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Francis C. R. Thee Julius Africanus and the Early Christian View of Magic 1984

Francis C. R. Thee Julius Africanus and the Early Christian View of Magic 1984

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Francis C. R. Thee Julius Africanus and the Early Christian View of Magic 1984
Francis C. R. Thee Julius Africanus and the Early Christian View of Magic 1984

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JlllillS AfricallUS
aIld tIle EarI)'T C:hristia11

View ot- Magic
hv ,

Francis C. It rfhcc

J. C.B.

Mohr (Paul Siebeck) Tiibingen 19H4

-fhff, F"~J~d~ C. R.: lulius Africmus and the earlv . , Chrlsd:fln 'i1~"'" ofmJ:gjc;' by Fra.nds C. H. Thee. - TiibEngen: Mohr. JW}4l (Hl:'rmt=no:utisch(" Umcr!:iuch ungcn zmfht'oJogie; '9) ISl-lN .3-16-144552-X IS SN 0440-71 80 NE:GT

©J. C. B. Mohr (paul Sieb~<k) T(abingen L984. Alle RcduC' \'orbchilltell. Ohne ;llls.rlrucklichc Gcnchmlgul1g de-Ii Verbg!> 1St es ;luch n.ich[ gC'!'if.:l [tel da~ BllI:h odcr T eik: ail filllS ;lU f photOl"ncchiifdscheHl Wegl' (Ilhotokol-'k'. .'.i'ho kQpic) ?u ....c;r ..·id f.l]t&gen. Printed ill German~" Satz una Druck: Gulae-Druck GmbH, Tubingcn. Emb2nd: H~inrich
I

Koeh. GroB buchbind-erei, Tlihingen.

To PauJ. and Yetta.

and
To Mary
end
Paul

TA13LE OF CONT!-1r!'S
Page:
Ll~"'1'

OF

It·L'!JS'.ttl't~'I'IOIm

.

ACKNOl'l'lZIXrv.ENTS •

xi
1 1

INTRODUCTiON . . .

Statement of the Problem. . . . . . • . ABJle ct g o:f" the problem Statement of the thesi~ Working Definition of Magie Introduetion.
Definition, and related tenDs

8

Chapt.er
I. THE STUDY OF JULIUS AFRICA1{US AND HIS KESTOT ~
An~ient

11

and B,yzantin~ R~ference5 . . . Greek and related ecclesiastica.1 sources Syriac ecclesiastical sources
~

13

Semlle.r sources
Surnma.ry Early Studies . • . . . . . .

. . . . • •

32

Sixteenth to eighteenth centuries Nineteenth a.nd early twentieth centuries Recent Contributions . . • • _ . A ne-" era
A
n~

.'

.

. . .. . .

aPlJroach?

Variant vievs other ~pe-cula:tions
Sta:t.U6 of the q'UeBtion

The new era renovated F.esults of the nevera Summary and Cone 1 usi ons .. • • .. .. .. .. .. • •
II.
TRAlfSL!\Tlm~

..

..
.. • ..
• ,. "..

. 100

OF THE ICEST:Ql FRAG}.fENTS .. .. • , • ..
• • • ,IJI. • ..

102
+

Si.gla . • • • . .. • •

"104

The Kestoi Fragm~ntSt The Kestoi Fragments t II; Ext~A~ts concerning Military Matt.era • • • • • . + • • " + + .. The Kestoi Fragments, I II ; Ertr8.ct Ii concerning lii.:ep1at.1"1 Cil. • • • • + 156 The Kestoi Fragroent B. I1l~ Concerning Weigllt5 and Measures... . . . .. ...... + , ... . . 173
+
• • ?
~
• 'WI

1;

Ke~tos

1

105

1'

• • •

"",.",'1'.

..

.,

...

It

~,

.... i1

viii

Contents

Chapter
II.

Page

The Kestoi Fragments tV: Pa.pyrus Oxyrhynchu,S 412. . • • The Kest01 Fragments .. VI; KestQs 13 ~ Cha.pt'IH· 22.. • The Kestoi Fragments:> VIIi Concerning Cinnamon . . • . . The Kegtoi Fro.gmentl3 t VIII; Concerning Dyeing
w w • • •

• 180 · 183
· lB4

The Kestoi Fragnlents

· 185

Appendix;
TIl.

Citat i on:e . .. • • + • • Selected Frasmenta or the Chrobograpqy . •
t

IX:

· 186 · 191
.. w

M'UCANUStg VIEW' OF MAGIC.

193

Pasaages to be Considered. • .
From the
K~stoi

• . 193

KnO'oi'l edge 0 f Mg,gi c ..

F:r-olIl the fhronogra.pl,rr . . . . • . . . ..

199

Pentagon paSS&g@"s Zoological passages
Humat') t:iubst e.nces

Plant pas !;oages

Miot!ral and siJ!u.lar substances Charms and rites
Gods and daemons

Other featlU'es Pu!-pOSE!6 of theuaes
Summo..ry of Afrl c anus "s Knowledge of Nagic", Areas of magi c Types of" pro<: I!'dure51 Types of magic
+ + • • •• • •

300

Attitudes toward Th~se Procedures. • • . . . Natu!"a.l processes Non-religious (secula.r) outlook World-view veetor !;Iumma..ry

+

..

w

309

IV.

'I'm: EARLY eRR ISTIAN VIEw

Or MAQIC.

..

+

w

· 316

Int.rod-uction • • + • • • + • • '" • • • • • • • 310 Apoatolic Fathers and Apologists . • • • . . . • • . . . . 311 Apostolic tsthers
The a,pologists Greek Polemic:ist6 .and Syaternat12.ers...
+ • • .. • + • • •

~6

lrenaeus
Clement of' Alexandria.

Or1gen Hippolytus

Latin Polemicists and
Tl!rtuJ.lian
Mino~ Sy~i8.c

Systemat1~ers. • .

+

••••••••

402

Latin writeTs
..

Writers . .

1.ater Writer a + • L6.tin 'Ilriters Greek vriters

.

.. ..

. • • . . • ~21
• .. +
• • + • •

~21

Contents

ix

Cha.pte-r
IV.

PB.g~

Apocrypha and Gnosis. . . . . . . . . .
SUIIIm8.ry ·of Knowledge of J,(agic . . . . .

437 .1:38

Des! gnat:! ons and d1 visions of magi c Procedures: of magic

Involvement
Attitud~B

or

other areas
b~lief'

toward Magic . • . •

Types o£ magical operations
Re1at.ion to their CONCLUSION:

ayste1!lB
4L9

THE PLACE OF JULIUS Ar''"RICAlffiS IN EARLY CHRISTIAIUTY.

R~latiOT\

of Africanus I s Views of Magic 'to Those of the Early Church ~ ~ ~ • •

Knowledge of magic Attitudes towa.rd magic
Summa.ry:
Add~nd\UJ):

Afr1canusand early Christianity
~65
~66

Relation of Africanus's Views to Other Cont~porary Attitud~s • • . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . • .
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY • •
I1fDEXES • • • • • • • •
• • • it •
~

....... .
.•. . . _

!.I 68
~93

Index of Ancient and M~dievnl 1. Julius Africanus
2.

R~feren~es

t.93

3.
q•

Bible .. including Apocrypha. Christian 'Writings, includitl8 Secular and other Sourc e s
o~

i~eretics.1

Index

Modern Authors and Works
• • • • • • • • •

513

I ndl!.X of Subj ect 6

515

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
Page

L

KeG.o f -

Known

Contenta . . . ..

...

..

iI

_

T

103
..

2.

Su:nm.a.ry of' Af'ri eMUS t s •'weight S Ail.nd Meas urcs II

iI

oj

.

118
190

3.

Jt''J:·othetical Recons1.ruC'ticn of' the Pentagon::; in the Kest 0 i . ~
10 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ed Af'ricfLnus and the eoncent~ation of the study' on the magic in AfrictLnus to me. Grant first s. vnether taken immedia.uggest.e &J1preciated his advice--both positive fL."1d negative. the editors. th~ paper ~de possible the meeting of final Pro·fessors Hans Dieter Betz and Bernard Me-Ginn deserve special thanks for consenting.. I hav.. xi .P:rof'essoT ROMrt M.tely or not-and hl.G.5 restraint over the years. serie's to me and kindly t~r:.tc its pub1:'i sher all. in th~ His efforts th~ processing of de~d1ines.bei' rec::cmrnended this study.~ on short notice. to serve as readers of "the paper.. Pw~fessor 3etz further ~uggested this.

.

e.INTRODUCTION Stat~~ent of th~ Problem AS"p~ets of the Problem JUlius A.ogratJhy-it built tidy edifice of Christian c!1ron~teriaJ.s DJiIn disord~red and so periahed.s ologjo' 7 but then 'lias dismant. best known today for his shortest 'Work.cti~al 1 . perh.way of describing the !L fa.. perhaps &~d oPPo5ite is more true--here vas gathered s.J and the B)rzantine chronologists.})s.led.d die zo. to provide for those· 'Who built th~ othel'V!s~ on his foundation.o. and cut up for more pra. on the latter see Heinrich Ge~zer7 . e. at least.f his ChrliJ11. being absorbed into larger works t and surviving solely as only partially identifiable fra. g. and. :2 Hinrichs' s~h~ Buchhandlung ~ 1898 • ~ote especially Eusebius I oS Ch~onicor.terials which shortly s..gments. vritera 11 with other fragments else". is one. so preserved. EUDOng the alchem.Sertus Julius Afr1canus Wl. 2.Q mass of ma.nt i nische Chrono eo hie ~ 2 vols.copy bad been discarded. C.t'Y' ~ and agricultura1. The quiek demise of' the Kestoi is illustrated by its Bole su:rvivlng direct f'ragment 1 le5s than a half century after thl!! .fri~'anus suffers the peculiar fate of being.bere.a.nk 'Under it. This."Titing of the Kestoi. in 1 {Leipzi s: J.ical "in"1ters. or at least cUTious~ matter.t miscellaneous lleigl1t:t s. a r'rofesaionaJ.te o. a letter to Origen ~vh1c:h the ancie-:nts preserved mainl:y as a preface to OJ'igen'6 reply! while his major vorks fell victim~ in a sense~ to their popularity. grE!B.rhey are found mainly in the Byzantine collections of tact1c&1~ veterin. exce:ptfor a :few items picked out here and therE! useful.ly produced. 1 Witb the Kestoi! though.

sttributing the Kestoi to A:f'ri-ca.. certain clear tra.. The Oph.2. in Hellenic traditions and literature. especially magic.its app. steeped. And" if a.:rious l1'ays.itures dravn in too-broa. . postull&t1ng WO ot' more Af'ricani. London: Eg.1 s and plate" t for the !':r~ent. nc. but do not deal ~th its specif- ics ( Or sometimes.h~se portra. how does thE! "magic-o.1anced sket~h of Africa:nus how sharply does it stand out from it. with keen critof broad wisdom and lea.lu Af'J"lcanus blend portrai~? into the rest of the Most recent. or to A p06tulat~d period of lapse. and the Chronogr'B. Hunt.s r spt!l.d strokes! Me the differences between 'the "Christian" and the rlsecu. are t. of incre-dible cl"(!dUli. But.nu.:r-cut? can be produc~d. Aristides. ignoring it.gan youth. concerning the C:DP. even refer to & problem J\ • 1 Thos e 'IIho deal wi th uses. ~12l pp.Arthur S.e-SPQ8yn:e~ on the other band ~ he was a...1i:. 2lJ7-53.i)!o the other from the Kestoi. Ee-rnard P. discussions of A:fricanus aSsU!De that a s:!rnthesis i5 p05sible~ since it is ne~essary..mchus PaPyri!o part III (Egj~t Exploration Fund: Gra~cD-Roman Branch. of its bla. and part VI (1908) . 36-J:. 0-1" s again. 1903)!o no.Tnt~oduc..history of" the study of At'ricanus. t.-t.) hB.o:f the portrait is 'that commonly drawn fI'O!ll his UChristianl' writings (his letters To Origen and !£. l~rlier studies (to be dealt "With in Chapter I.lar M Atricanus really so c1ea. and B.ear from his writings.y.. \1111.d solved the pr-oble:m in v8. Grenf'~ll and . the Scriptures~ and in the traditions of the Jevish chur~h!o especially t·he .:tion As to the :man himself.:'~ of the will.s Ch]'"istilL~ background? Specifically. 907 s pp. properly bB.ph. lnan of pur~ly pagan i:::J~ te:rests..r-pt Exploration Fund .:rning. The one side. . ieal ~~ vas a Cbristian of unquestioned Caitb. versed 1nhis'tory!o in abil1ti~s.n.he. verso~ in the case of the sur'tiving fragtncnt!o a copy of a. paragon of superstition and supel":f1cial peda.nt~.

pop.African-u. 5-9." L 42. Les HCes. 2.'v. Intro due: t i on.10" no.any ex- -tent are J..· no..es that his wo:rk is incompl. of . and the 'lEt ude g~n~rale"" pp~ 13-10. 2Jean-Rene V1e111efond. Africanus extensi vely only as one part of one stUd. 3 the specifics consider only part of the problems as stated above.tiQt1. rr Uppsala lJniver sit et s Arsskrift.d.e introductory study of 2 But Vieillef'ond the mtln hiI!Jsel:r.. 11 Apsmus >' Julius Afric:anu6 et 1 . Furth~!'. BJ5rck.side tbe past inference from Africanus's other writ1ngs~ and frcqn Or1gen' 6 letter to him. ~ He does this ma1nl J' on the "b-asis of the more recentl.y found fragments. especial.tandingeJ.1 de Julius Africanus= Etude sur 1 1 ens er.. hi~self recogniz. concentrating as it d.ris7I:ibt'lIirie Y..ccura. His pUblications began with Jules At"l'icain = Fragments dt:!Ei Ce8tes proven ant de J.Qes on the Keetoi a. it 8. chap.arcel D1 die-r" 1970). tJot~ eS p.:ible des frapJll€ nt s e. R.s and his '-Titinss {Chapter I" be~ov). 3 and. 4 I e sp.. tl.The Problelr.~/. 5 1Gudutund Bjorck." t..vee ed i. proves" that a poss1bl~. h Ib J.tisu:mes" rather than reall:t.nd the H sec ular 11 Africanus.t frorD Oxyrhynchus ~ set- ting a.hough pril!Eienting some valuable ideas" de-a. the . for example" fol" a Jewish background for Af'ricanus and the Kestoi. and an extensi . PUblications de 1 1 Institute Fran~a1s de Florence.'· 20 (F'lol"enc:~: Ediz.....ing Ke~toi fragments.ete.a collection des tacticiens gre~s.'r pp. h1ppiatriq ue gre~q ue..nd Pa. 41- 5Thi 8 matter vill be dealt with in the history of the .. Vieillef'ond.one as far as individual atte-Irtion to Africanus is concerned. 194.. stud~.ly tha.. The only two recent scholars to deal with Afrieanus to . traduction etcom:nen taires . unified p1ctUl"e is his pi~t'\ll"e may be ina. Nouvelle collection de textes et documents p\Jbliee SOU5 le patronage de l ' Association Guillaume :Bude (Paris ~ Societe d 'Edt tiOD uLes Belles Lettres itt 1932).e in some points: he argues..tes. Vieillefond hQ-S devot£"d over 30 years to Africanus" producing a.lt vit·.t.iorJi Snnsoni AntiqU&!'iato. Iere·· Serie. and GudllJund BJ8rck:o with the former e. definitive edition of the surv.

ttitudes of t1:J. Teubner" 1928) t part 1 t pp. 1 CLeipzig: B. This is not the "Whole problem-the Ke:stoi if!. l6S2~ by ..l" strain in t.gic ig dif'fieult to d~fine or describe. LBofi. in the vritings of Afric{L1'Jus and with th~ que-stitm of' hO'W ttJ.nJ.o compare and assess the mtLgical elebJents in Af'ricanus. either in or in re- gard to a part i cular culture.an anthology. ele- me-nt in characterizing the Kestoi. Harris and Judith S.ius Syncellus et :tlicephol'U5.ry with Afric-anus . vol.Y inclu. 1829J. Adler t Lexicographi G. This .m as the '·Ante-Nicene Fathers. Le-vI!'Y (NeW' York and London: Columbia University Press" 1975)::1 vhich con~ludes its article on uAfricanus) Sextus Julius": "and..ey compare to the a.se-gJDent of the problem for study. ed. :.1rly extensive study of magic in the early Chris'tifLn vrite-ra. UJ3-3~:> eontry nOoA46~7). ed+ AdB..study is intended to define the segment of their belief' systems relat1ngto magic.'or the purposes of this atudy. . Corpus Sc ri. further problem: e-xactly wha.. For thi s reason:> the at tid. eon.. vay of marking off' a feasible. 2 to provide a background against 'Which t. n repre'senting vriters contempora. G. W@ber..t constitutes genE!ra1~ ma. Puis . specifically to identify 1Starting vit'h S:lncellus (Q.t in The :tl~ Columbia Encyclope-dia red..only kn01. G. B. For this reason the.. mostly of materials on magic tt ) .eorg.o!"WD Hi stor iae By zant i nae . .h@: Kestoi.nm:.ra~ci.tine-d to the group co.r el~mente.us Dindorfius. William H. and continuing into the mode-ron encyclopedia-e (most :r-I!centl. But there is a. expanded in the Suidas (Suidae Lexicon . CP ~ ed.pt. 2 vols..Jaeob Goarus)J.eontly seclUar . NiebuhriU5. Gui1ie:1..de 51 a ffl. and those oft approximatelYt the preceding and following c~nturies.e early church tovard maBie.Int"1'odlJction A lnajoT element in the problem of reconciling AfricBJ1UB to bimself and to hig background is the «m&.gicl!'I. 1~676(=P359B (=ed.present study lI1ll be concerned with ttJe "magieal. pagan rlevpoint--but it lies near pt'oblem and is fre-quently used as the lIlain~ th~ heart of the or a"t least leading. l Further" it provides one~ f'airly objective .. vritten frQ1!l a consist.'1: Ed.

SiI!!versJ.tUd.! former rf!ga:r-dedma.rtave Bardy" IrOrige.fri~anu. generfl.itudes :1s dro:wn.V.t they mean by them. in a. mat. while A:t'ricanus !"@:garded the-items he p:r-esented as being... but it inC:ludes a consideration. . no. as edited by Vie111etond"provided).oi (with a translation of' the full text..' of' Afri~ canus.c.rd GMschiniet~~ HHippolytos' Capitelgegen die Magi er "r 1 and Gtu... but partially anticipating its results as e.hi 9 a summary vie\.tt.hf..tter (1. to des-::rne their attitude(s)tO'W'at"d magic.ctions.s "IU ~ ) (Cited here- ~echerches de science reli&i~use 18 (1928):126-~2.. s.ttention is directed. 2' (1913).hat t.' s knowledge a. or the various specific..2 but no eomplete b~4!:n survey af the 'Whole area has made. ~oncluding cha..tudy of A:fricanus. of r@"le. to not~ the termS tbey USe of magi. e .!3 tOllard magic is to be explained by the fact t.The Problem "Wha..1 guide in identifying the magiCal elements 'Ii is a. 39. part1&1 studies have been made in this area) notably Ricba.... Preceding this l.gic: as a religious ms.a."ld a. and this is compared. naturally:o to the Kt!st. Ma. they associate vith the idea.jor a...• as bein@: antireligious). .o e et 1& :magi e .items iTlvolved.! re:ferenees in his other 'Writings + From.. t. ITexte unQ Unt er-suc:hWlgen vol. ~ d~fine what a. State:ment of the Thesis The dif'f'el"enee in the attitudes of the e'a. briefly.rly church fathel"s and or A. and to ()Qnsider.. bO\oi' this element tits into their total belief' system. Qf'te:r.antor questionabl.e:ri~l.pter" to that of" the writer-s previQusly m~ntioned. to etc.

hovever" while outside the cil"~le of' Christia. as a litterBteur~ connected his pres~ntation with some aspect of' Greek mythology. 20therwi se Africanusvould not have been I::onsid/!'r~d by hiIll. of ~atement In terms of the overlapping areas distinguiahed by moderns into Religion..lot rela.w'hereas the ea.l"ea YI~ 'WoUl d call Sci- e-nce t and thus r.rded by h16 contempora.ted to his religious belief's.h e i teblS he presents a.t Nt into that categol'Y..udy wIll shOt( that the belief-systems of' AfrictLnus 8. Magic.nU5 l"egarded t. eM be regarded as logicaJ. tt but would differ in his oJ)inions as to vha.s 'be i l'lg in the a. .lld the oth~r 'W'riters largely overlaps 2 but that th~:r~ are significant portions of his belief-system that lie outside the circle of Christian beliefs.Il.on vith other lThe apparent ~~~eptions are generally C~se3 in vhich A:f'ricanus. Nelated aamtcts T"ne st.:ofa.rly Christian vr1te-:!"s regarded most such things as Magi~t and thus r~lated to Religion as its antithesis .ted to Religion (except im. transhumM f'orce) . Christian. . These areas.. and especially woUld not have 'b4H~n so highly rege.s. and S~ienee (vitb ~gi~ as ~ ~idd1e term so~etim~s regarded as closer to thl!!: CIne.ries &nd later generations BlrlOng the Chri5ti6.r as each of these areas".d probably take mue:h the same vie-II 0:1" ''Magie .6 'by and large"l matters of Introduction sc1~nce (or technolog)r-techne) and thus unrela. ~2ifi~atio~ ~ .n acceptance (and perhaps specifically rejected or even attacked by them).ly c:onsistent with (or even ~ derived from) beliefs of Af'.ricl!lnus that h~ holds in cOD:IIII..SC'lf o.Af'ricanus youJ. sometilnes to the other) t Afr1ca. including Science" :might involve: SOme sort of I:IYsterio'Us.nd bY' others to 'be 6..

r1ie:r reference to Africanus as "tooseille Ie plus serieusement du . ~ any excess being due liberal.ures on Bj8rck' s viev of' the Kestoi as a pastiche (Les Cestes. W. to his ll:X)r~ ph1siolo~r. refe-rring to Hhis queer farrago of sense and nonsense.Cter1stic of Afr1canus in a review of Jules Africain {Classical Revie~ 46 [1932J:238)..s.. 22}.with mMy current b@lief systems i!1 regard to) :physics .while: Vieillefond' s strict..llus can 'be intellectually justi:f'ied by coU!'l"e:nt views of (Le.l. Af~icanus'e This think- is in line vito other asp~cts of ing in regard to the relationa 'between Christianity and thecu. ~ his belief-system vill be round to coincide. to men of toda.y (a.l approach.eur ~ l end (2) a Y'et 'his relation to it is in contrast indeed.e ll category. 10 most of these cases a closer examibation vill show that A1·ricl!. or the anaterial in AfricMus that a.. p.ny of hie dELj') should be regarded f.e.rd as e.l into the tttal.most {) f I't the se items could probably be more accurately described as popularly super- Moe-til if not all.riesrega. 52-56) are probably CQrrect. chttrfJ.. it 51. Bj5rck himself was probe.nd cert~in evaluation or items) Africanu9 holding as morally neu- tra.monde l~s inc6J1tations magi Ques . fLnd possibly demonic.nte at empirical science. etc." .lture l.he perspe et i . empiri c a. Tarn notes this..l taJ. pp.€os of hi s writ i dilett.rom t. (Vi~illefond in Jule3 Africatn.nu.. W. and~ ng as {l) !l 1 i t 'terB:t. X''/ ~ ci ted by 'BJarck~ i'APSyrtU5 ~'I p.~ and some of his statements may 'Well faJ.Tbe ProbleI::l Christiana.ific&lly valUll.ppears to be magice. .. and of the centuries 1'tl:lDlediately difference in vie~ and after. il. history and tall stories.li"t he r. in opposition to the attitudes of the church leadere of b~fore his period. F'l.s vas to entertain.ill must hI\!' recogniz. ~oral The major points of conflict are in their religious 6.ed that one of the goals of Africe.nd to m.b~y justified in questioning Vieillefond IS ~il.ble~ certain procedures or concepts which his Christian contempora..l and/Qr as sci@'ot.

ted f'rom ntUlJ.ht!: area studies by Killg (BabylonianJ . Current Anthropolo"e.nd/or contrast.8 t. ~by Mi ddl etotJ. Apparet~t ex-ceptions are US'u£I. M.h science .man in Interna t.lie W'..r"k~ 1925)" 8~245-5:2 (as well 0..v cases in vhit:h the author attempts no d~:rit.udies of :magic.. p.pter s 1.ax~ "The Notion of Magic ~. and Hans H.th re. Yonan"lo "15 a Science of ~eligion Possible?" JOUl"nalof' Religion 52 {April 1972): 107-33.: Macmillan) 19 ~ 9:521-2 . it is a re:sUltof his orth~ologi rather than philosophica. c:f.l"l!!tt in EnCYC loped1a of" Religion and Et.he main linee in the development of the consideration of magic and its place in the "WOrld.~ e. 4-13.~ and not that. other. on the There seems to be Q grCliing consensus"hovever ll that. by John F.li. &.. l to science. a.. Re-lir. pp.gion than wi t.. PennE!r and Edward A.l"' Ya. David L.a. or viev 01" of its rele. w-hich ~ollov it) ~ by N1J.rray Wa. 1961)!t esp ~ cha.stings (Edinburgh: '1'.... or gIves his o.4.ll. :3 !t and ..: Edvard No~beck. and Wax and Wax t P' 495)~ 'l'he Bame situation obtains in regard to religion: note rtorbeck.tion l on the one side. to religion.).i. etc • .her Q:Jor C ompari son e..l. T. 2 Thus follOLl'i:ng SOttlellhat in the li.p. ed."lderstandin.. De~inition ~f Working Magic Introduction There is no un1v~:rsa1ly accepted de. g. magic is 2 e.. and Related Terms For the pU1":pose~ of' tb1s stu.inked v...x and Bosa..ionin Pri m1 t ive Soc iety (N·ew York: Harper .7s" {e. smitb [Greek and Roman]. Ga. 11: 298-302.nd they to be more closel.i onal Ene c 10 edi a.g.erous st.lition~ assucing a cOlI:EDon Ii.d:.'.est ern ethncc entric vie"...t has been termed rtr"'.finition of Jrlagic.l cal ~ bent () r mind.g of thE!' tenD. Jues Ha. Middle-ton in the Neov EncyelopaeditL:Brit~n... Definition. Mf:L...nd Mu. magic :La defined as the use of ~or magic. R. . abovE:!.y J~ {December.rdiner (EgyptianJ . the arli cle 5 on "Magic It by R.on p1"actical~ of' his day. based on common speech usage. Sills (n. and f'rom JD.. of James Frazl!!:f' (Golden Bough). 298. ed.~ a~ ho~ def1nition~ frequently colored by vhs. 0 r t he Soc i al Sc i enc es.Jld Ro'll. also rlorbeck .lthe first p&-rt of' the pre-et!ding note trace t.ne establist'Jed by Edward Tylor (PTim~ ti ve Cultur£. Cfa. All o·r the sources it. this can 'be demonstro.hics...any of religion.y l.. 15th ed.."1ica. are freque-ntly de fined toget.1963}: 495-518.. (197L) ~ Macropaedis.8 In trDduc-ti.

Hastings (1925). ) Clos~ly r~lated to magic is the use of cb. Magic.B." operating irrations. possible distinction of "direct lf (compulsive.tionship (and the tl.aFP~al bas~d ona relationship with the/a the desired result.and effect 2 Reli.tional~ na.l (or transhwn.her kno\rn. if spoken.a.be defined" Tor the-present purposes. Mi defined above" can thus be broadly distinguished fr~ eclence and religion.. as the use of ro. tbough the distinction is not &1v8YS clear-cut. 279. ~opies of Yrit~ Charms are vi eYed al3 ef'fi c8. 1 (More specific guldelineS t related to the areas being eonsidered.g.ion~ On relation~ ships. varieties.o obtain (r~quest) The pre-ced. and amulet5 (objects" including t en spells).l means to try to obtain (or compel) by means 01' some presUlrJ. Ie contrast to magic) science can .ns) m. pover (deity) t. not necessarily exclusive.n) ca:ua.ti ve)" .tural (physical) cauee . PI.cious largely on the basi s power. U explicitly formulated.and "indirect" (suppl1cative) magic.Defini tiOti Df' lo1agic Bom~ 9 result. or lef. the other hand" aup~rnatural uses personal .ssociuted mea.1' ~c:rclo­ R~ligion rmd Ethics" ed.. here a.ay 'be vi@\i'ed in two.. aTe given at the beginning!:! of' Chapters III Bond. des1gn~d.1 rel&- tionship. '''Magic (Gr!!!ek and Roman ).sonable.1!'d sUP~r'n6.ams t used. B.s a general term to include both spells ("words'll" spoken or WTitt@on. . 2Tbose hypothesized being supported by "rea. Ki:r'by Flower smith. This rela. impersonal as ~xisting or personal) re'sulting in a.1ng definitions are specifically tor the pedia. manipule.tura. or hypotheslzed. supporting evidenC!!!5 and suggested rationale. @it. inoantations).

ow :for vari a. in turn~ will produc~ the p06s1- bility of" gTeater precision in de:f'ining the terms :for their culture." and "st.ers studied.perJ:1a. especially in the use 01' the terms "irrationa. even in 'their own area.tural.)0 Introduc:tion present st.udy" and are not.s.he they a. 'Til i s 10"111 &1l.re 5 OJDevha t loose + VTit.!'"ily applicable to greatly differing cultures~ It is alao recognized t. while thes~ studies.J.l" and "ration6.. from the :modem vantage point. the preceding detinitiODs are expressed" necessarily.hat.t ions 8lIlOng t.l. neces:l8. Also. u .

The dis- cussion .ter sta.rs in the la.tionvill be given to studies prior in 1932.ith a :presentationi in historical and~Jzantine order.Jules J\fri~B.aspect of the qu~stion" but 'Will not be restricted to it" especiall:>" in the ear- lier periods...!'s of the history of the problems.modern secl-.AND HIS KE3TOI The question of Julius Afr1ea.h. These to the appearance of Vieille1"Qnd IS .THE SroDY OF JULIUSAFRlCANUS .nus~ llhile..111 elJJphasize those itelJ!is relating to t.he p:t+oblem of the relation or A1'r1canus to magic" an atte~~t ~il1 be made to put it in perspective by tracing the his- tOr)' of' the discillis10n of Africanus hom t. .J early studies wi 11 be further divided s chronologically ~ into two periods. Following this" ~on:sider8. In order to prepare tor t~le consideration or t.e magical .it.!'lie::.hose llhieh only became known to schola.c:onsensus.not subjected to the def"ir. of' the references to Afrieanusin the ancient sources ~ generally exclusive of t. Th~ discussion will begin ". has been consi dered and cont e sted and debs.gl. tt'!'d at varyi ng periods ove-r the c:enturi~s.he eB. The :first p@riod spans the dis~ussion :from the first pubeight~enth lishea Te~erence to Afr1eanus to the end of the 11 centur}p...Jiti ife studies such as the af':fairs of' many of the other churoth :fathers hoa ve rec e i ved.t literary ref'erd~v~lo:pment ences to him to the of So .

appeared nlainly as sidelines to other studies. If .o dealt vith The final Sf!ction of this ch. SOJne major studies of various aspects of Mri~ElDUs \(el"e produ.us in the h1stot"y of h'llDlan thOught. 2"APSyrtUS. of the solutions that hElve been suggested 1"or.12 Study 0f Mric anus During this period scattered cont~ibutions were made to the BtUdy~ largely in the farm of the publication of short textBlI or th~ pres- entation of sugg@'stions..~ed. or D.. especisil-y the long~r studies by Vieille- 2 1 The former. despite the occa9ionaloature of the refeN!nCeS ~ most. I!I.ributions to the problem. th~ but co really th~ new solutions 'Were suggested. orgs. in a.s the closes. and present. consensus..n vriters . Neal" -thl! end of period" presen- tation of these stUdies c:ann-ot be organized atrictly chronologica.rgel~ in the in- the discovery and pUblication of &1.. as to a solution of tbe p·roblem.t approach to 8.lly ~ but1s partially t. and in increasingly self-conseious efforts to find a pla-ee for Africa.1 possible an- t:ient texts.. 1 JulE!5 Afr1ealn ll ana: Ires Cestes. sense.SA some in earlie~ periods).ni.nd Bjorck.he question .-s These!! items sections in 'Works but~ surveying f!arly church histol"Y or Christil!l.the p!'oblem originated in this period.~ed according to major vriters vh. sums up pl"'eviou!3 study :fond l!I.D.. second pe:riOd~ The- from the early nineteenth century to the first decades prec~ding of' the t'llentieth. dif'fers from the creased ~phasi8 On one la. the lattl!':t" suggested ~b:ryon1c &nticl:pat1ons largely new solution (though it too J"I.apter deals with mor-e recent con- t.

(Berlin.tion B. Eusebiu5 vould have been 10 one of tbebest possible locations to have ~ccees to cOpies of A:fricanus's lit.ble :nten BJld under the 11 or Afric.ites. the letters to Origen and to Aristides.. This.ilized the opportuni t.nd nature of this first source. ttAbgar.ebenter Band. Atri~anU8 betwe~~ Prefaee~ he lists Clement and Tatian as 1..11Jle of Inachus.An~ient and By~antine References 13 Ancient and ~zantine Refer~nces Greek and Related Eccl~si&Gtical Sources Other than in Origen's reply to the letter concerning Susanna:> Afrieanus is not mentioned in extant literary sources bef'ore EusebiuE.lesti. 10-18+ (Hereafter cited as Chronik.'s. folloved by pag~ tlnd line I p nut:nbet' 5.1lrlnmdel"te'lo 2d ed. Eusebiu5 As a long-time resident of Caesarea in Po.anus t. e.. e. fiTst year oC Macrlnus be e. emong those who place M03es in the t. (tirsan~tug) ruled lEusebiu5 Werke lIi. and tbe ref'erences in bis own W'Titings seem to ind1~ate that he had ut.d~mie-Ve:rlagt 1956) 'Ii P 7:> lines.s as one of its 'basic the ChronofU'"fi. of Africanus:> and he cites or names all the other llOrks attributed to Africanus by modern scholars.Y. ) .f!L gap of tLppl"oximat ely a century be twee. Die Griechischen Christlichen Schrif'tstelle!" der ersten Ja. In tl'le In the Chronicle~ FusebiuB refers to Af'ricanus three tilD:l!.erary efforts. Rudolf Helm.y. Aka..l r eo lifetime and our major but this is partIally CQll:l- pensated for by the loca. and tbe Kestoi.hat.Ph. ed.r. venera. sourc~s His Chronicle htl. Dil!' Chronik des Hieronymus.l"~ady .n SO'lrces t Afr1CaJlw. as an opinion at thi5l point.le. 1. of cours e" i s al.

..Study of Africanus Ede. 31 . journey to Alexandria 051 account or the great t.1ogies of Christ in Matthe~ and Luke. Abr. and in the hoc r or t.s..cal matters: and in th~ other Gr@ek learning really vas 1!'. Thl! moat 1l:lportan.ve shown). 6). 2 t Eusebiua mentions an o:piniotl. bOok~ In . 2231.ingui. cone err-ing Daniel~s p~phecy of the Seventy W~eks [Daniel 9~2~-27J).rork .-perioda or historybe:fore tbe Olympiads). and aasociate5 of {whiCh ext~nds through mc~t or book cl!'rning Af1"iciLnus.phia in his Preparation for the GQSpe-. an. At OlYlDpiad 250.. questioning whether the story concE!'rntng Susann.Fi fth Book. Englisb translation present vriter.clas (who inde~d in philosophi. In it he ~aY!.~ NicQpolis. di ssananc.:r .t reference OCC\ll"S in 6.the fl'\1'@ in m. vr1 tten to Origen t is prese-:rved. 223~. And also eo further ~oIork of thE! s. 2 Further infoI'lIlB. is by t htl 2Chron1k. p.pparent.IOst dist. 20-24. l~bor.. Eusebius gives lo~g extraets from Africanus' I:l ChrOn{)gre. Bes. a~-eurately produce-c. Chr.phia.l (10.aus J was constituted iL (':ity t :a legation having been dilig~r.slhed J the oversigbt of tho@' church there being put in hi s hands as we he.) h~re ~ and p.ides these. 1 t lieliogabalus III (=an... the chronological 'W"riter (scriptQl"e t empp rum )..an earlier 1. where Eus~bius brien..ame of: Hera.m'ber of the ChronoAr:fj. 218. 214.'1 says ...a in Daniel is s.. . Eusebius cites theSIS!' opinions vith :resp~cts though he goes on to differ 'With them. of IAn. AfrlcanuB t the writer of th~ work entitled Kestol bece. ll!!t. (The el se\l'here in thi So c hapt er..purious and fictitious... 2--an extract from the.And of the same Ai':r i ea:nU5 a1 so fLnoth~. In Palestine. 6. 22l) " Eusebius testifies. It occurs in the generEtl conOrig~n text of the diacussion or the life) llOrks. concerning the a. lQ. Abr.Gsa. Chronikl' 21b.ter to Aristides. c elZle to u.he Go spel (8.l he himst!'lt undertook iii.ame AfrleanuB is preserved.r describes Africanus and his writings. em.tDe knowlL A letter of' his . . Orlg~n 'W"I'ote a most full reply to this.Jtl:y undertaken for it by Julius A:fricanus.tion is providell in the !celesil!Lstical History. 5-6. This chaptert headed "Con- About this time also. vhich was tortDerly called EmJn. lI.e of th~ gemHl. ."l The third reference is more s'libstantiaJ.

. Dominicus Vala.he ordinary historian • .. whid! part i allj' survi.. is quite possibl)' mediated through Eusebiu.) frOIli 2Sancti Eusebii H1eron..t.es AtricanuS·. Coll~ctic nova patrum et scriptorum GraeCOTU!lJ.ed. use.. 17-19. 'Wl!'re first printed by Angelo Mai.. chapter 29 {sec:. Fu:rther sections o:f thi e 'Vo~k are prorlded in EusC?bius t sg. 2~ 2"0. among var-1ous earlier examples of its.ot completely agree with him. Th..! vol.se~'with (Syn the Spirit n in doxologies bY' citing.l JerOUle produced a Latin edition of" Eusebius I s £hronlcle (which today fOr:ll:ls our major 80urce for it) ~ s. in 1.rs..l8 "iia. in the 5th of the Epitome of the TiJnes.. pp.e section of" 'Io Aristides concerning Herod's origif.uaestiones evangelicae ad Stepha]]B.) Ad Ml1gnum. cot dir~ctly from...our major sou:r<:e :for the text 01' that 1 et tel". Af'Ticanus. Zerletti! 1766 L .ytet"i e:eerlJ1Q.m~ a .us' B books.Eusebiu5 gives a long extract Africtl. (no. the epitome begins on p •. and.fter.. iritu. IF in k. in ~ case..ork. i..s. sancto.romAfrics.. " Theque. 73)]1 defends the uSe of the :phra.J1us':s letter 'Ib Arist1des. ev.1us ~ editio altertl. whi-ch he ".nd Apollon1us .ome. tomu6 prima~ pa. in one of his epistleEi.es. nThere: are extant also Julius Africar.l"do de Mont fa:uc on .1S'sonly ref·erence to Africanus. Scri .. IIII.IIl ve:terum nova collec:tio e Vaticanis codic. though he doe:sc.s. II 2 lShortly thet'ea. 7(. {In an 1831 reprint of this vol~e~ the enract is on Pl'... But this seems to b~ Athanasi1.. Aft. Possibly allout a half century later" Basil the Great. edits..Ancient and ByzantiDe References I) A:f'ricMUS.vmi Stridonensis presb..rn6.e :. if' this 'Vork i 8 genuine. ad Stepb. This citation is.l1"ote a history of the times. 1:. &svorthy of attention. in the 1J.. Claudius Risaud]o 1106J.er naming Hi'Ppolytus e.docia!1Ei.tOT'I.rs pr1ms. 1 Horne = Typis Vaticani6~ 1825).. describing him in passing as I'not t.nd in addition refers to Africa-nus in three paseages in his own vritings.. 7 . :2 "1/015 [Paris. the citation f'.. su.eh a usage by uAfrican1.UI thE! historiographer • • .5 cited about the seme t iI!le by Athan&:sius ('7) (n Athanas i i Alexandr i ni ex interJITetatione in Matthaeum.nus i6 in Quaes. Here also ~ Eusebiu8 cit. he says.J:i opinion. l1!'s in an @pit.ib\l. in section I~. (Venice ~ G. 21-2]. Jerome lists the "'Titers of the church from Quadratus to the Capps.

to Aristldes . Proof Gasp.).. Sig~ Rufinus of Aguileia and Philip of dividual.pE!!!"or Marcus Au:relius Antonius ri.turally t seems ei:nIply to echo Busebius .re ~:x:­ tant ~ under em. the omission of the reference to the Kestoi Cushing Ri{:h~dson~ TIJ Also gives (o:r :repeats from Euse:bius Proof' Go. Another letter of his.~ 'Ilhosucceeded Mac1"inus. ljf1eronmus Libel' de viri:s inl~stribus 10 edT Ernest.11 prinou pr-isa::t tal ayQ tou 8chinou schisa. nor the line ..sp.ttribution to Africanu5+ the wor-k by Eithe:r idea supposes some know-ledge of Jerome. 27) f1 lengthy e:ctract concerning the "Se"tenty Weeks" from Afrieanu5' 50 fifth volu:m.16 Study of' Atrieanus A more E!!rtens 1ve ace ount i a given ill hi s De vi ri s i llustribus. this omdssiQn sugg~sts dieapproval of either the work or its a.rs to exist lnt-he genealogies of' the Sa. and Co~.J his C01tIDentary on Daniel10 lIook3t a. nO.'t10 t<. Dan . Notably~ there is no ref'er-ence to the Kestoi. ~ Elaga"ba. but '!lith some :sig- nif'icant additions and de-letions. whose five vol\UDes Cone-erning TimeS' a. Rufinu8 makes on~ note. 14. is extant. 1 Much of the De vir~_ 111.!. learned le-tter.. chapter 63 ~ Julius Africanus. 8.e Of" TiMs (compare Eus. against wholD Origen wrotefl. invhich he argues at great length concerning the diaphonia vhich appea. 1 (1896}:36~31. e.• references t probably not unna.t Oaniel 9: 24 ~ Jerome T • • . In his translation of Eusebius's Church History.viour according to Matthell tilld Luke... liIod1ficat1ons. Ir. From him is a letter to Orig~n over the question of Susanna~ in which he says this fable not to be contained in the Hebrell.ble change.l to coincide with the Hebrew etymology. 8. 2).undertook a mission for renl!''Wal o:f the city of Emmaus llhieh af'terward was called Nicopolis.lusJ.

xcell~ntly Africa. 1IlSkes. 7. discord in th@! geneBlogy regarding the generations by the evangelists Ma. also..tsentence fo.E.....E. ed. a significant a.tl. 2 (1889): 169. . e. 35) 6nd So~omen SB. and the report by Syncellus (see below also). sUi'viving tr-o. and whic h later rece1vi ng the right of a city in accordance with the embassy of At"'rlcaD\l.- - . first haJ. HNeue Fragmente d~s Papias...8 des Ru:fi[Jus~ included in Eusebius 'Werke. 3 Moses of Chorene In the fifth centllr"'J.a. 2.rtz.. in the ES$t but :rolloYine. Die Grie!:hisc'hen Christlichen S. n TO 5.:. 1 The B~e considera. . 'the Greek (Bus e biM) tradi t i on. 2 As the editor of the :fragment po1trts out ~ the las. 3Ibid.l vri ters. g. C. Scbve.tiar.1aminus (H. th(! belcv) .nus 'Wrote: throughs letter to Aristides conce:tnit_g the &ppar~nt. 2~5a5.. But Africanus 'Was from . H~g~sippusund Pierius in bi!.lD Wllong the :m-ost learned of the earl.nnten 'Excerpten aus del' Kirchengi!'schichte des Philippus Sidetea.l~.ve pas~ing references to Africanus. Die J.Ancient and Byzantine in the chapter Otl Refer~nces 17 A:fric:anus (6.clrriftsteller der ersten drei JahrhUJlderte.Elmnaus 'the vi~lage in Palestine into 'Which Cleopas and those vith him j o'Urneyed. 31.. classing M.ddition to Eusebius's description of Africa-nus in H.f) ~ Most 4!'.&eschichte . Theodor Mommsen. 1.' Chr1s. 1) ha. 174. ed..l}. no. J. Hieronymus Chronicle {ct. .nd~ Die Kirchen.gment not generally known to modern scholars before its publication by de Boor in 1889. 3 part. T a ~o:mment fo!"IllS the e5sen-ce of its. . In this same tradition~ a ~a1r of fifth century c::hurch historians.sticus (H. .tions that Philip of Bide" in Q. (Leipzig. Socrates Schol6. Hinl"ichs'scheBuchhandlung" 1903-9).and also Luke-... 2C• de Boo~.t'U..teitlist::hl! Ube:rset.~ va~ ren~d Nikopolis. 1.veite:l" Ba. Afr i can-us • Q work vas utili zed by Mos @os of lSee.s. p.!.lher unbe'ks. Eduard.tthe'W' .".I"mS a middle ground between the re~erence to Emmaus in the EusebiusCh~onieon Pas:~ha. E... 7 CEusebiua..

he also used the histories of the templl?s of' Sino-pe of PcmtuB.man. _ 2 per-:Lott. for he exceTpted the documents and f/of?] the arcbives of Edes-ss. . Ludovicus D1ndol"fius. the tradition of dependence on Africanus (&lbei t in a. Weber t 1831).d.i- t:(. . Des Mosea von Chore:~e Geschichte Gross-Armerdens. aus den Artrl!!mischen nberset2:t von Dr.. ~l1apt-er 7 •• 13. fol' \Ie ourselves.nllhile.. CO~~g Scriptorum Histori~e Byz~ntioae~ ed.'nio.. Moses turns to a new source (the end of" che. Wlfort'lt. confirmed by Josephus.ll that cone ern~d the hi story . a ditferentkind of refere-nce began to appee.1 Thel'e is..ne. the uEusebian H line t'ontinued also during this same .lalae Chronograllhia..tion of use of" another aOlU"ce) ~ saying ~ We vil1 commence to deserib~ the events according to the fltth book of Afr1Canus the Chrotlologist whose testimony is. Ext ant copi I!! S t hovever.are.."1ately ~ nQ fID'ther indication of' how closely ~ nor hOOt far. 70 ~ the Engli sh trs.pter 9 had announced. s. p. Manz ~ 1869 ). E. in the first book.-ith P'ulgentius. Niebuhriu5 CBonn: £d .. B. G. TeAte Am. gi ve no speei fi c data c onCE! rn i n g Africarrus·s life. J. {Venice: 'l'ypogr-aI>hie arnenienne de Saint-Laz.e. ha. ed.. l-L Lau~r (Regens'b1ll"g= G.. .. Moses follollCd Af'ricanus.om.. In book 2~ chapter 10. the t~rmina.. 't Me..r ..2 vols. Hippolyt us . 18~1}" l:168-7l. \iotse de Khore.18 Study of A:fricanuB Chorene in his History of' Aru:il!.el's.t i s U:rha 11 e. In the folloving century) in the West.e-d belov 10 under the heading HSecular Sources.e\i'htLt corrupt to rm ) .ss.on will be disC"\J..0 f our kings (those books had been bro\~ht fr~ Medzpin).. ~ the. since they lack the period. This Oe\oi line of" tra. par P.enien et traduction 'Fran~aise. ho:n tara-calla to Valerian (Jofinnis Ha. ~e Chronograpnia or Malalas (later sixth centurj) continued . ~Vai~la::1t de Flot'i val..n sIs t i on given here has be en rtliLde from the Fr~nch translation eompared vith the G@r. Histoire dTArmenie. auteur du Ve siecle. and :many other Greek wri t. rlo one should doubt this.e seen these archives with Oill~ 0'IKn eyes Fl. .U"ther te'stimony of thi s 15 provided by the Church History of Eusebius of Caesarea.

221-224J. . the next year not.nus (=A. LudoviC:U5 Dindorfius ~ Corpus ScripHistoriae Byza.. '1'hese incl. was mad<t! a city t Julius Afr1co. The lll.. Ind. p.D.G of Pale stit. 301 and 311). se em.. G. but this'W'OUld have to be one of" thl! numerous earli~l" Afrieani.ude One or the more .inf'ormat1 ve ones in this lEo J.nu..y Press . [!:A. Later (ldn9. The s e cOll:llonly 8. 1-2).. Weber~ 2Chronicon yaschale.tions of de. 15. 'Which coo<:: ern s us most.t. ed.St. 1969>.. D. (yr.. seventh century work knovn as the East. 30ther references to A~ril.nd on the Seventy Weeks of Daniel (pp.ntin~le~ has . B.rlier in the work relate to his vievson the dating of th~ :first 01ynIpis.!. (Bonn: 1832)2 1~L99~ 1ipes 5-1.d (ibid . B.ntmlerOUS refer~t:Idea t. 2237).o A:t'rir::QD'tls in his Chrou- bgraphy. Dated in the 250th Olympiad {A. short line to s e"Yer-al pages) taken from Atr1 canus I s Chronogra:e.Ce:m~nt corresponds 'W'ith that of Eusebius). 148). Bicke:rman. Abr..s to b~ derive:d 1~rom.:8Jlus 'Which oc<=ur ~8.us.D. tliebuhrius ~ '2 vols. 231. - period. Eusebius • s Chronicle (an.t 6 (ranging i rJ length f'rOlII. tOTlUJ! Ed.er Chronicle (Chronicon ~Qschalft) has several re~erences ~o Afrlcanus. ..An~ient and Byzantine References 19 Cbron icon Pascbsle The anonymous.llies:J s4!rvine.ntinae . 3 Georgius Syncellus Syncel1u9. 223 J ~ :it says.h. p.L = Cornell Universit. 189. a.ssador 2 behalf of it and being leader" . 1. Most of the referen(:es~ ho'Wever.ships 1 of' Maxiltlus and Aelianus. 193). the· ll1"iter notes th~ death of an Af"r1canus in Olym. consist of cit.e OIl a history of the ti. under Indiction lla" (ye'ar of theemperorJ 3 l during the consuJ.1tern ate vith s upporting or contrasting opinions from Eusebius and/or other sources. ulakopol i.as amba. ed.es the death of Ac'toninus Elagabalu.) 11~ consulship of T~rquatus II and Julio. Chronology of the Ancient 'World (Ithaca~ N. of the late eighth end early ninth centuries in Consta. of emp. -J.J1?~ previously Emme.l!l....s (this plfI.s J who wrot.

aus.. serving a. 1829)..1a.s amoo 5 sador . ~ reference to th@' ttL. father of Origen. lGeorgius §:rocellus et . reads t Enn:n.lsi'bly personal knowledge.PJQ ilomediately preceding a refereDce t.Nic~horuB CPt ed.. -Ibid.tise of t. about these ti1I!es. ed. p. pO!.cine . concerningvbich report is ma-de in the Holy Gospels. 3Ibidw:. G.. Weber.he pi. t'~late dire~tly to the life ant:1 times of' Atricanus. B. Abr.e (Urbanus).8Dtinae. 2' The fourth SUI: h pas sage COil S ist5 of three paragraphs Cbronicle (a.t.and. ."l.. 226) ~ being gepEU"ated from i. the village in Palestine . and J erus a.s.. and Ze'be:nnus).l writing to the time l or Antonin'llll (Elagabalus).D. 2237 and 223~1) It partly derived hom Eusebius·s a. p. (Bonn: Ed.xeB (A . vas g1 ven the honor to be named Nikopolis bY' th~ emperor Alexander.lchemy (m@tallurgy?J dedi~ates it to this Alexandt!r.r:to rules EdesslI.. of tHlture: end of agriculture and of a. The first two date his histot'ica. Niebuhrius.ously named Abg.400. Ahieanus:to h~ving inscri b~d t. 1~:201 and .ely :following references to Clement and Pant&enus:to a.Le-onid&. 616. 3 This passage oc:e'll:r:l.l oshortly after 8.s. The second reference specifies th~ third year of Antoninus as the terminus of Africanus's ehronologic:Q1ea. .nd partly from some otter source:. . .a. prescriptions?J of :m-edi.Antic:x:h (Philetos Or Philippos.rs in the account of' the IrAf'ricanus J l!'L reign or Septimi 'US Severus: Christian hiatori~~ fl our i shed . A:rricaous~ who 'W'rote the h1stori es in hi B fi ve book 'IIOrk. comprising formulae [powers'? .heKestoi.'r il:anU6 FoID" referenC:4!s.20 study of: At.lem (Narc is sus) .t only by an updating reference to the occupants of the bishoprics of Ro:m. GuiliemuB Dindor:fiu. :2 vols. tJ.ne-book tr~a.o the r:oartyrdocn of .k~over 01" Pertiia by Artaxer. The third oe~u..1culations .... Afr1-c8nus BayS that Abgar. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byz. d~vout man~ namesake of the pre:vi. 669~ It is more c1oa~ly dated only by its position ~ immed.

f theRoma. Syncellus quotes Afr1canus' s under the :fourth.:Jot being read by hitll a:ttlOng the Hebrew 'Io"ritings~ iLnd as notfol10'\ring the Hebr4!'W etJ'l=lOlQg)'".:::ame hl!l. He also writes to O:rigen concerning the narrative about Susan. and tr&ns. Souphis.so the eve-nts fro!!! Chri:st until t.t trea.ntinl!' pUbliee sOus le -patronage l'Association Gu111aUJDe Bude t 2 vols. Nemphitic:. who raised the .s of Africanus: Afl"icanusi'g historical work was read. 1825)!t 1 :la. t..fact tI. :2Codex 31 1 in Photius Bibliotbecue!t text establ. EusebiusPloditied this somewhat) according to Syncellus' s report" "Who Ma.s. 'by Rene Henry~ Collection byz... which the Egy-ptlMs treat as a grea.O h.ppears the nota.fl. On the relationehip of Photiu. in his :Bibliotheca (or MYr1obibl. He begins ~th the Mosaicworld~creation.. 2 lIbid.1sobe. This man tL. neither theapototl.greatest pyramid.tLes &lles Let tX"e e:' 1959!t 1960}]I 1:19 . The book is five volUInes. 63 yea. and also or thl!' Suidas. wh1l. Socie.oi }!t describes the work.he suppoe. (Paris.na. summ.a.r::r.leo Orig~n having received wrote in r~ply. the so-called Keetoi in l~ ae.. (This is the one 'WhQ also co=nposed. because vith him) as is said t this history vas also: completed t totalling 5723 years."vs to have been dOne by CheopB.nd wrote thl!!:! boly 'book. in 1 (Berlin ~ G. 182L. lists of the Egyptian dynasties. 'P.rs..n~.a. which s.o .And he c". 1 Photius Some'llbat over a half' eentury la.ughty to'ilard the gods s.or tht! a.) And it ls!n .p9 tau schinou s~nisai. as . but nothine.~it"Jg becotlle naught:)' toward tbe gods. when he had repent. ~p.. tJrinou prisai n.u"so:rily handles aJ.I:anJanuel'Us Bekke~ 10 2 vols. of the necessities fail to be Tecorded.ter.. 20. and comes down to the appearance of Christ. 'Vl"ote th~ holy book..Ancient and By:2antine Re:ferenees A fifth reference~ rro~ 21 earlier in the work~ gives insight into Af:dcnnus 1 g literary interests.ed dissonanc:e het'lleen r~atthe'W" o. 105.he reign of" Macrinus the king o. And Africsn'lls vrites aJ.ctiot1s.nd Luke concerning the genealogJ' of our Savior. E. which Herodotus sa. .ed..tion: Mdt 2.so to Aorist-ides in which be adequatel)' showed the harmony in t.. djrnasty a.eure Pr (ibid.h!t as a great value!t I p:roe:ured 'While in Egypt. lQ1). Photl iBi'hI i otheca t ed .te d 'Editi on . PhbtiUS. Reimer..

"1d ~4-46 . 1. 11 34.. &:ad of Florentinu.o. and o:f Africanua]l and ·of Tarentinus. 2 vola. bas ed on thi s one. ed..t against Africanus Sextus ~ Origen M"t"ote Jerome (and Eusebi'lls).").. If could be construed in otber ways. and finally also out of Diophanes. Bekker~ 1:106b-101a). of Leon. (.anus's f1History-" (pp.figure of l~ books varying only t~xtually from the S\rldas' 2~ (p" h6 Lwent~el wrotl! 'betore the OxYrhJ"l':lchus Papyrus dem. line 30 to p.s the title of a 'Iol'o. Against him Origeo Wl"otl! sUbmitting a.. Paradoxa could be taken as a peraone. . or a.~.r-.Study of Africanus Somevhat later]l Africanus appeoA. . infot"llLfLtion is providedbjr the tenth century Lexicon tha." Under the name "Africanus" a:ppea.rituB ~ . and . l Suidas New .adoxa.. . a Libyan philoso~her.. Some t. ~4-45). .. The lines "out of the paradoxa of .. l'hotiuskne'lol' personally only Afrie..ssembled by hiw.l title ("out of the Admirabll!'s (IllustriousJ Delnocri tus .. though quite possibly some'Wh~t erroneous.rDie Griechische Ubersetzung de!" .iri inlustres de!3 Hieronymus. 3 (1895)~ esp. 1834)7 1:683B. and of Vale-ns.. (Oxford: ~jpOgrapheo Academica. k33. The Kestoi in 24 books.11) .!"s another 'WOl'k read ~r &8 one of' the sources o:f Phctius: VindaniuB Anatolius B~:t'". and also :from other (sorts of') operations. . rejoinder concerning the book of Susanna wbich is in Daniel. 2 Africanlj~s.suggests a commOn source behind Photius and the Suidas .i b1e ll!l.rtzel..lo3. 2 Su:idae Le::dc:on (ed... . "SlJsann6.rs th~ fOllowing entry. end... • .l puraui ts 'Was read • The book.t 'bears th~ name "Suidas.. A~ 617.rk of only the last named Indi viduBJ.1 til Photius I s . styled Sektos. or Sui dae Lexicon." Ttl 13~ no. and or Apuleiu8. p.rout of Democ. was adde-d.tl!'d 'Which was the corl"ect figure).ords and charms Cspells?] atld 'Writings of certain characters. Thomas Gaisford. who wrote They are a ki. both out of the paradoxa of: Democritus. 1-4.. and of Pamphilus.te r a marginlL1 entry..s. pp.r).". He. a. vas a. • • and finally &1so out of Diophanes t Pa. ". lCode~ l63 (Henry. line 3]1 en try ~l:)... Adl.onstr.nd of natural history ha:ving healings (remedies!) both from .~ Tha. part 1.. Bee GeQrg We-r.rtus'5 collection of agr1~ultura. and the book is 12 volumes.

hl. 2:3374B..ma. Porphyry.~ing the nQruit 8 of' Symma.. his Chro-niele: puts Leonidas' s ma. 1 :.e gooS. '2 The next paragraph.). 2Georgius Cedrenu5 IoannisScylitzue Ope" ed. V.es its questionable status (HHunc art.s.! 'book of vhi. Cedrenus provid~s a fev references to A~ricanus.evbe. vi th the follo\7ing cla'Use making Ori. Migne .~ curs us co~letU5 . chap.. It may be noted that while t.~arma s rejoinder concer.rt.• wok 6 (chaps. but without indication of the emperor. reprint. :2 voIr.1 text of Adler.. describing the reign of' Pert.'l.ing Afri. cites Euse'bius .. 1. and 551!552C" respectively ~ (This i1'ork is hereafter cited as PG LJ) • 3Cedrenus" ed. Weber'll 1838.-P. 3313 indicat.inELX.r ex. These events a.6ed it1 transmission. • series Graec&.he.miaturgus. 3.ll in~lu.nine... resp. Et male hue illQ.ther-of Origen. in his Chronicon sJ~tomon~ erred in the opposite direction. ed. habet A in :margo om. and the presbyter Novatus. 151. (Bonn = Ed. H. back to Eusebi 'Us as 1 t s bas i c sourc e. l839). Niebuhrius. p. 3 lGaiSfOrd. 5~.I:nisplacements were not \lJlusual: two centuries earlier. along vith Cl el!lent thtf! Gregory Tha.e. t S floruit under l'Maximus and Gordian It (b'k .as pla. under Decius (bk+ 3. Ce-drenus cites ·~Africanus the ChrOnOgTflPber H as placing "Clel1l~nt t. Su.Ancient and 5ubmitting .re a.dl2'd in Eu.c bus.c:h is in Georgius CedTenus In his SynoE-sis histol"ion".U1t of' the reign of Commodus.j or on. 1 ~ 9.41. item 2) (J. 162 vols.original entry in MS A still retained the form Sektos" the !Dllrgil:ia.e B. and Afr i eMUS". 1 • . item 4) 11 a. 19) 31..15 11 6:8. vhich comes down to the mideleventh centtL~. chap. marginal note on p. By~entine Rererences Su.. 'l'he ma. it 1s omit.1 D aIll. in this reign. and tbi!! martyrdO!Il of' LeQt:idas s f'.yrrdom Uf)de:r . Corpus Scriptorum Historiae :Byza. 17". In his acCOi.ed 1880-1901~J 1 vol. t.E .t conf'u. G.canus.he eritic6.441.t~d frmn t.l &nnotator understood it as Sextos. [Paris: Garni~r­ Fratres ~ 1857-66.tus 'Vid~tu.ch chronological .e_ Stromatist. thoU8h it is som. putt.nd:.gen a pupil of Clement..rtolos (alias Monachus).ntinae~ ed.he Stromatist I' in this time.. Georgi US Ha. 110 11 cols. to pat-rologil9. 683B H ). B. . I~ueluB Bekkerus. IlekJter" 1~J. fl.

tion (Bekke-r. of the account regarding t.iu.he DCiJ.us}. Septimi us and diae:usaes Atric8.dition vas being maintained or devo!'loped. .Stu~v of Africanus Ni cepho:rus Calli stus iJ.he des~r:iptlon of 'the Di!:!ad Sea) a.sti~ae historiac 5. s opinion regardi ng thein'terprl!!!ta:tion 0 r the til's t day of c r@"s.. ~ e. but are not ident. Possible origins of these views are noted in the discussions below.1so Nice:phor'US 1.nus und!!r Cara.. The fourteent. ably to be traced t·Q Af'ricanus' s Chronography (c1"." 1 but gives it less prominence.ebius. 1~7).11 and Eus~b. c-hapter 21. having moved the references to the Chrono6raptly and t'O Herae-lea to a position before it. 21) in Po 145~ C"ol. This line of tradition relates only indi:rectlY' to the question of Africanus1! the Keatoi.:nus . 1109C.nt.". ".nd he) being also the o. a slight l'eB-TTangetrtent and l"e-vorkinB or Eusebius g.'his lin~ of trfLdition ~nds as it be gsn--wi th Eus. an offhand letter to Orige-n. and magic.oi.. r~rerefl<::t! He includes the- to the Kestoi. the Yerba. 7).188-189]).g. g.U'ied as such by C~drenU9. 6. Other items (e.l agre~:ment.ed Afric&n'u'S Qsa biblical cOIm!IentatQr and bishop (of Ernma. . 5.cil. the questions arose).S :etres~ing the Christian B. 4nd ignoring the secular side (from Yhich.) t.11a. El!Lrlier in his vO!'k Ced!'~nus had rdted Afl"i r:a.uthor s~nt.d Se-a (Bekker) ~~51J 'With that of Syncellus CDindorfius 10 1.h century Ecclesiastical History of N1cephoru5 presents Af~ic~us in book.a 1. B. of the books entitled Kest. This view pr~s~.re prob- ~ic:ephoTUs Ca11istus Xanthopulus EC'clesil!l.Sp-ect of his life and vritings. 31 (compare tl. Syriac Ecclesia~t1C'al Sources In the East) a somewhat diff'erent line of tra.

tanus ia listed (in tbe introductory paragraph but not in the following discussion) along v1th Eusebius in (possibly SyriB.nn1s. 913} vas NJulius Commento.rt of the De pa. 1.nce In the discussion of" 1: 17 ~ of Moses on the Mo'U.ttoer ) . 2 (1721}: 129. on 1~17 see also ABsemani~ ~See belo\l) "p. 2 On both of thes e men ~ gee be low (esp. 3 Dian. l} Corpus SeriptOl"U1n Chri stianorr. I. 25 According to Assemani I S stmlll':l..9. further testimony to knowledge of Af'ricanuB in t. 3 vols... BibliothecB.re the 18. De Propa- ganda Pil1~.crae Congregationie. 1119-28).ysii bar Salibi Commentarii in evanaelica.he East- In his co~entar)r on Matthew.un OrientalilJ1ll.ogies~ Afri~anus in the discussion of 1=15 and 17. Ai"ri.urces.')t of' Transfiguration. bishop of' Amidn t provido/!'s 0.-IL Chabot t et ala t Scriptc:res Syri" Versio.. p.l.ngelium Joa. that for ~he third (17:9) is p05sibly the Chronogr~phy.~ item a... 28 t with tt.. Leipzig. pa. Bibl. ed~ I.diso eOlttJentari us ad lmatium Of Moses BarCepha {dil!::!d A. on the and. pp. ~ontrast to various other 3 The source of the e'ormtIe:nts on the first tvo pa.ssages <1~15 end 17) is clearly the l~tt(!r to Aristides. otto Sedlac~k. n • :2:1 . '. ut~d H~rrassowitz.ttribto the "Scholia on the Gospel of Matthew" 'by Africanus. he cites getlea. tomus 98 (Romei KarolUs de Luigi. in 4 (Rome= Typis SQ.ra.ry.. 1906). 289.9 t on the appeara.cobus bal' ~alibi (died 1171). in Evs. 37~ ~4....l".• 2~ 161-62.Ancient and Mot. related Syria. of 17. series secunda. Orio/!'n'ta. 11 In all cases t lJosePh Simonius AssemMi. Or . aided by L -:5. . 26. tl"MS.-01. 1906. among the sources of the first...lis ClementinoVaticana. for 8.2 Dionysi'l1::2 Ja.C) so. es Bar-Cepha ByzantiD~ Ref"erenc(!l:.. n1 ASgemani &tt~mpts to clarif)r this by reference to the testimon)T of Ebed-Jesu and Bar-hebraeus. Chabot. D.

c title of ".iah ~ Joash.... Afl"icanu$ is r~­ fe-rred to as "a c:ompiler of genealogies'l (p.1'ricanus occur in discussions of r~a.s dep~ad.'2..l.s a ca.. in EvangeliUJD Joannis" . aod Amaz1ah b~t Mo. :11. AfricatlUs is us-edj.. :22. {n F>Ta.libi ~ spea. Julius in various passages of" the Ho. Though he liats both~ Ass(!'mani does not take suf"ficient cogn. Co.. Or .!'"dley 3M. trans. &t on~ point. SPCK..i so). a$ e.Julius)) ~ aJ:)ong many others t in his commentary on the Holy SCl"ipt'l.lting at thi s point.ed by an attempt to explain the origin o:f bar Salibi's errorJl as one of the Syri ac ."y Called B!lr-llebracus. the Chronicon Arabicum (orL:iber D:.Abu'lFa.first...tthe~.) and the Chr.]o Gl"egol'"'i.. 103.:anus a b1 shop.nastiartllD.ding flAfr. ~ilmot EB.tre-s the Syria.1.. 1 Bal"-Hebr-aeus Gre:gory A'bl. 6..' s geneE'.26 bar Study o! Africanus ~alibi rerers to the ~~iter simply as Africanus. Ebed Jesu) and the views of scholars of his own time (cf. his discussions o:f the 6ource51 of' IlU!:. 1925)]0 pp. g •.. l05}.. The last three: references s~eiJl clearly to be from the letter to J\J"is.led Bar-Heoraeu:3. the .r $a. W.. The references to li.7 1 ters vho :lIlake A:fri o:.(2: 158) . of the names o:f .nus EpisCOJlusE:mCo:mmen t.v).d veIl be from 6 lost portion of the letter (or from the Chronogr-aph. 23 rth~ point 1~ emphas3. 102).lly vi tb a l'e fel"ence to A.raj) Ccr::iJl:.e di:acussing uJ'ulius Co:mnentar.. probably e.r of' later S)"1'iac vri ters (esp. l02.. It is ~ hov-evcl'". In tva chro!"Jologies also attributed to him.r. ~ou1. .hich he f'inds as a sourCe!" of' Bal'-Cepha .semani. refers to bar Sal. not bl!l. ho.z.a semani. and ed.i zance of the f'act t and e1Iie~·here 'Wonders whet-her Gregory do~s not cite the one WTite:r as both Af'ricanus and. 1111 t and 6....t. Carr. :t-~yst.. a learned Syria..m his Ertud. Cestes.' 1 Faraj scl~lar t cal. For t hi 5 reason bar Sal Hli is f"req.tt:tlliental:{ on the Gospels from the Ho:rreurn.ibi' 5 sources as inclu.e:riorum {London.t'1"eum (2.29~ \i'"hi1.c and ecclesiastic of the thirteenth centuryt utiliz@d the Nork of Afl"icanus of ~us2 (and also of Pope. p.e ver.onicon SyriaclJI!l..tidea. which concerns th~omiss1on. Bfbl.the·...US 1 Bar-Cepha~ 2:129).rry-oVel' fro.uently cited (usue. As semani .hich is Latinized a$ Horreum ~sterioruro (The GranarJ o~ Mysteries). .ica...onl.• 2:283.. in the Assemani .Ahe.~ 'by Vieille!"ond~L~s.lo~· of Christ (¥p. and.ngel.

