for the teams and wagons occupied an open space in South Nashville. were then cotton warehouses. The picturesque Negro deckhands. sure-enough steamboating on the Cumberland. In the eighties. though the river trade was not what it had been. The wharf was a busy place. Ala. All day and all night the hoarse whistle of the boats could be heard. The steamboats had become stern-wheelers. sent cotton to Nashville by wagon. and roustabouts. because on account of the Muscle Shoals it could not be shipped on the Tennessee River. Louis. but they were doing business. lent color to the scene at the landing. . the “night-hawks” and the roustabouts would be there. in charge of a profane mate. When a boat reached the landing. Decatur. Before the advent of the railroads Nashville was the receiving and distributing point of a large steamboat territory. Great side-wheelers ran on the rivers to New Orleans. and paying little or no attention to the mate’s voluble oaths and threats. and the mate seemed to think it a necessary part of the routine. so that they could navigate the shallow stream. The latter swore by note. and to let the local roustabouts know they were coming with freight to be unloaded. Before they left they whistled to notify belated passengers and deckhands they were about to start. October 19.
Shepherd Greene.36 STEAMBOAT MUSIC It was the custom for all th e Negro hands to gather on the swinging gan gplank as the boats backed out and started on their journey. wheat. Coal by twoboats was brought from Pittsburgh for the Nashville Gas Co. and has witnessed the scene described and heard the wonderful chanting of these natural-born musicians. T. They saw that the passengers were introduced to one another. was once a Cumberland River pilot. . Parminter. and from the Cumberland Coal Co.. No one.. The main steamboat lines during this time were the Cincinnati and Nashville Packet Co. while a leader gestulated and led the singing. and the last part of the trip w ould be by rail.. William Litterer who became a wealthy citizen and who served one term as Mayor of Nashville. Armstrong. During the low-water period between these dates the boats went to the Ohio River and took the place of boats of deeper draft. A. all kinds. Gallagher. Through tickets would be sold to them. W. It was brought in broad-horn barges. and the famous Ryman Line. The Cumberland Coal was much like that from Pittsburgh. Travel by boat was fascinating. The principal produc ts handled were corn. The captain and chief clerk were the masters of ceremony. Passenger business on the river was also of large dimensions. will ever forget the thrill of it. of merchandise. card playing and other forms of amusement were engaged in. Coal was also brought to Nashville from the Poplar Mountain Mines. tobacco. Ky. Among the well known steamboat captains of the eighties were : T. Doc Lovell. The steamboat season opened about the middle of November and lasted until about August 1. the Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. They looked after the comfort of all and saw that everything was properly conducted. M. An enormous emigration went from Kentucky and Tennessee to Texas. they had known many and varied experiences and were generally fine conversationalists. and sing boat songs and spirituels. pig iron and iron manufactures from Pittsburgh. who has stood on the Woodland Street Bridge as a steamboat passed down stream. that those who wished to dance had partners. Tyrner. Bowman. and in the evening dancing. Jim Level and Fred Wyatt.. John Crouch. These men were Chesterfieldian in their manners. There were good bands and bars. John S. Livestock was brought to Nashville from up and down the Cumberland and mules were shipped from Nashville to New Orleans and other Southern markets. Ben Goad. at Burnside. until the fall rise came. W. W. Merchandise from Eastern cities was picked up by the boats at Ohio River points. S. T. thirty miles west of Burnside. William Strong. William Gracey. Ryman. Thomas Armstrong. the Nashville and Burnside Packet Co. G.
wh ere Davis’ Drug Store now stands. having concentrated his energies on steamboats and politics. He wanted a great auditorium where Sam Jones and other great preachers could hold services without cost. angular. though primarily not a money seeker. “You know Captain Ryman is now insuring . and a friend was sympathizing with Bowman. The night before the auditorium was to be dedicated he visited the o ffices of THE NASHVILLE BANNER and the American. He had physical and moral courage and his energy knew no bounds. and the contrast was so great that it gave rise to many apocryphal stories as to the wild. He made a liberal donation himself. G. while Sam Jones was conducting a tent mee ting on the southwest corner of Broadway and Eighth Avenue. Captain Bowman and Captain Ryman owned several boats together. They could mimic anyone they ever heard talk. however. but unfortunately is not sustained by the facts. a nd could entertain the company in the cabin by the hour.” said the captain. always honest and always charitable. He was not a heavy drinker nor a gambler. A fifty-dollar suit in those days was considered rather extravagant. The Ryman Auditorium is a monument to his persistence and untiring religious zeal. though it is a fact that he won $12. heart and soul. One of these boats burned. When he started to do a thing it was as good as an accomplished fact. It has often been said that after his conversion he destroyed all the bars on his steamboats and poured the liquor into the river. for which he was noted during the last half of his life. He amassed a comfortable fortune. T. in this race. He was a man of strong personality and marked peculiarities. Shep Greene were wonderful raconteurs. S. He was.000 on Cleveland during his first race for the Presidency. He had little education but a good mind. however. notify these men that he would lease n o more barroom privileges. raw-boned and powerful. He did. He was an enthusiastic Democrat and actively interested. NOTABLE FIGURES Many of the captains mentioned in the foregoing list were men of mar ked personality. Captain Ryman did not own the barrooms on his boats. R yman. He was tall. “It ’s all right. This is a good story. and told each of the reporters and editors who had aided him in his undertaking to go around to Rowen ’ s tailoring establishment. They were leased to the men who conducted them. RYMAN The dominating figure on the river for many years was Capt. and in this way the Ryman Line became dry. Bowman and Capt. Both were skillful in handling a boat. Thomas G. hilarious life Captain Ryman lived in his younger days. He had professed religion. Prior to that time he had taken little interest In religion. order a fifty-dollar suit and charge it to him. and then entered into a canvass that knew no let-up until the building was finished.37 CAPT. After his conversion he led an exemplary life. Capt. W.
Thomas M. of the J. He did not censure him. Captain Gallagher was made traffic manager of the Ryman Line. When George Patterson became incapacitated by reason of illness. His father was a seafaring man who finally became identified with the steamboat business. but my half of that boat was insured in an ordinary insurance company. The last of the well-known steamboat-men of the eighties is Capt. K y. To be continued next Sunday. Gallagher. He knew “Old Man River” and all the old men of the river when steamboating was in its prime. among them a saloon on the northeast corner of Broadway and Second Avenue. W. seve ntyfour years ago. Parminter was financially interested in steamboats for many years. The mosaics on th e floor being interspersed with silver dollars. and was brought to Nashville when a child by his mother. When he was old enough he was appointed second clerk on the Ella Hughes. He is the last of the old guard. . and was for twenty-seven years with the Ryman Line.” This was the second boat owned jointly by Ryman and Bowman which had burned. and afterw ards Captain Ryman would have no more of Bow man as a partner. S.38 his boats with the Lord. Rhea and was made chief clerk. which ran between Nashville and Point Isabelle. who is enjoying his o ld age at his home on the Kirk man Road.. Ky. Captain Gallagher was born in Louisville. Hillman. He has been over all the waterway s of the Mississippi Valley. which position he held until steamboating was relegated into the vistas of memory.” Captain W. Then he became captain and part owner. with Captain Ryman. but told him “You seem to be unlucky. H. (now Burnside). b ut had other lines of investments. He then went with Captain Ryman on the B. When ten years old he became a messenger in the steamboat office of Corbett and Boyd.
This park was subsequently cut into lots for residences. & N. across the bottom. L. with little engines. near First.” came first. with a bridge over the L. John W. An amusement park was opened in a beautiful grove a short distance south of where Joy’s floral gardens are located. and a trolley line was constructed out the Charlotte Pike beyond the old tollgate to West Nashville.39 uburban and municipal rapid transit came with a rush in the late eighties. The Nashville & West Nashville line was sold to the N. the Lischey Park dummy line. . but were quickly followed by electrification. was put on the street railways. promoted by E. S Nashville Banner. It extended from Woodland Street. associated with Oscar Noel. A horse-drawn herdic met the dummy line on Woodland Street and brought passengers to the Square free of charge. In 1889 the street railway system was electrified. called “dummies. which were suburban railroads. This dummy line is now almost forgotten. The dummy lines. The Glendale dummy line was the pioneer in 1887. Soon afterwards the Glendale line was electrified. Railroad to Northeast Nashville. & St. Nashville was among the first cities in the country to adopt the trolley. C. October 26. Then in rapid succession came the Nashville & West Nashville dummy line. but it was quite an important project. Richardson and associates. When electricity. 1930 THE TROLLEY The electrification of the street railways was a great occasion. of which Volney James was president and the Lischey Park dummy line. Sr. James E. R. and the first line was formally opened for business April 20 of that year. was discontinued. While the wires were being put up everybody was speculating on how the trolley could run on the main wire without being obstructed by the supporting cross wires. being no longer needed. Caldwell was the driving force in this enterprise. Railway.
These were warned through the press not to squirt a stream of water on the trolley wire. and that the only preventive was to be very careful and also to have a non-conductor plate put in the watches. Everybody was afraid of these half-tamed thunderbolts of Jove. Some feared that the wires swung all over town would bring down the lightning from the clouds during thunderstorms and burn everything up. the streets were crammed and jammed with a curious crowd to see the lightning harnessed. These cars are at the corner of Broadway and 16th Street (Tennessee State Library and Archives) . It is safe to say all these young sprinklers tried the experiment at least once. 1889.40 Thomas had seen an electric line and attempted to explain this difficulty with more or less success — principally less. would sometimes fall into the streets and create great excitement. and were reassured with the statement that the wires were really a protection against lightning. In those days most of the street sprinkling was done privately by the property owners along the streets.” and he may have been correct at that. and none too securely. Then the wires. One old gentleman on Church Street poked a live wire with his umbrella and got a shock. just having been put up. handsomely finished with plush upholstering appeared. Inauguration of electric streetcar service. When the great day came and the first electric car. Then everybody was told that the electricity in the cars would interfere with the time-keeping qualities of the watches. as the electricity would run down the stream and strike them. The jewelers did a thriving business for a while. He called the trolley a “troller. The sprinkling was the task of the boys of the family.
along with the real estate boom. they met an electric car.. and had a great run. and possessed of good judgment and common sense. NEW BUILDINGS A building boom struck Nashville during the eighties.000.” took him for a drive out Broadway. Cole’s dream of what Nashville was destined to be. W. so that he could observe the mare’s fine qualities. It was published. the automobiles appeared running around by themselves. at the corner of Church Street and Third Avenue. “Hold on. they left. and more to kill a white man than to kill a black man. explained this phenomenon to everybody’s satisfaction. with their tinkling bells. and it was said every time a horse came up behind a car at a certain spot on Church Street he got a shock. The late Dan Baird. But it .” But the horses could not get used to seeing cars running around without little mules. and when they saw a horseless car coming. “let me out of here. Among the new structures was the Cole building at Fourth Avenue and Union Street where the Fourth and First National Bank now stands.” The trade was off. C. twisted around and tried to tell about it. 16 hands high and “gentle as a dog. E. They called it “Cole’s folly. superintendent of the N. so a friend who had a beautiful. They were always wondering what made them move. The colored people were much exercised. Horses looked on the new contraptions with terror. blood bay mare. The trolleyless cars are after them. which lasted for years. but when he had this building constructed on the site of the old Bank of Tennessee. The mare stood on her hind feet. wanted to buy a family horse. Railway. He was a forward-looking man. About this time the saying: “Don’t monkey with the trolley” came into being. later on. Wrenne. who was a live wire himself in those days.41 NEGROES FEARED THE WIRES.” and said no such office building in Nashville could ever be filled with tenants. though the mare really was gentle and tractable. On Broadway.” said Mr. I would not have my wife drive behind this wild animal for $100. when the driver applied strength to the curbed bit. L. & St. but has since been forgotten in the “rush of matter and the crash of worlds. in front of the place where the Union Station now stands. The late M. Wrenne. C. And now the trolley cars are in the sear and yellow leaf. They were even more greatly surprised than when. attached. many thought he was losing his mind. It was said it took less electricity to kill a horse than to kill a Negro. but was none-theless careful. burned and rebuilt. and then on her fore. the Baxter Court was built. J. The Cole building was the consummation of Col. The black man thought this unjust. Boys and girls now living will see trolley cars in the museums. the Noel office building came into existence where the Noel garage now stands.
