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Solutions Manual for Introduction to
Statistical Physics (draft)
Silvio Salinas
19 August 2011
ii
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Preface
We give some schematic solutions of exercises from chapters 1
to 10 of "Introduction to Statistical Physics", by Silvio R. A.
Salinas, …rst published by Springer, New York, in 2001. We also
add a number of corrections and some new exercises. Additional
corrections and suggestions are warmly welcomed.
Silvio Salinas
Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo
srasalinas@gmail.com
iv Preface
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1
Introduction to Statistical Physics
1 Obtain the probability of adding up six points if we toss three
distinct dice.
*** Let´s consider an easier problem, two dice, for exam
ple. In this (simpler) case, there are 6 6 = 36 con…gurations
(events), but only 5 of them correspond to 6 points. Since all of
the con…gurations are equally probable, we have 1 (6) = 5,36.
2 Consider a binomial distribution for a onedimensional ran
dom walk, with ` = 6, j = 2,3, and ¡ = 1 ÷j = 1,3.
(a) Draw a graph of 1
.
(`
1
) versus `
1
,`.
(b) Use the values of ¸`
1
¸ and ¸`
2
1
¸ to obtain the correspond
ing Gaussian distribution, j
G
(`
1
). Draw a graph of j
G
(`
1
) ver
sus `
1
,` to compare with the previous result.
(c) Repeat items (a) and (b) for ` = 12 and ` = 36. Are the
new answers too di¤erent?
*** The "equivalent Gaussian" distribution has the same …rst
and second moments as the binomial distribution,
j
G
(`
1
) = C exp
_
÷
(`
1
÷¸`
1
¸)
2
2
¸
(`
1
÷¸`
1
¸)
2
_
_
= C exp
_
÷
(`
1
÷j`)
2
2`j¡
_
.
2 1. Introduction to Statistical Physics
where the "normalization factor" C comes from
+1
_
1
C exp
_
÷
(`
1
÷j`)
2
2`j¡
_
d`
1
= 1 ==C = (2:`j¡)
1¸2
.
It is instructive to draw graphs of j
G
(`
1
) versus `
1
for some
values of `.
In the …gure, we show some graphs of 1
.
(`
1
) versus `
1
,`.
3 Obtain an expression for the third moment of a binomial
distribution. What is the behavior of this moment for large `?
*** Using the tricks introduced in the text, it is easy to see
that
¸
(`
1
÷¸`
1
¸)
3
_
= `j¡ (¡ ÷j) .
Note that
¸
(`
1
)
3
_
= 0 for j = ¡ (same probabilities). Also,
note the dependence of
¸
(`
1
)
3
_
on `, so that
_¸
(`
1
)
3
_¸
1¸3
_¸
(`
1
)
2
_¸
1¸2
~
1
`
1¸6
.
for large `.
4 Consider an event of probability j. The probability of :
occurrences of this event out of ` trials is given by the binomial
distribution,
\
.
(:) =
`!
:!(` ÷:)!
j
a
(1 ÷j)
.a
.
If j is small (j << 1), \
.
(:) is very small, except for : << `.
In this limit, show that we obtain the Poisson distribution,
\
.
(:) ÷1 (:) =
`
a
:!
exp (÷`) .
where ` = :j is the mean number of events. Check that 1 (:)
is normalized. Calculate ¸:¸ and
¸
(:)
2
_
for this Poisson dis
tribution. Formulate a statistical problem to be solved in terms
of this distribution.
1. Introduction to Statistical Physics 3
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
N1/N
P
N
(
N
1
)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
N1/N
P
(
N
1
)
Graphs of PN(N1) (dots) versus N1/N, and the corresponding Gaussian distribution (solid
line), for N=36 (top figure) and N=216 (at bottom).
A)
B)
4 1. Introduction to Statistical Physics
*** It is easy to see that
1
a=0
1 (:) = exp (÷`)
1
a=0
`
a
:!
= 1.
¸:¸ =
1
a=0
:1 (:) = exp (÷`)
1
a=0
:
`
a
:!
=
= exp (÷`)
_
`
J
J`
_
1
a=0
`
a
:!
= `.
and
¸
(:)
2
_
=
¸
(: ÷¸:¸)
2
_
= `.
5 Consider an experiment with ` equally likely outcomes,
involving two events ¹ and 1. Let `
1
be the number of events
in which ¹ occurs, but not 1; `
2
be the number of events in
which 1 occurs, but not ¹; `
3
be the number of events in which
both ¹ and 1 occur; and `
4
be the number of events in which
neither ¹ nor 1 occur.
(i) Check that `
1
+ `
2
+ `
3
+ `
4
= `.
(ii) Check that
1 (¹) =
`
1
+ `
3
`
and 1 (1) =
`
2
+ `
3
`
.
where 1 (¹) and 1 (1) are the probabilities of occurrence of ¹
and 1, respectively.
(iii) Calculate the probability 1 (¹ + 1) of occurrence of ei
ther ¹ or 1.
(iv) Calculate the probability 1 (¹1) of occurrence of both
¹ and 1.
(v) Calculate the conditional probability 1 (¹ [ 1) that ¹
occurs given that 1 occurs.
(vi) Calculate the conditional probability 1 (1 [ ¹) that 1
occurs given that ¹ occurs.
(vii) Show that
1 (¹ + 1) = 1 (¹) + 1 (1) ÷1 (¹1)
1. Introduction to Statistical Physics 5
and
1 (¹1) = 1 (1) 1 (¹ [ 1) = 1 (¹) 1 (1 [ ¹) .
(viii) Considering a third event C, show that
1 (1 [ ¹)
1 (C [ ¹)
=
1 (1)
1 (C)
1 (¹ [ 1)
1 (¹ [ C)
.
which is an expression of Bayes’ theorem.
6 A random variable r is associated with the probability
density
j (r) = exp (÷r) .
for 0 < r < ·.
(a) Find the mean value ¸r¸.
(b) Two values r
1
and r
2
are chosen independently. Find
¸r
1
+ r
2
¸ and ¸r
1
r
2
¸.
(c) What is the probability distribution of the random vari
able ¸ = r
1
+ r
2
?
*** Note that
¸r¸ = 1. ¸r
1
+ r
2
¸ = 2. ¸r
1
r
2
¸ = 1.
and that
j (¸) =
_ _
dr
1
dr
2
j (r
1
) j (r
2
) o (¸ ÷r
1
÷r
2
) .
Using an integral representations of the deltafunction (see the
Appendix), it is easy to see that
j (¸) = ¸ exp (÷¸) .
7 Consider a random walk in one dimension. After ` steps
from the origin, the position is given by
r =
.
)=1
:
)
.
6 1. Introduction to Statistical Physics
where ¦:
)
¦ is a set of independent, identical, and identically dis
tributed random variables, given by the probability distribution
n(:) =
_
2:o
2
_
1¸2
exp
_
÷
(: ÷)
2
2o
2
_
.
where o and  are positive constants. After ` steps, what is
the average displacement from the origin? What is the standard
deviation of the random variable r? In the large ` limit, what
is the form of the Gaussian distribution associated with this
problem?
*** It is easy to see that
¸r¸ = ` ¸:¸ = `.
and
¸
(r ÷¸r¸)
2
_
= `
¸
(: ÷¸:¸)
2
_
= `o
2
.
from which we write the Gaussian form
j
G
(r) =
_
2:o
2
_
1¸2
exp
_
÷
(r ÷`)
2
2`o
2
_
.
*** Try to solve a similar problem with
n(:) =
_
_
_
0. : < ÷1,2.
1. ÷1,2 < : < +1,2.
0. : +1,2.
Calculate ¸r¸, ¸r
2
¸, and the limiting Gaussian distribution j
G
(r)
(for large `). Note that
+1
_
1
n(:)d: = 1. ¸r¸ = ` ¸:¸ = 0.
¸
(r)
2
_
=
`
12
.
8 Consider again problem 7, with a distribution n(:) of the
Lorentzian form
n(:) =
1
:
c
:
2
+ c
2
.
1. Introduction to Statistical Physics 7
with c 0. Obtain an expression for the probability distribution
associated with the random variable r. Is it possible to write a
Gaussian approximation for large `? Why?
*** You should be careful. It is immediate to see that ¸:¸ = 0,
but ¸:
2
¸ is associated with a diverging integral! The Lorentzian
form does not obey the conditions for the validity of the central
limit theorem.
Additional exercises
9 The Ehrenfest “urn model” provides an excellent illustra
tion of statistical ‡uctuations, the role of large numbers, and
the direction of the “time arrow”. Take a look at Section 1 of
Chapter 15. The “stochastic equation” associated with the sim
ple urn model is linear (and exactly soluble). There are many
works on the urn model. See, for example, the relatively recent
work by C. Godrèche and J. M. Luck, J. Phys.: Condens. Mat
ter 14, 16011615 (2002), which contains a number of historical
references.
In the simple urn model, we consider two boxes, ` numbered
balls, and a generator of ` random numbers. Initially, there are
`
1
balls in urn 1, and `
2
= ` ÷ `
1
balls in urn 2. Each time
unit, we draw a random number, between 1 and `, and change
the position (urn location) of the corresponding ball.
Choose a reasonable generator of random numbers, and per
form time simulations for this simple urn model. Draw graphs of
`
1
(number of balls in urn 1) as a function of time t (in uniform
discrete steps t), from an initial situation in which `
1
= `
(all the balls are in urn 1), using two values of the total number
of balls: (a) ` = 10, and (b) ` = 100. What can you say about
the ‡uctuations of the value of `
1
? What happens at long times,
t ÷·?
It is reasonable to assume the “stochastic equation”
1 (`
1
. t + t) = 1 (`
1
÷1. t) \
1
+ 1 (`
1
+ 1. t) \
2
.
8 1. Introduction to Statistical Physics
where 1 (`
1
. t) is the probability of …nding `
1
balls in urn 1
at time t, t is the discrete time interval between draws, and
\
1
and \
2
are “probabilities of transition”. Show that it is
reasonable to assume that
\
1
=
` ÷(`
1
÷1)
`
and \
2
=
`
1
+ 1
`
.
What are the assumptions involved in this choice? Check that
the binomial distribution is a an “equilibrium solution” of this
equation (in other words, a solution for t ÷·).
Use this equation to obtain the time evolution ¸`
1
¸
t
of the av
erage value of `
1
. Compare this analytical form with the results
of your simulations.
*** Note that
¸`
1
¸
t
=
.
1
`
1
1 (`
1
. t) .
Using the stochastic equation, it is easy to see that
¸`
1
¸
t+t
=
_
1 ÷
2
`
_
¸`
1
¸
t
+ 1.
which leads to the solution
¸`
1
¸
t
= C
_
1 ÷
2
`
_
t
+
`
2
.
where the prefactor C comes from the initial condition.
In …gure 1 we show a simulation of `
1
versus discrete time t.
1. Introduction to Statistical Physics 9
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
t (passos)
N
1
(
t
)
Figura 1: Simulation for the Ehrenfest urn model. Graph of N1 versus the discrete time
t, for N=100 and the initial condition N10=N. The solid line represents the theoretical
result for the time evolution of the average value of N1.
10 1. Introduction to Statistical Physics
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2
Statistical Description of a Physical
System
1. Neglect the complexities of classical phase space, and con
sider a system of ` distinguishable and noninteracting parti
cles, which may be found in two states of energy, with c = 0
and c 0, respectively. Given the total energy l of this system,
obtain an expression for the associated number of microscopic
states.
*** Suppose that there are `
0
particles in the ground state
and `
c
particles in the excited state. The number of accessible
microscopic states of this system is given by
(l. `) =
`!
`
0
!`
c
!
.
where `
0
+ `
c
= ` and l = c`
c
.
2. Calculate the number of accessible microscopic states of
a system of two localized and independent quantum oscillators,
with fundamental frequencies .
c
and 3.
c
, respectively, and total
energy 1 = 10~.
c
.
*** There are three microscopic states:
(:
1
= 2; :
2
= 2), (:
1
= 5; :
2
= 1), and (:
1
= 8; :
2
= 0).
12 2. Statistical Description of a Physical System
3. Consider a classical onedimensional system of two non
interacting particles of the same mass :. The motion of the
particles is restricted to a region of the r axis between r = 0
and r = 1 0. Let r
1
and r
2
be the position coordinates of the
particles, and j
1
and j
2
be the canonically conjugated momenta.
The total energy of the system is between 1 and 1 +o1. Draw
the projection of phase space in a plane de…ned by position co
ordinates. Indicate the region of this plane that is accessible to
the system. Draw similar graphs in the plane de…ned by the
momentum coordinates.
4. The position of a onedimensional harmonic oscillator is
given by
r = ¹cos (.t + ,) .
where ¹. .. and , are positive constants. Obtain j (r) dr, that
is, the probability of …nding the oscillator with position between
r and r+dr. Note that it is enough to calculate d1,1, where 1
is a period of oscillation, and d1 is an interval of time, within a
period, in which the amplitude remains between r and r + dr.
Draw a graph of j(r) versus r.
*** It is easy to show that
j (r) =
1
2:¹
_
1 ÷
_
r
¹
_
2
_
1¸2
.
Now consider the classical phase space of an ensemble of iden
tical onedimensional oscillators with energy between 1 and
1 +o1. Given the energy 1, we have an ellipse in phase space.