4tb ed.l.6sus) (1. that the Latin compiler or translator of pseudo-Abdia. Or. ' p~ £i09).. 3d ed.~ r~te!"ence proistalDenos.cu5s!ng B8. 3. favorably ~i ted.310. in Eyangelium Joannis" 'IIhich he postulates a. Bib110theca Gra.e .r features of this line of tradition are the identification of' Afrie-anus Testament cOm!Dentary t. 3 though it is ~ib]. the passage e. 18). New Gelzer specuJ.. 1 Ebed .Fabri~iu:e-Ha.atea that the f'ortDer may to him a.dition reaches its climax in the Ca. bovcver .. the alleged transl.{ 0. Bishop of Emmaus ~ commentar.29 h Gelz-er suggests it.of Africanus's llorks {2: 1. ~ (1195]: 21& 5. l=lO~ re Eus~bius Chron1k~ an Abr. Sextus . 3139 2 Ibid .z uThe blessed Af'ricanu!3. I' saying ~ has: a On Chapter 6 t between the Hippolyt'US ~ presents "Arricft.e&l '\11th the relationship of the J)ersons m .saris Moreti.. part 1 (1125)=14. l~ vole.o him. Chronicon Li&schale. 2.I!I Y-ete!"'UlJI Graecorum.~ identifies this catena item as from the supposed "Julius Commentu. Af'ricanus (accordi"pg to theeva1ua...6)... Anotber source of the idea.eca siv~ notitia. however. chapters on Clel:leflt of' Rome and Episcopus RauJI. seri tQTl. at 17=5 (see Balthasar Corderiu5 1o Catena MtI"UttJGraecOrutn in sanctum Joannem [Antvel"p = Ex Officina Plantiniana Ba.. rr2 The two pec::ulie. Jo.ator of the work. Sextus. as a scribal error for Julianus (i. 1!l!..nu.ion of B.ern~r'?) n»akes Africanus. of HalicarnB. c~.s ~ne . 2D L Gelz(!r.Bl 3 lO: 1. tne. derive !'rom E\lsebi us t EO fLS a bishop and the attribut.t1on of Assemani) is Uotten (saepe ) . l7l8-28)~ '5 (1723): 270 {..nd quotation invol'led (John 11:5) d. Christoph.rCe:ph6.talogus librorum omnium ecclesiasticorum of Ebed Jesu. It ~r be notred. Felginer. Dindorf (L 499.tha... A1b~:rtus Fabricius.T eau This line of' trfl. 16363 .s (an EaS1:. 1:18~ and note 5).l.0 the Mev Test8Jllent J ana a Chronicle... .eltlani ~ in dle. ed.rl~s.Ancient and By~antine Ret~rences 21 1atte:r.s.ybe confusioo 'With the I1Jtliius Episcopus u vho appears at least onCe in the cate-na on John . Ass. a bishop in one re:ference (Celzer. Since . and Theodor. 2237.U9. Hamburg: Ch:ristian Liebezeit.

" first published by Joar.nt9.Africaous I either ~ommentary or ~choli a. published t imm~d.J. a chapt~r ~ . g. Pitre. 71) UJd a nw La. . see: Spyr.iate.ne:=.ke + These. Clu'-on. 16ij-65 and 167). 163--68:t re codex Th. r'!'l-e.tCono er-ning the app euance of Moses and. it was republished in vol . 1766~82)) vol.ed Qn Matthe-1. XLII (not@ ~sp... Testl!'l1i!lent cotnmentary is probablj' baged on incorrect deduction ~ from the prominl!!nt citation or Africanus in other commentaries."IIp1.fol.. Martin . 3!O eols.!'Augusti ssima »1hI iotheca Caesa.t Matthew 1 (and on a fev other passages besides). de Trattnern..m s ev~n th C eut ury :tIlOnk (concerning Manassen t g r~pentance and escape].e.nis. i...aiJ 8 vols+ (vtu'ious places) 1876-91. 1895. 2") (p. PitrQ~ Analect6. 3J}. and other such items that. 1900). ThoI08.28 Study of Africanus Boroet 1mes supported by Origen' s a.ersi ty Press. sacl"EL spicilegio Sol~snJ. 2 ~ 283.Joseph Ro'Uth~ Reliquiae s&'Crae~ editio altera.entfl.. 2 (TJ'P is ruse ula..ppearance of "Julius Paps.. (Oxford: L Tj'"POgrapheo Act1:demico. I h~ve seen.f!"iac text ('lex codice addi ti. repu.tin translation (p. P. :2 vola. trag. 2~ 288. cf'. Similar to this a.onali Musaei :Bri tannic 1 121557 fol. 1966 L...{anuscriI!ts on Mount Athos..Ue va.""tin Cas. Bib1. As B.Lambros~ Cfl.e Nob. E. !roo codex Coislinianus 276! .I e. (Cambridge:: 'lini .ddress ing him 8. co1s. could this not p~rhaps be t"r0l!!i one of 'the. 2:99 re the <=ontents of the lviron MS 311. Adamus Franciscus Kollarius (Vienna. .. of Rome? . Farnborough t Ha.. . Or.. 188t-): 292. 8 voIs.r-Hebraeus [Assema. 5 vols. 18G6-4BJ.! England: Gre gg Press Ltd..vritings of Julius I. in a.i. suppo9i tionof a cOm:lD. Petrus Lambe·::: ius! Cotml". . .entar:t' 'by Africanus t is the attribution of a Scholiaon Matthew's Gospe~ to him.te to areas of th~ Bible that are prominent amon8 the survivin8 fr6gments of AfriCfIJ1US l s knOVD.EJ" after all t deeply concerned 'iliththi!.~ JOfln. thus 10 they do not require the postul. with fi. see abovft t p..blished..tain. XL). Just noted . Gr. by J ohn ~ B. ed.:r-i orwn.lElpo:=..'l exa.:rea V1ndobonensi. 2").S tTBrot hC!"t' ~ 'I in hi s reply to the letter ~otlcerrJing Susanng.e and."·s GQspel.ly :following the Syriat:: item .e of th~ use in the catenae.oste.. (Par-is: BxPubliea Galliarum Typograllheo 1883)" with both the &. from a coIl ectanell. Bapt. u 1 I 331 )..l veT'1 question 'note also the a. Latin translatiQti communicated to him by P. both of thl!'!sl! are examples o:f catena. Afr.. dt. Syr1aco 15155 Musei Brltannici~ foL 56 a tl!rgo "'::01. Ma. 1 of' the Godhead. 1st ed. iLt..xsmple of the latter (2~292.lo£:il~ or Greek }.t 1876-8' .ating of" aTI::" other! loat" In''1tlng or. The supposition of & New OJ]. In the West 10 Atricanus \tas utilized in various Greek catene.en. froc Nee-d...tfl. or .t 8JIloOtlg the sour~es of :Ba.h ich he cO.I..TJ unknor. 4 \!'ols.T)i. Elias to our Lord in the mo'Wl... 162. scnolia-.. 56 v9 col.. 26. . f'l"OliJ AfriCaDUS' s scbo1ig.e on Ll. works.

.gh . ng fragments of th~ Ke stoi. C.tes this to ffl... in his second item listed there . .hird line of evidence..Greek styo.ppears in our sources. presents a.. In the t.ftholosr.n the- various Ettzantine collections of mi1itary and veterinary writers form the main ba. :mainly Greek" thQugh sometimes rep- resented by transle. dealine: 'With the fti-ble of Peleus and ThE.ely.-s is of the sill"vi vi. T~ubner . he prescribed apFlyi['Jg "to the big toe and heel.1e aJJ In sl)pportof this t he c...pter 7 . ..tions into other languages .. cha. different Fulgentius . and ttIfI.~xtual notes .re therefore presented rath~r summarily here.!t is. bOok 3. p.sped 'by the heel. et erinary uri t er'8 Phctius . the authentic fragments :found i.. Planciadis.. In the middle of' the: sixth century .1tes Atrican:us 'lhiatrosofistes l1 : ~hieh "For &1so a stimulating Caphrodisiac?J plaster Africanus theprofes- sor of medicine called stisiden:. Rudolf He1cJ (Le1pzig~B.' . type of l"ef'erence to Africanus a. .in the :follmring chaptel'"s. different vi~\I or Africanus _ or these. thi. 'They 8. ~abii .Ct that. In discussing the significanc:~ th~ of h!s being gra.. vr:::in from the heel a:nd t·o~ :runs to the kidne:. Fulentii V.. G.Ancient and Byzantine References Secul ar Sources A t..t rtstisidec" ma:. . discussed above:.'· 1 Asr 1 cuJ t ural and .ensi . a. e r a . .. the organ~. 1n the West. ~d. 1898 . in his M... Fulgentius rela. .nd are dealt withE!'xt. in the latter part of the -chapter ~ re:fers to the dipping of Achilles by Tht::'tis.. B." relate to the. the edi'tbr suggests tha.. 11.

t1on commonly known as the Geoponiea ~ in vhich the both at the nam~ of Arrieanus ~igure~ in the li~t..ns which raise questions as to t.ry collections The B'/zantine military collections contain.ncienn~s.30 Study of Africauus. Su:idas On Suidas.s part of their tactical sections. quae o11~ nlneditB 'La. 17-63.·' Rela~ed Milita. I'Ta.1. s. was one of t.fl.l probler.nus l' s ntLme turns up similarly in certain collect1ot~ k. Alphonse Da1r~3 have throvn light on the lNote the discussions of tbese colle~tions later in tbis chapter.1:itical Sources. 189-98.raphrases du Cormnentaire d'Enee le Tacticiel:'J. are 5 hovever ~ textu.he princip. 2'Jules Af:r1c&in ." Revue de philologie. Sylloge Tact i COTUJII.he a!)- tiquity and authenticity of tbe specific attributions in both collec- tions. 1932)~ 24-36. espec:iB... de N1ce'Phore OUre. pp. Vieillefond 2 and. de litterature et d t histo1re a.:=:ially those in the Geoponica. 1937). xxxvi-xli.1y conneet@d wi.ntine vete-rinary today as the 1!1llThere piatrica Graece. 6 (58 of the-collection..o Africanus· s paradoxa ('1) as a Elource used b'J Vindonius Anatolius Beryttls.. p:p. b~ginning of the work and in the headine.th so-me of the more bizarre or question- able remedies and procedures.nos (Paris = Societe d 'Edition IrLes. His \tor-x t in turn. l"efers t. 3rd series. Les Cestes. souree5 of the By%antine cQl!IP1lu. with some sligl)t overlap with 'the Geoponica..ing oC sources.now~Il toms of the B:na. Belles Lettres:o . espe. see the discussion above t under "Greek and EcclesifL.s of certain in- d1 vidU&1 chapters? Afric6.e. ·'Adaptations et pa.ct1gue tl . a number of chapters attributed to Africanus.lly. 1 In both 'W'brks t A!'rictL"'lus':s name is usual.

us in his K~sto:L Because of the length of the passage ~ a. kind of craft ~ and oce '!liD bi!'get in e. :mi rabi Iium p'P. . • craftsmanlike~ or rather and various ather such like things tnis man in bis Kestoi te~ls as mQrvels and recounts in deta. London: Mack & A.1"Ylng collections.k of the mat-erial traceable to th~ Kestoi~ and.f'tsmar~like manner .hat generation is 6.strong. 14 . 1839.of -the vl!I.UD" {Paris. Georgi U6 West e:nnann. considerable proportion of his space to a s'I.rr devotes a. ~iE!i~le:f'ond. God and natUi'"e p:roduce conception~ as I indeed believe... 1~h. charm • • • antipfithies . 1939}.2.Antonius Weste:r:mann~ nAPMOEOfPA'JOI--Scriptores rerum Craec i (Brau. The chapters involved here make up the buJ.l"o'Us • • • These three lines of tradition overlap:o but each has dist. but Africanl.i tll 'by Af:r1caTI. 20) 22. Psellus In th. :xxxiv-xxxvi. ~ a secret.1L-lb~.16-17. • paradoxes • . Ih5. • by certain cha~s ~nd enchantoents • .l!nIrlfU'y or the curiosities de&lt ".3. 17-18. 146. Le 'ICorpus Pe:rd1tl. if the man • . .. 1ndeed 7 is so attributed (specifically to Kestos 1)1 in some of the-manuscripts.el Ps~llus~ in his "Concerning paradoxical readings. Jules Africain". 2 SQri::E!. also various p~riDdica1 articles and other works. • IHlradox .Ancient lines of descent and ~d Byzantin~ Rer~reneeB 31 inte:E'"re~at-ionships (."lsc hw~i g.e eleventh centu-ry! Mich!l. .12-13.rm. 2.lS says t. 1839}t p~~s (and lines) 11l3.":lli sin<::e the full text is gi vet') belov (in Chapter II)~ only a selection of lines is given here to il- lust-rate Psellus's views.11. c:ra. .inc- tive ~eatures corresponding to the cature of the interests of the The :first line discuase-d~ vr1ters in it-..:ris: SocietedtEdi'tion "Les Belles Lettl"es1"19=~8. the Greek ecclesiastical t LeQrJ'is 'TacticaU dicebatur (Pa. L ' Auteur.

teme dralt'tl from his 'W'Ti tings vhjch appeared in Greek ma.Ti t1ng!. and areas of information within it.nd. the :most complete and a. though fluetuating" ir. second line" the SyriQc eecl~sio.Btical lj.ccurate" The bLrt. s but in interest of complet~ness keeps alive the knowledge of the exist- ence of the Kesto1~ though vith varying degrees of evidence or perTh~ sonal knowledge of it.. is so1el.nuscripts knovn or :t"l!ported added to the int. with vith Africa~us's spe~iali~ed secular work.st.ent.ffairs.raglD. The ~xc~ptions are the 'ilork of Phot1us . !"rom providing some f.l of Af'ricanus.phy.ti vel)'. Thus there was (and is) a pil!!renni~..v no knowledge of the Kes:toi.. a.r coneerned vi th A'fricsnus r 5 ecclesiastieal 'Writings .Jterest in Afr1c:anus and his. Ear-ly Th~ rere~ence5 Studies to Africanus by Eusebius and other early writers hav~ kE!pt his name be:fare the literate vo:rld t and the variety of 1.ng~ . the Kestol..32 deals larg@"ly ri th the th~ Study of Afrieanus eccl~sis.s of his letter to Ar1stides or of the Ch:rono:gre..boVI!!" enlarges his ties 'With the eburch and the 5cope of his religious wri tines" but bE!tt"8. On the other side of the ledger~ the third line is concerned exclusive1y ev~n ~re eX~lusively. This vag fl!'d by th~ persistent hope that 'lsoQnu . it is unbalanced without t'he evidence of the third line.rigul!! of the subject.ch provide links 'bet'Ween. se~ond line appears to nave little of value to contribute to a knowl- edge or understanding of Africanus ~ apart.lUost useful s as rela.and the Suidas'lo whi. the ~~O maJo~ interests shown by linea one and three+ ~hese Of three lines of trfidition" the first seems to be the bei. fl.. as Doted a.ical.

i.u. some more.. :xxv. these references.t~d 'Io!'ell by the refereDces to him in hia fi:r~t centU!'Y in print .:.JttLl to]o or just a small part of. complete publication of his works t gathered 33 from all the various sources. I.ever question~ reasons came into contact '\lith 'the- did their best.:Early Studies the' world lIQuld.M1scellaneoruID cetlt..nus ill\1at!"t1. to 11- luminate the matter. (These early ref'e-renees usually involved pul>lica:tion of' f':rtlgJtl~nts:t or sUIIII:liari4:!s of po. 1 Meanwhile t 'those who il :for what.g the Syb&l"it. stil~ remains unfulfilled in its entirety~ 2Angel u.ssage eited fro. 1512J).tion. ~ules Afri. 'W'Orkentitl~d o~ ASrieanus in .s PolitianU5 (Florence ."II (= 'the first paragraph of' I. > 2 In chapter 15~ coneernin.der. 2.es..ture of the references to Af"rice.Politian Afri~a. either by publication of" fragments t or by specu1f1. the earliest ~dition tlvailable 1 in 1 (Paris~ to me vas the Omnium Angeli Folititlno operum (2 vols. were all inci.. 11 in Cestis 01' in Vi·eillefond f 5 editions Afri- canu-s) - This hope~ though n~ ~onside:rably advanced by the work of Vieil1efond..important or large:r task.Jl a. lQ89)~ reference to this first edi tion trom Vieil1~fona.nus gives in Latin translatiQn a pEl. .ppropr1ately enough. of vhateve-r :sort.. }lave a. The latter approach vas the most common.. Sixteenth to Eightt:f!!lth Centuries In the early centuries.ria prima. Badius Ascensiu5. n.ain ~ :p.rts:t of th4! KestoL) Possibly the first appearance of the name print iS J e. The first print~ references ~o Atricanus ar~ Thf! ineidental Qa.

scriptorum religuia.} Shortly thereafter. of Nicephorus' 5 Ec:c1. on this edition ~nd the sources of the ~hapter8 ~ttr1buted to Africanus. 411).ppea.IlIlina (Reme!lo 1525). Ecc1esiastic&e historiae 1101'1 decem et octo~ ed. (Leipdg.cceptance end publication of i tel::ls attrib'Llt..ry later!lo Cal V'US de Ravenna.rH:ilation of the Hiwio.eus ~ in 1537 t vith 6.r. p.me a.l" lI'1ttJ nn.rith this TO Fabius Cal \'"US Rhavennatis t Hiypocratis CoL octogintat Ba. Les Cestes. 1ticephorl Callist1 Xanthopuli: Se:r1ptoris vere Catholici.. .tion Qf any question regarding the ascription. 691 ( ala 0 2jLeterinari&e medlc1n~ libri II (Ba31e).ns.l.Study of Africanus About a quarter centu..ng {Frankfurt: Impens:is Sigismundi Feyerabendii~ 1588) . 1'I. 3.esia. :publiabed 8.ated items in the fo1lOW'ing period. out along . . 215. 21 ..r~ 8. publionly 2 cation of the Gr~ek text in ~hich the name or Atricanus ~ppears a.~ e1.trica 'by in~luded by Gryna.b. note5. in 1530~ Af:riCarlus' So na. 250.. Sl~estion5 of p~e __authorship The simplee.stica. c: i t ed in Frid~ricue Hul'tsch 't MetrologicorU!tl. '2 'l"ols. G. It was Latin tr"o. 216 .e. Lang referred to the Suidas article on Africanus with no in-dica. 1866). p. tractate was the object of frequent reference or citation of lines or iaol. Joannes Lfl.- Almost at the end of this first century ... Latin translation of a tract I DI? ponder!bus et mensuris I attribut.r- tain added chapter!3 in JQEIJ1. andesp. .. wi t.] Developing wu. 2~11. . Histoa. In the ~l'ginal note on the =ention of the Kestoi in 5. and tra.ed {This to ARhricanus medicus~l which s~~ to be from the Kestoi. JoaMe51 Lang published his Latin translation . apparently f&1sely ~ in connection with ce.. 1526. B.uthors used in the collection.lt i th~ories.l and 2.. n. Teubner" l86~.nes Ruelle.ed to the. p.5 well.... .Kestoi continued in the next c(tntury 6. \i. see Vieillefond .t the beginning" in the list of' B.. pp.

gestion~ This resulted in the presentation of sugth~re on va.1resented be-10\l').. but not to solve the basic prQbl~ {Ae'n~ae vetustissimi 8criptoris Commentarius tacticus et Qbsidionalig guom~do_obs~ssum resistel"e oporteat . 31.nd Venice: Ioann. (Leipzig a. V. republi shed in c.eny such declarations of intent which followed over the next cen~uries.n.olars from Boivin to the present reject as non-Afrieanie.:ribute-d to Africanus1 whose "elegantiss1mum libr'Ullli de bel11co appare.ion. 3: of ~ PolIbiiLycortaeF'. 3 vols. 393.uP4tr-ID!-"lt.a brief.I'ius ~ ) caJ..~ 2originally. ed ..ig: lmpensis Casp. greatel' attention to questions relating to Africa.~r!') name!o vert:!' 2 (This is perhaps the first of' m. 29.s ps.nus a. Paul.nd his writings. . Historh." Casaubon notes that Politian had ref'erred to this york as the Ceetes in accord 'With an old codex in the ro~ra:l library. suggestion being that was more than one Africanus involved. cap.tu" had not yet been published. Krau.sm.-T"!ILa.. on the line H CUl!1 luminibus exstinctisdec:essisset via.e year as Ca. (Leipz. . 3 C1763J: 389... publ.• 1763-6~J. He concluded the reference by stating his intention. s~e Viei1lefond l Les Cestes. but decided. MSS? recognito cum Jo~ Aue:.rious points .. in . Joseph Just.. ~ne of a section of chapters which s<::h...ge:s 361-600 0'1: vol..J. continuation of n. recensuit pub1icavit et notis . illustravit Corig. Frits ell. Erne'stii animadversionibus nova.S cha"Dter 70 (1:169 in tbe Thevenot-:Boivin edit. of caref'ully considering elsewhel"e the writings of Af"ricanus "and whether those mentioned by the ancients under of one '!ii1"1ter or many ~ . to be ]. but t ha.us Scalig~rlt :in explicit opposition letted 6. and 493-550 passim).:rUCl quae e. . republished a.. 3: llil.saubon1 Commentario... Isaac Casaubon ll in his Co~enta1Z on SuetQnius~ used a p&asage concerning 1M-terns tOr night-fighting.~ C odex (pure hased from Da.saubcn t s que-st. cura auctis emecdatisque et Isaac Ca.) In the a.. Geneva.ls it Polemon paraskeuai.t African1. h vols. 31. Aug. answer vas pUbli~he:d. Fr1d. Suetonii Trangu111i opera:. Casauboll did return to the subject of A:fricanus .Textu ad Codd. 1595.siU!!l .ion. 'Wolfiu5. the foremost. Paris" 1609].Early Studies 35 approach appeared a.Jul i us Caesar. . D.t hie .) . p. (Concerning Darmarius .. [th~nJ att. 1802).

. Osna. paragraph or SUII:Clary of milita.nor~d. as 6"Uidas erred in making Origen) . 1 e PEJ.Study to the testimony of Photi'Ua ~ o~ A£ricanU8 Suid~s~ Xusebius t and denied the possi- bi1it..ry of Af'ri canus • s w:r1 tings in hi s D~ :a cr1ptoribus ecclesiasticS-s. t. (Ant". part 2. 3:156 (bOok 8 10 chap. G8. stat ement as book 12' 10 chap.ry {: ha:pters from the Kestoi (trom vhat he believed.lestinae eni g.'br'ilck."I] libri VIII. 1630j t 2~ 275 (book 12 ~ chap. and the let. 2~ 598 (but cQrrectly as 12. publ + separately as Urarloloi\Jlll!ilive ss'tema variorum auctortOll '.liO).he originaJ. also. reprin~ed. 1 and 2 orig. 40.tion'U. in 5 ~ 269). ~ditio altera {Leiden: Ex officini Joannis Maire .ae: 1..·e!'p: Georgi us Gallet t 1703 I: vol s.. cha. was over a ha. 3 orig.l!lI1. 1645 (orig.. varia.1 It.. 1fAnirn. libel' unu. 42. Bellarmin 10 hovever ~ omf tted any ref"e1"~nce to th~ Kes to! tr-O!I1 hi S S U1IIID8.3 Denis jected or ie. miss ing the parenthetical nature or the reference to the Kestoi.uthor of' the Kestoi should have been Sextus A:fricanus (Photius erred on this point. . . 1651 [orig. Zeller.thor of'the Chronogtlphia. 2~ 2Rob E!:rt Cardinal.other \h"it~l'j2 in t. 4 A f'ew ye&rs later .. 3ne historieis Graecis liber IV. to b--e th~fifth and sixth IThesaurus t orurn Eusebii P c: 0ai chron1 corwn J:~anOtnlln Leiden: Thomae-~sen. with correction. Cbronograp~. 162qj. 1968). The correction gives t. publ. (Coloniae Agrippin. Eusebi1.adversione:s in chronologicl:l .xtus the au. 3d ed. as doe s Fa. 53-54. 237 (book 2. p. Pari S:lo 1627. The Cbnflliiion of 'Works 'lias due to 8 misreading of Photius.bri c ius ~ Bi bl..y of a unity of" &utho:rship: the I!li. 1613J J.lf-century 1iLt~r S~.... 2b..p.). 4 Opus de doc trina.QOrum. vol.ger's work on the distinetion of authorship.ter-to "M-fore thia idea was accepted in pri~t by ar. Or. " p. 2)..bri el Naude inc 1uded a.. 3 VOla.rum diss€rta. but questjoned th~ Petau (Petavius) alao reJl!!:~ted Sealiger·s suggestioil 1o at one point evel3 confusing the Kestoi with thl! ChronographY. pUbl.s. pp.he meantime t the idea ""as either reGerard Jan VoSs praised ScaH. Kalcovii. 15). publ..

arioUB passages from Afrlcanus mucb in thema. 1 (Rome.Early Studies 37 books) in his Synt.~ 5 (l723) ~270. The citations were froel both the K~stoi and the ChronographY.. Apud Je.i sathnJon t 61<:)11).he prt!!ceding c:~ntury. 8) given as 2. on . accepted the Kestoi as Af%"icanirm. 84 t n. 520." cha. 1 . else1lhere referring "to him :dllIply as A:f'ricanus.1.s Ss. vet~re8 (Antwerp.bon as identifying the De bellico apparatu.Ierome'.tIT:: J ohannem vande Water.D... Plinianae exercitationgs in en-it Julii Solini Po::tthi stora ('llraJ ~~t. Bib}. 4A.iger's theory came f'ina1ly in the notes by Henry Valois to his 1659 edition and translation of' £usebius t s 2 J chaF.Ire.e either na deBe 111 i !a. in his comments. :Bibliotheca eccleaiastica s1 .rDe 5criptoris eccles- iasticis. 867aF~ 872a. 327'bB. see FabriciU5~ Bibl.bulosa.·eno:mencla~ tore-s ViI...dentifies the author as Julius Afric8. designQ. ~ J se~. In another c:ontext.stis..m. pu.i ad RhetJ1. being HAfricanuB in C~.st-ance I 2: 8~7aB? the desig. or si:mpl~r as f"rom Africanus (in thefif'th ir. 1689 Corig.tion or some varil!lJlt of it .Ubertus Miraeus. 2Claude Saumaise. pUbl ..1 (t:l-Ugne" PG .e balthen. Les Cestest p.~ Paris.. 520-21 ~ cited For the identification as the fifth &nd sixth books.ve.ted 63. 84laB . extant in man~scripts tut thenet111 unpublished? as bt:!inf..-t:obumMeshlnl.ri.. capite peri metron ka. from the Chronography .her b~r that.-Cap.gilwn armis . 3 tiones~ The same year a.•.Se. Gr~~ ~th ed. 417aG.ise 4 s Exercita- Miraeus..nner of t.BJPI¥! de studio IIlilitarl.e . part ofthl!!! Kestoi. 10.itl!'ms are from the fragment. Gr. 21. p. The first .. 123 ad Isaacum Vossium.nation is more full . 4:21. 38). 2: 689aF. '115 He f'u.4 support :fOr part of Sefl. 'Where t.ance Saum8:ise i. see Fabricius-l~rles.us.rtber that the nB1l'. tI or "8.uma1se joined CalJ.. The last tvo references.. 8. ~ 3Epist...he :first inst.163bB. peri metrorJ? cited eit. .relate to the successors of' Belus in Babylc:m ~ 3rd ed. 1637). 1629J. pp. sugsea...he reference in Naude is.E. Sa.l\lhile Saumaise (S&l. 2 in t. ~. 1639) t p.e c a.p. "book in Vieillefond. col.uttJa. 12.sius) -cited v.

VeneTis I::esto ita dieti .tma.n .. Vi tre" 1659 .he nue of the latter vri t.e1').UllS He would delete the words.l Stu.er to tt1ention first.1iger) \fas frol!l Palestine {from EmmaU5... H.. Greek CUe-tOlIl to I::all such 'Works of'" diverse: ~Qt. be-e: BUS l!' it is 1'1 di cuJ.11 eo quod ~toria praeeipue complecte-rentur.s Clement va.. In l"egard to t. it should be emended t.idas and Syneellus show the Ke-stQ1 to be (and the very title us. Scaligererred in interpreting Suidss' s sektos as Se:ctua.s 0. E.. i.. specifica.nother be~lico Julius Af"ricanu5. nAnnotationes in Hist.B. vhile Ai'rictLnus Cestus (iIl.. 230 of the text sectiot1~ text and ··a:nnotations" are n'Wl'ibered separately. 2ViLlois .canus just e.dy 0 r A.ing of variegated girdle" just as Cleml?nt r s l Euse-bii P h i l i ccle'siasticae istoriae libri decem {PI!I.ot'%' .oli t ian. d~signtl.i't"ic 6. and finally') beAf'ricanus of the writers appear to be different ~ Ch:ronographus (called Julius Af'ricanus b~ Sctl. bee ause they are not ment 1OD ed by Ruf! nus or Jerome.he York t1tled Kest-oi" l'rom Eus e"b. 31 appears on p. H." an explanatiotl not usually repea. t . nature 85 Su.aratu known 'to him from Valois a manus cri.r:l. autho1' of' the De app.ous in dealing vith a ~hu:rch 'VI'it. .o Kestos as a -called S'tre. aS8UIt1es that it wa. 31.n.!ll £us~bii Caesariensis t" 'P.s utf! ci ently sho'Ws).ted by those vho echoed the preceding dictum.lly) end \jas ill C'hl"istie.adds the eJCP1BIlation . there 'Was a..s cit at ion ..teus.pt.38 Ecclesiastical HistO. 6.l- tent Kestoi ~ from its mee:.tion of Afr:5. cause thE:! bB~kgrounds 2 cOnfi:rms this charact.. 121" cols + lD-2B. IPthe writer of t.oriam Eccles iasticB.l:::onectly called S!'rtus Africanus by Scaliger) yas hom Libya (as Suidas t~s'tities) and vas a "Gentile'" (as the topic of his 'book .%'is~ A. a work of such a.s :Pur'ther t Valois concluded. 6.n the royal 11bran" and by P.

1=659~ 830. witb note 2 (re cod.\las an ambassador for Emma.oa. R. supporters'll but his other points have been adopted in varying combinations by later scholars down to t. also col. containing the de r~ m1Utari fr~ the Cestus). is likely in aernulatione of Clement's t. 1 ·0 . Les Cestes.he present. MS eXT.onies + He fUrther 5uggested there t.ti:m.h~ 1ess and e. ~beck-K011ar~ Commentl!l:. S.l1d tho.te1 s . Phil. P~Ci81ly Es- frequently repeated were tbe derivation of the name Kestoi cesto t " H a veneris the points of distinction between AfTicanus Chron- ographu5 and AfrictLnus Cestus. The next year Philip Labbe made a s. 428.· EraenoUlen Sextos to the false c0Fgl0tllen 2 'rhus Lambeck favored Scaliger' 5 origi.~ly Studies a third Afri C8!1US 39 work wag called StroEna. Bee Vieilletond . (Lambeck's first ol!!dition appeared 1665- 19....!.rt 4.bsurd n change of S~kt(}s. Labbe.cient tes.l suggestion concerning this name..imi. p. consideration~ But in the addenda to his work t after due he r~jectad Valesius's other suggestions on th~ basis 0.hat the title:> ton Kes'ton. not that it was his patTia. 312.turalis ~il.ys he.lar sugge5tion concerning.) . E. Dissertationes p2rllologicae de scriptoribus ecclesiastic1s uos atti :it Eminentiss.us. Robertus Bella-minus" 2 vols.sy. pa.ct that Eusebius only sa. a Sektos-Kestosmetathesis.rg:l.1' the lLn. but Bot the same 'time rejected the distinction and sp~cifically or authors rejected V&lo1s' s a. 4. 1 Peter Lambeck (Lambecius) noted the ideB of a metatbesis as part of' a p~ces:s of piling error on error following the original ncaret. The sugge st i on 0 f :found f'ev.on St:romateon. n. . Gr..Itian Cramoi. a.rium.621. (Faris: Seba. and the elilendation of the Suidas' s sektQs to kestos.t the eaKia ne. Card. it any. 1: col.Dnent~ on this point) calling attention to the fa.

In ~9.:rl.nd .. 7 t cols.Africanus vas that one and celebrated vriter rather t. 161h "Ifotae.smbeck-Kollar t Commentarium.ds a conjecture in an &ttemp~ to reconcile the statements of S. 222f'f").~ Syncellus r s statement regarding Emms:u. E~hbTta ti 0 o.y have judged the york unworthy of Afrieanus. 1026-:27. vi th Lambeck.ion in connection nth A"fricanusTs letter to Origen. COml"llentariumj... or he ma. 3 J oba..i Julii Africani" col. 1 9-54.mnbeck-Kollar.rlier VQlu.s of' ninclin~d Scaliger and Valois:> he vas 'to beli. in Perside-" L Origen.. . Thes.g.loms contra M!!:. 4 5Wett5tein.s an.& in Deum :f'i de ..~ vol..d mo. . (B8sel: J.:rtxrw ~ Respotls'I1m ad Afr i can i epi stolum de historis. a.l the Kestoi contained only nine book5:> Photius' 5 14 ho"') being an easy corrupt. loll {=Scalig~r. tl similarly to V!l1ois I s statement. also theinde>:: ~rttry for Sert.to Venel"is cingula desumpta.eve . 637t vhere t.en t of th e error.lcled Enneabiblo. cf.mes 10 he also notes mtl.. g .ion tor Eusebius's Ch:ronicon and thus fale-ely credits sOme i te:ms 'to Euse-bi us..iu:!.l . further dev~lopm. 2 Late r in the BalIle' vol ume Lambeck inc 1ude d the text of Michael Psellus' s reSWlle of po. Se. 3~ 103 t 167.1 H~ judged Ruf1nus' s omission of" re:f'erence t. 70} (col. th~ falsely &scribed "NarratiO'.? 7 ~ coL ~29.h(!:'IIork 18 ca.. temp.han two. . . dealt with the quest. It might be noted that he uses S~a. 2 3r.is dia. e.li­ ger's recon:Eitrttl::t. Ibid. 1" Greek Bect1on.her of' Afric&1LUS' S \1O:rks (1 = 25~-55. 5 Wettatein himse-lf ad.o the Kestol ns explainable ~flufinus may have either question~d the fact . In the 8~e ent:r:v the title is described rLS Itmetapllo:ra a. Origenis.Tciohitas] slve De rec:t. Bert-schius. e.d the Kestoi is credited to Eusl!:bius ·'in Chronic15 pa. 7= cole.40 Study of Mricanus Lambeck also argued that in the Ce5toi shovs that hevQs a Gen~ile. t cOls.. . 151). • .. . S ~nae . v&Ii~gQ.nuscripts containing ot. After considering thE!' ancient re:f'erenCI!'S and the vie. l'Notae ll " col.us J'uJ. 476-78 (= 1st ed.rm Rudolf Wettst I!in.·· cols.rt of the Kestoi.202..dd. on 5: 623-2~.yncellu6 lr. 152. in hi s eM t ion 0~ Origen':s yorks .itis notis . that..ion from 9 {e"') ~ 'from vbich Suidaa f s 2~ vas e. :p.

s the third year of Elagabalu~2!B&aC Voss1us. all con:firm his identity. "rhe.:ra. p.y a..stian.s sy was to AIexander ~ and of Eusebius in "Chron" Can. temp •• I.Early Studies (credi ted also to Eus:ebht5 ~ see preceding note). col.toriarum ex Trogo Pompeio lib.a .son to make three Africani of one.S a Syrian of :E:llmlB..num illuminate efL.Y" 1684)IP.!35)' VELS etc. this tit. n p. ersiones. Some ~rea.ullus: Obse1"vatlones (London ~ . not a Libyan {Q mistake" d-u. 2 patri.reported contents of the Kestoi JI\S.V and of t.!§. then to Alexander to give as thanks forbeneflt received the pre5entation of the book [the KestoiJ. and the ancient testimonies .. named hiTJder~ Veneris. The v. ther • discussion of the alleged ~pistl4! or Hadrh.ri te:r of the Chronogra pbx 7 the Ke stoL and the strat egfka are t h@ same (indeed.rs ear11e1"~ in Justinibis."lJ: Ex Officin& Elzeviriana ~ Val~ri'L1S Cat. the year of the end or the ChronograpA. He proposes" easily reconciles Euse-bius with himself and with the others. ti ons. c:e-sto The Kestoi .us..ute the sixth and 5ev~!. 212). 2 ~ IPAninlB. 1 W'h~t i:f that Africanus tlIld~rtook two B ucc es give le-ga. CaJus lIbid~ . etc. 1... and to ask other 'benefits? This certainly I Baac VOS!3 continued and shlttpe ned the After I!L "If ie'W"s of hi s fa.t the embe.. Sce.1 a.n to Servianlls (occasioned by a r~f'ere-nee to Ser6. XLIV (AmeterdR. age.d. he coo- eludes that there iG no refL.lt.. but nothing A:f- rieanus from being a Chri. .ch other ~ dieted to magic fL. extant :f.it. ~d. ~ under Elagabalus. pt!rsons bentioned.1iger had attempted to 9·o1ve the problem (eom-pounded by his fs.. 153. In sum. the..."1d top of 152.. l' of' 6-caliger-lo TIles.ilure to clearly distinguish S:''ncel1us·s testimony f'rom Eusebius's)t by charging Eusebi us vith errQr (Thes"_ telWp.. Greek sectioJ)~ followed by J@rome.rts~ Christians vere ad- nativities..s its contents.nd the Ad Servlo.gments or the IfLSt ~onst.pis in a poel:! of Catullus). see also the end of cOl. 204 n (Le.e to his name Af'ricanus}.ht! elDb&ssy 1la. Q. first to ElagabalUS to obtnin the building of the city.h books of" the Kestoi} t but h~ lia.t that A:fricl91l'l1s l' S emba. 30..fl. Isaac L1ttlebUl".

c~d the Christian faith?Ht. 53Th..ctUAlly becoming a<:quainted \lith t..nuscripts in the libril.l'ious theories regarding the Kestoi. 5 b ~ p~ri kryphis!a epistolon.he texts lo in Thevenot's edition (see next paragraph).bloe a.l'Y of Isaac Vossius and elsewhere. 1688). Cave pre~ented theory .pt.ni n09t-. 17-41. } 3Scr!. Ducange presented a variation on this view: if' the KE!'stoi 1oI'fI. Ducangets notes-are also reprint~d in Dindorfls edition or the Chro~ieon p&s~hale (2~331 for this oote). with no Christian Collecti~ns 18 little surprise.later editions do introducE! the Syl-ian line of tra. he had ~eferred to & supposed chapt~r of A:fri canus (chap. 54. 1745 L.s marks~ pagan cbaracter. including the ve. He s'I. (GenevfL: Fr atres de Tourne s.. t pus altera.5tlcorum historia.. Scriptorum ec~lesi8. "Rudolph.. After a.or'i. Regia. 2Guilielmo Ca.3 Meanwhile. later edition~ e. du Cange ..ve.1I'"V'e'yed tl1e infoI'Ill£l.S indeed dedics. omi tted :from tl~e combi ned discussion in later editions (O::cfOid: Sheldon~ 1740-43. (But these.ki~Ht Af'ricaflUB a.dition t adding 6. ~celesifl.sticorum historia litera.e doubted its deri va. but then 'Wavered. 16gu) I p.St~dy of Africanus About the e. it seemed mo!"~ recent (but he later ~~pped this suggestion}.t least this part of the ten must be the. 1m-Hoff. p. 1699) I p.ria (Gene-va: Samuel dl!' Tourne5. ]1. th~ year before Cave's £irst volume was published Q~ in Geneva t a large po:rt. but fro:m before he em~ bra. 1~ terario.bout AfricBnusts vritings.SBJDe &S the original London e·iition of 1688-89 11 for Cave kn-o'W5 of' tbe Kestci only in I11f:I. reference to Hebediesu and ms.ion the ~xtant text of the Kestoi vas 1664}) p. 1 ~ll2. 305 (book 2~ chap.ion availa. 1 and de~criptions: More theories a n~w William.. city bishop [1 =110J.llll .ame time.y ~ "the work of our Africanus.J:'i. ed. Basel = Job.. and trans.tion f'rot!lAfrica.ted to . 29. Though tbis is a.a pagnn pri'Pce t it. lO). and asked if there was not a middle lItJ..t. 10 nAl:X/uUON S~U Chrcnit:on paschale (Paris: Ty'pographie. actually from Aeneas) & lCarolus au Fre8n~~ b.

9..ua (= 6. 339 .ues . at most . 340. 1 Illc1. It denied tha. 2Thid . and Ibid. . 2. pp.o. soU!"c es . 3d corr. tending to favor the identity of authorship...ition to the :nrl. 348-J. 11.velle bibliotheque des~u:teurs eccles- 1693-1715) .• ]1 pp.ing fro. Further" in t. Dupin ~ who that the Kea.e as Photius d~5~rib~d.38> 45. he suggested that the author va. he- liM conde!DJ1ed Gelasia ps. 339~ t. 17)" he eonsiders that the a. 357.t. Nou. ~ 3Thid .ttl!'d integrom by the ancients.. late add.e .uded vas a. 275-316 (280-89 were omit ted in the page numeration).toi cl ted by Poli- tis..t it vas the aam... l:llT~ and note !. (Paris: Typographia Regia.1J which contains a line f'rom Holy Scriptures CPs.. ti9. PPM 339-60. 44 of the 71 cbapters })ublishe:d actually came from the: bl!!en a. 2 Boivin briefly stated the problem.WltLr things.dd~d K~sto1. end rev. 353-55 {chs.. ed&. and.A:fricanus of Gl!o'Ooni~a 1 [i.he notes on Pasithea. Andre Pra1lard 5L.1 vols.£'d good reasons to bel. of notes on the Kestoi section by Joannes Boivin.. 1'.uthor could not yet have been a Christian 1ihen he wrote this and a. etc.n ...IS-59). I.er. by Thevenot.Vieillefond . 5 ~in points of V&lesius &8 \ielchisedech Thevenot" ed . He baaed this l&rg~ly On th~ acceptance Qf the BB:cr1p- t10n to .. Veterum m.6. and !..s not entirely orthodoX.... kn~ 4 The Sf:LJD. set.... in any case" he simply repeated the his view. 34: 8). Ellies du Pin .sa "lately published.thematicorum • • • opera..Early Studies publi5hed~ as part or a larger production .1ZJ Aeneas and other" lQ.. several ha. 1693) ~ pp.e year . (Paris: Chez.ieve that..:3 Boivin also suggest... (. Though tending to favor autho!"ship by a single AfricflJ:rus. judieious.

222 (V. des Si.nd 3d ~ds. 5Ibid~ l' 2 =598..ve ~ s: the l(E!s'toi must l!l ha. 9~386 (V. 1693-1712).. 23. III. 38. 2" (1716): 591 and notil!.595-600 (=Lib. 4Ib1d • ~ 5 (1123 ~ 266.. 629 (VI. but vi th the 2nd a. an index vol.gan ~ though that elilDin1 ated the possibility of its dedication t. 7i165~ 787 (v. 5. 268-71 (Lib. Memoires Charles P. (This· 1lork was continued in a 4th ed. 5 our servir a 1 'histoire eccles1astigues. and sOble minor references at :3.canus is on pp. 4)..o Al(!-xa. Cnobloeh.ange the name from Sen u.c:ani J 3 but he did believe tha:t Syrian of Emmaus.Stu<tv of Afr ieanus Tillemont took Dupin t s 'Word on the difference between the works knO'lrn to Politian and to Photius.S he e&n1(! to one) vas more like Ca. 1:682.ve been written while Afrioanus was p8. 20). 6:U2 (V.2 (2nd ~d. caps. 5 (1123).dded in iL la:ter reprint of" this ~d. 1838)..) 3Fabric1us J lUbliotbec_a Gr&eca..d not accept Valois's and S Labbe's suggest ion to c h.3 (the main discussion of Af"ri. ~i1"6t~dition·.fL 4 Th@ e'vide'nce- vtl. Fabricius's Dl.8. lrSeb&stianJ lenain de Tillemont.ssive &ld ever-groving lUbliotheca Graeca provided a complete survey of the literat'Ul'"e to his day (i. 12~7T5 (VI.24. 24..s much fL. 10.1:i too little to allow a good judgme-nt on Af'ricanus' s Christian status ~but there yere many Christian sects involved in various types of superstition t and the Ps. 11. but othel"\l'ise his conclusion (a.s.?. 1790-1809J. 14). cap .aJJns Quotation in Geoponica 111.. 1.rg: Carolum Ernestum Schn.. 'WilLS . V... 1718-28). 1116): 572.obustel. 12 vola. 5.W&S e. 10).X:Efmiers s1ecles J 16 VQis + Paris:.i tion [Letpz1g: C.nished to the notes at th~ end of th~ volume). ChristiSJI.1-9). 4+ 28). but the discussion of the Kestoi lI8rS be. 5 (m) supports his atatus as a.!cluding many manus~ripts}.. 13) . vol.t.. nor ScaJ. Gottlieb Christophorus Har-les Uiambu.213 (IV. 1105-28. i gel" and Valois' s Africanus ~uggestions of' other Atri. 9). 26).2 For his 0"Im parh he coul. .nder St!-vl!:rw. ted. over~ taking it (3d ed. 13 . 13. 25~-58. 8.

129). 158 ~ 283. but concluding it vas "01" no great..O adds a ref'eren~i!" to Moses B&rce:pha and P.riisgue opusculis auctae) QUibuspraefatiotles h1storic6-s.tIlporary A." On the other hand t he was reasonably sure Africanus did not write any Nell TestBlll~nt COlmD.a. Th~saU1"us Dlonu:nentorum ecclesiasticol'"1lID et histor1cu:n] sivf:' Henrie! CM. Tbe C. animadversiones criticas. 4 vols.us himself cites Cordier's Catena in Joanne:::n as: I!l pr:i. l}... As Asse::mani notes (2. Chandler.. 2Jacobu8 B&snage. a.c111ated on the qu~stio!J of tWQ Africani.l.fasiua in Praefationl9" Bnd Fabricius had uread)' mentioned one Or both of these points.Early Studie!.11y published as 2 volB.2 Lardner va.ent.Andl"ev) Kippis.niel Lartin~:r.f3.riter of' the Cestis t the other s.lso became the first in be.. in 1725.or· notice of' them (5 :270 In a note on Hebed Iesu).s ol'"igina.~ SCTiptoribu8 ~c:clesie. f\rhom ma.)."1us were mainlj' 1 2 (1721): 129. 'W'rit~ra He a. Fabrici. vol.aul:l.. 57-00 LCr~dibilit:y "a. ''}. .sticiEi btlralipomena (ibid.redit Dionys1us t Y1th making Africanus a. t~ndins to :favor the idea..r-~alibl ~ 10ng line to ~.p •• 1125)12. Christian frmn Nicopolis (Emn:laU8 of th~ Gospels l t v:riter im$) or the Chronicon. The results of this la~t l work vere sOon forthcoming. in l~. however .l With th~ !. Yilli8m B6l..ls Colomesius.148 ("Jacobi Basnagii in Anomrmi colle ct ionem c hl"Oflolog1 CSIlI obsi!'t""vo. b1shop~ oiting Asse:mani 2~129 nnd 158~a5 evidence.fricani.ppearanc~ of the.P.p.redibili t of' the Go el Hieton . gen"tile from Libya.. 01."ly (p1ur- make a bi6hop . part 2 (London.:tior14!'s rI ) .13 of Nath1a.gulos &uctores ad.. vi th I!l Life by C. on~ Basnage said there vere tvo conte..1ecit". l (1119)~. Africanus app~fl-:rs simply &s the source concerning Edess. importance. 2.1sii Lectiones antiouae ad saec~lol"uc) ordinem digestae ve. He aJ.a ie Eusebius's Chronicoll {p.se-~ond volume of Assemani' liothec~ Or1~ntalis 8 Bib- came the celebr&t1on of Africanus's elev&tion to bishop and Ne'W' Testament cOElUl1entator. ~e 'WorK. 3 Other eighteenth century Yorks rf!"lated to Africa. 1121-55)}. (Antvel"p: n. see also ~ 3 (l7"25): l~ + In vol. et notas insin. London ~ J.. 183 . v. .ries.39l1o D.

tz.ig ~ Ca. &nd both Gallandi and the.. 1831-47). laeWetnicorwn eive de l"~ rust1.00:y1ii...59 h repr int.r i t iana ~ rr 88 Eorig. tomos d i st..1 b. this first to Eusebius and Syncellus:o and tben to Eusebius alone. 37-42 for Af:t"i~tltms).· ho followed their lead..tion of JQB. 2 Near the :mid and three-quarter points of the century.s his accept- &nee of the figure of nine books tor the Kesto!. Carolm:. 1 : xlv. and Carol.r:f1 antiguarumoue seri))tor"UlJl ecclesjastieorum Graeco-Latina in XIV. ::<1. . and 11 (eols.e. Henrie.:tr . thes~ l~tters they followed Scaliger's distinction of' Af- This york was iri turn shortly reprinted in. 1133.r) s (Venie e = _1\.eius (P. de 1a Rue published an edition of Origen's works which incl.spar hi tsc h ~ 1781). including a text of Af:r-icanus from the mili- tary cOllections.ppear in Migne . attributing.. Les Cestes~ p. Ni c cls:us lliclas.sch ~ 23 vols. and i11us.seful: Giovsnni l.nnis M~u:r~ii. t originally published in 4 vols.!.. {Paris.3 and a paraphrase of certain chapter~ by Ch.h6 Study of AtricQnus public&tio~ concerned with tbe Kest.uded the exchange of letters v1tbAfricatlils. respective:l.. there . testimonies con- cerning A:trico.ncient. 20rigenis opera . cu.appeared two 'WOrks somewhat more u. .e d i [J Andreas Gallandi 'lo :8ibll. In the intro- duction to riea.o.- G@OlDonica which was re-edit@d by Nicolas in 1781. In the nineteenth centur'. 85. ed. 10= eols.• Venice.&mi' s edi.. vol. die. EdWl!"d. Vincent.de La Rues rea. . as do~s Fabri.ss1on of' authors C'ited 1oI'hich follows the a.5-50. COJ5~ 897-980.':li.nus~ the only unusual point by N~edham wa. of texts~ most with limit~d re1~tion 8. Lomm." 1. l' (Florence!' 1746).ri buta 11 edi t i 0 no. GalleJldi ~ .G.ra. - . 1.. ~ 10: eOlet. P. G. cit~d by Vieille"food.oi. 2=:. 17 (18q4). (Lei p z.n to In 170h ~ Peter "Needham published edition of the It included e. 4 vol s. (Berlin: &laude et Spen~r.l th i s line cont inued : the de La Rues' York vas aga i ~ or'!!: edi ted "by Carol. 1165-81J). libri :0: . patru. ot heca veterUJr.ca. Op. 35-~6L \rol. Jo. ed .

. 8. ChryaostQl!l'l. cited by V1eillefoDd:o Les Cest. RoseomUller seemed to identify Julius Africanug as a priest (Presby:ter Nico:oolitamls). 3 {177 }. Typis r: egii a. 204.rith others of the Sar:Dene. continens period!. So German trans.he ChronographY" . period there a1.mokratischen Republit ~ 1961). fLnd mentioned Valesius' IS vi.Jf!J II.. Catal0!Ms codicum manuscriptorum bib110thecae medicea. 3 (1770): col.Eh.bility a8 ehmm in the ~ac:rt. {Leip2.me from ear~ier times. 1770.riat der Deutsc:he-n 1)e. 231-:2'h4. n.so s..ar~11 Afri~a. Guischard. ~ritioue!3 et histo. 17 4. In this context he penned the fuous line of tribute to Atricanusts critical a.Ear~y Studies fI. During this period at least three a.urvey in Vieillefond)Les Cestes 7 pp.us were made ~ 'but few were COCl::pleted and none were publ:ishe!:d (8ee the a. 1 Within this.s.. Pluto LXIV. p.?met Cxp:ria. Plut.rd1s work vas a translation. 232~33.nu. 127.mJ ~cclesia .ri ues Jroid .es.ttempts at tr~p)alating Af'ri<::8Jl.ew J perhaps f'&vorably.. Cod9 XX!II:..II. 4Jo. s.-")d varns of" the danger of con- fusing Julius Africanus. :from Laurent.(Floren ce: Typi s Caesariis. of Bandini':9 Ca. repro 3 vols.e Laul"ent. 'Work. Hanisch .d Augustinu:m (1807L .ta1ogu~ 2 notl!S the 'presence of "part· of the Kestoi in Lau- rent.no a.i'J"itings.b Orisene ad . £. short ite!D. 2 (1768): cols. \1emo1Tes sur 2AngelO Maria ~andini. vol. LY.ig: Jo.ppe.~ 3 vols.. 93~99). Ek tou AphrH::anou keston hoper esti keston ig p. 91.s publ. Zen:tru-Antiqua..od. 2 Volume 3 prints a. 151 J with in Clttisti8J16" note 1. kb~ kathartiJca hapla.ianae varia continens 0 era Graec:orwn t)a'trUll:. 'ke. RosenmUller:o Historia interpretat10nis librorum 5 vols.p. He therefore con~entr&ted attention on Africanus·s interpretational l. with only minor references to but inc~uding one 'Which was to have Vol~~ some effect on the diaeussion or the length of the Kestoi. 86-89. in2~ ueip:dg. 1795-1814 I:but orig. h lusiers oints d'antiguite mili taire.t Guischs. but concluded tllat the dispute was :foreign to his present purpose.. Georg. "88. in . va. the author of the Kestoi and t.10. 1 768. earlier. nr~ pp. 3 Finally. 169 Vieille'fond here cOrrects a commonly repeated state:rn.t the l~ttl!':rs. at Leipzig in 1 791J L Pars tertio. 'Publ. II.ent tha. Got'tfr..

Britannica. ins in use in thi s so(! cond edition. 1 (1791): 228. lie :fa. Augustus Neander epistle To Origen ~ uIn haec llnaEpiato1a.riis et :Homiliis1t (:3 ~161) • This viev becB. (The article also introdu~es Juliu5 Caesar (rather tha.a.rter century cuk. ~ 18 vol:9.:niana. qua.n Je-sus Chr15t.orl.e :somewhat standard for the next century . C. Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries As stat. (Dubli D: J..e "ix duabua paginis constat.ed above . secundi tertii-i'. prograJIIl!!atice.he qu. 1814-18. lo 2=502.o:re.!De as the 3d ed."te en vol s . {EdinoUl"gh.tnents 'The ea.e c.11y sub-titled Sive auctorlJJD. .97).. 2Ei g.for the Chronogra.!d with pUblicatiorJ of ancient frae. Routh 1 s 'Work.ec'tui post Chri:9turfl na:t\:otl quae SI.ine. Routhts Reliquiae Bacrae made avai1able most of Africanus's Christian 'Wl"it...phy .he chapter~ this period was especially concernl. ..48 Study QC Arricanus The f'ortunes of At:r-icanu.rly de~ades Th. ~ 3 vols. This seems to be the SB.ur. in the introduction to t.1per StU'! t" remB. thE! Encyclopaedia.) 3Second ed. 1797).']] as the c'::linJax of Africanus's 5500 year ~r& from creation.nJ. 1 791. neal" t.. (Edinburgh..iled to make the . "fere Jam 'p~rdH. It was originalljr pUblished in four vol~eg at Oxford. 1I 2 (1791)~ there was no reference to thl!!' Kestoi. and even to tbe present. Routh IS cc11ec:tion still remains the frag!llen t e • onl~r real one . plus est verae eruditionis exegeticae:> quam in omnibus Origenis Commente.. (Edinburgh. 1768-71).appl!!LTed in "l'obore I s Dublin ed. ~fo. an incorrect expansion 01' an abbreviated .'r' in the t"ealm of Africe.first two eM tions ~ 1 eJld when he finally.s" but omitted the Keatoi aa semi-ethnicum ana incert.tJ.. 1778-83) • ~il"sted. Zd ed']I 10 vols..1~ so.lobip to & modern 1nsti- tution.i &uc- toris.s.entur'J opened rather slo'Wl. 3 Then . ancient encyclopedist" in this period are somewhat :r-eflect~d by his :r-elatiom.

nd continuing through subaequent editions to 1969).rlier..Early Studies presented a t:l"ibute similar to RoaenmUller t g to Africanus· s critical ability.phoi . Vinc(!'nt devoted part of his attention to the publication and explication of' lGenera. xliii-xlvii.i e.t t·ne di vere.l History of" the Christian Rel1£ion andChurch~ 9 vols. (Th e fi rst German e di tiorJ appeared i. x1:'Ti-:X1-vii. vhich included Micbael P~ellt1s's peri paradoxon a.I:s Parndox0Kt. :J. a. b Thid. and certainly notth8tl:!lucb ea.Ii "9 and note.ve and Tillemont: the Kestoi cannot be dated earlier the." lwestcrmann t pp.utho%"Ghip]l and further aceeptE!:d the s. )i.e 6 'V'ol'Ul'rtes ~ Hwnburg~ 18:25-'52)."1 the Chrono£r~h.i a Br1 tan.tt::d'but. and ~ 1~J-46.ton. pp.. Despite the perpett1B::tion of 6. (1875. Julius. variant of this quotati on by the EnCYC lopaed. Joseph Torrey~ rev. .r.nn. trans. had. included summa. Fragments of the Kestoi In 1839]1 tbere appeared W'esterma. Psel1us t in turn. and added what Cave and Tillemont..V..e!'Jllilnn !lccept~d the ancient t.ries o:f many of th@ mOre '-magical" items in the Kestel. 4 In 1841 and for several years thereafter t A.ent cbaracte:r of the Kestoi was because it vas probably written 'Qy Af:ricanus "'bef"or-e his habits of' ttdnking had becO!Ile decidedly Chriati.J of various excerpts in the GeoDonica to Africanuo •• notirlg that thej' llere tvin to those in Psellus.estimonies as to 8.iot.l suggestion of Ce. (London = George ~ell and So~s) 1890}~ 2 ~ . 2EncyClopaed."1 i ea (see ne-rl note).. Brit-annica. s. ed. trAfricElmlS.nagnosma..8.. 9th ed. 3 \olest... w~s in @ssence a modific8tion of the view of He suggested tho:.an t11 (or nbef'ore he had devoted himself to religious 6ubjects u 2'). thi s vel"si on seems to be subject to the .fIa!Ile disabili tjr as the origina.

te:ria.ting to g:jusic and t..l..en ye-ars ~ate1" t fUll tens..858 [part 1 pUblished in lB62}).e des Grecs" I.lt } under the bee. Notices etextraits 19~ part 2 Cl.tics.. 'bibliothe Ues. Thi s latter contained a text and translation of "'1'0 find tbe \otidth of :li river or the height of a vall II (ch.las reprinted hrithout a P. trfl.emie des Sciences Paris ~ ~..50 Study of Africsnus ~specia11y ce-rtain of t. 3 L • Duchesne~ 11111. :pp. 318-85. with introduction...e full range of musical :signs in the Kestoivas di:9c:u~sed in "Extraits rl de~ Ceste3 de Jules It Afric:a5n (part of a longer article. 80-81.gments metrologiques.he Ke5toi texts. 3 ~LetteT to tile President of' the Academie des Inscriptions ~t Belles-Lettres dePari:':>t L'Institut. lL.eometry. SYmmicta 1 (G5ttingen: Die'terichtsche Verlagsbuchhandlung.S.l In 1864~ Hultsch pUblished most o~ th~ peri metron kai stathmon as two separate fragments going back to first century ( ?) Alexandrian authcrs.miqu~e par f-L l~ Docteur Roulin relativ aux animaux mentione par Jules llAfricain. and 300-2 (no. 561-64.diIlg "HistoiTe du Matheroa.Jlslation of 'Parts of chapters :2 (pentagon and musical n.lO\:ing work· Th. e. 6 (1841)= 173-15.nus and Vincent notes i 1.- ga:rd~. enna (pp.o e. i t~m in the fo!.~ of t1Ertra. e. Teubner. 21. to Africanus..in" (pEL.2-~6. scrits grec3 l"elatifs 180 musiqlJe. This lett. (Lei~zig. 156-61..5 questiona.. 'l'his was :follcrwed by 'tExtl"fl.. one a J eli. . Fra. 15).he letter was a. IP~ section. 81).~ es des seances de l' Acad. part. J)p.i t des Cest. rtNotice sur 1.e:r +." Archivesde::s missions scientl~iques ~t l1tteraires (Paris) 3d series. 407-15. with asc:r i pt i on 'Were. 2 gave the Latin translation of Cal:vus de Ra..cAfric£l..ble status a. The latter chapter is no longer credited t. 95)..its des manuscrits relati fs ! ~£I.. 3 1~876). 186L~ 1866). geooetrie pra:tiqu.6. U Comte5 rendus he:bdOOlada. included in l' lnsti t!. raul de Lagarde.c companied by nAddition: c-omDI'. • Vieillefond. 2Fridericus Hul tsch~ l05etrologicorum script-orill!J religuiae.. 14-16.: vols. B.publisbed in :rapid succession by Duchesne and La.4 3).~ Thev~llot. 1=257-59 (no.Jith introductory ttla. 2 A doz. The! main part of t.an. avec une traduction U fran~aise et des commentaires ).4 lSL2 = 43~ljJ~ {and as -the last. . G. 1877): 166-13.. 20-21. "2 Pari s 2 1847 Cpa. I.F1 pp. T. Vol.t the end of tll~ letter.otes in a poison recipe) and 76 (fire signal~) of Thevenot's ~dit10n of the ~stoi.1"ois m. voL 1. roi et autre:!.rt 1 pub1 i shed in 1858 J : 3~~ 110-6 3.. in Notices et ertraits odes man':lscrits de in Bibl iothe ue du.ee de Jules l' Africa.. those rela. 138-40. 39.

1855)~ p. 380.e been t. tome: Paris. H.. 1854-5"'71 .1- the projection of Sy-n<:el1us·s enneabiblon back to Eusebius (Ii la Sealiger) . 1.S Or ~4. Ru...ed ealiJier to explain the '1.1"131.. vols. " Dictiona of' Christian Bio a h Li terat-ure]o S~c:ts and Doctrines...rtin ..cal. Kollar J 1: cola.... lTh. ~ G:ra~cis Orientalibu... Didot Frat1"'e8~ 1652-58) J 3 (1855).. Mey~rt Oesehiehte der Bota. Duchesne. (Lt!!ipzig= Wilhe~ Engelmann . ed.. The-preference for this figure V6. and SI!! q 1<.ha.. 1).nce for the boak nUlIJoer in llandin! t s notit::e in dec:ifdOnEJ on the question (p.. . 9. dictionaries.trum scri to!"umcue I!!:cclesiasticorurn ane-cdota hactenus o era selec:tfJ. Afriean'lls received notice in various encyclopedia. the nttmbe:r 01' books in the Kes'toi vas held to be nine (even by those 'Who "ere' a.tinis eodic:1bus.. F. 2 Most 0 f the vri ters B.'lrtar~ or thl!' katbartika ballla.r-t-ikahapla f'r>agment (p.s ue et La. ments: mainly based on t\. zweite Abtheilung: Des Byza. 1.lo·~re simpl:t g1 ven.:s. and Co.l'Institut Imeria.. Cyclot:J&e:dia of Bibli.Early Studies R~ferJ!'nce 51 YOrks Mean\. p. 4 'loIs. Georg~ SB.an error f'rom e"..1!noo]o "A£r-icanus J J'uJ..tow. 2 3.ers savants a l' Ac E!. lind a form of the f1lectio origina11s 11 text critical ~finont it :s~em. fragment from Kestos • 13)" 1 though sometimes the fI. 1877-81). Koehly andW. LsmbeCK (Coaune:ntELEl..1'U5 . Oebz-uder Borntrager.. and other Tef'eTence works~ seculQr a. ' but several tried to put the Kestol in an earlie:r-.l de France . or 2h . 1\"i1 and :n. 355 .5 ~ 3 3. 426-27) seems to ha. 9. William Smith and Henry Wac:e.fhile.Ccepted tbe unity of of the Kestoi and the Chronog- raphy and letters . 56..he f'irat to 50 argu~. Pi tra ~ Spicill2'gium Solesttlense ~omplecten5 Banc:toruIn o.rhe exceptions vere: Ernst H.s.s 'Well as religious.1ternatives . zv. Generall. Martin knE!"W 01' the ka:t. Brown:.ymus Kriegswissenschaf't.reiter Theil: Die Taktiker..d~m1e des Inscr1 tions et Belles-Lettres de. T. n. preJtliere serie-. J .B. 1. HRecherches sur 180 vie et les ouvragee d' HeTOn d f Alexandrie t H Memoires p:r~sente5 par di·."1t1ner Anon. 3) trOnl L!UIli.i:fiea. J-bhn W' Clint-ock. ed.fO 8. Henri Ma.wi th n..15" a5 . Paris ~ P.:r{ part or the autho~sf!i¥ u@ncII! .'. and James Strong... Md especially. Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller . Boston: Little...nixjo4 vols~ in :2 (Konigsberg. 2 11855) = 220-:26.5" hom 1i 6""J than to l"ever s c tLn. and K5e hly and RUstov spe~i:fic:ally reject anJrsign.