He wa s an elegant. over which Co l. P.” It was to be a swell hotel with Parisian cafe.” you hear sing and play their old-time songs and tunes over the radio. He was. young and full of vigor. was of Pauline Bonaparte. Pickard. Oscar Noel when he built the Noel building. Isn’t it remarkable how much music Obey gets out of that jewsharp? The same kind of side remarks were made about Mr. When finished it was a thing of beauty. P. On each side of the front entrance was and is the sculptured head of a boy. The Colonel had his heart set on popularizing the Turkish baths for women. but he found success just the same. who were then little children. These are the likenesses of his two sons. never were born to be “sneezed at. in which the pictures were an attractive feature. H e had lost an arm in the Confederate army. the father of Obey Pickard. for the ladies of that day had not progressed far enough to make a public bathing emporium for them popular. The Turkish bath for ladies was at last sadly closed. by the way. who had been state comptroller. either of past or present generations. Cole established a bank in his new building. but in this he failed. with Turkish baths for men and women. These Coles and Noels. and never tired of discussing. He was an admirer of the Bonaparte family. some swell offices for business and professional men. Jere Baxter. It was built by Col. a most magnetic man who “dreamed dreams and saw visions. One picture the Colonel admired. and was a prospe rous business venture for many years. Col. and after the Baxter Court passed out of the Colonel’s hands it was used for other purposes than for those . as had been heard about Col.42 was filled.” The Baxter Court was also a departure in building. Cole. with elegant furnishings. until it was finally superseded by the present skyscraper. wearing a silk hat and faultless attire. presided. oldtime gentleman. head of “the Pickard Family.
43 intended by its enthusiastic proprietor. the John P. still occupied the Hermitage. but there was a balloon ascension on the Square that attracted much attention. was sole passenger. on West End. Every visitor wanted to see Belle Meade. Polk was occupying the old Polk mansion. Belle Meade stock farm and the State Capitol. Duncan said he wanted a hotel so that a man could get a good meal without going to Linck’s Hotel. Lindsley residence.. Prof. S. and a number of business enterprises. the great home of the thoroughbred horse. WILLIAM DUNCAN’S PROJECT William Duncan projected and built the Duncan Hotel at the southwest corner of Cedar Street and Fourth Avenue. H. Perry Belmont and others.00 for the privilege.29 PLACES OF INTEREST During the eighties the four principal points of interest to visitors were the Hermitage. is the site of a Days Inn Hotel as of 2005. W. a wellknown saloon keeper. C. The great industrial development in the West Nashville suburb has already been noted. Jr. until it was torn down to make room for the War Memorial building. Williams residence on Seventh Avenue. General Jackson’s adopted son. President James K. was conducted with baronial splendor by Gen.. The descendants of Andrew Jackson. Roswell P. recently removed by Lyon Childress. Polk’s tomb and residence. afterwards the Governor’s Mansion. It flourished for a while as a swell hotel. a raw-boned. Buildings for numerous other lines of business and manufacture sprang up. In one pasture of several hundred acres were 300 or 400 deer. and the Dallas residence. and in many respects Belle Meade surpasses them all. Railway. where the Polk Apartments now stand. M. A great crowd gathered to witness the event. Mrs. 1800 West End Ave. the A. who had been the General’s body servant. Three residences stood out as show places. . when Gov. It is now occupied by the Colored Y. and lost much of its pristine glory. A 29 The latter location. elderly man. Belle Meade stock farm. now the club room of the Knights of Columbus. but the sons of Africa were moving in that direction. It soon became one of the leading points for the manufacture of fertilizer in the United States. its owner. King. and new and architecturally beautiful private residences appeared in every section. A. V. president of the L. and old Alfred. Mr. was the visitors’ guide. was the aeronaut. Great development in the residential section of West End and Belmont took place. he said: “I have seen all the great thoroughbred breeding establishments of this country and Europe. It was said the passenger paid $100. enjoying a placid old age. and has become a cultural center for the Negroes. On one occasion. on Broadway. and finally claimed it for their own. Flower of New York visited this place in company with Ex Norton. & N. Jackson. to make room for an automobile sales yard. Andrew Carnegie. Billy Fisher.” There were no flying machines nor dirigibles in the eighties. down in the edge of the red-light district.
They narrowly missed a tragedy as the basket scraped against the top of the Courthouse as the great bag ascended. 30 . however. “Prof.” The New York Times. a resident of that city. Tenn.44 gas main was opened and the silk bag was filled. They landed. 1889. seventy miles east of Nashville.M. yesterday. King made a balloon ascension from Nashville. R. He was accompanied by Mr. King and his passenger climbed into the wicker basket and they were off. W. in Putnam County. and without mishap landed at Cookeville.M. April 25. attained an enormous altitude. The balloon floated away at 4 P. between 7 and 8 P. Then Prof.30 To be continued next Sunday. without a mishap that afternoon near Cookeville... William Fisher.
November 2. Wills. and the Linck Zouaves was one of the T Nashville Banner.” was chief marshal. especially at what was known as the “May Drills. The May Drills were great gala occasions.” several of which were held during this period. Gen. on foot with the rapier and on horseback with the broadsword. and great military displays were held. Maj. Charles Thurman and Capt. Nashville had not yet forgotten the days when the military displays in and around her were real. Pleas Smith composed the committee in charge.45 he eighties marked a decade of great military fervor in Nashville. Crack companies came from all over the United States. 1888. Nashville had the Porter Rifles. and the city took on an air of great military encampment. and when the grand parade came. H. and with a plume in his hat like the one worn by the dashing Jeb Stuart when he rode to his death under “Marse Robert Lee. At the old Westside Park racetrack. and she was proud of her boys in uniform. W. mounted on a thoroughbred. W. the competitive drill was held. Some of the crack companies of the country were here. 1930 . the Linck Zouaves and the Burns’ Artillery. the Hermitage Guards. Gen. the Rock City Guards. The Porter Rifles was the best drilled company in America. There were also sham battles and swordsmen’s contests. for in those days the brown khaki had not been evolved. Cannons boomed and gallant flags floated In the breezes — all this after weeks and months of preparation. where Centennial Park now blooms and flourishes. The last of these drills was held in May. Jackson. and away down in her subconscious mind was a presentment that these gallant youths might yet be called upon to fight the Yankees. A. bloody internecine war. Bright uniforms and brass buttons were in evidence everywhere.
at Nashville. at Memphis. in competition with the Rock City Guards. For a thorough discussion of the Zouave tradition in wartime fashion. in competition with about twenty five companies from all over the United States. James D. Sam Donelson and George Reyer. who was second lieutenant. the Chickasaw Guards and companies from other States. • May 25. 1879. in competition with the Chickasaw Guards of Memphis. Vinet Donelson. • September 22. • September. The Rock City Guards. and the Hermitage Guards. Civil War. at St. Capt. a national encampment. won first prize. at Nashville. 1876. Louts. 1877. in competition with the Chickasaw Guards. G. Zouaves were colorfully dressed infantrymen who put on elaborate marching drills. The latter had a full complement of 100 men and a drill team of thirty-two men and three commissioned officers.S. zouave company. in competition with the Missouri State Guard. Ind. won second prize. McEwen. in competition with the Rock City Guards. Capt. in competition with the Kentucky State Guard. won first prize. were in a way offshoots of the Porter Rifles. The record of the company. 1876. showing where they stood in the competitive drills in which they participated. won first prize. Reyer of the Linck Zouaves. at Nashville. won first prize. Capt. ranked seventh. Vinet Donelson of the Rock City Guards and Capt. McEwen of the Hermitage Guards had been members of the Porter Rifles. George Reyer of the Porter Rifles and Capt. in competition with the Spencer Rifles. Porter. now superintendent of the Nashville water-works. at St. • May 19.gov/anti/zouaves. 1878. see this National Park Service web page: www. They had during their career two captains. were organized in 1875. named for Gov. at Nashville. won first prize.htm. 1876. at Murfreesboro. won first prize.46 best. • May. First and last the company had a membership of at least 500 men. if not the best. ranked second. Both Capt. and many of these men were Incorporated in the Rock City Guards and the Hermitage Guards. Louis. in competition with the Missouri National Guard companies and others from different States. won first prize. The Porter Rifles. 1880. compiled by John Langham. • September 10. By the time of the U. in competition with Indiana State Guard and companies from other States. • September 30. 1880. John A.nps.31 By a strange coincidence the captains of these two companies were brothers. 31 . • July 3. • October 3.. W. the sharp-dressed-warrior craze was so prevalent that both Union and Confederate Zouaves took the field. • October 27. at Evansville. in competition with companies from many States. ranked fourth. John A. and their last competitive drill was in Louisville in 1883. 1880. at Nashville. France formed units of Algerian Zouaoua tribesmen starting in the 1830s. 1881. follows: • October 8. 1879.
