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curds are cooked at intermediate temperatures. The two principal mesophilic starter bacteria, Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis spp. cremoris grow best at around 77° F to 86° F. Typically, they cannot withstand temperatures that exceed 102° F. cheeses made with mesophilic culture include Cheddar, Colby, Feta, Chevre and Gouda. You can use cultured buttermilk or send away for mesophilic cultures. Cheeses where the curds are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria that survive this step—either Lactobacilli or Streptococci. Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 95–131° F. This forces more whey from the cut curd. It also changes the taste of the finished cheese, affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. Cheeses that are made with thermophilic cultures include Swiss, hard Italian types such as Parmesan, Romano and Asiago as well as softer ones like Provolone, Mozzarella. How to Pasteurize Milk at Home: http://bit.ly/kidcML It’s actually very easy to pasteurize your own milk on the stovetop. An added bonus is that your milk won’t need to stand up to long distance shipping and prolonged storage, so you can pasteurize it safely using lower heat and less time than many industrial milk producers use. All you need is a stainless steel pot and a simple kitchen thermometer. Just follow these simple steps for home pasteurization: 1) Pour the raw milk into the stainless steel pot. If you have a double boiler, that will work even better to keep the milk from scalding. If you don’t have a double boiler, you can put one stainless steel pot inside a larger pot with a few inches of water at the bottom. If you can’t achieve this setup, then you’ll just need to be careful to heat the milk gently. 2) Slowly heat the milk to 145 degrees Fahrenheit, stirring occasionally. If you are not using a double boiler, stir frequently to avoid scalding the milk. 3) Hold the temperature at 145 F for exactly 30 minutes. You may need to increase and decrease the heat to keep the temperature constant. 4) Remove the pot of milk from the heat and place it in a sink or large bowl filled with ice water. Stir constantly until the temperature drops to 86 F (for goat cheese) or 90 F (for cow cheese) or 40 F to milk for drinking (store pasteurized milk in the refrigerator). Dry Curd Cottage Cheese (Fiasco Farm Style) (www.fiascofarm.com) Ingredients: * 2-3 gallons goat milk (or cow milk) (I use raw, unpasteurized milk) * 1/4 tsp. mesophilic DVI Culture "MM"* or 4 oz. Mesophilic culture or 1 Cup. Buttermilk * 1/2 tsp. Liquid rennet (I use double strength vegetable rennet), dissolved in 1/4 C. water * 1-2 T. kosher salt *The DVI cultures I use are EZAL cultures from France purchased from The Dairy Connection. Bring the milk to 86° (90° for cow milk) and add the mesophilic culture. Stir well and let set, to ripen, for 1 hour. Add the rennet and stir briskly for 15 seconds. Cover the pot and let the milk set for 45 minutes, or until you get a clean break. Hold the milk at a temperature of 86° (90° for cow milk) for the entire time.
After 45 minutes. The curds may be "squeaky" at first. stirring occasionally so the curds do not stick together. stirring with your hand occasionally so that the curds don't stick together. Stir liquid from bottom to top for 1. Place large pot inside another that's filled with water to create a “water jacket” cooker. Raw goat milk. you may add some cream to it. .120 minutes (RIPENING). but take your time. What you are doing here is making the size cottage cheese curd/lump you like. We use an old down ski jacket. undisturbed for 10 minutes (5 minutes for cow milk). you can carefully separate/break up the curds into a bowl and salt to taste. To develop more flavor. but with the aging. leave the curds in this 85° water/whey for for 10 minutes. Stir as you add the water. After you have cut the curds. you may hold the curds at the maximum temperature for 60 – 120 minutes. Once milk has maintained 86 F for 60 . This process can take up to 45 minutes. After about 1/2 hour. With the stove set to low let milk rise slowly to @ 86 degrees F. Carefully stir occasionally so it dose not stick together (too badly). Raise the temperature of the curds to 95° (99° for cow milk) over the next 20 minutes. Add 25 drops of vegetable rennet. Let them rest.100° F. You can use a cozy over the pot to keep it warm without needing to keep the heat going under it.120 minutes. stirring every ten minutes. This is a "dry" cottage cheese. Add enough cold water to lower the temp to 85°. Keep milk at 86 degrees for 60 . There are automatic stirrers on the market that would stir constantly for the entire duration (most ideal). Cover