:B the recognition by Mart in of "the This resulted in a African~~ co-::IIposit. Har~er and 'Brothers. (-Nouvelle enc:. 1854-68») 7 (1857): 155-56~ followed Neander's viev~ pp. 1S"67-81). 5'.'VJs rather than Parthians. Opinion Theolog. which them in the manuscript . :few writers &cce:ptinE!. Besser:... 349-52). 1854-73)!I< 5 [55) ~i865).. Opinion 'Was somewlUlt d.1iJu.rJules Africain. (=En~'yclo­ reclietheolc"gig"ue. vols.'Ju. 351-6~.1as i on a. 1:01s.. J. y 37 chapters as. s.{vnom be tenta. .. Sevest:re '" Dictionnaire de pQtrblogis.\lthent i c (s ee the disc 'l.ander+l. L. cola..1'hevenot .ect. 932-37 ~ ILV. 4~1092-93.uttga.he' othe.t\fricanus. l8'5155).1015. Paris: J .een 2:26 and 232 (W. 51-56-. ed. This view had been anticipated by Boivin) ~ho had denied certain ch~pt~rs to AfricanUS 2 accepting only Q4 as ll.. nJuli us Af'ri c anus . 598-602.~ 10 vols.~" ~artin! "Re~berches gur Heron~n noting t.r- Martin r~ga..rs to the compiler. . 22 vole.Yhich mE. crediting the suggestion to Dupin. .ls edition).lius . Dictions-i. tLdded btlt. J.l-Encvkloplldi~fUr "PTotestantische 't'heoloRieund Kirche .52 pagan period of Stu.ions9 separat.oEj. Migne .1@s Africain tl .pter5~ drawn more or less directly f'rOll1 earlier writ~bllowed erg such as Aeneas Tacticu5.e nature ot the milit. Herzog". 355-61. Pressel. -? J. the idea of an episcopal fI. tt Similarly ~ Th..f~icanus's lite J even if this 1Deant giving up the: dedication to Severu5 Alex. s.-F~ Guerin. 343) ~ dated it 2lo-rr.ion between what s111Ular ch~pters actually coming from and ~O~e- cha. Paris = J.tively called Hero of' Constantinopl~ Cpo 361J). " The lQst item dist1n~1shed oetloreen Julius A:fricanus and Julius Sextus (!).. (See further ~lowt at the diEicussion of Vieil1efond t Jules Africain) 1932).. v..v.. (Ive\o' York.dy of Afl"icanus A.ical and Ecclesiastical Li terature.i vidc!d &s to Af'ri C&nus 1 s churchly conne~tions~ only B..yclO'pedi~ theol.. 6 'Vols.re de Phistoire universellede IIEglise.. (p.que) '\tols. tradi tions and in the editiQt! b:f '. HRecher-che's sur Heron~ " t10n of Thev~not.bat he was Hpeu o.ary ~oll..-P.rt and Hll!li'burg: R. :3 £:22J (185~ ). authentic ~ attributing the addition or t. onl. On e si gn i fl cant advance WB.ugne. eel".. but vith the chapter on al"Ill9 . (S1. 20-23 bis..:. A." Rea..rded ~arti:n.lntions Peraia. . status Ji but se'Ve:ral allowing for possible presbyterate..'b ove 1n connec t i on with the pre aent-a- thbdo:x..

Bri tanni c a. ~ the DUlnber of books in the Kestol. ca. suggested that he vas probably e. latter article is proba. l Mea. the En.bly more b:roe.tively and this vas followed by (a di. 2 priest. ~ee above.also SEXTUS by Suidas t • • • n).ius.. BODle careful presentation (albeit 'With oI!:rro·rs . of JrnO'llll!dge during this period ca. z'Ile1ter Theil.Ylr.nvhile. '3 while Harnack i lQ U .lled .Early studies 53 vas equall)' divided as to his homeland.n Aut.. and inconclusive. G+ Teu'bn~r. !Uld th~ likelihood of cOImDentaries by Af'%'ic&nus) of se:bolarly knowledge to tbat time.1J:!lon' s article in Smith and Wace is a tulJ.. The. .. Africa or Syritl.. g.. Afric9. Hinr1 chs I sche Bucbhandlung I 1898). beginnine. p. Sextus Jul.ig: B. 3aeiJll'i ch Gelz.ly rE!pr~sent8.d. was dominated by two names . 1: 213.t ed its aTt i cle s01De'\o"ha:t"lo but it vas st ill bri ef 10 general .n ~ contrasting articles.) This article also tentativelY introducE!d the by-nOJr:le Sextus (I1AFRICANUS. pe:rhap~"lo The state be represented by tvo Sa.ti ve 2 Th~ of the views of t'he t i~e..stortion oft) ttt!'ander's suggestion. ( On Neander .i us Afr1canus und diE! By:tantinhche Chronographie. C.horitative VQr}:: ricanus (especially concerning the Chronography) ..dis<:uasion f'Or the next decades.: Naehtr6fje (Leipzig: J. 1880). IIZ U Af'ric:anus 1i tt JahrbucherfiiX' RTotti!st:a. erste A'btheilung: Die Nachfolger des Julius Af'rieanus (Le1pz. 8.er . erster Theil: Die Chronographie des Julius Africanus (Leipzig: B. 1885). zveiter Theil. 1 and 2. G+Teuoner. zweite Abtheilune. a upde.cIclopaedia Bri t fl. appeared on the scene B. an article.and Adolf He.B Gelzer on AfSo the author of B. tbe Kestoi was introduced tenta. 49 vith nfl...i{.P1us t JuJ. Encyclopaedi a.el" .ntisch:e Th~o10Bie 7 (1881): 376-78.. 9t11 e d. JULIUS."Heinrich Ge:h:. in 1880..rnack. (18'75).s.S e. also. and..

a Christian from Latin Africa.s (p. especially chara.. 16-17. dedicated to Alexander Se'ierus t vas probably eompleted in the first half of his reign. er . not an ec- ~lesiastic.St udy 0f Ai"ric anus posl tiotl was developed more alowlJr in a cont..n.. Ibid .re.o its nllscella:n~-ous (V'erttlls:::ht} contents.ss superstition of t·he Kestoi is explainable in ~onte:ntporary of Septimi .d the cre.thel' 1 t i 9 Vale!3 i us l' a explanation of the main tit Ie ·'Tapestry" or "Bbbroidelj'" 1''' in reference t.l science. Plitt. . ~I in f:eaiEneyklopa.. fI. 1 Gelzer answered most of the critical questions of his day. -Beginning 'With the article ~ uJu:lius Af:ric&lus . IH7188)~ 7 (l88e): 296-98. There vas only one Africanus involved. L." or 24. Remains of the Kestoi.1S Sever-us j Voss correctJ. probably baving Pe.i 9~he Theologi~ und Ki:rche l ed. ~ho acc~panied Sep- timius SeVe1"U5 on his Osrhoenian campaign. a milit. 1:1-11.y l cO'l~pared tbe si tua. Se:ctus.ei"pzig. J. associate of kings and emperors.- ' d' I' ~ t o Hm to tnat described in Ha rian a Ie-ttel"... The number of.. It \faS a sort of ... 4). 18 vo1s. Syncellus proba. 2d ed . ~ . 2 Ge1 z..d1e fUr protestant. critical sense of the lett~r coneerning it. C.Il. the pr12. and his vievs became dominant in the f'ol.' books ""as e-ith~r 1. and continuing to at least 1925.lencyclopiidie. Senus Julius Af'ricanus. as a sub-ti tl e . J-:--J: Herzog and G.inuing series of' articles and studies. Susanna.ary man . 2 The Kestoi.. ainrichs.ed 'by thaumasia.." though not exclusively natura. 12. 3Ibid. Also.3 The ~ombinat1on of th~ sh~.loving years. {J.dQxe. and a widely 'travelled I!:I8. pp.ed book Africanus purchased in Egypt was one of the Hermetic 'book. is incorrect ~ ra.bly having an incomplete copy.1' p .cteri7.~ea.

..! pp. p. p. cOlI:IlIunication from K.rest her-eo a.n of the fragments of Africanus..~ A'btheilung . 't 1I.. and agreed with Gel:ter in J!an. and in P9~llus t s ex- The year follo\oi'ing the publiciltion 01" his first volUll:.ent·s the rejection of the nine-book total far the Kee.rith a German transThe later parts of 16:tion" in a later number of the same volwne. 3) Gelzer's work are chiefly of inte. the second ~o. a't- tention to examples of nu:merous tnanus~ripts {of the milita17 vr1ters) besides Codex Regius 2106 (e:it1!'d in inscription Iouliou Se-X'tUS 1.f1. 429. Jahrbucher fi1r protestantische The-- zwei t@:r 'Ibeil.rticle ampl! tying flJ1:d clarifying certain points . Sextus Julius Africanus vas lIbid.S~rtus .lled... only t\orQ relating to the KestoL The first docu:n:.lt . resp~cti "o+ely.. as by others of his time to Keston l3).s announcing and then poatponing plans for publicat.e I Gelze:r published a brief a.. l !lS ~1J. asricultnTal~ as smile ether fragments. 2 text of the Kestos 13 kathartika hapls.nus. K. MillIer pub1isned the Af~ik.iQ.13) ""bich included the (X. collections" cerpt •. Milller regarding the :fragment from Keeton 13 (CQrrected by Gelzer..Early Studies 55 and veterinary are found among the Byzantine tactical. E!Z'Ste Abthe i lung.nou k~stos fra~ef. vi. and zore i t. 1:1 Harnaek's app~ared rir~t systemati~ pr~sentation eoncerning Africanus in th~ same year as Gelzer·s first volume . 3 rrZU Julius Af'rics.v points (even suggesting the need f"or 5ucll a "basic study as Gelzer was about to supply}.·' Jah:rbucher fUr protest. 1.antische Theolosie 1 {l8BI): 316-78.toi (1: 12 L citing a. K. zt. 13-16.. 7 (1881): 759-60. 2"Zu Africsnus." ologi!!.

!I'-Die griechische Ueberset-zung de5i ApOlogeticus TeTtulli61lus. translator fit -the same general place' and tUne. pl""esbyter.d contact s "i th various royal tr houses 'Ii and vaB probab1y th~ author of th(i' Kestoi (a Salnlnel'We-rkes")..red lI. Harnack argue:d for Africanus as the translator of fL. 7 296 L p. His title to 8..Ei llbich lias apparently used by Eusebius. .h r~:POrting !2. t s Apology Further.rnack suggested two more i tetrJs for Africanu.s 3 of Sept imi1. Start- ing f"rotn Gelzer J s argwnent that Afri <: anus k. ho. 1~~7 revi~ of Gel-zer's first volume.. in a reported~ fI.ntiniscbe Chroni?1Q::a.onius IS De regibus in his Chronography. but he vas also probably [L re1cbhalt1gen Probably by !I. no. col.a vie-w he bimself ~egarded a~ doubtf~1.ed Sue:t. 2'98. ~ (1892}. Gela former offi.. 2 Ibid.u pp. II 1[ 8. -er8t~r Thll!il t b~' li~inrich Gelzer. He :further credited Du Pin with first.I repertoire--he was atransla. 278-837 esp. place among the medical W'ri ters comes from 1"Juliu5 Africanus. 1 misprint ~ he ~red. suggesting the: two Africanu5 hypothesis.phie.. t. ~eview of Sextus Julius Africanus und die ltLzfl.cer in the forces YieW' that Af'ric:anus va.a' E. 32-36.nslatQr (from Greek into Latin).fricanusts year and pla~e of birtb were unkno"Wn ~ but 'he was still alive after 2bo (p.56 likely a Li oyan..i"blon passage). A.radition a.new La tin. in Theo"togische Literatgzeitung 6 (1681): cols.he enneab. Africalll.litu'l. Eleven ye-ns later ~ Hs.. .it-!'d Syncellua wit.ls and the ve.. 296 and 298. 2 The following y@aT. Greek version of Tert-w. Ra. . few lines later by t. baying us.s a t!"9.15 Seve rus... books (but follm. and Afr1canus credited by late-r t. 278.udy of Mr icanus Sui das as sert ed..:rnack zer l S apparently apPl'o1riogly .to1' and medical writer. tLS St.

cesa.nus o.. also cited Roaenmll11er'g co~ariBon He also present. eio Ar~t. butl:!lore d.ppears tvice in Harne...bilities of Africe. QIld Elijah.D which Africanu5 lived. and tbeir sec:ulat'. 1893).. L Ibid . even super sti t iOUB y 'C he. B.1iger tains 21.ersion" view are impossible. 50'7. but.fJUf' and Origen.g und deL Bestand der al tchriatlichen Littera:t'lll" bisEusebius (Leipz. l Arri~g. s.s~lf.. p.Bu~hhl9.i US Afr1canus.Ass)rrian B. books. .. 'but both it and the Itpre-con. Rather .efinite some point~..Early Studies 57 the Kestoi. and the Scholion ~oncerning }'1a..dded Pi. 51:2. the Kestoi results f'ronl tne period of ex..ace-d back to Sca. much C'MUS th~ him..nd o. Afr-i- is '·Sextus (1) Jul.:: "Caput~' concerning Moses. ·'Christlie:hc! Art r. Grenfell and Hunt· s discovery of the end of the book had set. 2 Preusch~n. p.8 tr. 2 H 3 Ibid.r bis Euse't!'ius. besides the confirmation of unit:" 1"Medic1nisches aus der ~lte5ten Kirchengeschichte.y bondage) to the list of ltB-'l'"DB.e Ir ) ..ive syneretism i. &longs. I s tvo fragments (the Syria. 508 3 51l. .ed of the critical a. Hinrichs' ache .re. Preuschen ~ the second by Harnac:k. . 513. 3 Harnaek t S theory of Afri canusa 9 translator 0 t Tert ull ian T 5 AtJol0f\r ." and the Kestoi conThe t'W'o AfrlcMu5 theory :i.:J.~k· s Geschlchte der alt- chI:ist11chen .ctel'.i de the the- ological interests and critical abilities shown in his other works.. Erster Theil: Dil!' Uber11 ef"erun.tled the question of the number of books in the Kestoi (thus Justifying the conclusion of Preuse:hen). roB..:!iC: Valois. the first acco-unt by his assistant E. which fUrthl!!' serves to show the breadth of his interests.Li tteratl. ~ (1892) = 43-4~ (in part 1 .tro.nd1ung. Pi'.. Preuschen' s vtevs are Oll same as Harnack r s.I1asseh t s escape fi"QI!I .ig: J. 4 ~ighteenth the ttme appeare~ in the second part of tbe vDrk." no...ck· s account pos5ib~e A~ri~~ian items. C.

slip of the pen I Earna. article in 'the third ediprot~stantische ~ne:fit tlon of the RealeQcyklgpadie fUr Theologie una Kirche had a.ck transf'e!'"red Ce:laen. • si'tes of Noah· s a.ppeared tvo yf?ars too ea:rly to :from the Ox:!rr'hypchus d1sSaEe covery. Herzoe. report 0f having seen both Jon curygJ.arti-:=:le). Al bert )fauc k .... H1nri:=hs'sche Buchhandlung. Harnack"" 8 revised. otherwis(l' the views were ess.56 of authorghip~ Study of Africanus not otherwise affecting any of the conclusions.er's suggestion that e ine Art. 90-91).ing officer vbo had B. Ge1z.s'· (sic).e:r t Ei collection of fragJ!le'. .. (pp.Band~ Di~ Chronologie der Litteratur VOn Ireno. 1904) 7 2!bid . 24 vols. c...v the Geschichte~ as those 'to appear in tht:! this included the introduction of the ~ reference to the Osrhoene campaign ~ vith date AfTicanusis 1 ~l~rical and the qu. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung) 1896-1913}. ~ound. 3 but.ie:~ J.'tu.tic for late-l" sm:I!Dp_ries of AfricMus' is life. The speci~ication of' the year of th~ campaign in this connection (Gelzer gives the dat~ [Sextus .• p. 91. • b'L... B9.1 Gelz.eus his Eusebiu8 (Leip2. VOn tec-lmischer Enz.L J.yklopidie l. Mt. J. Harnack Dot ed A:fri can us· ~leged s. 1:5J t but s.V. p. and becomes characteris. 8J by several pages of discussion) is Harnack'a.l..enae In th~ ~W)time.Q..ae :from Phrygia to Phoenicia.epal"ated fram this part of the &CCOl~t (p.k. (By eo. (I. Latin-spca.s followed by a date of death of 'tnach l~O" (but gt'llen correctly in the body of' the . IlJi1l1us Africanu!!I Se>::. H&r- nack here B1~o suggested Paradox~ r1 as a second title ~or ~he Kesto1~ which is char-Qcte-rized a9 KID'"iositatensaJllrllung ..e i P z ig ~ . Theil~ Di~ ~weite!" Chronologie deraltch:tistlicn~n Litt~:ro. C.) Me.. addition . r Xl 2' this connect . D• 195.ccompanied Severus on his Osrhoenian eX})edition of' A. This 'Wa.anvhile..ed b~r . 9(1901}: 627-26. ~ ed.rk. B.ton. article also Tepeated and ampl i f"i e d S~xtus Julius kfricanus vas a.nts had still not appeared.\:.Dd Thi a. Are-rat and Cela.estioning of ~ven~entioned in statu5 J a poBsibility no longer Zveiter tur his Euse'bius.entiau.

even in the BibliOgi'aphy.X~S Africanus E1 ". An abbreviated :form of this article appeared in Engli6h in The Nev Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia.u sein. B.mts whic:h had occurred in the int.!. the Kestoi.ls Verfasser in Zvei:i'el gezogen ist)..he description of th. T. be presented belov ~ a:f'ter on of" other developE:ll. 2 . lIbid.ngefiUlt mi t kuri5s (!'n.he K~stoi. reference to Africanus as a. o. Harnack's Militia Christi: die Christliche Reli ion und d~~ Soldat~nsta.nd in den ersten drei JahrhlL"lderten TUbing. mirak'Ul-os en t tL"ld lI. Samuel J'I.licht sind bisber Abschnitte ~um Landbau.acau. {Ne1II' York and London: Fl.. 13 lLnd n.so e. 3). there fore.rlitur-giolog:. IrJuli'lls AfrieMus. ehare... There is nO referenc~ t.. Ve:r- 5£fent. Gec"oonir:a and HipI2.en:.l sections of the K~stoi aa (exceptional) ~X!Lmples of' involve:D. A£ricanus's lifespan ~as given as from about 160 There was al. Med. zur Kunde 'IJ.i~in und Veterinar-Medizin t ~urGeheimmittel- Harnack· s last pronounc~@nts concerning Af'ricanus came more 6o~e tban a decade and vi e.v. .st t .. er 2ho.U"Ces vas the Geoponica .J ~ C. Moht't 1905) includes Africanus and the ta~tic!l... The !!'lost :notable of sUch so\.itltrica Tbe la.~. Serlu5. It also tones down t. lO de cade 5 of' the n i net(!-enth cent u. 2Ibid .... of: t..ns t3s s igen Dingen (wesshalbA. v. but does not contain any adVMCeInent of the study of' the K~Eitoi. llppi schen. z. presented modif:ication of eOnS iderat i They 'Will.ckson. and eli..mk & 1r ~agnallst 190B-12)t 6 (1910): 26~-65~ s. der angewandten Mathematik und d~:r Technik Sj::wesen :.o the OxyrbynChU8 papyrus.ttlinates 9.znt of early Christians 'With the military (p.ley Ja..1·~nu-veyinglP). 12 vols. somewhat = full~r 1 -~ to soon I:L1 . ~ half later.-riter on .·'· (for th~ original ''MesskWldeu . By!ln interesting mistranslation.Early Studies th~ 59 later article.ry saw d. possible translator of Ter-tullian· &&-olo&:... this version als-o I!I8. e.i sc lUi- sions concerning various suggested sources of additional fr~en~s from.cteri20ation e Paradoxa e10e Art von En~yklQpadi~ der rea11stischen Wisaenscharten.. t p~ 628. s. 627.ervening period. 2tir Messkunde t zurTaktik. of Religious Knovl~dget ed.e Kestoi some- \7ha:t. p. and.

lso pUbliShf:!d eepo.na t Oder argued for the a. 5. but vas ~ e-xtrac"t frOlD the whole york (p~ 86). .la" interpreters since Boivin had relied t. last tva pointe. 2 identified and thus impossible to distinguish Eugen Odei't though presenting a diff'e:rent view of' the OVeT- .n.ems 50 from the Kestoi not noy.o ShOll the Christian st. . 2 Ibid. book 1.f'ied in the text itself as from Af'ricanus (Geop.tus of the author of the Kestoi. S. Berliner Studien .e.t th~re 'Were probably in the Ge-opon1ca.! for 24 books in the Ke-sto1 (Syncellus'E fTnine epitome:t and onewuld hardly mak~ a 9-book books n must. pp. 2).Beitrlge zur Gesc-hichte der Land\l'irthschaf't bei dt!n Griechen t" Rheinig~bes Mus~um tOr EbiloloBie n. lli th the Geopon1ca aleo suggested thg. 228 (a.uthorshi:p~ aT. Calvar:l.lUb~rdi~ Quellen!l den Vl!'rfasser 'W'ld die Ab85.rll.all development of the.3 1dE!ntity of: On other points of A. ed. 3lf. BO that the chapter attributions were suspect. contra Gelzer.r & Co.nnot be accept.)? ~:ntersuehungef. 81-92.frieania.s not. but neither should th~ Geoponica be c~let~ly eliminated as a source tor Afr1c&nu!. dt!l" Geopon:tca. reB. 1 But compari- sons of Psellus and the-Thevenot-Boi rln text.li tb Psellus tLnd The'V~not-Bo1vin show:. va.. have been fassungs'ZE!'it. that the passage9 ascribed to Af'ricanus in the lelJllI:!ata co.:.fUr classische Philologie und Archaeologie.I. 45 (1690): 82-83. 86. In 1884 t Wilhelm Gemoll t vhile holding to 'the identity of' authorship" argued that the compiler of the Geoponlca had not u5ed Af'rieanu5 di~~ct1y.cb~d the same cOfi~lU8ion on the only one 'Passage is identl. Ferdinand Aseherson (Berlin. Just from books 6 &. nUlnerous it. 45.tely by Calvary? 1 (188~): 1883) + GeIBo11 also felt that the Thevenot-Bo-i vin tt!X1.nd 7 of the Kestoi.Geoponica.s.ed vi thout questio. and compa:rison '\..60 study of A1"ricanuB 7~ chapter on oce chapte:r of \fbich . 91-92 .

ssion t he Ilott!d a.I b i d . .. 'Who suggested that the chapter ascriptions in the co~ion co~ilationt the H1py iatrica. &nd Ch.nian ele:ments in tbe ~ 2 Ibid . were as trustworthy as those or the Geoponica. were untru6tvorthy or even fraudulent. 4 Oder t s vievs ""ere seconded by Max !hm.aizing the role of the Oriental 'Versions. pp.lI divided into four divisions of six books each. 82.meutikon). 314. especially empha. 81 ~ 82. . st1. but by K. SeOrgikon..B.oi.. K.e-.nus.-book l1Or-k). 3 but in a.ion of the Greek mili tfLry 'Writers (Kriegssc:lrriftBteller).l. "Beltrage ~ur Gesehichte del" Lands'lK:1:rthschaft bei den Gl"iechen.Es..1e-r in his edit. ~8 (1893): 2~ in the continuat1onof note 1 fl-om p.. 3Ibid. 1. 82. . .bout the AfriclJ.rly Studies 61 epitome of a l.s Gelozer Buggested. p. in addition to presenting iI.2 Ode:r mE!ntioned Gelzer' 5 pro- posed edit. MU1. vas more sanguine a.s would not be. corresponding to the contents as given by Syncellus (i.tt Rbeinisches Mu!!eUl!l fUr_Philologie n. ~ 47 (1892)~ 5nDie H1ppiatr1ca t " Rheinisches Museum fUr Pbilologie n. this is probably the tItle of one of the divisions (-the (".he developltlent (and reconstruction of the text) of" the Greek Geoponica.. second t1 tIe of the vhole work a. III. t iatrikon~ ph. 5 Antonius Baumstark . later addi tiQn to the discu. . diviston of the pUblice.:> p.ll d1f- ferent vie'lol' of t.rsikon.edited by Gelzer .:i.eorgika) not a.tion~ the Kestoi fragment.1 Wbile thl!! B(mrCe~ 'Correctly connect the title paradoxa with the Kest.ion of the tragxnents of Africa.5.

The study or the Geopon1ca. Henricus Beckh (Leip~ig~ B.to adequately consider the evidence or the Oriental versions. chapters credited to Af':!'"icanus in the C~bridge codex of the Hippiatrica. (Paris: Georg~3 Steinh~il. Teubner~ 3Eugen1us Oder! I1De lB95).l~hemical de~crlpt1on~ in Egypt. Rheinisehe Museum ~ ~ hippiatricorum codice Cantabrigiensi:>" Philolosie n. 3 Alchemy A year after GenLoll l s study ~ A:fricanua t S name turned up in the history of' alchemy. . Tvo years later Oder himself turned to the Hippiatrica.8~ 51 (1895): 57-58.u Jahrbucher :fUr classisc'he Philolop:ie [Annalium Philolop:.ip01"UIDJ 21€J" Sup:ple~entband (~894): 404-5. origines ~e It&lcheoi~ ?Reported by Syne~llus (D1ndorf 1:105). ~s M[arcel Pierre Eugene} Bertbelot. Hovever t he simply emphasized their ~ethod pr~5eoce~ rather tbab I suggesting any real of identifying them speeifically. cell- ing attention to add! tiona!. G. 4 His me~iber'!3hi:p in this fraternity wnil~ ""'~a5 vouched for by hig purch&se of the book of Souphis by Suidas's a.tion of a nell text by Beckh~ :2 Though continuous1y critici~ed for a too-narro~ manuscript base and f"ailure. 2Geop-onica i!iViE! Cassiani Bassi seholastici de re rusticae ec- logae t ed. it has not been r~placed.e knov ledge and art PI at the begi nni ng of an alehem t: a1 manuscript lrtLucubrationes S~e-G:raecae. 1885). and by the ~ppearance or his name in various works 1 especially in the list 01' nthe phi1osoplJers of the di nr.study of Africanus Ge9P9nica. reached something of a plateau in the following yen with the publica." c.

p... a.phical works. ~ho.) . Berthelot I s viev of" A.. london.Ius among the pagan writers...rigines. 2 (pp. Mark's MS list of Nphilosophers u app-ear on pp.l 'Works" are perhape a reference to parts 01" the ChronographJ~.. ~~ as were the pseudonymous writings attributed to Souphi5 (CbeQpa).0 1. repr.rmenia and Edessa suggests Moses.Early St. q.oL The latter ntune is analogous in meaning to the . 3vols. LM(a. somevhat atypical ~ a Syrian. . of' ChoTene a.iQuesf.lUy contemporaneous with the morepromi nent {Chri Ei- tian) e. 3). . &s'Ilell M a his- tor:. in the transla. DrOr"ille 401 [Auct • X. Cbapter II. 32 of' that list. ~ J AfTicanus also appearea briefly in Ber~itit':lgs.S \fBI:..Jld 3. Af'ric&nusts tl6Jlle also appeared in conneetion with brie-f statem. There~ thelot and Rue-llets collection of alchendcQ. p. 98-99.phiea.r.tiot) or Vieil1efond 1:8 IX ~ 2 8.ilitary "ork.1 Asi.1 he was dated as roug. 1:202. the Kest..lcheeJical writer ZOSiPl1l8. n": Elsewhere Berthelot na:med Africa. Libr. The Greek text t with fa. Origines.-~(il~) Ruell~. word Hantliology..frieanus he "'·8. 2. 31) 1:17279]. .OJJ tes: ges rt had been much discu.. Georges St ei nhei 1 ~ 188·6 ~ alSO.nd eo m..r~£!. vho composed geogra..chimistes g:t~cs. See also Catalogue des manu8e1'its alchim.TJd 169. The re"fere!:lce to /l.ppears a.8-7.· lBerthelot~ Q.fte. p.ud. dralm from the tabularia of Edessa.ents 1n the Greek text in vol.ssed in the p1"'e-ceding two or three decades .et' list not exactly ~o:r:rel.n on pp.. 299). (Pal"is. Holland Pre ss ~ 1963).J1ciens aJ. (Also see below.ry of St.ies.. 126 o:f l-fS).~e list in an Oxford c. 8vols~ in 3 (Brus. 63 vhich Berthelot studied at the libra.nche lIr)~ and a French translation of a second list.csimile of the St.. Zosirtltis.:t Hermes. oef'ol"'e going on to discuss the Christian nJaJority among alchemical autbors. pp. 3..nd Nilus in item.. Africanu5 a.-ponding to the actual contents of tbe manuscript. 187.rcel Pierre EugeneJ Bertbelot and Ch. 17~-15. the Ugeogra.p1:.. Lamertin ~ 192~­ 32) ~ 3 ( 19211 ~ it fo1' the fHl.) 2 .s a partial source. .de from this. {Tile r~lat1on of" Afrieanu3 to H1ppolytus r s "Liber generationian and t e:!. Collection des B. with t:ranslation in . 110-ll (Figure 5--Pla. nO. Mark (Codex Marc.p~cia11YJ his "Diameri SlJl.sels: M.odex (Boil..f ArmE!"oia. 75 a. 3 vola. o. fl. is g1vE.. 3rbid. in 1. o.

lias only part of Ve.t t 'Was A:f'ri~anus Ii s hOOJe. ben assuming A:frit:a.aeb1us (Ch!"onic<m.r.he Buspi cion tl"la.the first The Suidas 151 statement COTl- direct support for Valesius· hypothesis. or af'alse deduction) from the n:aiD.e-sterner who wrote in Greek and knew Hebre'W' and Syriac.ed earlier in this c:::hapte:r-.. but shares 'iilith Syncellus the double error of identifying Emm..o. 4 This point. lId sunderst o. indicQted t.. Gel~er.64 Religious vri~ings Study of .ory. t 1t i s a. 3Ibid . Knovledge of Latin by an Ea.nding.lois'g viev.tus of' Ni~opolis somewhat mor~ clearly than Eusebi U:$ of a (fiB.i.~ B. this does not prove an origin in Latin Afrit:a. 3 c erning Atr i eMUS t s L1 cyan origin . 1711 + l11Neue FragmeI'lt e ~.st~rner is much less striking thnn Besides a 'W. p.. 169.." c:ompared to the "vas founded CektistheJ e.us.A:fTictlnus In 1889.1iJ from E!::nmaus u (apo EIomaous en).ha. village which later received the right (dikaia) city. Sextus. 2 At the same time I Philip' a statem(!nt. As de Boor pointed out1' the ~eount stands mid-vay 'between tha"t of E:u. This seems to provid. with tha.e."schale) and SynC'~llus~ sents the changt! in sta. his 1nter~st in He~etic books and the s~cret visdom of the Egj~tians4 is ic k~eping with the mystical-speculative interests of the :2 Ib 1d. de .nus's knowledge of Latin. The f"i rat of t. ~us-Nicopolis 11V a. city" of Eusebius ~ omitted b3r Syncellus)..hfml 'las the B. Cf'. p. tbis.nd of dating the change of the name to Nicopolis to th1:$ time. Greek it pre- text as refiected in the Chronicon p.. Gel~er's ~d attempts to support it are not conclusive.e Af:ric anus. ho'Weve.1 s open to t. L+ . p..Boor publisbed Si de •s chur~h 6~veral f'ragmenta from Philip 01" hist.t of the Gospel!...e count of' Ai'rie anus 1 which vas pre-sent.

statement if' h~ had read any of the Ke-stoi . l}. though 1t uobrio'llsly" belonged to hi~ pagan days. YTit. Of concern here is the. .r&cte-ristic not only or AtriCElJtUS. vas osopher ~ interested in acienti. L.o be authenticated. 3 At the end of th~ e~nt'U1"'"J. "Pas SogerJannte Religlol1!.s. of 8. and t l!Lf'ter he'bec 8.fie subjects .ruttvell could ho. Christian.aract~:rGuf'ficient to clearly prove so~ething 3Ibid .ense &nd 'the absurd whicb is ch8." p.ten by a.ome exa~t tr8.tOr .ve made such a.. 1893)) 2:514.s mere fact of a book' So b-eine.. n+ 1..1g~sprlch am HoI' der t Sasaniden.tament c:oJl!!llent a.1ed "Persian Narrat1ve t 11 from Africnnus I s name vith the pUblication of' the text. n. pagan. 3 (1899).e. ehri e t ian. C~~isti- Charles Thomas Cruttwell.e.EI works showing an knovledge of' the West t the tr&g- lIIent t S e"iden<:e for Emmaus as Africtl. 2' This atatement had been s.ni!:y'II 2 vols. 'II[ 19 (n.h~ further oddity 01" 8.demonstration that the eonnection of the york 1 uNeue Fragtnecte)u p. Apart from the question of' whether C.Early East. T-hus there 'W'f!. is t.n. b)~ no. with a flJll study of 1'ts background.. 175. secu.. Bratke finalized the s·eparation of' one 'Work . ch.. 4Eduard Bratke .Ilus I s birthplacesee:ms t. about A. 170. but not to prove it non-Christian.New Tes. Literarz-History of Early . the so-ca1. or a:t least e.S 110 reason to doubt Afrle fIJlUS • S authorship of the Kestoi . P. not a bishop nor . but of 'th~ study of him£ He concluded 'that Afr1canus 'WaS & born phil- . 1 CherIe's Cruttvell provides something of' the c:::olllbinat1on of common s. 2 Despite this conclusion.ti~ipat.ed in the.lar kind should be evi- denc etha t it vas not. 8tudi~s Lacking some vitness besides the Suidas. t p~ 516.C~S in Africanus'.. 1. however ~ he findEi it "odd that the ~ontent.Introduc:'tory Essay Cfon tbeeole ground that :1 t deals vith seculaJ" topi~s. :pagan. (lLY~: Scribner's.tIJe a. 516..

Pt'..lAfricanus.. 901. . and the nUIriber of' 'books Il~. suchungen lt (1699).at have had major eff'ects on ancient philoloID'". 3 The fragclent li also provided further e·"iden{:~ of Af- rice.wi th t'"1r at reeogni zing {for Aphroditianos). the Will of He:rmog~n~s10 vas pub11 sbed in pnrt VI (1908). citing Usenet'.o confirm Gelzer'So view of AtricMUS I s i~erial house~ ~resent1ng friendly connection with the Arricanus as having l1arrangeotl a library in the: Pant-heon for the emperor.nou/Kestos!HL n The verso. 36-41 J and plate 5.-er (see Gelz. it vas published b~' Gre!l:fel1 and Runt ~ O. p¥.bbreviation..l. pp. 5Ibid .S persona.a misinterpretaBratke- tion of en t!!lr1ie-r a.1f p.. 412. 1 Oxrrbynchus and beyond The o. pro- i!Il1I:.n:us l:s varied inte-rest.t ion I 2 though the results 'IoI'ere not alvays immediately A fragment o:f the Kestoi.."l a~pfirent. 36 • 4Ibid .tion to Gel:t. p.erUsener had earlier commun1c13.ion in the notes to tbe terl usC's the word IIdesigned" in relatiop to the library {p. 3Ibid . u:Zu Afr1canus. hO). The papyrus seems t.tiQns . 2. :2A minor" 'Part of :finds ot" EK'"Ptian 'Papyri tt. A tr6J1s1at. 1903 :pub- Ii t: a.hor.ns. Aphr oreo i ted Ua ener.er..s ~ here literary (HoP7leric) t:riticiSl!I and magical incfI. vell tl.u~stions = of' :Book 18 . th~ nat ure an d s oure e of the error. the latter con~luding ItIouliouAfrika. 5 A lIbid .hor was J'U1ius Africanus'lo not vas 2 b • not Sext-!.lltu.. 377). papyrus no..yrh.£diate answer to toro Scalig~rls the aut.J intormation about the aut...ec b:r s.!. 32-31.11. t'Religionsge-sch1chtliche Unt. vided B.:''Tlchus Papyri 10 III. p.• ·III ~ p.ted this informe. as. ~ontaining th~ ~onclusiop Q. The preserved text consists of 2 columns number~d 35 and 36.66 Study 0f Africanus with Afr1{!MUS in some manuscripts vas the result of .:.~rs to aeve-ral questions wer~ provid.. 37. as paJlJ'TUS no. 1-5 3. The text is erchitektonesa (line 67). 51.

n. review o~ The Oxyrxnchos [sic) PapYri.tria" Aelia Ca. . A brie:f review of Oxyrnynchus III e. 1 ~O_lll.vnchus Papyri ~ -part III.-pt18J1 provenance for the Odyssey interpolation.istor vi th occasional admirable opinions:t and touC"hs (or ~'fitsrl_­ Arn. He: further pict'UJ"ed Afr1canus as 6. but 8. colQ. die Peisist.. Wilamowitz-M511endorf.LQ't'ly Studies 67 reference to "the ancient p§!. r~ .. 2d ann€e (19O L): 108. Before the year was out . with Afric. the credibilit:t of Afrisource~ canusts report of the of his variant text~ 0...Wqchenschri:ft 23 (1903. in a of' comment an tra.:tnt e-n Egypte. many short i.. 4 a. Jahrgant.l suggested an Eg. 5U~ v..:t'atos-Le-gende Uber Homer. number of g~stions 5ug- tovard the completion andunderstand1ng of the text. S Friedrich Ibid..polyh..pitoline. 1 Thia fra8Jllent rekindled interest in Afr1canus t and various articles appeared over the next deeade. aupersti t.nd Wilamowi tz drew the conclusion that Africanus was from Jerusalem. might sUggest a Syrian origin :f'or Africanus" though the. 1502-4.·eafter~ in review articles"J Wei. 2"lulius Africanus und. 166. 1502-3. 3Ibid .m~rk of HOlZle:t'. in Jaurnl!ll des Sfiv6ntS. Arthur Ludwfch contributed a. t.anus on p . rI a -of The Oxyrh. part Dl:> in Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen. man without culture..l ability.iew • 1Henri Weil ~ "Tenes gr'ecs -trouvie recemm.2 In the second part.. J pp...): cols. he defended.weiter Ehnd (1904): 659-78. 659. but presented a sharply contrasting picture of Africanu5 as Some critic. PI Berliner i-hilologi9che. '2.. n. 1467-70 .ppea-red at the beginning. 3 months tbe].s.pdelungen ) of critica..tems suggesting textual improvements of' the Oxyrhynchus fragment:> or other Africaniana.ious.editors were reluctant to cont~av~n~ Suidas..ditions in the textual transmis.sioJi general f're.ra.

3. in essentially homeric stj'le and freedom of mrrt.ft 12 (1909)~ 1-45.• Ii. 291-98".esai ireken.a~y points'll but in 1909.t1 Archlv fur PapYrusforschung und verwandte G~biete7 ed..a dei (!'OBse.t. true mEl. Lines 13-20 and 37-42 fit veIl togl!:ther and repre-sent.nd.M Archiv fUr R~1 i gi onslIis senseha. of the fragment (htL del poi.el' c:hristlichen.) pp.'1 or the papyrus .68 Blass r-ea. 250..~ 3!bid. 412: t pp. 2-19 aTe d4. item no. esp.gical comp::>sit. Jew from 1 In addition J this and other articles suggested completions corrections of individual Od.ef't tha. 5 as veIl as suggesting some basis f'or a.ded by the insertion (lines a. :3 (1906): 255-99.ed tte entire in- terpolation to e. Ja~ 6.!voted to "n@r" Z.t 6uggest the pre-Christian era . 297. more t. lines 15-20..1I 1th11e the middle.ion (ttein l"Literarische Texte 1!dt Ausschlufii. 14. pp.. ~onclu. Ulrich Wilcken. 15-16~ . added b. ll:H:ha. ~Ibid.sion Study of Africanus similar to tbe latter 11 tbough Je:rusalem~ 0)'" ~ven core s-pe- Africanus \tas a..horough ~ s.ical operations ~ consisted of tvo major The interpolation itself divides Era. 4 -l~. Homers .y A£rlcanus~ 2 Lines l~ and 21 ]). t ...warethat invocations like moSt.o.xia and ~'pQde. mag. 22-36. history of' the interpolation. '3 ~asily into thrE!1!: parts~.is entirely different like the magical or orphic hymns. .:> pp.i legei). indieate that whoever vrote thl!:m of' the ports: dead~ 8.. 5 Ibid.ubersang in do!'r Nekyis. an older interpolation.rd 'WUnsch Bubj ect. 22-~6} of 6 This was later expan.i~ study.· ij t more- 'l'""ni sprovides :reasona. "Pap_ O:xyrh. 31-~2 ..ble baaes for :filling in the incomplete line beginnings of" the first colum. 6Ibid.HDe i 5 i daimoniaka. a. pp.ys.ystema.<::hed a cinc.s d. vhether or marginal glosses taken over vith his manu'Il&S scripta. of 'Wl1i~h the first and third are Hhollleric.

. VQn Lippmann. vo1s. Griechis~h­ 2wiinsch. in coni· automatic ancestor of "Greek f'ire ~ . (Leipzig= VeTI&g von Veit . though the tire" tert( Thevenot ' s chap. not from the! beginning of tht! Odystll!'!'y citation. This seetion (lines 22-36) lat.nz .o JIlajor collections of m.rl Prl!isenda. H8.l ture and prosody suggest the first or Its enremely syncretistic naBe~ond centuries A. 18. 5 Conv'@rsel)'..gon to sepl!U'~te lin~s 22-36 into tva separate interpolations. the Roman copyist.ig = H.h et 0 f Hee at e) in line 2910 :udght suggest Nt !. p. nection vith &n. Carl Wesse1y. 334-38 band Ks. above~ p..er a:ppeared in t. also ~ p.2 (sees.agical papyri: Theodol" Ho:pfner . the kunde sed." p... Ps:p:'to'Ti Graecae Ma. ~. p. 21 and 23 t 2 'Vols. contra.I a EiS its plMe of origin. nnei sidaimoni aka. (Leip~ig and Be:rlin~ B.1 interpolation into the Kestoi.Ei nflme appeared..ts conneet~d In relation to other vith tbe Kestoi. 192 -31 . 17. 5Edmund O. Teubner.. ~·lt) waser edi t~d by the vri ter to a 18. Abbandlungen und Vortrige zur Gesehichte der N&turwisgensch&ft~n .~ for some reason t simply did not lt1- elude the second half of the ~.. Die S2riechischen Zaube avri t 2 vols. AfricEmUB·.~a. (Leipz. though Weil had suggested Alexandria and 'this would fit the reference to euolokamos Zeus katachthonios (line 24).Early Studies fertiger Zaube:rs&t'Jg unverindert tt ). On Well see Ibid' 1i p. AsYPt1scher Offenb~~ungs~auber~ Studien ZUT Palaeographie und Papyrus- lIbid .. P. lOt re Carian Hecate. a:nd a reading of Ka:rei e (ElS an epi 1:..~ fra~en. 67s and n. 19. 2 vols.~ssel~ 1921 'J 192~) t 2: 15~. 16.sting opinions prevailed. ~ 3Th 1 d. G..t e seventh centUI"'... so there is no rr..3 The reference to Nysa in CariB in line 62.icae. 2= 150-51 {Pxxiii). 2' The thirteen lines to be :found in the copy at Rome must be counted from the beginning of' the 1nt~:rpoltLtion (line 15)... thus it runs through line- 28~ but lines 29- 42 are the saII)e in viewpoint and expression as the preceding..

Hunter. 115-23. ~d by L. natura11s.le· Study of A~ric&nus excerpt.ly.tolera. .nd religious ~ontinued.1ly" of Viei~leto(]d.nda commentarius.o£!'corWl! et Romanorum Teubneria.i in the manuscript tradition o~ the military wr1~ers (published by Thevenot-Boivin) were trea.er Reichardt.Append i.~ 19061' 1913). Meanvhile ~ the di vision of A:fricQ!1ian studies.3 Ducne$n~ts &: Co:ap.. Iication did not involve a. Reinemann t 1923)..vith extensive introduction. x-xi t xiv..ar o.(ls on Siep:ecraft. into secw. Refut.tegory of' magie.. &n . Reicbardt published Such a pUbto "the an edition of' the letters. certainly (s i c h 2 r) belong~d to the ca. HDie Briere des Sextus Julius Af'ricanus Arist1des und Origines. If ru 3li1' no. t1Hippolytost Capitel 1!! 39.:ted by 5cho-ene as gtmuine parts of the Kestot {derived from Aeneas by J\1'ricanus). Lol?b Classical Library (Cmbridge: Har- 1927 pp. 1.) . 2L 0. A..s.s :from Aeneas which followed Af"l"ica. Bibliotheca.. IlO. also includes a quotation of Ros~amUllerT5 contrast of Africanus and Origen. L.9t "Z'UI" Geschichte des Schiess- pulvera und der n t eren FeueT\>"'a:ffe:n t n pp. Hanford (O:xford~ Clarendon Pre:t. G.51. Aeneae 'l'actici = de Qosi_dion-e.bove . pp. AscleRiodotus J Ona-sander.rtin ~ a.reas th&t 'Iolould require a I'"~ference Oxyrhynehus papyrus (or to the J(~st. S..}eller~ loiith.oi at all)~ but included several testimonials to Africanus's sharp critical ability.l. 3 (3d series . )) {1909). A(!ne. Qnd~ especifl... 3wELlt. lRichQrdus Schoene . on the last page cit. IV 28-42 s lP ~ichard Gallschinietz. . pp.sp. gegen die Magiel": f!.l Kest.nu!. 2) (1913)~ 29. no.. :2 {3d series" 9. Illinois Greek Club. pp. W. studies rel6. }{aer.x Is Jull us Af'!"ic &nUS .Jules Africa1n~ 1932 t below. London:Wrn. Teubner" 1911). some l"~fel"ence ~fore.130 (in chap.ard University Press. to Preuachen-Harn~ck. Note e.na (Leipt. 20625s which also reprinted Schoene' a text rlth certain noted chang~s from Boivin {po 206" n.ted "to his mOre "religious" side continued much as Ferhaps. This procedure 'WaS eontinued in Aenea~ Tsc:ticus . not~ 1. 1923. 4. AINFJJY nOAIOPKHTIKA.on r. Scriptorum Gr£L. based essentie.ig ~ B. 2).ed... n (Concerning th eo authe-oticity or these chapters I see the discUBsion of Ma.anschiniet~ suggested ~ 'that the viewed as iL 'Whole. rev.oi~ G.O. 125-89). l~ 3~ 63. trans.

n Chureh :from Its.he only immedil!l. F'oundation to the End or the Third Ce:lt~llry t trans. p . He do{!s) however..lle occurs in ottQBard~nhe'Wer's Geschit:hte de!" e. "a great huntl?t't • • • had s~oure-d 'the.. Otherwise Ba.nd 269).':Io""ledge at this ti1!le (at least aIOO'ng the 11theclogical 11 writers) can again be approximated by the Encl-elon.ltkirchlichen Literatur.Early Studies history of the early church (first published in English in 1909~ but rlt"h origina. copJr of the Hermetic books" in Ale-xandrie. 2 [1914]: 267 a.. s.3. 'though incorporating deta.te erf~ct of the O~rhyn­ chUB papyrus vas tbe settling of 'thee question of the number of books in tbe Kestoi {2d ed~t 5 vals.rk" (it.ae4ia l 1oui5 Duchesne..2 Even then. Green &: Co.).t vas tainted by lJiIagi c an d Afri canus r So fami 1 i ari ty with the: Hermetic: and si1!lilar "books (p .. t 1909-2. (Ne'W York~ App1tl!ton t 1907~12)t 8:5-65-66..... but with no reference to Oxyrhynchu.hom the article concludes).s. xi~ note to the second edition regarding the added tIlat el'ial . . . fro::ll.. :3 v01s. 2Ib1d . Herdersche Verlagshandll. 333L His Kestoi contained "many thOUSM. italics mine). with ".1. Early History of the Christia. ••. Africa. 3Birth at Ils. library neil%" the Pantheon" (ibid .il t SiL'l.CB. Aelie.forests" of Edes-l.:lne. 1: 333-34.nd precepts'· (shades Q f Pliny! L b1.i1s from rr~b!'oidel"lngn Kestoi (fo1.lo 15 'VClls.p- c¥c-lopedia.l did not include re:ferenc-e to the O>:yrhynchus papyrus until the second French edition (1906)..nus. speak of the K:estoi o..th 0 11 C . A simila.l tb~ pret'a~e dat~d 1905).mi:..• F. Jul tiS A"'J.l'rts 1ead but some'Whel.J. ~ The state of k. The pict'UJ"e presented by Forte-seue vas [!Jore coxnp1e-te. th~ lith ed. The. 191:2-32].lI~. but I!!ven more ex'tre:m.t:. only . 333.~eanus .a cc-upltl!' of biogra:pl1ical details v~re included. . v.rden~ hewer follovs ~~l~er. teeQed by the Greek Fathers 11 ( .e eXSJII].t "tbe rl!!:main5 of Noah's a. (New YOTk~ Longman. (p.. CFre:iburg im Breisgfl. 33Q).t the picture).·s rrconstant1:'t· quotil:!dand mucb e-s~) ( 8: 565) .tions a. Fortescue.~ and arrangem~nt bf 4Aur~an . and general1.u. follO\fing Ge1zcr and HiU"nack (and Jerane.J.alics mine) at Apa:lIlea t and "obtained 6.r.. i .. in which t.1owing Gelz." more res-trained t but essentially the Sfl.d observa.

hplac e che.arnack)1IB. 3Ibid. pp. ) This &rticle continuedvith only tninor changes througi) 1969. . St~i[]e und Furpur (U!'psala: Aka._Br1te. Juli'U51 AfrjcII. (The article also continued the Lm1sJquotation o£ Nefind~r..ggested~ but with r~servations.mBJ'luEicripts.ly f'ol101led the views of'G-elzer (and Harnack}.. 299):. 1'1'h~ Encyclopa. already identif'ied by Berthelot vi th Sextus. Lagercrantz published an alchemical papyrus 'W. Ha:rn~c:k droIJped from. 2 ~reing vhicb~~re at~ributed to an In the introduction" Lage-rcrantz.y. bou<b>lo'l1 " •.nged from Libya to Aeli.nusc:ripts (Cod+ Marc. Leip2. ..'t er In the first. The a:rt1(:le ~on~luded with a. scant line and a. :2 otto Lag~rcrantz) Papyrus Graecu~ Holmiensis (P.tion of At'ricianua. . {19l0) ~ 1: 361. 32-33 and 37 11 with translations on pp. Holm. and slightly re~ 'V'is ed {hi rt.):: R~­ e:epte fUr Silber.. vith the Af- rictl. it 'Was slightly condensed in the l~th edition (1929). 8. the second from Aphrikia:nou ~k.nus of the list of alchemsts in Berthelot's ms.s added.> KrUger. the UBibliograph::r 11" end Ox.72 Study of Af'riC&lua Britannica in 'Which another.demiaka Bokbandeln t 19l3.er.eJ.e-s in a la. slightl:r revised (a. su. and otherwise essenti. "Atrieanus.h1ch included tvo passages related to Aphrit1a. 106-7.AlfF:> Gel7. 216 and 226.a Cap!t..lcheEl.olino.nnioa~ 11th erl.v. This arti~le re"Verse-d the previous conclusion concerning Africanus':s priesthood . 11 A fiVe line list of HAuthoritiea " (Routh.nd again slightly expanded) article a. Babylonio5 ho publication of B1che:tni~QJ.Pl'e!U"~d inth~ 11th edition (1910).nos.t:ld Jl.gtDentof tht! Kestol among 'the Oxyrhynebu6 papyrL More 6.edie. s.. PM? shi fted to it) i [] the 1960 edition.I.mus5 3 The namE! Atr i CallUS &lso appears t 'hree other t im. the possible identifica.ig~ Otto HarraSS01iitz~19l3).> Sextus Julius.) P]. half referenci'! to a ne\t tra. The first. is givl![] as from AphrikianQu boubl~u. 1 In 1913 .

~king.uly':3 del'" classischen Altertums'L. ."5. e.. referenc~ Real~Encyclopadie in to LagercrQntz r e p05sible fra. not only gave an easerJtially complete sl.a. child. E. t cole.. 3 S.> tI Pa. of the desired sex..ted from Jerusalem.ed by the fact that ht:! even wonderl!!'Q i r t. 11~17.he time of Septi1l:lius Severus.ly-\rIiSBOVa. Kroll:.lde:r1~ in Rome)".ed by i.Early Stuo1ies Allhrikanosappea. Pll.. 34 vols. v + ..nd evidence from thE! same source shovs the Kestoi to have been vritten after 227 {the date of the completion of'the Ubaths of Alexaf. 2 Ibid .he nut-horitl for a non-alchemico.. 1."issensch(ttt.17). and 3. tvo series (plua supplements) {Stuttgart: J. rev . Markts manuscript.. ~ 3w. (This york is hereafter identified by its common designation. OUT Af'rie&nus (col.e des manuscrits alch1m1gues Brees 1 (1924 h 185-86.~ and cit.u.l fragment "loS' 1 producing 0. Some nev views Kroll's article in Pa'U1y-Wis5OVa. ~12.. Georg Wissowa.he: Sextus to vhan Neptunianus ded1c~te:d his Physiks. 2~21 t. P.. B . 1903-) 10 (1917): ~ols. there is really nothing to connect bim with the 1 Catalogu.ts abbreviElted ronal PW.1~.rs 80S 73 t. ..s" (no.) 4. 2 In the othe:t' 'two. "Juliu. vas not.H!ImafJ' of scholarly views (and materials available) ~ but suggested some important corrections to them.e.in 66 HalbbKnder.he royal house of during t. 116-23 . Julius Africanus origina.Ibid.. in thE! article: hea...gJrlents ~E!ems to be lB.~ b~t'Ween 227 and 235.. plus Supplements . the second is the Oxford manuscript list or I'Iphilosophl!rs of 'the divine science and art" (seeaoove ~ p. Kroll t S acceptance oC the by-name Sextus (indicated by the S. et al. Met~lersche Buchhandlung. 121). 63~ and nnw 1 and 4).ding) is ebIphasi 2. 4 Contra Gel~er:lo Ede~sa while Af'ril:anus did connections 'With t. asshO'iJo"n 'by 0&. the name appears only in 1ists. Only s. The former is the Greek text of' the chapter list frOCl Berthelot's St... 1893-1972. Julius Africanus. thu~ placing it ha.

£ia natural.blisbed s 'this. bad light: he is either resFonsible for the ~ritic.ta- His hu. he has put it to miguee.'Ilpe:rficia. and "though he ha. planned edition of the Chr9nO&ra~hy had not yet been reassigned. 1 Further" even if Africanus's use of 2 Suetonius 'We-re. The O~·rhynehus tra~ent gEner~lly preSl!nts Africanu5 in e. 5Ibid . even worse fOT his tion ~ was ta.' A or extant Kestol fragments gi ve:s Us further 1nformati-on about the vork and the author. 121. often Fresenting good old home-remedies crass supe:rstitions.al forged Homeric interpolation. 122.he. col. Valesius.est a. 3 . vie\o~ s col.tes that. col. repu.s a good rhetorical education. .tein). belong to !:!If!. 3 mixture of sober pTinci:p~es and b~side magical rubbish...ting tales sound much like ta.is ~ but others can only 11 be understood as Jokes {Scher~).e for his llork. 001...ken in by it.. vould not prove he knew Latin. The title indica. 6Ibid .l Christianity s' such as would be able to exist in proximity to the il'!ll'erial court. 2Ibid . 123. titl. Ibld. only in that A~~i~anUB probably did think of Venus's magic girdle when eeeking R The work is 8. col."l..ny.Study 0f Africanus Osrhoene campaign of 195. 116.• col. This add9 further uncer~ainty to HaTnaek's 4 Ibid. man:. 6 As far as texts Yere: concerned. ~20. or. but K. that Africanus translated Tertullian t 5 A:pologr into G:reek. MiUlerts collection of materials IIbid.ll stories (Jagerla. 111. BurYe:. the situation G~l~er's vas still in suspension. 5 ~oncerned~ As far as Africanus's religious status is the Kestoi GUst be regarded as a document of a completely s.s explanation of it i5 correct. t.\fork is a miscella.

266. ver-:r secuJ ar. 1~4).s librarian i1to.~ Adolf Hal'nac'k made some final suggest.f'rica.bout Africanus I s Christianity: vas there a period in Rome in which he left the church. Pap.EL(:k· s final judgment on Africa.8.F.Beveisflihrung.h 12ktil'" des Kai sers All2xander Au£satzeFritz Milkaugeliidlnet [ed~ George LeyhJ (Leipz. Se:verus l von Harna~k" ''libel'' die S8... In v1ev of Afl'icanus t IS lit- erary in~erest5~ Harna~k sUggested t. .erably leas influent.2) In the first half of the next decade. .Z seiner schnellfertigen . i us It..!JIk~it . 3 This viev attracted a certain amount of atteD~ ti.. 14:2-46. Reversing the more-th~~-&-century-olddic- tU!!l of RosenmUller. ith Africanua.L Hierse:tnann. li8.ted a. 14~. Sick~nberger contributed a. "but the dogmatically bound Ori gen '~hat ein .uch guter Methode geliefert.ar~ .ions concerning JI.JuJ. Along the li!:le Harnack also specula. Af:dtanus. lfu. 1.arly Studies 75 of the Kestol had been colJ1lllitted to F~ Mel~er~l (J. liuperst1tious tY1'e7 (p.nus t" Sit~ungs­ berichte d. ja e.on ove:rthe :rears ~ 'but. was Tight ~ IIt..Mei 8 t erst Uck philologisch-hi :atol"ischer Gelehr a..s taken up. ~ ~ol . 1 tt 4 Ibid.rnack asserted that Arric-anus· B letter vas over- rated and Origen ~ s answer undeITated.12 wastbat of 1ibrar- ian~ not architect. OT" ~as his Christiani t J' of 8. note esp.ial ~ ~hough it has con- siderably more substance.nus.ig= " K:."lus hag been consid.lIUIllung der B1"'1~fe des Origenes und s~inen Br1ef'wechse1 mit Julius Africa. by Gra:nger espec1allyll in a series of IU'"ti~les in 1932-3~ (on llhich.ed the positive aspects of Africanus'a critical ability. 1921)~ pp. 4 Adolf . Bupplem~ntto Kroll's article" dealing . what is perhaps 1ia:rn. 3 t'.rOt.f'rikanus]o del" 131bl i ot.hat his work as arehitechton in relation to the llZlperial library in Oxy.el" Pre:ussischen Akademie del" 'WissenschaftefJ~ Philosoph1schHi stori sch~ Klass ~ ( Berlin) t 1925" p. Bee bel0\7).p •. The idea of AfricanillL a.'s letters" which e-mphasi7.

not just repent..lcnus in his data.nic:h: C. Die a. g. "Jules Africs.ion . like. theolop. Pueeh. note e~p. in 23 (Parls~ Librairie Letouzey et AIle t 1903-50). 18.BireS9..ciete d' Edition hL-es Belles Lettl"es.1 usgu ' 9.leg :for the various points..ew . rat. pp.chte d.e.8. though it presented much the cOlmilon vi. 2).. ptl While .1nt to the cont~por~ interest in thE! occult sciE!nces~ and to dilettantism in lOtto StKhlin. zweiter Hilfte (Mu. . 467). :2 ~ . n Dictionnaire de. in addit.:!teh the ratione.1ung . fin d u rv e ei ec let vol. still relied heavily on Gelzer end Harna. 13q6-l. fl. and. 3Ai nJ. .le depuis Ie ori 6i ne-s .s this and other details to fragments of the Kestoi . AtriefLnUB .. Christ. v. t s Gesch1..Am.Le: II e et le lIle s~ec:Le (Paris. HarnB.ck 113 uBibl1othekar... H.f was not.. .. 1922. voL 8 ..ing them on the authority of GeIzer~ 2 p:resent~d Puech. 8... pp~ ~65-16.in. .atut'~. .s characteristic of hi5 era.er griechischen Li tteratur. Puech' oS 8'1ll1mJar'.. presented something of" the r8.ie cathollq'Ue~ l ' vols. His'toire de Ie. Becksche Verlagsbuchh&nd. . Oskl!tr Beck .nus as being sho'l. for the biographical information.. 2:..v1ess: he spoke of Afr1ca. in his history of early Chri. hE! gave himself' vi thout restra.. .ck.ue ehriih. litter. Sonder-Abdruck aus \01. discussion of Africanus.tion from the Oxyrhynchus papyrus and.@.te so up to date bibliographieBlIy ~ he did include Qxyrm"T. fla. <::01..veiter Tefl .B.Amann was not qui. So.A. but included significant info1"'m. and eredit. part :2 (1925): cols~ 1921-25.mann.tional~ for the various con- elusions cOr.a. (les reBtes) of Noah '6 ark at Apam~a (p. . 3 In interests ..nn . . . whicb.. tried to sk. sechst.mthe :t"'-elilains.ienJ.stian literature . the idea of his presence on the Osrhoeneo cBmpaign) . .e Auflage .t 1928). .her than tb~ Ch:ronouaphy (i"bid. 192~). hO""rever.Jcernlng A:1"ri<::anus i a ~ite (e.76 The religious view again Meanvh11e~ Study of Atricanu~ articles on A:fricanus as a church writer vere 10Stab~in" corporating the more recent data.ltchristliche i1"1echi sche Litteratur.

nc~s 8yn~retistic timeEl. ~ lIbi d.~ SB. of: even greater t.Jules Africain). lIre sleele.noins scientifique.I a vep" good yee:r rt That. ~ . pp. year ~ 1932:10 Kestoi text.{-two ~!. Jules Afri~ain =F'Ta ents de~ Gest.tioDs vi th favora.Recent Contributions regard to historical curios1ties..he extant Afri- in 1932. 475-76.Jor poTtion of t. 1 "!'he Kestol rl!:veals him as + + 77 un ce.ractere plus ou :. or a syncretistic emperor such as Alexander Sever-u. of'po::. mais • B..dvance in Af'ricELnia. So Ja but also the debut in print.. aux elements des s~1ences phyaiqu~sll et plus e-neore s.ctieiens grecs cit. Af'rican:us Vo. _jor a. HN1neteen thil't. 1& magie~ qui l!lp.S clo:s~ child of hi8 pri.b1~ t-o live in l"elo.n studiesi' the publication of the Oxyrhynchus frag:t:Jent in 1903.Zum Corpus hipf1atricorum Graecorum s u Uppsala.~Ei rovenant de lacollect.ppe-fLl"1Ul ce of Vi@:illefond f n~xt.im! US :3everus.l:most three decades after the last.pparently t to S4!~ one hostile to the such as S~p­ t. de lachimie.. ODly thea. B. 3Ibid .A. t 466-61.:3 Recent Contributions . occurred: tIle.s 10 but ~h\ll"ch also) a.V not.u.6.uss1 • premiers t8tonnemente.vance.ed elsewhere a8.s1bly the most r important name in recent Afr1canian studies t that of Gudmund 'Bj5rck.ble to Christio.lait ai largementt au. 5.x fasaent Bipp~l 6. anothel" ad.he long desired publication of canian~t pot~tial So significan(:e. Tj[liversitets Ar s skri ft Fj losofi * Bprakvetenska'I! pch hi stori ska vet enskaper ~ 1932 11 . 4 tiond~s t pp..ni t~r ~ su(:has Abgar 01" Bdessa. 2 8:.