will not be surprised at the way they have met the advancing years. Fred Klooze. private. private. L. private. private. in competition with the Kentucky National Guard and other companies. John Simpson. Dave Greene. private. ranked sixth. The George Reyer Pumping Station. The members of the Porter Rifles who are now living is remarkable. after a month’s preparation. 1882. and some of them feeble now. it was not the fault of the drilling. private. private. ranked fourth. Sam Davis. also remains in use as part of the city’s Omohundro Water Treatment Plant. James Campion. with reservoir and pumping station at their present locations. John C. Though they are gray-headed and bald-headed. private. private. private. Tom McNish. The last public appearance of the Porter Rifles was when they gave an exhibition drill at the Tennessee Centennial in 1897. private. Walter Lesieur. Ala. Oliver Corbitt. sits on what was once the hilltop site of the Union Army’s Casino Blockhouse. The old boys left lack just four of being enough for a drill team. Sam Warren. A. private. Will (Trip) Miller. • In 1883. Knox Polk. captain. Since that time the pumping The reservoir. private. W. in competition with all the best companies of the United States. The following list of members still living was obtained from Capt. John Chadwell. private. John Simpson. sergeant. private. looming above today’s Eighth Ave. and no doubt a few of the survivors may have been overlooked: George Reyer. Harry Sheetz. private. and brought forth much applause. private. 1881. private. Brown of Tuscaloosa.47 • June 23. In several of the instances mentioned. 1884. still in operation. • June 28. at Louisville. Will Sharp. in competition with the best companies in the United States. James Sadler. S. as it is now known.32 began operations in 1889. at Indianapolis in competition with the best companies in the country. won first prize. bugler. John Langham. but for some other reason that the rating was not higher. J. Thuss. secretary and treas. The exhibition on the part of the veterans was remarkable. private.. first sergeant. Volney James. Will Longhurst. Sam McNish. ranked third. where the company ranked low. Lyon. Will Cornelius. John Langham. George Hutchinson. second lieutenant. private. NEW WATERWORKS The new waterworks. private. private. • July 4. at Louisville. private. George Reyer and Lieut. John Baskette. John Duling. Otto Giers. 32 . Will Webber. the fact that so many of them remain is due to the wonderful physiques with which these boys were endowed. private. at Louisville. Those who remember them in the eighties. Lewis Shyer. private.
that all that would be necessary would be to attach a hose to a fireplug and go ahead. Capt. many were rusty and dilapidated.48 station has been greatly enlarged and settling basins have been constructed. George Reyer. the present superintendent of the waterworks. It was said the pressure would be so great that fire engines would not be needed in the central part of the city. The old standpipe is now used as a ventilating shaft for the General Hospital. and besides. There was one startling result. and the interior of the buildings drenched with water. The main on Seventh Avenue in front of the First Christian Church burst. when he occupied a similar position in Birmingham. The church and an adjoining residence were badly damaged. One was especially notable. He succeeded James Wyatt as superintendent of the Nashville water-works. has held that position for many years. RA INED FISH While upon the subject of water and fish it may be incidentally stated that during the latter years of the eighties a number of small fish were rained from the clouds upon Nashville. This fis h was supposed to have got into the main when a baby. Geysers spouted at various points over the city. The inauguration of the new waterworks was heralded with many news items. It was said that a live catfish eighteen inches long was thrown out upo n the street. Ala. carrying with it rocks. A number of them were picked up. The old water pipes had not been constructed to stand this additional pressure. dirt and other wreckage. . The pumping station was a short distance away on the river bank. This rosy prediction did not prove exactly correct. but it was true that the pressure from the new reservoir was much greater than that from the old. Prior to that time the reservoir was where the nurses’ dormitory for the General Hospital now stands. with one short interim. Holes were knocked in the roofs by the falling stones. dest roying plastering and furnishings. and the water spouted fifty or sixty feet high. but from day to day. When the water was turned into them from the new reservoir many of them burst — not all at one time.
U. on Broadway. 1882. He explained how they operated. To be continued next Sunday. The net result: The Hermitage Club was organized and Mr. February 17. and while in the big cities he had been entertained and given cards to the social clubs. G rant and other Fed eral commanders as headquarters during the Civil War. still able to go about his business as efficiently. He has long since abandoned club life and devoted himself to his business and his books. Percy Kinnaird. They were little fellows. Kinnaird was one of the charter members. and when he returned home young Kinnaird began to talk about them and write articles about them in the papers. have a fine library with many rare volumes. The club building had been occupied by Gen. the opening ball of the Hermitage Club was held. the result of t h e dream of a young enthusiast. which made a great impression on his youthful mind. a well-known veteran of the Nashville bar.49 alive and kicking. if not quite so actively as he did fifty years ago. Social clubs were then unknown in Nashville. But the Hermitage Club is functioning. and the need of one in Nashville. say from a quarter to a half inch in length. for he and his brother David. a s it has for nearly fifty years. when he had just returned from a trip to the metropolitan centers of the East. The blood of youth was coursing through his veins. S. . who live together.
who had been Forrest’s chief of artillery.. & St. now a part of the N. W. Railway. It was a remarkable coterie of men engaged in business here then. L. and John C. M. P. McCarthy established M . Gov. he first came to Nashville in 1836. and was successively president of this road and the N. & St. Morton. Railway system. and he rendered the Governor much assistance during and prior to the days of reconstruction. and always was interested in politics. were prominent figures. C. 1930 ention has already been made of the fact that during the eighties Nashville was the business and financial center of the South. C. Thruston was prominent as a lawyer and business man. He and Andrew Johnson were personal friends. and established a saddlery business. He had been actively engaged in the construction of the Nashville & Northwestern Railroad. W. He came to Nashville as a Federal officer. Brown. He was a staunch Democrat. L. and was always after that connected prominently with financial institutions. November 9. but who continued active in all progressive movements. and was for a time president of the N. J. Gov. and though afterwards he engaged in many big enterprises. He had been a director of the Bank of Tennessee. One of them. the latter being actively engaged in promoting the Texas & Pacific Railroad. a prominent merchant.. when he was succeeded by Col. Capt. In 1881 H. Cole. who belonged to the old regime. Hamilton. C. Neil [Neill] S. was sturdy Michael Burns. L. Porter was a resident of Nashville during the early eighties. Gen. E. John W. Buttorff. P. resigning the presidency of the latter in 1868. he always maintained his original business. & St. James D. W. Born in old Ireland in 1813. In the late eighties he served a term as State Senator. married a daughter of J. Phillips and B. He was an outstanding figure in Tennessee for many years. and became thoroughly identified with the best interests of Nashville. G.51 Nashville Ba nner.
R. Drs. Dan Bailey. He was of genial disposition. Duncan and Paul F. and was unalterably opposed to a high protective tariff. . W. W. This list of sketches might be continued indefinitely. Robert Hollins. and was a member of the wholesale grocery firm of Stratton & Seay. Richardson. Dixie Douglas. Weakley. J. William Literer. C. J. J Berrien Lindsley. W. besides having other business interests. He knew more about the tariff than any man in Nashville. Dr. Bell. Col. Samuel Murphy. a man of education. Judge James T. Richardson. first secretary of the State Board of Health. connecting their sales room and factory. When kodaks arrived he became a kodak enthusiast. When he boarded a street car he always had a nickel between his thumb and forefinger. Samuel Scoggins. R. Mose Stratton. Knox. Anyone desiring information on this complicated subject knew where to go for enlightenment. but time and space forbid. the former still living. Morgan. He is now connected with J. A. General Weakley was the head of the Weakley & Warren Furniture Manufacturing Company. Chas. Shade and Byrd Murray. Garnett Morgan. Henry Hart. Morgan. T. and sales rooms at the corner of Third Avenue and Bank Alley. They had the first commercial telephone line in Nashville. At first they made 5. James E. D. Byrd Douglas. Danley. S.52 the Phillips & Buttorff stove foundry. intelligence and of a very active mind. Jo B. E. H. L. Eve. and his friends were countless. T. Cooke. Callendar. Harris. John T. W. Henderson. Throop. Dibrell. Jake Fishel is the only surviving member of the great old dry goods firm of Herman Bros. Hensley. John Williams. Henry C. Reeves. H. S. T. T. P. Herman Justi. Fogg. George R. Jr. M. Plunkett. J. Their present capacity is 200. Reeves & Co. Business could not keep his scintillating intellect employed. Jake Fishel. where Foster & Parkes are now located. Atchison. W. Nathaniel Baxter. Summers. He was for many years secretary of the Nashville & Decatur Railroad. A. McGuire. Following is a partial list of the business men who wrought wonderfully for Nashville during this time. George Jackson. No conductor ever had to make change for him. John Kirkman. Ben and William Herman. B. J. J. Hooper Phillips. They soon put Nashville on the map as the leading stove and range manufacturing city of the South. O’Bryan. and William H. William Hume. and was once severely injured climbing over the tops of buildings to make pictures. Collier. William Morrow. & Lindauer.000 stoves and ranges annually. and would talk on the subject by the hour when he could gain an audience. Thomas. Smith. Bolivar H. C. OUTSTANDING DOCTORS There were many outstanding physicians and surgeons n Nashville during this time. Godfrey M. Ben and Joe Lindauer. Samuel Seay was a unique figure. H. Samuel and Robert Orr. Cornelius.. Joseph L. Among them were Drs. O. Samuel Seay. Eastman. J. William Briggs. J. with its factory in South Nashville.000 annually.
He had been a Confederate soldier. he was a lawyer and a politician of a high order. Maj. if . T. Sparrel Hill. eloquent. Jackson. C. nearly all of whom were men of mark. Judge J. He said when he was shot he fell on the battlefield. He came to Nashville a country boy from Logan County. He was an explorer and discoverer of his profession. He said the surgeons examined him and said he was as good as dead. There were men among them who were great thinkers and great speakers. MARRIAGE ASSOCIATIONS Another form of associations in the early eighties swept Nashville and surrounding territory like a tornado. M. If they married the insurer won. with little overhead expense. Judge Wm. local associations. Every man mentioned above deserves a separate story. The locals were generally well managed. and led an active life for many years afterwards. Judge Wm. Brien. he could hear and see what was going on. Wm. It proved the ball did not enter the skull. John W. He came from a robust and numerous family. John W. J. Judge Howell E. afterwards Secretary of War and one of the distinguished lawyers of America. Judge Matt Allen. Bryan. Baxter Smith. Following are some of the familiar names that come to mind: Judge E. Building and loan associations came into being and were very popular. A. Hall carried throughout life. Guild. Reed was eloquent and full of sentiment. The late White Hall used to tell of a dramatic incident in his career in which Captain Childress figured. O. J. They were companions in arms at the battle of Franklin when Hall was shot in the forehead. Capt. Childress was an active figure in Nashville and Tennessee. Vertrees. Tully Brown. H. Capt. M. afterwards United States Supreme Court Justice. and became a Republican after the war. Hall speedily recovered. He had been a boy soldier in the Confederate army. G. Meanwhile young Childress stood over him weeping. which Mr. Anderson. East. The friends of every young couple who were showing love symptoms would insure them in a marriage association. as there were so many other wounded men who needed attention. ABLE LAWYERS Nashville had an exceptionally strong bar in the eighties. which position he filled acceptably for many years. Bradford. All who remember him will also remember the scar this bullet made. Judges East. classical and remarkably successful before a jury. Many of them were Confederate soldiers. and later in life became Circuit Court Judge.53 Dr. M. that they did not want to waste time on him. and Mr. Dickinson. Head. Reed. Quarles and Brien were lawyers of the old school. Childress. Judge John Vertrees. George B. An interesting volume could be written about Judge East. Judge Frank T. Kentucky. Morgan was a dentist and known as the father of scientific dentistry. and while he was completely paralyzed. and his reputation was world-wide. In middle age he went to Seattle. Judge Frank T. At first there were only small. and some of the younger set have since attained distinction. J. They were marriage associations. M. Raymond Sloan. Quarles. where he died a few years ago. and prospered greatly.