and let sit in the fridge at least 2 days. stirring every 10 minutes until the temperature reaches about 95° .2 minutes. If a clean break has been achieved. reverse stirring and still the liquid. Pour the curds into a colander and let drain. stir to create a vortex in the center of the milk. if you like it "wet". thoroughly incorporating the rennet. do not stir them yet. Add about ¾ cup cultured buttermilk. using a large spoon.Cut the curds into 1/2" pieces with a stainless steel knife. Drain the the whey until it in level with the curds (about 1/2-3/4 of the whey). undisturbed. check the consistency of the curd by inserting the tip of a butter knife about 1” into the center and gently see if you can push the curd to one side about ¼ inch. Now.” Raise the stove temperature slightly and begin slowly cooking the curds. cut the curd in ~1/2” cube pieces. If the curd cleanly cracks then the curd is considered “set” (clean break). This always seem to be the trickiest part of cheese making. Now you can stir the curds gently and cut any that you had missed. Let the curds settle for 5 minutes. Dry Curd Cottage Cheese (Farmer Chrys Style): Start with 3 ½ gal. and don't worry if all the curds are cut to exactly 1/2". thin sharp knife to first cut a cross-hatch vertically and then cutting diagonally to cut “cubes. Let set 45 to 60 minutes. they loose their squeak". This is a bit of a trick and involves using a long.
You will find that the Ricotta made from the whey of different cheeses has different tastes and textures. How to Make Ricotta (Fiasco Farm Recipe) Making Ricotta is very simple. Save the whey for making Ricotta or for plant food (cut 1:1 with water for foliar spray) or use it to water your compost pile. By the time it has reached this temperature you might see very tiny white particles (the albumin protein) floating in the whey. Tie the ends of the cheesecloth together and hang the ricotta to drain for a couple hours. Ricotta will keep for a couple of weeks in the fridge. herbs and/or hot peppers. How to make “Quick Acid Cheese”: Please refer to the slide show at https://picasaweb. use a clean cotton cloth (like a pillow case). Feta makes the strongest tasting (the taste increases as it ages in the fridge). coli or yeast – eat this cheese at your own risk).com/ . shrubs and bramble berries. I also recommend “The Untold Story of Milk” by Ron Schmid for an in depth discussion of the issues surrounding raw dairy products. Pour off as much whey as you can without losing any curds. With a knife. Newer versions of this book are called “Home Cheesemaking. Over direct heat. Pour curds into a colander lined with cheese cloth and let drain for 4 hours or overnight. Stir well to mix the salt and flavorings.com/farmrchrys/HowToMakeQuickAcidCheese Books: A great selection of cheese-making books (as well as supplies and equipment) is available at http://www. When it has drained.fiascofarm. This cheese will keep in the fridge a month or more.” I also recommend “American Farmstead Cheese” by Paul Kindstedt for the very serious cheese explorers. trees. try to drain it off occasionally to help the cheese last longer (or eat it up quicker!). If you do not have fine cheesecloth. It's flavor will develop as it ages. called "butter muslin". optionally. add salt (~2 level tablespoons for a batch that was started with 3 ½ gal. heat whey left over from cheese making to 200° (sometimes I accidentally heat it over 200° with no ill effects). The heat and acid from the ripe whey has precipitated the protein. cut into 3/4” cubes or keep cutting to “mill” the curd into smaller pieces.After the last ten minute period. Remove from cheesecloth and place in a clean bowl.google. I think Mozzarella makes the best. the curds will have settled in the bottom of the pot (if the curds are floating. Be very careful because the liquid is hot.cheesemaking. You must use a very fine cloth here. place the ricotta in a bowl and add salt to taste. If whey collects in the jar. or your cheese will pass through the regular cloth.html One of the books I had on hand was called “Cheesemaking Made Easy” by Ricki and Robert Carrol. Curds will have become one solid mass after draining. Line a colander with very fine cheesecloth. you have a blown cheese that has been contaminated with gas-producing E. Place the colander over a big pot so you can save the whey and carefully pour the whey into the colander or you can use a special slotted ladle to lift the ricotta curds out of the liquid. A fantastic goat husbandry and cheese-making information website is: http://www. Transfer into a wide-mouth jar and refrigerate. Now add a little vinegar and stir.com/cheesemakingbooks. Milk or to taste) and.
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