Js of' Africanus f S bypot.l Stud.oductioD included.. hB.ij. J. also th~ pla.-.ce of origin of' the Thevenot-Boivin edition} ~ rather than Ge:rmany.1 Institute of British Arr:hitects 40 (1932) = 51-61.d held90~thit~g of a lead in Afr'ic:ania.61. 5. 331-41~ 2 ~. basi11que E!t son uThe Gree~{ Origin of the Pantheon ~ n g.udies of the tine military collections.-'H.-R.i~s for the 'Preceding l!!. BJorckls major contribution came later.us and the Library of the P~theon~H Journal of' Theological Studies 3L (1933): 15T. vhich ha.Paris. 251-62.icanus iothe English hippiatric& manuscripts. specifically. 31 and ~ 1. hist. it appeared in Fran c e (more r8:ther qUietly and une-xpe ~te-dly . Vieillei'onc the establishment. of' text for Atricanus at the suggestion of" Aime Pu~eh~:3 beginning 'With the chtipters preserved in 'the Byzan'!'he int:r. in 19q4. st. rEU:!li:ficatior. v.bora.oire CPar1s= Librairie Ernest Le:roux~ 1932)~ e-:sp.ournal of t. and 10 "Julius Af!"! eMUS and th e 'We s te rn Text:' Journal of 'I'heologice. Thi a first publ ic a.s. pp. Vin~ent and F. pp. Pu~ch' s revi ev of' it in tI evue de s . p.py8. This idea 'Was further elaborated by Carl Wendel t '\rersuch einer Deutung del" H1ppolyt-Statue ~'I TheolDg1sche Studien und Kritiken 108 (n.t ion J hovever ~ 5 imply not e d.M.ies 35 (193L)= 36l-68.n unde-rtoo~ stud. the t~xt of the lUljor erlant portion of the Kestoi appeared Further. or false stB!'"ts and unfulfilled prol:l- ises. ~tudes 3Jule 5 Af"rica. no.he R. also grecques 4) (193:2): 441. 2 Vieillefond After several centuries. Abe1'i Emmaus.he:sized librarian1.78 Study ·of Africanus It alsoaaw the ela.t-centur~t. the appearance of Af. 3) (1937-38}= 362-69. rlJuliua Af"ric6.tion of' some earlier theme!:! J in Vincent and Abel's EmmaUs~l and the appearance of the first of a series of articLes by Fl"ank Granger ~pinn1ng out variolJ.in.fI. EO.lhip..1.

or a countryman . 2).. tni..ign of 195 ~ -or even more specorps~ was an officer in the engin@er 6 On is rea..o ~ prae- n~en.ce value t as indieating an epithet. Vieillefond a. 11br&1j" at.. .ly~ OB!'"h01!'n~ C I!IJ!Jps. or organ1z.her nand. 1x~ x-xi ~ th<:Hl.dicall)' different from the current.e-d as n1 i em. ttl..!. .oli ns.ry officer \thQ aCCO::Dpani ed Sept i. bu.ctually 1he was born at Ael i a Cap i t. 7 PineJ.Besides. views! es:pec:ie.s Seve ru~ on t be c:ifica. 2Ibid .lil. IJules Africain.ruct~d... pp. Vieille:fond's vievs vere not ra. Sectus~ rather than being corrected int.lly as presl!:nted by Pueeh. xviii-xxv J and liv-lviii. xi.rgued that the Suidas's Sektos chrematisas should be taken at fa.mi u.fter this publieation). pp. t. 60S On the ot. the Suidas' 8 designat.ascul~.nu~ "Was 9. This epithet he then interpret.J.gh h~ const. 5Ibid.ed.tagems ~ he recounts no per- sonal experienoes. viii-ix. ~Ibid.tarj stra.ter Syrians. Ibid.ntheon for the emperor (p. 8.e broad range o~ contents of his \lT1t1ng5 could just as easily make him a doctor.he Pa. ~ :pp. :xxv-liv. 6 7Ib1d • ~ p.nus' S MlLIe. 3 Concerning Africa-nus.ly~ tbe report of "the ll!i. (I t~~rI significant Concerning Af'rice.ion of him a uLibyan pl1ilQsopher" was an error deri.ing from the nar.) pp..t vere sOnLeWhat more l:autioUEi]o vith new views on points. and of Africe. (probably be!t.v with Alphonse Dair. x. vith n."we en 160 fL.vi1i.o. both bef'ore and a. sextus. 5 The idea that A:frice.Recent Contributions 19 textual tradition of' thesevritinesl (carried on Joint1. ~ pp. vii-xvii.nus· s life and vrit1ngs~2 especially the Ke3to1. t p. 3Ibid .sonabJe~ but has no real supportw 'the contrary!> tb. a.nd 180).n~ Afl"icMus. in his reports of mil1...

ibi·8 a'l1ppoae:d evidence. xx:xv1).S stated 'by Eusebiue ~ etc.t as is t..E~ 6.. Isaat: Voss ~ho attributed the mil! t&ry cha. each book vas. :2).xv11.- cerning Hl!racles. xii).phy and or 'the lett. xiii-xiv. the frOlQ the 'testos or Aphrodite. 1 on the la. xi s with notes :3 a. 1 s~e The a.ers {wi tb the Keg toi coming between them). on p. pp.becoming bishop (H. xxxv-xxxvii. in an e-:cpl1c1t a. 10 ~ 69 ) • :2 The title of Af'.. see abov~. He'll&s thus EL Christian. !!IS t1 far back as the copyists of Vieillef'ond' B "reeu!il A who om1tted the book number at the beginning of the extracts :f'rOl:tJ Kestos 1 (Jules Africain ~ p. 3 - Further. but in t. s pp..riean\lst s secular . This ia preferable to Gelz.tthe end of each (note the end of ~.ol 5The confusion .ins the fOnD of the "titles" which hoyeY~r 10 had pti z :z. pp.er's and Puech' s interpre-tat1on of1t as amisundel"stand1l1g of Euseb1us·s p:r-oistmenos in his notice in tbl!! Chronic:on concerning Af'rieanus's embassy for EDznaus.tt1!'l'" page. 'IIi th n. 4 thi.C'company- ing number. ) 2'Ibid.. 5 Wi thin the 'Work s lIbido 'I p. 31.80 Study of Africanus JeBu~ Dionysius bar l?lU-i'bi and Ebed stems frolll & that he was tL 'bishop proba. xvi-. 4 Ibid. with 9..s t he as the author of" the Chronogra.112).goes at least .uthor 0 f' the Ke stoi Vo. 3 Thid .tl.he attributions of authorShip in that work.he sense- ~s:toi'l derivee or Talismans or Amu- lets.nd 4 (cont. ~ but the C~- i. 1.s arrangeZIJent expla. pp. (But coneer-ning bar ~aJ.pters to books 6 and l' or the Kest. More to the point is a eomp. deaignate-d &S a Kestos. Pap.pby (Migne ~ !:Q.fork.le-d editors over the yeaTs. 8.. 25-26.tirison to Afr1canus' s description of the Dead Sea in th~ Chrono&:.bly misapplication to Africanus ot E:use-biu8':e statement cOrJ.

lso "lit ere. themselves apparently chara... JOCXl::t. and Martin and Gel... a1so't lvii i. of Thevenot and (Catullus 10 p.ti1Tesf'ragm.ry n t"Torkc:haracteri :ted by vlU'ious :rohe-tori cal embelll shJ!lents .rdering of t. was based on logic. there vaB .aemaller group of cha. res.. Iv. !bid.y. .tions of uTact1cs n On the other hand t several Qf' Lami vere to bit by pseudo-Leon and pseudo-Constantine. xv-xvi ~ ~x. Bee also the "Introducticm. W'hil~ B 1 the 'Work is 'basically seientific in intent" 2 it 1s a..xvii. 'but followed th~ whim or th~ author.er who (:orrect~d Ke-ston to in the intl"oduction to thepurgs.. pp.snd "Zu Africanus" p •.pectively.. pp. or an exceedingly 10Ctse series of ~Bsociations of ideas. 1 2 J'Ules Afri cain ~ p ~ ~ • Ibid. 3. ~at~ni~' is' 376).xli. and 1 v-lviii.. PP+ . 5These tour groups make up the tvo parts and the "tYo appendices.z.. n. There was not even a particular subject f'or each book.t. of Vieillefond'B text. Recherch"!"s :sur Heron t " 'P. taken more or less en bloc Kesto5 1 . If ibid' lI pp+xxxvi . 355.1ns distinctly magical. 3 It alsoconte. elements . 5 chapt ers included in the edit ions.. JOOCVii.ent (respe~­ t1ve.oi. and xlvi-lii! . 30).he book5 1o nor of the chapters".1' and liv-lv. 3 h Ibid..cteristlc of another side both of the author's age and Of his wi de-ran ging personal 1 nte:rests • h In the ~us~ript traditioD t besides fro~ th~ ~ingroup of chap- ters .Recent Contributions 81 neither the o. Certain e~eerpts were alSQ included in late!" compila.pters 10 partially overlapping the preceding t apparently drawn (l!lJld in some cases condensed) f'rotD various parts of the Kest.

er4!!sts and critical abilities (in rejecting the account of the Origin of cinnamon B.!as and Polyaenus. 2 rrUn !!ecques 3 ~6 (1933): :fra.nd: 6 [Gee Les Cestes. Die Ho.1" as coming more or less directly fro~ Aelian (rtApsyrtus t" p.. coupled vi th a le.:tix-xliii.rth~r il1ust!"B. Diels!!. p. xlii. 201-2+ .rt1e. pp. pp.ed two mOre che.cceptE:d. Vieil1efond 1 s (1970J III.ei11efond there add.rte ete.che. n. 1. te. 4 Ibid. 198..ster Nachtrag.in.Study o~ Africanus 1 excluded on literary and t~xtual grounds~ The folloving year. 25-36..ck o:f distinguishing Africanian stylisti~ chs.sed on the t:::lose verbal ~or­ respondences of certain chapters 'With ea..er :f'ragmet"lt. p. pp. Vieil1efond recogniozedthe torce.rl 1967). ~3 (1901) . 4 It also provided personal ~iyin end Martin. The:V'enotts chaps.f th~se e. II"er. Enee k t6. Besides the matter in the text itself. p. U Revue dee. the "t4ilitary Collections" (above. Poliorcetique. traduft et annote Anne-}i{. :. 35 and 36 t vhiC'h had appeared in Jules Africain B:S nDeuxi~me pa.!se chapters.ch.lettioIH:i (Jules Africain .. For Dain IS vOrk see the note totbe pa. and D. had q'llestione-d the authenticity or se\TeraJ chapters on the former oasil3.ted Africanus 15 broa. Ibid. but &lso tbe limitations. p. the fraglt!ent f'u. as first calling attention to ~ouraged it).30.s.. 3 its condition bad dis- earlier p~blication. (OuQm'. Vieil1efond :mad@ another contribu- tion to the study of A~ricanus vith the d~cipher.phonse Da.pters to the excluded list.pter hOIIl the htppiatl"ica trad. o. 1. also Les Cestes (1970) . i-l:l.bli par JU.d int. f1Adaptations • • • d'Enee t l l pp. 191).lnd Bjo:rc-k :further US4!!:! t. etudes 197-203. that concerning cinnamon.eristics in thl.ris: Soeiete d'Edi tion PrLes Belles Lettres.espE!'cially.arie Bon (Pa. x. and...ment and pUb11~ation of the text of' SIloth.ition. as rtot~d above in the dis~usBion of ee.:ract.:ragraJ)h on . 11J}... 1933.~ent inedit de Julius AfricQnus. by He:-odotus [3~ 111 J). and so I tog~ther with Alphonse Dain!> sought to provide W1 objective solution by delineating the manu$cript tradition ( 8) of the military col. Their conclusions were largely ba.:rgument. B.ndschriften der antiken Aert~e. 3}".he verbal similarity argument in reJ~C'ting 6. v. 189-9B--Vi.rlier writ~rs sueh as Aenl. pp.cticieo:.. 2 Though its existence had been kno~~ for som~ time (Vieillefond ~ntions H. n chaps.

He-rodotus ~ s t.t ure. 202-3. fj Reviev in Revue 99 (1932): 199. ana • • • gropee along a path which 1. Nun ecriva.illef'ond~s interpretation l~ Sectus as ttl I emn.Recent Contributions informatiQD about AfricMua: Af'ricanus chn.o the preceding.n'lH'eS' ~ ng.d to poison gas and genn-~a:rr-ier5. precise ind1ca:tion 'Of the place of magic in his york.en both attractive and inter.t he 'Iora. 412 eon~ c. Pep." but vith his rhetoric and stylC' he1ng accurately evaluated by Vieil1ef'ond i whoe.in Ae-lia Capi tOlina. of the JHI.3 f~rago o~ queer In fa. Chant.l!le On the other he. 2 t p]). poly- gra..::! ennes 33 (1931 (-32 J ) ~ 307-9-in e~fect. and it '. had admitted this when he questioned [po ~i] that Afrieanus 'lii'8.S an officer (p~ 309) ~ ~eview 1J in The Classical Rev1ev 'C ri ti que 46 (1932): 238. .nd~ V!e. Vieillefond~ ReV! eor in R~vue de 6 et\ldes an.siatique du Sud-Est~" and.in &ssez mediocr~. • • . thus corroborating the evidence of O?f:::t.E.a. oft.ous Arabious to tOUS.i'. 1~ precisely the variety of his occupations "Which is characte~i~ed 2 W.lso gave 0.raiI\C!' spoke of Africanus as being . viev not really contrad:icto:rj" t.ph.· vas not supported by any datUJrl.in views of Afrieanus:.S • .esting" .cert.:on Vieillefond. W. Ge-orges Mathieu regret'ted the restricting of the text to the military extracts (thoug'h recog:n1:dng its practical basis).in served to underline.s nun Jt.s to lea.scu1~.e study of lU$gic. 'both pro and -:. P.. l Reviews and results The reviews of Jules Africo. Tarn Africanusls work as a sense and nonaenset hi~tory and tall stories. shoving tha. • important for 't)). d' hi stoi re et de 1 i t tera.erning his birth .. ..a. 1!b1d.ar· hemin. Afrieanus lOa-50 a.nged. in all truth. t t· l.

.1y conta~ts 'With the Edesse-ne court ma."ol"k produ~ed little The Q direct result in stimulo. Ier .red with Vieil1efond a :shdlt1.y have h~ included acquaintance with .~ ta.gen on the Story of' SU$B.BL St. 4Ibid ... lHlf)(il1.~ p..que 56 (1933): 251-71.~Q.e ~ PI p.C6 r~tLSonablen~ss of Vieillefond I s suggestion regarding 18o~ as a sobriquet. 5Ibid.te1y represent the V"al"'iety 'Of this work.·t. esp. Iel'. He main1l tained t. p. (There is nO r~f~rence 'to Vieilll!'fon·a t s York in either of tb~ two other articles de'l/oted to Af'ricfLnus in the 19305 ~ E.l i sroarl or amulet is too restricted to ad@'qua.r attitude ofrestra. 266 . n.lI!~s with contrasting preference. p~tOS/1 0£QAOY{a. ~ pp. 1141. H. 4 Born a.udy of Africanus Puecb~ Similarly..lO.) lrUn e:ncy c lopedi st. 2 51 and .es.n TheQIO.he older interpr@'tatlon of Kestoi as meaning "Brod@:ries .8.nus reflected the that promoted by th~ religious syncreti5lIl of' tis tilD. uJuliu5 Africanus ~ A Letter to Ori. lI.s in Revue: des ftudesgrecques 45 (1932).int on scure points 10 but s·OiQetitD.3 but al10W'edthe S~Ct.. in study by G-ust.round Atriccll. CAthenl.. 5 His ~specia1.. 258-59.n princesses.s.iJ 15 [:1937J ~ 221-38.oS ~ 'A. major exception ~ bowever t appeared i nthe tolloving year. 29 [193UJ= 164-69....her Af'ricanie.nfla.nd. 1 Apart from the reviews t Viei11ef'ond I S ""..n studies.v6s~ -np61'fOS XP\O:'[l(l.ion of' :ru:rt. "un encyclopediste chretien du rIr e si~cle. Syria. ~S X~C\.11y favora'blf! review:> his preferen~~ rOT the older interpretation of Cestes as JIITissus brod@s:=II Varietes" iLgainst Vieillefond' Be Buggestion of Talismans or Amulets.P1..ave Bardy entitled. :Blak~ney.*.Bard-esane* with whom Sharl!:d an interest ~evie·. 2Rewe aWloget). 1. 2.. Kotsones. Aime r~-asserted in an oth~!V1se natura. .1f ob- 2 Bardy sha.

n called B&rde s ane . no apolog~'tic int~nt: all the known fragments eou1d have. philoGophie des -choses. 266-68. fragments chosen (and recorded) according to the special interests of other Coll€!ctors. 4 This inte-rest included not only na'tur&l science but also thl:! r.o an eneycl oped! at! t was one wi tbout orde-r p. pp. 10 3Ibid • .ies 01" demons.. . 2~63. f11lly fI.. vh&t is known is 11113 vide-ranging curlosi. 2 &nd 3~ Parthie.his curiosity brought him into conta. not by th~ 6 'The Kestoi was written by a Christian (this is shown . pp. 263t 269. 2 It is e-spec1ally shovn in the though a.J n1 tten the fr.. 265). but a.agJDent speaks of B.5 But t de:sp1te his scientific and historical interests .e~.ctv:l.bly not B.. 1 He may have been an officer".t. Psalms citation in the Geoponlca t 'Which is proba. but 'by the order of Afri canUB 's vri t iogs ). topic:s and specific dl!!velopnJentof' his other works.h J:Dany places ~ K~stc:Ji]o peopl. 6Ib1d . 1 2 Ibid . curiosity about everyth.ve been a rIls. 3 More specifically" Afri(:anue seems to hil.ve frasments of it. 26l-64~ Ibid ..oi pentagons and bexagol.he reports ltiagical fortllula..n of good f"amily and of much leisur~ t who travelled :for bis awn enjoyment ~ and who had. P+ 260 t Md nn.uthenti e. though this is questionable. and sUbJects.ls.. 'but 11.. and 'Uses th~ K~st. 265...ed by the fac't that lie only ha. Furth~:rt vhile the Kestoi haa be~n compar~d t.ing.s. 262-63.. ha. an untirine.bel!'r....ccurate evaluation of' is prevent. abilities~ Africanus did 'believe in magic.e and invocations to d~i t.easontor ~nts t Tlla. r . In th~ Kestoi". but there 1s no proo1' of this. ~Jbid. 5Ibid • t pp.Recent Contributions in th~ protQn~ sciences.ty--t. pp. and his prove::l c:ritical.lso i~l'llstratedby the generaJ. . t pp.

. 3PfApSy-rt.US~" pp. enfin des re:ferences 1JJYtbologique:s il!'t l1ttera.ll solution to the problem...~d. Stud)' of Africanus pa.toires~ des compa. e. Julius Africanus. 1 The writer loved life . flone of' the Geoponica 1tl!'CDS.. the Christian writers of' his day ~ and :for long 2 In 19~4 . largely new suggestion tovard the solution of' pastiche. and 'I(as c'\.in. 270.usules calculees (cretiques).. GudJuund Bjorek presented a.·. 122) but he never suggested it aQ." p.86 by 6. . cols. an bv~r-a..nd religion none at all. des circon1. it vas not B. 121. 4JtAPSyrtus. Bjorck also demonstrateo t on the score Africanus's as further de- veloped fro~ Vi~il1etond's S~~4 that several extracts credited to Africanus in Codex Cantaor1giensls of' the Hinpiatrica vere as authentic as any in the tacticians. ThieL.oi. ·t 5 Thid . question of A!'ricanusts Christianity. about all things. at b~ ~ert&inly attribut~d least in their present Btate.Ssez foreees.. p. (US. des vocs.ics are: Itdl!s cla.stordshi. to Afri- 6Ibid .. pp. p. 15+ Its characterist.ered on this in some statements in his article in P&uly-Wissova. he treated of sc i enc e f'Qr 1ts awn sake.3 o~ At the same styl~ t~e.. Kroll bord. p. ~ng Thi 6 1e. "un veritable th~ Africanian problem: tbe Kestoi vas a traveBtiss~-ent. 20. 18}. 5 As to the origin strange mixture encie~ o~ the Kestoi~ Vieil1~fondls ~ppeal to the t~nd- or ideas of Iii verse religions an.ires.raisoos.otut.!:It made him unique a.ce in the Kest.ng: ideas have: little pla.rte:nt8. On the other hand. 269-70. 2 6 1 Ibid .gan.bles :rech~rch~s ~t des tournures 01"1'1. .ions et des 1"eflexions souvent I!t.d contradictory (Jul~:s 1:1 the third.lJ"ioua. 'but of his good setls. 22 t 24-25. ee-ntury _Africa. xvi) is a. can canus {p.e.

precision detailH5e This passage sta. xvi-xvii) of Africanugls description of the Dead Sea in the Chronography 1a point- less: that is a geographical euriosity in the ancient Hellenic bia- torical tradition t it is nothing like the prescriptions of the Kesto!.h'eady cit.. 1 Following tl s1J:llIm.:e.4 serious discussion of the stolJ? or Susanna.. :2 Ibid. 1.. Bei:Lide51 the two examples s. the phi lologi cal realm. An author such as the ~speciall.poste:UT .22 .fique: poussEe jusqu' a 1a caricature I 18. & third pas s age) from.1 so at more length before the preceding it.!:' (VI. 3 In it.. seentS to -confirm this result. "Nous reconnaia.23J.. 21.trast to his d I un im. in the iPistle to OriBoen is more tYJ)1cal of AfrieMUS as historian and theologian (p. 3roid.es Africa.S. 'Which represent t..Recent Contributions Similar-ly~ Vie:illef'ond's citation (Jw. ON' Pa:o.. "81 Af1"iCMU5 a compose 'le plus mond!.oi is a pastiche.v 8. p.t'y refe::rence: to Africanus ' s procedures fOT poisoning the air and tor driving \l'o:rms from a. 22. 4 Ibid .ant un dil~e Insolub1e. :p. pp. co'Uld bardlybe t.p • XV) 1es Kc 01' 0 f que flOUS eerieus~mt!nt du po ssedons. BJ8rck concludes. 'The linguistic ugument against tlle authentici ty of Susanne.Kest..:rmacopia of the magicians and the old popular medic: i ne-.. .ed ."1ds in marked con.. .hy t on the uHomeric. slot's nous so:mme s de..lons l?e:s:prit b i zar-re de notre auteur.he zoological phs.1 look-out for falsifications. one who 'Wrote the letters and the ChTQnogra..in .~.!. I p.. 23. 1& contre f~on d" un j argon pseudos~i@'n'ti... horse by sprinkling 111th 'W'ater (c i ted f1..ms}.aken in by lIbid." 2 The solution: the..

nd. or l!U"g~ ptLrte of:' the work..study of Af'ricanus incanta.tian Af)-icanu8 of t'~a.nsform Africanus "from a bel. noted that it vould tra. VfLS there &n e 1emeot 0 f "1' art po\U" l' art .ont. f'or this be. 122).1d hQve dramati cally (: hanged t. the mot1 va-tiona vere di:fferent. "this made hilIl a successor of the views of Val@sius Bond of T111eIl'. cf+ also p.. 'Who considered .3n. 3 If his view had been vind1~ cat ed! it wol. . Pe.Je matter.ovard parody vithin :magic 1.s.nus into 8.· 1 Before coming to his final BJ5rek' s v1ev~ vas begun). 22.iev£r in magi.uc'h content and form. 24.Bj{5r~k' s suggested solution vorthy of more studY.l a. more na. Farrington.ll. In a sense .. but developed ham a diri~@'r@'rl't vievpoint and thus leading to different conclusions c:onC4!'l"ning Afrlcattua·s good J.lal hrlth vhich this discussion or Bj5rck posed a rhetoric&l question vhich he to an E1wer : himself unable di d Af'ric:e. as Bjorck.iense~ 2' lrApsyrtue. 56 • of' cours@'. Juliua Africanus 1. admdtt~d propo!. tselt'. in that this viev also would bave absolved the Chris.he fiTst to suggeEit this as the explanation of e. sUperstition to a Bubtle critic o~ these lIbido Again Bj8l"ck' s analysis has aimilarities to Kroll t s (IPS.ent in the Kestoi) BjQI'ck 'WaS t.1 col. n p. vas part of 1 t more legitilll4te inst ruction.tion or. Bjorck vas atteKIPting to fit Africa.l.facetious e.nus intend hi s vork to be) !'rom en d to end ~ a parody of the I!mpty polymathy of his day.! cor-ding "to the sophistic desire 'to present picturesq}.c tl.he c o~l exion of' Af'ri can i an st'Udi~s." acat.gn) his Christian status.lem. El6'1l it:> vas the tendency t.refer a the reader to his l&ter discussion on p.lll?d Fl-ttention to the .dvocaey of magic and other cotcpletely secular belief's. as noted) had cfl. 2O)~ not to defend .t'Ul"al view of tbe development of human tnought (p.in astonishing fortll?2 Though earlier vriters (especially Kroll in Pauly-Wissoya.l"'t of the 'Problem..ou.

Brill.rsupe.to~ of Greek Fire and Gunp~d~~ (Camb~idge: W. va.es (poisoning air and sprinkling against llorms) fall into the category of paign~a {practical Joke9}.s 0 fl.@:iden: E. review of I'IAPSyrtUE. pp. Forbes! Bitumen and Petrolewn in Antiqui. 7 11 "Petrole'Um a. It esp. 28 ~ 31 (but wi t h the ~ hapter regarded as proba.ington t A.!Ile time ~ Edel. The chapterautgm. J. R. 130m@: 1r1 On the other hand) LUdwig .Rect!!tlt Contributions errors. .y (l. vho iiTot~ so lucidly on and allow mas:ic in the last chapter of: hiS1i1. "Naphtha Goes to WQ!'..ppe a. Julius Af'ricanus ~t l'hlpp1a.eoncerning the Irsecr~t histories. and J.Jrk t would re~onsid~r Af:r1canus to be "sensible" and . Heffer & Sons]I Ltd']I 1960.'· At the B&. 80. 84 t and chart fa<::ing p. He concluded with the hope tha..he Kesto1 were not meant to be ta. rr by GudJ:lund Bjo:rck .stein Bee-DIS to concede that BJ5rck ' g two prime exampl. pp. Brill t 19:·9)!." esp. HiS.tBjorck. 95-96. .c Studies 61• (1944) = 121.aton 'Pyx hapsai earned him a place in several technical YOrkS1 R. 7-9. 7-8J).nd Greek Fi:re1n 'Wttf'tlre. chap. J. Snurin g the period aft er Vi ei11efond t Africanus !!U. rejected tbe idea that the Kestoi as a whole vas intcotlded as a parody of superstitioD = Afrlcanu5 adhered to neloUperstitious" beliefs:t l"el~stl!:ries:o and enjoyed relating ished 11sacred" bOoks..tion Cpp.!:te:r and. and More Studi.triQue gre:cque. Part. Jules lB. Farrington.2 Opposing vievs of the chara.red briefly in a number of' other yorks. in JQurnal of' Helleni.yrtus..t. 4." by Gud!nund Bj8rck.bly a later interpola. ~evi~v of nAps.lue of Afric9Jlus as by"-products of' two other worke of t.es in Early Pet-TolEnVi" HistorY (Leiden: E+ J. in Nnerican Journal ·of Philology 6B (1941): ~4~-t~5.ratitious" at the same time''ManY" of Julius' eont~ori!U'ie-s were of like hue~. apIH~EU'E:!d The first ~ Vi!1- cent and Abel t s ~us ~ appeared the same: year as Vieillefond· s.K@t1 quite seriously.he thirties.Edelstein:o while conceding that passages of t. p. 1936) ~ chap. Julius Africanus et l'hippiatrique grecqu~..

conelud~d Oliver Spaulding) that Af'ricanu~ manifested the greatest viewpoi[]t~ credulity.2 on the other hand... travelled.e:r. 4 Ibid.. 100. e.. C"one erned ~ ":Nothing vas un! air in hi s vs:rfare. 2Ibid . of Africanus va. the miseel1.t interests of' his da:. 19 42}t pp. 253-56 ~re devoted to Afric:anus? . SA History of Early Christian Li~eTature (ChicagQ~ University of Chicago Press. 338-41. ratiorJa~ water~ and aiT+ u4 Edga. true though erobued with of the oec:u1. 301 i ver LynJ. p.s essentia. tIe presents fonoulae tor poiso.ning everything. he viewed the K4!'sto1 as a !lsort of' notebook 01" st.r J. 257-62. pree..-veapon~.ck C'OOSensus as updated b.rted an expanded.lly the Gelzer-Harna.p. as far as Afrieanus':s c b&r- aetel" was. .r" who [Jot onlj' aeC:Ul"'ed]i but lLlso directed ~ the imperial by birth.c~umu:18:ted b. forage..> 1937). wealthy. 'Without apolOg'l . 113 the Kestoi Furt her.rte:r ~ including the building of a church there (compar- able to the public buildings e1sevnere in the city)..5 His Historv of Ear!. 331-38. and th... t Pen and Sword in Gr eec e and Rome (Princeton ~ Princ eton Uni vers i ty Pres s. pp. ~ r~storation. of the It. of Emmaus-Nicopol1s.90 Study of Africanus Africain. 99. .range pieces of curious informat. his home by adoption or This restora:tion involved 5pecial attention to the Christian qua. .y toe OX".9t from the military tlad uno roea! value in it se If' .)r a t:rave~led and mind~.ion .nie:s inquiring s. rol~ He was probably Christian~ ti.nus.e.an Spaulding.Irhyn~hue papyrus." Christian Literature" though lEmmaus t pp. 257-58. at lefl. Goodspeed J s vie-. and somewhat speculati ve ~ pict'Ure of Af'ri~l!l.... and maQY influential courtier.at.

Apa:rt from the presUI!Ip'tion in Afri<::tLnus" s favor cr4!'ated by his other e'fforts.en'ted on Afr1c:anus in tvo l!!'B. Good. single footnote . Unive:r-sity of Chicago 2 Pr~~s~ Hi s- Phoenix BoPKB.2 While adr!d.:red in th~ Bibliograph"V')...sp~~d. ed. 1 but Grant had comm.t ic tL.tt!'rt of this part of" Goodsp-eed T s History va. A tOry ofEarlYOhristi~ Li~erature.s o~ it (though Viei11e- chanBed by GrQnt in his enlarged edition fond' s Jules Africain now appeo.ected no influence or even real knowledge of Vieille1'ond t S 'WOork.ed hin: Ke-s1. that the by-name in the Suid. Journal of Religion 25 (l9~5)~ 190.:II 1: 117 and note oS). In his I1Histo!'i- cal Criticism in the Ancient Church. Nouv.lified ~O£nJ:Iendationt ill 9.ny authors who distinguished the African! called the heathe:n vri ter Sextus Mric8. 151-53.ras not sat is :factory ~ Ci:r-ant ~01IittI~nded it for its vide ra. ~d r~v. of" Edgar J.os (Diss.. n..Rec~nt Cont~ibutions 91 Jlubliijhed in 19 JI2 ~ re:f1. 1.19l.I o:f the Old and New Testaments.iliae Chris"tianae 3 (1949)~ 227.nus" e:fL. no~ The. [Munich ~ C. 1966)t pp.. Beck." he cri't1c or HOI:!le-:r 45 p:tesent~d Afric8Jlus a. {Chicago. hist.te from the.nging effort !Wd best critic-al ~~thods o~ the day. and enl. This vie'll vas perhaps philo}. 1:659).y etll"tle-d him only iI. 127) eol. "but Labbe 'Who &l"gued fer a single Atriea. even this lIi. t~ ~obert M. n ) p.nus' s ilQrk in the first area (as evidenced by the Oxyrhynchus papyrus 412) +. de script.) first suggested by V~esius (Eccl.S metathi!'s1s from Kestos.r8. vell B!. in Carl Schneider t G~iBtes.Odest..!g.as. but had a hi story sepa.ld "be understood 6... ed.3 entitled "PatristicB t " @videnc-~ of ac~ua1ntan~e 'With the In one of a serie5 of short notes he also suggested. 209.:aa shQu.l"lier studies. P0r:P-hy'ry and Celsus faired little 3Ibid~" better (ibid. Ma.rest of his th~ory. cOmJIliment might appear exc:e ss i ve .. H.37. p. I 4V .)J.1 aci 11 t. uAnn.tting that A:f:rica. in CODtr~5t to Vieille- fond' s interpretation of Bekt. followed by Dupin. 195~]t 2. CArr icanu$ • 5 cri.1l. 2A.nus..eieschichte deB ant·ik. Grant. rev. [but. qua.en Cbri:stentUl:!lS ~ 2 \'01s..s Na. of b1io. ---- .

at 1 on" b:. 361) and Vieillef'ond (Jul~s Africain" IJ.. !:8." .nus other Specu1. in Th.thema. und die 1sch~ Lammert ineluded only Boivin and Vieillefond=rn his discussion (pp. 357. 2 L~rt follo107ed Schoene and othel" editors of Aene-a. 363. 339.uggested tha.tieol"'UD1...number of chapters in the Gree). tacticians th6.-I!:venot~ VeteTum me. and ~li:max:ing in Vie11letond)1 vnich restricted th@. pp. p. 363-69. himBelf.' later editors . xxxix-xl.t least with Boivin" elaborated by Martin. BotbMe. sourc e.tyle and vocabu.ctUAl c::ontent of the Specifical1y~ ehapt. Arguing that fragments or earlier writers may be found in Afri car.s in the.anr" vere by Afl"i- lBoivi f..J~ae vhich :follow the Kestoi fl"~-ent.Study of Africe. PI Byzantin- 3lbid .larJ).~r$ (rather t.hat ~ba:pter than s. and 1/i e illetond" Ju. Martin ~ t1Recher~hes sur Heron. xl} r-~gard these ~hap­ ters &S coming frO!!) an unknoim.. 35 5-6l.us.I. 2uJu1ius .e . pe-rhi!Lps front tb~ CQmpil~~ 4Ibid . Ze1tschr1ft 44 (1951): 362-69.s in also crediting to thl!o Kestoi the cha..n:US • despit~ sOllie Byzantine voC'a'buJ.. th@' unnUJ:XIbered itetrJ follO".t the decision must be based on the fa.t ver.:military c o:rnpi 1-.S coming fran Africanus...e aeen 6. 3~4 -. by~&ntinishe Taktilt.emmert challenged tb~ line of thinking (begun a.pters from A~r. 3 be argu~d 12a (i. ations.rtin (rtRe-~h@rC'hes sur :Heron.A1"'rikanue." pp. I. pp. p..ring C'hapter 72 in the Th~""enot edition) and the th:ree folloving chs:pters ~ J. 362-63). he s. 353...les Afl"iNLin" pp... t and that late r teJ'!lU.a'tione F. nology might be d'Qe to "modern1 z. but late.

~ ]11' nbe:::r die Herkunft der FSIIIilie des Herodeg: Ein Beitrag z. .he sa. w. r rt Rhein1. 439-53 (Af. ~t 'Di~ trlIhchristliche Uberlief'erung ft 3J . p • . 2"ZUIII Thema ~omer und die Medi:t. !.. with n.canu5 gives e.u:r G~schichtl!!' d~r politischen Invekti ve in Juda. 5H.me type oftendentiouB Homeri.11eged heres)r).1.r-icanusofl pp. pp.rea.-. unde-l' the later Her-ods..i t traced the report that derived He-rod's family from Asca.sches M1jsetJIj fUr Revu~ des etudes itfl. DriJvers J ~tdAisan of Edessa. 11 19-5).nUS I s Barda. trans.gin9.h&nl. several vriters Bpeculated on Af:r-icanus's Homeric text.B.-R.l~1:l] ~ (1960) ~ 109-60 ~ esp.a i II Annual of tae Slll!dish Theological Institute (Jerusa.1iennes D.a presentation concerning Atricanus I S Ne:kyia t..o AtrictLnus.s that entljr cited by Lucian.lon (given. J. 1 Fridolf' Kud. reference to -IIouquia'IJ.5 13-1i.hly Bouqm. Odette :Bouquia:ux~Si'P:lO:n ~uggested that Atri. Vie1l1efofld~ "De la N.!"t of the literary ancestry of" DSI)te':s Inferno.ic...X-SittJon.ien \r~.ttempting to credi t another 'Work t..ppa. 4 Drij vers ~ in hi s Btudy o:f :8ardaisan]l ident ified hiJD vi th S A:f'Ti C8.:: text a. dropped t. It.acts.. .La-51.r~ evidence of t.his polemic ~ and it survi.i san the Pa.:3 MefLllwhile:o t'Wo other authors dealt vi th the seo:=ular :side of some of Africanus' sreligious c:ont. Mra.1451.Recent Contributions 93 In a d1f'f'erent a. pB."1 d ai 1ence-} cone erning :BiL:rdaisan I 5 life (and B. Abra. Phl1ologie n.ext as a. Sch&l. alI!O:ng others... 1).l Jevish:o Later generations of' J~8]1 anti-Herodianpolem. n2 Finally '!I Vieil1efond mentioned :ra~ora..in.rrt further" a.~eni e "Concerning Homeric Medicine. by A:f'ric&:ous in his l1!tter to Aristides) back to an orj.1-43. G. £.Wg!l Homerique a 1 tEnfer deDant.aux-Simon I S proposal in . a lost ps eudo-Ga..rthian 1i fLnd so made use of' Af'r i canus t te st iln.ony {a.ed only in Christian sourc es . 108 (1965): 2'95-99.13.

H.) necessary for the study of' Af'ricanus ("but.~tu..Jdicfl. 167~ D.)"'en~Pape~ Studi!l. i2. ) Berthold Alte.iDB. discussion io Altanerts PatroloE.:St allo.. p.~c1 gests.ncretisr!l.')·cl ope di ate C hret i en. Hilda C. In a. n. l.gne." no. and: on p. 2 • the ~harge B.tions. 161 .tions .. did not tn.tl"ology to a brief' sketch Though he included o~ Africanus' s 11 fe and vri tings.that at l~B. however> with no reference to Vieillefond's text (p. 138~ Bardy • 5: article title should be '~n enc.S'tudy of' Af'rica.e:r-Ha:rnuek.OUTces (Editions. P8. 2: The Ante-Nicene Literature af'ter Irenaeus (Utrecht and Antverp: Sp-ectrum Publica.Ck· s 1I1ibt'arian" thesis)" though it of magic in the Kestoi to ing it as "~y..o. (Nev York: Herder & Herder> 196o)l p.f'te1' ~ontioued O. 236.137-40. but not ref"~ecting any literatu.ge. art~~ which it disappeared~ Ba5.aedis. 2).. 1 The brief. . 34 [193JJ. Br! t- annic& produced the ~reviouslymenti~ned. 1.e.n .Th. on p.. 1966)~ pp.nd perhaps bugex:pa. fI ~ on p. "Zu Quintil~i.1y change thiB vie"rI (including te:nrd:oology. 6 (As5e:n~ Van Drijvers cited AfricaDus :from Thevenot and Mi. belief in nl!lB. Neerlar. Vi(!il~efond Afrieanus vas still ese~ntiB. Tran31e." explain- In this same year.nus St. 1 Patrol0f\:'" vol.trolop~t> trans. ODi!'-pa. Stro~.ner....... in his list of' Edi tiona J his vie"iol of the faII1i~iar Gelz.pito~ o:f ita earlier article (making AfricSJ'lus's bir"tllplace Aelia. and Studie5 o:f each of' Af'ri- canus's.s of' the Qu(::'stion Johannes Quasten devoted slightly over two pages of his Pe.ly synthe- s i." should be omitted> it concerns a different Julius Africanus.. slightly revised version C8..xyr]lynchus III). 2 3See above~ .nd. 140~ J.~ a.gic and sorcery. l39>the s.econd of Granger' s artiC~e6 should be J .S. s.ap.rnfI.. 3 Thib article van through 1969. works.ddition to his description> Quasten incl\lded lists of most of the basic a.teriaJ.. th~ Em:yr:lgp. Semitica Gorc\UIl. 183~65. Graef !roc the 5th German ed.-s" a.'l (which appeared in English form in 196o). 1948) > pp.l.

frQIlJ all verifiable sources 3 (but excluding e.ny texta from the Geoponica).toi was not even m. Jew ~iting 30 vols. 15th eo. texts from the military collections. Africl9Jlus t s birthlTbe lie'll Encyclopaedia Brit~. the texte. most other sour~es that hazard a date give i~ simply &S ~a.1 8. !llB.!usic Pr and an Wlyielding Ne~ With the advent or the Encyclopaedia Britan- nics.iews. p..ps a distorted ref1ectior. who gave.l T:.entioned {nor.lde generale" (70 pages) 'iothich preceded the text also continued Vieillefond's balanced J somewhat conservative approach to the lire and 'WOrks or Aft"ic8. . for that. {197~)" Micropaedia 1:126.tives ~ concerning cinnamon ~ and ~Yeing.. ~ Hippiatricfl. Bra Renovated In 1910~ Vieillefond eapped off' the vork begun in 1932 'With his full edition (. 2 In accord with hia 'Previous .J1nica.. n B. cone erning Susanna). C~ntributionB 95 more lively uAfrican }. 'IIeights and measures 10 the Oxyrhyncbus ::f"J"agm. date as 160-180 (Jule~ Afric61n.ent 10 purga. col.tter:t the let.mbasssdor to Rome lt about Further" the Kes.Pr p. thoush it might be from Bardy C'Un enC'yC'lopedi~t~. or before 180 (t~s Cestes~ p..... (The date~ abOut 180 t is p~rho. in 1974:.:an Violet. ix].. ma. and also included citations in a ninth ae"Ction.nus t but added s. 258J..t or new element to bis interpretation: Africanus in the Kestoi was a.. 1.. 18J ."1 th French trannlation) of the fragments of the Kesto1..s reg ione. 3Texts from Kestos 1 (from the military co11ec~ion5)~ other . in eight sections.~e He.J of use of Vieille'fond. this included..t~r to 01"igen. IitAfrieanus:> Sextus Julius" reappeared t but in an oddly distorted form= Palestine~ be vas born lt 'I C • AD IBo t u he "seLVed as prefect 11 in 222~ and 'Wa.Recent squeezed out betveen "Afri c. 170T) 2Les Ces~es de Julius Afri~~nus ~~1ted e1sevhere as Leg Cestes).. T11e ":Et1.

the Question imJ!jediately arises.l {and more correct'?) vie"W of" AfrlCa... a. . l~. had pr~'1liously suggeste d thi s ( 1ILi t ere.nu!. the argument t. . the expression tes archaias patrido5 .Bll!Lsa.as a politl. This interpretation also means that the phrase does not necessariljr indicate that Afrlcanu5 himself' was born in Jeruss. but~ if' 80. a point which Vlel1lef"ond attempts to prove later in his study.. and 2 DaDte.firming that th~re is not [a possibility of a. ~ Les Ceste5~ p.I in his other ~ork6.uc:h a paronoma.). 8. . seems not to have be en taken up by loater wri te1"S . "ilork addrC!:ssed ~ssentiallj' Jews. preElented in his 1933 study of the "fra. there i6 a consistent pattern of reference to [l!!ndJ). at best" possible" and 8~ems to be in eontlic:t with the indications from certain references by Af'ricB.ouJ. 2.t lea. Pap.igni.rJ'US as "en AsiatiqUl! du Sud-Est'. .- Vieillefond had indicated his belief in Africanusls Jewish ortgin.'With Aelis. 5 In terms of5rpecific: ~es Ceates l pp. 297). . 17.4 . . 17..her~ in the letter .Jevs of the Diaspora.rische Texte ~ ~t p..tabliah this leaves. only Clean "notre anc1enne patrie.1s 6 jo This c. and by Origen to . had been thl! more genera.t SUsanfl8.6ily under6tood .st. His previously Sot at ed view.rne lEl Ne-kyia)" p.!'~ though el%lphatic . Else".lem (ibid.Atricanus.sslng r-e:ferenee. as his 3 Vi. But a failw:e to clearly ea.S a cQvert reference to Afr1c:anus's Jewish origin.gment Inedit~r concerning cinnamon. "Why ~overt"1n In addition" the statement 15 quite ~B. but the idea.:sia in the Hebrev language)" you yourself probably kno"'" (To A. 4J2} ~ould aS8umes the Jewish address of the Kestoi.fricQnI.. It iso.d be Been 8. . eQxy. agains. questioning of the ~onc:luaiveneBs of the evidence. in & po. to the in a.96 Study of Afric:anuEi 1 especially tor. but had not elaborated or sup-porte-d 1 t . 3 t'Fragment 1nedi t ~ -t p + 203..:nuf3· 5 1inguistic argUment.ce. . 41~2.e-illef"ond supports the :mo:re specific conclusion by birthpla. One of Origen" B c:~ents on Af'rica.: essentially circUlar.1a... . 4148.ttributing it 'to Af:ricfLnus himself. Capitolina.ficanc~ hl!'re: hI! says uYour :reason to!' at.. might have e. in his study of the :Ne:kx.

2:297 20 301-2.l"ly attested items in the reconstruction of' the ~it. The forc~ of this argument dep~mds to some e:rten t on the loosti!ning of Ai'ric:tmus'a :residential ties with Palestine . they 20 11 a. lLes Cestes. . ~I J . 30~-5.l"fl. :2 46]).sically Chris titms)j Origen I 5 referenc es are C on5 i sten t.~l"s or t.nd later.l13 vrites of the J~~.. for Or1gen to allude to this covertly'? one vho would se. ".a one). 111. 1.erlling1y ..s..n corJ'trast to Origen.. Eus. 9.s as a th. .ancient Ba. Christian. To Aristides't .!ld t. .. XLIX..=onc@oiLl hi s J evi. with n. 61 (continued on p.last... 'Would hardly vrite . sacl". Origen To Af:d.hroughout Africa-nuB' fI. (But ka. the l'!entagon and h~xagon't mentioned l. but also to Af'ri- car-us (4.. 306 t line 3L In &11 thC!:se pas serges .phy. which Vi·eil1~fond does. Routh' s fragments X.J 4 2 n in the Daniel :ree e i ved emong the J eV9" lef. . line 55) 20 he ref"ers to the ~on@..) r: 9ab J'. :O::II. This might be correlated with Vieillefond' s vieW' b:1 arguing that in these cases Ml"icsnus."Il .ELS a Je'"rj to a Jewish audience (01" be acee-:pt.ed by them a. 2 Vieil1efond l s basic l'r1nc1ple of' accepting only c1e8. Chror:iQg. This e~ pattern is f'ou. .'e of Afric:anus is now the Jevs as l'them . distinct. 'With thi 5 pattern. 2 and 13~ re 8 p eetively ].Ore gener-ill evidence. g. .. them. a Jewish. .. 5...c. . . pp. and L (e8p. "'Which we. ChristiOJl author a.la. is usually seen fOT him as a.es of their genel"atior. 1 In :ID. . 12-l~). 1t not only i.s:nus 9't 111n their Daniel"]. A:fricaI11:..ranging h'o. the genealogi e s of t he Hebrews . .. ~ burned the rl!gist... ..heir fflJl:ii1ies·· (. the. own vriti ngs = e . is here speaking as a Cltti st1 fIJ'1I. Cestes .. but Vil!!ill@fond himself fo~lows this by evidence of its wider uee (. and . exclusi"'el~' Hebrew it a1 eo app ears in Arl!UIl4ic :[. . 4z-J. dl stinct from the J evs • But 20 it so. despite the other ~vid~nc~ fOl" his ties with F. t p. L~t. why the neeo..nnnQus especially. great Bon "id~ntlty ~risislr fot' Af"ricatLus as I!l. ..call cabos I" a :H~br~ tcnn. 1.S mlI.. in IsraelI th-e.st.bos is not.rs.g i ~. hom himself and his intended read~rs (ba. To Or i ger.!.Recent ContributiQn~ 97 reference by Africenus 2 besides the OxyrhynchU5 and the tt. I!:Sp. I Herod .ian . :p.n several of Af'ricanus l s procedures .. 4~-45.:)ncerning cinn8JllOn if passages ~ in the cbapter on metrology (Les Cestea ~ Part IV .. . seculat' one."it i ng and be i ng '1«1 t ten to as a Chri. it note ReI .. within.gil! S . tt'e also especiallyconnec::ted ·t~ VJ.ngua.. ..nam.s h backg:rQUDd when .bylon and Egypt to modern ItaliBJlee~n) (pp . Such a situation would suggest a.9 aba' J l' and has ~ ognat!:s in other Semi ti!: le. h e'W:!. H.iTd party.

nus th(! Ke:st.nd lasting relationship? (The ~ll!l..ence at &:mla.s such as s.bora.~. a resid. Vieill@fond does not .o be e:n over-reaction.cience. 1a science plus QU moins scrieuse t le bel esprit plus oU moinB humoristi~ue80 et la ~agie plus ou IIloins Jui ve se mcnent et se superposent. x~ n.ut theo~ of th~ Kestoi as a t. l7 and 64-65]) it leaves una~ked a basic question concerning Eusebius's report = 'Lfhy such B. C~Btes~ pp. Besides its fail1. 29 t continuation of n. 19. • • on He concludes tha.Study of Af'ric:anus ~xtended to tvo other areas~ his residence and his profession.t for Africe. R~.us indicated in Eusebius t. and together in a ao:mevhat substantial e.rind. . ~ Philip of Side [see abo"e~ 'Pp. letters t philosophy.55.l. V1eillefond also :reJ ec:te-d Kudlien' g guggesti. 6lbi d. s p.on that Africanus Wl"ote the pseudo-Galeni~ uHomeric Medic:ine u as r1bien arbitraire. 1 Cont:ern- ing AfricfLnus·s :prQregsioll~ Vieillefond rejects Harnackts "librarian" hypothes1s 2 {which he had lett open in 1932)~3 concluding that it is best to assume that AfricfLtJUS was an architect . s Chronik referenr::e (e-d.use of the significance to Euse'bius of Africanus" or of E:m:r:tlaus? Or is it of the 'two together. valid rejection of Vincent and Abel·E reconstruc- tion) but Beems t. p.. vor~ 5 . On p. d escrloes .. 3Juleg Africain) p. refe'renee at all'! Is it bel:a.}..g. 21. 2. 31 from 'P' 28. 1n la ~hologie p~~~nne. pp.k Vieillefond rejects Bjarckis -i b b ~a5tce.mt PR 21lJ.Oi \iEUi IThid. but also interested in other area." p. 5J I. Emm&us~ Vieillefond questions the ties of Afr1canus to seeing it basically as & client relation (Qr simply the introduction of its !"epresentatives at court) ~ rather tb~ as his residence.'· 4Les 5Les Ceste s. i t as B. . 53.tion of the question implies ~ OWIl answer. This is perhaps a. t h e discUSS10n . 21-22.) 2Les C~stes.U""e to do justic~ to the othtlr testimony besides Eusebiu5 (\fhich may 'be sotlle'What independent of" hilZl t e. and theology-.

.S ish ba. 4 Ibid.e t that the author a Chris ti an . in some parts) as one 01' its goa.tous les autre's (fiene t sentiment d!util1t~ etc. 56-51.. .oo1er de. 58.1ent naturel1ement~2 Though good taste is not the dominant quality of the canus does not violate the 1~e bound~ Ke~toi!lo A1'ri- betveen the sacred and the profane.t t. 1 Th~ K~stoi is not s properly l1 gpeaking~ gyncretistie. ie\i"Point ~ On sent m. ) pp..]I pp.--but origi nal i te ~ .. a good base f'or further a.) qui dete:nninent I'oeuvre ecrite..d'lance in Atricanian studies:> but it has !1.fneral Af'r1ca. lIbido ~ :p.• p.nus aime a soul1gner son Res tilt s of the New Era. se:rious quest ion as to the fa.Recent Contributions 99 une r.. fuclid:r Herodotus) theQ.ect'ea t 1 On]o llne d.l~.ent th8.uintl1iflj}.. 4 u en e. 58~60.o be agreem. brotherstet al. see:ms t. n . has provide-d. it is written from a purely pagl!W.ckground 'of Af'ricanus 9.nd the Kestoi. The nev era t vhich began and" at present ~ ends 'With Vie-i11e- tond. V8. one vi th ent ertainment (and even humor.e~ qut Afri.IjJwered all the Inde4!'d> it has raised fIJlOthe-r question .canus se refus~ a superposer les registres ps.ot questions.i s trac ti on ~ ou l' element 1udi que:> propre a "toute creation intelleetuellE"]I nepeut guere B~ disa. :Eiolv~d all the problems nor 8J'".. 3 sources of the Kestoi were many and varied--the school of pseudo-Democritus~ Homer. There also though 'the problem of 'Wh&t kind of' Christian remains. 3 Ib id . cl ass ic.ien et jUdee-chretien alors que pourtant des associations d'idees 1 ':" conduisa. the aLleged JevThere 15 no longer an::. 56.he Kestoi 1s~ on the \fhole:o a serious work ~ but. 2 Ibid.

. nor by deny-ing it (as attempted by Scalige!' and Va.lln from the "orthodox M 8ide.solved ignoring it (an approach I vhich goes back 60S ttl.f overlap betlleen "syncretistiC: Christianity" and ttsyncrctistic paganism" in tbe Severo. contirm~d in attenuated forn But'l yhile BjSrc:k I S suggestion apparently will not stand .a.lesius" and by Bjorck).100 study of Af'. his oCl"iticisPlS do seem to undercut the a.nuS Su:nmo. was he So bishop (or even f1 priest)? But others re:main: what is the author's COl1- n.r and Conclusions Some of' the baste objec:t1ve questionB htLve been ansvered: hOll (or many books ~re there in the Kestoi. ignoring the..reen an- cient magic and ancient "Bcience"? Thus.n.n period. d~s'pite the p:r"ogress ~ the ba.) background. hmr is the Christianity of At1"icanus to be correlated 'With the Qon- tent s and sJ)ir i t of' the Ke stoi '7 what do the oC ont~n. what else did the Kestoi ta1n" &nd Nln further elements of it be! r'l!"covered frOJ:!l known works.t Or. perha:ps bet t~rl!!L.nnot be.sic probll?l%I still rl!'m!lins.ica). bet1. are there explicit Chriatian Jewish) refl!'renees in the Kestoi" vas the author from Africa..:t jo s and spirit of the Kestoi toeII us about the of Mricanus 1 by C"nristiani ty of th~t:i.!" as Ru1"inus.depth pre-sentl!'d by the "heretical" 80uree 6 (as Bauer ~ e spec i ally]l bas show us in hi Ii Orthodoxy an d .Sked eJlother vs.ric£l.rly "syn~retic:i~tn either p~rsonal or Christianity is dra.tion&1 (and geograpbicsJ.r. Wh6t are th~ areas Q.ml!' The qu~st1on c:a.0 ans'W"e'l' the question as being simply due to eult we-wide + OUr usual pieture of ~a. and continues into the present in f'or example ~ the Nev En~2<::lOPaedia Britan. e.nd.t'tempts 1:.

101 I w Here.t times at least.. remaining need of a more objective sort.But it is also dravn large-ly from s. even 1mperi aJl..ddition.rly (!entu.A.tion Not only em-i s t ians and gover'f1menteJ.tions in t.nus shows us the existence". .lphia. view of the cl~ric&l "lJeak~ ff vith little knCNledge of. or interest in ~ the obviously much In a. Qur ODe broader (literally and figuratively) lay base.• 2 ~alter B~mer~ Orthodo.:rHsnd Heresy in Earlie-st Christianity. a.SEL does Af'ricanus starJd ~onstru~tions~ reminder of these g~ps in OUl" tlsU. Qf' At- a m. ric8.he ea.riea is of MternfL.fI. 2d GeTm9D ed ~. usual ide-a. of and the poss i oi 1 i ty 'Of a more aethTe int@.sy) . eire leE.Chronogra..phy.ting persecution and passive toleration or ignoring. Robert .l re- be p~vides some information for partially filling theDJ... 2This emphasizes a. ed.ore posi- ti ve toleranc e. 9. Fortress Press ~ 1971).I'relB. of "state--ehur<:h" :rela. a complete edition of the rest of Africanus's work5~ especially of the fragments of tbe. by a team from the Phila. Kraf't and Gerhard Krodel (Philadr?. tran s.delphia Seminar on Christian Origins.

feren~es to the cbapt~rs. The. irgule (omitted at paragraph ends} 11 as exactly as the e. 1932" are used to dis- tin~~ish bet~een Les Cestes (1970) and Jules Africain (1932).>::igen~ies of a translated text. :margin. 1 have beea carried B. 2.e~ used in cross references. and line numbers.. In the following chapt~r6 of this stu~'t re... In ~he translation~ I have generally preferred to err en the l. .. 103-323). l1owe'\Ter. .ide of literalism.CllAPl'ER II TRAJfSLATION OF THE KESTOI FRAGMENTS The following pages contain a translation of the th~ Keetoi as f:ra. p. C~stes (pp.~ I.nUlIlbers of tbe pag(!S of. 1970~ tl and '~Vi .va:.re given in the right margin vi th page ends marked in the text b J' a double virgule <II L The end of every fifth line has been indicated by a. vi th line nmnb~r!.' text in Vieillefond':8 edi'tion a. 'by Occasionally. 102 . Vieille. text ar~ given by Viei1lefond section~ (in Roman numerals).l included on the lef't.~' is sOlr.l' t~e Af!'icanus's rhetorical eonceits and ha. the forms "Vi.eti:m.gm~nts of identif"1ed and edited by Vieillefond in toes. Ill). For tbe sake of clarity fin~ brevity~ the abbrevia- tion ''v·i.fond llWIlbers the lines by cinapter t not by page.. they follow the others 5~ (e. vhC!'r"e there are 1 di fferenc-es.allov.ve tried to 'l!m'bellish 'translation similarly. where page numbers are given for quicker location o~ references to scattered sections.g.I.

VL IX.. ale. Cat. 2:t 3 Geoponica . Ke:O"TOf--Knovn Contents .lCJ\i Kal JJET. IX. 5 Fulgentius .PRole'].t.Vi. gr.lJOU .nd the limj. 32-33{? }. also items in II and IIIJ 8 9 10 11 12 13 - . ~~2) [Vi. 1 t ~ Alchemy {Berthelot-Rueife" ColI. vJ 19 20 Unplaceable sections: Mise. 1 (?)" 2] (cf'.Vi. n r 24 '1H:pl 1'00 K1VVD:lJW.ters . 1 2 3 Mordant ~ dyeing . VIII.~ 37 eVi. III lTE:pl d'!llej. 6 Fig.&:.} . 'lII Psellu5 (cf. PI>. II 21 22 ~3 Hippiatrica.Vi. I1JS5.Vi.Vi. 2 ~ 3:)1) 4 5 6 7 .Military matters (Vi. anc. IX. ale.tations of our knowledge of it.: J Ii te:-ary cri tic1sm of" E"OOleo:r (!Q.l-41V . IX. mIl tary ma.Vi. Berthelot-Ruelle" tincture [Vi.Vi.) . gr. !~ cf. 1. 'ill] IL IS 16 11 18 - • t rCom:l. chap. IX.l03 Intl'oo~~tion Figure 1 help~ to visualize the form of the Kestoi a. 22:J kathartika ba-ola (Vi.

Sloania.l 61at ion 104 1 Sigle. 3]1 19 {XiI cent~ ) . (1924! 1927) .tem in Les CestE!s (p.Corpus h1ppiatrieorum gr~ecorum. ibid. Hipp.conJec"tural.H. numbe~ed bold numbers {vith 5ubcivi- sions fuTther identified by lower ~ase lett~rs in bold t~~e)~ IFollO'Wing Vieillefond IS sys.) r .Ca..H.gi~al pa!lsages 11 discl.ntabrlgiensis colI. v D . Textual [( J] <.Tra. 276 (X-XI Cent.rk~d in th~ translation by dark vertical line5 in the right margin) and are for identification by l~g~r.yaticanus gr. J MSS of corpus l'dppiatricorw:n = r (in cit&tions from C.manuscript passage to be as spurious + • • • .. Cant.} . 2 vole. 2) '~agi cal Passag!!"s" !le"rt The 11me.Lond1nensis bib'.LII cent?) .corrupt passage not reasonably > eOir~ctable . ~ conje~tural restoration of manuscript lacunn > conjectural addition where there is no manuscript lacuna ~xcluded EJ t <: . 2Ci". 1164 {X-Xl cent.lacuna in extant manuscripts Manuscripts and Editions (Selected) 2 . lacuna (not appearing &s such in exta..Eugenius Oder and Carolus Hoppe) editors of C. manuelis.nae 745 (X. 73).r.'1t manu- scripts) .:Barberin!anU§ gr. .!ssed in the chapter are ma.

19. .ve been accOJI]plisbed to the best of rollo~ing. Rela. Concernin~ not bE! terri- svittness of hors~s. ounded.11.lg of a hor5 e. Tha.a.20. That a.. For cat. - 3. T8.J!liT. .t a. Milita:r:tr~11ke hunting.13.rrh of" horses. hQre.E! fied. Con- clusion: Concerning arrovs.T. . - 18. To find the wi..ting to combat.Agricult'JJ"'al marvels.2. 14.belil~ gath~ring :from each various trui'tful helps.. 103 <Table> These are contained in the <7th> 01' the Kest.105 Kest. .oi or Afiicanu:. Against ruin of beasts of burden. <Proem)..5. ~ 16. 5 ~ I ability both in the preceding and the .dth of a river and the height of R wall.gment~ I: Kesto5 1 p.17+ Prod~cingvakefulness..8.03 T The Kestoi FTe. Horse-trouble~.h.15.9. hora. . Concerning de8-tru~tion of ene:l:tJieos.mule. . (either) treatment of ills. . For surgery on the . . For fighting of' elephants _ . For the WOW] Ii :from iron + - 6.y 11 changes and remedies --occur according to to knov each one of re8s0n or p~inc1ple or fate 01" chance. . For a kicking . The issues of de-t!ds--pl"oduction and deca. It is good t. . or B~(:r~t acCO\Ults t or beautiful expres- sions. These~ in my estimatioD J ha. . Conce!"ning armor. Theft of Bound.10. - 12. ..e may not may n@igh.:. I..

s t a. bron'?oe-c:o'ni~:red roundshield.. 10 dou/ble helmet]o scaly brefLstplfite. but m~~ sharplYt ani / of such as may be necessarj.bout the Ca'Use of the the amed battles. that the virtue of the soldier ~ns double. So.rilUl!il.. But yet the Persians have never been conquered by the Ro.raJectory th~m They knew both hov to fight togetber.).. heavy~ For th~ Greeks d. a convex.! cavalry t and a 5vord .. using a sharp speed..iding a rationale I to myself~ 1 found tha.. manne:r~ bo~h in unisQJ:l anCi alone.eal I of" the road... among all other "things. of the mili t..he na. by this meo...1 Translation 1.ions of 5..d.d and.t it is not superiority of s'tratagems nor the total militarj" !. but. greaves~ t\l'O a Javelin in the handa ~d a close-fighting sp~ar equal to Rarely runsort thoge of 'the roy-a.ary gear.ken ])reparat i on of the B. broa. they mad.iT! this ti~:s rest- in the jO'llrney~ 80 as not to dull the l.n5 they . not long.S 0f numbers by t. and that" indeed. ThUs.e re unwearied as long in denger. of conquered bY' the Romans I difference of b~en theae~ the Greeks ha. 15 ning witb this a~rt not much indeed ..e ef- r~:mained fort to ge-t inside the arrows 1 <range> . the longer ranged missiles . ar(! overcon:fident of freedoDl and have f'or<:=ed equality of honor \lith u.forearm to be of use tor shoving t the other being gra. and ef\ch of ~o hims~lr. cri~ieal times 1 W"ondered both a. but the and the "fon::. ing themselves many 20 by t. the . held b~f tvo handles (of 'Which the one is ar()und.105 Yor many Armor It is good to knO"lof var also.t!:Iarls.:trength <for J in war ~ no ac count i..for the of the arrows fought by r eager to arrive under the t.elight in full art:'lOl'"~ tbey have a. pro.h E!' val i ant.rIII.s) t.inner Asia clatlti. the Persians by the. cut up the baTba.he.Greek.1.s.sped b~r the band).length as 'they The:.t.. Concerning 106 p.

te is proof against all arrO.men"t.l"COPS and withOl. 107 of such sort of a.ha"t> of the soldier king p Indeed..- ering of the head.....1 the:.11 of thl!' unarmored condition of the not endure the ~ha..the Laconian cap in the Macedonian <armor.. co.gfl. But the :raee.hi5 usage and custom <t. t. but the ot.ering of ~h&t is~ bron~e~ f'ro~ R one helmet on anQth~r.rma...'ble to reach the inner co. Therefore.y.Ts by the overlap of' the scales. s\1cce~ding Ml!i..lt danger...l is co~bat ~t a distance ~ but I in the maint~ined <:lose-1Jl ~ securitjt from the' is successfully by the full armor.p around the head <consistine.!'R"Y s'lrlords are USeful for dexterity o~ vehemence blow. fIJld they eall t.. even tbe hF. in order to suf'fer no'thing from afar ..o allow le<>ki ng around everyvhe re unhi ndered.." Tsn in under the. because o~ the I variety of battles.rge the opponents could p. refitting the common arms both against the bal'ba:riaJ'ls ~nd o.. Then ~ wi t b the spe ars. by nJeans of the vall of tbe shields placed in front of' them. it suffices against th~ shot 30 s11ng~ the outside she-II..:reJ~ &gain~t the barbarians (vhither it is ~lingers necessa. of:> leather and another" additional .ry to atrell The:tp use both t.c~don1ans But the ~O altered :slightly a fev of these..he vision of the fighters 'W'as unobstructed under .lry who are probing ahea.ift 'baTe and the n~ck is free. Al@xander himse~:r also ~otm"tlO. ~nd In truth.d bef'ore 35 attackin@.en of the cava. Kestos 1 lUI 1.in~t one another p As an exsmpl~. for "tbe forcE! of' misQl'~a 25 sile!. and the ca.>. 50 that the thing discharged is not o. the one group checks the pixelT.107 carrying over thetn.nded the .ber91o haVing been stationed in more open I pha- lanxeG y seFarating~ take effect helleb(l... indeed. t. being I d~nted all around and giVing va.traje-et0l"Y ~ and" because foot~soldiers. the breastpla.

a helmet of single material <leaving> I B.ve. for aJ. IlDoubtless you do not know.. Qy the Also.he gym- nastic art. II it is not prudent tQ take 9. the broa. Therefore.tion loB L5 soldiers 'to shave the: beards."here- p. the neck bound tight..c e f"or both brea thi ng and sight. Still ~heY fight suc~~sstully against the full ~r previously described.lity of experience with both.cutting ofT' the adornment of the f's. for they have security fr¢m those nearly equal..tha.. ob- long shie~d as a defense. the ones who~ f~lYt it could almost b~ 8B.l bloW' gaining the advantage of the close engagement. long. a b. ~ a chain-wrought breastplate.I1rbe. but they had an Bdvantage by the 11ghtnl!ss -or their equipment.dsyord. 11t tlf! opening for th eo fa. is less ef- f1caciousfor the: body in fighting 1n close ord(!!']1 the soldiers Dot being able to get the whole shouldl!r covered bY' tbe firmo:r). being borne about by the hand (it.e~d the weapons skillthey transfixed the scales by thrusting. .d- 60 sword prone tQW3~d / s~riking into the necks or the G~eeks .l"'l!'at:s . however he shoUld have been fitte-d out. . so that there was an eQ. . but coming dovn risht upon the shoulde~ blades." "l.ce .ll. clos e (: ol3lbat 0 r front ranks 11 'they trained theme elves also in t.nd high~r f&cile r~t. and they ga.U1i.in a.Ie of the broa.. . 0 eivilia.s s."l.rian t sbould be able to stand firm .\ut pO!i. 50 But for tbe Romans .Ll Trl!Wslo. I and someone objecting to .. so the keenness of theiT spears would not be du11!!d)~ nor be broken by the 65 &9 saul t on the Grl!!4!k s' bt-east/pla t~s. h&vi ng plfl. he 6ns'W'. and to assa."1 advantage 'by the agility) both f"or attack. and their 55 spears vere / shorter than the Greekl.:!red. 109 fore s'U~h arlDOr being near no one . one grea.loitions swiftly J and in the u!.!d~ . But.t 1s. beard into battle. Dot turninB.