The immense crowd cheered wildly when Fire Chief Carell appeared standing on the roof of the blazing building. “it is Saturday. The officers always got their pay first. He then explained that he knew of some of their misdoings that deserved a whipping. across Second from today’s jail. wing shot. N. and there were no more schools in Nashville for three years.” When asked why he had adopted such a dilatory rule of conduct he said that just before the Civil War he was going to a country school with his brother. He was succeeded by E.. So the opera house must have stood roughly on the location of Parkway Towers. silhouetted against the Northern sky. And the Squire’s licking will have to be administered in the New Jerusalem. It created so much amusement that the financial losers had at least some consolation. The fire broke out about midnight. business man and allround good citizen. . who ten years later was killed in an accident when his buggy ran into a steel post on the Square. The young Squire-to-be said he preferred to defer the evil day. (Mun) Carell. One of the most spectacular fires that ever occurred Nashville was when May’s Opera House. Sunday came the news of the fall of Fort Donelson. afterwards Governor. Finally the associations went broke. “But.33 was burned. and the late comers lost their insurance premiums. on the site occupied (as of 2005) by the jail at the rear of Metro’s Criminal Justice Center. One Saturday afternoon the teacher asked him and his brother to remain after school had been dismissed.” said he. and they were going to get what was coming to them. FIRE DEPARTMENT AND FIRES The late Andy Meadows. when Judge Matt Allen came near losing his life. what can be put off until tomorrow. At first nearly everybody won. The famous old wholesale dry goods store of Anderson & Greene on the corner of the Square and Third Avenue was destroyed. he lost. The Baxter Court burned. and would take his licking Monday. A $400.000 fire destroyed thirty-four buildings at Church Street and Second Avenue. So he got it. delivered a humorous opinion on the subject of marriage associations. and the associations paid them out of money coming in from new contracts. and not have it on his mind all day Sunday. M. He was active in politics and in the affairs of the county. Millions of dollars were taken in before the final debacle. The third floor was occupied by 33 The police station stood on what is now Second Ave.” The brother said he would take his punishment at once. Squire George Campbell was a live wire in the eighties. He had an unusual maxim: “Never do today. opposite the present police headquarters. There were several big fires during this decade. sportsman. where hickory switches do not grow. He hung outside a window on one of the upper stories until a ladder could reach him. was fire chief in the eighties.54 they did not. and if you prefer it I will put it off until Monday. His hands were badly burned. and Judge Peter Turney. Then came litigation which reached the State Supreme Court. on both sides of Church Street.
Finally all were rescued except one woman. which broke his fall. and these women. threw her across his shoulder. strange as it may seem. He alighted on the head of an upturned barrel. He crumpled into the barrel. it was found he was not seriously hurt. and was wild with excitement. as the firemen began to shoot up the ladders and rescue men and women. and. . The woman. A large number of women from the red light district was present.55 theatrical people and theater employes. as the cheering of the crowd split the heavens. always full of sentiment. reached up. The latter in their night clothes looked like splotches of snow against the black wall. To be continued next Sunday. A remarkable incident of the fire was that a Negro boy who was sleeping in the attic of the theater jumped from his window into the alley some fifty feet below. who were not aroused until the lower floors were in a light blaze.” Before she reached the ground the crowd grabbed her and carried her in triumph over their heads. One man with a baby in his arms was brought down. clothed those who had lost all in the fire from their own wardrobes. and began to descend. A fireman climbed the ladder. who was young and good looking. when pulled out. The smoke and heat wakened them and forced them to climb out the windows in their night clothes and stand precariously on a narrow stone coping. I can go down by myself. and. said in a clear voice: “Put me on the ladder. When the ladder for her was put up it lacked a few feet of reaching her. caught the woman. standing on the top rung. Late as it was. an immense crowd gathered in the street.
56 Vassar-educated Katherine Newell Burch Warner (1851-1923). went on to become a leader in the effort to secure Tennessee's ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment granting women the right to vote. shown here in an undated photo from the 1880s or early 1890s. photo by Thuss studio) . (Metro Nashville Archives.
and was defeated. one of the best campaigners and most adroit politicians in the State. F. Vertrees assisted his brother. John J. and Judge S. and yet they formed one of the most compete political organizations ever known in this State. Hawkins was making. following the Civil War. Hawkins served one term as Governor. Wright on what was known as the “State Credit” ticket. called Mr. Mr. though only a bare outline can be given here. becoming alarmed at the impression Mr. These two men were the entire office force. and there was a strong sentiment in favor of repudiating the debts piled up under this regime. Wilson on the “Low Tax” ticket. The State had only recently fully emerged from the Carpetbag Government. 1880. the Republican nominee was left to conduct his speaking tour all by himself. The entire expense of the campaign was about $7. That was what the Low Tax faction meant. manager of the State Credit party. The election resulted in the State going for Hawkins. The State Debt question hung on for several years and finally resulted T . They had one room in the Maxwell House for headquarters. William B. General Bate’s campaign was a remarkable one. The State Credit faction wanted to attempt a compromise with the bondholders. John W. Wright out of the joint tour with Judge Wilson. when a candidate for re-election by Gen. The nominees were John V. the State Democratic Convention split on this question. 1930 he decade between 1880 and 1890 was one of stirring politics.57 Nashville Banner. Childress. and put him with Hawkins. and as they were personal friends they traveled together and stopped at the same hotels. Finally Capt.000. It opened with the State debt fight. but did not favor repudiation. O. November 16. Alvin Hawkins. Wright and Wilson began a joint Canvass. and Major W. Bate. when on April 10. Vertrees was his manager.
58 in the repudiation of part of the Carpetbag debt. a step from which Tennessee’s good name suffered for many years. and being in the minority. and in 1882. carried on a fierce filibuster. They made a joint canvass of the State. Republican. and one of the first acts of President Cleveland was to appoint the indigent young orator Collector of Internal Revenue at Knoxville. 34 and 35 in the Maxwell House. They threatened death to intruders. As a new member of are committees he was frequently called upon by the older members. he defeated the hitherto invincible Pettibone. over which food and other necessities were furnished them. “The War of the Roses” in 1886. when Bob Taylor. Robert L. But alas! In the next election he went down in defeat before the redoubtable Pettibone. in the race for Governor was the great event of 1886. for Congress in the First Tennessee District. in the upper East Tennessee Valley. Bob Taylor. a dyed-in-the-wool Republican. Taylor at once became the political idol of Democracy in the Volunteer State. A NEW STAR ARISES In the early eighties a new star appeared above the political horizon in the far east. Democrat. and barricaded themselves in rooms 33. to repeat the campaign speech which had waked the echoes in the Tennessee mountains. as a Democrat. who had served with Pettibone. defeated his brother Alf. drew immense crowds and created great enthusiasm. The filibuster failed as filibusters usually do where a minority is swayed against a strong majority. an obscure young lawyer. In 1885 a fierce fight in the Legislature came up over a registration bill. had been frolicking and fiddling. and stretched a wire from their fortress across Fourth Avenue. . The Republicans fought it with all their strength. They finally deserted the Legislature halls. and his fame was spread abroad throughout the entire country. and speaking at public gatherings.
After his first term as Governor.” and “John Henry” McDowell. Gaines were all prominent Democrats in local politics. John Lipscomb. and as a result Banks shot and killed Littleton on Sixth Street near the Watkins Library. whom Carmack used to call “Bee Hazy. Kercheval was known as the “Red Fox. He was tried and acquitted. Ely T. after capturing the nomination in a Democratic Convention. Taylor had secured the Democratic nomination in a convention in which the contenders were Gen. Price. E. John Hugh McDowell was their puissant leader. Edwin A. comprising both Democrats and Republicans and some prominent Negroes. Taylor had another hard fight in the Democratic State Convention. Jack Reeves.” because of his wonderful success in his many races. Jesse Johnson. The result of this fight were manifest in city politics in the eighties. Littleton was a brilliant man. Bass became the receiver. when more than one fusion tickets were put in the field. and there were many others. He remained in politics until his early death. R. Colonel Colyar had been assisted in this fight by the Citizens’ League. Buchanan in 1890. They belonged to different factions of the Republican party in Nashville. It had not been long since the City of Nashville had been thrown into the hands of a receiver. and John W. Pink was a good stump speaker but on one occasion when welcoming a . City politics was equally as strenuous as State politics during the eighties. Judge John C. after a strenuous contest. but won the nomination and was again victorious in he general election. John M. and was elected Mayor. McConnell. He had been a wild young fellow. They elected Gov. Henry Hudson. Pink McCarver. and went straight ever afterwards.59 Prior to this race R. The fight between these factions became exceedingly bitter and a fierce personal attack on Banks appeared in the Review. the National Review. and was editor of a Republican weekly paper. composed of the best elements of both parties. John P. L. and Michael Nestor as a member of the Board of Public ‘Works. M. Morris. since become a prominent lawyer. B. A POLITICAL TRAGEDY A political tragedy of this period was the killing of John Littleton by Joseph Banks. largely through the efforts of Col. The most picturesque and prominent local Republican at that time was Thomas A Kercheval. George Dibrell. He long served as Mayor and with Judge Robert Ewing. It was in the late eighties that the membership of the Populist Party came to pester the Democrats. Richardson. but became converted during one of Sam Jones’ meetings. Colyar. Ford Kuhn was secretary of the Board. A. and then subsided. Pink McCarver was a meteoric figure. Billy Smith. Ferris. John Allison and T. who rose in his might against the corruption following the Carpetbag Government. Tom Ryan.