So, the accessible region in phase space is a thin elliptical shell
bounded by the ellipses associated with energies 1 and 1+o1,
respectively. Obtain an expression for the small area o¹ of this
elliptical shell between r and r +dr. Show that the probability
j(r)dr may also be given by o¹,¹, where ¹ is the total area of
the elliptical shell. This is one of the few examples where we can
check the validity of the ergodic hypothesis and the postulate
of equal a priori probabilities.
2. Statistical Description of a Physical System 13
5. Consider a classical system of ` localized and weakly inter
acting onedimensional harmonic oscillators, whose Hamiltonian
is written as
H =
.
)=1
_
1
2:
j
2
)
+
1
2
/r
2
)
_
.
where : is the mass and / is an elastic constant. Obtain the
accessible volume of phase space for 1 _ H _ 1 + o1, with
o1 << 1. This classical model for the elastic vibrations of a
solid leads to a constant speci…c heat with temperature (law of
Dulong and Petit). The solid of Einstein is a quantum version of
this model. The speci…c heat of Einstein’s model decreases with
temperature, in qualitative agreement with experimental data.
*** The volume in classical phase space is given by
=
_
_
1H1+c1
dr
1
...dr
.
dj
1
...dj
.
=
_
4:
/
_
.¸2
o\
cjI,
where o\
cjI
is the volume of a 2`dimensional hyperspherical
shell (see Appendix) of radius 1
1¸2
and thickness proportional
to o1. For large `, it is easy to write the asymptotic dependence
of on the energy 1,
o\
cjI
~ 1
.
.
The dependence on ` is more delicate (it requires the calcula
tion of the volume of the hypersphere).
6. The spin Hamiltonian of a system of ` localized magnetic
ions is given by
H = 1
.
)=1
o
2
)
.
where 1 0 and the spin variable o
)
may assume the values ±1
or 0, for all , = 1. 2. 3.... This spin Hamiltonian describes the
e¤ects of the electrostatic environment on spin1 ions. An ion
in states ±1 has energy 1 0, and an ion in state 0 has zero
14 2. Statistical Description of a Physical System
energy. Show that the number of accessible microscopic states
of this system with total energy l can be written as
(l. `) =
`!
_
` ÷
l
1
_
!
.
1
_
l
1
÷`
_
!`
!
.
for `
ranging from 0 to `, with ` l,1 and `
< l,1.
Thus, we have
(l. `) = `!2
l¸1
__
` ÷
l
1
_
!
_
l
1
_
!
_
1
.
Using Stirling’s asymptotic series, show that
1
`
ln ÷
n
1
ln 2 ÷
_
1 ÷
n
1
_
ln
_
1 ÷
n
1
_
÷
n
1
ln
n
1
.
for `. l ÷·, with l,` = n …xed. This last expression is the
entropy per particle in units of Boltzmann’s constant, /
1
.
*** Let´s write the number of microscopic con…gurations with
`
0
ions with spin o = 0, `
+
ions with spin +1, and `
ions
with spin ÷1,
(`
0
. `
+
. `
) =
`!
`
!`
0
!`
+
!
.
It is easy to see that the number of microscopic con…gurations,
with energy l and total number of ions `, is given by the sum
= (l. `) =
.
0
,.
+
,.
`!
`
!`
0
!`
+
!
.
with the restrictions
`
0
+ `
+
+ `
= `
and
1(`
+
+ `
) = l.
2. Statistical Description of a Physical System 15
We then use these restrictions to eliminate two variables, and
write
(l. `) =
l¸1
.
=0
`!
_
` ÷
l
1
_
!
_
l
1
÷`
_
!`
!
=
=
`!
_
` ÷
l
1
_
!
_
l
1
_
!
l¸1
.
=0
_
l
1
_
!
_
l
1
÷`
_
!`
!
.
Now it is easy to calculate the (binomial) sum and obtain the
(exact) answer.
*** We usually look for results in the thermodynamic limit
only. It is then acceptable to replace the sum by its maximum
term. In fact, we can write
(l. `) =
.
0
,.
+
,.
`!
`
!`
0
!`
+
!
~
`!
¯
`
!
¯
`
0
!
¯
`
+
!
.
which is the asymptotic result in the limit `. l ÷ ·, with
l,` = n …xed. In order to …nd the “occupation numbers”
¯
`
,
¯
`
0
, and
¯
`
+
, we use the technique of Lagrange multipliers. Let
us de…ne the function
, (`
. `
0
. `
+
. `
1
. `
2
) = ln
`!
`
!`
0
!`
+
!
+
`
1
(`
0
+ `
+
+ `
÷`) + `
2
(1`
+
+ 1`
÷l) .
Using Stirling´s expansion, we take derivatives with respect to
all of the arguments. It is easy to eliminate the Lagrange mul
tipliers. The maximum is given by
¯
`
=
¯
`
+
=
l
21
.
¯
`
0
= ` ÷
l
1
.
from which we have the same asymptotic expression
1
`
ln ~
n
1
ln 2 ÷
_
1 ÷
n
1
_
ln
_
1 ÷
n
1
_
÷
n
1
ln
n
1
.
16 2. Statistical Description of a Physical System
in agreement with the limiting result from the previously ob
tained exact expression for . In slightly more complicated prob
lems, without an exact solution, we will be forced to resort to
similar maximization techniques.
7. In a simpli…ed model of a gas of particles, the system is
divided into \ cells of unit volume. Find the number of ways to
distribute ` distinguishable particles (with 0 _ ` _ \ ) within
\ cells, such that each cell may be either empty or …lled up
by only one particle. How would your answer be modi…ed for
indistinguishable particles?
*** If we consider distinguishable particles, we have
o
=
\ !
(\ ÷`)!
.
This result, however, does not make sense in the thermodynamic
limit (see that ln
o
,` does not exist in the limit \. ` ÷ ·,
with · = \,` …xed).
If the particles are indistinguishable, we have
i
=
\ !
(\ ÷`)!`!
.
so that
1
`
ln
i
~ · ln · ÷(· ÷1) ln (· ÷1) .
in the thermodynamic limit (note that · = \,` _ 1). This is
a simpli…ed, and fully respectable, model of a noninteracting
lattice gas. The entropy per particle is given by
: = : (·) = /
1
[· ln · ÷(· ÷1) ln (· ÷1)] .
from which we obtain the pressure,
j
1
=
J:
J·
= /
1
ln
·
· ÷1
.
It is more instructive to write the pressure in terms of the par
ticle density, j = 1,·,
j
1
= ÷/
1
ln (1 ÷j) = /
1
_
j +
1
2
j
2
+ ...
_
.
2. Statistical Description of a Physical System 17
This is a virial expansion. The lowdensity limit gives the well
known expression for the ideal gas.
8. The atoms of a crystalline solid may occupy either a po
sition of equilibrium, with zero energy, or a displaced position,
with energy c 0. To each equilibrium position, there corre
sponds a unique displaced position. Given the number ` of
atoms, and the total energy l, calculate the number of accessi
ble microscopic states of this system.
*** It easy to see that
(l. `) =
`!
_
l
c
_
!
_
` ÷
l
c
_
!
.
Additional exercises
9. Obtain an expression for the volume of a hypersphere of ra
dius 1 in d dimensions. Use this expression for obtaining t
i=1
he
volume (1. \. `; o1) in phase space associated with a gas of
` noninteracting classical monatomic particles, inside a box of
volume \ , with energy between 1 and 1+o1 (with o1 << 1).
What is the entropy o = o (1. \. `) of this system? Is there
any trouble in the thermodynamic limit?: How to correct this
trouble? What is the “Gibbs paradox”?
*** The volume of the hypersphere is calculated in Appendix
A4. We then present an alternative calculation. The element of
volume of a ddimensional hypersphere can be written as
¹d1 =
+1
_
1
dr
1
...
+1
_
1
dr
o
o
_
1 ÷r
2
1
÷r
2
2
÷...r
2
o
_
d
_
1
2
_
.
where we have used a Dirac deltafunction (see the Appendix
A3). Note that it is easy to check this result for 2 or 3 dimen
sions. We now insert an extra term in this integral,
¹d1 =
_
_
o
i=1
+1
_
1
dr
i
_
_
exp
_
÷c
.
i=1
r
2
i
_
o
_
1÷
.
i=1
r
2
i
_
d
_
1
2
_
.
18 2. Statistical Description of a Physical System
and make c = 0 at the end of the calculations. Using an integral
representation of the deltafunction (see the Appendix), we have
¹ = 21
_
_
o
i=1
+1
_
1
dr
i
_
_
exp
_
÷c
.
i=1
r
2
i
_
1
2:
+1
_
1
d/ exp
_
÷i/
_
1÷
.
i=1
r
2
i
__
=
=
1
:
+1
_
1
d/ exp
_
÷i/1
2
_
_
:
d ÷i/
_
o¸2
.
Changing variables, /1
2
= ., and resorting to the method of
residues in the complex plane, we have
¹ =
1
:
1
o1
(i:)
o¸2
_
d.
exp (÷i.)
[. + ic1
2
]
o¸2
.
Closing the contour around a pole of order d,2, we obtain the
…nal result
¹ =
2:
o
_
o
2
÷1
_
!
1
o1
.
Now it is easy to write the volume in phase space, and
to see that we have to divide this volume by the Boltzmann
counting factor `! in order to obtain an extensive entropy in
the thermodynamic limit.
10. Stirling´s asymptotic expansion, given by
ln `! = ` ln ` ÷` + C(ln `) .
which works very well for large ` (` ÷ ·), is a most useful
trick in statistical mechanics, in connection with the thermody
namic limit.
(i) Show that
_
1
0
r
a
c
a
dr = :!
2. Statistical Description of a Physical System 19
for : = 0. 1. 2. ... (and assuming an analytic continuation related
to the Gamma function).
(ii) Using this integral and the Laplace method of asymptotic
integration, derive the …rst two terms of Stirling´s expansion.
(ii) Prove that
lim
a!1
1
:
ln
__
b
o
exp [:, (r)] dr
_
= , (r
0
) .
where r
0
is the maximum of a continuous function , (r) in the
interval between c and / c. This results gives a good degree
of con…dence in the usual replacements of certain sums by their
maximum term!
*** For integer :, we can used the induction method to prove
the that
_
1
0
r
a
c
a
dr = :!
It is simple to check that it works for : = 1 (and : = 0, with
0! = 1). Supposing that if holds for :÷1, it is easy to show that
it holds for : as well.
*** The use of Laplace´s method to …nd the …rst few terms in
the asymptotic expansion of ln :! is fully described in Appendix
A1.
*** The mathematical proof that has been asked is based on a
sequence of very reasonable steps. Since , (r
0
) is the maximum
of , (r) in the interval between c and /, it is immediate to see
that
1
a
=
_
b
o
exp ¦:[, (r) ÷, (r
0
)]¦ dr _
_
_
b
o
exp ¦[, (r) ÷, (r
0
)]¦ dr = C.
where C is a wellde…ned constant value.
Let us …nd an inequality in the reversed direction. It is always
possible to write
1
a
=
_
b
o
exp ¦:[, (r) ÷, (r
0
)]¦ dr _
20 2. Statistical Description of a Physical System
_
_
ao+
1
2
.
ao
1
2
.
exp ¦:[, (r) ÷, (r
0
)]¦ dr.
Supposing that , (r) is a continuous function, it is clear that,
given o 0, there exists 0 such that [, (r) ÷, (r
0
)[ < o,
for all o. Thus,
1
a
_
_
ao
1
2
.
ao
1
2
.
exp ¦:[, (r) ÷, (r
0
)]¦ dr _
_
_
ao
1
2
.
ao
1
2
.
exp [÷:o] dr = exp [÷:o] .
Therefore,
exp [÷:o] _ 1
a
_ C.
which leads to
exp [÷:o] exp [:, (r
0
)] _
_
b
o
exp [:, (r)] dr _ C exp [:, (r
0
)] .
Taking the logarithm and dividing by :, we have
1
:
ln ÷o+, (r
0
) _
1
:
ln
__
b
o
exp [:, (r)] dr
_
_
1
:
ln C+, (r
0
) .
In the limit : ÷·, and taking into account that is …xed, we
have
÷o + , (r
0
) _ lim
a!1
1
:
ln
__
b
o
exp [:, (r)] dr
_
_ , (r
0
) .
Since o 0 is arbitrary, we can take the limit o ÷0, which leads
to the expected result. Note that the only requirements are the
existence of the integral and the continuity of the function , (r).
This is page 21
Printer: Opaque this
3
Overview of Classical
Thermodynamics
1. The chemical potential of a simple ‡uid of a single component
is given by the expression
j = j
c
(1) + /
1
1 ln
j
j
c
(1)
.
where 1 is the temperature, j is the pressure, /
1
is the Boltz
mann constant, and the functions j
c
(1) and j
c
(1) are well be
haved. Show that this system obeys Boyle’s law, j\ = `/
1
1.
Obtain an expression for the speci…c heat at constant pres
sure. What are the expressions for the thermal compressibility,
the speci…c heat at constant volume, and the thermal expan
sion coe¢cient? Obtain the density of Helmholtz free energy,
, = , (1. ·).
**** Note that j(1. j) = q (1. j), where q (1. j) is the Gibbs
free energy per particle. Thus,
· =
_
Jj
Jj
_
T
=
/
1
1
j
.
which is the expression of Boyle’s law, and
÷: =
_
Jj
J1
_
j
=
dj
c
d1
+ /
1
ln
j
j
c
(1)
÷
/
1
1
j
c
(1)
dj
c
d1
.