-n missile is diffi- cult because of the cutt. to be eage~ The first.109 Kestos 1 1. in order not to 70 leave the pack animals I behind.1 ha.d always been victor-ious overtbe Greeks . and he :rnig.ht tea..ered by the Gr-eeks.n..in.%'e t.lso not one Roman fights 'by himself..hro.v such a habit isimpractica1 .lmett!..being cut up. and avoiding the t.link in. .ch e&!:h one 85 to 1"i ght b'. particularaluk. Yet 6. tbe bar- 15 barians in relay a.. being distressed by sun and toil. selected~ thfrJ' . sOJlli@'one might bestow a Greek breaatplate and helmet on the Roman soldier. 80 nothing ha. / while by means of att. .the nations a..and 'Wi th~Ta'Wing aga.. then. and give a longeT pi~e.cking euccessi'Vely..aking rest. by which also one stands untouched.l. should not. BJ1. be & match for the RoJnll.. spending ten death.d they :fell to 1/ the knee. and the things ~a~t from a sling at the heads] crushing he.ving / been for one ch~ce- But besides this.ttack.'" roofing over the host by the holding Parthians' arrows. (they being too} short.loosed the Jave-lins. and each one of the spears be throVTI at a.f trims el f ~ I <and:> sometime s he mi gh t &nang~ running so th&t the charge against the enel:lJY might be quick to be vithin tbe anssile trtl. and they did not resist the &tt8.a..r~aSOD was the <fail- in runn1~g into tbe close eombat..ing .seldom c:onquered 'tbos€ who v~re ure~ 8ollf&.ya: conqu.ing of the iron collar. nor is there anyone 'Who excels in single ~am~t against th~ the~any.Je~to!"Yt the barbarians.cking horsemen vith pikes. <for> they vere always ehut in by the square or troops of the army. If at lellet. up of p" 111 the shields in di!!'sire to negate the But tru.s. .

. p.'ba.w. ~o:m- observ~d Ka.. at any event. better 'Preparing 'With iron and vith men~ ~eapans ~~d valls.lebore. 15 So~e ~ fleeing.ttles t nor must one !nake Chance mistress of the entirety of a:ff"airs..ken counsel.v poiaon the llell~.hey "honored.ll events. or sigllhts a. being better t~e the Tbe'bans.. s.tta.gainst tbe fifty n:yriads. t.s. not then baving Cl"O'W'll ed The Phocians.t defeats.tion. Thus it is nat by the o~posinB visib~e alone that one mus1. prepa.red in eve:t'"'l 'Way 10 did.rcm the Fl8.l~ ness of the Gates a... <or> sun.1. eithe~ wind cheats many tim~S. Fe·r the outcome () f war is uncert 6.n togetner rith the Themistocles expelled drllg!..lI:ini us 'lo and also ?aulu.ns tbis old la.2 Tra-nslation 2~ 110 Concerning Destruction ~th o~ En~ies One must nat contend the enemies entirely vith conflict nor. then the best ~ even though I not successfully ac:coI!lplishing..113 S position~ or stratagem.nd ~ppar1t1ons. destroy beforehand the pasturages. in. Xerxes froQ Greece by ruse.s t contl"8.. Athenians into ~1arathon against "the Pers1a.a s and also by the b)r the unnoticed arts + At a. the daemon Pan persevering indeed in thf! grea..l")r wind 10 and sun for "the most part chea. those. but they used to chasti. I And Ale. Likewise Leo/nidas used 'the l1arrovPan ra. war fled ~.se those undertaking anything rashly and Bchieving~ not maKing the Judgment from ..~g. beholding them themse-l ves with laurel" those vhohad not f"eared the ~:rown.r~hedonifl.ted.ck. that. the 20 manders having t9. the en~­ forces} but really must one order the battle against the suCh lo mies by many "there . r Some s~ear the arrows with that eveDo vound may be mortal ~ others placed their strength in f'orest. and 'IrlUC his di :fferent from expecta. ~n.x:andeT overp·o'llered the Alans by graving be:l.

.lly a remedy for the corrupting the dl'inkings of tbe disgust of brine~ the waters. entrenchments.. preventing -the a.. and well to those acquainted with hist-orical ne. the Mea. .ity of other things as fLre estica'ted for the supply of the necessities for 8. /1 'Wt:ll ma.des.11:. but ..nd well watered areas. long cSJDPRigr. &oinking antidotes for veno~~us beasts beforehand to de~end again~~ ~ne poison-bearing o~ arrows .eaching ho. ~he receiving by 'the many. outposts. s. night- marches 1 out-ridf:rs ~ reconna. p-oss:essing high<'!'r places..mine and espe c: io. the green rod.o .pparent". we decline on account of Also ~utt. not be done) ~ healthfulness of enc6JIlPtOents a.III K£!stOB f'rOtD 7 the anci~. This is al~c and for.der is more advantageous. l~a. are 25 not On~ 'IoI'hich is unrecorded / they may nUl'::l~rou... tovard the enemies t before a. and by pTe ssure and ~e.der being brought a.issances ~ alDbusce..in- p. I consider. comp&red to inflicting damage.1 (for W'hlch tf.iere cor-responds t.t also equa. not to bettl!!'r~ su~fer de. though gnitling an ad- vantage over thll! Roman s . Indeed. therefore.2 the chance but Ulatthc safe the intent10n~ and good also is ver-se . spies..nd there 1l.lc::aping notice~ and .ll:to distrust-. vas de st royed ~ By time ".. not a la~tine f'o!"C4!.' as~ destruction ~ one must vork against. t.mo. well as such quant.he othet' hand. in eVfnY lilly than t.ns for tQFknO"n'n 30 ping vhatevcr hart:l the:( I do are fl. 115 tained arQs~ forager5 and likewise suf~icient equipocnt for sleeping.ing.sional ana. in 35 order / to have no need for 'foreign pB.ge is much ~O Pyrrhus. on t. b. at any event.ntagonists from e!. down trees of the enemy.rr:atives.nt !..sturag~.he rasb.first...long suffices t !is.he barbarians. a p~i~ exp10it t fot'. The arts of general-a.s. with 'Whom the sembling of the: army is oc::c!l:.nothing difficult to be :managed by the enemies.

Populous Athe/DB was empt1ed y air tight.ttrib'Ute the "Wars of such kind to 1 their peculiar gods. eo secret marshalling... /1 I make fI. or eatiP. 60 day~ Food then thus: let us make loa..@d~ Why. \. ian:. closing the cover reclining. being patient. th~re:fore. Let.y of battle.th apart 5C f'roJ:j battl~. in according to the linear signs Qr the proslambanomen~ of the Lydian mbde. one of the enemies fo. for a certain number of days. bearing provisions measured also~ relying on booty trom raids..ess them... . zeta defective and tau Sealing Up bot. will tbey pursued th~ 1:5 ahl'ays hasten to the en~ I whom I.falllish Q&y i:f be shoul. Md viper ~ (Vie111~rond. 'Those gods also ve vill imitate. would see by their ovn appointed provisions having Com~ be~n ti~e? Hunger eomes on them past due. 1~7 mgy re line 6l).es which nourish the I last depicted~ using th~ animals1 vhich are vhich~ placed at the end in form~ li~ th~ pentagon <1>.r our arts. 1 use an uns-een wa. Les Ceete5~ p. general of ~t ever.2 112 For also..tts.. t.\ing breatb.11 p.emonitl..ss • io • ...... spontaneo"Us fortune wi 11 be pr-oduc ed b'. and dea. I ~ vith the elements let us arm ourselves &gt:Linst them.. Laceda. b~ Let him .h together in aveJ:lsel.d stay . Let us conquer I them 'With allied air and assisting vater. us :produce a 'Wor'k ~th 55 greatly desired.1.a.ing and the the such-like condition mastered the Karchedonvi~torious The a. let entrust fleeing even to their being r~- ie. and let hilt struck by plague that he not flee-. V and D add. in Sicily.l.g. let destruction .bed. US not then.~ Uforest frog or toad.T.JJ7 things dangerQus to him. and a precise number of arrows f"ligbt is obvious when they are exh&ust.apart i'TOm iron pose.. few vainly consumed. drinking.

I it is mioglf!Q among a. so as not to have aD air vent the anima.ter vith which the food is :mixed. pretending a. the loaves Dot being used eithl!1" thl"ough suspicion or this matter baving been learned f:rom deserters. produce death in one d~r. house~ into a cit. These do not. into into an a. this. I send a treacherous benevolence to them.2 "With clay. nor immediately remove the one using it... if we tear le~t we should have used such preparations vainly. furnish to the enemies in 'Wbat~1fer \7f&Y you :can? Bo~one And it may be done unsuspeetedly. These are justrneals of l'eco:mpenlS(! against the barbarians.:i drink likevise vith such Bort of loving-cup. then leviga. the plot res ides.s-bt give way to attacks t the camp having been fortified by such sorts of' provi~ions. quick flight. Such a surfe it II p.se upon all t and mi shall inexorably 80 ove-:r-t8.ll. smeaT "the baking vessel \Tith this sam~ Juice. or if' someone. h6.~r to int 0 It Ii.king the enemies + But.s. pouring out disea. dAn8~r to those! cooking. but certainly ~ The sufficiency iI this <presents ('1» . We will give ther.ls which are 65 'Within be-ing destroyed by one anotber.ting I their remains.113 Kestos 7 f'OT 1.. and those associating with them [the en~iesJ .ving enterta. And having.ined the1Ii] let us release toward them either the evildoers or the prisoners. tbey immediately infect 85 with plague. therefore. and settles int. this one 75 also overt. mi.y t n l!Lti on . I .akelS the one not eating t by means of plague. if 70 ling the sirable t~anspD~t ~arelesslyt s~izure should be hand- I ~asy for the enemies' attaek and de- of the tbings b1!'ing brougllt by them. done drop it into the we.119 :Rrin:rs intl"oduces to thetJ.o thE! ConDWlity. of such food having pre-pared.

..a.h~ in spoils th~ en4:!mi es by tll..kinds of animals vhicn lie in the second pentagon t with the signs of the hypate of t. I Tht! bodi e B of the men.h~ But..mor which had been U5ed by the body pl'eh~ viously not having room for the pre$ent man.l? dr ink.der t.. ".."1t of the odious a.tion 114 2 Three. t hu~ ve lnay fi r s t binder should ~on:si..{s... TrWlsla.) 1 .mrna regular. and a1 so of their pain~ be~sts~ having drunk. he will desi1"~ a qui~k. that he 1DllY ceQ. reversed and ga. 100 the rancid oil being poured I itrto thco !lnd by the sea-purIJ:le) 'Which makes all/I 'Water undrinkable for a long time. will be purfed up. as . For e:. 119 mgt re line 88).'ttack. no one barbarians of east unlearned in these things. pour in the 90 va t~r supply of the e:n~mies. <so that> aside and even yet a.t all becot:nes juice ~ and boiling vi th much vater 1. phalanx of the Romans by feigning of flight..he hypatai ~ ga:mma.."arlike f1. and anyone seeing having become in :fl i ght and othertli s e ~ not Tee ogni 201 ng the pre s en t "form" and ~lo~. (but the:. wyrtle spurge being it. with hi~self will set upon them. t. the 6.ers.illed e. For ~ss V and D add.ppearance. 105 and th~y vOTk evil to th~ invaders (PoisOning of 'Wine. .." ..se both being punishe-d by the force of 95 the inflammation .J I many times.Les Cestes.risees prid€d themselves on once naV'it'lg k. The Pha. sets it But also to spoil the vaters othervise: tilling in <the~ ~ells t~r 'With refuse. lie. greater ~a5t. p._.ppeB. the ~r. III 'Collection of v81. p. "r.and stones.uati C'oh. or a lake. / and being hated by himself on accou. snake. then swelling...also omit the third item) (Vieillefond. in eX'piring~ awaits the neighboring death. and it' the 'Watter should be wide-spreading.10 S or aq.lJ'ltil it takea up all the grease of' the things being seethed.. I ChbP up these so tha.1"s to stand in arms.

kontis in le-ngth.at. do". nann..hroni tron... giving way t leaving behind the prepared l. comr:!~ l.et us al.. 1{o-. of various species? for these are both small and ~arge.lso abundantly produced in SyriaJ. and with similar means. ~ood. vill go to'\ol'arQ the antagonists.. (and it is l!tJ.. a.! c2!:.=p.so use ail" and rind &g(J.bich 1::.ha. not getting lover. (but) ho" 115 is any to guard / breathing.ce the vessel ope:nt!d.b i Ie runn1 ng by. t."1er. exa:m. appeared.1. next written in 'the third pel'~te.n j.s 130 bird . 120 beta / defect! Vet andssmme.. ho'W' sho'Ul be lot:k '. but really.e tPoisoning o~ air..2 feeding vell.unch. and by the I heat and the time. reclining. sO t. about equal to a drs.gon or 'Which tht!' signs ar-e of the 1!a. as. we have used -bo-th food and drink fL.so common in Asia.nd adequa.) Thrissos is a Thessalinn snake) red J colored!!.inst them: one is able to be guarded not to drink.::> al- lies..ll it fl:3atha. and 125 selThen~ the fiercest sun shine on the Ves- whene'fer they are destroyed by eadl other. But -the "'7ine was treach~.. Let them both be shut up together in a le~ vesse~ very securely watertigbt.Jp air? I will come at. poisoned by ~T1 thoox- 110 liane quenched in it.. and leon is another serpent."luJ ".hose plotted against..o be preferred tor this [and it is a. according as the eustomary wind also continuously bears toward them.hem. power ~ N01K. ~ith hemlock~ Wine is poisoned / 'Vi th fiI'. the :smaller is rather t. and a c~e. IJiOreover". for these things being eaten in su:fficienc:.ate of the OyPatai.he air killed) overtaken .. bt!ing f[!'rried by p_ 123 the breeze into the breathing of t.hat the foul smell from it.r tben.ples of its a hors e vill fall "."ll .tely talte care of enenlles. they then 7rlithdre"". Syrian!. Through thes.rh.. and a nearby J:lB.rous!!.from t.15 Kestos T 1. 1/ pla. not toO eat (anything) from enemies.

1 .::-

....

Tra.nslation

116

by fleeter wind vhl1e fleeing on the wi:rrg. But 1:1\ by $orne- lDeans also 10 it shouJ. d come on us, either by a.

c=raft.y plot. of them .. or also from

SOmE!

one of t.he elenle'nts J 'the relll-

edy

1

for escape from the plague I have anticipated. setting it forth

135 in the preceding pages.
Themistoc1es
secU1"~d

for himself b-e:forehand

t.h~

victory against

'the Medes"

b~f'ore

the

occurrenC'~

of t.he 'Jea battle, 'Whil1! the ge:t.Jerals
great also being this advantage
~

'IoI'e:re sailing around ......i thout

sle~p;

'to

steal the slee'p of the

e.~enUes.

The aneient !mp(!:!'a.tors of tbe ROc:lans
0'11 t

used the th ina; mos t baldly and e fiecot i vely, sending 140 cEIr.'lp of the

b:r

night to the

I opponents both very

lightly a.rmed foot soldiers and \d th

them mmmtl!d trmnpeters, througb whom tbey accomplished tvo different. things:
the~~

for eitber overcoming the more negligent out.post.ti and gu&r'ds,

destroyed those obstructing them, or in.1 ecting panic; some by

shooting boys and throwing javelins, and the others discharging

II

i"'J"om p. 125

lQ5 a. sl.ip.g~ hur1ing;vhen they .aboUld ~i8:s,again:st a tent I or a hors,e or
~or~

the din

acc~1ishing more
b~..

than the injuryt the one nearby being

al:wa...vs shoek.l?d

fear.

Bt.~

the t!"UIIJPeter9 riding around were sounding

it that the

~n~m1es

were

otre:~ing

to attack at any

mo~errt.

Then

IV and D read, "As a rem.edy l~t us .array .against it. thus; kindling many and also grea.t fires round about the cmnpt between the!!! '!We vill also make cens.ers, close-packed t ao that the (fumes) over us ~il1 fight against the pestilential breath/vind; and order everyone to C!at ox meat very la.vishly and to set up tanning pits Qutside of t.he full eamp and of the interval of' tbe rir~a, at the 'Way leading out opposite the wind; that so~ least of" the camp,. botb of the leather tanners and of the other merh will be harmed b)' the torrupted ait' even as tllso I anticipated . . . . If (Vieillefond, L~s. Cestes ~ p. 123 mg, re line 13L).

Kesto:s

7

150 during thf!' day they aent out the o.rmy" by every vay contriv/ing to

avoid C'ont-act ~ and the following night sending out l.ikevlse as pre-

viously thoae then resting at home ....1th cOttlpl.ete leisure by day .~or
by sending

othei"s; but they vere always being plotted against. tor But who does not knov ho\/' difficult the results of
HeB.dacb~,

sleepl~ssness.

this are to deal 'W'1tb1

19.ck of appetite t enerv!I.:tion of the

155 body by desire to sleep no nJ.O.tter 'W'hat" "the s;am.e circUI:tJstance I suc~~€!'ding

both night and day.
by

Doing this regularly t 'WE! iKill destroy

the eneJ!l¥

a mere sbout" they being enervated by sleeplessness.

3. Relating to Combat
The stones found. in the stomachs of the pllrE!-bre-d cocks" all

4

"ho are skilled in

tbes~

things praise, as cooperating in p,roducing

both excellence and victory; for "being worn ei t.her in leather a:mulets

or carried under the tongue

]0

(it) keep~ Boldi4!!"s and athletes and

gladiators steadfast and enduring and not thirst;1ng.

But different
t

5 people ascribe a different

a~pearance

I and color to them some as

crystalline and rou.gh" and the others, correct.ly ~ as black; but they
are found at the
sa.~rifi!:ing

of tbe victD:r,

f1.S

though pot the virtue·

or the fowl but the natu:re of the stone! had been tlle ca.use of the
10 powerfulness.
Sin~e",

therefore" wheT! it is borne by mouth, or around
'p. 127

II the a:r:m"
ponent"
on~

th~ ~tone either falls out or- is clipped o~f by the op-

must use it unseen and in a covering of great power.
COt:'kJ

L.et the victorious
eaten
'Who~~ by

prepg,l"ed accoTd1ng to custom, be so that all the f'lesh is stripped

t.he

on~ fighting~

L3,i.I

Transla.tion
~ntirc,. unbrok~n;

11.8
then after

off all round and the skeleton is kept

the meal, let it be pwged by fire.

The bird is a messenger,. Dot only
OnE!'

15 of" da.y1' but of' cotIdng victOI""l.1 making the: his own
invin~ibility,

ea.ting

&

successor of'

by which virtue

he moves into the man.
stor~e

NeokleB" son ~ fighting with the- Pe-rsians,. used t.he"

and

the food; .and from this he established by law the fighting of cocks in

restored Athens .. and a.fter the Median victor'",f t thE!: Athenians brought
20 a

I victory-offering of cocks.

4. For Surgery 'On the 'Wou.nded
Since many are
CO\lflXdly

tWEU"d the

nec=essa.~.f

remedies t'rotrl

iron, :fearing the pain .f'r01D. t.he tre:s.tment more than the impending

harm fr01ll the t'ailure to be

trea.ted~

come, by all Irie'Qns,. let. us r:m-

coura.ge the one Bhrinking from pain .. rendering 'those distressed bolder

5 for the enduring of the ret:ledy.
Let. t.he healing ha.nd be light ~ that it may run easily over
t.he
incigion~

and let the edge it beo.rs be! sharp;
r~ady

tor the dullness
let
hi~

is painful.

But the assistant being

for

e~erything,

5
p. Il9

also sprinkle on the brick ~hlchl lieS in pentallgon

4,

in which,

according to the pyramidal .form, lie the signs, both vocal a.nd instrUIllental .. of the <liehanos of the> enhan:oonic l1::t]?S.tai 7 alpha. re-

10 clining and gamma

invertJ~d

haYing a mark

Q~ter it~

MSS hoper.

~i!o.ding h4i"Oer

'W'ith Vieillefond {and Boivin) .. rather than the

119
5.

Kestos 7 F'o!' t.h@' Wou:nd from Iron

Also, for the one "ilounded by 11"on, this is the cure of sut'f~ring:

it is fitting to anoint the 'W'Ounding iron, then to drive it
<and> we Elbould say .rta tart thrice:> and io while at
.fL

into

1

t.hevound;

the se.me time spitting out)

certain Latin expression which is in-

serted 'in the "'fifth'" pentagon set out, with the signs of the chl"cm.tic
":;ltchanos~,

al..Phtl <re-clining having a. mark a:fter it and WUIIIt;a>

5 in/verted having two marks after it.

The

~u~fering
~~und,

then "ill cease;

and let the sons of the physicians treat the

the one suffering

subjecting himself unflinchingly to thel!"tolich.

Seld~,

Just as among men, so alao among horses, is virtue

urnni::te-d.

For rDllliciow; evil is near the good ones, so tha.t the go/lod p. 131

should not a.ppear pure; one is eloquent." but not. a.ugust; and another
oC oc:l14.8.llding,.

bu't no't tempe rate; and one is manly ~ but s. braggart., oot

keeplnghis honor untarnished fo:r himself; and another in another va.y

5 'both gains a.dvanta.ge and t'alils. hors es :
unruly~

Likewise also the good and evil in

fast) "but SlIlorous; hunte rs. 'but hard mouthed; 'trott.el"s. b-ut some not receiving the
wall~

riders~

and others throwing them off;

same rubbing along

or trees, one group evil doers by nat.ure,

g,nothe1" having been made so by the ovners; they bite and kick Md shy 10
8.lI'Q.y

and rear / up, either hating or scorning the masters.

And I can

. -.

1.6,,7

Tra.n sla:t ion
many~

120

speak concerning

,Tariously killed by bQTSeS in dive-rse mishaps

and species 0'£ msi'ortunes.
Th~

arts J

therefo~eJ

of

hors~break~rs ar~

of such a sort as

either to control or correct the evils:

by small rations the unruly

15 ones, bjr castration the amorous ~ by mu:tzles

I the biters.

the hard

mouthed by sharp bits .. by blovs the disobedient.

But vhat may one do
~h05en

7

against the one 'Whi.ch h9.s withdra'Wn a.."ld delibera.tely

not to be

obe di entin any \lay, t

0

tJ.n~'1; h ing,.

ne i ther

C olml'Vl.nds

nor trainings?
8

For even as the most vila of bea.sts:lo having be.en taken as adu.lt!3 ~ i

not trained J

b~t,

even if it may seem for a little to have become

20 ma."lageable., all the saJIle the: previous II savagery has !lot been forgotten, tnus also
b~C'ome thi~

p.133

very

cr~ature

1a

h~dto t~., e~il

having

chronic. Seeing then, =oreover t poor result to such 60rt of blovand

threat and art and feed, "'let evil of na.ture by" art of nature be cor~ rected. t1
Let an inscription also tSJIle him, which he will not fear"

25 which he vill not suspect" whicb bearing,. he vi11 I be5ubdued.
the hollow of
th~

In

hoof of the left front foot,. engrave vi:th the left
ds.y

hand vi tb a. 'bronze pen, Wlder a si:rteen

old moon,

B.

threat o:f

Roman prescription; the 1naCl'iptiocha.s a necessit.y Df

obedien~.e:

it liea in the 6th
30

pentagon~

in vhich has been inseribed

~he

signs

or

the diatonic ~lil;::ha..nos('1);:.. of the hYE~ttd, phi ~nd dig.BJmll6.

7. That a Horse Ma:,' Not Neigh
Horses neigh, some bo&stlng and others only smelling tbe

Kestos
E1C'~nt

T
t.h~i:r

LT,8

vhi<:b comes !'rom mares.
For 'When they
att~ck"

But both

noise and

8ilen~e

is

usefuL

to incite fear J theY" are taught to cry
p.135

aloud with their fellow sol//die-rs .. but when they lie in vait .. with th-em to be unnoticed.

Certainly this product of c!'B.ft either (the)
It1deed~

5 timeo! yeQr, or rather the erotic nature! dUll'S. I
DJ.enes the Messenian
det~cted

.Ar1sto-

the

L~c~da(:.lJ1OJ:'iitl.ns

lying in 'Wait ~ the
Again! he
cow~

horses neighing to thelD ~ bec'tluse he was leading mares.

established the ambush without danger 7 his horses having been

pelled to silence at & band

o~

the Spartan mares.

The tr-ick of the Messellian re:mains in reJ:em'brance.
10 therefore one vould pass through
B.

Whether

robber I infested region or vould

set a cavalry ambuQh for the enemies, let him practicevhat will be

set forth;. and not only is this a. deed of Greeks and an invention of
ancient generals ~ but indeed .. the Parthian!;! also lead their
O....." n

hQrses thus being silent into

battl~.

Th@ tail of the borse above

15 the hair is bound about with a yell twisted t:ord]l so tha.t the / band
sinks deeply int.o the surfa.ce; f'or b".f the: t.ension of the binding the

horse! is
only the

pained~

he ke-eps the same spirit a..nd a.vi.f'tne-ss. be reatTains
even though time or love should be constraining.

utt~rance~

8. For Ca.tarrh of'

H:ors~s

Homer report ed the Troj an horses svi ft 10 and he made ttl e The s-

salians oracular s and a hUI!la."l voice be gave to

t.he-~"

not pointing out

daeJnCons indeed;> but e.

l~s~on

reproving horsemen.

Therefo!'e t those

no", commanding need clc!arly to learn divining f'rom horses .. but they

5 are ineXperienced. II

1.8
Many things about a hQrse gives signs, both nod and look and
silence.

p. 137

T"ne other matt.ers, t.hen t I ...-1.11 omit, of storms end of
o~

suc~

oess in hunt and
but the
gr~s.test

good seasons or rruit and of their own

Qrf5pring~

is that the B.pproaches of the enemies they both

speak and point out; and they foretell killings also; and unseen
bands of robbers they exposed many times by tension of' ears ~ or by

10 hesitation

I in advanc1ng 1

<01'

by> anorting.

And th~y showed not only

8

e""'il men; believe me when 1 say they see even daemons:> and 1 know of many neigbing
a~d

falling and proclaiming by voice the threat. at road

junctions.

But chiefly for the knowledge of such sorts those 'With
distinguished~

eyes of different color seem to be

despising both var

15 and appa.ritions... and / only being opposed by lions. for the kingship aJOOng 'beasts.
Whether t thererore, it is a 'Work. of the so'Ul.,. or the

na.ture of' the eyes", both must be developed t the one b:; teaching and.
craftt the ot.her bj· att.ention.

Horses t just as human athletes,. it is

nece~~ary

to restrain
SO

from
:20
d.o(!S

th~

sexu.a1. acts; this produces harm to the eyes; but

also

much cold

I tor

8.

long time,. bringing on dripping", and to cought.reat~d

ing also.

Lt?t either misfortune be
[Tr~at.ment

(the

~atarrh]

by the

plant. of' Bacchus.

of hQrses suffering f'ram catarrh.)
~nd

For

i~'

having had the juice extracted

baving been mixed with the
su~~essive
th1"i~e

for~~nt.ion~d

substance, use it &s a liniment two

days;

omitting a.gain the succeeding day. let t.his bE! done

and Jt'Bny

25

t~St

until the horse recover the customary I [and) [oracular] ap1

~ar.ane~.

:But I do not begrudge tl1e treB.:tment also to t.he- animals

123
sE!~ondary

Kestos 1

1.8,,9,10

to horses.

And I use thl!' same sort for the cough; after a.

little you ....T ill find somethit.Jg lying vithin.

/1

9. That a Horst!

f-5ay riot

Be Terrified
n~

A cure that the horses may not be terrified needlessly by sights
~

9

01'

shadows is the

0. t

tac hing to the right ear of the anima! of'
1

tail cut off of a living beast

itself; and it lies in pentagon

seven, above vhicb are placed the signs of the- h.vpate of the mesai;

10. Concerning Swiftness' of Horses
Horses - sw-irtness is dulled and increases; fwolf - antipathy each one is staJ'~d and his pair of feet grows stiff'!, but he is made

18

more svift than himself by a wolf .t

2

It

poss~s.sion much

desired by

horsemen is a wolfls feet; and alsO an aatragalos of the same beast having been hWlg on strikes the 1IlOuth of one running. is rare.. Bince it can result in
dQttl~ing

This!, indeed.
But we have

and 'bruis.ing.

5 found I a different way fOr the wolf to be able to
vi thout harm of' t.he horse.

~or.tribute s~iftness
tak~n

For indeed the canine t.eeth

from a

living one a.re worked into the neckbands and produce a double benefit,

oura.

lHippiatrica caddo Londinensis and Ca~t&brisiensis read ~(kou

2 In the second line t the translation rollows the transposition and corrections of text suggested by Simone Foll~t, revi~ of J.-R. \i'ieill~fond, Les .ICestes H de JuJi lit! Africa-nus!, ir. Revue de philoloi0.gue L9 (1915) ~ 318-19T Vie111efond does not atte!Irpt to reconstruct ar translate these lines {but cf. the line cited :fro!:! Aelian N.A. 1. 36 ir.. ~s Cestes.• :p. 352.. n. 165).

'1'rans1ation being an unsuspected o.id and an orna.JM-nt for t.he racillg bridles.

124
Then 1

indeed, it is good if, ror a

four-horB~

team, one might append it to

10 all? but. if otherwise) even the lead I horse alone having this necklaci! s uff'i ees to make t.he te-BJ:!IlIl&te 5 more sW'i ft.

II

11. Horse-troubleT
(There is) an account that the Sybari teos were once driven to
this by luxury. thdt
drinki ng party.
atte~

p.141

dinner they brought the horses into the

Then, hetu"ing the f'l ut e musi c, they reared u.p on the

pai.r

or

feet) llith the torefeet as i:f shadow-boxing,. and danced.
pl~yer

But,

having been insulted,) a flute

dE!se:'ted to the Krotonia.ns, vho

5 had recently been beaten in

8.

caval:ry battle'lo and he p:ro:mis~d to help

I

the league greatly 10 for he would hand. o\;er a.ll the Sybs,rite caval.:ry
captive; the Krot.onian!3 believed him and entrusted him to be generfl.1.
But he .. mustering the' flute players of th4!' eitt, demonstrated the 'tune ..

and when the time

C8.llle,

ga.ve cOimna.nd

fOT

the expedition against the

enemy.

.But as the SybfLl"1 t.es came togeth er in a very lar gF;!: group ~ some-

10 ~hat insolent

I

because of the superiority of their horse.
another~

and the
rlute~

phalanxes engaged one
and as
ta;~bt

by a sign they all played the
hors~:S1

customary~ ne~ring

the sound,. the

as they had been
Then ..
vere-

at home, threw the riders, all daneinB wit.h the Qusic,
bor~)e5

as a result, the knights 'Were destroyed lying, and the

15 tB.k:en dancing. the

ac~ustcmed

tunes raising them up.

But others prey .. being about to fight; and not only so, but
tbe:.· also sac-rifice I having come 'to
th~

11
a

C'ontt!st I to Poseidon Horse-

125
troubler.

Kestoa 7

1.11

But

~Te

have found a drug sharper than prayer. greater than
nI8.y

tLnything whe.:tever that you

haye t of 'Which very thing the :form is

inscribed at the end in pentagon

B.

above whi~h are placed the signs
It is put in the

or

the parbYPate of the

mesai.,

rho and Iiip;m.a reclining.
:m.'E!'l'l

20 intopus-extr&ctors / and given to eru-ry to l1ght-a:rmed

front

lin~~

so

~hat

they
Th~

ar~ position~d

easily under the proteetion
b~ing

of' the hoot rank.
pl""O'ioi'e'S S

opponents then advance,

emboldened by

and svittnes s and iron:lo and ·.rhether t hest! chance to be heavi ly

8.1"med. or othervise equipped J tbey hasten to the same
25 For when the coarge against the info.ntnr
COJneS.

1/

danger.

p.143

tbose a:Tray-/ed it'~

front beELr thoe attack by the ac:reen of the shields,. and those having the

pU$-e~r~torij press

out the drug1 Into the

nostril~ or

the When

horses.

(The juice is also very fefl.rful for harm to men.)
rec~ive

therefore the boraes sball

the scent of the evil stuff, they
bjf

are maddened and snort) l!'IJ1d suddenly rear up as if' frightened

the

30 exhalations of the ground 1:10 and (being) reare-d stra.ight up the:>" skip about. But the ri der.s fa.1.1
:f'r~

'the horses to the earth t ready for
O"iffi

capture and also alaughter, shac:k.led by their

anDor eo

8.S

'to be

unable to flee. being either stomped or stricken.

tt is possible to
ho~

make test of this drug at leisure also, and to marvel at

great

35

the power of thi6 ijtu:f:f is, and, in war, better than arrOllS.

A horse

~y ~a11

Qthervise, the nostrils having be-en be-

Bprinkled vith the bile of e:. sea.-turtle,. and being give:n up to his

own concerns:lo the gain is ours.

Indeed:. he \l'il1 be eaused to rear up
(V i e i lie fond,. Le 5 Ce 9 t es t p.

\tss
1J(3
iDg t

riC!

V and D re8.d, nthe euphorb-i on tI li ne 27).

1.11.,12

Tl'iulsla'tion

126

if

s~eone

should discharge saffron and myrrh, having been mixed
muJ.e:~

equall)' '11th white lily,. at his muz:l;le; also
are caused to get up.

vhich have fallen

But

also~ ind~ed,

the juice or white hellebore
die both from
~idov

40 is exeeedingly

d~adly

to horse5. I They

~ay

spiders and salamander a.nd by falling foul of ivy sap and storax Juice.

They" are also harmed by the smoke :from a tlIenstl'ual rag.
things be spoken of else'ilhe!'e.

But

\ b

let

theg~

!Ierltullidas the Lacedae-

mc~iant

bringing up an infantry phalanx against the horse of the op-

L5 :ponents., within the square of troops (have al'ranged it ba.ck t.o back fori
depth), he ordered those crouching in the bnc:k und.4:!:t' shields t.o dig

trenche s ",i th -the nand-weapon!3 y,n th all s:p eed ~ then he brought back the hee.vy-a.:rmed troops into the r;ni.dst'i and "they were- ",ithin
for t.he trencl1es are most hostile t.o horsemen.
&

fenee,

1/

12. Against Ruin of Beasts of Burden An ailing horse is an
impedim~nt

p.145

to a soldier; also a draft

animal bearing the arrtJor in var t and aback-pack! ng mul e carrying the

necessities; to all of

~h1ch,

mark YOU t one must apply the "treatment

for both pestilential misfortun.es and tor t.he- others.
[Treatment of a.iling beasts. J
x~stes; ~~d

Of

cele~'

seed J three half-

up to a third of

l1nse~d;

and of fenugreek the double of

5 t.he aecond; I and of (ground)veteh J :four t.imes as much as the
f"enu.greek~

these by

mei!'lS'Ul"e

t

but of B.11-hE!'u root and of Illyrian iris
dra~hm.6.e~

and of juniper, the Sa.bin!! plant, each eight and f'orty

and

four times as lDl..IDh as the

~01II:bined

veight. of' -the tr.ree of old ta.l1o'W,

l'ee days each year viII not suiTer 15 the I deadly an ~isfortune of ~qual beasts. they cure it hanging up over o.a h6. 'because of' the loaves~ inrus~ of the li'ttle three pellets steeped in vine~ in vhich 'Way many infUBe 20 tallD"iJ by itself.ae ~ pure both of calamine a.s are caught most easily)! ~be 12 thus cure the pack animals of fore-mentioned mishaps: a stripping (the) broad ribs of lL wolf car-case of the flesh ll having dried it.e ('W'hi~h.12 unso.127 Kestos And eacb of' the T 1.d r~quiri. indi!"ed... fA composit.e dQ those ..y of' the unhealthy constitution absence there is need to use pine resin. vhich the foremost 'Romans use.de~ it is dried :Ln the Then) at peed~ as mueh as n walnut in siz. dr'J 11 is brayed by itself and 10 sifted and is sprinkled with old wine and molded into l.lso .of' may be dissolved.'lid it should be one xeste:s--anG the beast having taken it in advance for th. instead thing~ o~ win~.le each year." sUf'fering~ rotted. 0 &bout ei ght dl"achc:l. in25 t\.lted" fore-mentioned". then is dissolved in the oldest and strongest \i'ine--a.t need as 1t:Uch of' "these as p.h black and white~ < • • • > the double anount.. thes~ But those by vhom volv@.ion more ms.m.nd f ench pepper ~ bot. dog release-stheailing horse :£"rom that dire but this will heal by the effluvium of the odor ... J But tbe on~.n.s.ittle loaves~ I fat ~ then having be~n Eiha.147 and oixing in tbe va.ll. he:ad cut off of a dead~ alread:. three times as lI!.1t'-xestes each of wine and oil.xen.t~r 8. actllfLllyll 'Weigh seven grSllllnata) is emulsified vitb three: kyathoi of honey..uch of . One :must smoke~ just as .hile being smoked. I But really also ~ a.. ~ I isindispenEiBble to learn. II boil a.ng more mate-rifL1. amount of these as instructed 15 dissolved in vater.yaelf bave' 30 t~s'tl!'d. If 8150 11 from the nec:es:!i1it.nifold a. requiring most materials ~ whicb I . For those already ailing.

f the first a1iX>unt) of" spikenard 35 and of a. a :fourt. it is completely ground or powdered fine apart from 50 the pods. "both into the pack mules and. of ging~~" of saf"fron c~1n~ residue.stes of b est vine. then taking up of' thes e vi tb three fingers.ids 'the deadly th~ (diaea.l~ it likewise a. 149 amount of the pulse each animal individually .ro/rnatie t:al. and t o.. amount (obviously o.) For a coughing horse. l". of saffron. a fivef"olrl.ha..p.king th(!l least b1 t . but as to the 8- p.hrough draf't a. ery beast exhau Bt.nd of: Aethiopie Each of these is brayl!'d completely and sifted.t tben scme\. and to old mules" but to two-year-olds of the other beasts. !l. So Infuse the c=ompl~e mixture dovn 1 nt 0 the lett nostril t.t taeked by orthopnoea IUay b be eur~d thus = give to drink lice or be-dbugs having been levige.o'F o11. the mature t. It should be given COr' 1/ to drink ~th water..22 Tr&lslatiQn 12B th~ les. .s" and a..:ry.se)~ I the other diligent I::sxe being given to as is ~ustoma.!unt of gen- tian. of cassi&.ricl! yearly ~ whenever it should be-" three da}~g in Buceession. th.C'tl~" suitable.e d by to! 1 or a.longvith spignel" of pellitory ~ of aloes.nd:mi xing in one xe.ted 55 in vine) or rB. a cure is brayed lentil. and then.f of both pelli"tQry and birthvort.ed1 eS:t one so!'"t &gal nst the and other sorts against the trou'blesome~ er il1s s [Cure of coughing horses. of parsley" a.. "it! th an aromatics ~e i ve. ide J"em. to healthy ones .niIJ)e.\l pitch with barley groats.hr@e-j·~ar­ ? but to'!' horses the half" of the mix.t 40 modera.1..h~ ailing sn1ma. flJld of 'W'ormwood a..ls~ horn. t ely I beat it U. of myrtle~berry" o~kOSt08. and of the untrimmed then the fourfold 8mC.amu.h of xestt!B should be exa. But 45 also for t.. l~s 8 :for it is nec es sary to pro.nd of 1Tis~ hyssop..

.y>.ve Quietly J for- rE:ported beforehand (land )mark. the Latin expression for obedience of' horaes is giverl above..e by boilio8 oft the seed of the box-tree and vater (::hestnuts I!lJld giving it to drink.:t'r1I. Indeed.military 10 equiJN]lent being I Yom..14 But other remedies for other things ue not lacking in th. a b therefore. of lIhich 10 in this verY cOlIIpo6it.sts rill ba.B.ly disobedient. lb.{ -trt!t1. or even kicking. and it will re- 5 Il!lain traeta.ion . I vill set Qut those serviceable <to an Wh~nevE. Th4!l"etorethe most regal of" the beasts.ke the fleet in quiekness. but you 'Will stop s. indeed w no <me of men JDay take them livi. 151 a. either gen. by a hunt <of lione. but by time aI1d craft and device. being inserted here and t. be le-tLds all the infantry into the chase'.o hunt. overpower' in prO'ofI!'S So. The trackers Qt t. Military-like Hunting But instead of also be engaged in..¥ nQt be done byf'orce" 1/ tl1ese tbings ar-e- p.here. the . where the lion lu:r.ble to You for 6 months. and the braveth~y exel'~iaes th~ a.> may Lions indeed overta. I!I. for whatever l!).ng.1.he brave bea. kicking muJ.1:2 ..l. .era. 13+ For a K1ckingMule But a healthy beast o~ burden is of no benefit i£ it is un- 13 ltlaOageable.nd~l" is exercising ¥with 'the anDY and should think t. l3y use of' liiltrength 'then.s t and svi ftest all d mo at loi"Brl!ke" i 6 taken by var i OtiS ways.r1II..ti:ee.is vet..:r a. 5 the nim/b1e.129 Kestos 7 1.. the ~omlIltl.13..k s.ccomplished 'by intelligence.

y. h~ is quieted and rem&ins.nd does not leap over the close a.bly-si:ted boat-bridge l tbe other bank being unreachAbl@ beelluse . p.st. kid. so that thinking to escape by that way alone J he is conquered. the..anothe::r and on one anothel"~ ao that their overla..153 Those moderately skilled in the general educ&tion have with the nE14!!:m~nta'· deal~ of Euclid to some extent ~ as is likely.sits. run J both the armed 1:len behind the de-vice being laid dO".disturbed beast ~eapg f'ortb from the lair.g/e .1lB hout aI'!llOred men ~ ha vi ng hi de:3 dr i ed and 'Whole I out I beati ng vi t h ~ound sticks ~ and th~ Wherefore he. hastens tovard the cage at a. a.an. The 15 trumpets sound yi gorou51y and the men shout together I loudl~t. and seeing both the wall of amed men and lighted torches being exhibited {fOT the men bear the6e inatead of spears). and the ot.rray of' the shields.hers I vill describe elsewhere. a device is procured on which a wide :20 EllJd spread out ce.blance of tili~. sem. l3enind. holding B.130 that reason:o going forward J. fu.. II 15 . for bridging by introducing a suita.m and not easily seen by the 25 bee. putting the shields around l joining both to one.lc~str1cken by both the and the :sight shouting. m&n keeping close to ma. Therefo~et this ~n~r of hunting i~ one £or e~ercisiog the 'Phalanx. the lioJl..p has a.ntthl!~r are set in a eircle. Insofar as there is moTe steepne3S to the region. through the first (book) to contrive this &1so~ to m~asure out the width of riv~rs. To Find th~ Width 0 f a Riv-er and <the Height> of a Wall p. 8Jld 'the at"eaB a~ound the cage I being walled by high timbers . It is not difri~U1tit reall. At this.

rough the 10 :point at which it intersects the other side a para. DE ZG fol"Ill a para1l~logram G:EDZ.nd ZG are equal.y-destroying machine.ucing of an equal-sized cit. DZ is therefore equal to EG.and from the (bi}section a <straight line.llel I shall be dJ"avn..131 Kesto.dJ il. and by the SB1Il-t! 5 take the height of I :frOnJ a distance for t. <Therefore EO: is equel to At> • EZ~ .lso to all triangles.:r-e biBect~d~ AG at E~ BG I at Z.cent to the right angle should be bise'cted:o .ed lo by D.. And let tJ3 be bi sect. are both equal and putdlel. opposite.. 1r to'or let tber@' be a right-angled tri(r. 20 But it ""r. 15 <the> remo.l to AE.ch of the (pairs) ED GE DZ is a parallelogram.l to DB <.!Uso BZ p.rly.!. The demonstrations apply a. For let DZ be Joined.15 cotlllJutation to of the eneJIW being on it.e parts.155 therefore equal to botb BZ and ZG. for it is. G . dicull!l.ngl e B.ngle ABO ~ having a right o. and parallel to the s{lJD..I Again t sine-e ea. But also. Then !ill 1s equa. And through E~ And let DE be drawn perpenI say that also let EZ be dra:"n parallel. 'Wal~ !. And this very theorem vil1 lead to ease in learning the demon atrat ion : IITf of' a -right-angled triangle one of the <sides> a. the other sides of' the triangle are a2so biseeted. 7 eBtab~ished I!l. should be extende-d at a. And the connectors lo ~qual therefore AD is equal and parallel to EZ. a. right angle lo and tJ1.as also (!qua.and DB to EZ>.ining sides of 'the triMgl!!' 8.he prod. DE II is So .

15 Translation 13:2 In accordance with measured from a distanC'e. But 1 f it is de~m~d to be di. I K Y~ transferring the dioptra to tri angle.::a.he 40 also. divided aioptra...t the space f'rottl I to tbe bank of' tbe river toward us is greater than the river. and that 'toward us PH. ------. that Fi:x a 25 or 'theen...!Il 1 'to R. is given also that frOl!:i R to retr~inder A.ected by K and TK is parallel to A! <and TH to n>.. one on th'!' bank opposite. this is ~asil~' to be gue~sed at.l to t. of p.1\1 also is bisected at R. A FI---------. just so tha... Subtraet. At right angl...emy. either a stone 30 or a...fficul t to take the interval .... Let IY be bl se c t fTo~ T~ r spy out A and ~'e a right angled eo at K~ And from K. this is the \oi'idth of the river. the width of & riv~r will be Let there be ba.. 157 35 the right-angled triangle AIY tl IY is bie. Theref'ore tb~re Measure. II and parallel to Since therefore. at 1.wo points are to b4! spied out. therefore~ tbe space fro. thes~ then. . otlllhic:h is point I A...1..... IJ a. KT be drawn. but the And other point toward ~S. bush or any other easily ~~en ma/rk~ and let it b~ A.l"allel to AI let II?~..e!.ing from this that hom Jl to F ~ we \rill have t.nks? the opposite one.. R .... fr~ the other of the cross lines. in the area which is to'W'&rd us. Y.

Les Cestes. At the unauPPol"'ted tip of" the rod let there be e. . far as this perpendicular to BG t 1 UJ'I. Then let th~ rod be carried along as.eo that if rod DE 50 should touc h t be.heba. Let.ost.ttle computation e.he figure set upright."Ork taken by t.til (a point} where.he water! I tn e Womon is upp-erro. :from Bomeon~ bt! sie.133 standing further back on our thB.surfac e of' t. the top of the to . G>:> on • . .pt. 55 Ther~fore: that of AIl to DE haa also been giv~n. be prollportionate! as BG to (iD thus AB to ED. .ed 'through a dio..1so the he i ght :6tLml!! 0 r a va.t 'place~ Kestos s1de~ 'r 1. > along BG • • .. / ThereforI!' AB is given also.ra.he :S.nd 52. J"ieillefond~ in 15''10! r-econstrueted the text at two points .a. By t." (I.. there be on the opposite part I a A D G selected point A. gnol:lon E". on the EC line" points EA shall p.nk ~ BG. For againt let. 159 Thus it vill.ovard us let there be to. 151)." and "some <point.ht.ken apo1nt Bt BO that liB 1s perpendicular to the line a.p. 15]1 lines 51e. On 'the part t.And DE is given.read~ "perpendlcular<ly t to DE.lotlg t.15 there being necessity of this at beingblU1'red~ tne eight being interrupted <and> the thing lle may eagily 'take]l standing on the river bank ~ thegreatnes5 of the 45 river this vay. BG~ Th~.re is taken some point on Dt at whicb leta rod DE be placed.ll 'Wi 11 be br~:a8t". But the ratio of EG to GD has been given.

. inc1ining the dioptra t I IiIpy out the top of the vall. yet al60 abstaining from both everything hot 5 and from salt .han the seeing5 But their vision is lo:og by practhe:. let the lice Then. GD is parallel. more sloW' t. But the ratio of EGto CD has been There:fore . on the river. out of arrQ·.. and the line rro::n the wall to us.f'ar.Transla. as being causes of weak sight I.hey hear equa..8 been given. But so tha. t bough the hearing is..n1an s se e mo st sharply 0 p.ight line I "take a point <E. There vill be a tr i angl e> AEB. in- haliDg tbe lightest air. they di s(: over from a. ha.lly. But El3 I:L1so has be-en given> t as Therefore BA is also given. and Therefore" whatever ratiQ to one of the sides t AB. and t. 'Which is A. vas den:. range'lo BG..tion be A.)oT t<) demonstrate.. I fixed perpendicular at G. vhi!: h it II 16. for besides th~se.nyooe approach- ing.p-titandPl) ilhich is of the pole be 00.. and the base B.t they . vas necess&1". 65 EG has to given~ GD~ I this EB haa to BA.l61 f all]l a.. pole ('Which actually is (:Itile-d 60 'f18m. there has also for each of t.' exercisl!!! in the COUI'~es t tice and nature. been g1 V4!1l the <rat 1.onstra:ted.nd fl.hem. A dioptra is bung from a.. Now .0> of' EB <to AB.. Theft of Sound The MaUl"eto. A Going around to th~ other sight]o on the same B s:tra..

[Art of progncstication of cOJ!'. vithout For 'the bigher air fJ..J_ched dO'". do This hunting of' sound is ready to hand.e r . . my \rord tone cro1.'"1. the ai:r-s of more gent.ed by night t t. .ing the neck on t. lea.t::le't and en attacK of the enemy should not be undetect. / b:r sleep.s lull Zeus to aleep.rd the thieves of the western -Gaul.y i~ fUll of' $ounds ~ a.h ich is a 'bed to tbe-m:> leave the ear they dig 6- unhinder~d for hear-ing.1ng thingsJ digging a deep veil .also.navinB be:en outwitted by Hera and by Sl~ep~ that either the Hellenes should have respite or that be injured~ Heracles might certain1y~ They &1so stay rivers ICMy time's.:)· and dull:s t. as one dl vi n i ng + Let everyone trust.something of the hid.rk night se~ki:rJg t..sound. the si ght by the d_en 6 it.!"i"Ie: r.o find the water sleeping th~ night are p Of vinds 5. great camp wish t. .O disco.fire~ nat.16.135 Ke!'ltos 1 1.den things on the surface ~ 6. per se:J d. Thus.~{ eight.o learn the plans of his own diers or the secrets of the enemy . I have h{!-a. therefore 1 . 20 hearing by the clamour. that one mi ght claim t.th and 'from ~Doth they he£l.hese..rn seeking for a distant.o. 80l- I. . another on a d.he 1/ 11.. the e-ameth i ng also should anyone in !l.::" from a.. covering up t. But we ourselves also have apprehended how the stream is quiet p b.le. .-ld th ~ earth.he IDQuth vith an ordinary ga:rment~ nothing \fill escape 15 the one sitting \l'itnin" but he will describe to you the I thinbs said or the sounds. . Ii ttle pit undernea./63 The poet.'lI1J.17 should not 'be taken sleeping at some ti.urally. P~oducing Wakefulness p..far 10 both s01.Uld and cries.he wood .. let whoever he wishes go down into it.

Hovever much the Thraciana. all-subduing and limb- a relaxing. gods.. to~sting to each other 1n turD the 10 evil rortunes / of thog~ about to sle~p.nr.never i"o:r-ms..nd sleep.on t s m. For Heroes.well.hile still asleep.. they abandon much wine in camp to the pursuing enemy by.nic also many times occurs in a. ~e Let 'Wake vith both king taking eotm.become subservient to my practice~ that with me alone this :!rlaster and all-subduer ma~f d..utlful armor.ge the a.isfortune.h~ tion of that one.hono!'E!d sleeplessNo nes-s of Rhesu5:> the noble king vas betrayed by ltl. superfluous to He ha~ds SQ.rance of flight.17 perhaps these also fU'~ Translation soothed. nor feaTed tne swift horses. that even if any vas..buses from untimely sleep 1/ by a daE!m.. fi"om being fright ~ned in sleep.. not.lly t. 15 one vas panic-stricken bY' his / b(tfi. billovs .. /65 a. souls from the concerns of the body releasing.1. lnde ed. svay over all . ye-t if drinking might fall 2{) . they conquered earthbound hUlJlble ~3'pirits who had f'allen asle. veary. 15 Deat.yr.jr'.i th toil sated and a.. dee'tl:l myself I unvorthy and of the equality of privilege with them.h and his aC:~OJnpli'CE! His brother Toil. I do no1. Pa.sel and general keeping '!latch.bor a. destroy those rising up ..IDa.tlPlJen.ep s I seek to ta}. The Phrygian ~ing found Silanos ~leeping and bound hi~.lso with sleep I· t but he withstood equs.ssua. ~ld another 25 fort'I.ies The fort un es 0f men we pit. and noble vho . plants.y.. winds.:e the ODe who OOWld them: J desire Sleep to. 14 birds . m~n.he at'tent. t he Ilian chi ef expect ed to take t be Ac haian l1. let us b p..asleep.. 136 have been conquered b J' a 5'-Tooping dovn of Sleep. bu. then others ~ com/i:rtg up from else'W'he:r~ b)r night.t one hour i IS sleep mrert1ll"ned hOIJe of how great s-uccesse:s also? The stratagelti has descended thence to the.te chieftain found a eat.

ed ~rea:.son YOu are J a Sleep. There is fJ. . liv/ing one.the-r fI.'Was ~l:tS sleeplessi' but a surety of" this by Hera the theft of the ving.ll:Ia.sithea I to . sew it up in the pil:lo\l toma.ehow also you should ". even I forestall y-ou 45 Thus were the nuptials of Pa.re:at we i tse 1 r..gainst n11 . dri e d and B evn up ina 35 l~B.bi:s ereat ure. you should . And what wonder Hera.:ry for him to fl. a. but if otherwise t you '11111 find it lying a. makes the I ont!' fastening it on sleepless a. removing a whQl e 'Wi. night I s bird conquers you i by b though ringed j'ou chance to be. l p_ 167 If in fact you knev from the signs the animal (tor it is not 50 set out obscurely 01" hard / to comprehl!:nd}.ness~ But if sQmeoneusea this drinking vessel greedily" he will remain sleepless t. membrane. a few times if' for a little while. The head 0 f t. so also I against you will wage var.l1ve . anoth.rous ke stoua .e-r \tltlg..hrough everything..ring the whole c . Night· s . :perha.es..Jd. living in dusky places.!'ere vea.s long as Let one. and .leep~ wh~re it is cus- and be will not !31~ep t B..re t"ed with milk. ng from i t vhil~ he may wes. ! set myself Resto!:! 7 L17 J against you" Sleep..ill keep 'the one vho vea:rs it thus sleepless t.13. Sleep:E!"osinde~d.r 30 ie toiling. use it as a.. for all.0 the head of a. received even this from the Grallce:si for even from Aphrodite she b.ire a long 1iakefuJ..! Q i t . <:of 15 it which alone> among the egg-laying wine. But if som.ps t be praised.ish to play a prank by indue ing sleeple s sne S 6" . spoon for taking \1P liquids.removing 1.Iltiulet . in l.ny times Feriod of and 'With both wings if' h~ should d.S i t he 'l.cn·roved the embroidered girdle.o eternity...t the @'r. 6-S you a.vinged flyer.r 1't.t1ll"es the offspring a..

It ~as as if a ship having been shattered by a bronze beaked ~r1reme. a!3 if a wall were marching before the pha. loft. :Ei aJ)d sigma inverted~ 18. ene:::n. i th the l.t ion 138 pent. 'Who will support t.ode [it is .1. but being pulled in by the trun"k~ bath .... with the signs o-r the <lichanos of the> enha.ing been brOken through--they 'Were easily yield- ing ~o ruin.y position. For the tusks also are self-sufficient. against the elephant it 'Was to ~onduct necess~ry aiege operations. in a. and they also gave Javelir. a manifold ima. 5 in any case..5 The not one of I!.agon 9. the array de~lished by those opposing them. proportionate to t.a.h broad corselets..st ones]. for overthrow of every multitude. and in front...!. from men sitting.Ys ha. to shock unaccustomed horses and ~en by the first sight.y flights even. a habit of' noble beasts..st shock ~ destr-oy-ed the ""'hole. For Fi gbting of' Elephants The ancients considered th~ elep~mnts ~ great profit ror bat- tIes. It vas a portable Jlha1anx. 169 15 ve!ght of a cliff h. and til ey wer e f'Jrni shed vi til a to""er to be a -c ause of" te r.ve. but those a.nd they 'bai"- ricaded the greatest pfLTt 'l..0 the beasts to throw vith the trunk. 'by th~ lea.1anx. like a mounta1n~ he upsets (likeJ.he p.:'or .O . '.. but 'they 6lso used to I fit out spears f'or thC. and he does not even overlQok the fallen one.he hugen~s9.al / opportunity.t the feet una. a. .p Tran sla..I .ge of military advantage.ed--the front rank al'W8.... Their tr~etting is sharp and their eharge unbearable. loosings of' many arro'Ws frono above...'i t.!qu. 10 "battle va.rmonic: mesai of the "Lydian n:.ble to fight bac'k. the rough va.s 1.aving broken loose? A fighting elephant II is oV~l"throws. h(! he shatters~ he completely destroys. I • . The troops being rou1.%D.

f th~! BO that the ar~ is not thrown into confusion the hO!"ses' <: fear> of the s't!'"fL.. 7 LIB horse:! and man and chariot. ~ and be1 ng leaned 20 by the knee!. p. he shakes off the battlements set on him" and one mig'ht compare it with a tower :railing in a city l3ieged.ng o. . and fUlly ar~ed both by the great advantages ot nature ~d by tbe arts of~en1 25 He over/throws the one "Who makes a sto. The light troops.s been be~ But if he lIl8. not e:tt.a. and fearing the danger of the fire. For the chance arrow ~ticking in suff'ices the destruction of the 35 'Whole~ for the I beast taking notice of' the flwe.a. both javelin On <: 9:lid)o throvers and archer 5. and brought down vith for~1!' and turned upUpOfJ side dO'lorn. . in the unarmored parts heimme- diatel:rp rear!.n::ls the hars(!:man.ck the target aiolessly t QIrOliS fo~ ELr.l!..N:· to ~in sound fearfully" so that the of the oppo~ing inst. How may one ward off a beast difficult to fight.171 hO thus being angered.. take-sup. Fir'at then! B. mountain flaIlle t or I!L st.Id let the archers shoot 'fire-bead. he drags them right up to hi $ f'eet.jP be vounded..! the enemy 10 and t. the fallen one he crushes 11 and he ala.nd" the one vho flees he over- takes.beast.ruments may blunt 'the trumpett1ng threatening of tbe.l not only by its I Olin weight 7 espe~ially ~ but th~n .aiming at 'the elephant t must. then~. SO that on~ one is not pr es be d by elephant 8l one 'Ii but is dea troyed by" a gre. and the trum/peters a. JIlUst be set in oppos it i no longer ca. the -charioteers he hits from a tower.:t tbe tovers..o.ngene-56.! ~ pressed dowr. whicl~ ha. 1/ especially 10 he! kills ~ injures. v- alrJ set against 30 b'.139 Kestos.gile men.lo :made more weighty by thiB addition of' the tower. Fo:r like 8.eep vint/!:r stresm.urning upon the f'Tiends! hI!!! rages more d&ng~roualy.t assemblage of weight.

<or>. his charges.ed and fB.. 3:47. sho.1ing. . 124. Really then~ all the spoils of lorar are llorthy. tage of this is double~ for being pained t be destroys the ~ing ones soot-bing his incura. .for captive living elephant t or the choice spoils ot an elephant t is an honer to a victorious king not comparable to noble. are thickly cast r .I1Ie time.nger".l. s:t "the: sB.ntieipate his threats. '" • )1 by those :feigning 50 retreat.ttles.ble pain. steady. 1 c~rtainly bette~ advise the l~6.Les Ce5tes~ p.. Agri eul t ural Marvels Neither here indeed~ nor ~here~ vill the Cair measure of ~ill agricultural matters be 1 neglected~ for they have some value even "The:!" halt within ~" apparl!'ntly eo dittogra.phy from the ne:xt line (see Vieillefonds.s though reQ. ~ith~r.der not to ""ith/stano the elephl!1nt ~ nor.erly falls. for by what ~eight h~ treads on the otheiS. sinking into the pads of the feet. able to stand. his faIlings ~ for he will destroy many ~ having been 'encircJ..ace ordi llg to tbe pa. and 'being I trodden on they halt the elephant.y to the much multiplied da. 'rhe Ea e.. heavy. his ba. [1. but an elephant So presents the nlOst vorthy of' a1."ld hates the dead themselves ~ heaping up corpses and block i ng "the way s of the fleein g.rp. il'on tribolo1 are forged.1.u1 ting the 1'r1ends "because he suffers these things on their account. he 55 utt.Translation casts do'Wll~ trBlDpS. to g1 ve Ya. not. ~ shield o~ a general Qr a corselet or a slain 19. but to fl.th of' the beasts. by The advan- this he bims~lr is ~ined~ treading yitb his whole self. a. a.

U'e to thos!' peopl es to reserving th e vic tor. th~re is a loss of the water~ but a gain of the vine Doing having beco:me better. poor qUa-Ii ty only. receiving variegated f'Tuit of various II p.lI~ients reported that Fire delivered Dlo!nY5us at birth... <all r~gions do not bear> all tbings.r teast s state~nt~). being sandyJ gather in vine or olive. then let it be boill!!d with a great..KeSt09 7 1. preparation of wine ~ of' (Preparing of vine. indeed. I MOV Let us tmitate or friendship &part from other vine-producing f'!'ui t. But all those \rho do not have vines.19 to those vho are making va:t". 173 se-aBons. 20 Egyptians d:!"ink :!out-hOSt k~os Pa.bose vhf ch 1IrIay.sW'e' of vine. let us present "to men the cup 25 grapes. '!'heril!- fore let us procure an al"tific. This then is a.he much extended plaina rarely possess and produc e thl!' 'l. by an excess of cold) bear only grains.ion or roots. But nov. nothin g Qf For Dlonyeug forEJook thi!!!Jll. a virtue of' whi eh the: flame is mother.. depr~c&ting the drinking of plain water.by- loniana..j1ne) fIJld 1:. a. 15 this ~ the a. either from seeds or by a production from fruita or "by a !:ombina1:. For. others~ ~ome.. gathering in .ned the fruit from these pll!U1ts. for only the Greek husbandmen [boastful Dionysus. Let there be ~ vi. Celta ker/'besia~ sik~ra BB. and have not obtai. and.. fire.r. reaping. picking. hav~ imitated vine !TOP'! other things. J .ial meaos for both = to 1'ind 'What is 10 not" and the changing of the poor into the betti!r.e-onians . It is good to till a land which is all- productive in time of peace. :receiving fro= one region~ libe!'a~ ve&1tb not needing goods from roreigners. until tbe tenth of the mixture shall be spent. nor enduring a 5 dis/tant hop~. gave vinic ul t 1. having been angered . but t. th vater ~ a ten-told mea.

with this. und having filtered you shQuld put in the 35 axe gs from the j a.ion or '. Thl!' vays. 175 into a ja.ng Iat ion of pure sea-~~ter three ehoe5~ twa bunches of liquorice root.'./!'ep@d five days" and filtering this" mix with the ~ormer. and not desirable to a nusbandman. 'But I produce natural vinegar. and then -pouring in the sefl.herefore1 which invol. . and vinegar is turned quickly by all Borts of" :means I knoY t turnine: . chous of ~ater. For some put in scoTched hon~y I but others burned pottery'l . and a.rape squeez1ngs~ atone" being squeezed out" sUf~ices. of Hellenic nitron. of the roots" a.i.ve: only (::o:rrup- t..'Hi let it be: sveet)...ixed in !llso five drachmae of pepper and the equal of juniper to the tll:!phora.rs and having covered it I for ten days I: Preparing But a15o.ed to one part of ~O vinegar) the I double of 'Water. wine:~ then covering J put aside in the ahade and i t will be good But if ~ hav. you viII makt! .19 dried ~igg on~ mna~ Tre. you should add four drach- ha'ting 'boiled So beet in B. t.and others iron.ing ateep~d sev~n pour~d it! vate%'t you3hould allow it to be o~f days. one :must not neglect 'the vinegar it:eelf.I.negar [atld make it in 'WinterJ.ing some of the figs p.1. For the e.lterna:tlling :for three: times. yielding use and pleasure ~ apart from tl"te daln&ging of win@'.ter" the same amount. But all vinegar is !.tine are tI. then add fresh '\la.!ll again in 'turn. preparation is mi:x. together with the .-'Wate:r (and let there vessel about ~vo b-t::!- under the steeped bunehes ofhorse-fennelJ and alloy it to b~ 30 five dB)'s and pour I off' through a strainer [a.Itrengthen~dt if there is m. slow hope.lloW' to be a. many times 1s also put in.r ~ thE. forthwith and changing barley~ aoout in one I So hand. Having brayed the :roote" and putt. fI.I1d sv!'et.!!!!£. of vinegarJ. Vinegar i5 muJtiplied if.t.

n.vE's of bitter s.. this is how.Js: Mastic (-oil) is t he ripe berry of the mastic being put into a mortar.11 pitch last p..into the liquid . then coat them .nd one of 'Wol"lC\(ood and two drB. and also being into another vessel..g 10 it ~~ and th~n leaving it alone to settle.ine lees \ifhich Romans call ufekla . The Iberian. having chopped up green lea.ch- . ~ of baked 8...entiz-ely with honey:lo 'With a feather.redthl.. H all brayed and be-ing 65 IlJIlde into Q JIlaSS filling the hand ~ then / having '''. these . If you would ha\?e Istrian. heat so as b~ to .. it is brayed vith a vooden pestle.. Let there be water in a great tUb.rned. and about ten pine cones of'va:t~:r~ :for each ehous castine.1. take 60 B.. pr~pa.. . thu~.177 There may also be vinegar apart from grap~s: 55 year's whole pine cones with pitch and scorch until the pitch I 6hall be co~letel~' 'blJ. SOUBh~ [Preparation of' oil.9 they are \tell steeped in ~D 'Water~ the vater taking a quality as of k~ttle7 grape must. f'OW" d:rach:ma~) a hendful t and dried :fenugreek.fI d drop into the jar after nine day a draw out f'or us e .Kestos 7 1.r as you vish and &dd / the equal aJ:lour. then being put into a a fire is lighted under it I coo~ed find it is boiled do'Wl'l to the half'.. tben it is poured of't into pails--having been ste~ped f'or a long time 'With ..way as much of' the vinegB.t of water.. th4!fl) uncovering. "for a great while~ you will bav~ vinegar unfailing. but remains sveet like grapeJuice boiled down. the oil 15 also to be of vild olive leaves~ zealously. ··'III it..lmond and :ma.de a ball and put it into the vessel.. J Of' cOllrge. Thererore it ~s is poured ~ixed changed since it has been with vater. but let 'the tub lacking six koti'la- CO-oTering this tightly ~ let it stand in the sun three da:yg. stirrin.Tapped up in a rag~ iI.