when Col. Griswold. made a few scattering remarks and sat down. Other Negroes who held office during the time mentioned were: C. He is the only one left of the colored men of that time who held office in Nashville. he target his lines. since become one of the most prominent Negroes in the nation. he would see to it that there was no opposition to his confirmation in the Senate. that he was the best speaker in the Legislature. He was escorted to the speaker’s stand in state and when he began his speech. where he died a few years ago. One of their “rabble rousers” was Henderson Young. The late M. he would make the speech over for him. and Governor Taylor was called upon to make them an address of welcome. Bryan was State Senator at the time. Governor Taylor was present and enjoyed Pink’s discomfiture to the fullest. members of the Legislature. The most prominent personality among them was J. and after his term of office removed to Chicago. and sat down in utter confusion. Prior to that time they were active and aggressive. several reform movements were put through during the eighties. McElwee was a member of the Legislature from Haywood County. he had an attack of stage fright.” The Republican Clubs of the United States held their annual meeting in Nashville soon afterwards. the Queen of Sheba and most of . C. They entered into every campaign and their speakers canvassed the town. S. as all can testify who have heard him speak. But trouble was brewing for “Our Bob. and on several occasions was called on to preside. that Pink almost imagined he was going through the throes of agony again. Governor Taylor was such a good mimic. Colyar and associates had Nashville placed in the hands of a receiver during the seventies. Samuel A. With the passage of the Dortch law in the late eighties the Negroes were practically eliminated from politics. McElwee was a lawyer. He and Senator Robert L. in which Negroes appeared on local tickets with prominent white Democrats. Taylor were good friends and on one occasion the Senator called him to his office. and said of McElwee. Several of these were elected to the City Council and the State Legislature. Napier. Afterwards wherever he caught him in a crowd of friends. Thomas A. Pink said it was a case of retributive justice. He was elected a member of the City council. T. fumbled. He claimed that Hannibal. C. Councilmen. A. stammered.60 distinguished visitor to the city. The Governor said this had happened to him two or three times during his career. Gowdey and Thomas H. NEGRO OFFICE HOLDERS As a result of the coalition of parties and races. Afterwards he was appointed Register of the Treasury by President Taft. and told him if he could induce President Taft to give him the appointment. the Pharaohs. He is a lawyer by profession and has for some years been identified with the banking business. Sykes and ___ Keble [Sampson Keeble].
who had recently moved to Louisville from Nashville was killed. R. 1890.” said he. and a non-reform member arose and said: “I move we adjourn. He was in favor of honesty and strict economy. Richardson was at once on his feet. Richardson was the leading reformer. Some of the members were not reformers. Thad Mason. “The Buzzard Orator. “we were elected to attend to the people’s business.61 the heroes of antiquity were Negroes. Some of the members favored neither. B. Over: J. a great tornado swept Kentucky and Tennessee. Hayes. E. destroying every building in its path. poses with his fine ride. In 1889 a reform ticket was elected to the City Council. Richardson in his seat. and the pictures were blown off the walls. gentlemen.” Mr. but they paid little attention to such slight interruptions. and cut a swath about one hundred yards wide. Only the tail end of the storm struck Nashville. and every man made a rush for the street. Bicycles were among the new consumer technologies of the 1880s. It destroyed a number of homes in Sumner County. No further damage was done. To be continued next Sunday. All the older citizens of Nashville will remember him as well as John Cochran. entirely through the city of Louisville. but the Council could not again be reassembled that night. a member of the Nashville Bicycling Club in 1883.” The Negro orators were frequently the targets for eggs and tomatoes. with Mr. The window sash were blown out. There is no reason for adjournment just because it is raining”— The sentence was never finished. . The wind and rain began. On that night the City Council was in session. and the sessions were always vitriolic. This is no time for foolishness. On March 27. “I protest.
Dr. The last president of the Nashville Female Academy was Dr. the University of Nashville and Peabody College for Teachers. where La Fayette planted a tree during his visit in 1824. the Nashville Female Academy. W. Both were men of distinction. and there were two famous girl colleges. G. in succession. 1930 n the eighties Nashville had become a great educational center. Nashville had been an educational leader since Thomas B. Ward’s Seminary and Nashville College for Young Ladies. November 23. popularly known as Price’s College. This was the first school established west of the Cumberland Mountains. These schools drew pupils from all the Southern country. Ward’s Seminary was located on the west side of Eighth Avenue . was in full swing. Boys and girls came to Nashville to these schools from Kentucky and all the territory south of the Gulf of Mexico. opposite Spring Hill Cemetery. Vanderbilt was a young but growing institution. and became the progenitor of Cumberland College. C. Craighead established his school in the stone church. which was situated in what is now the Gallatin Road. whose venerable figure was often seen on the streets during the eighties. and devoted his long life to his chosen calling. and the Nashville College for Young Ladies. Ward was a man of strong personality and made his school a great success. a fluent speaker and equipped with a splendid vocabulary. He was a man of great eloquence. William E. D. Price were the founders.63 I Nashvil le Banner. Price was a born educator. F. Then came the first educational institution for women. Ward and Dr. the University of Nashville. It was located on the north side of the east end of the present Church Street Viaduct. of Ward’s Seminary. Dr. Dr. Elliott. respectively. which has since been merged into the Peabody College for Teachers.
the university on the road to success. predecessor of Wardanecdote on the Bishop. “What are they?” “Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. A. subsequently increased to $1. The Bishop straightened up in his full dignity and in his deep sonorous voice replied: “I am happy to be able to state. McTyeire was the great president of Vanderbilt. Finally the interrogating lawyer asked: “Bishop.” Another distinguished and venerable figure in Nashville at this time was chancellor Landon C. Price’s College was on Broadway and Vauxhall.64 between Church Street and Broadway. host many official positions do you occupy?” “Two. and President of Vanderbilt University.” “When do your terms of office expire?” asked the lawyer. yet human and companionable. which started. that they both expire when I expire. He was asked a number of questions with the purpose of disturbing his equanimity.” was the reply. Garland of Vanderbilt University. are still standing near Church Street. Some of the old buildings. He had been summoned as a witness in a lawsuit in New York. Bishop H. and the service was not very strenuous but . sir.000.000. Dr. after his main testimony. OLD POLICE FORCE The personnel of the Nashville police force in the eighties presented some notable figures. He. South. July life. with fronts built in for business purposes. Bob Hoke used to be fond of telling an Ward’s Seminary. under the terms of 20. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt’s initial gift of $500. 1886. was a man of great dignity. who Belmont School and Harpeth Hall School. was president of Vanderbilt for From the Nashville Daily American. No one who ever heard his lecture on “The Horizontal Parallax” will forget how the distance from the earth to the moon is measured. and that university stands a monument to his ability and foresight. but all without the desired result. and.000. was taken in hand by the opposing lawyers. The building has been remodeled and is now the Vauxhall Ap artments. firmness of purpose.
Lee Sanders. Robert M. John C. Turner and Robert Sidebottom were the detectives in the late eighties. and the pugs went at it hammer and tongs. including Robert Sidebottom. 1889. prize fights were not child’s play. the others seized him and they dragged him out on the platform. Dick Reed. he did not move. S. He was the hero of the fistic world. who is still living. in which he came off the victor. SULLIVAN’S VISIT It was during Hadley Clark’s administration that a notable event occurred — the arrest and trial of John L. S. on the north side of the ease end of the Church Street Viaduct. Dan Burke and Owen McGovern. Four of the captains of the force were: Bill Casteen. for in those days. H. W. Yates. but it never occurred to them that its chief was their friend Mr.” The train pulled out and Sullivan remarked: “You need not use force any further. July 11. He was a boy in those days. from time to time. Turner. Woodson. on his way to New York. Sidebottom put cat-gut nippers on one wrist. Porter. Walsh was a member of that force. Lee Sanders and Dan Burke. who served on the detective force. were members of the force. Robert Sidebottom. with bare knuckles. The police chiefs were in the order given: W. F. In the latter eighties the force was reorganized and they became lieutenants. who later served many years as Chief of Police and chief of the Detective Department. P. After his fight with Jake Kilrain in Mississippi on the Gulf Coast. he arrived in Nashville. Robert M. and I was hoping it would pull out before you could get me off. and is now police officer at the Union Railway Station. There were seventy-five men on the force. when he was not present. Sullivan. Sullivan was met by Hadley Clark and a squad of detectives and some assistants. popularly known among his associates. Sergt. who are still living.65 picturesque. Every once in a while the force was given a tip to look out for some member of the James Gang. Alex Bolton. There was a number of others. F. I will do peaceably whatever you want me to do. I knew that was a fast mail train. under London prize ring rules. Alex Bolton. Alley. He was bruised and battered. Johnson and John W.” . the prizefighter. was a young member of the force. Many of the rules now in force were not then recognized.” He was one out of a number on the force who were friends of Frank James. JOHN L. Clark ordered his men to take him. Captain Clark was after his retirement Judge of the City Police Court. Clark telling him: “If you strike one of my men I will shoot you. Martin Kerrigan and Hadley Clark. Porter. as “Horsehead. Woodson. Henry Culmore. is still living. Sullivan was lying down and when Captain Clark informed him he was under arrest. On his arrival here in the drawingroom of a Pullman with a party of friends. among them. when he lived in Nashville under the name of Mr. After his retirement from the force Captain Kerrigan was long the peace officer and general contact man at the old railway station.
Much to the veteran’s surprise and disgust he was bested by the youth unknown to fame. lost his temper and wanted to fight. Hugh Fisher.” Sullivan wa s tried that afternoon before Judge W. Con Crowley.66 The rest of the proceeding was amicable. where he put on an exhibition bout with an unknown young man named James J. Sullivan’s slipper. though he nor any other pugilist. which he handed to him through the little window that opened into the workhouse. crying out as he ran “I’ve got John L. who was in need of funds. After the fight. McAlister and rele ased on the ground that the offense was a misdemeanor and not extraditable. K. the arrest having been made at the request of the Governor of Mississippi in whose bailiwick the fight had taken place. Some time after the meeting with Kilrain. put it in his bosom. and was kept in durance vile while many crowded around. went to New Orl eans. gave him his first and only knockout and became the pugilistic champion of the world. the property of Hugh Fisher. (Library of Congress) Sullivan put on the new slippers and kicked the old one across the room. Corbitt succeeded in getting a match with Sullivan.” replied the great man. stuck their heads in the windows and doors and tried to feast their eyes on the great fighter. and when he saw his predicament went to the nearest store and bought him a new pair of slippers. So hasty had been the exit from the Pullman that Sullivan had lost one of his slippers. can I have that slipper?” “I don’t care a d---d what be comes of it. fairly worshipped the great John L.” He put it on exhibition in the show window of a store on Fourth Avenue with a card bearing the inscription: “This is John L. and sat in the station house with one sockfoot.. a well known printer. Jake Kilrain. and Fish er reached for the treasure. Corbett. an expugilist who lived in Nashville. and ran all the way up town. asked in a drawling voice “Mr. Sullivan was taken to the old police station on Front Street in a hack. Sullivan’s slipper. Sullivan. . was ever the great fighter and popular hero that Sullivan had been.
and Brown killed him in an effort to get possession of his property. To be continued next Sunday. The newspapers carried stories about it every day. while the police force and the sheriff’s office were putting forth every effort to solve the mystery and apprehend the murderer. The question was: Where was the head. colored.67 “THE HEADLESS HORROR” In the beginning of the seco nd half of the decade of the eighties Nas hville was treated to a murder mystery. . It seems that Arnold had a little property. and all the reporters became detectives. a reporter on the Union. The hero of the solution was Dan Barr. There was a tanyard on Eighth Avenue in Sulphur Spring Bottom. where Couningham’s coal yard is now located. The murdered man was identified as Frank Arnold. who was arrested. It lasted for a number of days. and the murder was fastened upon Ben Brown. An investigation proved that it belonged to a body without a head burled in the tanbark. and who placed the body there? The investigation went on for days. One day the hand of a Negro man was seen protruding from the tanbark in the yard. until finally the head was located in a bee gum at Belle Meade. tried and hanged.