22 3. Overview of Classical Thermodynamics
from which we obtain the speci…c heat at constant pressure. All
other expressions are straightforward. In particular,
, = q ÷j·.
You should give , in terms of 1 and ·, , = , (1. ·).
2. Consider a pure ‡uid of one component. Show that
_
Jc
\
J·
_
T
= 1
_
J
2
j
J1
2
_
·
.
Use this result to show that the speci…c heat of an ideal gas does
not depend on volume. Show that
_
Jc
Jj
_
T,.
= ÷
_
Ji
T
J1
_
j,.
.
*** From the de…nition of the speci…c heat, we have
c
\
= 1
_
J:
J1
_
·
==
==
_
Jc
\
J·
_
T
= 1
J
2
:
J1J·
= 1
J
2
:
J·J1
= 1
_
J
J1
_
J:
J·
_
T
_
·
.
Note that : = : (1. ·) is an equation of state in the Helmholtz
representation. Then, we write
d, = ÷:d1 ÷jd· ==÷: =
_
J,
J1
_
·
; ÷j =
_
J,
J·
_
T
==
_
J:
J·
_
T
=
_
Jj
J1
_
·
.
which leads to the …rst identity.
The proof of the second identity requires similar tricks.
3. Consider a pure ‡uid characterized by the grand thermo
dynamic potential
= \ ,
c
(1) exp
_
j
/
1
1
_
.
3. Overview of Classical Thermodynamics 23
where ,
c
(1) is a wellbehaved function. Write the equations of
state in this thermodynamic representation. Obtain an expres
sion for the internal energy as a function of 1, \ , and `. Obtain
an expression for the Helmholtz free energy of this system. Cal
culate the thermodynamic derivatives i
T
and c as a function of
temperature and pressure.
*** From Euler’s relation, we have
j = ÷
\
= ÷,
c
(1) exp
_
j
/
1
1
_
.
Thus, we can write
j = /
1
1 ln
j
÷,
c
(1)
.
which is identical to the expression for the chemical potential
in the …rst exercise, if we make j
c
= 0 and j
c
(1) = ÷,
c
(1).
Therefore, we have Boyle’s law and the usual expressions for i
T
and c.
4. Obtain an expression for the Helmholtz free energy per
particle, , = , (1. ·), of a pure system given by the equations
of state
n =
3
2
j· and j = c·1
4
.
where c is a constant.
*** These equations of state can be explicitly written in the
entropy representation,
1
1
=
_
3c
2
_
1¸4
·
1¸2
n
1¸4
and
j
1
=
2
3
_
3c
2
_
1¸4
·
1¸2
n
3¸4
.
from which we obtain the fundamental equation
: =
4
3
_
3c
2
_
1¸4
·
1¸2
n
3¸4
+ c.
where c is a constant. The Helmholtz free energy per particle is
given by
, (1. ·) = n ÷1: =
24 3. Overview of Classical Thermodynamics
=
3c
2
·
2
1
4
÷1
_
4
3
_
3c
2
_
1¸4
·
1¸2
_
3c
2
·
2
1
4
_
3¸4
+ c
_
.
*** Let us consider a similar problem, with a slight modi…ca
tion in one of the equations of state,
n =
3
2
j· and j = c·1
a
.
Note that, instead of 1
4
, we are writing 1
a
, where : is an ar
bitrary integer. Is this a bona …de thermodynamic system? Is it
possible to have : ,= 4?
Again, we rewrite the equations of state in the entropy rep
resentation,
1
1
=
_
3c
2
_
1¸a
·
2¸a
n
1¸a
and
j
1
=
2
3
_
3c
2
_
1¸a
·
1+2¸a
n
11¸a
.
In this representation we have
1
1
=
_
J:
Jn
_
·
;
j
1
=
_
J:
J·
_
&
==
_
J
J·
1
1
_
&
=
_
J
Jn
j
1
_
·
.
from which we obtain
_
3c
2
_
1¸a
2
:
·
1+2¸a
n
1¸a
=
2
3
_
3c
2
_
1¸a
·
1+2¸a
_
1 ÷
1
:
_
n
1¸a
.
leading to the only thermodynamic bona …de solution, : = 4.
5. Obtain an expression for the Gibbs free energy per parti
cle, q = q (1. j), for a pure system given by the fundamental
equation
_
o
`
÷c
_
4
= c
\ l
2
`
3
.
where c and c are constants.
*** From the fundamental equation
: = c
1¸4
·
1¸4
n
1¸2
+ c.
3. Overview of Classical Thermodynamics 25
we write the equations of state
1
1
=
_
J:
Jn
_
·
=
1
2
c
1¸4
·
1¸4
n
1¸2
and
j
1
=
_
J:
J·
_
&
=
1
4
c
1¸4
·
3¸4
n
1¸2
.
The Gibbs free energy per particle is given by the Legendre
transformation
÷
q
1
= : ÷
1
1
n ÷
j
1
·.
where n and · come from the equations of state. Note that q
has to be given in terms of 1 and j.
6. Consider an elastic ribbon of length 1 under a tension ,.
In a quasistatic process, we can write
dl = 1do + ,d1 + jd`.
Suppose that the tension is increased very quickly, from , to
, +,, keeping the temperature 1 …xed. Obtain an expression
for the change of entropy just after reaching equilibrium. What
is the change of entropy per mole for an elastic ribbon that
behaves according to the equation of state 1,` = c,,1, where
c is a constant?
*** Using the Gibbs representation, we have the Maxwell re
lation
_
Jo
J,
_
T
=
_
J1
J1
_
)
.
From the equation of state, 1,` = c,,1, we have
o
`
= ÷
c,
1
2
,.
7. A magnetic compound behaves according to the Curie law,
: = CH,1, where C is a constant, H is the applied magnetic
26 3. Overview of Classical Thermodynamics
…eld, : is the magnetization per particle (with corrections due
to presumed surface e¤ects), and 1 is temperature. In a quasi
static process, we have
dn = 1d: + Hd:.
where n = n(:. :) plays the role of an internal energy. For an
in…nitesimal adiabatic process, show that we can write
1 =
CH
c
1
1
H.
where c
1
is the speci…c heat at constant magnetic …eld.
*** We have to calculate the partial derivative (J1,JH) at
…xed entropy. Using Jacobians, it is easy to write
_
J1
JH
_
c
=
J (1. :)
J (H. :)
=
J (1. :)
J (1. H)
J (1. H)
J (H. :)
=
_
J:
JH
_
T
÷1
_
0c
0T
_
1
.
All derivatives are written in terms of the independent variables
1 and H. We then introduce the Legendre transformation
q = n ÷1: ÷H: ==dq = ÷:d1 ÷:dH.
from which we have
÷: =
_
Jq
J1
_
1
. ÷: =
_
Jq
JH
_
T
==
_
J:
JH
_
T
=
_
J:
J1
_
1
.
Inserting the equation of state in this Maxwell relation, it is easy
to complete the proof.
8. From stability arguments, show that the enthalpy of a pure
‡uid is a convex function of entropy and a concave function of
pressure.
*** The entalpy per particle is given by
/ = n + j·.
3. Overview of Classical Thermodynamics 27
from which we have
d/ = 1d: + ·dj ==1 =
_
J/
J:
_
j
and · =
_
J/
Jj
_
c
.
It is easy to show that
_
J
2
/
J:
2
_
j
=
_
J1
J:
_
j
=
1
c
j
0.
Also, we have
_
J
2
/
Jj
2
_
c
=
_
J·
Jj
_
c
= ÷·i
c
< 0.
It is straightforward to use standard tricks (Jacobians, for ex
ample) to write an expression for the adiabatic modulus of com
pressibility,
i
c
= ÷
1
·
_
J·
Jj
_
c
.
in terms of positive quantities.
*9. Show that the entropy per mole of a pure ‡uid, : =
: (n. ·), is a concave function of its variables. Note that we have
to analyze the sign of the quadratic form
d
2
: =
1
2
J
2
:
Jn
2
(dn)
2
+
J
2
:
JnJ·
dnd· +
1
2
J
2
:
J·
2
(d·)
2
.
*** This quadratic form can be written in the matrix notation
d
2
: =
1
2
_
dn d·
_
_
0
2
c
0&
2
0
2
c
0&0·
0
2
c
0&0·
0
2
c
0·
2
__
dn
d·
_
.
The eigenvalues of the 22 matrix are the roots of the quadratic
equation
`
2
÷
_
J
2
:
Jn
2
+
J
2
:
J·
2
_
` +
J
2
:
Jn
2
J
2
:
J·
2
÷
_
J
2
:
JnJ·
_
2
= 0.
28 3. Overview of Classical Thermodynamics
For a concave function, the eigenvalues are negative, that is,
J
2
:
Jn
2
J
2
:
J·
2
÷
_
J
2
:
JnJ·
_
2
0
and
J
2
:
Jn
2
+
J
2
:
J·
2
0.
Now it is straightforward to relate these derivatives of the en
tropy with positive physical quantities (as the compressibilities
and the speci…c heats).
This is page 29
Printer: Opaque this
4
Microcanonical Ensemble
1. Consider a model of ` localized magnetic ions, given by the
spin Hamiltonian
H = 1
.
)=1
o
2
)
.
where the spin variable o
)
may assume the values ÷1. 0. or +1.
for all , (see exercise 6 of Chapter 2). Given the total energy
1, use the expression for the number of accessible microstates,
(1. `), to obtain the entropy per particle, : = : (n), where
n = 1,`. Obtain an expression for the speci…c heat c in terms
of the temperature 1. Sketch a graph of c versus 1. Check the
existence of a broad maximum associated with the Schottky
e¤ect. Write an expression for the entropy as a function of tem
perature. What are the limiting values of the entropy for 1 ÷0
and 1 ÷·?
*** The number of accessible microscopic states, (1. `),
has already been calculated in exercise 6 of Chapter 2. The
entropy per magnetic ion is given by
: = : (n) = /
1
lim
1
`
ln (1. `) .
30 4. Microcanonical Ensemble
in the thermodynamic limit, 1. ` ÷ ·, with n = 1,` …xed.
We thus have
1
/
1
: =
n
1
ln 2 ÷
_
1 ÷
n
1
_
ln
_
1 ÷
n
1
_
÷
n
1
ln
n
1
.
from which we obtains the equation of state
1
/
1
1
=
1
1
ln
2 (1 ÷n,1)
n,1
.
The inversion of this equation leads to the dependence of the
energy on the temperature,
n =
21exp (÷,1)
1 + 2 exp (÷,1)
.
where , = 1, (/
1
1). The speci…c heat c = c (1) is given by the
derivative of n with respect to 1. Check the broad maximum in
the graph of c versus 1.
We now write the entropy : in terms of the temperature, : =
: (1). Check that c = 1 (J:,J1). Draw a graph of : (1) versus
1. Check that : (1) ÷0 as 1 ÷0, and that : (1) ÷/
1
ln 3 as
1 ÷· (for 1 0). What happens if 1 < 0?
2. In the solid of Einstein, we may introduce a volume co
ordinate if we make the phenomenological assumption that the
fundamental frequency . as a function of · = \,` is given by
. = . (·) = .
c
÷¹ln
_
·
·
c
_
.
where .
c
. ¹, and ·
c
are positive constants. Obtain expressions
for the expansion coe¢cient and the isothermal compressibility
of this model system.
*** Taking . as a function of ·, . = . (·), the entropy of Ein
stein’s solid can be written as a function of energy and volume,
: = : (n. ·). From the equations of state, it is straightforward to
obtain the expansion coe¢cient c and the compressibility i
T
.
4. Microcanonical Ensemble 31
3. Consider the semiclassical model of ` particles with two
energy levels (0 and c 0). As in the previous exercise, suppose
that the volume of the gas may be introduced by the assumption
that the energy of the excited level depends on · = \,`,
c = c (·) =
c
·
¸
.
where c and ¸ are positive constants. Obtain an equation of
state for the pressure, j = j (1. ·), and an expression for the
isothermal compressibility (note that the constant ¸ plays the
role of the Grüneisen parameter of the solid).
*** Again, as c = c (·), we can write : = : (n. ·). From the
equations of state, it is easy to obtain the isothermal compress
ibility.
4. The total number of the accessible microscopic states of
the Boltzmann gas, with energy 1 and number of particles `,
may be written as
(1. `) =
.
1
,.
2
,...
`!
`
1
!`
2
!
.
with the restrictions
)
`
)
= ` and
)
c
)
`
)
= 1.
Except for an additive constant, show that the entropy per par
ticle is given by
: = ÷/
1
)
_
~
`
)
`
_
ln
_
~
`
)
`
_
.
where
_
~
`
)
_
is the set of occupation numbers at equilibrium.
Using the continuum limit of the Boltzmann gas, show that the
entropy depends on temperature according to a term of the form
/
1
ln 1 (note the correction!).
32 4. Microcanonical Ensemble
*** In the thermodynamic limit, we replace the sum by its
largest term,
(1. `) ~
`!
¯
`
1
!
¯
`
2
!
.
so the entropy per particle is written as
: = /
1
1
`
ln (1. `) ~ ÷/
1
)
_
~
`
)
`
_
ln
_
~
`
)
`
_
.
which resembles the Hfunction of Boltzmann (see chapter 15).
Also, note the similarity with Shannon´s entropy of information
theory (see chapter 5).
In order to …nd
_
¯
`
)
_
, we resort to the method of Lagrange
multipliers. Let´s introduce the multipliers `
1
and `
2
, and min
imize the function
, (¦`
)
¦ . `
1
. `
2
) = ln
`!