19 Translation 14~ bQil1ng vater and haYing be@on takec up vith a strainer..ve been dropped in..dy sun and sprinkled on a i~ gufrici~nt salt until it warmed up.ke H. ha. terebinthin~ out thus.... out vhat vas cast in and POUl" into many cont~in~rs. and they press Furthermore tbe nulS tic.nd hea..J. that from unripe olives. I!lnd th~rJ 95 he.::e "Whicb co-mes 1:.ed out. sifted.tOnt 0 f' the jar... stea.tles out into 8rJ the bot.n. is p~epared similarly to the But others. put 1t away i~ 75 in ovens until it should be boiled.) clari~? You thus black and di~ty oil~ one litrn of litron hnV'ing bE!~n baked.ted ito s utfic ient ly.ble 8JI1Ount of linen and suspended into comple~ely clear oil of Side~ allow to steep as many days as you wish. braying bark and leav@'s of a vild olive tree. take .ves of 'Wild olive.ied up in a. if gre en dill Qnd sa..st a litre.0 the top. having chopped it up. suitfl. put it into earthen pots having a little..ter over it'!' II then they boil it and take off" the p.ving set 1 t out in t he sun I a. having brayed it and kne-aded 1 t with water. call~d But if you should wish to maKe what they :fort:lerly the Iberi8J1. The foul-smelling out the pi t s.1. make a maas and 85 ca. (Uee:f'u1 oil set..ish to ttlB. lo vhic'h nO'W ve name trSpanish t" put well chopped lell. put as much thus~ &S having chopped up green olives with- a hal f -c'hoenix i r. Some...he 8L!IJlhora..to 1:. You may cure turbid oil.. lik~ If' you shQuld also . qualitY' is gained. cast it into tht'! jar.. 179 oily suostan.lt ha.ving poured it into a 'Wide mouthed container and set it out in amount of roa~ted fI. it is sQuee2.. and ~s soon as it set- tles change into containers. b~ay~d. 90 and thus the Theri6. t.va. by weight into a jar.

t1e) and ten ~ of th1!' h8. weight so as not to float 100 on the surface ~ I a stone lying in . brine int.o Q. 20.20 Oil t odor l~s s bil e-ven tmRY come :from cELl r suet.. and separating it.l/ p. and vha.O\rn.t it. The best is from Lydia.ainer .ll"e brine and two of the I sweet vine. Conclusion: Concerning Arrows Now let this cooposition also be concluded by an old and instructiv@ tale~ corresponding to the things preceding. Nov cone~rning Plis:htb~ the flight of the arrO~t it ~1~~t be thus.'Whole nigbt and da.arro'W ~ f'lying for one. or fOr -thre e hours ea. if the motion continuous.hree: days. th~n thereafter use it..Oun't of' Libyan aromatie sap tram Libya Felix t (which indeed the natives called rtuhri ton 11 ) and a han.df'ul of Cretan 11 1.lmt tire. and the r~sidue of the fat which is melted out t thoroughly filtering 'With a strainer. • .n1e BJII. underneath with a s.e cont. into th. mixing these witb sixteen kotylae of honey.19. chous or picUine..t1d £ive thousand).ul t . bIion. U and th~ S8.V~ fat in So basket (a creelJ. &nd let it e. and the Roman apple {culled indeed orbikla.ton H ) . One.y ~ could go as far as two tnyriad <B. leave it for 105 t~enty days. but that named "sokk1Qs" is what Ten :lCestea of the so-called "abdo- is praised more than all sauces. pour d.c h day t with a slO1l f'irl!:! and that kind will :r-e s. 18/ But also garum frolll one part of P'I. stades . .10 hyssop.. copper <k~t.it 11 and hea.. put.. a tale 01' a bow and of an tlrrow..t..Kestos '7 T . boils up take a\ray ~ put i t at once into & n~1y emptied oil jar. boil with a fig branch for t. <.

a stade is 'Ws.y bl!!- 20 ing revolved into tventy I and four hours.rd :25 hours I might make the triaJ.Qvell~d six thousand plethra. Bot h Syrmos the Scyth i an and Barde s ane:3 th e Parthian made .Ei equivalent to six plethra.rge-t]o a.1.p"iad <and five thousand>. and. l~t each pla~~ an arrovupon the string.t the second also immediately shoots and the third in turn and tne others 11ke~lse~ the se~ond always re- 10 lea.rged.nce) ~easured be considered one tr.Id 15 th~ arroW's for one hour being counted . and onl! arrow aho't f"or eaC'h ple-throI:l. keC!'ping a standa. myriad ELTId four thousand.t.des villturn out to him to be tvo m. 183 tI.llCeS ~ of course s for th~ night and t. It. or nigbts.sing the shot when l the arrov of the first 1mpact!a 'Iii th the target. so tha~~ when the first strikes 'the te. /1 p.!1di ng o'PPO 8 it e a 5 target~1 a plethron dIstance having been measured. :But the distS.he ds. not more than ten) st2.20 m-en (some S.. I sav certain ones trying itt and I have the account from experience. to the nmnber of 'thos~ being discha. being allowed for the delay in tbe individua.l -preparation. vhich makes a thousand stades. (~ow consider the number !U'rO'W't I of the arrovs and reckon it as the f"lig'ht of" one giving the iLtten- tion to the distance ~ not. having bows pre- pared. therefore.t not even the reactioll time should be unac:count~d for. not more than six thousand arro~s were discharged in the hour. The number of tb~ stades is arrived at in this manner. ) Surely then one arrow {for let the mans for tbe force of the dista.. from 'the beginning to the erJding of the hour. ui table Transla. of the shooting according to it]> tbe 5ts. so tha. Yet doubtless there is indeed~ al~ays inequality in the hours of days and If sOJl!Ieone~. thoua~d ar~ to be f"ix~d as tvo is alEiO added to these. considerable.tion number.t th&..

30 myself I instruC'ting. good the"[~ paintel'~ tra.. and 8. I knoW'.ating. and he . 1 f S omevhat p_ 185 different) and.ting '!With ahots and shooting dl'a:wi. in (the ~ourt) of' Abgar the king 10 Mannos his son tr:ri ng 1 t many time s .ngs.20 thi$ trial. so:ttlething terrible tQbehold .m Or! his own shield. he render~d it easily oVl?r- come.ators. :followed in the arre. 'We t!larvelled~ while 'V8. but it was both But he. 'being on a.. th straight arrows I mimicking the circle of the head.. He was :so s~illfUl an archer that. II But then . and youth placed the buckler before himself . and perhaps many others also. but a spe-cte.. both ~ drQ. hannony of lips ~ symmetry of che-~ks.s not 50 8.. impossible fL. for this~ Ilardesan~s prescribed d1spla.y1ng his skill to us spect.hat delightful and dan/gerous pleasure.ngement of the body. like a. then the flashes of the e::~. a hands Ol!le an d tb~ strong youth vbom an artist also might grov'Weary imit.:tor or the hunt) ~ a :forest bear starting up out of a certain lair. couraging us to be bold. hunt vith us once about ~idday (actually~ r ~sel~happened also to be riding along~ not being any hunte-r."as pleased .. first ~5 he drew the head.'1. not even seeing the hunters. man just like a painter. dissolved all thi! fea:r lo shooting tva arrows. I myself also observ~d. and the- r~st of' the maf.!. ski 1 f'Ul archer:t ever.. vi... varlike pursuit. But he ..lS0 to shoot quickl:.Bardesanes vas So. es. shooting a. The 40 way was thi s : he once atoM a man I oppos i tE!: to him. for shooting into the eyes of the befir. He prided himself on composing a drawing by shooting.tchins.nsferred the one holdine: 1 t onto the shield..r ~ Man/nos~ ana. en- 35 everj'one being terrified and eeeking ways for fligbt.1.. formidable to attack. how the shooting va. putting dovn 1 some". Bhield~ the saw himself dra.

was shattering the onf. for the one :fought vi th an IU"lrIed60 with a.y to dye <like:> ebony right through Leeches having been boiled in sharp vinegQr.rr~. Translation re~. but 'the p. soak the wood and it shall be <dyed> through tbe d. Julius Afr1canus's Kestos 7 [Append! xJ Another 'WJ.rrov by arr<nl b-eing S. was no longer an ar- 65 ro'W~ but an arl"'OW' e.er this polish with oil in vh1ch leeches vere boiled 11kevise.l""ro'WS as Bardes8. I saw e. 187 b~en one that had been s:tripped" having seized.rrO\f being readied. apoil. and it "as dr agging 1 t al Of) g~ 1/ hang! ng upon 1 t~ lik~ an enlMBY pr-1 soner. but the other MQreover the go/al was to bring arrow together \lith the other arrov. 55 arrOw I to In.ving a.8~ quiv~l'" ana an a.h marvel. at ~ontest a. lievable. II . warlike port!"Q.rIes 11 but cont!"iving for The sight is novel.&k. and there stood opposite him.it: this incident then 1l I wit. p:repa:red to shoot.1. but the one vas coming only as an unarmed soldier to meet a. and bold he was 11 <but the other> 11 'Which had not been stripped. naked one. but the of the archery was unequal. but not unbe~onquered. vas & skilled But SyrmosJ how mBY I archer J not pe. 20"App.epth" and aft.eJ.inting vith des~l"ibe him? SJ7roO~ al~o !!Ii.yTmOS took a po- sition ~ being equipped vitl1 the <he va. B.l ha.e var with arro\l'. cer- t!lin distance. fUll armed toe.! meeting it. another counter-archer.

FOT one to close the You.onquereQ. ?'or th~ 8.ving Drunk Are Put to Sleep for Three Pays The one not lackipg this sort of drug ie.- 3. t.Military Extracts ¥xtracts Con~erninEj Military J. Concerning making horses 'Wlable t. .11.it: 01' 5 The-b/an poppy juice .-s. Concerning by poison. about two parts in amount ~ levigating these 'With one pa. 1. For horses not to be ill.envied: for it he can DUU"Jage to prepare "'irlne from it.o be. Anointing 'for arro.nd hemorrhage dif:ficult t. ..9.drunk a:re Ove!'"coome by theenemi e 8 while they sleep for up to three days.onof trees.(e.~e.th of the soldiers.hrough vine that those baving drunk are put to sleep for thre~ p.5.1. .n of henbane Juit!1I! &nO having leviga. HeN One Hay Work through Wine That Th08t!' HQ.e 'Using this drink f'a11 asl ~ep. Con~erning destruction of fields.. thoe.201 da. - 7.o control. vi"thout suture.ys. Hml one lrIa.y 'Work t.tters <Table> 1.. .2. heaJ. - 6.. . . Concerning destructi. Hunting of' sounds. :so that those vho have. but they are roused if someone anoints their noses with vinegar.10. To kindle fire spontaneously. This is the preparation or.1..o move out of the 5~ p~s.ted with vax from the right 16 ear of an ass 5 put it into the vine. For not being c.12. 8. II . .

If indeed therefore't four are . Con~erning 150 Destr'uct·ion of Fields p.rPhysical1 orNeptunianu~ 18 that 8. you viII Wrl up eVery tree ~x~ept apple~ tr~e~ 17 if you fix the sting of the gea ray into the root crovn of the The Quintilii assert that But to 5 the sheila of beans being put on their roots / dry them up.Jt of the Se. that the enemies t being often at a loss In any case. Concerning Destruction o~ Trees &S :Destroying the trees 'l. 3.Trans. ~ast before a four-horse st.205 astraga. wolf'l$.. you should at£ields~ t~mpt to destroy its cultivating hellebore.. cOJmDB. for even Alexander this means ~ destroyed the Alans.lation 2. Unable to Move Oi. Fields "the Macedoaian ~ making use of arc usO de a troyed by s.10J Sot!letimes~ passing through hostile territory.er that. should seem good to you~ 1$. you amend all vhich has grovn well. me.o be cut do'Wl'l.me Place Whil@ industriously working on the production of the present composition. for provisions.nding them t.los of the right 1/ .fbich 'bear fruit. vill not find the :rrui:t$ for provisiQn. p.a1 t being both SO'lolD on them an d c overed over 5 by ploughs.0 veIl as the fiC!lds.foref'oot being tearJ) brings the chariot "to I!l. it is bi!'tt. I read in the .> no bird for their hunting will perch. this can render them entirely bad for a long time. CQncerning Making Horses. f'or these having been handled tbus'l in the cut areas! no e:nemy will be hidden. 4.and.

6.ncients say / that venom of vipers and asps. But by my inquiring into this.-ater. bu..r.h liater until all of its oil 1s dis- charged into the hot ".t rOr them to !l!'at many t1J:1@:s during the da.uos. and of salama. soldier !Il&y not fa. nev~ma.g. is undenia. Concerning the He~lth of the Soldiers That e.l ill) being struck by sun i!lII.. put into 5 eartheIlliue pot end I heat ". and I!!!speeially vhen not engaged in battle.ble.te'r !"rom this juice becmnes like 10 been done.nders.151 Military Extract6 IL'-. but as many as happen to ride neal' it- 5" Anointing for Arrovs The Scythians l.de- gro\<. heat until the Ya.. th-en taking u:p the sta. ffN slingers? Theyi' throving 5 tbese into the- en~ I horse" vill not injure Just one horse: vith the one astrQ.7hl!:n in ba.6 caused to stand. but in order that 8.. at short pl!!:riodB..Ii t.ly to a. hone~'.1.d toil"lo tor this it is neeessary to distribute their provisions not just once or twice. if J 1. the so-called "toxic" H for quick destruction or th~ op~s wounded.ttle linf!) we sbould give them individua1.U1oint arro"oIS. for this is /1 .lks of the plant vhich vere put in" put other fresh ones into the same water..puttins in others. again take up and:.5. But I do not have confidence it it ha. physician in the CaDfp is good.G actualljo' SoJ2Je of the Q.'S up into stalk-like branches--takiZ'lg this . how l!luch betteX' would it be:. is also infallible for this. a certain trustworthy man has given the following drug to &ccomplisb the SaI!le operat:ion= and it is thi8~ wood spurge of the type which 8.

if the availablewat~r should be un'lol'hol esome [should be pulse).e~.H. Pliny N. 'l'he marsh wine alsO. do it before eating t but if the vinegar. It 15 necessary to take rue I and marsb maJ. lA9 (·Mith~1date5 secret antidote or . haV!!!" the w-brmvood vine. The pan bread also. It is nec(!ssa.II.ry tor this th~ to be done from the beginning or spring until end or the ~utumn. 23. be unae. alSO...lso prepar~ the squill 'Wine does the same a. and 'With tbe meal i tse.low boiled down and mixed yjth sour wine. But if ve should not But but also after a meal. 10 Again. They o. 'those cOnJpc1. to take befor~ eating.tio~ 152 p. vO~wood ~ine is drunk for the same" not only / before a meal.1:f. then let.h het 'Wa.nd nuts e-qual to the figs t he \. 7. let it boil until the tenth of it is spent. i . :But simply f'onne-d a. it cool.mdJng IItheria-e n h see alao below. but. as also..nd dried in the sun. ve would give vOl"m'Wood "'!Iit.fJ7 5 salutarJ and us~!'u1.e.. 23. tor Not Being Conquered by Poison In order that we may sUffer nothing rrom poison (for there are t~a remedies.t of BOUT rine. Ill. fLhd let lump 0 f salt be added to 5 th~. is most useful tor health.. b~ing healed and working so as not to surfer the n~c~ssitY)t--every apy 11eation being fasting--if any will tak~ 20 leaves of ru.rml~s$. 6" 7 Transla... mixing milk and water and pouring iJJ a small amoun. in~- Bar.dovs.. 1 Many t indeed. is exceedingly healthy. what is 'produ. ler. for digeBt. 'With dinner.ioD. in the midst of the tIlealB. }. &tid it 20 will thus be ha.'ill 8. t'110 dried figs~ e. / testify by experience.lso- squill .::ed 15 in the I~sb-mea.ter.sai lable by every drug. but if one takes the squill vine.

7. Fc. cont. and also of u cert1f1ed . and it \rill h@. :pounded fine a.and putt.i.e of ha~el-nuts and 8. whi<. II .1fiduaI.2~) But the more cot:lplete. p. the separatiO=-l t'rol:!l the.r a Hemorrha. mak~ th~ rest drjr.tural remedy capable o:f the closhavine. take one the 6iz. and also of Lemn1e. lik~ise of oily dried figs..ge Difficult to Control Taking hUIIIM blood either fram a phle'Wt~ or :trom sOl!le ot-her source.&nc~. of vbatever E. of kernels. bulb itlg lrl thout suture.his we have found a :na. it is this.. ~t :f'irst day you will f'ind co1I1inS to the top a. ~ or the 5 I!:dible type 10 lay it on.8 .ing into .uch sort.ed with sutures. and.a 'Wide-:mout. 10 ripe Juniper-!berry. .vE! b~en difficUlt to C'ontrol.s are injured. 9..n grind 1n s.he~..:h makes every drug unprofitable and which i8 easily produced in tbe camp! is this. 9 more prec1sely~ dou/lble the salt and the rue.ainer y d:ry it in the sun and on the subst.iron 'W"eapon b-eing large ~ they are usually handl. ll&tery It is necessary to remove thia and to to plaster it on and to bandage. b~ls equal amounts. For t. mortar aI)drDake each day. as there may ehanee to 'be. For One to Close the Wound 'Ili thOllt Suture Since in var :many times ind. the best looking...153 Military Extracts II. and need Thus i 1:.. and 01' dry rue..alby first intention. and add 20 peppercorns. viII be stayed! even though 5 it I should ha.

.re~ ZB. 'being put tocQnt~iner" ~hus tbe f'ace.!'JJar~d" ~ire Kindl~ ?ire SpontB. liquid and flow1rJ. making it liKe an ornament .n~ously spontaneously a1~o by this co~o8i~iorl.Otmts .h the sun e. fasterls it around the neck.r. necessary t-o knead it care:fuJ..t ion 10.~ or the marvel. then there But it is 5 is Ordded to I the asphalt the least bit of quicklime. &11 vill be burned. on them or sooe other things .ly prote~'t ~"it.213 Mauretn. For tbe HQrses Not to Be Sick The horses will not be sick ir one tfLkes deer antler~ p_ 211 sma.Tra. ~eal it in some copper having it at the sun... in box. and also no longer exposing it to But at night.. it' you should vish to enfl8J!le the armament S~tl. na. thus: of native sulfur ~ of rock salt ~ ~ of o.f thunder st one ~ 01:PYTite E.. an I!qual tlrOOunt of each~ SO a.! a:ppears. nec~ssary re8..ck ~enith. indeed . but a.. also ther~ is nixed toget. 12.nd doubted bY' me.t the :tenith.l. it is ash~s. 21 and ..tiotlJ lI resting their ne{:ks on . I brought this up also.it. tor when the sur.f'i ne ina bla.s to become sooty colored.QlD.I mortar ~ the sun being at the black mulberry sap and POU1l ding equal a!D.g.~yntbian asphalt.her f'. it is to 8.ll piece of 8.e peo]Jl.hing incredible to on &Ccount that th~ mal1:r ~ a. I but I. and to But.ecretly. 11.n sla. say p. 10 of thl!: enemy..n1ans II (this iaB. To Kindle FrE.. ignites unexpeetedly. Hunt ing 0 f Sounds 1 read s01D.din~s:s gether.et. for it.

lles{:f\. let him send dovn whome'l'er he vi s11 es ! fm covering up the mouth v. but he will recount to you the things s&1d 10 or the things making noise as though I divining. SlIlDe.l. liothing w:S. This hunt of 1s ready So if anyone in a great camp should wish to learn either tbe purposes of hia own eoldiers (andJ or the purposes of the enemi e a ~ han ng dug B. Mi1itaryExtracts . II .th ordinary ge.. or the 'Western sO'l.n. de-ep vell. it I is reported.155 ~ood..pe the one sitting within.12 leave the ear free~ unhindered for hearing.ndern4!'ath and lying dOlm.rment. digging a little But the thieves trench u.l:nds 5 Gaul also do the to hand.

o the ground. Indeed t if anyone had ohanced ~he th~ firs~ p1a~t. But t. IIIi Hippi&trica Extr~ct~ Con~~rnin& 1.ll. Can~& 3. They come up even if tll e: bird I s: young t partaking of it.1n~d blind eyes. 23 a The tvo stones 'W"hich are in the gizzards of the nest- lings vhl!'n th4!!!Y a. But this juice is a ltiELrVelous and tLCtive' drug for dim-eightedness.H..ot.Translation 156 ~ Kes-tQi hsgm. Cant. it keepa glaucomas fol"mS entirely 10 to find 8.he: plant- re-I eoming from it is more ul azy '1 and only corrects 'Weakly. black and white. Concerning a. it it should drop to the ground.ents. he would have opened even f01. Hipp.225 (C. from the drop an. 6-9::1' The swal10v bears th~ juice of So certain pla. Of" Afr1canus: An Ophtha.nLie [C. are found in each--. white dove has been sac::ririC'~d .ephantias15~ p.her plant is produced. The liver of 2~1301 Hipp. 2-. pe)"~ 1oI'ell as the former. its ash.1. nevertheless ~ beins ground .re opo!'oe-d up v1th a sharp reed-f'or they. 5 and in a short vh11e it thins even the leucomas fram injuries a~d stores the eye to the appearance of the uninjured. \lith vater . 8. 2:~36-38. 1J th~ land hedgehog drie:d. in the Eiun cures the borses su:ffering f':rOI!l elephantiasis. after a. which is natlled from the bird which let it fa.S away~ and. excrete it ont.R.nt t from 'which.. Horse Having of AtricanU5 E1..

nec~ssaryto ~reaEdng But for tl1is use" it is ~d wait to cut it open during the moon's beginning in- phl!'l. tI and perhaps you will at any rate. t1on~ e having _de a sort of .227 f'avn or calf' skin f'or the "gra.he vult:ure.. ~~ IT!. multi-colored and tbe There-tore.157 Hip1>iatric:s. otr all ophthalmia.. II or.ttIaffe-cted. up in pure linen and applied (Llld.. gold necklace and An"J'WV .d I 9.e&1ve of iVy root" put it into a box . t. i. e~·es. fact vhi ch i B a1 so kncnm to many.o a. p.. 30 and if i t should even be attached to one Misfortune. truly" ey~s i!ach day"doe:s riot pe. r~ves every darkening and mist of the eyes and does not permit eatarac:t. 'bo~. I of vhich the one is. one lights upon b 15 stones in the other clear. catarac. put int. before they touclJ earth~ bind theru up in cur~. lessen the o/!'pilept1c seizure.1 so a cure 0 f dim 8i ght and 0 f cataract.t to develop.- cataract..mit allOl( dim-~ightedness" will not even tl. They say the bile of a. The eyes of a li'Ving hog" l"eJJlOved and appended in a. it destrdys the I But it is necE!ssaTyto release the frog vhere it was 1 Its bile a160 is used as an ointl:llent for eye 1rrita:tion and But nothing is great4!t' than the :follo'Wing Cor eye irrite. But its eye 'being worn in dog skin does not pend t ophthalmia. cutting open the spring nestlings. pa.ttic ho~ey~ / used an ointml!nt. taken.se.o the ThE! eyes of t. g1~:tQrds. to 'begin to :form..l.2 k~ep and Aphrodite herael:f 1nvoke:d. linen rCig~ d yom on the left shoulder or the neck ~ guard the 5uffering~.ndmn.rtridget mixed vith Attic honey t is 20 a. Its bile with horehound juiee CiS 25 and A.

re harnessed by the Sun.H. th!lt thoeY may B.nt eDt i re 1y $ iJti lar to the hem- lock except for the flowers .L+ 2S The (sweet) c i ce1y is :pla. 1 t i ne c-e 9 sar~r to put int 0 lThehippiatricd passages accepted by Bjorck aBbeing &uthentically African-ian ("Apsy-rtus . fL. and you will stop cataracts even beginning. Cant.ble regicrts. p. :m.. Then'li dra.wing it out. but the Moon happens to be mother of t.l. as f I everyone reports" the sta. Of the [C. you will be amazed at tbe action.· say + I And properly.hose of like nB:ture. whetstone and JIlS. 8J If .n "pp . 91 6.ving c aretully ground vbo1e.229 For aleo.'lors birth of" males.llions e. 15-16) are marked vitb the notation "M. .s Mf. 'Which indeed are aimiltu" to it.nt.nd the fltlml!! is ~lieved t{) be dl"avn by them .H. b'lltm1. but the ma:res 5 draw l'aght~ the:.. 1ndeE!'d. It is found in the ara.he title as fL.J of red copper with urine from a young 1nfa. and tying it up se- 158 curel. 4. Of AfricaIlus: Concerning Product.bove. he.Traoalatior. !.he 1iquid eon- tained in it.v ~ bury in horse lI1allure for 40 days.LtU'ousios the horse-raiser describes. :for the Sun fo.ch and most pleasant in the eating. 5 These. rub 35 it off / on 8.ion of Hor5ea CC.. Cant + 10.ke like a sa. you ahouJd 'Wish horses toward the east. Same: 2~1~2-43t Restoratives of Paver Hipp. 10. 2~142J Hipp. therefore.ale to be borne 'Ii 'tUl"n the sun vhile mating ~ for 24 El~e th~ the vest bears th~ females I e.fter t. 3.lve '\lith t." fL.

mercury and verve.te the: gruel too nruch. 2t145.'t.H. Of Africa-nus: For HaNing Intercourse Much a-nd 'Without Difficulty CC. either male or female. he will ha. Cant.. the upright male.in plants con- side-red to be male and female.4!.nt.e nat to sa.r ly.he 5 opposite.+ p. 16J Pol.5. 10.n.l"l'"OV:o pi nal.rica III. 10.1.turs. tor~gQing...h skinkts flesh in 26 mixed vine. I Make the anima. ha. the spreading t. male~ if" e. Ca. 'Which. 1m Altogether Excell ent Ai d for :Birth [C. Hipp. I!'veryvhe-re.animal 'Wit. 15] It is nec:eseary to in:f'use the. b~comes ~ eause of conception. 10 second l'e:medy for tha I 5.159 HiDpiat.1.t the animal ttJay conce:ive wohat ar~ you wish.l to we6. very well bOiled:) barley gruel I and to boil together]o stirr-ing carefuJTy. 2:1115.ve a. if one rlshes to produee 8. male .... Then put in such a quantity or the BlOst f1"&grant wine as No OTJ..~. and fasting. with gruel]o and adding wine s ittJila.1so 27 drosa:. called pl~t !.l:" theBe with the f'orJDer preparation. temale~ f'erna. which is a.ing bl!e-n bO\Uld in dog's afterbirth:) rubbed neces6ary~ with ointment and cleansed ae and app~nd~.131 abunda. Hipp.rgonum is a.H. II 6. to 1nf'use+ ~y find 1L batter remedy than this for this purpose. root~ But if be is especially lrlt"hout "the th e 9 having bOiled together pig1's Ina. But in order tha.6 5 pure. .

preserve it. Of' the Same: Translation For Abundance of Milk Hipp.1~5.III. 123 1 'Wi sh to ai d eaT 5 ina. Cant. and ceas i ng ~ may not be pained again. Cant.213 5 the mare when the stallion couples llit. that t hey may both c eaa~ be!ng pained.hen s. ~el' For when- the condition aroW1d the ear 1llaY' becoming like ulcers ~~d bec~ insufferable and pa. using it as. 2. 11. 18J Sa.ilors t taking the remora.lnaJ. both t.8. 9. I ~s t. 2:149 t Hipp.fing and for conception.nd sh~ \rill c:oneeiv-e I and will no't su. The XIIi lk stone. being levigated. draws down however T:!JUch milk is neededy But in order that !ihe may also ~tQne supply more milk t and watery infUs~ the levigated milt itselC w1th vine 8. living tD the belly Df ther~a.s 1. Hipp. l7J 160 (C. Of Afl"iCQDus: F'orEarache [C.h her.bundanc e. Of the Same ~ For the Embryo ~lot toMis~&rry CC.d gr"e»r1 ng everywhere.f'ter p. 2~145-~6. tb~ This ani:maJ. Cant.ll. double mann er r y. poW'erful dru. the pellitorj 5 plant ~ e-a. infused with 1 t keeps the embl")ro safe in 1/ But if one should also betLr it.H. a.H. the womb. pro- duces much juice+ Then a little bit of Att.g both to prevent miscarr'.fastened around the udder of the an1. 7.hough n& t Ul' ~ gloried in its a. 10.ly o'bta1 ned BJ'I.ic: honey Is taken t and .st ~d bearing~ ~ots~ producing evil smellinB pus the pain around it beco~ing intQlerable. is chopped up thoroughly so t ha tit. 10.ffer the foremen'tloned mishap. fish.9 j..

i"m@d t 'bee-ome e.e. Of Af1"ic&nuG-. or haViDg been burned? infuse the ashes with wine.H. 13.ir~ct1y.H.235 In:fuse crow fat with 20 O1JJlces of' heated "'Vine. 5-6] th~1r Colors of horseS t alao t like but color is &l.. and imI!lediately it will 'W'inate much and the pa.elOunt weed. 5J ~inter-~h~rr:~ mix~d ~qually ~ith Use ~he root of the butter. Cant. II 12. 11. 2) a hedge-hog p. let her strike it abou. 2~161. and tbe })1"opel" hide gives attributing it to Aelian Bri~ish manu~criptg. jo 13.t ttJe fa. rejects this passage. nApsyrtuS t~' p. 2:151. 1 Hipp. lBjorck. Of AfritHtnus: [~.h 'the.girdle.ed ~ 10. are different. C&nt. despite the attribution in the .l. Conee-rning Color ot Horses 2:111-78.aenas a... 24.:L61 lfippiatrica..nd 'Polyps {Concerning . Q fses.!iO virtues. not much atrong vinegar. Hip~. 6J back~ It the urine of a horse is held a virgin.. Hipp. stroke of luek.a Cough) rC. 29.: FQr a Dropsi-cal Animal CC. 2116~-65J Hipp+ Cant. and a small Cl. d.!. bl!'ing mixe"d and 'Ws. Of Africanul. 17.a ti on to the one atfl fet. 4h. Of AfricMU5: For Oz. [~. having loosed 30 the girdle which she weare.in will (lease.specifically.ce wit. Th~se . a. Cant. Conce-rning DyS'Ill"f!a.

2. the name: of a color] hor Be is fired.1S~ neck. like: the roundness of the apply it to the horse~ which has been bound fast~ alter- nate:ly applying and removing..edness 1& &itDu. of true . Translation Some of thet!l'll indee:d~ 162 are natural'll but others. but wh1~e would result f~o~ the drug being ~Diled.l.nd t.r.ak etlil. You may see even its face like a vild But it is good to mark a high-spirited horse this vay.a:. cert. Therefore the outer ring is black t 150 but ard th~ original color rema.1ning apart fr OlD tho.. g"LlIri shoUld be pla.stered over it for two hours.lees t o:f black aeaciat or round alum.Y [C. Cant.178. over this way: in the middle.III.hi! legs and the b~.a thick. hour~.t I s imul. a horse from a tawny color may becOIIIe black qy.1lus: A Dye for Hair Which Flemains Pel"'l:ll8Jlent.' match the gk1n~ 1/ 14.t es a 1 eop- body~ bs'ving been suitably disposed on both t.ck will result from the white. Hipp.til it becomes .ated. Theref'ore.. that the sviftnes5 m. Of Afric8.he horsets spott. 237 .ny may come from vhi te. BJ o~ win~ p.nd 11tha.o.. t'li But ta.lime a.a.itl p@rsons change for the bet. But if the ointment remains on for more Also t apart from colors:p b. if .rge emu1si:f1 ed i water a.aSt.t~r:> working artfully.'1C1!! on the animal'll I a. lO the fir@ forges the hair to a different appeara. h~ving been plastered over by squill ~1th vin~gar and levi gated 5 pumi~~ stone I. ~3.nd boiled un. Some of them are fashioned by drugs 11 but others embellished with cauteries.l. round cautery t open let~er 010 cark~d A ~hi'tish-gray {This is having t.14 stateliness to the anim&1.la. 46.H.

y superstitious p4!:rsons also r-egard as signs t. of black myrtle'llithout the Juice ~ 1 1/2 pound. dip.~kiai. f:r-s..hic:h nJ!Ul. The relief fr-QlIl. of' some:thing which ia going to happen t... H.. Africanus [c. wool being .ctu:re in 1.s. or oak-gall:> 2 stat ( era. ws.ites a.H. 2.ound over it. :2: 198 ~ Hipp. ~:r1D. 5 pounds.. 239 1/ ". 51.s brain \Ul. 2J 32 Dog. Cant.. arts aTe outgrowths of the body resebbling :r-ougb studs.t (ie. Cant. it three days and nights" a. 2 =189. of lad. Boil all vith the wine until it is boiled dovn to 6."ly ill many places.. 67. indeed..4 days" being smeared into a 1ir. the-y occur to me.. 1 J Afr! canUEi. or The body of produc es SQundnes.t1 They call the condition p. or Concerning TUnlor s a.tc hing for <a.193~ 16. ») 6 k~l"D. I put it on . 103 15. Cant. or AfricWlUS Hipp. thelD Some..h~ltJ. 8.J~n bandage and applied .nd Warts and Acroeordons r: C • H. having cleansed the baiT beforehand.... 62.antlm) 6 ounces. of old dark wine.= Irritating .nd you will be 5 s.Hippiatrica JDai denhai r:t each 6 ounces.) . Hipp.ni :fold and proven by all. 11. 1 green nut. eea-'W:'chin smeared on a body haYing th~ ~ge 31 [C. having mixed the dirt up '!leIl.o is ma.. third) and. dog":o 33 a 5 urinating on tbe ground.mazed..

.. clear wate-r $u1"f'ict!!s tor me .nd the '·physician's" finger drawn back. being taken in t'his va.ropI!' .v: having drft.le-d UHeliot. ilJ nOT p. thus o'lf~rcome it. Of Afric:a.241 (" )The ass't of all the animals) bear'S neither lice ticks... They 'Will 5 all come pushin. 2:203 11 Hipp. 67+ If you feed any o~ 7] skin of a serpent t. Cant.nu9 [C.17~l8.:r hi 6 acroc or-dons. Cant. O~ AtTi~nnu5 iC. others ~ having the plOo{: e and sJ'lUt up t. • • > thrice circumscribe the place and t. b cl"Ushed "the squirt ing cucwnbe:r and put it on..g on~ another out ll not on!!!' being left within. 70.:1i~ 2:205~ AfTi~anus Hipp. vhich is properly cl!U.19't20 Translation C 8.he vart will cease iTritAting.199't Hipp.-ugs.Vl1 it up with the th'umb s.he in the c l~y . Cant..'} . 'thrice besprinkle "by a stream of pure vat. 70.. 3J M· 35 To cast maggots out 'Wit.H.er" the place suf':ferlng t.H.IIT. II 20.. 2.he 'Worms.h a drench wit'hout d.he animals the ca~t hidden ina dat e ~ you wi 11 c Ie fI.. Of (f. {.r &'Ws.. 19. or'i cbicory flo-vcr. 18.use 16L But." pieldng before the rising of the sun <.

present infusion has its composition froxn four things: gent ian. Hipp. 71.SPS~ are believed to be a great dropp~d or tortoise ~d ur1:oe being soaked up and ~th on the bite:> both by i t·self many bedbugg..iles rC.o make use likewise of the 80S]? tOl'" t. 21.. 2. II 23.21~22.16. :But for enakebites give in w.t. he said t. Cant. Cant. 20. having been given beforehand in an ill:fUsion to a :faat1ng horse. For he asserts Inaron the Libyan to ha"re transmitted that they are a rel!Jedy of one another. and OtheT Mad Dog and Hydrophobic e. 2:206. salt graTl'ule .l 1.trica III.hose b1ttl!'n by the h@morrho!s. 7l. size of an Egypti!ln bean. 3) The. An EB. you . Of Afri canUEl: Hippio. 8lld convl!:rsely. 5) Rue leaves. 71.. myr'!'h:lo round birthyort]o and bay .@::r" and ~or tor scorpion stings in first quality wine. Hipp. many bedbugs.H. dried rigs. Bites from Rept.. eooking and leV'igating it 5 and soaking it in wine I. 2.. O:f the Sa!D.~s.e. sl!:rp~nt But the Pho'8i~ian Phobio5 gives to those bitten by asps the called He-mol'"rhoig. '1161nuts~ p_ 243 2.berry. Chop up and s 1 ft The dose 1 s of the equal amounts of the s e ~ mixing vi th raw honey.ured Counter Measure: of the Same [C~H.H. to] Treatment to'!" asps It bit. being 'taken by the cure~ 36 one bitten by 8.e iC. 22.silyProe. three days. Cant..206 . 2:205~ Hipp.23 Concerning Those Bitten by a.

Hipp.H."or the 'Wounds froeD poisonous sea crea. O~ the Same: For Checking Infl~tion of" a Wound by Poisonous Aquati<: Ani~ls CC. 10J Lemnian earth is suit-a. 24. 71~ 2~201.d-nettle plastered over. Praphylacti~ for Not ~ing Injured by Any Poisonous Bit.. 2 pounds. by sme!l. steeped and l~vig~ted~ put on in like manner 2. 11. plan~. :2. 245 Of oil from unripe olives. Of th~ Same. Cant. the Same~ Concerning Scolopendrids Hipp. 2:201. Cant. But for it not to be struck by a SCOrpiOll t inscribe abba. 11] p.ri ng t be &nti dote . 71. 27.tures.ble ::. II 26.ion 166 "'ill procure that it will be barmed by no drug or any other poi oson . of marrov or a fresluy melt~d all togetb@r and strain~dt use against all venomous thinss. 12) The sc olopendri d inJ ures badly) but.Trans1.t. hea. Cant. 9J H~ving levi gated nOS~-5martt plaster Oll with linen. Of Afric8nus: For the :81 t. being given with "Witb vinegar~ Yl'1iDe~ tLnd mountain {spotted) dea. or the seed of this witt. 207 t l1ipp.s on fL tin 37 sheet and tie this around the throat of" the (1nimal.a..fL 2. 71. J1.1s similarly.~ [C..C~.e or Every .Beast r. linen. O~ CU. Cant.207 t Hipp.

lso (:QW dung smeared over. 71. 1"or those bitten by the. Of' the Same: For Bee-s CC. :"ollc'J\dng ::'18 Cant.t 29.us) vith 3 ounces 0f vine.plaster overvith tbe lea:vea.sps" bees. b a.he flovers of fLsphodf!'l~ being drunk \lith wine~ are opposed to it.U'roving wasps .v.y or catnip or lentil smeared vith oil.r1 ic and t to. and buzzing insects . of' s".ma.nt of' roa.tat{ers)l of 'hyssop or of oregano" and an equal a.igate 4 ounces. but those of them that are able to harm are tyO ~ the maddening a. or (vild) vater-mint.ler fruit of figs with vine and vetch15 having been plastered over 7 cause the suffering to cease.""s.. Cant. l~J p_ 247 For the insects.. Oder-Hoppe ~ C pH. or of coriander. hex. you ".29 Car the venoJllOUS bit eo one. 133 The kinds of spiders are many.king by mouth 15 <. 71.>. amount of the rrui 't o~ the agnus (cast. bumblebees.i 11 heal 'the ge.ufj ( fa } • 1 unbitten~ I ~ reads . Of the Same: Con~errling Spi.ddening type . and t.nd the cODper~ There:fore.. 27 ~28 . and the 6'1l1l1r. Roots of vild euc~- 5 ber having been boiled together with oil keeps the animals -Vieillefond. U5 5 Also. three finger pinch or cummin and an equfU. Hipp.siled place. Hipp~ Cant. Or ofmallO\ot.eet-oQ". The fruit.ders [Q.ill:Eeiatrica III.mou.Ji.. or inf'use a.Jut on with honey. '2 ~ 201-OS.. Use 8. and juice of the flg with leaves of 'tl1e mulberr. le. 2 :206. E. 28. • .. hornets. gh'"e 'barley-cake iLnd I ga.ny :part.sted salt ~ and :. ! / e:f)D. b\.

n~ 168 to anoint theIil witb galbanum Juice with oiL biv~. and besides tbese . Cant. every insect vhi-:=h h&s been sprinkled "With oil is done B..one opens the bee- he remains unharmed. 11. Likevise ~ this uso having been burnedbefor@. thus also is inj'fi'1ou'8 for the destrucas~ tion in an evil -r:n. Nov J for the bite of the dips as . Co~eerning the ~~nes rC. the 'Whol~ fl!!l~t beeome ex- coriated and swel::"'ings b-egio aftectiog the strange: legs. • • > whence it i~ neces. Hipp.VaJf" vi th. 30.l. levigated and given with 'ljdne.Translation <.. 15J for:it is called Thed1psas itself has many names also: a. and oeing given as a pot i on g1ve a ai d ~ and especiuly the golden part 0 arterv~d fit. his h~ds ..e-coliJe it also anyone \fishes to t. 2:209t Hipp.. a sedge in:ful s ion! with vine and vater.H..249 e. and ladanum .. beast smaller than the vipil!!l" and I.H.. 16] The8erpe~t arx5:neEl! paasing his life. Of the Same: Concerning t. 11..II. II 31. until one bursts 5 from drinking.."1d T~ing near other trees.he MpS-8oS rC.reat th~. helps.Qre grievou!.in 'the roots of oaks p. Cant. or anointing with balm crushed vith oil~ or b\U"o1ng cow (h. For it produces burning and an intensifi~d thirst in those bitten ..And yet more also b.Ul8 or salvia. .-ea. 2:208. Further . the western fruit called kitrion being given beforehand as a potion opposes it.anner t if' one t~l!'ads on it.

ving taken p.als are what 'W'of!!"e gi v~n above ~ but some genera. another l!ldminiatered urine of a.trlmb:ed vine! ga'l(! to the endangered one. plaster over afterward wit. 8... sal vi a.l:.l69 5 excoriated. iris with vinegar. fOr bites and stings. 01' the pois onous anilr..he approved one by experience.2 ~2G9-10.all rood.bitten by mad dogs a. 32 ~ Of the Same = Concerning Various and W'oWlde. or 'With bulbs.. 2 ce.nd / centa..tnip! agnue.. JL . a. and drink. co:mmendBut besides -the-se]l someone (sug- ins t.s another. birthvort. bran 'With vinegar or vine". put it on the wound a. / Therefore the juice of the lea. the secret Parthian retDe-dy. having ~ntioned these things already 1 prefer one to another.. I prefer that ver-y one which I Bet out for those. having ripPli!!d up a mouse .o rt decoction. Hipp~ ~Bitee.Od an infusion 5 of hu. asphodel root :2 stat ~ers). But.. [C. tog~thel" Therefore.h Many..) ash is very use:fUl..> Cant. child having 'been mixed vith vine also~ Ib . of the many".l b~ing drUP~ reme-die~ are these.nd drew up the po i aon 1nto t 'he mouse.fine.ury ~ Iii't t any. I soaking vi t b 'l.'1d Btung by scorpions . ca:r-danUtt:l in SWlJe way. then". I gentian. ha.251 J 10 out the brai ns of a 11yin g hen..ddeB ~ for theSe also". rue. either juice of laservort or grains of' b&r1ey. 6 kerat( ia) ~ \fine. Be!.ves of (manna.. seed of Christ's thorn or juice th~ o~ ~Ttle \iith '!. llaving taken these: and crushed with vine and ..ttLill"y:l.~ or fnrlt of the tuberous spurge J or of clover J 1/2 ounce. 11-19) Spec i 1'i ca. 11. being illfusi!'d before.her". castor. or with radishes. which is made from 15 four things equally ~ myrrh. gests) juice II of leek to drink af"te::rward 2' but anot. bay-berry tcen..

he 'Ltild vine being hung is suitabl~ e 35 aTo~~d. it' he should esotspe notiee so::nevnere in the sta'tle by night 0)"" in fI. mandra).te\'er sort of anim&1 should bite. and ho.ppl i ed to Also.both for all venomous beasts. 1th bitter "'''"ipe or sea-water:t. in g fast en ed 1t on without inflo. and toa..h '.ten~ are suitable.. Goo.v it to the bi te-s. 2 5 bit e as 5i 5t and d:rav out.the tb~ asnes. agnus r leave So b ei ng plastered over ~ barley-groat s l:IUst and :lilt~i 51 e:.iJine a.b~ing lioor. The root of t. Hipp~ Cant.s that de-:Gt..nd infused:!.ds. and the fruit being for stings.mmat1on.ees ~. and the dry dung of an elephant."lslation 110 boiled ~ in:f'us e . having burned the 'Wounding head t apply. (C. lIOunded pla. 2=212. to BI!! Harmed D)' 'Bei ng :Blown 'U:pon 'b). .bl.253 aga.Toads b:. Of Af'r1carms: For Herds Ifot. or oak acorns being ea.1op:lc: aj owaTI Itali an cummi n bei n e. on scar1fieo it beforehand. and fruit of St. ha. The :most !'eadi ly procured ar-cthese: goat f s milk bei ng given 'by i tsel f or wi th 5 oun-ee So of' win e.I d Also lev- I fru1 t 1 ikerl ge. voa. having ret:loved the d 30 head apj 'fll. Or 10 put crushed edden. .ally infused. 27J The toad is a.IlL 32."lo e..t droppings j with orega. John's Also leeches applied to the wort. 71 . the venomous wounds help. 20 igating 'W'onD"'olood 'With wine s and agaric lilte"i7ise and agnus' Br.e. .R.33 Tra.ed wi t. f'rcgs boil. are suita. in~used~ for I every anim~l bite ~~d 33. Then.ccustollli!:!d to bloW' on the herd most grievously". infuse d with vi ne..ving Juiote of' hyacinth /1 bl!'ing infused works p. $ }""OU wi 1l heal Or. Et h.-ort root.r Night or Lurking in Dusk"Jf ?la.foX" all VenanJous anima1.. ..inst all poisonous animalEi.roy by chilling..ce.e roo-ts vito mixed honey.

of the same: .for'ehand in S'IoI'eet wine until soft. Cant. rC. Of Africanus: Colies.:.rlimal) as though convicted by himself. 1 39 crush 'With sufficient rose oil so as to beyery smooth.t~] ~~~ right testicle of a swan havihgb~~n dpp~nded.s to a plaster. II Of Africar. pp. 3k.'..t. 105~ 5:1 ~he Same> tConc~rning p. pour in a little over the levigated tigs and mixing b~ lik~ in e. The item following this one in the hi1:lpiatl":icB. tl is substantially the 6ame as the title and lines L-5 of Vi.. 2b J Seven 'figs. O~ [C. . ~ith rose oil.35 darkish spOt.) tIJ1d from it folIo.. It is necessary. I. :maket:lo1st so a.ls and tumors l!)Ost difficult to tr~I:l. 80. Then having boiled equal tIltIounts of bees-vax and of fresh hog fat and of bread. Cant. mor'tar. Cant.3~ .s to render useleS9 everl aid for the sUffering. Hipp.pp-. 5 can never do thus" 1. 33 .tial to the &nil:Dfl. Disease9 or the Colon] Hipp. Cant. lviei11efond omits this and t.ation. I tor this very s. 13~ F. H. 8-l0J 35. Th~ For ~ather~ 2~248.:]i.and placing it 5 on the in:flar. 2: 22'5-26. L. so a. 129-33}1 ~. 149.H. Of Atricanus: flammation of To the Soothing ~o:f In- Feet~ and of other Parts [C .H. the dis- 40 tre9S ceases. (£. tIAnothe:r. so that he fl.ertl following f'rom this Part because of their identity with the listed item . . 6.aming of Horsl!!:!s (See above.in Part 1. 1.. you 'W'ill do avay 'With it immediatel. 81..171 TIipplatrtca III. therefore.. Hi...mn. 2: 222. soaked be. .0 kindle lasting fire in tllestabll:!s.. 2:224-25 .be second it.For stopping a kicking mule. Vi.. Hipp... 81.Jus: T. :fears the fire. 11) . diseases most pestill!'J1.

Removal o:f Markings of [C. but if a. thus: a pul~e t of" which the form is inscribed at thee~-d in bexagon hOUi't 41 seven) being well bOileti t at the first lIlOOD t at the third plas1'01"]1 5 ter or. tured in the hexagon (see Vieillefond t Les Ce5tea.lso it. Cant. exc I!pt 'Iolhi te only ~ bee :a.250 1 Hipp. hid~ marks b~and~d On and to the former It is tokens by another color and to make unkno'LI"D to the 113."1s1ation For Horse s Not t.use of the same natW'"e of thE! grovth of the hairs ~ it vill eradicate the 10 mark. to llhat~v~r I part YOU shoUld wish to hide C1JIB. Vi.36 Of A:fric anus. 'P. is plastered on many places.H.t:kberryJ. the formerly solid color will be dappled. by "the burning t it p:rQd~~5 white hair. I ~9. p. loB. lOB.111. l ulc:eratine. 2:249-50) Hipp. 2..ened (S~e 172 or Spooked on the Road above. 8J tbe~ Hors~s This is a to re~v~ th~ or valuable the horse9~ bodi~s changing the markings. Th! s art (vorks) against all other c: olors. but will preserve the origina1 colQr.H. 36o~ n. Of Africanus. 240. lApparently a misplaced gloss misidentifYing the i~em pic- . Tra.o Be Fright. Cant. 139) (C. 5J 36.te owner.

In general:l every talent as t!ln8. M These~ then. and by some. di f. therefore every 10 toJ.173 W~ights and Measures ~ Kestoi FrO£tllents! IV ~ Concerning Weights I!l.t compounded of them.9 co:ppers~ The drachme Th~ -cU-achm.nd Measures From th4!! <Kestoi> 01' Africanua: Concerning weights and p.s 6 obols . 318-85 (text. Tileights from tbe in the translation ar~ trom Duchesne (they are not included in . It) Para-graph mmiber6 given 1 A.1 so publ i shed by Vi~ille:f'ord). 11Pragment lne-tralogique 11 (1816}.E:!. one must campare to ~me another.act concerning the proportion of th~se! :So that no person being mie. a Syrian a~d an Egyptian~ which is also called the HPtolemaic. But thi! At. pp. 6.s ~8 coppers.ELter ~ dradllll~i..e.tic talent is equivalent to the Ptolemaic: and Duc:hesne. whole has 60 :ume. There 1s~ in fact. hoU::ai. 1500 6tateres t and I 6000 drachmai. of neceBsity I decided to use~ and what sort it is necessary to and to set out.. thei:r CO~~n differences from one another. there-fore he. pp. and. thELt is. ha.and the: 0001 .. 267 measures 1 1.. a.e-nt 8.i. in use both 5 the I Attic and the Italian.0. 'Whereas i.C' eount c: oncerni.'l. 3.ent has 60 tn. '1. 2.ltioned) has teres ~ and the st.i of its 25 sta- own.n many places I have mentioned both ve1ghts nnd :rD.ng measur es • . 381-65.QsureS.taken tn the quantity should r~edies discredit the show V!U~. and every (obviously of those aforem~f..nd it is necessary to be ex. • of Africanus.r~r.

. and 15 greater by a third than the S:triEm and . exceeding the fOrementionecr usag~ by a fiftb.an. according to c-urr-ent coinage. is obvious from the prize5 of the gB. and for toe.n and B. .rly six times much as that oi the coinage.J:tJes for. and.nl' of drfl.S II has p. 25 Sin ce for the second So I fi rst a .11ed thE! "insular ..ill be used also: for both mna from !!!!! and stater from state-r and dro. I a. but for tbe fourth ~as set two gold talents. 6.nce concerning the talent 7 t'he others . woUld not be if it. and for the tL mare in :foal vas set ns prize .fI. by the mentioned differe. • . but the wooden one in Alexandria differs.ioc:h1&n. obvious l:{..l~o ]ql~ another 'Woodcm talent in Antioch which fl.> is five times as muc'h a. s c:ruple s.ent in HotrJer couJ.. But the gold (de:ric) t hence 'the Hot:leric f'OUT 30 talent ~ I weighs 2 Attic drachJne. Accordingl:.rters + 6. eald. I but equal to the Tyr1. p . ence~ It does not e6ca:p~ me a.i. n six times as much.i.s the Ptol~JIJa1c~ 35 cB.:ron <Which> of ~ measures. l' and of' the fifth 9. vessel f1 set further do-vn the 8calet ..chme troe dre. • .. but in veight it is n4HI.he later daric. should be J:)Qre valuable that the first ones.1 ~ for tbe De11a...'1d the Rhodian and and 'What is the <.269 60 ema.Ant..thing~ ex~~pt to the Antiochian. as.Patroclus.lso that there are many dif"f'e:rAeg~ne".d be equated to t. and equal in numb~r in in value..chme 'Will differ by the same emount as the difference concerning the 2C ~."aS tne t 'ifo-handled urn n <..Translation 174 ever. But the t6J.. 7. 5.ch:l::ia.. third 8.~ t~ll!'nt. it 1s fo-urfold of the Ptolemaic. qua.'Oman and an i:mmen 5 ~ ealdron. Therefore one must use the Attic for weight and coin.rhich 'l.:>.

But the Ant1och1an metretes is double the Italian. and the noumo5 contains an oune e by we ight • The a.5 25 stateres.. and ~ht! gr~ (is) 3 thermDi~ the ~henn.bol. sixteenth. bas 2 bemiEUI!Fhoria.hree lQ"athoi and the l~~yathos ~ke5 ~ m.hird.~ aarion i!. the kotyle 16 di..rbapha 7 -and t.retes. ha. The litra makes 12 o~. again the keratia. The" !JUPhoreu6 of' vine'. tventyfou.event.1.. and the Italian litra is 24 _st6te~es ~ 6-nd there are DJYl"iad differences.he many 8. p_ 271 and the drachm€: is 3 grammata._ tour nOUl:loi:lo 16 a~ SaT i a.175- Weights and Measures equal~value TV since it is and equal-veight to ~he Italian which 15 use the Itl!l.l divided into a half".d ninths t. two t. 12. 8 chous-~ vhich in but we c:a.fth.os 2 has "2 obols. of tbe remaining ~ 40 and none I Qecessary for us to present nov.-o kotylai 11 'Which "Je call hem1nEl. for it has. 6 xestat (and th~ xestes I ~h~ Egyptians call hinion}. 13.n5 kado1 by common name.1so call met. and sixth..fel.phon is apli t into t.mces ~ and t he gralmml OunC~ 8 drat hmai . and t. whicn they call RQlt:.y-secoJld. and these parts have t. and eighth. the .:pstra . tIJ1. Tbe Attic !!lU!!. called I'denari us. 10.ll ko. 11.~mth~ t'.' no\( cOOUIlonly 8.ided into two o?:. which t..roMika. a.n. And the chous is fact they call 55 equal to 80 cong1a.nd fourth .heir I among the Roman accountants....M!Ehoreus is .. Additionally the denarius is divided acc~rding to the L5 Romans into I 1152 parts.lia.8 xestai. consists of 1728 ke~~~ia.he O~(­ ba. O'Wn naJJ:€-S 50 fortyeighth ~ s. thirtysixth. thus the litl"a. Ir inast:tluch as man:.B. 1/ 9. Then the xestes is divided into t".rth. but urnas 7 and i t has 4 prouchoi.

there are a :felf different kinds of' sa-tao 17.rstron . The orUd a has 400 pepper!: orns ~ the 1 i trB. measur~s metretes is double thisj and the /1 other p. the v~i~ht of' vim~ is 10 Ii. A three finger pinch is 2 drachma. The ?tolemaic medimnos is one e. the choinix has tvoxe~~ait BO the medius The / remaining m~asures of dry eubstaJl~es 70 consists of' 16 xestai..27J 65 agree.:s1. and hekteus. And those -rOT oil similarly .. trOC'l what is calledk~r]'tenltrios t Also the oil hich in f'act hag 100 litr.tl.l of' tvo of' the ancient aTta'bai: f'o:r the a-.nd one half of the Attic and ~onais.rifl. finding dis~overie9 something signified by a sYmbol in the of drugs. tion. . haa 5000 corns.-tabe consistE:!:d of ~ 1/2 Italian :modii.ton is one 8.ae.f the m.t of honey hAS 15 11.i of a ~J ~omposi- The ChOU6 15 the s1x-xestal mea.4.. for 'What proportion the I1tra w~ight has to I the mna.. 15. whi~h or .. and the xestes therefore is.. The Phoenician kol"oS 1s 30 ~.But in Qrder that we should not.tv Translation liatr1a many times.. The Attic medimnos 19 equu t-o 6 Italian modii. :20. has The modi us has two hemiekta ... di~:f"erences in the veight o~ all ~easured substances. e:rr in the 'Whole. the tnodius is called hemiektfl.. that of' 011 9 1Itrae:. ~ the same the mea."H1 a half modi i. except that 1 t begins .tt'e... are similar to the forementioned liquid. 16. and a 176 ko~hl1arion 60 vhicb J in f'act are / called is the hut o. the 4 ehoinixes.9ured I1tra has to the kotYle or to the bemixeston... the sa. but nov. 1.. resolved into 96 k~b'~ ia.. and tho. ~ and 80 there are / many 19 .. because of the Roman usage) the is artabe provides 3 modii... 18.

nd 95 the I t..J baYing a p. e. by the .c}\.:Je cbera:rr. .t. ie.171 Weights and MeaBures TV one~ the things which haYe been enumerated is manifested through each 85 we viII subjoin.hed tex.6@IUAe. tbe (r..hree-obol :piece the r baYing the top horn 'tilted upward ((). v' ~ is fifty mnas ~ but sOIIle:times p having 5 a I:Dark througb the middle signifies the ae1lle.ta. Sor. ing a li. Ad a.tested for this use in pub). . placed over it signifies e.is.e also has entirely the Salrte ap- pearance. 175 placed ove:r it (~) (0.. sort of longish sigma.nd. having the 0 pl8... The.c~nt (~.1 ! havel.+) and the 11tl"& by the lambda having the iota insert.ne.':lot fOWld the former a..nd the u having the £.c~d oyer or under it I ]b}. and it is called by 1 0 Or: y.ed or adja.. 21.'t be indicated by the letter l.etron (~).ln.through the V II middle (oe} 11 and the mna by the l. 1 and a lambda placed sideways having the horns to the right makes a d1-achme «):t and half Of a drach. (J )2 o:r Bon iota placed sideways and t-.~~ 20r : .me~ E: the( .. and the obol't the sixtb of dra. ha.. having been ttU'ned to the left (».. ID. 90 onkia. a. o..talent mue.) 11 _.ro obols the same lying opposi te (each other) (=).

2 obo1!i1 ~ = th~rmoa a 3 thermoi 2 keratia.:::>. 11. 2 'hemiamphoria (·'kadoi .cla) 1n asa&riori divided into. gr~atQ (~crupl~s) :f (3 obols ~ ( ) UI grwmna • . vl!!lght ]/2 1/3 l/l~ 1/6 1/8 119 1/10 1/12 1/16 1/36 1/h8 1/12 LIQUID MEAS1J1lE. ~ mmmrl. ["1:1: litra '" 12 onkiaillll 1728 keratia. 19)] 400 peppercorn5 {U 'I} ') yQ ) • 8 drac'hJn6.ssaria.) [= drachma = 3.s (2 000 150 : .iJ chous 12.--~a f.. ~ 10.r. fi}.. (= bol.cs. .Listed 'by Duchest=le pe. ( ~ \ t =8 coppel"B 25 stat. (W1.) . .t I 11 urnas U ) • ~ prouchoi (j\~gs) . 4 drae h.t=l) = 25 stat.) (1/2 drach.. lIII (carat~) fill o <) ~ . =6 ~ "hinion") ~ Antioch1an "'" 2 Italian I-' 0. 8 choes ('tkongia.r' rtkaboi") = 48 x~st&i xestai (xestes metl:'"et~s [= 96 kotyla. 9.kai) «) • 6 obols 11II 48 coppers or . 21.. ~: ampho1"eus (tnc'tret...chmB. denaxi us 2 tropaika. stat ~ 0001 ( c ::r drB. A\ ) II --- 1i tl"Q.ragraph nmnbe:r13 (sy-mbol-a included !rOO! paragraph 21): H VEIGRTS~ -< 2- ta.' 60 drach(lJ\B.) a.1 stat. = 16 a. onkia ( ~ t 5000 peppercorns (pe..lent ("E') mna ( ~) II 60 mnas • 1500 stat( era. 1/2~ nurmnus = onk1a.

:: 1/100 kent. 9 11.1 . Phoenician koros = 30 sata saton =1 1/2 mo~ii HEIGHTS OF VAfllOOS LIQUIDS: HL chou!.t."II" (p ~ hemiekt.ic medimno5 mod1~s = ~ lei 6 Italian modi! (hekt0us) 2 h~~iekta ~ 16 xestai 't:s" "'" (.J =2 kentenarioi ...apha oxybaphon = 3 kyathoi ["my5tr01l.. : 1/96 amphor... 24 sta.t..ASUFlES ~ litra ~ m:nu litra : kotyle (hemdxeston) (1. Att. DRY MEASURE: ll~. 2.1os metr~tes '= 100 litras oil ..i (1~h~minan) = 96 koc hliar ia i'-' -.ND MF.l -. (listria) 1/2 ID.12...ic 1111 p.. other meas·ured substa.on ~ ~ ~hQinices p.Ystron "" kochliarion kentenar. e.be =4 1/2 Italian modi i artabe . = 6 xestai: of' wine:: 10 11-. 2: kochliaria] kyatho6 Oil: 1Il ~ I!OYstre..y le 2 oxyo. 3 modi i 16.:ry of Africattus' s '1""eights e.I f liquid measures previously di~cus:sed 411 ".rto.nd Measures 1' . of honey all.. RE:L1lTION OF WEIGHTS A. ~olma.:) kot.nces have many different 'Wei~hts IIIi 15 Ii I-' C' ~ rr- 1"1.ry measures 1). of 01. ~ choioix = 2 xestai other d..U ~ ~ medinmos III: 1 1/2 Attic med1mnoi "'* 2 tto ld 11 artabai '·old" e. xe stes =2 =: kotyla. SU1l1J'IiI~I..13. : 25 sta.

pp. ([But ~hen i / ). J and) te.th Ere)Jbos .ets vithin the double sets.ids and youJJths and the much enduring aged tender ([YirginsJJ late-mourned llhile in the prime of li:fe.rus ten t but \lhere tbese are broken up due to changes of word order iD. slaughtered it (Cinto thepit~J 42 and the dark blood [flowed]]: and gathering the Ctsouls frOTG benea. of corpses having died. and replying.. and plate 5. [(and many wJoundeCd by b)Jrazen pointed apears t L(the muJ. but have added.rJ Jul cries.m. the song r Bang: (That vhich it was nec.rl slat ion 180 Th~ K~stoi Fragments.king (theJ) sheep.essary tD ]Jerfo:rm~ he has said) 1 Grenfell and Hunt. but tile t p&l~ fear sei:ted on.tiJJtude beside the pit vandering about from place to place 10 [[\lith a". 5 [[. i1) ~ I have continued to give Vieillefond's line" n1Jrtlbers in the margin. I h&v~ followed Vie111e£ond'~ conv~ntion in using double brackets to indicate missing portions of the pa. Oxyrhyncbus Papzri~ III {1903}. p. in angle bra1::kets.. . I have used only single bra. 36-41.Trfl.. the trtlns1ation. ( [Ilu:t J J I.. V~ rcol. . d[ (1" J J &'Wing the sharp sword frQJQ by my thigb t CCsat.285 HI had prayed.p~. In the prose portion at the: end (col. the numbers of th@ lines in the papJ~u5 as given by Grentell end Hunt.c] byvowJs and prayers [to the]] ho~t of the dead. nJJot allowing that any fleeting shade near to ((the blooJ Jd might come.ck.a.

. n For of vas tbe most useful spell.. Ti tan llel iot:l ." rr. .l.. Phren" /1. ibis-headed . 25 granting [( t.fSl!led god of e03Ilii c dispensing t:CuisJJ and r~volut1on t.:ich i t was neee-ssary 'to sing he uttered) "[[H~arJJ m.S burn i ng Fire . [[who 80 many dlJruga.e~ propitioU5 6. ((for well)) 1 remembered Circe's stern admonishings.d) J es and Earth.181 15 ··CCOfliveJJrs and Earth and Those B/!'ne~th who suffering (tmeJJn repay. tCfierJJY-5erpent-glrded~ earth-tu:rning. .a:J:n~o" for 5el:f-~orJtrol mo5t excellent of all to ~C!. who are of oath forsworn" ((youJJ a~e vi~n~sses. . Fire . 'knovlih as broad Earth rears. 1 sang. Ofi eu and pbBs! ~ and 81 syon t p.Q be sue cess J J ful. ~uehlike 20 my [(soJJn. [{ come alsoJ J Ya60 and Phtha and lalo~-5ustaining Phre. nboth NepbJJtho lIIUch-revered and Ablanatho rich in blessings. .. fair-haired subterranean ZeU£i. . and cold light of' northe:rn B@ars. [ [hither RfL. fulfill our song.fil1 thi 9 s. 30 [[ AbruJ Jas.287 [[of Telem)Jachu5~ whom J left on nurse·a lap. :fuJ.. .. fu.And theilJe things" st.th an Ii be auteol. (ill~Jtible line) t ([COYDe Hl!rJJnJ..I:t!ttTIe. 1JmnortaJ. [ [I came J J enquiring how I may come unto the land / I p. (Thatvr.of's" thief.hly and he B. hO [Land there carneJJ a great v&ve of lion-fighting Acheron. t . ..pe l~ .venly and dl'eBl!lS t [CguardianJ)ess" and Sirius 'Who . rCeOIne.!Lnding beside the pit. 289 [ [~nd Bi J Jrth and Dee.. 35 [[ ~0lIlIE! lsi) J s eart.nd watchful" rich see([ded AnJJubis t . . Hither .