Had it utterance. The lobby remains much as it was when the giants of the old days assembled there. put their brains on the problem of making steel from Southern iron ore. Finally the experiment was put to a successful test in a furnace at Chattanooga. Both these men lived to see the full fruition of their dream. M. 1930 matter of great importance to Southern industry during the eighties. November 30. In many ways the physical appearance of the old Maxwell House has been changed during the past sixty odd years. Attention has heretofore been called to the fact that the rejuvenation of the South after the Civil War and the period of so-called Reconstruction. had its inception in Nashville. the perfection of the open hearth Bessemer steel process. whereby the making of steel from Southern ore became a practical fact. a suburb of Birmingham. began. A.69 Nashville Banner. Shook was general manager. Iron & Railway Company. At the time referred to Nat Baxter. They conducted an extensive system of research and experiment. and sent one of the Bowron brothers to England to collect information. These two men. constructed. Ala. of Nashville. one of the strongest coal and iron development organizations in the country.. AN OLD MARBLE SLAB. Jr. what a story it could tell! Two A . Col. when the South became one of the great steel-producing sections of the world. was president of the Tennessee Coal. and to younger men who had served in the Confederate army. At the foot of the marble stairway leading to the dining room and ball room floor is a marble slab which has been in place since the building was. The problem was solved and the construction of the greet steel plant at Ensley. Prior to that time the presence of a large sulphur content in Southern ore had rendered it unfit for the making of steel. both ex-Confederate soldiers. was due largely to the spirit of the men of the old South.. in others it has remained the same.
useful citizens. chairman. a good mixer and known and esteemed by thousands of people throughout Tennessee. This slab is just one of the reminders in the old hostelry of “the days that are no more. A. H. Herman Justi. Jr. The club extended a welcome to the New England Press Association. all of whom became good. who passed away in 1890. on which is printed: “Nashville Press Club. Duncan R. FIRST PRESS CLUB. Greetings to the New England Press Association. A.70 inches of the surface has been worn away by the tread of feet of countless thousands. Douglas Anderson. In fact.” The list of officers and members of the club contains some distinguished names in the annals of Tennessee. was organized in 1884. Of the four who are still living. The officers were: President— Henry Heiss. Louis lives in Florida and G. is a resident of Nashville. known as the Nashville Press Club. Allen. while others are following in their wake. Wharton J. and Squire Tom Nance were prosperous young fellows connected with the business office of the American. His honesty and integrity were unquestioned. J. Most of those feet are now bony skeletons. DORRIS. Colyar. Duncan R. Mr. Secretary— R. The first press club in Nashville. Treasurer— E. and the process is still going on.” DUNCAN R. was one of the leading newspaper men in Nashville for twenty-five years. Allen has in his possession the roster of the club. Wharton J. Hayes. Miller. Roberts. Wright. Dorris. Dorris left five boys. 1884. Vice-President— Charles M. in St. S. Louis. which met May 13. P. and was always considered one of the most alert and effective reporters in this city. He was active and efficient. L. Board of Governors— Pitkin C. who has written historical articles for THE BANNER for many years. 14 and 15. was a hustling young reporter in Nashville during the latter eighties. now in the insurance business. Landis. G. men who have wrought mightily for the public weal. . the club was organized for this purpose. He was the first newspaper man in Nashville to become an expert stenographer and because of this accomplishment he was called on to report many of the famous court trials in Nashville and throughout Tennessee. He retained his enterprise and mental vigor to the end. Andrew is at Old Hickory. He was one of the few newspaper men of the old regime who was able to accommodate himself to the new conditions that came about after the Civil War.
Banner. John C. H. World. Southern Journal of Education.. John W. Jr. Cooke. Hord. Jones. Spirit of the Farm. James D. M. Nashville. The . Roberts. there were half a dozen other smaller but well-known hotels in the eighties. treasurer of the Banner. Landis. Banner. Kline.71 John W. American. Roberts. Student World. Nashville and George H. Andrews. F. Charles M. Dr. Walter Cain. Artisan. B. American. Wharton J. Herman Justi. A. James D. Sunday Journal. Cooke of the Banner editorial staff. George Armistead. Artisan. World. Grigsby. Dodd. A. Banner. Colyar. Hasslock. Spirit of the Farm. World. Pitkin C. American. Grigsby. James B. Eugene H. M. R. L. Nashville. Miller. Clark. Lee Fitzgerald. Banner. Baird. OLD HOTELS. American. American. Deering J. heating expert. The seven living are John C. Southern Lumberman. Jr. Clarke.. J. all of which have disappeared save one. Morton. members of the club seven are living. In addition to the Maxwell House. American. Members. Of the thirty-five. Currey. F. A. a remarkable showing after forty-six years. Banner. Wharton J. E. M. A. C. Kline. Halley. E. Budget. B. Owen Prentiss. A. American. Andrews. A. J. Linck’s Hotel and the Duncan Hotel. Southern Practitioner. giving papers with which they were affiliated: Henry Heiss. A. editor of the Banner. Tillman Jones. Allen. American. Osborne. World. the old Broadway Hotel. Allen. Charles Hodges. American. Hayes. real estate. mention of which has already been made in this series of articles. American. T. Insurance. Artisan. J. G. James B. Student World. L. Morton. W. A. J. Jr. R.. Clark of the editorial staff of the Chattanooga News. Banner.. A. Ira P. American. M. S. DeBow. Jones. A. Green. Journal of Medicine and Surgery. Albert Roberts. Wright. R. Armistead. B. Banner. H.
Charles. at whose door the wolf no longer howls. Cloud Hotel. rested when he was tired and slept when he was sleepy. Quite a bunch of these young countrymen were handling freight at the N. fried chicken. SCIENTIFIC DEMONSTRATION. A water cooler containing ice water stood on the counter.” slept in garrets. on the spot mow occupied by the Brandon Printing Company building. potatoes. between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. lived when he first came to Nashville. Three of these promising youngsters were Bill Huggins. Everybody ate dinner in the middle of the day and supper at night. Greenbacks when I’m hard-run. country ham. There was a popular song: “Feed me when I’m hungry.” who ate when he was hungry.” In those days of the long ago the perennial crop of country boys who flooded to the urban Utopia “to make a fortune. & St. and the St. and little indigestion in Nashville. Bill Napier and Jake Stevenson. freight depot on Church Street. Afterwards. occupying part of the space on which the Cain & 8loan store now stands. Another poor country boy. the St. also found his first shelter in the St. then a poor country boy. This country boy had been used to wells and springs and moss-covered buckets. the Commercial Hot el. and they were in the habit of going to the St. And Heaven when I die. beans. the Battle House. The latter dated back into antiquity. when he was one of Nashville’s wealthiest and most prominent citizens.” That boy was and is Sandford Duncan. coffee and pie. sought a job with the railroads. he purchased the old hotel for sentimental reasons. in order to have an excuse to play with the faucet. that the clerk found himself called upon to remind the young hayseed that “ice water cost money. where the Tulane now stands. who drank so much water. on Fifth Avenue near Church. who could not get to sweep out somebody’s store. and drinking out of tin cups and gourds and cow tracks. on Second Avenue. It was here that Col. The faucet was a nineday wonder to the boy. and nearby was a glass for drinking water. The railroads were then growing young industrial giants. dumpling or pudding. milk. Whisky when I’m dry. which was the next best course to that of “Natty Bumpo. In those good old days there were no lunch rooms. Cole. L. all for 25 cents. and ate at cheap rate hotels and cheaper boarding houses. over stores and in various tubby holes. Charles. on the northeast comer of Fourth-Avenue and Cedar Street. C. all expecting soon to become magnates of large dimensions. the latter’s nickname springing from the fact that he had . where they could get cabbage. Cloud Hotel for dinner. which was drawn from the cooler through a shining faucet. W.72 others were the Nicholson House. and all the boys. E. on Church Street.
Stevenson has been unsuccessfully trying to get that five dollars back ever since. New theories were being advanced even at that early date and one day. he weighed the same after eating as he did before. and so Jake proposed to bet him $5. W. W. 1886. Notwithstanding he was considered a gastronomic marvel. Jake took the affirmative and Bill Napier the negative side. Stevenson. Napier says that Mr. Mr. known to the public as Mr. All three are now prosperous and well-known elderly gentlemen.73 recently emerged from the Mud River Bottoms in Logan County. To be continued next Sunday. Huggins. T. and then proceeded to eat everything else he could lay his hands on. The advent of electric streetcar service at the end of the decade would hasten a trend toward suburban homebuilding. The boys put up the money. and he tipped the beam at just six pounds more than when he left. Napier and Mr. December 12. Over: A full-page ad in the Nashville Daily American. ate raw tomatoes as an appetizer. Returning to the railroad.00 that he would not weigh five pounds more when they returned from the St. this seemed impossible. as the boys were getting ready to leave the freighthouse for dinner a hot argument developed over the theory that no matter how much a man might eat. Sr. and Bill Huggins was appointed weighmaster and stakeholder. Arriving at the hotel Napier drank buttermilk and sweet-milk. Bill Huggins was umpire. Kentucky. B. Bill Napier asserted that sometimes he weighed five pounds more after eating a hearty meal than he did before. E. Mr. W. . attests to the boom in residential development throughout the city. Bill Huggins weighed him. Cloud.
as were his three sons. for this educational and religious center had attracted men of force. P. in Franklin.75 Nashville B anner. The McFerrin family produced many ministers of the gospel. John P. the latter still living. A. McFerrin of the M. a rugged. McFerrin. The latter. who had followed the stars and bars as a Confederate soldier. Jr. Tenn. who had fought the battles of the church during the trying times of the sixties and seventies. E. though not living here was an active factor in the religious life of Nashville. was a preacher. South. John N . He was eloquent and lovable. commanding figure of strong features and a character in keeping with his physical appearance.. Church. He was a great revivalist and could sway his audience. Sumner and A. genius and eloquence. and Bishop Charles Todd Quintard of the Episcopal Church. December 7. and among his literary productions was a history of Tennessee Methodism. being the Southern headquarters for most of great churches. This was notably true in the eighties. has long presented an imposing array of ministers of the gospel. His style was vigorous and he was a master in debate. He was at one time book agent of the Methodist Publishing House. and put that great institution of Southern Methodism on a firm financial basis.. Rev. a brother of John B. Among these were Bishop Holland N. He was often in this city. There were remaining some of the old soldiers of the cross. who had dedicated their lives to the service of the Master. with denominational schools and publishing houses. McTyeire and John B. His history of Methodism is one of the best. P. He also served es editor of the Christian Advocate. He was a militant churchman. 1930 ashville. and an outstanding figure. A sketch of Bishop McTyeire has already been given. John B. McFerrin was over six feet tall.