)
`
)
!
+
+`
1
_
` ÷
)
`
)
_
+ `
2
_
1 ÷
)
c
)
`
)
_
.
It is straightforward to see that
¯
`
)
= exp (÷`
1
÷`
2
c
)
) .
so that
¯
`
)
`
=
exp (÷`
2
c
)
)
)
exp (÷`
2
c
)
)
.
The second Lagrange multiplier comes form the energy,
)
c
)
¯
`
)
`
=
1
`
= n.
4. Microcanonical Ensemble 33
from which we have
n = ÷
J
J`
2
2
1
. 2
1
=
)
exp (÷`
2
c
)
) .
In the continuum limit, we have
2
1
=
)
exp (÷`
2
c
)
) ~
_
d
3÷÷
j exp
_
÷`
2
j
2
2:
_
=
_
2::
`
2
_
3¸2
.
which leads to the energy,
n =
3
2
1
`
2
=
3
2
/
1
1.
and to the identi…cation of the Lagrange multiplier `
2
= , with
the inverse of the temperature.
Now it is easy to write the continuum form of the entropy per
particle,
: ~ ÷/
1
_
d
3÷÷
j
exp
_
÷,
j
2
2n
_
2
1
ln
exp
_
÷,
j
2
2n
_
2
1
=
= /
1
3
2
ln 1 + constant.
which should be compared with the entropy per particle for the
ideal gas (j· = /
1
1, n = 3/
1
1,2),
: = /
1
3
2
ln 1 + /
1
ln · + constant.
Note that : ÷÷· for 1 ÷0, which is a wellknown di¢culty
of classical statistical mechanics.
5. Consider a lattice gas of ` particles distributed among \
cells (with ` _ \ ). Suppose that each cell may be either empty
or occupied by a single particle. The number of microscopic
states of this system will be given by
(\. `) =
\ !
`! (\ ÷`)!
.
34 4. Microcanonical Ensemble
Obtain an expression for the entropy per particle, : = : (·),
where · = \,`. From this fundamental equation, obtain an
expression for the equation of state j,1. Write an expansion of
j,1 in terms of the density j = 1,·. Show that the …rst term
of this expansion gives the Boyle law of the ideal gases. Sketch
a graph of j,1, where j is the chemical potential, in terms of
the density j. What is the behavior of the chemical potential in
the limits j ÷0 and j ÷1?
*** Look at the solution of exercise 7 of Chapter 2. The en
tropy particle of this lattice gas model is given by
: = /
1
[· ln · ÷(· ÷1) ln (· ÷1)] .
from which we have the equation of state
j
/
1
1
= ÷ln
_
1 ÷
1
·
_
=
1
·
+
1
2·
2
+
1
3·
3
+ ...
Note that Bolyle’s law is already given by the …rst term is this
expansion.
In order to …nd j,1, we write the thermodynamic entropy
o = `: = o (\. `), and take the partial derivative with re
spect to `. Note that we can …nd ratios, as j,1 and j,1, but
we cannot …nd an independent expression for the temperature
(since there is no mention to the energy in the de…nition of this
very simple and schematic model).
It is instructive to draw a graph of j,1 versus the particle
density j = 1,· (remember that 0 < j < 1). Note that j is an
increasing function of j. Also, note that j,1 ÷· for j ÷0. 1
(in the vacuum).
*** This lattice gas model can be alternatively de…ned in
terms of a set variables ¦t
i
¦, i = 1. .... \ , such that t
i
= 1 if cell
i is occupied, and t
i
= 0 if cell i is empty. The total number of
accessible states (\. `) is given by a (restricted) sum over the
con…gurations of these occupation variables,
(\. `) =
ft
i
g,restriction
1.
4. Microcanonical Ensemble 35
with the restriction
\
i=1
t
i
= `.
Of course, we obtain the same result, (\. `) = \ !,`! (\ ÷`)!
This problem becomes more di¢cult (and much more realis
tic) if we include interactions between particles. For example,
we can mimic the shortrange attraction between particles by
assigning an energy ÷c, with c 0, to each nearestneighbor
pair of occupied lattice sites. We then write the Hamiltonian
H = ÷c
(i,))
t
i
t
)
.
where the sum is over nearestneighbor pairs of lattice sites.
Given the total energy l, the calculation of the number of ac
cessible microstates, (l. \. `), becomes a formidable mathe
matical problem (related to the wellknown Ising model of mag
netism, as we shall see in the forthcoming chapters).
36 4. Microcanonical Ensemble
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5
Canonical Ensemble
“We consider especially ensembles of systems in which the index
(or logarithm) of probability of phase is a linear function of energy.
The distribution, on account of its unique importance in the the
ory of statistical equilibrium, I have ventured to call canonical, and
the divisor of the energy, the modulus of the distribution. The mod
uli of ensembles have properties analogous to temperature, in that
equality of the moduli is a condition of equilibrium with respect to
exchange of energy, when such exchange is made possible.”  J. W.
Gibbs, “Elementary Principles In Statistical Mechanics: Developed
With Especial Reference To The Rational Foundation Of Thermo
dynamics”, Scribner´s, New York, 1902.
1. The energy of a system of ` localized magnetic ions, at
temperature 1, in the presence of a …eld H, may be written as
H = 1
.
i=1
o
2
i
÷j
c
H
.
i=1
o
i
.
where the parameters 1, j
c
, and H are positive, and o
i
= +1. 0.
or ÷1, for all sites i. Obtain expressions for the internal energy,
the entropy, and the magnetization per site. In zero …eld (H =
38 5. Canonical Ensemble
0), sketch graphs of the internal energy, the entropy, and the
speci…c heat versus temperature. Indicate the behavior of these
quantities in the limits 1 ÷ 0 and 1 ÷ ·. Calculate the
expected value of the “quadrupole moment,”
Q =
1
`
_
.
i=1
o
2
i
_
.
as a function of …eld and temperature.
*** The canonical partition function is given by
2 =
fS
i
g
exp
_
÷,1
.
i=1
o
2
i
+ ,j
c
H
.
i=1
o
i
_
=
=
S
1
,S
2
,...,S
N
exp
_
÷,1
.
i=1
o
2
i
+ ,j
c
H
.
i=1
o
i
_
=
=
_
S
exp
_
÷,1o
2
+ ,j
c
Ho
¸
_
.
=
= ¦2 exp (÷,1) cosh (,j
c
H) + 1¦
.
.
In this simple case, the thermodynamic limit is trivial. The in
ternal energy per ion comes from
n = ÷
1
`
J
J,
ln 2.
The magnetization per spin is given by
: =
1
,`
J
JH
ln 2.
and the “quadrupolar moment” by
Q = ÷
1
,1
J
J1
ln 2.
5. Canonical Ensemble 39
In zero …eld, we have n(1 = 0) = 0, n(1 ÷·) = 21,3,
: (1 = 0) = 0, and : (1 ÷·) = /
1
ln 3. What happens for
1 < 0?
2. Consider a onedimensional magnetic system of ` localized
spins, at temperature 1, associated with the energy
H = ÷J
i=1,3,5,...,.1
o
i
o
i+1
÷j
c
H
.
i=1
o
i
.
where the parameters J, j
c
, and H are positive, and o
i
= ±1
for all sites i. Assume that ` is an even number, and note that
the …rst sum is over odd integers.
(a) Obtain an expression for the canonical partition function
and calculate the internal energy per spin, n = n(1. H). Sketch
a graph of n(1. H = 0) versus temperature 1. Obtain an ex
pression for the entropy per spin, : = : (1. H). Sketch a graph
of : (1. H = 0) versus 1.
(b) Obtain expressions for the magnetization per particle,
: = :(1. H) =
1
`
_
j
c
.
i=1
o
i
_
.
and for the magnetic susceptibility,
¸ = ¸(1. H) =
_
J:
JH
_
T
.
Sketch a graph of ¸(1. H = 0) versus temperature.
*** The canonical partition function is given by
2 =
fo
i
g
exp
_
,J
i odd
o
i
o
i+1
+ ,j
c
H
.
i=1
o
i
_
=
=
_
o
1
,o
2
exp [,Jo
1
o
2
+ ,j
c
H (o
1
+ o
2
)]
_
.¸2
=
40 5. Canonical Ensemble
= [2 exp (,J) cosh (2,j
c
H) + 2 exp (÷,J)]
.¸2
.
Note the factorization of this sum.
The magnetization per particle is given by
: = lim
.!1
1
`
1
2
fo
i
g
_
.
i=1
o
i
_
exp (÷,H) =
1
`,
J
JH
ln 2 =
= j
c
sinh (2,j
c
H)
cosh (2,j
c
H) + exp (÷2,J)
.
whose derivative with respect to H yields the susceptibility.
From the free energy,
, = ÷
1
,`
ln 2.
we calculate the entropy,
: = : (1. H) = ÷
_
J,
J1
_
1
.
Check that, in zero …eld, H = 0, the entropy is given by
: (1. H = 0) =
1
2
/
1
ln (4 cosh ,J) ÷
1
2
/
1
,J tanh ,J.
with the limiting values
: (1. H = 0) ÷
1
2
/
1
ln 2.
for 1 ÷0 (,J ÷·), and
: (1. H = 0) ÷/
1
ln 2.
for 1 ÷· (,J ÷0). How do you explain the residual entropy
at 1 = 0?
3. Consider a system of ` classical and noninteracting parti
cles in contact with a thermal reservoir at temperature 1. Each
particle may have energies 0, c 0, or 3c. Obtain an expression
5. Canonical Ensemble 41
for the canonical partition function, and calculate the internal
energy per particle, n = n(1). Sketch a graph of n versus 1
(indicate the values of n in the limits 1 ÷0 and 1 ÷·). Cal
culate the entropy per particle, : = : (1), and sketch a graph of
: versus 1. Sketch a graph of the speci…c heat versus tempera
ture.
*** The canonical partition function is given by
2 = [1 + exp (÷,c) + exp (÷3,c)]
.
.
For 1 ÷ ·, we have n = 4c,3 and : = /
1
ln 3. Indicate the
slopes of the graph of n(1) versus 1, for 1 ÷ 0 and 1 ÷ ·.
Calculate the asymptotic form of the speci…c heat c (1) for 1 ÷
0 and 1 ÷·. Note that the graph of c (1) versus 1 displays a
broad maximum at the typical value /
1
1 ~ c.
4. A system of ` localized and independent quantum oscil
lators is in contact with a thermal reservoir at temperature 1.
The energy levels of each oscillator are given by
c
a
= ~.
c
_
: +
1
2
_
. with : = 1. 3. 5. 7. ....
Note that : is an odd integer.
(a) Obtain an expression for the internal energy n per oscil
lator as a function of temperature 1. What is the form of n in
the classical limit (~.
c
<< /
1
1)?
(b) Obtain an expression for the entropy per oscillator as a
function of temperature. Sketch a graph of entropy versus tem
perature. What is the expression of the entropy in the classical
limit?
(c) What is the expression of the speci…c heat in the classical
limit?
*** The answers come from the expression
2
1
=
exp
_
÷
3
2
,~.
c
_
1 ÷exp (÷2,~.
c
)
.
42 5. Canonical Ensemble
The internal energy is given by
n = ÷
J
J,
ln 2
1
=
3
2
~.
c
+
2~.
c
exp (2,~.
c
) ÷1
.
Note that n ÷/
1
1 in the classical limit (the classical speci…c,
c = /
1
, behaves according to the law of Dulong and Petit).
5. Consider a system of ` noninteracting classical particles.
The singleparticle states have energies c
a
= :c, and are : times
degenerate (c 0; : = 1. 2. 3. ...). Calculate the canonical parti
tion function and the entropy of this system. Obtain expressions
for the internal energy and the entropy as a function of temper
ature. What are the expressions for the entropy and the speci…c
heat in the limit of high temperatures?
*** The thermodynamic functions come from canonical par
tition function, given by 2 = 2
.
1
, where
2
1
=
a=1,2,3,...
:exp (÷,:c) =
exp (,c)
[exp (,c) ÷1]
2
.
6. A set of ` classical oscillators in one dimension is given
by the Hamiltonian
H =
.
i=1
_
1
2:
j
2
i
+
1
2
:.
2
¡
2
i
_
.
Using the formalism of the canonical ensemble in classical phase
space, obtain expressions for the partition function, the energy
per oscillator, the entropy per oscillator, and the speci…c heat.
Compare with the results from the classical limit of the quantum
oscillator. Calculate an expression for the quadratic deviation of
the energy as a function of temperature.
*** The thermodynamic functions come from canonical par
tition function,
2 =
+1
_
1
d¡
1
...
+1
_
1
d¡
.
+1
_
1
dj
1
...
+1
_
1
dj
.
exp [÷,H] =
5. Canonical Ensemble 43
=
_
_
_
+1
_
1
+1
_
1
djd¡ exp
_
÷
,
2:
j
2
÷
,:.
2
2
¡
2
_
_
_
_
.
=
_
2:
,.
_
.
.
*
7. Consider again the preceding problem. The canonical par
tition function can be written as an integral form,
2 (,) =
1
_
0
(1) exp (÷,1) d1.
where (1) is the number of accessible microscopic states of the
system with energy 1. Note that, in the expressions for 2 (,)
and (1), we are omitting the dependence on the number ` of
oscillators. Using the expression for 2 (,) obtained in the last
exercise, perform a reverse Laplace transformation to obtain
an asymptotic form (in the thermodynamic limit) for (1).