. fol~Qwing a suggestion of D~s~ousseaux. fat. considering of tbe \(ork .. llad up to the thirtee-nt.r iii. Pl!l2j'Ti ~ III s pp.nslat ion 182 C[Ko-kyt-us J J and L. very valuable conception <55>of epic" I ~self haveiJ:Jserted here. 289 mg). or tbe P~i:sistratidest <50>verses. .ed both in the arch! ve 6 p.:ransla.291 I of' the anci e~t.te. a.h in Rome near the baths of' Alexander in the beaut i- <65>fUl library in the Pantheon which I myself designed for the Emperor.a 0 r Cs. J I you will find this vnole 50 pas B age depos i t. t over much I ¥~"l.he Poet him- 45 :s eo.lf suppress ed the ~ est 0 r the invoca! t ion f~or the sake ()f t h~ digputting together the other to the progression nity of' the vork.d epl:iJ po110[iJs egno-.v Tra. 55 Of Julius Africanus Kestos 18 lGrenf'ell and Hunt rea. (ltsince I £IJll occupied in many thir)g~ s I . .. in his notes on line 49 {Les Cestes.th~ and lrii ght i e st Polyphlegetllon" [(and a ghJJost army standing round about and 'side the pit.\'''J {B. "1 should much like to know" (Ox::rrr.e from his t.. thus having the overwrought part l' t. He omi t:3 the pa. an d i 0 ~iy"s.ynchus.tiorL on p.. ego on • .3sag. ").herland t -< 60> Colooi a.TJ. p. .( Cnd first)] came the soul of our cocrrrade Elpeno:r" [Col ~ 11 / . . Ae1 ia Capi toli oa of Palest ine. Bond t. 39 and 40.. . . detached these. respectively). sl~gests reading .. Vieillefond..ew th~m fo~eigh t 1 llhich as a.ransla.. 2138.Q so on} Whether then.

eat broth . . make a broth 5 f'rO:ln the.pter 22 From the Kestoi of A:fricanus . p.. 7 (1928).. Also published by Max Wcllmann y MDie tY~IKA des Bolos De~okritos und der to1agier AnaxilE!.'t-ives ~ ~...t~'I' I b itself with a. Cha.183 Kestos 13~ Chapter 22 The Kestoi Fragments 1 VI.297 r Kestos - 13 ~ ". Philosophisch-histori5~h~ Klasse t no.er: having boiled the white beet~ <depositing> into ~~otber..:rly~ t~e A painless evacuation for spring juice of safflower seed be ing mixed vi t h whey f'rom milk and drun. 70. But a summer purge is this. linen~ little blended That more su.en juice S1r:earen on the navel is an active purgative..itable f"O'I' wint.'it..e. 'by Miller ~ tlZ u Julius Af'ri~a:nusPr (1881). = Teil It" AbhandJ. CyclfIJC. little 8019. drink.05 13. also J bQilli!lg it.h ~.. ne~ ve~sel.ungen der preussischen Akademi~ der Wissenscbaften.11.os au'S Larissa. Kf!'st. hav~ng 43 8 brayed gourds in a mortar and drinking with !l baving strained the juice .~r~: c:~ t 2<"1 1 Simple " purac. then stirring the silllila.. ith honey for purging..at · 15) 0 p. and be~orehand ~ithout bread~ these t the beets. ~irst publisned.

T 1 p.303 But Herodot us 1 ndeed says t 'hat no one produced..li us Af'ricanus. T"n@->:I first of it l' tha.s.i" ./ but it is di vid~d into E-:' f"i ve parts.he:n the s~c::ondt the->Jn the: rest. Vie1l1efond gives tbe text of Theophrastu5 Hi~t. .:.eeveral points (marked by the use of &ngle br~cket.. and they take e:way the cinn~on to sell.he one hand. II In Les Ceates (p...:..t bird.mQ!.op" [<t. entirely. 9. but by exper1en~e~ I aS6ert the cinnamon plant to be similar l' to a. lOriginally pub11s:hed by Vl@!illefond as "un fragment 1nedit de Ju.c:aJ Jttle and dismember them .1 That publication gave the text in 19 lines. Besides other· di~ferences in details~ Afriean1. in order.s build acceS::liible rock.Transla. It is stripped ot~J. if they believe these particular birds to be earn1vorous~ r~leaving th~mJJ 5 out. on t. bush and [<nJU1toi .5 within the square brackets) which Vieillefond leaves Qilen.. but the height as :oruch as 10 thri(~ce.he but those near us sa((crifiee:lJ lJIS1l. It 'Ilae accocpanied b)r the text and !l trans!ation of llerodotus 3. 5. folloytog the lines of the manU6cript (th~ de-tects are generally at tbe lett edge of the original cOlumn).y ([. to vb1ch the latter :part of AfricanuB I EI account 1a very edmilar.. .m dvellings and fill them until they are bQrne down by theveight. The natives are not able to go up to t.tion 184 Concerning Cinnamon From the Ke s to1 of Afi'i ~anus ~ Concerning Cinnamon }mow5 hQl. 111.It>] sim[ <il8. Based on this parallel ~ I have conjecturally completed the text ~t .in sight.) to the agnus.t [~cut off to'Ward> J itg t./ The birds 'Carry the carcasses up "to their o. on the one hand. 303 mg. ne5t~ c i nnBl!lon is of cinnamon on the tops of inp~a. :pl.k.branchi ~> ] and thil! tree appears C.1 to i'these bj" us.. Herodotus pridea himself on knowing this fable.ls changed He:r'oaotus t s " Arabians. re lines 9-12). out the. .

P A mordant for every dye is this: t 31] first the aninIal or also the fleece is v&shed well.ng1 1.demiska Bo~)andeln~ 1913.185 Cinnamon I Dyeing The Kestoi Fragments.ong tl:1I:1e-. rather than correct. treed of the moisture..:rter ho:vin@.llefond. Then one must dissolve the al'Wll in villegar and Ei110int vbat~'ed. Otto L4gercrantz. Holm. VIII: • Conc:er111ng 1 .. eve-r ntay need to be Having dried in the sun t i t i!l vaahed well and when entire1:. 32-33) wool. KCl- 1-6. wash it off in brine. Of Afr i ci anus t frof!l Book 3 [P. 0 f Afr1 c i anus 't s Book ~ Produ'Ct i on of' Bright Purple [Po p. 1913).DUS \Ii t.boiledit-. !( 6.ing to Afric6. and Leipzig: Otto H~irasso~itz.t er .ordant.ecus Holmiensis (Uppstlla: Aka. 7.h Viei. 19-2 T. il.309 Holm.ndleave for B.dmit the (a. 2.Goakthe"'oola. Lagercrantz t pp. for "thus it may a.· .ndtaking it out. then in ( tre::oll )vtr.nu6 1 1n the heading ..ction) of the m. Lagercrant.:te:l. it admi'is dye. I have folloW'ed Lagercra.. Pap:"l"us Gre. soak in 1 cho(inix) of cr1mno$~ Taking the mordant~d ~ ella of' seaveed-s..nd a night. l.. . 5 n~~essary But it is to keep the I thing being mordanted in the mordant a day I!I.ntz and the MS in retaining 'the fOrtrl Afric1a.

ers.' fo)" stings of venomous beasts 'With tbe 11two-fac:edu plaster ~ and he lOr ~ tlnavel.in s typti c compounded c r a:ppend~d d . of a ma.h ill!' the stars are under the ea. . ~Tog'S br~in 1 ~nclosed in a linen rag...alye (:opper.t nAFAl!. This man both dra:Wfi lnilk from craftsme.ss (Westermann.3I7 1.le.l1 t being about to e:nte-r into in~ith a teTcourse t should anoint the member with harers blood or fat...fI.er goose means a male'!) and by the 1a.lation 186 Th~ Kestoi Fra~nts. Michat21 Psellus. He also makes a 1or"OlIlAn sterile..tive having been c appended to her."'1ng the voice fro~ 1ria .rth. IX: Citations p. There is also made by 10 him oth~T conception pr~otirtg eompounds and art1f1ces~ and child-I begett i ng pla. I Be makes a. and he "dll beget 44 in a c:rafts:manlike manner t if the ma. as I indeea believe.... and t Ij. re:lrledj. ~d. he ~auses them to deliver quiCklY.rea~ts by . and he corrodes e f 25 even gol d with sal:i va.nlike: l!Jethod.. b. 1. dyes hair 'lol'bite 'With powdered lith. Concerning Curious Readin.lso and he vould gi1fe t. and it is a. but by the fO'Y'Ill.. a contracep.arge. He also makeS a prepe.. bclo'lol'. For those having difficult deli~ryt a jet stone being put into the Je~t hand.he dries -up vith a s.tter a fe:na. but) Af'ricanu5 says that generation is a. boughs of mulberry t There is by b 1211 a certa.ddene d dog.st. He a." See the discussion in Chapt(!r III.O~OrPA¢OIt 'pp.Trans.he po\!'er to it by a certai n secret 81Ji?11. kind of" c:raft.and tragacanth.1::3-46::1 {Cod and Nature produce conception.ration fol" impro.:f b 5 theJr I 'being svollen after delivery 1.

. white popla. and be caJ. For B. Cone ern1ng a.anlike ~ or rathersorcerouB. 35 gat.intai n s undrunken t.ys .r mulOeiriE!s having reeei ved a.i ng the night 1Iith vi ne .h $J1otht!'r drug.nd mis.ls the tood 'Ithief- convi cter.. ing drug for excessive flesb.:rtsm.187 Citations scorpions~ IX.evil SJ::lell of tii.t / j of' eye-s t not by t.. There is made by him also a reduc- He destroys the insects in the .~er he vis-hoes. ~"'''hi te mulberry. ~attle that have :mated. fertility he He p:roduce-s in fields" abd the opposite barrenne-s8 by B."lning in opposit. if one inscribes stone.} speaks a certain voJ'lde1" relating to test ror Be~r~t He produces a certain g h thieves. clearly makes himself public. then at need mixed up with groats and given in advancl!' to the ones under suspicion of tbe purl/lotning ot the things being so~. I the kernel lying in the He stops even pestilence. f:rom bear pudenda t and of other animals and bea.hose pas s. 8.l't@"d B.!lti:pathies.. He fonn. mulberry is &lso supposed to bear the same. Peaches will 25 be inscribed the reddest.ion.ce .n. He 1m D tells marvels of certain belps :from tortoises.s &180 byacynthine He cures bites of asps a. be makes a h~artily. 30 stones an.he. of ta. vii1 bee. either by juice of busam.ht.d smaragdys t and sard.r implant. 1...319 20 <::laims that the one vhotook tbe thing stolen:> I as if" being in a trQJl. Or by He prepares also i Joining t. From droppings and..he known drugs. He ma.st5.mulets and charms. and a wh1 te poplar in 'Which there should 1}e gra. he sa.. woman to urinate and to laugb vheu- A cra. '1line of every sort ..s:c t bi s man speaks marvels.dpoles' tongues cut of"f' and preserved . and another wit. one with heads :01" spikenQrd" another vith flower of mastic . cuIture al..hers the moon/stone f:rom thf!' de'll of 'Plants and the beams of the m.onyx. the urine of' [!Jan to ellminnte and e.gr:5. but by certain a.o<. He p.

on • glfLS& .n tells as details in his Kestoi.~k And certain other I 5uch things as these this me.Ympot.y s. and the sequel 15 a. Single Dy'e l1 .ar. 2: .. He makes both eye shadow and esoteric prepara0 Most easily So by hUn! e1f@t1 the \loman who has 'beer1 in vol ved 45 vith b1sny :men is mo.321 be expelled and he darkens grey eyes. There is by hi1n also a bar to r varicose vein!. alch+ 5!+ 2:75::1 by th~ But salt vas intended I!I.0 vegetables. underground usually.[ Bertbelot-Ruelle.oa1mus. _p.! and some other night-shining thing. He also stops the having of dreams~ and most easjly he causes the after birth /1 to q p. setting :forth certain ni!!'W vays I. mar~~ls ~d 2. t ions. and earths and plants.. and makes the ble.1.ays. CoIl. but he I!l a..88 .dll!! a "Virgin again I.nce~ indeed l Africanu9 al5l-o :s.u Coll~ [Be:rthelo-t-Ruell~. the plant raises up a.so concern- This is a plBJ'lt.cJ::t. tiThe Things util- are B)etale and liquids. des Me. He also puts a parasi'te to p sleep. 8 He speak& a1.. ine. the gorgoniwn. source of mirth to him.mite hair bl&c'k. Zosimus in tfConcerning What tbe Art Has Spoken 'Evel"')'Vhere concerning e.169 J For ized f'or dy~ iJ]~ta. Olympiodo:rns in nOn the 'Concerning Energy' of 2.1.nc1ents that the a.. indeed .rsenic would cup African'Us -etllled not adherr!: to the glass cup. that if girl ghoul d be in vol ved near 1't aec ordi ng to Aphrodite's rule .t 'toe sigbt. and quenches loves+ 50 white.Jd curiously watches the goings on. aJ. If 3. He both kindles s He makes . de!3 anc.. vhich as.

ogether pertec:t only six da. E.s that.ginal Creek stysida . 165-86] s~s As Africanus the Babylonian d1J.t us .. Anonymous in MS P8.1'"a. 6 g!'a~cus 2286 Parisini~ des m~ Ale.le child. the stone is no longer transparent sign that it is ripe. 'this may relate to the (h-eek at. Helm suggest. but if he anoints vi th goose fat he vill produce a. Helm.ris i nUS [C~t8L IX. female. p.rk~ it is a 6.. Lebeque pop.io (to ere~t). pp. 45. a suggl!!st1or.ins alt.323 2.a) ..y'St and not..pplying to the b. .. 5. if t therefore. more. Fulgentius t MitologiarUrtJ. R.ig toe and heel~ lIn the ap-p 8. II [5. ed.t4!'d noW. green~ but da. 7.a postula. who suggests an ori.from .4~5 . that is to sa. (Peeudo-)Diophane~ in Gesmgnic& p. when he is about to 4!'rlter into intercourse. .. 322-23.~e that if one ~ishes to pro- 45 a child t before ~om. let him Moint hig mem- bel" with hare's blood .es. chap. 71.l further developed by Vieillefond (Les C~st..v . bk.ing together with tbe ""Omal'l. lines 17-19J The atimulBti~g plaster vhieh Africanus the medical pro~essor called ustiside:m"1 hi!' pres<=rib-ed a. in 9Pera~ en.189 Citations 4. 'II t vol.. Henr.and he will produce a roa. 3. ~ckh. 1 ~ 1&8 ed. P.stysis. EX. p~ 163 t ~ines 13-15) For the t'ollO'\o7ers or Demctrituli and Africa-nus say the grape rell18. Ful gentius Mytho1ogy I:F. note.

. Figur~ 3 L Hj'pCtthetical Reeonstruction of the Pentagons in the Kestoi.Trtlllsiation 190 ..

] Of Afric:a. .sness o.rthie.dorf 1: 38.nt of' evil of race . 2:2q]-42) .. 9.f tbeir eccou. 6) [= MIT' 6~13l. £1.h lriagie &nd sore ery.. ITherest of th{! fragment in Rout. (eou ... the being~ g1~ts) through who~ the evil bavil1g come into God drt@:rmined to onli terate every 1 faithless kind of beings in a flood...wles. 5J .gment 2.c~ou.nus: Concerning the "Watcher5 r! 461chr 1 Multitu. n a.. 1·the sons of God.191 Chrono8rap~ Appendix: Selected Fragments Chronograpku r o~ the 46/1.es of" men hELving become upon the earth...Js ChronoBle." In some copies W~ find) But it is being !"e~ounted.h (= 8. S:Jmce11l. \i'ho deli ve-red o. Kelatmd of Phrygia. "vhich ve knOTft' to be in Pe.:ro.d. from whom ~hey produced children. angels of hea.39. !t notes.. sa-cr..l plleno~~na. labels "those from Cain tlmen' s !. Fragment VII (first part)]1 (Rel. Al"o. (it is) of those C"onc erne d loti t. botb of which Afric~~us says he bas seen.. fra.pbiB. on of the lfl...g so called because those being traced!'rom hi:m a:re both right.. they being mixed together) the vexation to God was produced.. the sonG of God bein.eous and patriarchs until the SELvior."lt nature. 11-35.t. la.5 ! consider lo :from Seth..en CaJ!Ie together with daughters of: men.>eed~" But he as having nothing divine. and more ) of pO'lW@"r o·f nUl!lbers.terpassage in Syncel1us Le~L D1 rJ. But if he is eonsid~~ed to hold this concerning the angels.. and on Ei.e knowledge of c-elest1a. . . both thetr~ditional landing site.er to vomen t'h. Dindorf 1 :3J~.")d the 5ugg-ested altl?rnat(!'. !louth. 'Whic h be gins wi t·h the last line of the preceding) reco'Unts also the landing or the ark.

2 =249-50 L ~ ~cellus (ed.. h63~ ed. CBlDe :But this ma.c ra. Le.:r:s: Who raised the great4!'st pyroamid. Routh 11 Fragment XL (ReI. Joan Damase. =Chr Txansldtion 192 41/2.:ter.reasure. as 1 a.. ". 1: 107.3 ) .y of Africa.s saying 2 the ode" the oonds:l' being iron. 63 yea.a reported by Sync::ellus (Dindorf. t. cited from: . John.ere shattered .! toward the gads s B 0 that. Paraliel~ lit."1t" 8. aacr. le£'. wthii::h seems to have begun its account several dynast.r 2 2nd . Ro~thll frag. 8-11) 47/c:b.. vhich Her-od.. :rv .Souphis.nd saying the ode spoker-J by" him. and he escaped from tbe prison o:f the As 5yri an s + .fled. Djrn..) Compa. €~ tit...ot'Us say-a va."l a.App.n or Armenian ve-rsions of the ChrQoicon. 'Were shn.lecta aa. great value 10 bei ng in Egypt 10 I pl'ocUJ"ed for royse 1 f • 48/3.rded by A1"ricanus~ the.lian\tl. J oannes Mona~hus in ~~.quien 00.ghtly longer form giv~n by Pi tra.nent XI. 2: 28 B.ies le. found in either the Lati.. U) 48/cbr 3 It is reco.ng iron . Anl!l. 1.tte!"..ed 1o and he. Eusebil1s'a accou. an unknown seventh century monk) ~ 11It is recorded by lIe. "who alsO had be<: Ol!le supe rc 11 ieu!. 276. D1ndorf 1=105. sacr. 7~ p.re the sli..s produced by Cheops.lso be- haughty tovard the goda and composed the sacred book" which. n (This pili.t 'Iothile :MtLilas5~h'WQ. 2: 292 (from t:od~~ Cois. hi~ bonds:lo bei. a.nus 2 that ¥i'hile Manaeseh wag confessing.. 6. tol. 162" as f:rom. S. hav!ng repented 10 he C::OIIIp'Osed the aac:::red 'book" which the Egyptians treat as: a great. .a~age is not. (Rei.

hovev-er ~ does not distinguish th~ Kestoi trom Af:rir:a. roe fe rs to the nat U!"e of' much of the eontents. hQ1lever.s magi ce.nug Also..8~t li t~rQ:ry (01"" appro~ch and contents. a non-Chris.o be Consi.6-58.ges I!lan- "hieli C'ah only su~h b~regarded by moderns a. the audience 'VOuld be one living in a largely pagan environment.bor in prese-nt i ng 'them..nus" S 'Wl"itings especially the Kestoi'll ve find . while vri ttenf'ol" a Christian audience a.l.estes. . Thi s cha:racte r i ~atiot:l.AFRICANUS· S VIE\rI OF MAGIC ~ In Afr1ca.tian one). . ibid.1.t the author is "In"iting for Dias).h largely Christian qu@st1ons .e. The Chronography and the le-tters.. 11.. A~ica. The latter is anecdotal rather than !3YQ. li'P.ch to th~ qu~stions addr~ssed.CHAPl'ER III . Pus-ages t. E1till mani fest a basically "objective~" "5cient1:fic lt approa.ritings. considerably lli:fferent world :frOIQ that in the otber early Christian .~ _ 1 a.nd dealing \ot!t. 4l-L2L even so. This viewpoint~.ffel'ent perspective.i$sagee }:Qu. (Note also.tel!lB.lt~nts prl!'~is~ly and the viewpoint and purpos i!!S of 'the aut.. ifestihg fine more knowledge and interest must be studied in order to de"the na. 193 .ation of the vork. 2This is true even if' Vieillefond is correc't tha.an audience at least..tic. "pp. and the vr1 ter l s attitudes toward them) not ttltbe organi 1.1.lOra Jews (. The K4!stoi is 'Written :fronJ a di.at be considel"ed~ It is questionable whether sOLlIe bi' lIt could also be characterized as "scientific" in intere!3ts.de'red In the discussion of Afric6J1us' s knowledge of magic 10 a number 01' pl.Les c.nus· s other vritings.ture of their eot. whatever his Qttitude toward them t presents a number o:f procedures The pas a i:l. ). it has a secu1.nd is addreEised to 2 a pag.

pages~ In the fOllcving a briet list of the Buspect passages an d of is pre-s f!:n1:....bedrock on which nlagi~ is :f'ounded ~ bu. Bj3r~k.J is IJ-roper.e quarr:.ny of its building blocks a.~i will be pre-sented first (in th(!.o modern stu. ~d !Hes:s. Africa.~aticns or nature . f1Abergl. rt • 3 lThe pa...rvey vas.ube . has devoted toe ~9t attention to AfTicanus aroong modern studies...e s~rstitio1. but they present at least a. While stich eo distin~t1or. Note Rie!33· s di.. part 1 (lB93)~ cols. " PW~ 1.s (l!U1d "rl9. lmpO . prov1·:ie a..ssages.1se beliefs") must be included in t. ideas bal:i'ed on el"rOtleOl."1us'S Viev mag1~.us' 5 other major writing" the ChronOgraphy.r. from auperstiticn (ibid.lS obsel".. surface ap- others are cleliU"ly magical.nother source :f"o.order of Vieillefond· s Les Ces..ed disCUSlSio!l2 of" these passages of pos5ible magical. ~ols..uperceded.r lJIagi.") So even if prov('!t) guilty of being irrational. next to Vieille~ond." i e'll of the11" natures ~ of' their appearance if.et.) ~In the dis(:us5i~nt t .ert procedures pres~ribed for their use. the on1~1 conrplC'te one 'lIp 1:.sti nction between supersti tionas f'olkbeliefs ~ 8.ls Af"rit:MUS preS~ntB.! the text.s a broad !aeale study-So has not been s..194 t.a. This la5t area does. ) ".t it also provide:s th. For this reason SOlIi.. ~e di vtliing line between the tvo categories of billgic and supersti t i on is admittedly vague 10 'but an attempt.0 hi s time. has 'been mad e to distinguish tl)ose items which are actively magical from those which are only pass 1 vely Buperstttiou. Riess's eou..Tl.l!ld ~ to g1 ve an over. of Africa-nus.he. 1 the ol"de t- This il!> followed by a topicallY organi1. this really JIlakes it lOOre valuable for comparison with the type' of materia.cal practice:s.ion of Riesg1s eXQJDpl€Ei come frotrJ Pliny. (Though a very large proport.teg) s then those iTo:m Africa.te:rs have no such pa.s the (mis )use' of such 'b1!liefs in attempt-a to gain JX'Wer over t h ing!3 ("Ab-erglaube:J" co1s.dies 'besides'lieillefond 1 s a. 8Jld ~ a. :U-32). superstition is not only the..di s cus 8 ion t even though there may be no o.sa:age5 from the Kest.re especially used = BJorck. (The l.re draV!J.d magic_ a.e.hem really relate to pea:rance of doing 50... ..1s item. 32-33). however.from vhith :m. l'Apsyrtus'l. 29-93. he further distinguishes false beliefs.

1-9 7· I. l-~ pentagon 1 10.penta.Imitating the gods. 5. 1-3 lie e or bedbug s 13. L 5.InsomD iac preparation s: HYI'no 5 lClted by part (in Rowan DUDlerft. 12. 6-18 .'IHoplocri ama": Bpe11s 6.la.Poison drink~ fl.Div1n1n@. 17-20 . 1. 1~12 te~th ~th signs 11.gon 3 with 5igns.Stones and cocks t. poisoning food: eni!nalG pentagon 1 with musical ~ign6 2.Hor se:-tro'llbler : (drug in) pentagon 8 with aign Ii 12. a. b. head (? !II (mixtureJ i. .Passages to be Considered ~95 From the Kesto i 1. 10.Poison a1r:sne. .Preventive veterin~~ mediciPe: smoked volf flesh'i rotted dog· B. 53-55 I.er. e. 9. 1. a. t 111-35 . 20-2B .kea: . 13. (7) l. 1-11 .1s) I chapt. Ibid9 t 86-98 . . and line of Vieillefond 1 s edition or the text in Las Cestes. 1. 23-30 Horse-taming: inscription .nfused into left nostril) tl b.pentagon 6 +"rith signs da~ns~ a.pentagon 2' \fitb signs 3. 11.nimals .Plaque (~): pentagon 4 vith signs .U:omBnageable lfIules: cf.. 8-11 . 6. ~. 2. I. a. 8. above (pentagon 6) U : 3-5 L box :seed and 'Water chestnuts. 4. 1'r. trom horses (seeing eyes) color of L 9. 57-69 1 . Ibid. 1-21 I. 3.

22. III. II. . 20.Destro. 11-1~ .a. d. 1-7 volf's astragalus (cf. . _. a.. 17.. 22-32 Africanus's View . 33-43~ tl : bat t shead aI:ld wings - pentagon 9 vith signs b.r:. be-an shi!"ll.Frequl!nt. 4. II. III.Cloaing a WOUDd~ bulb plaster (?) 21.Insomniac pre:pl!l. rl : B~ll and mythological support (?) '\I8X 16.Horse breeding: p!"@-det. 5 . infant urine. III. a. _. 1-2 III. 1-6 .10.Ophthalmics: stones in tlestlings' gi:t. 1-11 1 or power 5. 26.. 4.ermining sexes Resto~atives 2. 1.de pot {? ) 8. 15-19 tl the Bame.196 b.rl.II. 3. III. IlL 7.For elephantiasi.- .It1er pendant.ing . 1-4 .Preventive for hQrses: deer 8r. II.Anoint ing 01" I!Lrrovs: heat in ne'W'-:m. lines 45-1. aas-s right ear 17. g~l 28-32 32-37 rr frog's eyes ~d g~ll e. partridge ga~l~ vulturE! 'e ey~:s a.Against miscarriage: rewora fish 29. II. 8.s: sun-dried h!'dgehog liver 23. 1-2 III.. beck- grounds (ct.s . c. 19. . det. 5. 2+ . II. 3.Uds b.ythologicaJ.. lr 7 .enniD 1og l:iexe s . copper 211. 1-6 .For much milk: milk stone . easy interC'ourse: skink's fiesb in viDe 27 r I l L 6..Sleep producing compound: includes :frcqr. 1-1.r&t1ons: =. 1-7 26.ring trees: 6ea-ray st. I.Stopping ho~ses~ 18. for epilepsy 20-27 _.Ala 1"or birt. - tI Ga1V'e of ivy root.1.9) 15.h. 1-1 .

35.Tumors and warts: dog urine clay fI : :3-3. third hour 42.•tabbas" on tin sheet 38.Apotropa1c against BcorpionE. in hexagon 7. 31. 16. 1-2 - Mange~ Bea-urchin body Ill. 15. 12. . 1-2 Acrocordons~ serpent slough Ill. 23.Colonic: right t. ..Soothipg feet: figs S'W'fltJ III. 1-8 3-5 . V .Purgat i ves: eye lamen jute e over n9:vt!"1 n : • • • FJ. it 'Wild ifioe. 1 . 31. lC-ll . 1 III. IlL. III. 1-6 b.Various bite-s and stings~ brains of fI. 11-12 II urine of a child frogs boiled vith 'Wine!! (against beasts and toads) c. 36.E!st. 30-32 31.Maggot s: pure water with "phys ic ian • s fI "finger .Horse marking5~ pu1s~~ 4l. 1-3 III. 32. 4-6 . 18-19 II d. 17. 35.t~ hedg~hog &shes III. line 1 ~ . VI.1"oot 8. a. 11. &. 6-9 - plants III. IIL 22. .. III.d ot bit.For dropsy: (:!'Oli f'a. . living hen b.ic1e of . 40.Fracture: dog' IS brain in bandage .Passages to be Considered 191 30. 34. new ves se 1 . 18.Asp bites: 'bedbugs'll torta ise ur in@" to I!:t c .ing MlimfLl (fresh or ashes) e. a.Dys1U"es.-36 Ii hea. III.l~ . 19~ 1-5 . 3L. III. 36. 1-2 .: virgin t eo gir-ell e SOA.pp-ended sev~n 39. at first moon. 1-2 . 32. b.OXyrbynChU5 papyrus ~12: nekyamanteia 43.

16-11 .sts~ producing ttdlk or reducing c.Aids from etc.fat gODg~ - a.198 4~. IX~ l~ Africanus's Vie~ lines: PsellUS t Peri paradoxon anagnosmaton .Puts parasites to sleep 117-~8 q. p.Generation of sexes: hare's blood or . 15 . '.i ve pendant: f~ogt 5 navel in linen.f. h.Stops dreams t brings dO'"r1IJ afterbirth. . darkens .Cures • • • : amulets and charms 32-3~ - C~uses elimination as a joke: cattle excre- tions 1. 3~-35 - F~rtility &nd barrenness in fields: antip- I!Lthiea:.Kleptelencho?: tadpole tongues 26-27 Stops Festilence: balsam tanning juice~ or s~ell of J. h4-46 . 30-32 .Scorpion p&radox 17-22 . Moanston~ tortoises~ 31-39 . 11-13 - Styptic~ syc~ne branches appended~ :spell e. (1) 35-36 n. o. k.Antipathy to beast plast~r ntvo-:f'aced l l g. i. .!i1~ 15-16 .Rusts gold vi tb mad dog saliva bite.Contr&c~pt. 5-6 6-11 - Bres. 1-4 b.Restores virginity h6-47 . birth and conc~ption aids secret d.

{Tni6 :fee.· ill be designated their numbers in the preceding list.I'Conce rn i ng t. penta- goP series is also marked "by a pair of m. 3• 5 1 6• 1.. B.M&nY other sucn things thia man teratologei and expounds ~5.h to frag.usical signs in each figure. .nd broken che.bove a. . .in inforttls. n . ri. XI. 8 .J eXtLD'lP1e.a. frag. these ptLssae.. no. 11.. Rout. it. IV.Manasseh t S ode.l nmpp").. Certe. to are li. Psellus.s sage.nked together by references to pentagons. 1 as being round in hexagon seven.~S . usually preceded 'by the abbreviatiOn "mprl {plura. " nmagleal procedure. 9... and 15 e.Kindle. .Pentagon Passages. t.a. XL . r. &~d some othe~ s. 't frag..nd quenches loves 50-51 .gor.. Dyn.he I \riatc herG • It 47/chr 2.ins Pente. 44a) From the ChrQnogra:phy 46/ chr 1.tioned in th~ £iole surviving h~x. ~8-49 199 night shining thing .s numbers 1. 11 Md/or Mma. 4.gon Pe.c. 2.1n pa. 48/chr 3. for "magicfLl passage .tion r~- lating to the respective procedures is said to be found at the end in 5uccessively numbered pentagonS2 or) in the cas~ of &nOth~r't mp hl. Besides the referenc~s to the tb~ number of'the 'figure'lo and to the inf'ormation .t'UJ'e is not l!Ien..ssages A numb-e-r -of the subject passages (or ttmag1c~1 passages") t those 1 isted fL. 1-li .Souphis' s sa<:red boo}!. VIt <a'> .found in. above.dis~ussion.) b~r lThroughout the. " .Generation of sexes Lcf..

"Pour 180 premiere fois .g. lvL In Q "Comrnur.nge . In 1932.cteristic of these paS5l:a." pp. .lre 5 P'u.2 but lfithout :specifica. p.ses 1 . . this absolute assertion vas modified 1960" by provision o~ a fev examples of their occurrence (Les Cestes. Besides this th~ hElve v~lue 1 to us as providing the intonnatior:. t .n5 This redu. 11 .rently convinced him that this statement vas too broad. I 4 5tes Cestes p. " Jules Africain fa. texts. of KestQs 7 for the pentagons}.it appel d I une A sea vertues oe<::u1tes. ing pent~gons l~ 8~ and 9~ and hexagon 7. 46. in 1960]0 it vas reduced to "Afl"icanus fa. and even magical.rC~5~ 2speCifiCal1Y st. pl"ises • .. tor. s~hat in 15a~ and 41. Julea Africain.ges is the reference to the pentagon (or hexagon} itself.1.ux pentagones pour donner plus de force l 5~~ recettee magiques. Vieillefond noted the absence of pentagons from ancient literary .A neuf' re- voit nettement decrit et.. et mani~l"e bien etr. ~6t n. .ction in the a. . 11 en appelle au pent~on(!:.ion in theiruse= The numbers assigned to each are sequen~ial and 5e~ to have no significance other thBJl !.n atteDJIlt to stow a specific: magical. 1 These figures are located nat the end t 1. dans lea Cestes.11 4 Furtber study RJlpa. U Cf.)" Viei~lefond had asserted that Afr1canus "a recours a.ated in passa. :p.in~ p.rpQSe'S The foremost chQl"fl.icfLtion.ccompanied~ introductory statement vas hovever" by a.it un abondant usage de ces f'igures gEometriques _ A neuf reprises • .cceBsi ve figures.tion of whethe:r of the vhole work or of the individual Kestoi {e. regard- 3Jules .l\frics. 266-67.a. 63). &lso. that references to (at least} si::<. 3 on ~e He continued. "SUl'" deux signes magiques'l {Revue des ftudes grecques 43 (1930): lix-lx. 1'\1'1. (:onne-ct...200 Africanus's Viev The f igt. other hexagons are apparen'tlr missing from our 80u. Bardyi' tl Un encjr cloped1ste chretien. utilise.lerving to distinguish the s'U.

in th~! but only as a. Kenyon. 50 p. place to put them.he pentagons . 122+ 109 note. the first 'Was to have been found "at the beginning of the 'book".s !DeMing. but Vie111efond t g discu6sion does not seer. . .:agans in the magie and superstition simple decoration) (and or numerous peoples f:r~~ ancient to modern times ~ 30f but there is not-hi ng really ~ontpe. 116).lle:fond has provided instances of the pop- ularity of pentagons and heJP.and hexiL80ns serve as p:rop~vla~ti~ amulets! ar. the pentagons themselves e. vol. Tne only spe-cific exuple (for the forn. H 3Ibid • ..re not otherwise used or even referred to (prophylactically or 1e any other manner}.!.1oi ms. Kenyon [and H.d.Contrast with this the figures ref'erred to In the London Magical.n to be that specific as to i t.lolPon. Bell)" Greek Pftpyri in the BT1tish Museum. little later'lI he aS5U11lea that t. recette ~ Africanus ne designe point par leur nom les @tre-s ou les choses reprSsent.f pp. the last occu. 1. 204 9" 918.1·6-47.). 2 In the 'background discussion 5o Vieoi. Inde-<!d" they can hardly be said t. 1893J~ 92" 113~ 120. F. Papyri which had 50Jll.e: .er~ propr-. lIbid.1 A. .Is. [London = BritiBb MUlH!um 5o 1893-191j). 1. but be provides no real evidence for ~ither funct. gttmd.ylactic WZ'lu1ets) is ·'1' usage habi tuel du scea\J. either in i"~spect to their secrecy (1) or their potency.pp.o be used at all by Af"ricanus! they Just sit 'tber-e. . 5 vols. 50 2 Ibid . -42-45 .ion.Pentagon Passages 201 Obeissant a ~a.e to Af'ri (: anus 1 s use them. 1 (ed.aining 5o etc.d thE'n 5p-eakS of' their co-operating fOT the &Chi~ve-:ment of the most diverse EU::tB (mil! tary uses! horse tr. SUnless th~ir prop~rlacti~ function is seen as that of safe~ guarding tbese items. .e close cocnectitm with th. ~ Key ing!"edients or phrases are listed. Further! in the single instance where a .e procedures be- ing given (:eI. S~~ alao p.gique sur '1 1 interdiction le vo~abu­ lair'!!! "t et aftn de ne pas detrui re paT avance 1a vertu d.. 49.rab1.. G. dE'! Se.5 The use of' the f'igure"s does not seem to b-e for pm-poses o.es.e. 121.QfL.ra at the end of the boQk l but immediately foll~~ng a reference to it.

.. . 129.l explanation that to fit. 5.he situat. 2. pp.boro. 345). 13.he pentagon (no.o he to V1eil1e~ond dissipation of power b.uest.lle refe-r-ence is nJa. rere:renC~ is made only to "the Latin exp:ression . mgico. lLg ~ referring to L 6. 133 {=pentagon sixl)t there is no melltiot:J of the pentag0I1.. IP h . but what? a~oid It doeSl'lot rea~ly seem t.ident that small credit adheres to guessiog i t (lines 50-51 L Since Africanus still proceeds to record the information in the pentagons in these cases.i ) . .y speaking them in advance.its case~ inclusion in t. p.. 165 and 161. ~ els~ is J!o~gible?5 SOnJe :sort of magical conpa. 133. spoken apell 'What (pentagon five). 6. .se would he 'to of th~:se passages is extant (1. In one inatance~ noted info:nnatioTl 1 a given in t.r that there is no blanke-t. 5Vincent seemed to assume tha.1 the signiri~ant 2 beror~ t. p. there must be sOme other purpose for doing so. but he gives no proof or e1fl.ppea. u. p.202 Af'ricanus I s View r~al secrecy.o uld 6.ch ca. In another the b8t~ the identification is so self-e. 46+ Spoken spe~lt 1.rB.11~ls B0 vention? Thi51 could be a. .. 6~. re the serpent thrissos (T.i:ff'erent reason in ea. 3). 121}_ 21.iQns involving the pentagons do type of charm and only one involves a.p.:s~3 since most not involve ~ t. 3-h~ p.ssumed~ but there are no to supIt S(!'C"ICS port it.t they funct.. .ioned as some sort of ta1 isman lo If vi th the 2IlUsie:!U signs :serving to Iii st·inguish them~ t1 en meme temps qu 1 i completer leurs vertus occultes n (nt~otlee sur trois manusc1"its . 17. also on~ written charm (in pe~tagon 6)t I. .be text t by Vieil1efond. 3 Les Cestes.1. n 1 cr05~-reference to on~ Les Cestes~ p. 3~ p . t makes the s e fi gures puz zl ing. 33-34 lLIld 50-53.de to . 1. as 01' s'LI.ion. 117- 21.. 26-28. that is part of vhf!. 47. 27-28 t p. but to arg1:Je for a d. + • gi YEm :above (prokei ta.

vs. .B.le . Over a century ago ~ thi s schola.s Vieillil!!fond points out (Les Cestes ~ pp.ion '2 ~us i cal ser i e s.." ~ They are gen- di~tonic sca. 34~-59~ ~o-1l1. la.moeides enke1tai (pentagon 1.toniC' note that pr~cedes it in the list .ptai (pentagon 6). t..1) j.as a pai r of' nms:1 cal s i g. not shed any lcrs.e.rumenta. . a.ctue.lgegr. duplications. 1711. ~erkeit &1 (i. ~1-·b8 L. as pa. Thes e signs. and table facing p. in his generally excellent discussion in Pauly- . Their positions in the :pentagons are variously described.IJ. UNotice aU!" troili mauu5crits. to be significant either.re descrihed in the t~xt both b:t their function in the theoretical sca.l" and lrinst. ~ra.ter 'Writers ~ ~ does. 1 but seem not.l perfoI't!'lance. they are simpl.l!ie not.·' pp.ps a Ii terar. but. had attraet ed.rly att~nt. a.:lues of the notes se-em not fI./llly the same as the dia. Thus s perbaFs the reason should be sought in another realm.1.. Kroll... 128~ a150~ briefly.Pentagon Pa~sages 203 resort to ~pecial pleading. s. involv~ they 2FUl"'tht'!l'..he vrite-:r? Musical signs Is it perha. 3 Unfortunately~ this~ no core tha.rt of broader notice con- cerning the realm of an~ient music.e nta.g • .bet }... the 6.3vince-nt. mixture that. 'WoUld not take place 111 a.gons 7 and 8). Letter to the President of the: Academi~. eaeh of the 't'Wo ~nhfll'mOnic notes is musie. 73-74~ 100-9~ 1J E.n tbe mor-e passing !"ftferences b~.le~ but they include a. e:r. p. of Vincent.>r the first nine notes in the-oreticiao·s list of erally those of the th~ notes of the "Lydian mode.c! by their form (variously positioned and/or modified l(!"tters of the alpn6.mmoeides enkeitai (pentagon 1). to be signi fic·aJ1t+ The musicaJ.rdevice t a "conceit" of hav~ oCi::as!aD We 11'111 to repeat this sUggestion l&te:r~ In each pentagon .rts . a.lso two notes of the enharmonic scale and one from the chromatic . the "voca.1r signs for the sB.

. ) .4:!rt in ancient music theory. H:~re again~ o~:!! as "With the pentagons themsel VE!lJ ~ th@re is no Mor suggested :for 5 the notes.assertions J 10 chap. ADIong ani~s 'Wissm..1 Other features Biological depic'tionG The animals and plants depicted \fill bedis. Unfortunately this tyPe of' hasty genE!:rfl.. the umus iJca. math. V ieille fond.Vet..es tour lines to it ~ and his coments seeJll to S\l..1.gical s1gni:f1cance of the notes) is i t..~ization is as typical in interpr~t!Lticmg of Africanus as it is a.n.lly. -I.20~ Africaous's View on~y significant light on these pae.t1oD~ the note!3 were chosen c:hie1"ly ~­ cause of "leur forme e::n. II connecting this vi th the cab~listic uses of the alphabet (ibid.gses't that he had interpr~ted th~ge passages in Atric:anus 80S thoroU8hly fl. p .-typical in Kroll's .e3tion" aga.a. to set the notes "But perhaps tbis lack.8.raordlnaire le lettres . and see also p. Vie-il1efond adds his. . 6 (of Thevenot .t those which can b1!!" id~nti- tied El2"e aJ.in" assU!IIin.h!s is a second numel'8.c e.!t savante. serving into their c:Ot':lt.lisch :mystis<:=he Zeichen n is !!2l used by the surg~onto steady his hand.cussed individua.ssociation in hum8J1 thought with malevolent things ~ OT at least are objects of &vl!rsion. Julius Afric:anus. line 2).I such as have s.l. 121 . figu]"'ea~ tive use made They seem to serve 'waS only to further identif'y the This conclusion 0 also ar- ri v~d at by Ii. M!l!"rou... .. :it is not the: musical sign (either alone or in association 'lith the pentagon) lthich is 'the supposed means of causing Sileeple9s ness .self iOignificant. . and in chap. lLes Cestes. own suggestion:!! that since t.." col.a. ~9). (Bu~ this seems to come <:lose to~egging the qu. =Vieilli:!fond 5 1. of progress (or even attention to finding My specific :m. tl1a t they trlUBt have ~ oct! uJ t 131 gni fi cs..~a ~ devot. 11).S he d1st:UlJsed them (US.Ssion. belov~ Here it ma. D~spi te Kroll's .:I1S-Cl.y simply be noted tha..' s :In~nto~ i thi S &rea iI who saw them (in Vieillefond· swords) as il une :manIe:re de numerotation re- cherchee E. line 61-col. 4). 23 (Vieillefond~ I.sages . 120.

his translation on p. o:r.et (though not see. 2.cal proce- du:te. 60-69:0 p.pp. beat (lines 125-26.re u. .Pentagon Passages there are: toads. but is here presented as rather t!I8. In the second (I. II!. II line 126) or lack of air (lines 64-65) would seem to be to mfl. from hexagon). etc + '1 cf. and 2. (m~tal11c?) (perhaps of v~g~t8ble Vieillefond eoncludes it is some sort of subs'tanc~ .. dog brains? ~~.s &1so an. lIlB.sed for poisoning {of food. vate-r.. The sealing of the animals into ja. 1l1-32. the anima.l~d quite nscientitic. the vessel is 1 There va. 126)...riou!.. these &.gons. In the first case.. snakes of va.. 16.io- thanatoi ?). chapp~ 119) . 1-2).gi~al 1 tems are not all used in manner.n ) Onf!. n. But whatever its identity~ it would appear to have b~en some benevolent substance (if of' biologica. a.. 2. This is p:robab1y part of B. or one of the All-heala? [or even o·n1oD.rs to either kill ea. II. p. - cf. 4.li1i ze th~ baleful. 65 arid 125) or to di~ from. unknovn plaque (p. Bond air).lJ. 117. and ".tter-o.ch other (I.1 origin Bomething 8ucha. or die otherwiae. on the contrary.from 'time. Operations involved Three se-ts of' animals. 2.f-f'a.frey.Xi.y magj. SOCIE! origina. B6-98 .1 th~ plant realm ~ eHPhoT'bi a {and an unknovnpulee ~ 1n the Despite theit' generally 6UBpect ass o-c: iatiOI1$ . ef'fects o:f the Temains( sort of bestial bia. b1~ origin?) in pentagon fOUT. It is ne-c:easary to con- eider thil! procedurea in wb1cb they &re used to detl!::rmine. 337.s Com.this. 121 and 123) involve sealing the animals together in jars ~ un~il theJ'" kill each other. The first and third of theae JlTocedures (Cestes 1. those in the "first three penta. 8.ls (suPPOSl!dly three in this case) are simply up together and boiled.'I types t medueae (I) t volyes and 205 bats.

. (~E!: "Ec1oge U [appendix 2 of Jul~s Africain].-erstood by the l'edactoI" of t.ppendix 1 of' Vieillefond. n Rev-ue de 1inE.puta~ tion of the to~d (of whatever 6pecies). e. translo. I!lS QS. dative of oovanta... and with an 6or.. it vould be le 5S wnbi guouslyexpressed bya genitive (perhaps v~th .:: edure (line 6 117-32).ion i f1 evaluat i ng Afri canus ? And the death of both equally? Whate·. 2 .efice: l propos de quelqueg 1.or ek- cO!IIPound instead of the d1e.o in the third pro. 3 Procedurally 11 the sealing seems deeign~d to insure the QUicker 4 death of the captives.. concern1Jlg tbe "Lec-rapaud~ m.206 AfricanJ. Jules It. 78] agrees more closely vi th the text given above hom 1+ 2.omteUX t 132-~O.s£l.'Ilhi1e 1As.H. not the pneuma.. (Or is the s~Q11ng so the viper will have no relief frotll the (poisonous] breath of the toad?) Ee:side5 this. and its contin\ULtion into recent timeg.n ek in the preceding diexodon~ In &n)' case .tper tou ~E!' diapneisthai ti..ting: ne..epirit oX" virtue will be lost ~ 1 sO but it would seem better to take it beasts").. 3 . 68)..) Bjorc~ me ~ieillE!fond so understands it.ge (11 no air vent.~.forn?).listique romaine 29 (1965): ancient reputation of the toad.n energeian (1·A:ps·Yrl~t·' p.ti C' • Then... "50 that there :[ s no exh.ampl~ ~ i!l.alat i an by/ fro~ the "Dea. Linguistically ~ the ronnel" a:pproa~h would be rather tenuous ~ 1 f that vere the meanin. it vould appear to be at a distinct d1. ho~ diexodQn me. and the operative element sought tor use is the liauified remains.oonymes italiens. I1neg 3-4. er the BJ1ei~nt re.parvi~nn~ pas !LUX betes. the pot vas pTes..agi~ et maJ.uite some timet ao 'Who would. is c: lax1 ty a nee es s.f The dati ve might c:oneei vably be t akefl as in stl'"Ultlent8.. but the "Sylloge-' varifLnt does provide e. pro!"! to sin~sthai ana~noen [chap. know wbich had survived the 4 longest? See Hugo Pl. 2 !2!: the tELkea above. p.. tl pour que l t air 3B. where the pneuma might be thoug.)orck t s example might argue against this.l or causati ve ." ~ i..ricain. the somewhat 51 irtIila. 12f'f"~ where the jill" Is sealed h. 116).dvantage in a guerre a outranee 'W"ith a vipf!r. .. a..eehe-in tina ten ton tberion ana~noCin (chap. . .g.ary con s i derat. Africanus vas apparently so und.f. l1 (Le50 Cestes t p. for poisoning air . that none of their .o. p. lines 3-t~. 60). t important .:r p1'oe ed'W"e cite d by from Odei"-Hopp~l' C.umably not to be opened for Q. also.h~ variant of tllis procedure in the "Sylloge .sts •• . •i s.. 2~98. for ex.Js 1 8 Vie'\.

hese t.:re-e l"i"oce2 though the results promised sound d'Ul"es seem fai:rl. On the other handy 'the spread of' thE:! plague described in mp 1 (lines TL.ale. spreading plague that will Yipe out a whole camp . or nation of enemies. and as tou aer05 rJotheuo~nou.8} r-equiree. '1'111s wa.a commu. p.als is p01ll"e-d into the ene~r t S lIater S 'Ilpply. section dis~ussing ULand Allim.nicable or contagious disefl. pp~ 117 and 11. or that will kill a running horse or knock 6 asm~ll bi:rd from the lIn the contra-procedure (Vieillefond.te for the ph:rs a 1 f.e.I11.I mp 2) do Burvi ve it The sand viper.p to intercept "the Hcorru-ptedB.nti.1.sS as tbei:rautho.forms ". Vi-." 1 or tiS~Be of the products of t. .t ur~ of' the "pr oduct 11 L the ma.ltlE:! .-77. rather than air-:tight.l poison such as botuJ..i!un).ir. the threat is referred to both a. :a slow poisoning causing extreme svelling" pain.Pentagon Passage$ 207 close sea.the liquid remains are used in making bread and .. Ba.s to loimikon pn~utna (or simply toupn~umatos).u 2In t.t.econd.lB.p~nd of the ~9. .cteria." bel. or city.v stra..03IlS sOlr~vhat lilt~ those descri.l basis for the f:Lrst t'lotO IlrocedU1"es y it must "fi.nd is a.ow).anation for such items put..de frOlL the chopped up (Uiiqui f1 ed") whole ani:m. in the thir d. even i1' theint~nt shoulQ be non-r:!Iagica.t>.eeking a rational exp-1.bsolutely require-d by tbe na.than of mp 3..nitnal toxins and not. and desire for death. These results--a.lglLtfol'"Yard.anners H effl uvium lit °fouJ smell. kills by a hematonn\lhich causes S:YIDPt. Also .blyfrom the earlier pa.s to be aide-d by lo~at. the Ja.} (And does even e.for coating the b&king ves..l toxins {sueb as tha. rather overblown.ling is emphasized (lines 123-24) (a.anning pits 'U..ndida.­ ins t.sels. '" The m.he first. ks Cestes.'"volve some sort of a.t~ras.seorganism~ (But we ehou1cl not expect too much in the va:y of' "scientific lr accuracy and consistency from tb1s sort of source. t'broth" J!llI. If there is a. the seeker in the eEl. The~Qu!1t~rin& 'barrier rhos a.1. the th.but rather apophora.panese ~ stewJ t geographically distant relatives of one ctl.. hyph' hemon gcnomenB.:tEia." from. germ-caused plague (nor aba..ssage mentioned in line-s 134-35}.i'P term used" st¢mon (line l2~)J technically suggests water-tigl1t. in the s.ny empirica.cterial organisms vould be destroyed by the heat in the Cooking process~8~ but some ani:ma.b~d in mp 2 (of. and 81-84. the ves se1 is opened U:uwind 0 f the enemy camp. a.. of' certain pui"fera [use-d it!. a. the term used to describe the airy product (line 127) is n<me of the pne (u ).Itache:sthai) is te.r?) '0 . 123 mg •• re line 13L} provided by MSS V and D (presuma.a pos s i ole candidate for the Thr15sos-Bathanerfl.

it were ever answerable}.. pp.ppea. 161).rd C:=~P p::rooedure in !Suspect 8. 343. P. Though Sleep.s a Ilrecaution a. line 33J from tb~ ~tLm. 50-53.ilg 2 of the means proposed to achieve thE!l:Il. but &s a variat. means to sleeplessness. p. are oonnf!cted with a.51 ). I.1 involved ther~ i So the bat..l 50 tyPi!'S I!listakable--they are: various of' sympathetic ma.lIming liquids ~ a. The anlJ1)8. 17.gl!Linst "blovb&ek~ Yhep the fomula is USed and the pot opened [linea 30-)1).ulet (or secreted in sC@eone l pillOV &os a prank) I or using the ving( 5) for cons1. 76).ogical car:re.re for the third. But this still does not clarify the origin&1 context in vhioh the preventive bad "previously" b~en given by Afr1canus~) .legend of' Pyths.1' above.gorns comp~llint flo flying eagle to come to him (Pfister) ibid. 1.t lamps and eensers were t.t an ox-eating binge could be ordered.re6.ion on t..he. lines 32~36}' ~or example.in an 8JIl..• 1913..... the latter part of 15b)~ 1 It sort of magi cal commonplac e-? Cf • ~ P:fi s t er.l that. 2'~ ~hap.es 5 indicated in such umlJistaktl. "Epode .ic: to BJ5rck I s theory. personified.ive" (mp lL a and b..4! dis'to. positioned $onJ. Aca.l1IB. 4 (192b): col.. specifying tha. lines ~o-~4--br1nging down a flying eagle with tl spell (cited from Philostorg!os.iguous account]l in p..~? The "Eclog~U clarifies this EIOfD@vbat...D. 1 t i COlI!. (Or 'Was this supposed to be stands.assa.t.. supp.hey tend to make. lines 24-26. critical study of: the det.ge!.de~. 165 and 167). and cf.ind blowing toward "us" [Jules Afriea1Tl~ app..r to be establ:hhed a. A fourth procedure in this series appears in conn~~tion vlth pentagon nine (mp 158. The procedures inV'ol ve d are e.20B AfricanUS'5 Viev 1 -ar~ slty" not espec1al~3 magieal~ though when they~ and the <:ounter- proc~du... 33-~3. t. the: tanning pits upwind of' the CSl:Ip in the alltiprocedure to number three.as8io~ ed. Vi. The tanning pits . There is also the question.. Though not named. unansverable nov because of the incQmple-te nature of this item {if indeed .gical proce-dures: 5 I!lS using the h'!'oo . could be taken as a magical umyth_ Ol. is featured in the con- t. as to ho'l: much warning the camp had tha...ll praise recogni 1.o be used when near tbe e-neIllY vitb an adverse . e!:tc. p.1 ng it (~ine s frol::J UIl- 50.p a.one symp-athet. tanning pits set up. ArteJ.ble terms that e.a.nce Capo J!U!krothen. 11 P'l<i'.

...t this again a. and a.ppears to be rhetorical embellishment. IPJ. . 285 .i11 so recogniz. 3Note~ for eXaIilple .. But the following procedures d. and knOI.. the list or i.mi.tterned after. 281).1' the proper prOeedlU'e6 (and saf'eguards) for making use or them.ned for this gap: (1) why woUld h~ keep the allusions while lea. part V.1').cit notations of rn. 39). 'but \!'ould his book be of any 'Use to such adepts? An excerpter eM hard1. Pa. ~ ft.ntation foms). (WGnseh makes passing mention j eet.i~it·direc:tions fort or other suggestions of" real magical ~J. As a matter of tact) lThey may have :GO functioned. night t a bird C'onque't's you. line-s lq and :21.I incanta.h classical and other allusions and re:feren~es whieh Africa-nus.. p.g. pp. If this view is the l.ssu..tion against Sleep (mp 15b~ especially th~ first.d the poetic torm (Les Cestes.h Sleep 1£ spoken 01" in t.ra. ri as hiH. z.ved and t tIlonopol iz ed ' ("tes ettJe s et!lp~ i..rra.ving out only the l!IRgic:al di. • • . even vhen they interfere with the progress of the narrati. oikt.et. it~tt1s by Vieille:fond. According to Vieillef'cnd· s 'Viev of the meaning of Kestoi . 165) t il.4-45 ("!(ight' 5 son you are. 1 they are not pre5ented as such.!nsla..1orek' B contra:ry view. Les Cestes~ p...lource1:i. If Africanus intends these to be used lllagicl!l1ly) he must be fl. &t.p. at le8. 3 rt direct 10 M imp er sonal magi c to not an ~ l' indirect!1 use 10 world ng through 'Wh~reAfric:anu$ personal (daemonic) f'orces. if there are such omissions here . .re like the wit. .. unless possibly su~h appears 111 lines q.59.itt. 2 they seem mo.ler or contTol t·he latter.t 10 the O:w.egrity of any passage'? Indeed~ this involves reading mo:reint.. at some s. to b~ing taken (labe-in . with no eXJ:'1. .1 procedure are included.)r 'be bler..such eX])li.o the worn. . can we have confidence in the int. tOM even Il..gment.n.Pentagon Passages 209 and as part L. from Homer on. It may be noted tha.onna 1 + • • par' emoi mon.re not Atricanus' s production entirely). an:d varr~dagainst (anti tattomai • .!3e.e thenl.~re.:rectiona for them? (2) this is in one of the ~re fully preaerved a~t:ountB. . p.i .) lines 28-29)...eal witb sleep~ not Sleep.attempt to conq'. 2This is a significant :point. () Sleep.gi~a.l!urt loved to embellish his &ccounts.tegeso. with no indication oftLny . Lea Cestes.tage in their life history (assuming tbat they had a previous history .t.ng that his readers . st. boasting rather than incantation (though possibly u3ing~ or pa.(3) L 1"1' ~ 2:7. given as sub- 4ThOut?.5t lines L1-49~ with "the re:ference to Aphrodite's Kestoi in line ~8:i must be an Africanian original (cr.hf?se personal terms: lines 30-32) .. inca.

t'lfi"e of the plaque: material is it? is it uninEcribed or inscribed? if the latter Jo it still might be with wh. it l.27) there the utilizing of an 'UnknOlffl Bubstance or obje~t (identified only in the C!llissingJ pentagon} in the treatment of' a wound.ense of £"linth1on . 1968J. t i t might inV'olve sprinkling vitb the substance o~ some poYdered briek. bandage.l use of le. 3..lement (Oxford: Cla. 'which he translates as P'f'asse un. J).ation de la p1aquette· qui. Alternately I if plinthos could be taken in the s. Eer. rev. .st m.l procedures [. Ibid.t himself over) them.i ddell and Rebert Be ott..1 11 )?i"oc: edure.e a:ppli~.agi~a. 13.. .. .PPD~etOVI Gal.! sec.e (or exaJ. • .H.11 p. if. tj plinth? h@:pe:r .. 8:i' P' 1. 2 fond' 5 If Vieille- pref'erl'ed interpretation i. Hn:Af . not to invoke or othe~ise use them (this applies ev~n in hi s statement s to and about 61 eep )... 118.minae plun:. 41' on p. COOIJl B.. o-~curs !n conne ~ t i on 'W'i th pe-. e. It. 18[lJ. and 126..rendon F'TeEiS. ca..'lC'e( cf.nugon foUl" (I. 34..:tjr George r . 47J) concerning the medi<:a. pp. Pliny N.tll0V . n. 3 But even if he is <:oTrect~ Conver E: ely.) 1.l~1ned lead is used for .at inscription? a ftm. r1 sense 11.s correc:t.. Greek-. s. to be sprinkled 'Ili th the designated 6 ubsta....i c: (1.ofold division of P1c. the ]Josa i"bil i ty the.)oses (but..imonis.!..d :ref.:ou1. 337~ n.. vi'th a supp. ul He Eilig- gests ~ but doe s not a. of the t . ~8. Henry Stuart Jones iLnd Roderick M~Kenz:ie) 9th ed. .n1Jl.210 d-oes refer to sucb daemonic rO:r~eB~ it is to oppo!. 127. on the part of tl1eir author. Heraclas &p& Orin.e d.. this migbt suggest a of' what magical 'PTocetlure I depending on th@o ne.v. if one of the other vi evs is of these lines as evidence 01' knovledge:. 169.g.. 2 .ka. V1e11- lefond's text is epip~sat. 798) cf. Les Cestes.on.e. The procedures involved in th~ other pentagons are rather jo l!Ii xed.. a!1d aUgm. the l>'!SS read hoper. . 3J. 337 • 3Not. 166 (cite:d by Vieillefond CLes Cestes t p..er to the bandage f'or the: vo~"ld.tO e isida.dopt.beae t though the UB~S listed there (and in th~ roll~ini sections) al"'E!: for other pur].Engl1 stt Len c. l~ rt (Cited hereafter aa LSJ.

n "living") ".as an amulet for people suffering :from '"ttO\IJ1ds. 6l).ition~ but specified in a repetition of th~ chapter in the tirO British HipRiatr1ca MSS.ctors" in various cOlnbinations. h@'a.s·' and ·'}.n:p 6. folloved by a.. The ear would provide a hQndy~ even obvious 11 point ofatt&f::bment. 5). 191 ~ith lef. in a guitab~e location.dings.actie charm to the: sUbJe-ct. directive to give the usual medi- cal treatment to thevo~~d. b(!in~rrightened An object to ]Jt'event a horse is to be :fe..1 is co:mbined vith the use or t1lO "spells" {diecussed 4.) IlL Fentagon seven held the key elel'I!ent in p1"Oi.stened to his right l!!'!ir ll the objeC't to 2 be used Is the "tail of . 340 10 n." "valf.frO.nting of the injuring "fl"'~!lpOn. thus having some possible connection with the causing of frigbt (the causes heJWrrhage and to prot!Jote c1ca. 3 The ba..nuscript trad. 3These four factors ("right 10 I' "tail. {But this is to relieve tbe suffering. 1971)" p. C. 139 mg. A time-honor-ed trea.. . 5). in c:onnectioc with pentagon flv-e (. 2: 2Q9-50 ~ Hipp.. 1.ssed below) under thl!' uLand Animal. it is. vould be more likely. and .ct" the t.. tLlao p.ying of a auitable.suitably prepared. 190 and p.l. ~nidentified in the main tnB.ltl I!:r. and this is to be cut off the living a~ima. B~. {On the last three fa.tment. In 33.lso recolngold .:edure vi th sei.al points of contact vith magic.Uscellaneous hea. along vi th prophylactic or apotropaic use of spitting . prophyl.tri~atian). though a medical intent. 108. LQndinensis and Cantabr1g1ensis.noi.. it :might still be :magical. on line. Oder-Hoppe. 229. l1hoplocrisma. ~end5 Cha. Cant. see Vieillefond ~ Les Cestes ~ p.2'. Vieillef'ond' E tL and r (Leg Ces'tes.sic operation i!'i a fairly aimple a. as well as putting it near the eye. H. tI the a.211 correct.!!Ell. p:.ill lP be d1scu. Keitb Thoma~:>:Re11giorJ &l1d the D~cline of M&gic (Ne-'IoI' York: tL 1.rles Scribner' a Sons.fL. belo'jl) .

ay over 8.:1.ve. (1Ilp 11. I.nd the pr~::itJ- le:ms in studJ. 255) .. misunderstood it and glossed the l'ds:sage: as l'blackberry·r (baton). basis. Upufting tt J at h.l ro. t. Wi'th pentagon ei ght.t 0. The substance is to be used a.. \!'ho apparently had the figure. 33-53)~ involving the bat". at the third hour" {line 5). which Is not quite so simple a proC'4!dure .sprion) I 1s urJmovn . part.le for 1.t providing a Fhysica. a 1eguIDe (o. (euJ)hor'bia~ according to MSS V and D) could fLSC ribed The drug involved easilY have the effect to 1t 3 and the :ma.L are no other Again there circumstances~ conditions. (mp 25. 11."ing them). 17-3l) the only readily observable magical elemetlt is the pentagon itself. .es'nostrils from pus-ertractors)" wha. or prec&ution~l specified..11.tle conditions t 1s not magical.s been d..i s cussed s.nne r of usage (squirting Cor.tiona..e n an early copyist. Thus it could be viewed as more passive. is aomevhat typi~al rjf the Africanian proce:dures (a.a magical moon.. 1. 11.... u~mpet"sti- tiou:s:o n than acti vely m. Sui table pr(!p- era-tion her@ consists of cutting it off' the living a.lrea~.tever it. but an attenrpt is mad~ o..agical in llIlde-rlying belief5.. ha.bove.. specific: time l "at the first [==new'?] This woUld seem to ha.IiJILa.ment i oned are ai ght s and shadows ~ ratll er thBn sounds). bU1. no other conditions (or cautions) are presc-ribed. (a ving (lines 36-37:3 1 or the head Eline-s 40-41J) taken trom the Ii ving ar.s :practicality in actual bat.ore. e. The substance represented.'WO of the procedures involve a. Here 1 t JD:aY si:m:ply be not ed further that.rhiS despite the fact that he is cballenging the da.·r Beeking to enslave and doro~sticate him..nims.. Pentagon oint! fl.~on who IPholds s.

10 ~e tlle.lready. and 6. than for Vi eillef"ond .s ages 213 the operation 0 f the subs ta.ed means of rei nfo1"c i ug or multiplying the eff'ect of a spell. 23-30}" invol.e the use of apells or procedures. Latin expression {Rhomaian tend.. Further-." lIC:l'. "spel11't a. or even more.. ta H repea.r production 4This bY" a contempoTa.a. 5.!lC e (11 n ItS 6-7).h~ But Rome had had . . Associ&ted spells and che. some of their early kings or adversaries (e. foreign [specifica.pells. 2 aDd repetition (double. the procedure 1s designated a techtle (U art . but it a. 8 Vie'll of thei. circles to make use of the foreign.:nns '!\to Jl'entagons" n'l. but especially triple) is a.h~ author in theG~ items.l.. but the ~odern and powerful vhich i9 6~lected.g~t Romu1us~ Numa ll TarQu1nius) vere "nBJDe s to conj ure vi th" a1Jnost lite rally.adds medical treatment and co01>eratio:n of the patient (lines i-8). under HCharns and Ri tes ~ n f'QctOr (shared with pentagon six) \/ouldseem to be more of an Brgum~nt tor Bjorckts view. questioni~g the seriousness of t.ency in magi~e..1l:nbers five and si~ (IIl]lP 6 and 1. he also .1sed both by magic and by ~vl!!'ryday technology (line 8).her spell is lost along'llith the rest of" the pentagon but is ide-ntified in the text ase..11 3See the discussion o:f belov.Pentagon Pas.aft lr ). triple.dds a new variation in that it is not t..ry (though Romans.a long history a. a term l. 3 The ot. I. Afl'icanus pr~soCrl'b{ts a sort of" double 1 double-voamm.mple ~ Hta..gical sources. recosnit.ppeal's rather si.y Pf: "hoplocrisma.tedthrl!'e tl.lly" JevishJ) of' t.t a triple: . and. ~heet.n. 'l"oe first.he ancient and lIIY9tel'ious. and tvo El. exotic.ith o'ther In the . 2 Sl!'e the discussion under f1Spells"H below~ u 1fUI!lber:s.f'oTlllC?r.ces" but the rt ta 'ta!t is similar to fo~s known from ath~:r :.. II inscriptions along ".n 'Id th ~pitting.

this 16 fol1Q'W"ed by a comparison to the results if it were worn vhole.d o.b1 e 1 Whole or living animals Genel"a1br these u5ages inV01VI!' som~ part of the animal. :2. from l!l. 42-q3).86-90. even from the limited sample provided above in tbe pentagon p. 2. I. the "remains n or the two serpents are used (1.m aninl&l (mp 2. may beL and a. the three animals &l"e to be chopped 'Up whole.i~a . in pentagon tllO . in mp 29. 21-25 J 28-31) and for bites and wounds (brains from a living hen in vine.nim&1s (including amphibia-ns). C olribina.. vu~ture eyes in dog skin.hird~ unJrno. 2.t.. the discussion of the specif"ic specimens For purposes of: organiza. and in pentagon nine (mp 15a).ges. but in several cases. tb~ us.assa. aquatic 8. This l:mpression is borne out by the range of animals.ion~ i~ :separated into l&l.m. The latter is il~ustrat~d by mpp 23 (b.. these are not kept st~ictly sep- arat e J items: from thes e di fi'er-errt groupinBs being either or 6ubatitutable in some proeedure~.Js' B york. t. while parts of the bat are specii'ied for use. 15-18. frog's eyes-III.Il. or0 eali' skin [~or epilepsy).. 32. with p. and presented in the other pa:rts of A:f:dca. .. frogs boiled vith wine--Irl. pOBs1ble exattJP1e of the former:lo note pentagon two ~ lIhich uses "a snake:lo a physalos Or aquatic ~ " (whatever the.214 A~ricanus'5 View Zoological Passages The importance of animals in Africanus' s procedures 1s 00vious . the remora f1sh~ preserved ~or a.c. ~d birds.t. 5ea.d) and 38 with their various ~ure6 for eye troubles (stones from nestlicgs B gizzards~ in :taw. 65-66). ~19 mg).(living?) (1+ 17.e or the vbo1e animal is specified or imp1ied-- in pentagon one . In the procedures. 18-19).. 10-11..ir~ land .