became a prominent minister. William F.William Crane Gray was rector of the Church of the Advent. When the chapel was finished the congregation abandoned the old church. Bishop of Northern Indiana and the other surviving son is Joseph A. Gray afterwards became Bishop of Florida. . rector of St. Ann’s Church. a prominent citizen of Nashville. and it was under his direction that the location of the church was changed to Woodland Street. Ann’s from 1879 until 1904. and St. McFerrin. Dr. During his pastorate the church was located on Sixth and Church Street. an effective church builder. Dr. Martin. and it was under his leadership that the new church on Broadway and Ninth Avenue was built. Dr. He was rector of St. and full of the missionary spirit. was a Confederate soldier. James Ridout Winchester. and a bachelor. Thomas F. When he accepted this service St. one In Clarke County. He was a good speaker. Winchester was an extraordinary man as shown by the progress he has since made. now Bishop of Arkansas. and the present building constructed. Ann’s.. Cabell Martin. one in Nelson County. Graham was a learned Scotchman.76 P. Christ Church had two notable rectors. M. and was greatly beloved throughout the entire city. Another son. He was rector of Trinity Church and St. He was fifty-two years in the ministry. Graham and Dr. One of his sons is Campbell Gray. He was a good executive. Peter’s Church in Nashville and for a number of years was rector of the * * * .. and during that long term served only three charges. Ann’s was located on Fourth Street and Watson. Gray of Nashville. One of the greatly beloved and eminently successful ministers was Dr. and worshiped in the chapel until the main building of the new church was completed. Martin. He was the father of Charles S. He made a reputation as a pastor and was beloved by his congregation. Va. Dr. Dr. Va.
Tillett and John J. Young. Dr. So far as known. the commanding statue of the Commodore now stands in front of the main building of Vanderbilt University. Church. for his books are full of information. No stranger would pass him without turning to take a second look. and had a great fund of anecdotes gathered throughout his long life. “What Think Ye of Christ?” It was a long oration. now a successful Chicago lawyer. In South America. Tigert. It has no competition. Wilbur F. He is the only one of the trio mentioned still living. Ann’s Church when it was located on Fourth Street and Watson. He was a descendant of John Sevier. Dr. Hoss. The last member of the trio of young professors. Australia and China. and the late John Bell Keeble. One of the great sermons of all time was his sermon. for he was dean of t he School of Religion at Vanderbilt University for many years. It was delivered effectively in this country. a great student. which was in the basement of St. A. R. He conceived the idea that Nashville should erect a memorial to Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt. At this time three young Me thodist preach ers. Tig ert. Hose was afterwards editor of the Christian Advocate and Bishop of t he M. he was intensely patriotic. He was a Methodist preacher. he was an aggressive fighter. He had a wide acquaintance and loved a good joke. especially where a moral issue was involved. Dr. He is. He taught a number of boys in this academy. South. * * * . Bishop Hoss was an entertaining conversationalist. He was a strong writer and powerful speaker. They appeal specially to the serious and thoughtful. Texas. physically and mentally. As a writer on religious subjects he will be known to future generations. translated into energy. where his mortal remains were laid to rest. His sermons are always instructive and leave a thought with his hearers. and as firm as adamant in the advocacy of what he conceived to be right. Embrey E.77 Episcopal Church in El Paso. He took the matter in hand. and hold the interest of the reader. As a young man he was principal of the East Nashville Academy. who afterwards became prominent men. where he died. A distinguished figure in the ministry was Dr. a strong speaker and a leader. as might well be inferred. and aside from his ministerial duties was active in civic affairs. His sermon on this subject is one of intense interest. and no spot on earth was so dear to him as the mountains and valleys of East Tennessee. He was considerably over six feet tall. and in a class by itself. were two of his pupils. Tillett is best known in Nashville as Dean Tillett. Ed Barthell. the first Governor of Tennessee. well versed in Biblical lore and is the greatest authority on hymnology. John J. and is now dean emeritus. of wealth and wide influence. the manuscript has been lost. who were destined to bec ome famous. well matured thought. but it never wearied an audience. if indeed it was ever written. He was a powerful man. were professors In Vanderbilt University. And as the result of his sentiment. E.
McTyeire of Nashville. Before he came to Nashville he had met with wide success as a Methodist preacher in California in the days when the West was truly wild. now * * * * * * . Rev. joined the Catholic Church and studied for the priesthood. Dr. He was born in Germany. In nearly every issue he had an original dog story. By reason of his deeply religious convictions. the Christian Advocate was widely read both by the Methodists. and took an active part in civic affairs. while he was editor. North. Previous to this time the church occupied a building on Church Street where Loew’s Vendôme now stands. He afterwards joined the Lutheran Church and became a minister. Hoss suc ceeded. a un ique and progr essive figure. a deep thinker. and lived here many years. Charles J. Fitzgerald. having previously been quartered on Second Avenue. He had many friends among the ministers of all denominations. Ind.. He was an effective speaker. O. His. Fall announced that he had embraced the doctrine of Alexander Campbell and would join the Christian Church. He embraced Christianity. While a young man he came to Nashville from Corydon. Phillip Fall. P. members of other churches and men not members of any church. Holland M. After his service as editor he was elected bishop. This building had been the home of the First Baptist Church. a fluent speaker. He was well informed. whom Dr. The handful of Baptists left went their way. and his ability to write. he died at a comparatively early age. and R. Under the ministry of Rev. all his own. and one of the most companionable and entertaining of men.78 afte rwards became a bishop. sermons were popular and educative. and John J. He was always a student and ambitious. Rin Cave the present First Christian Church on Seventh Avenue was built. Rabbi Isadore Lewinthal of the Vine Street Temple was a prominent citiz en. president of the University of Florida. Raymond. a Jew. Three sons survive him. frequently with a humorous touch. but not before he had made his mark. all of his congregation. and became the nucleus that grew into the great First Baptist Church. still occupying the building. Many people now living in Nashville remember the benevolent countenance of the venerable Bishop Fitzgerald. was editor of the Christian Advocate in the eighties.” and was popular with all classes and conditions of men. Dr. Though a man of wonderful physique. and purchased the present church building from the First Baptist Church. Tigert. with the exception of four or five went with him. pastor. Under his direction the church greatly prospered. He had a large acquaintance and an ever-increasing circle of friends. He was recognized as one of the best preachers in the Methodist Church. Dr. keen insight into human nature. and In conversation had a quaint style. When Dr. He made friends readily with “the mammon of unrighteousness. was pastor of the First Lutheran Church. his appreciation of humor.
. F. E. Davis himself was present. He came of a family of pulpit orators and lawyers. Folk and Rev. went from Nashville to Louisville where he became pastor of one of the flourishing churches of that city. long pastor of the Central Baptist Church. who was pastor o f the First Presbyterian Chu rch. G. Powell. Dr. Rev. Strickland. and made a short speech on this occasion. and he lived up to the name. He was eminently practical and possessed of high ideals. Hailey were owners of the Bap tist and Reflector. Dr. He also had the prestige of having served as a soldier in the Confederate Army. Many citizens of Nashville attended the dedicating exercises. Strickland preached the sermon. H. Strickland. Gardner. His pastorate in Nashville was successful from every point of view. L. and Elder David Lipscomb were two old-time prea chers who did effective work as ministers of the Christian Church. Jere Witherspoon. and Mr. G . Robert Cave. C. O . Strickland was an eloquent speaker. He was well groomed and always dressed elegantly. and he is still affectionately remembered by many of the older * * * . on the site of the log house in which Jefferson Davis was born.79 presided over by Dr. Sam A. Witherspoon a lawyer of high standing and Congressman from Mississippi was his cousin. Rev. Elder E. the former was editor and the latter associate editor. He was well named Tiberius Gracchus. Sewell. Dr. Elder Lipscomb was editor and Elder Sewell was associate editor of the Gospel Advocate. His brother. Perhaps the most effective Baptist minister in Na shville was Dr. Rev. was pastor of the Edgefield Baptist Church. was pastor of this church when it was on Church Street. He was a good preacher and a good pastor. Dr. W. He was a good speaker. Jones was a stately and superb man. He was interested in civic affairs. C S. a man of fine sense and a public spirited citizen. Lof tin. He was dignified and kindly in his manners. and under him the church prospered. He was afterward pastor of the Leigh Street Baptist Church in Richmond. who is now living in Virginia. Cave was a live wire during the eighties. He was succeeded by Dr. The First Baptist Church dur ing the decade under discussion had two not able pastors. He and the President of the Confederacy had been friends during the Civil War. E. Dr.. Elder Lipscomb was the founder of the Bible School on the Granny White Road now known as David Lipscomb College. Both were good preachers and much in demand. Va. Tiberius Gracchus Jones and Rev. He was one of Nashville’s most popular and most highly respected citizens. himself measured up to the standard. Ky. He was another of the many Nashville preachers of that time who h ad be en a Confederate soldier. At this time Rev. and. and was once a member of the City Board of Education. and professor of homiletics at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville. When the Baptist Church was dedicated at Fairview. A.
now living In Nashville are all good friends. It is a remarkable coincidence that their sons. Provine was an outstanding preacher. Baird. M. Provine. The First Church was located on Fifth Avenue where the Central Church of Christ. Hoyte.” and was a sort of father confessor to the gamblers and the “down-and-outs” generally. E. The sons referred to are Judge John H. He was succeeded by Rev. with its great organization for social service. B. He was a friend of “publicans and sinners. Ward. W. He was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church from 1884 to 1895. B. Harris was editor of the Cumberland Presbyterian. McNeil ly. William E. father of E. Dr. Paul DeWitt. William E.80 citizens. M. His work had far-reaching results. an effective preacher and pastor. Dr. Provine. A. Arbuthnot. and a resident of Philadelphia. Thomas A. S. McNeilly. and form a group almost as closely knit as that of their fathers. J. Baird. It was located on Third Avenue near the Square. and Dr. One of its great preachers and pastors was Rev. A. H. Ward. J. T. John F. and Rev. W. The Second Presbyterian Church was then one of Nashville’s strong chu rches. He served four years in the Confederate Army and worked for fifty years or more in his Master’s vineyard. The head of the Cathol ic Church. They knew and trusted one another. Blake were editors of the Sunday School publications of the church. now a veteran lawyer in N ashville. Stagg. John F. B. Rev. He was a man well equipped for the duties that developed upon him. the father of W. He was * * * * * * . One of the saints of the church was Dr. Drs. He possessed the solid virtues and ability. was in the full vigor of his manhood fifty years ago. He was democratic and approachable and had many personal friends outside his church. DeWitt. At that time the cathedral was at the corner of Fifth venue and Cedar Street. A.. d uring the period under con sideration. Young. and contributed many interesting articles to the secular press during his long life. John W. though he was chiefly known as an educator. a noted pastor of the old regime. J. Rev. Sr. He was a graceful writer. J. C. He was a Presbyterian. beloved by his congregations. now stands. dominated by strong men in the eighties. founder of Ward Seminary was a Cumberland Presbyterian preacher of ability. L. He drew people of all classes. and always preached to packed houses. Baird. was Bishop Joseph Rademacher. U. now affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. He was a good prea cher and greatly respected by the people of this community. Hubbert. He was preceded by Dr. Its pastors during the decade were Rev. The Cumberland Presbyteria n Church was a strong denomination. Dr. D. He and Dr. and respected and admired by a large circle of friends outside his church. DeWitt. Baird and Dr.. M. Blake and Ward formed a group of old friends who were inseparable.