Compare with the expression calculated in the framework of
the microcanonical ensemble.
*** First, we use an integral representation of the ofunction
(see Appendix) to write
1
2:
+i1
_
i1
2 (,) exp (,1
0
) d, =
=
1
_
0
d1(1)
1
2:
+i1
_
i1
exp [, (1
0
÷1)] d, = (1
0
) .
Inserting the result of the previous exercise, we have
(1) =
1
2:
+i1
_
i1
_
2:
,.
_
.
exp (,1) d,.
which can be written in the form of a saddlepoint integration
(see Appendix),
(1) =
1
2:
+i1
_
i1
exp
_
`
_
ln
_
2:
.
_
÷ln , + n,
__
d,.
44 5. Canonical Ensemble
where n = 1,`. Using the asymptotic integration techniques of
the Appendix, we locate the saddle point at , = 1,n and write
the asymptotic form (for ` ÷·),
(1) ~
_
2:n
2
_
1¸2
exp
_
`
_
ln
_
2:
.
_
+ ln n + 1
__
.
Therefore, we have the entropy per oscillator,
1
/
1
: = ln
_
2:
.
_
+ ln n + 1.
which should be compared with the wellknown result for the
classical onedimensional harmonic oscillator in the microcanon
ical ensemble.
8. A system of ` onedimensional localized oscillators, at a
given temperature 1, is associated with the Hamiltonian
H =
.
i=1
_
1
2:
j
2
i
+ \ (¡
i
)
_
.
where
\ (¡) =
_
_
_
1
2
:.
2
¡
2
; for ¡ 0.
1
2
:.
2
¡
2
+ c; for ¡ < 0.
with c 0.
(a) Obtain the canonical partition function of this classical
system. Calculate the internal energy per oscillator, n = n(1).
What is the form of n(1) in the limits c ÷0 and c ÷·?
(b) Consider now the quantum analog of this model in the
limit c ÷ ·. Obtain an expression for the canonical partition
function. What is the internal energy per oscillator of this quan
tum analog?
*** The classical partition function is given by 2 = 2
.
1
, where
2
1
=
:
,.
[exp (÷,c) + 1] .
5. Canonical Ensemble 45
Note that n ÷/
1
1 at both limits, c ÷0 and c ÷·.
The quantum results are simple in the limit of an in…nite
potential barrier (c ÷ ·). in this limit, we have to discard all
of the harmonic oscillator states with even values of : (which
are associated with even wave functions; wave functions that do
not vanish at the origin, ¡ = 0).
46 5. Canonical Ensemble
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6
The Classical Gas in the Canonical
Formalism
1. A system of ` classical ultrarelativistic particles, in a con
tainer of volume \ , at temperature 1, is given by the Hamil
tonian
H =
.
i=1
c [ j
i
[ .
where c is a positive constant. Obtain an expression for the
canonical partition function. Calculate the entropy per particle
as a function of temperature and speci…c volume. What is the
expression of the speci…c heat at constant volume?
*** The thermodynamic quantities are easily obtained from
the classical canonical partition function, given by
2 =
1
/
3.
`!
\
.
__
d
3
j exp (÷,c [
÷÷
j [)
_
.
=
1
/
3.
`!
_
8:\
(,c)
3
_
.
.
2. Consider a set of ` onedimensional harmonic oscillators,
described by the Hamiltonian
H =
.
i=1
_
1
2:
j
2
i
+
1
2
:.
2
r
a
i
_
.
48 6. The Classical Gas in the Canonical Formalism
where : is a positive and even integer. Use the canonical for
malism to obtain an expression for the classical speci…c heat of
this system.
*** Note that the canonical partition function may be written
as 2 = 2
.
1
, where
2
1
=
_
2::
,
_
1¸2
_
2
,:.
2
_
a¸2
_
+1
1
d¸ exp (÷¸
a
) .
Thus,
n = ÷
J
J,
ln 2
1
=
: + 2
2:
/
1
1.
3. Consider a classical system of ` very weakly interacting
diatomic molecules, in a container of volume \ , at a given tem
perature 1. The Hamiltonian of a single molecule is given by
H
n
=
1
2:
_
j
2
1
+ j
2
2
_
+
1
2
i[:
1
÷:
2
[
2
.
where i 0 is an elastic constant. Obtain an expression for the
Helmholtz free energy of this system. Calculate the speci…c heat
at constant volume. Calculate the mean molecular diameter,
1 =
_¸
[:
1
÷:
2
[
2
__
1¸2
.
Now consider another Hamiltonian, of the form c
H
n
=
1
2:
_
j
2
1
+ j
2
2
_
+ c [:
12
÷:
c
[ .
where c and :
c
are positive constants, and :
12
= [:
1
÷:
2
[. What
are the changes in your previous answers?
*** Taking into account the thermodynamic limit (\ ÷·),
the …rst Hamiltonian is associated with the partition function
2
1
=
_
2::
,
_
3
_
d
3
:
1
_
d
3
:
2
exp
_
÷
,i
2
[
÷÷
:
1
÷
÷÷
:
2
[
2
_
~
6. The Classical Gas in the Canonical Formalism 49
~
_
2::
,
_
3
\
_
2:
,i
_
3¸2
.
from which we obtain the Helmholtz free energy (and the value
of 1). It interesting to check the constant value of the molecular
speci…c heat, c = (9,2) /
1
.
The second Hamiltonian represents a more complicated model
of a diatomic molecule. The partition function is given by
2
1
=
_
2::
,
_
3
_
d
3
:
1
_
d
3
:
2
exp [÷,c [([
÷÷
:
1
÷
÷÷
:
2
[ ÷:
c
)[] ~
~
_
2::
,
_
3
\ 1.
where
1 = 4:
vo
_
0
:
2
exp [÷,c (:
c
÷:)] d:+4:
1
_
vo
:
2
exp [÷,c (: ÷:
c
)] d: =
=
2:
2
c
,c
+
4
(,c)
3
÷
2
(,c)
4
exp (÷,c:
c
) .
Now it is interesting to obtain the speci…c heat as a function of
temperature.
4. Neglecting the vibrational motion, a diatomic molecule
may be treated as a threedimensional rigid rotator. The Hamil
tonian H
n
of the molecule is written as a sum of a translational,
H
tv
, plus a rotational, H
vct
, term (that is, H
n
= H
tv
+ H
vct
).
Consider a system of ` very weakly interacting molecules of
this kind, in a container of volume \ , at a given temperature
1.
(a) Obtain an expression for H
vct
in spherical coordinates.
Show that there is a factorization of the canonical partition
function of this system. Obtain an expression for the speci…c
heat at constant volume.
(b) Now suppose that each molecule has a permanent electric
dipole moment j and that the system is in the presence of an
50 6. The Classical Gas in the Canonical Formalism
external electric …eld
1 (with the dipole j along the axis of
the rotor). What is the form of the new rotational part of the
Hamiltonian? Obtain an expression for the polarization of the
molecule as a function of …eld and temperature. Calculate the
electric susceptibility of this system.
*** The Lagrangian of a free rotator (two atoms of mass :
and a …xed interatomic distance c) is given by
1
vct
=
:c
2
4
_
_
do
dt
_
2
+
_
d,
dt
_
2
sin
2
o
_
.
from which we have the Hamiltonian
H
vct
=
j
2
0
:c
2
+
j
2
,
:c
2
sin
2
o
.
Therefore,
n
vct
= ¸H
vct
¸ =
1
2
/
1
1 +
1
2
/
1
1 = /
1
1.
In the presence on an electric …eld (taken along the . direction),
and with the magnetic moment along the axis of the rotator, we
have
H =
j
2
0
:c
2
+
j
2
,
:c
2
sin
2
o
÷1jcos o.
The associated partition function is given by
2
1
=
¬
_
0
do
2¬
_
0
d,
+1
_
1
dj
0
+1
_
1
dj
,
exp [ ÷
,j
2
0
:c
2
÷
,j
2
,
:c
2
sin
2
o
+
+,1jcos o] =
4:
2
:c
2
,
2 sinh (,j1)
,j1
.
Thus, we have
¸jcos o¸ = j
_
coth (,j1) ÷
1
,j1
_
= j/(,j1) .
6. The Classical Gas in the Canonical Formalism 51
where /(r) is known as the Langevin function.
5. Consider a classical gas of ` weakly interacting molecules,
at temperature 1, in an applied electric …eld
1. Since there is
no permanent electric dipole moment, the polarization of this
system comes from the induction by the …eld. We then suppose
that the Hamiltonian of each molecule will be given by the sum
of a standard translational term plus an “internal term.” This
internal term involves an isotropic elastic energy, which tends
to preserve the shape of the molecule, and a term of interaction
with the electric …eld. The con…gurational part of the internal
Hamiltonian is be given by
H =
1
2
:.
2
c
:
2
÷¡
1 :.
Obtain the polarization per molecule as a function of …eld and
temperature. Obtain the electric susceptibility. Compare with
the results of the last problem. Make some comments about
the main di¤erences between these results. Do you know any
physical examples corresponding to these models?
*** First, we calculate the con…gurational partition function
2
1
=
1
_
0
:
2
d:
¬
_
0
sin odo
2¬
_
0
d,exp
_
÷
,:.
2
c
2
:
2
+ ,¡1: cos o
_
=
=
_
2:
,:.
2
c
_
3¸2
exp
_
,¡
2
1
2
2:.
2
c
_
.
The polarization is given by
¸¡: cos o¸ =
1
,
J
J1
ln 2
1
=
¡
2
1
:.
2
c
.
so the dielectric susceptibility is just a constant (in sharp con
trast to the previous result for permanent electric dipoles!)
6. The equation of state of gaseous nitrogen at low densities
may be written as
j·
11
= 1 +
1(1)
·
.
52 6. The Classical Gas in the Canonical Formalism
where · is a molar volume, 1 is the universal gas constant, and
1(1) is a function of temperature only. In the following table
we give some experimental data for the second virial coe¢cient,
1(1), as a function of temperature.
1 (K) 1(cm
3
,mol)
100 ÷160.0
273 ÷10.5
373 6.2
600 21.7
Suppose that the intermolecular potential of gaseous nitrogen is
given by
\ (:) =
_
_
_
·. 0 < : < c.
÷\
0
. c < : < /.
0. : /.
Use the experimental data of this table to determine the best
values of the parameters c, /, and \
0
.
*** According to Section 6.4 (although Nitrogen is a gas of
diatomic molecules), the virial coe¢cient is given by
1 = ÷2:
1
_
0
:
2
¦exp [÷,\ (:)] ÷1¦ =
= 2:
o
_
0
:
2
d: ÷2:
b
_
o
:
2
[exp (,\
c
) ÷1] d:.
Now it is straightforward to …t the parameters c, / and \
c
.
This is page 53
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7
The Grand Canonical and Pressure
Ensembles
1. Show that the entropy in the grand canonical ensemble can
be written as
o = ÷/
1
)
1
)
ln 1
)
.
with probability 1
)
given by,
1
)
=
1
exp (÷,1
)
+ ,j`
)
) .
Show that this same form of entropy still holds in the pressure
ensemble (with a suitable probability distribution).
2. Consider a classical ultrarelativistic gas of particles, given
by the Hamiltonian
H =
.
i=1
c [ j
i
[ .
where c is a positive constant, inside a container of volume \ ,
in contact with a reservoir of heat and particles (at temperature
1 and chemical potential j). Obtain the grand partition func
tion and the grand thermodynamic potential. From a Legendre
transformation of the grand potential, write an expression for
54 7. The Grand Canonical and Pressure Ensembles
the Helmholtz free energy of this system. To check your result,
use the integral in equation (??) for obtaining an asymptotic
form for the canonical partition function.
*** As we have already calculated in a previous exercise, the
canonical partition function is given by
2
.
=
1
`!
_
8:\
(/,c)
3
_
.
.
Using this expression, we obtain the grand canonical partition
function,
=
1
.=0
exp (,j`) 2
.
= exp
_
8:\
(/,c)
3
exp (,j)
_
.
from which we have the grand potential,
= ÷
1
,
8:\
(/,c)
3
exp (,j) .
If we write exp (,j) = ., the canonical partition function is
given by
2 =
1
2:i
_
(,. .. \ )
.
.+1
d. ~
1
2:i
_
exp [`, (.)] d..
with
, (.) =
8:·
(/,c)
3
. ÷ln ..
where · = \,`. From a saddlepoint integration (see Appen
dix), we have
1
`
ln 2 ~ , (.
c
) = 1 ÷ln
(/,c)
3
8:·
.
It is interesting to note that the same expression comes from
the asymptotic form
1
`
ln 2
.
=
1
`
ln
_
1
`!
_
8:\
(/,c)
3
_
.
_
.
7. The Grand Canonical and Pressure Ensembles 55
3. Obtain the grand partition function of a classical system
of particles, inside a container of volume \ , given by the Hamil
tonian
H =
.
i=1
_
1
2:
j
2
i
+ n(:
i
)
_
.
Write the equations of state in the representation of the grand
potential. For all reasonable forms of the singleparticle poten
tial n(:), show that the energy and the pressure obey typical
equations of an ideal gas.
4. Show that the average quadratic deviation of the number
of particles in the grand canonical ensemble may be written as
¸
(`)
2
_
=
¸
`
2
)
_
÷¸`
)
¸
2
= .
J
J.
_
.
J
J.
ln (,. .)
_
.
Obtain an expression for the relative deviation
_
¸
(`)
2
_
, ¸`
)
¸
of an ideal gas of classical monatomic particles.
*** For a classical ideal gas of monatomic particles, we have
¸`¸ = .
J
J.
ln (,. .) =
.\
/
3
_
2::
,
_
3¸2
and
¸
(`)
2
_
= .
J
J.
_
.
J
J.
ln (,. .)
_
=
.\
/
3
_
2::
,
_
3¸2
= ¸`¸ .
The relative deviation is thus of order 1,
_
`.
5. Show that the average quadratic deviation of energy in the
grand canonical ensemble may be written as
¸
(1)
2
_
=
¸
1
2
)
_
÷¸1
)
¸
2
= ÷
_
Jl
J,
_
:,\
.
56 7. The Grand Canonical and Pressure Ensembles
where l = ¸1
)
¸ is the thermodynamic internal energy in terms
of ,, ., and \ . Hence, show that we may also write
¸
(1)
2
_
= /
1
1
2
_
_
Jl
J1
_
j,\
+
j
1
_
Jl
Jj
_
T,\
_
(you may use the Jacobian transformations of Appendix A.5).
From this last expression, show that
¸
(1)
2
_
=
¸
(1)
2
_
coa
+ /
1
1
2
_
_
Jl
J`
_
T,\
_
J`
J1
_
\,j
+
j
1
_
Jl
J`
_
T,\
_
J`
Jj
_
T,\
_
.
where
¸
(1)
2
_
coa
= `/
1
1
2
c
\
is the average quadratic deviation of energy in the canonical
ensemble. Finally, show that
_
_
Jl
J`
_
T,\
_
J`
J1
_
\,j
+
j
1
_
Jl
J`
_
T,\
_
J`
Jj
_
T,\
_
=
1
1
_
J`
Jj
_
T,\
_
_
Jl
J`
_
T,\
_
2
0.
since
¸
(`)
2
_
= /
1
1
_
J`
Jj
_
T,\
0.
6. At a given temperature 1, a surface with `
c
adsorption
centers has ` _ `
c
adsorbed molecules. Suppose that there
are no interactions between molecules. Show that the chemical
potential of the adsorbed gas is given by
j = /
1
1 ln
`
(`
c
÷`) c (1)
.
7. The Grand Canonical and Pressure Ensembles 57
What is the meaning of the function c (1)?
*** Suppose an adsorbed particle has energy ÷c. We then
write the canonical partition function
2 =
`
c
!
`! (`
c
÷`)!
exp (,c`) .
Now we can use the grandcanonical formalism to write
=
.
`
c
!
`! (`
c
÷`)!
exp (,c`) .
.
= [. exp (,c) + 1]
.o
.
from which we have
` =
`
c
.
. + exp (÷,c)
.
and the expression for the chemical potential with c = exp (,c).
7. The grand partition function for a simpli…ed statistical
model is given by the expression
(.. \ ) = (1 + .)
\
_
1 +.
c\
_
.
where c is a positive constant. Write parametric forms of the
equation of state. Sketch an isotherm of pressure versus speci…c
volume (draw a graph to eliminate the variable .). Show that
this system displays a (…rstorder) phase transition. Obtain the
speci…c volumes of the coexisting phases at this transition. Find
the zeros of the polynomial (.. \ ) in the complex . plane, and
show that there is a zero at . = 1 in the limit \ ÷·.
*** Note the structures of zeroes at
. = ÷1 and . = exp [i: (2: + 1) , (c\ )] .
for : = 0. ±1. ....
Also, note the thermodynamic limit,
1
\
ln ÷ln (1 + .) + cln .. for . 1
58 7. The Grand Canonical and Pressure Ensembles
and
1
\
ln ÷ln (1 + .) . for . < 1.
For . 1, we have the equations of state
j
/
1
1
= ln (1 +.) + cln .. and
1
·
=
.
2
+ c(1 +.)
. (1 +.)
.
For . < 1, we have
j
/
1
1
= ln (1 +.) . and
1
·
=
.
1 +.
.
There is a …rstorder transition [· = 4c, (1 + 2c)] at . = 1.
This is page 59
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8
The Ideal Quantum Gas
1. Obtain the explicit forms of the ground state and of the …rst
excited state for a system of two free bosons, with zero spin,
con…ned to a onedimensional region of length 1. Repeat this
problem for two fermions of spin 1,2.
*** The singleparticle states are given by ,(r) = ¹sin (/r),
where / =
_
2:1,~ and /1 = ::, with : = 1. 2. 3.... Note that
,(r) vanishes at r = 0 and r = 1.
The ground state is given by C sin (:r
1
,1) sin (:r
2
,1), where
C is a normalization constant.
The …rst excited state is given by
1[sin (:r
1
,1) sin (2:r
2
,1) + sin (2:r
1
,1) sin (:r
2
,1)] .
2. Show that the entropy of an ideal quantum gas may be
written as
o = ÷/
1
)
¦,
)
ln ,
)
±(1 (,
)
) ln (1 (,
)
)¦ .
60 8. The Ideal Quantum Gas
where the upper (lower) sign refers to fermions (bosons), and
,
)
= ¸:
)
¸ =
1
exp [, (c
)
÷j)] ±1
is the Fermi–Dirac (Bose–Einstein) distribution. Show that we
can still use these equations to obtain the usual results for the
classical ideal gas.
3. Show that the equation of state
j\ =
2
3
l
holds for both free bosons and fermions (and also in the classi
cal case). Show that an ideal ultrarelativistic gas, given by the
energy spectrum c = c~/, still obeys the same equation of state.
*** For fermions, we have
= ÷j\ = ÷
1
,
)
ln [1 + . exp (÷,c
)
)] .
In the thermodynamic limit, for free fermions, we can write
)
ln [1 + . exp (÷,c
)
)] ~
~
\ ¸
(2:)
3
1
_
0
4:/
2
d/ ln
_
1 +. exp
_
÷
,~
2
/
2
2:
__
=
=
\ ¸
(2:)
3
¦
4:
3
/
3
ln
_
1 +. exp
_
÷
,~
2
/
2
2:
__¸
¸
¸
¸
1
0
+
+
2,
3
1
_
0
4:/
2
d/
_
~
2
/
2
2:
__
.
1
exp
_
,~
2
/
2
2:
_
+ 1
_
1
¦ ~
~
2,
3
)
c
)
.
1
exp (,c
)
) + 1
=
2,
3
l.
8. The Ideal Quantum Gas 61
from which we prove that j\ = 2l,3. The same manipulations
can be carried out for bosons, but we should pay special atten
tion to the / = 0 state. For the classical gas, this result is trivial.
4. Consider a quantum ideal gas inside a cubic vessel of side 1,
and suppose that the orbitals of the particles are associated with
wave functions that vanish at the surfaces of the cube. Find the
density of states in
/ space. In the thermodynamic limit, show
that we have the same expressions as calculated with periodic
boundary conditions.
5. An ideal gas of ` atoms of mass : is con…ned to a vessel
of volume \ , at a given temperature 1. Calculate the classical
limit of the chemical potential of this gas.
Now consider a “twodimensional” gas of `
¹
free particles
adsorbed on a surface of area ¹. The energy of an adsorbed
particle is given by
c
¹
=
1
2:
j
2
÷c
c
.
where j is the (twodimensional) momentum, and c
c
0 is the
binding energy that keeps the particle stuck to the surface. In
the classical limit, calculate the chemical potential j
¹
of the
adsorbed gas.
The condition of equilibrium between the adsorbed particles
and the particles of the threedimensional gas can be expressed
in terms of the respective chemical potentials. Use this condition
to …nd the surface density of adsorbed particles as a function of
temperature and pressure j of the surrounding gas.
*** In the thermodynamic limit, the chemical potential of the
threedimensional gas is given by
j = /
1
1 ln
_
8:
3
¸
`
\
_
,~
2
2::
_
3¸2
_
.
62 8. The Ideal Quantum Gas
For the adsorbed gas, we have the classical limit
ln =
)
. exp (÷,c
)
) = .
¸¹
(2:)
2
1
_
0
2:/ exp
_
÷
,~
2
/
2
2:
+ ,c
c
_
.
which yields the chemical potential
j
¹
= /
1
1 ln
_
4:
2
¸
`
¹
¹
_
,~
2
2::
__
÷c
c
.
From the physical requirement of equilibrium, j = j
¹
, we
obtain `
¹
,¹ in terms of temperature and pressure.
6. Obtain an expression for the entropy per particle, in terms
of temperature and density, for a classical ideal monatomic gas
of ` particles of spin o adsorbed on a surface of area ¹. Obtain
the expected values of H, H
2
, H
3
, where H is the Hamiltonian
of the system. What are the expressions of the second and third
moments of the Hamiltonian with respect to its average value?
7. Consider a homogeneous mixture of two ideal monatomic
gases, at temperature 1, inside a container of volume \ . Sup
pose that there are `
¹
particles of gas ¹ and `
1
particles of
gas 1. Write an expression for the grand partition function as
sociated with this system (it should depend on 1, \ , and the
chemical potentials j
¹
and j
1
). In the classical limit, obtain ex
pressions for the canonical partition function, the Helmholtz free
energy 1, and the pressure j of the gas. Show that j = j
¹
+j
1
(Dalton’s law), where j
¹
and j
1
are the partial pressures of ¹
and 1, respectively.
8. Under some conditions, the amplitudes of vibration of a
diatomic molecule may be very large, with a certain degree of
anharmonicity. In this case, the vibrational energy levels are
given by the approximate expression
c
a
=
_
: +
1
2
_
~. ÷r
_
: +
1
2
_
2
~..
8. The Ideal Quantum Gas 63
where r is the parameter of anharmonicity. To …rst order in
r, obtain an expression for the vibrational speci…c heat of this
system.
*** Note that
ln 2
·
= ln o (c) + r
c
o (c)
d
2
dc
2
o (c) + C
_
r
2
_
.
where
o (c) =
1
a=0
exp
_
÷c
_
: +
1
2
__
=
_
2 sinh
c
2
_
1
.
with c = ,~.. We then have
n = ÷~.
J
Jc
ln 2
·
and c = /
1
_
~.
/
1
1
_
2
J
2
Jc
2
ln 2
·
.
from which we calculate the …rstorder correction to the speci…c
heat,
c = /
1
_
~.
/
1
1
_
2
r
d
2
dc
2
_
c
o (c)
d
2
dc
2
o (c)
_
.
9. The potential energy between atoms of a hydrogen mole
cule may be described by the Morse potential,
\ (:) = \
c
_
exp
_
÷
2 (: ÷:
c
)
c
_
÷2 exp
_
÷
: ÷:
c
c
__
.
where \
c
= 7 10
19
J, :
c
= 8 10
11
m, and c = 5 10
11
m.
Sketch a graph of \ (:) versus :. Calculate the characteristic
temperatures of vibration and rotation to compare with exper
imental data (see table on Section 8.4).
*** Note that
d\
d:
= 0 for : = :
c
and
_
d
2
\
d:
2
_
vo
=
2\
c
c
2
0.
64 8. The Ideal Quantum Gas
which shows the existence of a minimum at : = :
c
.
The characteristic temperature of rotation is given by
v
=
~
2
2/
1
1
=
~
2
2/
1
`:
2
c
.
where 1 is the moment of inertia and ` is the reduced mass of
the hydrogen molecule.
From the frequency of vibrations,
. =
_
2\
c
c
2
`
_
1¸2
.
we write the characteristic temperature of vibrations,
·
=
~
/
1
_
2\
c
c
2
`
_
1¸2
.
Now it is easy to check the numerical predictions.
This is page 65
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9
The Ideal Fermi Gas
1. What is the compressibility of a gas of free fermions at zero
temperature? Obtain the numerical value for electrons with the
density of conduction electrons in metallic sodium. Compare
your results with experimental data for sodium at room tem
perature.
*** It is straightforward to show that pressure of a completely
degenerate system of free fermions is given by
j =
2
5
`
\
c
1
=
~
2
5:
_
6:
2
¸
_
2¸3
_
`
\
_
5¸3
.
The compressibility is given by
i = ÷
1
\
_
J\
Jj
_
=
3:
~
2
_
¸
6:
2
_
2¸3
_
\
`
_
5¸3
.
Using the density of sodium (at room temperature), it is easy to
show that i ~ 10
5
ct:, which is of the order of the experimen
tal compressibility of sodium at room temperature. Also, it is
interesting to see that fermions are associated with large values
of pressure, of the order of 10
4
÷ 10
5
ct:, at zero temperature
(due to the restrictions of the Pauli principle, of course).
66 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
2. An ideal gas of fermions, with mass : and Fermi energy c
1
,
is at rest at zero temperature. Find expressions for the expected
values ¸·
a
¸ and ¸·
2
a
¸, where · is the velocity of a fermion.
*** At zero temperature, the expected value of the (single
particle) energy is calculated in terms of the density of states
1(c). With 1(c) = Cc
1¸2
, we have
¸c¸ =
_
c
F
0
c1(c) dc
_
c
F
0
1(c) dc
=
3
5
c
1
.
Note that
¸c¸ =
_
1
2
:
÷÷
·
2
_
÷
¸
÷ ÷
·
2
_
=
6
5
c
1
:
÷
¸
÷÷
·
2
a
_
=
2
5
c
1
:
.
in contrast to the predictions of the classical equipartition the
orem.