Warren A. Fath er Thomas S. McKendree Church had three notable pastors during the eighties.” during the Civil War. Jam es D. See the 1886 cigar ad on page 68. He came first. He is still looking to the future. A. . It has been said that McKendree reached the highest point in its career under Dr. Floersh of Louisville. religious convictions. once one of the show places on Church Street. Dr. He was a forceful expounder of the gospel. who as an old man built the Church of the Holy Name at Sixth and Woodland Streets. In 1958. Dulaney. the father of the present clerk and master of the Chancery Court here. He thought Nathan Bedford Forrest the greatest man in profane history and old Forrest loved him. Father Gleason beautified and improved the school and grounds of St. He came here a young man full of vigor and energy. and though his step is not so elastic as it once was. and was 34 * * * Floersh would become Archbishop of Louisville (1937-1967) and founder of Bellarmine College (now University). Two bright boys who were playing on th e sandlots and going to school in N ashville about this time are now Bishop John A. Stritch (1887-1958) was elevated to the College of Cardinals in 1946. St. C. and his genial smile and cordial hand-shake retain their pristine magnetism. Church. when the old church on Main Street was destroyed. He had been Maj. C.34 Dr. Barbee and then Dr. Well known members of the Catholic clergy were Father T. He prayed for and comforted the “boys in gray” when they were sick and wounded. and good fellowship. He was active in politics. he is vigorous for a man of his age. Abbott. after the great East Nashville fire in 1916. It was Father Gazzo. and honored his deep. He was afterwards reinstated and died in harness.” as was often said of him. and got himself suspended from the ministry by the M. C. placed by a J. He once accepted the nomination for Governor of Tennessee as a prohibitionist. especially where a moral issue was involved. and served as pastor of the leading churches in the Tennessee Conference. The only one left of this strong coterie is Father Abbott. Forrest’s “fighting chaplain. Kelly. D. Father Patrick J. seized a musket and went in. Gleason. he became the first American cardinal to be placed in charge of a congregation in the Roman Curia. “small in stature and large in abil ity. Floersh who was probably the prelate’s father. Kelly was a Methodist preacher.81 preceded in Nashville by Bishop Feehan. and Father Eugene Gazzo. Stritch of Milwaukee. He officiated when they were laid to rest in the trenches and when a fight was on. D. Candler and Dr. Barbee’s administration. Now for over forty years he has been in charge of this church and school. Candler. Patrick Parish and St. South. Barbee. West. and Bishop Samuel A. Joseph Parish. Patrick School in South Nashville are monuments to his enterprise and force. He was a speaker of decided ability. then Dr. shortly before his death. admired and trusted his youthful courage and enthusiasm. E. Joseph B. Dr.
was pastor of several lead ing Nashville churches during this time. when as pastor of the Tulip Street Church he engineered the construction of the present building. Erwin was one of the noted Methodist preachers in Nashville during the latter eighties. During his pastorate Tulip Street Church grew and prospered. but is hopeful that he has been able to assist in the perpetuation of some of the stirring incidents of the decade from 1880 to 1890. “The Col orful Eighties in Nashville.” The author realizes that there have been many names omitted that deserve recognition. His conversation was bright and sparkling. when the following conversation took place: “Hello. and one of his especial chums was Dr. McFerrin as Book Agent of the church which position he held for many years. Candler. I am thin king about it. Jere!” “Hello. one of the handsomest specimens of church architecture in the city.) THE END.82 orthodox to the core.” “Are you going. and praying over it. He looked like a distinguished actor rather than a preacher. and he was always a welcome visitor in the home. detailed notice here. K. .” (E ditor’s Note — This is the last of this series of reminiscences.” holding out his hand. Jere?” “I don’t know. after it had become generally known that Dr. He had many friends among the ministers of other denominations. now Bishop Candler. Jere. He had preached a sermon criticising the stage and when he finished Emma Abbott arose in the back of the church and replied to him. and prayed with great earnestness. Jere Witherspoon of the First Presbyterian Church. Rev. R. He succeeded John B. Dr. Joe!” “Jere. Brown. a strong. I understand you have had a call to a Louisville church?” “Yes. dependable man. One day. He appreciates all the kind words of appreciation that have been spoken. He was an eloquent preacher. was the pastor of McKendree at the time of the Emma Abbott episode. that is true. they met on the street. Joseph B. Dr. Witherspoon had received a call from a Louisville church. which is too well known to warrant a. “goodbye.” “Do they offer you more money than you are getting here?” “Yes” “Well. His features were clean-cut and in figure he was tall and well proportioned.
I recall the story of the two groups in the Neely’s Bend community — all friend and neighbors — but one faction was dry. As they sat deploring the miserable weather and the bad condition of the roads which prevented their driving into Nashville for a pleasant visit to their favorite bar. Others were not. It was a distinct unit. invariably knew the way home. The neighborhood was a very well defined one. “Sir. The Waller Project Papers. “Just look at him. Brown. “Five or six dollars worth of groceries. with two well-filled market baskets. The Browns were very prominent in Tennessee and Davidson County and had splendid family connections. at Special Collections Dept. Lindsley. 35 .” Mr.” one of them said. Tully Brown. Folder 7. In those days horses were always sober. In the vicinity of the present intersection of Woodland and 16th Streets was the estate of Mr. In later years when many of the residents of this community were moving away and establishing homes in the more fashionable West End and Harding Road sections Mr. very dry. Brown replied. it seems very strange to me that man of your birth.” There were few traffic accidents that were traceable to alcohol. One wintry Saturday afternoon this latter group had gathered at a residence overlooking Neely’s Bend Road.83 APPENDIX: Memories of Nashville. The site was originally part of the estate of Isaac Litton. who remarked. by Judge Edwin Litton Hickman (1875-1956)35 I was born on August 4th.” …Among these gentlemen whom I have mentioned there were some who were ardent prohibitionists.. and were anxious to get there. V. apart from Edgefield on the one side and open country on the other…. Brown was in East Nashville. they spied one of their abstemious neighbors plodding slowly homeward. S. extending from Tenth Street in East Nashville out the Gallatin Road to the Madison area. The residence of Gov. my maternal grandfather. and I’ll bet he hasn’t a quart of whiskey in his house. Dictated to Mrs. fine appearance and great intelligence has not also moved away from East Nashville. for a time. breeding. a son of Governor Brown was approached by an acquaintance. smart. Typescript in Box #3. “Mr. Vanderbilt University Library. A. Neill S. those qualities which you have just enumerated are the reason that I do not have to live in any particular locality in order to obtain recognition. the official meeting place of the Ku Klux Klan. Many gentlemen who imbibed too freely while in town arrived home safely by means of a little luck and a great deal of horse sense. 1875. and have lived all my life in this home in which we are now sitting. The other was extremely convivial. There were three springs on this acreage and one of them was. a short distance north of main St. Hickman in the spring of 1952.
Clark conducted “Mrs. Clark’s was a friend of mine. There was a small Baptist church about one and one half miles directly east of our home. and a Presbyterian church on the Gallatin Road at its intersection with the Neely’s Bend Road. My mother was furious. Clark’s staff appeared at Hobson Chapel morning service with several of the roses pinned securely to her ample bosom. had the largest enrollment. I then rode home in a glow of satisfaction over a mission so neatly accomplished. and the teachers were selected and appointed by them. Clark. on the Porter Road. In a short time. a servant from the school appeared with the roses and a note from Mrs. which was then. attended services at Hobson Methodist Church. My parents and I were Episcopalians. a beautiful. . I was the astonished victim of the strict discipline which existed there. Churches Regardless of their various religious convictions. of course. situated on Greenwood Avenue. a school in the Madison vicinity. Clark’s and presented my offering to the servant who opened the door. There was a Methodist Church near Madison on the Neely’s Bend road.84 Schools There were very few schools in this community when I was a child. There were three small schools for Negro children. Mother and I cut an enormous bouquet of the lovely yellow blossoms and attached my card. charming girl whose mother was a friend of my mother. This was a two-teacher school. There was. The salaries ranged from $30. There were three School Commissioners in the district. This was a county public school located in. and our disgust with the whole proceeding was further intensified on the following Sabbath when a member of Mrs. the majority of the families in this immediate vicinity. rode over to Mrs. and for a number of years my mother and Miss Emma Childress taught there. One day in the late winter when the Marchel [Maréchal] Neil roses were blooming in great profusion in my mother’s greenhouse. and now is.) and the Gallatin Road. For a few years during my early teens. One of the boarding students at Mrs. I mounted my horse. but I do not remember its site.00 per month.00 to $50. at one time. I can never forget this institution of learning. a Mrs. It was situated on the outskirts of the present Negro settlement called Rock City. A few years later a school building was erected at Spout Spring. with the request that it be delivered to the above-mentioned object of my affection. but as the nearest Episcopalian church was in Edgefield. My mother also taught there. Clark’s School for Girls” on the thoroughfare which is now Greenwood Ave. A log school house situated on the corner of Mooretown lane (now Straightway Ave. one in Rock City and one in Briarville. the 18th Civil District. at that time. one in Mooretown. addressed to my mother and stating flatly that her young ladies did not receive gifts from young gentlemen. because. I attended church school at Hobson.
It caused great consternation in the community. with the privilege of occupying a house on the premises. Capable cooks could be obtained for $8. there was always food and shelter for everyone. on nearly every house on Mooretown Lane. who had a very large family. increased the wages for his cook to $10.00 per month. C. stable lot and garden. Pryor. the latter located near Madison. Their properties rarely consisted of more than a house. This was entirely understandable. The county maintained a pest house on the river. as the pest house was in no sense a hospital and patients there could not receive as good care as they could in their own homes. and the afflicted were supposed to be taken there. owned their own homes and were good citizens. and a husband who made frequent appearances. Mooretown. The residents of these settlements. Rock City and Briarville. for the most part. yard. They were employed as house servants and farm laborers by the other residents of the community. and I remember that there was a yellow flag. If the cook happened to have several small children. It was especially violent in Mooretown. I remember when our friend and neighbor Major J. At one time a severe epidemic of small pox appeared in Nashville and Davidson County.85 Negro Settlements There were three Negro settlements nearby. indicating the presence of the contagion. but the Negroes were in great fear of this place. and tried as well as possible to conceal the nature of their illness.00 a month. .
86 Raw material .