3. Consider a gas of free electrons, in a ddimensional space,
within a hypercubic container of side 1. Sketch graphs of the
density of states 1(c) versus energy c for dimensions d = 1 and
d = 2. What is the expression of the Fermi energy in terms of
the particle density for d = 1 and d = 2?
*** Given the spectrum of energy
c
)
= c
!
I ,o
=
~
2
/
2
2:
.
we write the thermodynamic number of fermions in d dimen
sions,
` = ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
_
d
o
/
1
exp
_
,
~
2
I
2
2n
÷,j
_
+ 1
.
Due to the spherical symmetry of the integrand, we have
_
d
o
/ (...) ==
_
1
0
C
o
/
o1
d/ (...) .
where it can be shown (see Appendix 4) that
C
o
=
2:
o¸2
_
o
2
_.
9. The Ideal Fermi Gas 67
Check that C
2
= 2:, C
3
= 4:, and so on. Introducing the change
of variables
c =
~
2
/
2
2:
.
and the de…nition of the “FermiDirac distribution”,
, (c) =
1
exp (,c ÷,j) + 1
.
we have
` = ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
_
1
0
C
o
1
2
_
2:
~
2
_
o¸2
c
o¸21
, (c) dc =
= ¸1
o
_
1
0
1(c) , (c) dc.
with the “density of states”
1(c) =
1
2 (2:)
o
C
o
_
2:
~
2
_
o¸2
c
d
2
1
.
In two dimensions, note that 1(c) is just a constant.
4. Show that the chemical potential of an ideal classical gas
of ` monatomic particles, in a container of volume \ , at tem
perature 1, may be written as
j = /
1
1 ln
_
`
3
·
_
.
where · = \,` is the volume per particle, and ` = /,
_
2::/
1
1
is the thermal wavelength. Sketch a graph of j,/
1
1 versus 1.
Obtain the …rst quantum correction to this result. That is, show
that the chemical potential of the ideal quantum gas may be
written as the expansion
j
/
1
1
÷ln
_
`
3
·
_
= ¹ln
_
`
3
·
_
+ 1ln
_
`
3
·
_
2
+ . . . .
68 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
and obtain explicit expressions for the prefactor ¹ for fermions
and bosons. Sketch a graph of j,/
1
1 versus `
2
(that is, versus
the temperature in convenient units) for fermions, bosons, and
classical particles.
*** The grand partition function of the ideal quantum gas is
given by
ln = ±
)
ln [1 ±. exp (÷,c
)
)] .
We now write an expansion in terms of powers of .,
ln = ±
)
_
±. exp (÷,c
)
) ÷
1
2
.
2
exp (÷2,c
)
) ±
_
=
= .
)
exp (÷,c
)
) (
1
2
.
2
)
exp (÷2,c
)
) + .
The …rst term corresponds to the classical limit (there is no
di¤erence between fermions and bosons). The second term gives
the …rst quantum correction. In the thermodynamic limit, we
have
)
exp (÷:,c
)
) = ¸
\
(2:)
3
_
1
0
4:/
2
exp
_
÷:,
~
2
/
2
2:
_
d/ =
= ¸\
_
:/
1
1
2::~
2
_
3¸2
.
The classical limit is given by
ln
c
= .¸\
_
:/
1
1
2:~
2
_
3¸2
.
from which we have
` = .
J
J.
ln
c
= .¸\
_
:/
1
1
2:~
2
_
3¸2
.
Thus,
. = exp (,j) =
`
¸\
_
2:~
2
:/
1
1
_
3¸2
.
9. The Ideal Fermi Gas 69
which leads to the wellknown result
j = /
1
1 ln
_
`
3
·
_
.
with
· = ¸
\
`
and ` =
_
2:~
2
:/
1
1
_
1¸2
=
/
_
2::/
1
1
.
Check that the same result can be obtained in the classical for
malism of the grand ensemble, with the introduction of the “cor
rect Boltzmann counting”, `!, and of the “quantum dimensional
correction" of the classical phase space, /
3.
.
The …rst quantum correction of this result is given by
ln = .¸\
_
:/
1
1
2:~
2
_
3¸2
(
1
2
.
2
¸\
_
:/
1
1
4:~
2
_
3¸2
+ C
_
.
3
_
.
Thus,
` = .¸\
_
:/
1
1
2:~
2
_
3¸2
(.
2
¸\
_
:/
1
1
4:~
2
_
3¸2
+ C
_
.
3
_
.
which can be written as
`
\
`
3
1
¸
= . (
1
2
3¸2
.
2
+ C
_
.
3
_
.
Taking into account that . << 1, which means that `
3
· << 1,
we can write
. =
`
3
·
+ ¹
_
`
3
·
_
2
+ .
and
`
3
·
=
`
3
·
+¹
_
`
3
·
_
2
+... (
1
2
3¸2
_
`
3
·
+ ¹
_
`
3
·
_
2
+
_
2
+ .
from which we have
¹ = ±
1
2
3¸2
.
70 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
Therefore,
ln . = ln
_
`
3
·
+ ¹
_
`
3
·
_
2
+
_
= ln
_
`
3
·
_
±
1
2
3¸2
`
3
·
+ .
which leads to the expression
j
/
1
1
÷ln
_
`
3
·
_
= ±
1
2
3¸2
`
3
·
+ .
Try to use the same scheme to show that 1 = ÷1,16 (check
that 1 assumes the same value for either fermions or bosons).
5. Obtain an asymptotic form, in the limit 1 << 1
1
, for the
speci…c heat of a gas of ` free fermions adsorbed on a surface
of area ¹, at a given temperature 1.
*** For the twodimensional gas of free fermions, we write
` = ¸¹
:
2:~
2
_
1
0
, (c) dc.
and
l = ¸¹
:
2:~
2
_
1
0
c, (c) dc.
with the FermiDirac distribution,
, (c) =
1
exp [, (c ÷j)] + 1
.
Discarding exponentially small corrections (in the limit ,c
1
÷
·), we have
_
1
0
, (c) dc =
_
1
oj
_
r
,
+ j
_
exp (r) dr
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr ÷
÷j
_
1
1
_
r
,j
+ 1
_
exp (r) dr
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr = j.
Note that exp (r) , [exp (r) + 1]
2
is an even function of r, and
that
_
1
1
exp (r) dr
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr = ÷
d
dr
1
exp (r) + 1
= 1.
9. The Ideal Fermi Gas 71
Also, we have
1
_
0
c, (c) dc ÷
1
2
j
2
¦
_
1
1
exp (r)
[exp (r) + 1]
2
+
+
1
(,j)
2
_
1
1
r
2
exp (r) dr
[exp (r) + 1]
2
¦ =
1
2
j
2
_
1 +
1
(,j)
2
:
2
3
_
.
From these results, we write a lowtemperature expression for
the internal energy (except for vanishingly exponential correc
tions),
l =
1
2
`c
1
_
1 +
:
2
3
_
1
1
1
_
2
_
.
where
c
1
=
2:~
2
¸:
_
`
¹
_
.
which leads to a linear dependence of the speci…c heat with
temperature as in the threedimensional case.
6. Consider a gas of ` free electrons, in a region of volume
\ , in the ultrarelativistic regime. The energy spectrum is given
by
c =
_
j
2
c
2
+ :
2
c
4
¸
1¸2
 jc.
where j is the linear momentum.
(a) Calculate the Fermi energy of this system.
(b) What is the total energy in the ground state?
(c) Obtain an asymptotic form for the speci…c heat at con
stant volume in the limit 1 << 1
1
.
*** Using the energy spectrum c
!
I
= ~/c, the number of
particles and the internal energy of this fermion gas are given
by
` = ¸\
1
2:
2
~
3
c
3
_
1
0
c
2
, (c) dc
and
l = ¸\
1
2:
2
~
3
c
3
_
1
0
c
3
, (c) dc.
72 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
where , (c) is the FermiDirac distribution.
At 1 = 0, we have
c
1
= ~c
_
6:
2
¸
_
1¸3
_
`
\
_
1¸3
.
and
l =
3
4
`c
1
.
The asymptotic form of the speci…c heat at low tempera
tures comes from a straightforward application of Sommerfeld´s
method. We should note that
_
1
0
c
2
, (c) dc =
1
3
j
3
_
1
oj
_
1 +
r
,j
_
3
exp (r) dr
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr ÷
÷
1
3
j
3
_
1 +:
2
1
(,j)
2
_
.
and
_
1
0
c
3
, (c) dc =
1
4
j
4
_
1
oj
_
1 +
r
,j
_
4
exp (r) dr
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr ÷
÷
1
4
j
4
_
1 + 6
:
2
3
1
(,j)
2
+
7:
4
15
1
(,j)
4
_
.
where
_
1
1
exp (r) dr
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr =
7:
4
15
.
as can be checked in a good integral table (in Gradshteyn and
Ryzhik, for example).
We then write
c
3
1
= j
3
_
1 +:
2
1
(,j)
2
_
.
and
l =
3
4
`
1
c
3
1
j
4
_
1 + 6
:
2
3
1
(,j)
2
+
7:
4
15
1
(,j)
4
_
.
9. The Ideal Fermi Gas 73
From the …rst equation, we write an expansion for the chemical
potential potential j in terms of 1, [,c
1
] = (1,1
1
),
j = c
1
_
1 ÷
:
2
3
_
1
1
1
_
2
+ ...
_
.
Inserting this expansion of j into the expression for the internal
energy, we …nally have
l =
3
4
`c
1
_
1 +
2:
2
3
_
1
1
1
_
2
+ ...
_
.
Note that there is no linear power of (1,1
1
).
7. At low temperatures, the internal energy of a system of
free electrons may be written as an expansion,
l =
3
5
`c
1
_
1 +
5:
2
12
_
1
1
1
_
2
÷¹
_
1
1
1
_
4
+ . . .
_
.
Obtain the value of the constant ¹, and indicate the order of
magnitude of the terms that have been discarded.
*** This is again a straightforward (although somewhat la
borious) application of the method of Sommerfeld to obtain as
ymptotic lowtemperature results.
In the grandcanonical ensemble, the number of particles and
the internal energy of the gas of free fermions are give by
` = ¸\ C
_
1
0
c
1¸2
, (c) dc.
and
l = ¸\ C
_
1
0
c
3¸2
, (c) dc.
where
, (c) =
1
exp [, (c ÷j)] + 1
.
At low temperatures, , (c) is almost a step function, so the
derivative d,,dc has a pronounced peak at c = j, which provides
74 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
the basis for the development of a lowtemperature expansion.
Let us write
_
1
0
c
1¸2
1
exp [, (c ÷j)] + 1
dc =
=
2,
3
_
1
0
c
3¸2
exp [, (c ÷j)]
¦exp [, (c ÷j)] + 1¦
2
dc =
=
2
3
j
3¸2
_
1
oj
_
1 +
r
,j
_
3¸2
exp (r)
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr.
At low temperatures, ,j ~ ,c
1
÷ ·, so that we may discard
exponential corrections, of order exp (÷,c
1
), and write
_
1
0
c
1¸2
, (c) dc ÷
2
3
j
3¸2
_
+1
1
_
1 +
r
,j
_
3¸2
exp (r)
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr.
which is the main idea of Sommerfeld´s scheme. Except for these
exponential corrections, we have the series expansion
_
1
0
c
1¸2
, (c) dc =
2
3
j
3¸2
¦1
0
+
3
8
1
2
1
(,j)
2
+
+
3
128
1
4
1
(,j)
4
+ C
_
1
(,j)
6
_
¦.
where
1
0
=
_
+1
1
exp (r)
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr = 1.
1
2
=
_
+1
1
r
2
exp (r)
[exp (r) + 1]
2
dr =
:
2
3
.
1
4
=
r
4
exp (r)
[exp (r) + 1]
2
d
_
+1
1
r =
7:
2
15
.
and so on (as you can check in the integral table of Gradshteyn
and Ryzhik, for example). We then have the expansion
3`
2¸\ C
= c
3¸2
1
= j
3¸2
_
1 +
3:
2
24
1
(,j)
2
+
7:
2
640
1
(,j)
4
+ C(
1
(,j)
6
)
_
.
9. The Ideal Fermi Gas 75
from which we write
j = c
1
_
1 +`
2
_
1
1
1
_
2
+ `
4
_
1
1
1
_
4
+ C
_
_
1
1
1
_
6
__
.
We left for the reader the task of obtaining the numerical coef
…cients (`
2
and `
4
). It is then easy to write an expansion of
the internal energy in terms of (even) powers of (1,1
1
).
8. Consider a system of free fermions in d dimensions, with
the energy spectrum
c
I,o
= c
¸
¸
¸
/
¸
¸
¸
o
.
where c 0 and c 1.
(a) Calculate the prefactor ¹ of the relation j\ = ¹l.
(b) Calculate the Fermi energy as a function of volume \ and
number of particles `.
(c) Calculate an asymptotic expression, in the limit 1 << 1
1
,
for the speci…c heat at constant volume.
*** In the thermodynamic limit, we have
,j\ = ln = ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
_
1
0
C
o
/
o1
ln [1 + . exp (÷,c/
o
)] d/ =
= ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
C
o
,cc
d
_
1
0
/
o1+o
.
1
exp (,c/
o
) + 1
d/.
Also, we have
l = ÷
J
J,
ln (,. .. \ ) = ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
C
o
c
_
1
0
/
o1+o
.
1
exp (,c/
o
) + 1
d/.
Thus,
j\ =
c
d
l.
In order to derive the Fermi energy, we write
` = .
J
J.
ln (,. .. \ ) = ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
C
o
_
1
0
/
o1
.
1
exp (,c/
o
) + 1
d/.
76 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
and note that
` = ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
C
o
_
c
F
0
1
cc
o¸o
c
d
a
1
dc.
9. Consider again the gas of ` ultrarelativistic free electrons,
within a container of volume \ , at temperature 1, in the pres
ence of a magnetic …eld
H. If we neglect the e¤ects of orbital
magnetism, the energy spectrum is given by
c
j,o
= cj ÷j
1
Ho.
where j
1
is the Bohr magneton and o = ±1.
(a) Show that the Fermi energy of this system may be written
as
c
1
= ¹ + 1H
2
+ C
_
H
4
_
.
Obtain expressions for the prefactors ¹ and 1.
(b) Show that the magnetization in the ground state can be
written in the form
` = CH + C
_
H
3
_
.
Obtain an expression for the constant C.
(c) Calculate the susceptibility of the ground state in zero
…eld.
*** The grand partition functions may be written as
ln = ln
+
+ ln
.
with
ln
=
!
I
ln ¦1 +. exp [÷, (c~/ ±j
1
H)]¦ .
We then write
` = .
J
J.
ln = `
+
+ `
.
9. The Ideal Fermi Gas 77
with
`
=
\
2:
2
_
1
~c
_
3
1
_
0
c
2
,
(c) dc.
where
,
(c) =
1
exp [, (c ±j
1
H ÷j) + 1]
.
As the Fermi energy is the chemical potential at zero tempera
ture, we have
` =
\
2:
2
_
1
~c
_
3
__
c
F
j
B
1
0
c
2
dc +
_
c
F
+j
B
1
0
c
2
dc
_
.
from which we obtain
c
3
1
+ 3c
1
(j
1
H)
2
= 3:
2
(~c)
3
`
\
.
For j
1
H << c
1
(H = 0), we have
c
1
=
_
3:
2
_
1¸3
~c
_
`
\
_
1¸3
÷
j
2
1
3 (3:
2
)
5¸3
~c
_
.
\
_
1¸3
H
2
+ C
_
H
4
_
.
The magnetization is given by
` = j
1
(`
+
÷`
) .
which leads to
` =
3j
2
1
`
(3:
2
)
1¸3
~c
_
.
\
_
1¸3
H + C
_
H
3
_
.
so that we have the zero…eld susceptibility
¸
0
=
1
`
_
J`
JH
_
1=0
=
3j
2
1
(3:
2
)
1¸3
~c
_
.
\
_
1¸3
.
78 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
10. In the classical paramagnetic theory of Langevin, pro
posed before the advent of quantum statistics, we assume a
classical Hamiltonian, given by
H = ÷
.
i=1
j
i
H = ÷
.
i=1
jH cos o
i
.
where j
i
is the magnetic moment of a localized ion.
(a) Show that the canonical partition function of this system
is given by
2 = 2
.
1
=
__
dexp (,jH cos o)
_
.
.
where d is the elementary solid angle of integration.
(b) Show that the magnetization (along the direction of the
…eld) is given by
` = ` ¸jcos o¸ = `j/(,jH) .
where
/(r) = coth (r) ÷
1
r
is the Langevin function.
(c) Show that the susceptibility in zero …eld is given by the
Curie law,
¸
c
=
`j
2
3/1
.
*** The magnetization is given by
` =
_
.
i=1
j
i
cos o
i
_
=
1
,
J
JH
ln 2 =
`
,
J
JH
ln 2
1
.
where
2
1
=
_
dexp (,jH cos o) = 2:
_
¬
0
sin o exp (,jH cos o) do =
9. The Ideal Fermi Gas 79
=
4:
,jH
sinh (,jH) .
Thus,
` = `j
_
÷
1
,jH
+ coth (,jH)
_
= `j/(,jH) .
where / is the Langevin function.
11. Obtain an expression for the magnetic susceptibility asso
ciated with the orbital motion of free electrons in the presence
of a uniform magnetic …eld H, under conditions of strong de
generacy, 1 << 1
1
, and very weak …elds, j
1
H << /
1
1. To
simplify the expression of , you may use Euler’s sum rule,
1
a=0
,
_
: +
1
2
_

_
1
0
, (r) dr +
1
24
,
0
(0) .
*** The grand partition function for this system was written
as
ln =2
cH1
2
/c
1
a=0
1
2:
_
+1
1
d/
:
ln
_
1 +. exp
_
÷
,~
2
/
2
:
2:
÷
,Hc
:c
_
: +
1
2
___
.
Since ,jH,:c << 1, we can use Euler´s formula to rewrite this
expression,
ln = 2
cH1
2
/c
1
2:
_
+1
1
d/
:
_
1
0
drln
_
1 +. exp
_
÷
,~
2
/
2
:
2:
÷
,Hc
:c
r
__
÷
÷2
cH1
2
/c
1
2:
_
+1
1
d/
:
,Hc
:c
1
.
1
exp
_
o~
2
I
2
z
2n
_
+ 1
.
In the …rst integral, it is convenient to introduce the new variable
c =
~
2
/
2
:
2:
+
Hc
:c
r.
80 9. The Ideal Fermi Gas
so that it becomes easy to integrate over /
:
. In the second in
tegral, we just call c = ~
2
/
2
:
,2:. It is now straightforward to
obtain an expression for the zero…eld susceptibility [check the
excellent article by R. B. Dingle, "Some magnetic properties of
metals. I. General introduction and properties of large systems
of electrons", Proc. Roy. Soc. A211, 500 (1952)].
This is page 81
Printer: Opaque this
10
Free Bosons: BoseEinstein
Condensation; Photon Gas
1. Consider a system of ideal bosons of zero spin (¸ = 1), within
a container of volume \ .
(a) Show that the entropy above the condensation tempera
ture 1
c
is given by
o = /
1
\
`
3
_
5
2
q
5¸2
(.) ÷
j
/
1
1
q
3¸2
(.)
_
.
where
` =
/
_
2::/
1
1
and
q
c
(.) =
1
a=1
.
a
:
c
.
(b) Given ` and \ , what is the expression of the entropy
below 1
c
? What is the entropy associated with the particles of
the condensate?
(c) From the expression for the entropy, show that the speci…c
heat at constant volume above 1
c
is given by
c
\
=
3
4
/
1
_
5
q
5¸2
(.)
q
3¸2
(.)
÷3
q
3¸2
(.)
q
1¸2
(.)
_
.
82 10. Free Bosons: BoseEinstein Condensation; Photon Gas
(d) Below 1
c
, show that the speci…c heat at constant volume
is given by
c
\
=
15
4
/
1
·
`
3
q
5¸2
(1) .
(e) Given the speci…c volume ·, sketch a graph of c
\
,/
1
versus
`
2
(that is, in terms of the temperature in convenient units).
Obtain the asymptotic expressions of the speci…c heat for 1 ÷0
and 1 ÷·. Obtain the value of the speci…c heat at 1 = 1
c
.
*** Note the asymptotic limits of the speci…c heat,
c
\
=
15
4
/
1
·
`
3
q
5¸2
(1) ~ 1
3¸2
.
for 1 ÷ 0, in agreement with Nernst´s third law of thermody
namics, and
c
\
÷
3
2
/
1
.
for 1 ÷ · (. ÷ 0), according to the classical theorem of
equipartition of energy. Also, note the value of the speci…c heat
at the temperature of the BoseEinstein condensation,
c
\
(1 = 1
0
) =
15
4
/
1
q
5¸2
(1)
q
3¸2
(1)
3
2
/
1
.
Sketch a graph of c
\
versus 1.
2. Consider again the same problem for an ideal gas of two
dimensional bosons con…ned to a surface of area ¹. What are
the changes in the expressions of item (a)? Show that there is
no Bose–Einstein condensation in two dimensions (that is, show
that in this case the Bose–Einstein temperature vanishes).
*** Consider a system of ` free bosons in d dimensions (in
a hypercubic box of volume 1
o
). The temperature of the Bose
Einstein condensation comes from the expression
` = ¸
1
o
(2:)
o
1
_
0
C
o
/
o1
d/
exp
_
o
0
~
2
I
2
2n
_
÷1
.
10. Free Bosons: BoseEinstein Condensation; Photon Gas 83
where C
o
= 2:
o¸2
,(d,2). With a suitable change of variables,
we have
/
1
1
0
=
(2:)
1¸2
~
2
2:
_
`
1
o
2
¸C
o
1
1
_
2¸o
.
where
1 =
1
_
0
r
o¸2
dr
exp (r) ÷1
.
It is easy to see that the integral 1 diverges (1 ÷·) for d _ 2,
which means that there is no BoseEinstein condensation below
three dimensions.
3. Consider an ideal gas of bosons with internal degrees of
freedom. Suppose that, besides the ground state with zero en
ergy (c
c
= 0), we have to take into account the …rst excited
state, with internal energy c
1
0. In other words, assume that
the energy spectrum is given by
c
)
= c
I,o
=
~
2
/
2
2:
+ c
1
o.
where o = 0. 1. Obtain an expression for the Bose–Einstein
condensation temperature as a function of the parameter c
1
.
*** In the grandcanonical formalism, above the temperature
of condensation, the number of bosons is given by
` =
)
1
exp (,c
)
÷,j) ÷1
=
I,o
1
exp
_
o~
2
I
2
2n
+ ,c
1
÷,j
_
÷1
.
In the thermodynamic limit, we write
`
\
=
1
8:
2
_
2:
~
2
_
3¸2
¦
_
1
0
c
1¸2
dc
exp (,c ÷,j) ÷1
+
+
_
1
0
c
1¸2
dc
exp (,c + ,c
1
÷,j) ÷1
¦ =
=
(2::/
1
1)
3¸2
/
3
_
q
3¸2
(.) + q
3¸2
_
.c
oc
1
_¸
.
84 10. Free Bosons: BoseEinstein Condensation; Photon Gas
At the temperature of the BoseEinstein condensation (. ÷1),
we have
`
\
=
(2::/
1
1
0
)
3¸2
/
3
_
q
3¸2
(1) + q
3¸2
_
exp
÷c
1
/
1
1
0
__
.
from which we may (numerically) obtain 1
0
(which is smaller
than the corresponding value with c
1
= 0).
4. Consider a gas of noninteracting bosons associated with
the energy spectrum
c = ~c
¸
¸
¸
/
¸
¸
¸ .
where ~ and c are constants, and
/ is a wave vector. Calculate
the pressure of this gas at zero chemical potential. What is the
pressure of radiation of a gas of photons?
*** In the thermodynamic limit we have
,j\ = ln =
¸
2:
2
\
_
1
0
/
2
d/ ln [1 ÷. exp (÷,c~/)] .
In zero chemical potential, it is easy to show that
j =
¸
6:
2
(/
1
1)
4
(~c)
3
_
1
0
r
3
dr
exp (r) ÷1
.
Note that the pressure of radiation is given by the equation of
state
j\ =
1
3
l.
Taking into account the law of StefanBoltzmann, l = o\ 1
4
,
we obtain an expression for the constant o.
*5. The Hamiltonian of a gas of photons within an empty
cavity of volume \ is given by the expression
H =
I,)
~.
I,)
_
c
y
I,)
c
I,)
+
1
2
_
.
10. Free Bosons: BoseEinstein Condensation; Photon Gas 85
where , = 1. 2 indicates the polarization,
/ is the wave vector,
.
I,)
= c/.
c is the velocity of light, and / =
¸
¸
¸
/
¸
¸
¸.
(a) Use the formalism of the occupation numbers (second
quantization) to obtain the canonical partition function asso
ciated with this system.
(b) Show that the internal energy is given by
l = o\ 1
a
.
Obtain the value of the constants : and o.
(c) Consider the Sun as a black body at temperature 1 
5800 K. The solar diameter and the distance between the Sun
and the Earth are of the order of 10
9
m and 10
11
m, respec
tively. Obtain the intensity of the total radiation that reaches
the surface of Earth. What is the value of the pressure of this
radiation?
*** The canonical partition function is given by
2 = Tr exp (÷,H) =
n
a !
k ;j
o
__
:
!
I ,)
_¸
¸
¸ exp (÷,H)
¸
¸
¸
_
:
!
I ,)
__
=
=
n
a !
k ;j
o
exp
_
_
÷,
I,)
~.
I,)
_
c
y
I,)
c
I,)
+
1
2
_
_
_
=
=
!
I ,)
_
1
a=0
exp
_
÷,~.
I,)
_
: +
1
2
__
_
=
!
I ,)
exp
_
÷
1
2
,~c/
_
1 ÷exp (÷,~c/)
.
In order to calculate the internal energy we write
ln 2 = ÷
1
2
!
I ,)
,~c/ ÷
!
I ,)
ln [1 ÷exp (÷,~c/)] .
86 10. Free Bosons: BoseEinstein Condensation; Photon Gas
where the …rst term in the righthandside leads to wellknown
(divergent) energy of the quantum vacuum. If we measure the
internal energy with respect to the vacuum, we have
n = ÷
1
`
J
J,
ln 2 =
1
`
I,)
~.
I,)
exp
_
,~.
I,)
_
÷1
.
In d dimensions, it is easy to check that this internal energy
with respect to the quantum vacuum is given by
l = o\ 1
a
.
where : = d + 1 (: = 4 in three dimension, according to the
StefanBoltzmann law) and
o =
4/
o+1
1
(4:~
2
c
2
)
o¸2
(d + 1) ¸ (d + 1)
_
o
2
_ .
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