.) This same principle could also apply in the Case or the '. b~ an unavoida. 1 53-55.l-I. 2 In this case it is additiona...nima.).live and veIl in his native habitat l1 )! or a. 2 DJ.ff~re!" a. On the other hand"" in the t:aSe of the baV s head~ or of the hen IS brains in the next it~ (.pplication of the biting head).he signal pot~ncy of the part taken?). 3~32) vould als.8. Besides these .d~signs." and of "~ealing of'f tl the nlivi Og" eyeB from ar-.)se of the relea.) 3The major possibly-magical ~lement bere is 'the specification o f tb~ IivinE.H.. III.l. for example.IAb~rglaubet" col..gs--t. c.y pos s i b..opres'I. the a. 15). 32. the. neluding possibly those.. 1-2).:mp 23d~ III.Zoological Passages 215 the ashes of a hedgehog. to prelO. 2. 2:8--31--frog's eyes for protet:ting or cUTing eyes..e th e effect of' leaving nature U'lmdisturoed. mpp 12b and 36 prescribe the ad:Clinistering of lice and/or 'bedbu. but this is more incident&l/practical than prescriptive. hen.rt is to be taken froID the living e.--woU·' s tail.ng t. pTesumably vhol~~ can be used (III.res specify that 'the pa. 1.t you don' t kno'W' von't hurt YOu" ~ et.l: mp 9.IJI1ably be cut immediately f'rO!n the living an. mp 1580.hllsl.c. 133].m of flhom-e :t'e-IDl!'dies" or va.t~d as mp 38 b .se lIrlght be lI.bll! part of' tbe: procedure (and coUld thus be viewed as p1"ovi. hen soaked in wine~ for relier f"rom (poi$onous) bites.r1ous types of empiric or sy:ro.I 38a~ III. thin the reo..l e los s of power cons eq '.H. 11 _ 36-. (This last rV1. 22. 5-l2--110lf':5 c:ani[.s. specified (III.lly specit'ied that the frog be released "'''here i t vas taken (li ne 31). 32. 12.. 32.. See ~th~r under the discussion of' "Ritua.n twhich vas to be ret~ed to the water (Pliny N.ls .h2--bat' (.1. 9. 3 Three other. Thi B 'Vould :5 eem to ha.1 or teeth ~ or the bat f s vi ngl.inst disease of the spleen (Rie-ssl' .lould seem to require some direct ~ontti. 1-2). the t~ody° o:f the sea urchin is. and I!I.. lo-ll--brains 01" a.t least of knowledge of it ('lOUt of' s1ght~ out of ~ndlr.pathetic medication5 (including one [mp 38dJ of' the I1 hair of the dog" typ~.nd the &"limal [as. d.\I'ing(s) or head :for sleeplessness.. 32. death would.1 A large number of procedu.J' vboSe sting va~ to be used as an amulet by a pregnant VO:ma. (The P'll1'').s it: remedy t and those sur-rom dins itO. (Compare: the stingt'8.lent on the donor 1 s death {UWOen last seen the: frog was a..101f t s 1. u'Wh.ga.je vent horses from being frightent!d.ba. "scape-goat" idea ~ but such an i<lea T. 76 J citing Pliny y. 12. if it is really intended magically). e} are vell wi.1. nrp 10 ~ L teeth for :sviftness of horses. In the use of the fish rhombus_ a. l02}J. Pt belov.) . 1.hes~ iIOuld preSillDably be used entire (I.ct betvee-n the s'LI. and.mp 36&. in mp 31 .

Y1llaturnlj and.:lE"fo. 8. L 2. 33-36}. to kill each other or die othervise. not llJUtua11y exclusiv~.ti tious vorstellUDfen: {a..Ol:Je way.g may be lIt must also b@' kept in lrIind that they are ~ssenti!L-lly post fa~to ratiQnali~ations. (2) representative.ge . in most caseS th~ ancient rationale has not ~en transmitted. rather than some part being used.lS ic most cases" and can bl!! reasonably second-guessed in others. 1 Thes~ eategor1es are J of course.t tvo (pentagons one and three.. Under the h-eading of the part af'fec-ted ~ the :folloil'in. Three main eategories seem to cover the greater nutnber of' these cases) the parts s'fI€:cif1ed being either: (l) the s.. . (g) "Hinderungsaoe'rglaube" (prevention" or reversa1.~im.tances.in animal subs. suggests seven types of Bupera. 61-65. (e) II~ TPa.. par- ticular part is fairly obvio'l.. and/or the applying of" the p1'"oeedure to some apecified part.) 11:Binden t &. of' the "essence u of' the specified animal (forwhatev~r reason it was chosen).e t " eols. III. in e.nnen und V"er"ben:nen 11.. ~-6)t the vhole Bnim&l (~he remora fish)~ living) is held to the belly 01' a lIIB.. and/or (3) in some vay associated in concept ~th the end desired.he pal r:s 01" animals invQl ve d are coni'i ned alive in pots .rts of' anWal s As noted ~bove! ~oat or these passages involve the use of Closel:.:n6 Bpecial.\ 'I. uses of certa. In the first {mp 29. (b) avoidanoe (close to "t:abu1F ~ (c=) tl"BJlsfer and substitution.al.~ of an adverse omen or ac't) {cole.l"e to prevent miscB.. l~ and 3. (f) the ll.iI'ia. Pa.ame as t.. eaSeB are pres~nted by mpp 29.. In tbe laa..lS j(Ql t6c. {d} s:>'lIIpathy and antipathy.' related to these are the some specified :part of 8.he part a:f:fected t tor good ori 11) 'by the proposE! d procedure. 2993}. The reason for the choice of a. Riess'i in a more g@-ne-ral discussion (nAbergle. 111-25 )) t.T! a.ub.:.

and I. 17. 17. 2). 81) to the great Mtipathy of horSe and volf~ and also to the effects on horses of wolf tracks and the throving of an aatragalus at a four-horse t. that this no longer seeClS poe-sible. E. supp.fferent :manner and purpose of use for either t but still e.l used. to prev~nt Q fright and to increase s:pee d" respect i vely J. lOt 1-5. 41 originally excluded this from the mp list. III..re.4 of a hedgehog {mp 22. l-~ 2 (mpp 9 and lOt I..~ citing Geop. 20-25. e lefU" exa. III. 2.1"il!!t~r of usages which . 211 4. 1.n SOme of th. H. problems~ aft. Bince the liver. ttwolf~ If pw . the liver.PQtropaic).Zoological Paasages noted= II. 1. might conceivably be of some actual medical benefit.tion {to "loosen the tongue It of a thief'L Man~t more procedures spe~i£'y parts 'Which see:III to rep:r-esent i.erbirth of a. 2Riess (<::01s. also~ Will Richter . This 1s especially true in vie"" or the vide v8. I. 6.he tail or canine-t." the fangs) of e. III.~eth {i. 257. but :for a di :fferen t . 15 (. 9.l9l8) i col. 1 (but these may rather be examples of the next ca. 970) i..galus . as a veterinar. ioid. 151).ative of the "esaenee n of the animal). The 'lWol r -tall is also menti oned.ese are fairly some way t. f'rog (III]J 23 c andd.0S Qf a wolf (mp 12a.irrn:lrt.~.nc1udes tnt e procedure. the head or vings of ba. of" a wolf (mpp 10 and 18. l3.t. citing Pliny l'f. IX.. 1-7). 910: both ~at ana. vi th its various e-nz. 12.eam..e 8 ~olr . on 'these points he ~an ci t..Y1tiasis of lCf. f'lesh (vith di. 33-h3:t to cause sleeplessness) ~ the flesh {fat?}3 from the 1'3. ~ 1. 21-25 t 28-31). 2-3):> used to promote conception by horses~ and t8. but Riessts survey of &':limal materials in superstition shovs !So many uses of various livers . L 1-2 1 tor ~lepha. 81-8:2 ref'. 17-22) in the kleptelencl10n prep:a. eyes . a f'oot or astrB. 36) and Pliny· (]f. (mp 15a.e the snc:i en t test. t.he "essence" of the anima. eith(!'r to stop or to increase the speed of horses . of" a vuJ. Riess vho refers (col..t1ll"e or of' B. 'V 01" Aeli wt (y.. . ~1chter. tlWolf l' 11 col.y preventive m~dieine).ynJes.tegory:li represent. . 28.rapl. 28.dpol~ tongues (mp L4h. lOp 5-Il. 1. dog (mp 21. to cure Dr prevent various e:"e. though still protective) end (Richter.

.o t1 s 1-ough off tt ?).. the head 01' the biting the natures of seem ea. or a.g.k~y. repr.· se-rpent slough (mp 311).. 56 (h~r~ .~ however. ture t vi th boney. the ashes 1 It. C. In that case the ashes are equj valent t.[l. (mpp 32~ 38a~4qc).ion of some of' ~~dine th~ items in the innne-diately pre- list. r::ita:tion is by Pauly-ttlissO'W~ c-olumn a~d line n~bersJ).og t rtIp 4.rh. 30-.o the frest! biting hea. ~. ed.raticn vhieh includl!!'s partridge bile (among other kinds)! honey~ etc. concept association 'With the ~nd desired. mp 36.) its bitter t. 2Be~aue. and in !. and s aliva (0 f a mad d.t ~ither a different he~d may be ~~ed2 or the whole offending :serpent may be usteo:..i eo ) - The third cQtegorj".': of beginning cata.. 22. etc.'l" eye: problems.i terns might fit here a.210 horses). IlL 12.x (:from a d. 15. 82. the biting head and not the whole aninml (e. T8. even of the :SfiUle type) ..ne: espe~i.Qt.s. omnia .Iimila:r lists 0:1' exft.l. hien is needed. 3.l1y not Motber . of' a wolf (in th~ preceding paragraph).l value)? Galen prescribes a p~epa. lyith this can be compared JDF 38d. ca.ter. il1ustrat~s the point that some of these other variations were possible.. G. to r-emove warts (causing them t. 73.. 1-20~ 20 vols ..Se it is.ta:re.." for sharpness of sight and dispersE}. Georg Olms Verla. br~inR '!'he se include = pi g marrow (3D]) 25 L. of a dog.1so) though in substanc~ its~1f some the o~ them it may be the nature of the whicn is con~rol1ing feature~ and the specif'i~ation of the ~ima1 a sec- ohdary. 1-2 ~ for dropsy of horses). hup 3OJ\.ct or 5imilB. 29~ 69J. mp 23 2 d d) ~ agai n:St.. mp 16).aste and/or smarting sensation in the eyes "JQuld suggest Jloten~y (Wl1ess this is of so:ne 6. c:anus r 5'/1C"'i he~gehog of 8. may be the expl£l..vols. ~a.d {thus representing its "essence'r). 1. mp 33}. 'lU"ine (of a 'tortoise . 71~ 20. and poss i bly the foot.gsOuchhandlung .r-'Wa.med H {~. quali fy i n.'Tlples la. Hildesheiln.cts (C'I audii Gal~ni O'tlera. 1.n. 4~a and 45)..l medi~B.U) with tb~ ~nimals involved than ~ith the liver as such (UAberglaube ~ n 70.otrQsas u .g feature.. Killin ~ Medicorum GTaecorum op~ra quae exstant . fr:l.e..rg. Othe:r.eipdg~ l821-33.ctus. But in that etJ.. tragal us...e .sier to link (usually by UantipathY'~n or . (Pliny. The foll~ring would seem to be so explainable= C M gall (o!' paxtridge or vuJ. ~d~. skin (mp 23 b and c)~ blood ~p 448 and 45}~ fat (mpp 30A.or.

.p 38d). ex~les involving ga. Besides "the derivation or on@ of' the materials (wax) in pro- cedure 16 from the right ear of an ass. 28.re. 125 ~hich includ~s partridga gall.s with 'lihi~h it could manif'e-st its W1ruJ.ps belong here also. note especially 29.theror skit! or 9.<:&t..g.n col.ticle of B.H.res 15~ I.Zoological Passages anim&. the flJ:llulets in proc:edu.im&ls involved) perhg. 123 concerning vulture gall and 29.e. one as.tiolJ. Among Pliny~ s p!'escriptions for eye cO!Ilp~aints EU"'C!' nUl!lero'Us.tionB.ng of the it~m. 3't above).so p" 215 J n.:ineas (a front.tle excretions (mp 411k):II to ~-BUS{!.uui The lefl.1 1 219 (either f'resh or its asbe6: m. :Aberg1aube. 167-72. eonJeet. eliminB.l basis.ll (e. 3:seE! 8J. The hare t s blood and goose f"a. 2It eould easily be presumed that this would have some reproducti ve or other SI!'XUs.u.arpudenda {use un- speci fi ed . 23-3<:d" the horse-taming ins<:ription is to be engraved in the hollow of the left :front bcof' ~ This part is closel:ior related probl~!o both to the easE!nc:eof' the animal and to its on~ the hoof' bei.~ 'be.l use . in whic:h case thi Ii 'WOuld fit into thE! third category abovew ~ut't however reasonable this ~y be" it is still a conjecture baaed on fL. being closer to either the head or the. In mp 7 (1.tional reason besides this.tion of the types of' skins in the last pair suggest some addi. t in procedures L4& and 1.he 1964-65 J ~ 12: 219). 2mp 41m}.m: the right ter. . lThiS is an example of Riess" s fifth type of superstitious -' • It ( " 6) ( VorstellunEl: 1'1 ho trosas ka:i 1aBet-B~ . N. 6. thre@ procedures specify that they are to be applied to a particular part of the animal involved. 23 1:1 and c would have- prilc:tic.. C@rtain it~msdO not present enQugb evid~nce to support even a reasonable guess &t the rfl.heart of t. mp 1. but the spec:ifico.1e behind the-. svan (:for d1 seas es of the <: olon. 29~ 117-25).5 (listen above as possibly repres~ntin8 the eSSences of the an.0).

2:20

animal s? ) . 1

On the other nar,ld. th e cure :for :fright in mp 9 (1. 9;

penta.gon seven) ie: to be atta.ched to the hOl'sel:s rigbt ear.
ear., while not the pat't 9.ffected., would be a handy point
ment very near the target area., the eye. 3

2

The

or

att.&Ch-

Slightly farther away. and

back on the left side., the frog's eyes as an ophthalmic (mp 23d;
III. 2. 28-,31} are to be a.ppended to the horse'!;! left. shoulder or neck. The lett .. a.s the dEmgerQus side, would also
b~

an appropria.te

place to put the defense, vhile the shoUlder or neck U'ould perbaps
be vulnerable points of attack in general.

4

Land animals
As noted above. this term is used here to cover both land ani-

ttIal.s and amphibians" with separa.te
fo,,'ls folloving.

dis~ul;l,sion

of aquatic animals aJld

The present section is di vide-d in terms of: modern
th~

zoological catego::oiesa.nd presented in the order of prominenc:@ in
magi~al

ref'erences.

The

pr~sentation

contains the folloving three

lL~ft (on '!,fhi~h see below) llould be most appropriate for a 1tthreat" ~il-e, I. 6. 28).
:2 Again, the right s i d.e- (see below also) "..' ould be quite appropriate ~Or & ben~tici&l operation.

~~~atever the theo~etical intent and rationale, the procedure might work: a short time with anything flopping aroUJ1d and bobbing in and out of the edge of t.he field of' vision should inure the horse to ~st ~~e~ected movements and sh&dovs.
This 'WOul.d be espec1a1l..y true if' this is an example of transferred h'l.tlJl.8n medical lore. Bjorck notes such transfer a.s a charac-teristic or the added materi9.la in the British hippj,atrica fMnUSCript5 ("Zum Corpus Hippiatricorum, rI pp. 31-~~" and 'IApsyrtU5 .. lip. 13,. 'loti th n .. 1)" 'but this seems to be a distinct se1'1es lo s.eparate fro.llJ the Africanian a.dditions. Tha.t} however .. 'Would agree with :BJorck's f&ilu:re to accept this t!JCcerpt B.ti Africanlan (f' A.p:;;.yrt u 6 ~ If pp. 15-16}.

4

Zoo1ogical Passages
divisions:

221

reptiles (including turtles) and amphibians

j,

canines

( volves. and dogs); and other land aniill£l.ls (generall.y pre sent~d. in the order of their first BopP~fl.:rance in the Kestoi teX"ta)'.

Reptiles and amphibians
Snakes. Not only is: this rather conglomerate
re:feren~es,

~lassification

the largest group of

but t within it ~ snakea a.re ODe of

the f'irst t and the most, me:ntione-d type of anic:lf1l in tbe magical procedures of the surviving portiollS of the Kesto1.
1

The discussion here

will be restricted to those in wbich these anioals are thelllSelves used

in the various procedures;

any

used against them 'Will be

discus~ed

be-

low in the: presentat.ions of the particular tnes of 'Procedures in.....ol V'ed.. The: 1"i.rst
thre~

pC!'nto.gon p.e.ssa.ges involve at least orJe snake

ea~h (one in the fi:rst 1 Bot

least one in the second, two in t.he third).
tak~s

But

n

snake n is a rather general teTl!l which

in numerous types; 2

this makes the identifica.tion of specific Individual kinds re.:the-r
te.nuous ~ even when Af'ricBlJuS provid@s some descriptive det.a.il (ass'lml1ng that the identi ficatic,ps in 'Vie:illefondfs
1
ms.nus~ripts

V and D are

In general re:fererJ(:es, it might be surpassed by the horst:', eSJ!'ecially in vlev of the prominenee of t.he horse in the military sections ~ as well as in the h;i,pt:Jiatric6.i but sv.ch a consideration of nonTJlagica.l contexts vould then a.lso add numerou6 references tosna:o.es! in snakebite treatments, etc.~ of a non-magical sort. 2Hein1 Hediger ("Introduction to Snakes, IrCrzimek T s JI.nilnal Life Encyclope:dia, edi tor-in~ehief .. Be1"nhB.rd Grzimek; vol. 1; Lo..... er A."'lim.als; vol. 2: Insects; voL 3; Mollusks and Echinoaerms; voL 4; Fishes I; val. 5; Fishes 11 and Amphibians ; vol. 6: Re-otile:s; ....ols. 7-9: Birds III!; vols ~ 10-13= ~.s:mtnals I-I"J; 13 vola. (English ~dition):; (New York l!'t al.; Van llost.:rand Rei nhold Compa.ny 5 196B-12 J; 6: 346 ) gives tbe tigurl!!!B.s 2500 s;eecies; Roger Caras (Venomous Anisa.ls of t.he 'World [Engle~ ....ood Cliffs;:t N. J.: Prentice-Hall ~ Inc. ~ 191 4 ), p. 157) suggests

2700.

222

Af1"icanus' 5 Vie·....

AfricaniflJl w at least in essence).

In 'Pentagon one,. the second animaJ.

is identified e.s a viper (echis; Vi.~ T. 2~ p. 117 mg,. re line 61).

The tert!l "vi:per" in modern 2oo1ogi~al u&6.ge covers several species in
Europe and Asia t being the 1 the most videspnad and familia.l" European types
a.nd. thea.s:p viper (Vi'DCl'ra aspis). 2
'Ia, snake" (ophis). 3

add~r (Vi.lt~r-a berus)

In

pentagon tw, the first a.nilmil is simply
t.hird pentagon presented two
sna.k~a

The

of' which we ha.v-e somevhe.t more
cl~a.rly
{:I,

description w but ati1l no't enough to
t'irs:t

identify

them~

The

~

called Thrissos,

\oro.S

identified as draeontis.

Theasalian snake,
not~,

r~d

(?)1.

colored~

about as long as

flo

An added

regarded by

Vi(:il1efond .. proba.bly correctly,. as a. la.t·er gloss,. indicates that it
vas also common in Asia,. and vas called. Ba.thane:rathan by the Syrians_

1 Bube l't Saint Girons, uAdder and Asp Viper," Grzimekts, 6:~~1 (in chap- 21~ uVipers !U1d r"it Vipers. 1t 6~439-81~}; cr. also, Gos3en and Steier t "S(:hla.nge ~" P"W, ILI\ .. part 1 (-second serif!s, yolo 2, "part 1 (or~ ~'Zloi'ei te Reih~, d:titte Halbband '1 ) J (1921); cole. 494-557, esp.

cola. 537-38, 556-57.
2.rne genus name Echis is used only of the "S av-:s-e:il.led Viper·' (Echis earinatus and .E. colot"atus), "but vhilt! very ridely sprea.d in lL:f'rica. and Asia, it is a des(!rt snake whose range seems to tou.ch the Mediterranean only in Egypt a.nd Libya (H.-G. Petzold,. HFami1y~ Vipere.," Grzimek 1 a, 6; 453, "With fig. 21-12 .. a dis,t·1"ibution ma.p for Echis carinatus). Gossen and Steier (HS c h1ange," ~oL 538) identify the E~h;::s in -Gl"'ee~~. or Gre-ek-based, SOurCe-50 .as. the Sand .... ipel'" (Vipers. tuI1I=Iod;rt es).

3The second is fL ulD'sa.los (,r"pu:ff-toadn?) or !It.l aquatic phY:aa (thus !?ithe-r l!UIIphibian Or a.quatic .. both discuss@"d below) j; the third is not identif.ied (MSS V a.nd D t in Vi., .p. 119 me: ~ re I. 2. 88). . The specific color, pyrrbos, comes fYcm the pa,ra.pbrs,e.e in the1'Ta.c:ties" of pseudo-Cons't8J1tine (V1eillefond t s Ee-loBS [vi.~. p. 121 mg, re line 117;JlJ1es Af:r1ca1n. app. 2~ p, 77, c:hfL.:p. 1,. line 10)). (In Les Cestes .. p. 335:t n. 35, Vieillef'ond, 8.:pp8i'ent.lj' relying on his me.oory, adds the "Sylloge'· to the nEcl.oge," but t.his seenJs to be incorrect~ this passage does not appear in the "Sylloge .. " thougll the companion passages concerning food and drink poisons do [Jules Af~icair.~
app. 1, pp.
~

65-14J.)

Zoological Passages
The second sna...lo:.e., Leon l' appeare din 'both ltlrge and small types ~ vith

223

tbe small pre!'e!rred; again,. an added note ind.ica.tes that it vas abundant in Syria.. Unfortunately,. all these a.dded descriptions a:t"4!' not

much help.
Thr iss Q9 1 s unknown and the at t et:lpts to explain 1 t are not
certain.

Roulin susses.ted a scribal corruption of dr1ssoa,. for
Bot.h Roulin and Vieillefond call

dr:{!ssos or dyrissos • Q,r:'(InQs~. 1
attention tA)
8.

tyPe of" serpe-nt called Trissoa by liesychius J bu.t sin1;:e

the full text of the- entry is i'Trissos eidos o}::hecs~ If little more can
be done Yith it.

2

The identification

8.S

Thessalian is probably

COn-

di tione-d by the ancient. magical f,I,otoriety of Thessfl.ly. since the range

of a serpent wou.ld bardly be confined to so restricted an area (and

the gloss)

if corre-~t, proves othen.'1a.'f'!).

Re.th~r., it

indicates that

the range inl:luded :south~a.stern E\u~ope (or the He-llespontine area.). The length cocparison is equally 1Jl:iprecise t since the drs.contis is
also 'l.midentif'iable. 3 The Syrian

n~e

l'

Bathan;rathan, was e..nalyzed b;-,'

l 1n Vincent t t'to;otice sur trois manuscrits" PI p. 563. (The dry~nas does appear in Afri~anus~ in lII. 31~ but in a non-magical account. Gossen and Steier jdentii'y it as the Vipera 'berus ("Sch1ange ,II
~o1.

537]).

:2RouJ.in ll in Vincent . . lI~lotice- sur trois Vieillefond., Les Cestes . . p. 335t n. 35.
~

~a.nusc::rits,n

p. 563;

-'This form. which seems to be required by the genitive dra.kontidos in the text~ 16 not round in the lexicons of' a sp~ci~s of serpent 'Ii a..."1d its base f'Ol'!lJ ~ drakon, is as non-s,pecific as ophis. Gossen and Steier identi~· th~ dra~on,~hen used of an individual species, e.g referring either to the Indian python or to the Ae9cul.l!I.piu:s snake (rtSchlange/' col. 532'). Of the tvo. only the latter wou1d 'be even remotel)T possible here. (Is the -id-3Uffix e. diminuative sugges.ting thi 6? or does it Buggest a similar but still 6mall(!T snake?) RQulin suggests SI) aural error (which he had also suggested as lying behind the f'orm thrissos) for akontidos,. aJ\ontis (an unatt.ested form) being

Afri~anus's

View

Julian'Us Puchardus

8S

from tbe

H~'brev

or Syria-co .Ee-then raten . . pethel)

and r-aten signifying incM'tator; t.hu.s Bathanel"6:than meant. the same as

'tserpens incanta"tor."
~h~

1

This woUld seem to indicate

B.

serpent whieh

(and not & serpent vbich is charmed), or
makes~

whi~h

is dlst1n-

guished by the sound it

2

Ef. ther

id~.!.\

blight be suited to the

cobra (actually :m.any snakes are popularly credited vith the power of
pt

charming" or hy"pnot i z iTlg their prey-bi rde ~ frogs, et C'.

) •

3

The

4!"roployed in:olace- of the usual 9.kontie.s. In f'il.VOl" of this view he can e it ~ Aet ius (13 ~ 29) 8.S giving tht!! length of bot h the akont 1 a.s (or kenchri tes") &..!Ild the::d..r;{fnus as being t .....o cubits (in Vincent, '1Notice sur trois manuscrits .. H pp .. 563-6~). C-n the latter paget he fUrtber t:it.es Lacepede's Histoire des reptiles (= HistQire naturelle des serpentEi, 17891} 805 equating dr.linus .. cenchr1te .. and -.aJCIlodyte .. and identifies it as Hl a vipere a museau cornu .. ,. which has both the 11ld1~ate'd length and color. In a. survey of" the pertinent chapters of Grzimek I g, vol. 6 t assmning that \that was indicated vas fL venomous serpent, of moderate e;.iz.e~ and searching for one Qf' reddish color. with So dist.ribut.ion range which included both Thessa.lJ.r and Syria. I concluded that. the sand viper (Vi per.a Slmlody'te6) seemed to beat f'i t the se spec i £'i t B.tion:'3 (~ee Pet zol d. , "Famil::t~ Vipera./ t pp. LL.9-51~ with fig. 21-6 .. on p. 1150~ a distribut.ion map for the Sand viper). This seems to be the sa.me as Roulin I Go "vipere .a muaeau cornu." This :fea.ture is something of' a proble:m} however; if this was the intended gerp-ent~ why vas this distinctive item not inclu.de:d. in the- description'? Or is tha.t tht!' uhair H which might lie bebind the form thrissos, if it is retained? (If' Gossen and Steier a.re correct about the Echis I this would be the same as the snake in pentagon

one [see p. 222, o. 2 .. aboveJ.)
lIn Boivin' s uAppendix'· to his uIn JuliUlll Afr1ca:'l\1J1l. ~lotaerr (Thevenct 5 Math. 'V~t •.~ p. 360 [bote to p. 290.. co). :2, 1 ine 26 J) . 'l'he Abbe ChairJII~, cOr.Jsul.ted b::r Vieillefond. on tbis point .. va.lide.tes the possibility of Pu~haTd's analysis j, 'but this still leaves tne serpent unidentified (LeG Cestes t p. 335, n~ 36).

2Th~ latter ideal that of 0. distinctive 50Wld .. lIIight augges1:. some snake such as the Say-scaled viper (Echis c&rin&tus) .. but its southerly and e-B.sterl:t rl!Wge seems to eliminate 1 t (see p. 222 In. 2., sbo"'l!) t as do its .smaller si.ze and its more ol'ovnish color range (Petzold .. PfFa.mi1=r·~ Vipera , rl p. ~53}.
3an this idea in the ancient vorld, note Clemens Zintzen,

Zoological Passages
r~d.dish

225

color, if correct ~ and the

r~ge

ClfI.y be somewhat

:mol'"ti"

reveal-

ing.

Thes e ~ together with a presum.ably venomous c:harac: te-r &nd mori1

era-tel:,' large size ~ lIQuld be met by the Sand viper (Y1pera ammodytes).
The seeond of the two serpents in penta.gon three, the: l@on, is

even lesB certain.

Roulin sUggested reading -the somewha:t :more

COlmDon

rorm [h)e1ean, which is

id~ntical with th~ skytali i~ Hesychius.

This in turn would 'b~ id~tir1ed ",it.h nl 1 ;~ryx turc, t1

2

which could 'be

on!!' of the Sand boas (perhaps the Ja.velin sand boa. Ervx jaculu5). 3

"Zaubel"ei. zauberer ~'t Der KleinePau1 :r:..e_~· JLon der Antj.ke., rev. and ed. Konrat Ziegler and Walther Sontheim@~t 5 'Y'ols. Stuttgart: Alfred Druckenmtuler Vel"lag f 1964-75). 5(1915): 1~6l; LSJ~ s.v. "6p6.~U1\1.n (proba.bly derived from 06 f p lC:01J.::n.~ OPO-K E.t v); and Gos Sen and St-e1er ~ uS~.hlange,~' col. 533 ~ 1 ine5 26-28. Ipp. 223-2L ,,1:1 • 3" above. Ac eo:rding t.o Pet ~old." thi s is E'I.:l.rope' 5 JOOst dangerous snake' (though its ven.om is not. nea.rly as potent as tha.t of cobras or rattlesnakes } (like other vipers and pit

vipers CrattlesIlues" etc. J, its veno:m i.5 he:tDS.toxi~11 in contrast to t.he nelJ:i:'otoxi.C' ve-r..O!D. of ~obras and l"elated species). It is up to 90 em. in l@'ngth, color variations range f'rom gra.y to brown to brick-red and black-brown" and it ha.s a re.nge from sQutheastern Europe, across Asia :Minor .. into northern Syria and the upper Mesopotamian are-a (UFamily~ Vipera. u pp~ 4L9-50" 'With fig. 21-6).
2 In Vincent,

pythofJ!3to suck tb~ blood "from their vie1..ims (or at least,. their elepha.ntine opponents) (-cr. Pliny N.. H. 8. J2-3~;. Aelian H.P.. 6. 21; the de!3crip.tion i.o Gossen and Steier 1: PrScbla.ngc, 11 col. 533 ~ cf. 536:'1; 8l')d H. R. Scullard ~ The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World CAspects of" Greek and Roman Li "fe. geh. ed. If. n. Scullard; n. p.: ThaJllieS and HUdson ~ 1914J i pp. 216-17).
3Cf . Bernard Grzimek ~ Zdenek Vogel ... and Herbert Wendt, nBoids ~" G1"~jmek'S ~ 6: 37t.... The E:r;yx .1aculu5 has an appropriate: ra.nge (southeastern Europe,. Asia. Minor, and northern Africa.). and p05si.blelength (up to BO cm+) (ibid.). It is., however. not poisonous; but s. snake vt.d.ehcrushedlts pr~ .....-oUld, perhaj).9" 'be .sufficiently 8.Vesome. (Inde@:d~ fo~ s. "p,rocedtU"E! designed to uchoke H its victims • it might 'b~

ac:ript;ion he cites as from 1IThes.'· (read tiTher." tt i.e., Nica.nder, ~63~ 414-11) seems to support this~ since the Qnei~nts supposed the

'~Not1ce sur trois :Dl$nuscrits" I'l p. 564.

A de-

e. poait.i ve s.dvantage.) The ref@T(!nee to larg~ a.nd small t:l'1:Jes (Vi.!lo 1. 2. 121-22., p. 121) might b~ t& problem for this identification, hovbut. Atrioe:Bnus me,y be asslZI1ing a rather vide knowledge of snakes t

~ver;

226

Af'ricanus's View

The result.s uromsed from these proceduree
agant, though it is not &bsolutely
~leQr~

a.~e

ra.ther- extrfl.v-

given the impreciaion of

ancient biological knowledge t that they ve1"e not expected to follow
from natural, ra ther than magi cal) causes.

From

So

modern vi@:vpoint t

such nfl..tu.r6.l ca.usation appears ilDpossible in at
cases.
Thepr~edurl! ~ere

1~8.5t

t\to of the

involving pentagon one might be c:onsidered possim~le

sible, if it

a case of

poisoning, but Arricanus procises

an ~pid~ic of plague

CI.

2. 7~-77t and 8~).

As noted above, this

would. reQ.uire

0.

bactl!ri6.l infection.

Thus its I,Hlcc:ess is ruled out

by the baking process which vould effectively sterili2e the product.
ConverselYt since procedure t'W'O 15 a case of poisoning!, it might work,

thou,gh the description of the results is rather strong (1. 2. 91-98}.
'1'he
sv~lling .. p&i~ ~

etc.

t

might

b~

a

g~n~i"&1i7.o.tion

fro]:) the effects

of the bite or sting ·of the animals 'prescribed; for example) if the snake yere a viper (as suggested above for procedure
three)~

this

1IfOu.ld involve a hematoxin .. producing blood poisoning. cedure seems to require the assumption
While at
~B.titm
o~

1

The third pro-

some unnatur8.l causation.
th~ i.d~r1titi-

le~t one of'

the snake!il

VeL13

po1so:nous (even on

theoritoed aoove)~ and vbile certain smell.s ~l!W IPt.a.ke onets

incl~ding

the large Asian or

Afri~an boids

(see

p~ec~ding note).

CStrabo has a similar re~erence to Egy~ti&n asps~ they ar~ of t~o kinds,. a larger and e. 81rI£uler-,. vith the bite 01' the latter more quickly £atal (Ge05r. 17+ 2. 4).)

Note Petzold's d~scription of viper he~atoxic poisoning in Gr dmek 's (Irp-amj ly ~ V1per-a, It p 41& 0 ) • The symptQl:lS SOUll d lIIul;hthe sar::e as those promised by Afric&nus~ thQugh confined more to the local area of tbe'b1te. Internal consumption of an 'Is.mplified " (use Qr the entirl! animal. J poiBon might have been expected to generalize and increase the e{'~ect. Ii" this is the true ration&l~,. this expectation would apply a1$O to the effect of the other ingredients~ ~he second or which, the Physalo~/aquatic physa 1B yet to be ~i5cus5ed.
T

1

Zoological. Passa.ges

227
n st rong

breath e.vsy U almost 11 tere.lly {and!or be sa.i d to be
kill
B.

eooUBh to

borse

r,

) "such

a poison could not be transmitted in B'Uc:h a man-

nero

In a.ddition,. Arrie-anus aeems to be unclear a.bout the precise
B.

no..ture of the rE!:sul.ts, despit.e his gra.phic eXEl!lIpl.es (killing

run-

ning horse. a nearby man, or a

f~ingbird,

I. 2. 129-32)*

e-xample-s suggest that it i5 like some sort of poisonous gas, killing instantly; but in the next paragr-o.ph (and t.he antidotre preserved from

an earlier passage) it is present·ed as

&

·'pestile:rtc:e" (loimos ~ 1. 2".

134; to loimikon pneuma' . . . tou. aeros t:lotheuoroenou" Vi.. p. 223 mgt
re: line 134), which might. also arise from
Ir

one of the elements H (tino::i

tOr.

stoichelon,. I. 2. 13q) t and t.ho(! onset of ..hich apparently tl.11o',ljled
All in all, the
p1~tur~

time for count enne Ilsures .

tha.t emerges is

one of vel')· jumbled a.tt.empts at finding more potent empirical means ot exploiting l'knOUTl't malignant agents. One of the 50\U"ces of such

Irkno-..r1edgc" (both of' th.e agente and of thei.r manipu!l!l;tion) 'lofOuld
like-l:~

be magic! but the procedures

thems~lveeseem to

be an attempt

t.o operate

l with Souc.h agents--1jlhateve:r the ancelitry of their use--by

natural,. ·'rat i onal PI means.

B:r'-passine: anotbe.r reptilian reference (;mp 26}

fOT

thetlloment!io

we find furtner possible magical uses of snakes. in procedures

3u and

II delibera.tely B.void an expression such. a.s "to transcend this backgJ"ound and operate . . .",. since that 'Would imply that A:fricanus,. unlike his C"ontempora.ries~ ha.d a fairly c-le~:r conception of ;magic as distinct from natural science, and ~as self-eonscioualy trying to disentangle t.hem. lie doeB~ however" have some- app:recie:.tion for @'mpirical procedure (I:e;perimental lro"Uld be too strong] cf'. the variouspei.rtonns, e .. g .. " I+ 1J+ 3~ (but SOl!lE!times \tith implied reservati·ons, e.g. ~ II. 7. 6.. I II. ~ 7. ~; and esp. ! II. 32. 9)). He u.so r~cogniz·es the exi atence of such a. category as deisid.ai;nQhia {cr. IlL 1 i. 3), thougl~ he ha.s ditfi cul ty recognl:ti ng actual example a. 01' it J I!:xcep·t in 1t.s more i!rtreme forms.

228

Africanus's View In tbe former ~ a shed .serpent I $
agains~

36 (III. 18 and 22, pp. 239 I!I.nd 241).
skin is hidden in &
d&t~

and f@d to an ailing animal

acrOCor-

don~ a type of

wart.

1

In tbe

latter~ a physician, PhobioB. following
HemorTbois

a tradition of InaTon the

Libyan~2 prescribed ~he serpent

for .asp bitea, and vice versa.

While this might involve the :magical

idea of antipathJi"" t Aj"l'icanus seems to eblphasi Z~ the- medica.l na.ture
and anc:estry of this preSeri}}t.ion.

3

Th.US

~

vhile allowing for

p05-

sible magical ~le:m.ents in its origin and/or u.ses (the ori.gins of: tJ.ne:i~nt

lnagic and medicine a.r~!Io att@'r all ,l very closely intertwined)!Io

it appeus more

11k~

a type of a.ncie'nt "allopathic" medicine. 4

~o:r a suggested rationale for thl!'se~ :l3ee the discu!3sion of "Animal Pa.rts," a.bovl!. Sna.~eskin had. a regular place in veterinary medicine (cr. Gossen &nd Stei~r, "Schlange-lit cols. 506" 5?7~ 542-43, 555); Viel11efond ealls attention to Pliny N.H. 30. 69, as pfl.r&1.1eling its usagl!!'flguinst varts (Les Ceste!3~ p. 358 10 J). 211 ) (it is cot clear. however, that a.ny but the last 1terI! in Pliny's list here applies to wart remc)1:al, but sueh a usage 1!3 gi yen in 30. 6l).

~ieillefond indicates that these t'lJ'O personages are unknovn, though there are s<mIe reference:!;: to So noted fifth century B.C. Libyan prince,.. Inaron (Le$ Cestes, p. 359~ fi. 220) (cf. Thucydides 1. 104, 110; HerodotuB ~ 7. 7).
30ne could almost say he goes out of his vay to do SO~ exce-pt tJ"!.at, Cor I!l literary name-dropper and embellisher such as Af'ricBnus, it i 5 not rea.lly out 0-1" hi a way.

4AssUlrIing the
ColuberJ haJe:

LSJ" "r.cQl't{s~n der. II, and Gossen and Steier l !'Schlange In col. 52!..) its venOlll \ol'Ould be ba.sica.lly- a neurotoxin (but
0

5.""'.

'lasp'ljI was an Egyptian cobra

(tla;t~

Cfo:r'lllerly

198) l .. but vas credited by th~ anciet:lts ",-ith thickening the blood in tbe arteries (Gossen a.nd Steier!lo coL 526, line 41). The "hemo:rrhois,·1 conversely~ w.as named for its reputed causing of" hemorrhage in ita victims. Ca:ras's de-script1on or t.be e!fe.cts of the bite of'the Savscaled, or ~arp@t!lo rlp@r (E~his earinatus){hemo:rrhagic f'actora resulting in e.evere {e,ometimes f'at&1J bleeding from gum.s.no~e~ and in kidnl!!ys I:p. 251J)!Io "Would suggest it as a ca.ndidate for the "hemorrhci~1r (it i$ SO identi:fi~d by Gossen and Steie-r ~ 1::01. 521). Thus a. deductivl!! &pproae:h to medication would suggest th&t they should oppose each other· epoison .

[Jote Caras' see..yea t about the us e

f such terJris eVenomou5 Ani mal s, p.

Zoological Passages Other r~ptiles. Earlier in thE! pas5ag~ Just discussed (l:Ip

229

36,

III. 22. 2-.I;)! Afric:a.nus also prescribes tortoise urine, soaked up and dropped
On

the

bit~, l!!i'the~

!llone or vith 'bedbugs.

The turtle:l' unlike
ht.mJAns~

other reptiles" evokes e. consistently positive response f'rom
so'" not
surpr:ising1.y~
Q

1

it

hQs a cortespondiflg type of usage in ma,gic.

2

Urine also had

resular pla.ee in remedies to counter magic ~ 3 thus

the combinatiQn of the tyo seems quite a logical step in medical magic
theory.
1.1

This is: tbe

onl~'

extant example of the use of thl!! 'tortoise

by A::fricanUS t but Psellus seems to indicate that there were others

{"certain
38~ p.

belp~ rOp.beleiasJ f'rotti tortois~s, . ~ .": mp 4411; IX. 1.

319).
Procedure 26. by-passed above ~ introduced. a. tin6.l type of rep-

tiles in a different type of' usage:
mix.ed "'fine
80S

an infusion of' skink! s. flesh in The sk.inks,. 11 ke

an a1 d for studs (I II. 5 2 p. 229).

INot e, e. g. iI the introductory remarks by Ma:r-i!tIl Mlynarski and Heinz We~uthil 1IOrder~ Testudines,'11 G!'zimekis~ 6:75 (in chap. "The: Turtle$ "," pp. 75-123).
iI

3,

~ie!!ls, IPAbergla.u'be ," cOl. 17; Gof:>sen and. Steier "Scnild.kr5tl!',r' PW,. IIA,. part 1 (1921) ~ col.. 432. Nwn-erous influen~es may
combine- in produ~inS thi.s reputation and the usage of' the turtle here for snakebite ~ e .,g. , it,s non-aggressi vebeha.vior to\f'8rd man; its similarities to, but yet obvious differef.l~e9 from.~ the anak~; its

relativepersono.l saf'l!'ty trom at-tack; etc.
reputation for cOUIltering snakebite (ibid., 80-81; and Will Richte:r 2 1lya.n:z.e.:' 1''\'1\ supp. lL [1971.1]: col. 8211; citing, eep. , Pliny N.H.• 29-

~1ess:> nAberglaUbe~1't 0015. 85, 86. The (bed?)bug also had a

61 ).
Note Richter~ "Wan:z.e/' col. 82L. True, sn.akeb1te is not explicitly magical ~ but any tyPe of danger could 'bl!! so regfLJ"ded, and thus thl!! same principles can h@ applied without distinguishing betiofeen "natural'f and "ms.gieal l1 evils.

4

230

Africanus's Viev
1

li2;tl.rds in genera1.vere anciently reputed as: aph!'odisiac. 8JDph1bian s .

The Bllcient Greeks ~ 1ike spe-Bkers of Englle;h and
bet'J..~een 1"rogs (btl.tr-a8.

other mode:rrt European languages 10 dis.tinguished cboi) and toads (phrynoi).

Yet they also recognize-d

relationship
Af'ri-

betweentheJD t whether it be rega..rded as sympathy or antipathy.

.cg,nus illustr-ates both of these features.
In the first itlstanee of the a.ppearance of toa.ds or frogs,

pentagon one ,the scribe . . . h o transferred the contents of the penta-goD

into the text of the anc:e6tor of manuscript8 V and D
not dist.inguish 'Which
'!;,"QS

apPfl..~ently

could

intended.
01"

These manuscripts present the
+

first an.i.mal as "a fOrest frog

toad • •

n

{I. 2 ",p. II"' mg~ re

line 61).

In viev of t.he generally evil re-putation of the t.oad,

Roulin is proo&bly correct in arguing £ar it, rather than the treefrog, as t.he:

~re-a.ture

inte:r1ded.:2

SeaJ.ed in a pot \tlth a 'riper .. it was

lSkinks = Ion E. Fulm! "T:'1e- Skinks," Grzimek' s... 6: 2]'9; lizards= Riess! HAberglaube~'1 col. 69 (citing Theocritus 2. 56). Vi@illefond calls attention to the: Dc::r:'IU"r.et:lce of another use of the skink as aphrodisia.c ~ch app~ars ina paragraph preceding this pr~scri~­ tion of' Africa,. ..rus in the cOrous hippiatricorum (LeE CesteEi, .p. 228, n" b}. In t.hat case it invol'fe8 skink urine along with s~ve.ra.1 other ingredient.6 (Wer-Hoppe. C.E. ~ 2:144. 25-28}. Pliny l;Iaj':S the sk.ink is en aphrodisiac: fOr bla.1eS(N.H. 8. 91; 28. ll9; see: also Dios~.M.M. 2. 66 (Pedanii Diosc:oridis Anmr'b~i de materia me-dica lib!'i 9uing~ ed. Ma.x Wellmann J Editio altern. ex editione anni MCM'Y'II lucis ope expr~ss&", 3 vols. (~rlin~ Apud Weidmannos t 195B)J t al ... 2. Ii; in the first referenCe in Pliny this use is secondary to its value as an &ntidot~ to poisons).

2In Vincent .. "Notice sur trois ms.n~crits, ,t pp. 561-62; cf'. Plom'teux. [fr..e Ct'apaud~ ~i pp. 132-33. on th~ ancient reputa.tion of the toad. Fro8s shnred som~Jhat in this reputation though (M+ Wellm.ann, 1'Frosc h"~ pw.. i, part 1 [1910 J = eol8. 113-19.. e~p ~ 115).

Venomous An 1:ma.Torld origin" confi:nned 'by its pale e:clQr a.nd th~ . dif'fic-ul t to treat. 2 Aelian used the ~~rd of a type of lCOIt. 5:419~ h22). and color pI at e ~ p.:uy typ~s of toads do secrete a type of poison f~om their skins which reDd~rs them unappetizing (or even deadly) to so-me potem-tial enendes {Plomteux" p ~ 133." Grzimt!'k~st 5.d~ something of the ancient reputation of the but these references in Lucian are the only support given by Li.n Ph110pseudea l2~ and DipS9. 33 t p..ddell and Scott':s Lexicon ~or auch a usage or this term.p. n.ls. n.. non-magical passa.. 119 mg~ re line 88).oned by Lucia.los or aquatic {liter&~l}'. II 7) • gons ~ 2 LSJ • s.Zoological Pa. 382.. n Gr~i!'!Jek's.m.re grouped with iobola as the obj ect soi" an B.oian corpus i.369) . even to the 8. 7..~ l34. J).nd had poisonoll.. Th1. p.rise :fro~ t:.. also GUnther E.supposed toad-like appearanc e 0 f Hekat e (1 1Frosc h t U col.-pare the discu. since this \las expected to produce Hdiseases most pestilential to lLtlimals and t.v.rzil:l'Jek' s~ 6:390.s. they are sometimes regurgitated by snakes {Reinhard and Vogel.p.o sources (besides the toads gene-rally !'epulsi ve appearance (cf. Hans Rudolf Heut3ser" HFrogs and Toads. Freytag.areputELtion might a.5 br<eB. Plomteux J IILe crapa'Ud ~ l' p.ct that :m&...tion by the tradi t1011 o:f its undeT\o.31. 'The phvsalos (menti.ssion above in connection with the pentaegp.ge: the hinpiatrica f'ragm~nts include the provision to pro'te:ct cattle from being blown on by toads {Vi. Walter Reinhard and Zden~k Voge:l t uYs.th. III. Pentagon tvohad as the second of its thre'e tmiJnfLls the phYsa.. Cara. l33J}. so as to rend-er useles5 every aid for the 3uff'ering·' (lines 2-!.ns ~" Grz1rnek r 5" 5: 298. vhich yould certainly not l~sseo th~ir noxious !"e!put.mi1j'. This serves to illustrate toa. COlubrid Snakes.ation. :p. ''Modern Amphibia. Hans Rudol f He-us ser ~ "l:I:igherRnurans. ~ 56) {Re inhard and Vogel sugge st that thi s beh&vi o}.tself in s.u . "4'(jO~AOG.umors most. :2. 'E"lis dangerouE! rellutation is. 253.'· G.. Wel1Jnar. Note also mp 38c (discussed "below) in which toads a.ssages ~XpeC'ted 231 1 to be as fatal to the viper as the viper vas to it.1Iow them (cf. e-mphasized within the AfricB.). 4. 206. on the other hand . Same f.f1. Either from this or other causes.rogs puff" theJUS e1 ve s up to a:pp~Qr IM"gerto try to" discQ'Ill"age :lmakeS from trying to s\l."lt i dote using :frogs. This is coupled vith the :fa.d' B :t'~puta. u:river") :e!tysa (1.d~s 3) was supposedly a bursting point~ t~tpe or toad vhieh puffed itself u.or~ the part of a toad may also lie behind the belie~ in anakes' hypnotic powers [ibid. k~eping & ~ire always burning in the stab~e). explains the toe.

than medicinal (HAberglaube.. A.gainst acorpion sting. :2 {191l): 283). &180. (Bulletin de l'Associat1on Guilla. 191 L But Jacque's Andre. 1 secon· e creatwe 1rJ tb e manuacr1Jlta. ~th sel'". tied in linen as a pendant.t 1ve or prote~t1ve purpos e 51 In ODe {mp 23d):Ii no1. popular Eiu~stancet both medicinally and generally. 2.T'n~ss of sight. 76.s f'roma living frog are 'Used. prep:9. 25).ural rather 'I Vegetiu5Iprescribes dog bile for swollen testes of . mixture of goat bile and goat. 82. ~ ai!i1 a.4 'boiled in wi. 31-33). lHeas cites uses of the gall of sevl!'re.he :former idea'll ttror cleB. II I. 7.a horse (5. 2. 29. but for various purposes generfLlly agricult.ti dot e f'or venomous betLSta in general and toads spec ific ally {:rrtF 38c. 23. 32. 251). !lO. 573~74) It or boiled in vinega.r fOT snake poiso.ume BUde. '2 A pair of similar usages is reported by Pliny N&H. Pa. ibid.o have been 8. ne are an lLn. but he doee not combine the two ideas. it) the case of toads! rather than . . 73. p~otect or cure the Frog bile is also used as an ointFroga nJent against eye irrittlticn 3 aDd cataract (III. p.oisons (in a broth ~ 32. lJ~ and B. natural prey 0·( snakes:Ii etc.~eems t.!o ~gbt it be tho~ht to uabsorb n thll! poison? And .l different eniZl18J.. 48.eaning of oxxopiat rather than th~ usUEL1 n8harp~ightedness 11 (Les C~st~:!.c . lU~anderal.ILi ving Animals t "the eye. ~2~ 4Q.Se of partridge and vulture bile in the pre~eding paragraph (mp 23c:.re vet~l"itl~ medicina11 5Por the firet. various & r~08 aubst&nc~s are used for ~U'1"a. in a..l. 18-19.).he l.m1lk for a ruptured vein in the e-:. 30. to . ~Qllowing Vie11lefond's suggestion contJernit)g tbe m. 32. Note t.as 8. n etc. d des i gnat i on of' th In another 8~r1es of' passages. 62. 2 eyes of horses ( III. liBi1e. prey!o as a Bort or "pos1tive" ant. 32! and 82. 26.232 poisonous fish (N. n. 10).po 356. 32.s (from Pliny. 5 Psellus &1so :t'l'!!'ports l On this suggestion. 20 and. 62Ja. 28--31) .~d above in the disi::ussion of' . 81."e (6.. 3+ 18 L.so prescribes the f'lll!:ah of a f'rog t boiled or roa:sted~ Cor toad poisoning (Al_ex. two (13. see HAquatic Animals ~ tl below.redvith wine ~ a. 7~.1thesis'? Pliny re-fers to the \lSe of frogs boiled in various substances (N. H• 32) i ncl tiding bo iling in old vi [Ie (32 + 118 t 1'01" d :r·oPE!·~r) ~ un d using for snake p. 2.lladius t and the Geopon1ca)~. review of' Vie111efond' s Us CestE!:s'Ii dete-nds t. III.n cols. and this seems to 'be in accord vith the . 69.

lin!!' 51) understands as fr eye " (ophtha1ltlos). only three prepa. (The sit U6 tion in regard to Dlant pl"eparations [discussed belo'WJ is BODlev-ho.ssure that.. to get snea. but frogs I na. safe pregnancy and easy birth.ni~ involved~rathe:r than the nature o~ the brain.ls presents a similar. for various superstitious uses of toads and frogs . 36. Riess a.lso not estvo exaD!ple 5 (frotll PI..lnann . 111-43. ~9).ks the truth (citing DemGCr1tus. readsenkephalos. L 7-8 ) .a. "bra-ins. 32. IX..ndpresented at more lengtb.yel ll could have obvious relevance in a usage such as tnt s.ration is somewhat different. 7b-75 . 2' The othe. as fJ. !. pp. folloving 0. line Ii 9-10) is onrphalop:.. ... "Prosch" (coL 118. 70-71 .y N...dine: of a reported Paris manuscript (~!. if it is brains that are 1nvolved t i:suncertain.av:1fl!' spefl.. lvestermann I S ten (ILA. 31)...t different..vels are sc nrc€' 1tems (1l v i VI!' Bj8rck.21..Qni~al :rer~rence (ibid. p.i ny) in his B~ry 'to but of' prot. 75.ere for promoting conception and assuring 6.l6.ther than med1c. 1. 11-20 hand Wellttann (nFr05 cb .C ols.. a.be(' Ther. 17-22 . 119" lines 3-9) not. the differences suggest it is the.. AfricanU8 reports two otheruses~ mpp 32 {dogfsbraina ~or B.H." <.u9 himself was intrigu.'I'he rea~on for th~ USe of the tongu~ is fairly obvious . Lea Cegt~s.r prepa.. 319).tion of t. n col.ed by this one}.ide reputation. f'I cola. 81. vhic'h is the controlling f~ctQr..ect! ve re.Zoological Passages two usages used as B.ppliea. ) 3Rie !. PlJOt1d~6 gives a lengthy procedure f'or catt. coL 73.rations as preventing conception or making impotent {I' Aberglaube 1 If .he choic@ of t. but Vieil1efond . zoologieal or bot.dng a thi(!f vhich inVolves .use of "ho\U\dstongue~" though uncertain as to vbethel' it vas B. (HOY this would apply in the case of mp 4~c. preparations were not as popular for contra. in Plil". Uthief-convicter lr (Uepte1enchon). ) 2Judging from the examples cited by RiesEl. p.es th@' a. H "lffl.ceptive purposes: as they ".fi style bere (perhaps Pse1J. 81. 313)..al natures (JtAberglaube. 11. I'eols.. 311. H~ gives. animal.he tongue torn from a livIng frog to e.~ frog's navel ('1) in a linen rag is ~ont%'aC'~pt i ve pendant {DIP :4 ~ e . 39. In one.vel .. ~d 82. :fracture) and 38a (brains of a living hen for poisonous bites). PBellus apparently reflecting :so1!leth1ng more of the Afl"ican1f1. ·'Abel'g]aube .22 }• See Wellmann 'to "Frosch... frog I S Preserved So tadpole tongue WElS used (surreptitiously?) in groats .. 6.t ? ) • Brains also do seelll to have had a rather ". 11T-19 ~ andR ie as . reo. 144..! ols. U which Well.k-thief to confess lias if' in a trance It (:m:p 4~h~ IX. "na. 233 1 o~ the frog. 3 but t.PAAO~OrPA~OI.

2" Above.ut·OlJ ~hthoni hypo 1:..e. in penta. refers to the tongue increa. to pode thatton de e.king the-m quicker. In mp 10 (I.au. 211 and.st(Qs} iatatai kai narka. Wh:U~ same e las s as ~'hen' s teeth" (or.TIle Biology of the Frog. f'rog I s nil. Wolves ~ a. 1938) '!I p. 10.b6-19 .. Albert H.in wolf parts (especially the ast. 19~9J" :pp • . 6 lSa.ve1)..g . 293-303. :!yko(u) antiRa(tesas) <chthani. to pede) thatt(o)n d' he. 1 onsi de!"- Canines Wolves. as one or the changes in th@ m.nada ~ 3d ed. 318-~9) suggests transposing and corre-ctillS to..g(!'. ..re not quite in the C unna. 2 '!\To of the re-main- ing thre~ references overlap to El considelr'6bl~ extent..r::iu.d sot the Unit ed States and Ca.1ril!ference to their mouth formations <e. 1:70-11~ 1b).• obvious~ tadpole is less Pe:rh. both in connection vitb those pa. 1-. 123.: Comstock Pub~ishine: Associates.ges and itl the conside-ration of th@ different 8.a:ps it is an eX!Ullple of the use of the ta. KenyoD s Groeek.231~ Afri canu50 I 50 Vie. (lines 172-201. they are ably leas obvious than those of mature hogs.ai na.:. a COTTUpt pBSSB. even in thQ:s:e making sp~C'ia. a Division of' Cornell University Press.) to affect the movement. 3 For the an invocation asvell as the giving o~ a pTeparation including frog f tongu.rKQ. 9. heka. 217.o prevent a horse being spooked.e-l J..gon seven (nrp 9. 4th rev.. with Pla." b&s 'been diacussed pre"iou:Hy.tura. 139) . FQllet..tou LchthoniJ . [Ithaca .igretai. ed.etaJDOrphosis of the tadpole.l or the :rare. toev1ew or-Les Cestes:t pp.s of horses.:l'ly. This 'pllS:HI.en by V1eillefond from the MSS reads. (New York.a2:E'n Wright and Anne.. They both presc~1be tbe use of certa.4).. Handbook of Frogs and Toa.ragalus.Jimal parts."'1'\0"-1 g.. 3The text g1·. P9:rri.tes XI!-xrol).ge :> involving the r1 Elp- pending of' a wolf" s tail t. in sQ~thing Af'tiCiIllUS Dotes about the effect of 'VOl VI!S ib st~ing horses" but eJ. Mac:=millan ComplL.Iize.ta..N.. Allen Wright.ssa.s!ng greatly in !. . Othe~ thtm this t references tb the tongue are absent in desc:riptions of tadpoles.l l'=. pp. appear f'i rst in the pentagon passages i 1. 1-3. p.r.Y.dpole tongues e.so in t!1S. Holmes.: lykos antipathes hekaste 1sta.lso .

and ichnesi. The la. This 1s possible and dOes provide.sthe addi tiomLl disadvanta. .!. f from a l i vi ng . in the other. 28. but recammend5 rather the use or the canine teeth taken . 1 ~ 55). (1 i n~Q 5-9). Aelian N.e bl"idle t as a d~~orution. familiar) ~ hia contribution bl?ing th~i1" ·'practica.f a. t ~958-59J . 2Cf". he cites the £:hz. Rut besides leavingt. ~57 (and 263J..l i1 adaptations. 195B-59. I er • Pliny N.i dely held vieve (at. London: Wil1iB.. n. :p. 251:10 in sO]!!Jevhat similar terms.!. 165 .pplica. H. whit:h is the main point o:f thi:schapt~r. note also Plint N. the passage from nNeJ>ual1o~n cited by Vieillerond. of Neptunianu5 as authority for the assertion that casting the astragalus frmn a volt's :tight forefoot before a :four-horse team ...t.ing fom.. i1eatH'U111J}. 1..2 From this bi? generalizes a militar-. sta. he counsels 'Ilorking the tooth into tb.tt~ for the somewhat rare thasso [this i~ not encouraged by LSJ) s.sica. Loeb Classi~&l L1brary~ 3 vols. . 352.. (Cambridge. 4..e:stes. 205). tha. Hl!ir'Vard University Pres.he firstptl. .ge of not providing any reference to increasing of speed. but vithoutreference to a foot. v. . P.ro}. 36).~a~t~ristit:s of Animal!:!. 203. least in the circles lotith which Africanus was. ~ t pp.t1on~ giving them to some of'the i'ront- line slinger-so In both passages. Ltd..illemann. concerning II..Il1 He. Schol:field translate!:! it Uvertebra" (A~lian: On the Cha..a meaning for t.s C.nd (linen 1_3). ror chthani (cf.o hfl..ter part (only) of tne passage might be C'onst1"ued more simply by reading thattonte for thatton de (it w.ZOological Passages ~at. 36. Atticiz. In tht!' :former. IndE!~d:lo A. imme'diately :!·ol~Olting the reference to wolf tra~ks Dot~dabove (second note prec~dinB).. A. 28.ve.he passage 'Which appears to be not too far from its intent.H.ter 235 he then 81ves a regular use of the volf foot or astragalus (lin~s 3-5). Aelian Up 1. the items cited aeem t..'been fairly . 1 !I1Ip A:fric anUS deals vi th th~ other There po ss i oi 1 i ty ~ stayi ng ho1"ses tin 18 (I 1. he turns the astragalus (~ram a horse- hYPo lykou Bignetal.l"'t still unclarif'ied ~ this hs. Lg.1ll bring it to a.e: ~ou1d assume e.

. alrea. preserved by drying and smoking.s a.'trodu.lon t h but :simp1:. as something more than just a notebook of randomly acquired miscellanies:. 81-82. 16).hout t. 21n the in.Z'n- Thus th~ dog may not h&v~ bee-n chosen f'or any 1nt:r1n~ic real. Thus it is than a magical operation. 73. Richter t "Wolf. n...' as being a relatively \li1. 5 • In the pas sa. The cure vas to be produced odmeg by "the continuous effluviwn of the odorl'l (ti tes echei) during the smold!1g process. I. is JDfI. t mixed vith vin e and oil.S sed (mp 12a. the original application is unce-rtain ~ but the USe of' the term. tet. Doe.et. the ashes-.. l~J Les Cl.. 18.-pose of this vas to transmit the endura..ed. ~But Vieillefond calls attention to another use of a dog's head in the hippiatr1ca {(Oder-Hopp-e~ C. 910).ge to the er3emy on it. the emoking of'the hea.he ea:tli~r contl!'X't.115 att.ention to the preserving of a.. HAberglfl.v rotting. 1:136. 3 Presumably the: p'u. 1l 3The use of volf flel3h for this purpose seems not to be otberwi se atteste d + But -volt f1e sb 'Was used for ot her purpos e 8 (e f • Riess.nce (here interpreted as "diaease resi51tanee t' ) of' the 'Wolf to the pack-animal.H.:i D 6 t a maddog 01te t N It.Ius's Vie\o' 1 racing trick? ) into a front-lin~ veapon for doing d. apo'phor.d.rigae} nuggests racing rather than va~as ~he more likely.236 Afrief:Lf. 342. burned dog's head~ but it is the end product . 18)~ Plin:y·&lso presents a use :for 8. 2o-2'5t PP' l4i) is of' a ditr-e-:re-nt ne.d ta. 'l'hus while the orga.de into a b:roth at'l. 2 lq5~ The other ret'erence to "ilQlves (n:p 1280.. " <. arid Riess e&. . 29 98).tur~.. 12).~e[) f'rom a dead. th~ pext lines (26-28) suggest an alternative .ni~ati-on of 'the K~Btoi is loose 11 it vas 1ntend.ube. large scale. L 12.:01." cols..ama..ry pnv~ntiv~ med1cine. s.ry use (col. & & . . boiled suckling pup f'OT veterina..ion to the latter ~ be also calls attention to hiBeffort (philoponon) in tlrese-archins" his voyo){.ge just del 8CU. yearly veterlne.9"uad. lin~s 53-56 ~ citing Vegeti us 1. which he prescribes {used interna. is used a. dog. The flesh frolll vol:f ribs.:!'stes t p.o.lly or ext (!'rn&11j· aga.raOrCS (= .

see above.rallel: fresh dog urine with its mud CUTeS all kindl:i of wart.s wouJ. 208). In line 27.relative commonness of' the dog may aleo acc:oWlt for. dog's lCompa1"e the plag:. I!l ba.ion or IlIud me. Plin~ . 1. IIlOd~rate-si~~d 237 o. especially" p. given in the text. 1. The latter might be related to the dogis ability to survive apparently Berioufj. 65-61 on it. n.l of' hogs (p. Md. coalls at. 126-32!o and p. 'Wbic:h is supposed to be efficacious. 1" and p. W~11.ass's urinl!! {with its mud} aga. 1. p. 1-2 !o p.'lfe s. 24-25.apotr-opaie function. the reasons fOT eqU!l.1t1an:nJ10 and Ma. . . 15 .. it is udire t' Cdeinos ).. ''l'he ani.. (1:. 239) .c:e is made to dead1. 2 The rea5QIliS for tbe choice or dog skin for carl"Yi. p.ue or the subatance} doubl J' strong. III. while earlier in the· pas~age refl!'ren.nimo. The exact nature of the malad:. from Dim:n~oride~ Eup. for exa:c':lple. 177 CD 168!o ed.. 6. III.s r~ported na. 28.ell here.L It may a1Eo be noted that it is not the smoke. 1).on to Pliny (y. 3 knitting of' a fracture (DIp 32.. 207. 3The common reputation of dogs as "yateh-dogs" might htl. Vieillefond.ncient medical prtLctice~ as well as in more superstitious b~liefs (note .ll)· tr-ansptU"'enL In prooedure 27 (III.ome significance in relation to the f'ortDe-r.d make the connection (and the supposed virt. note a).6.1Jnia (mp 23c.rtlal is not. See 8:. 123:mg. 2.l 19· 65 (Le:s Cestes" p.lso the use of' brains notl!!d a. 30.rcelllJ.smell . 'l'hese t'Wo idee. .!o. for ··shutting U]) the c&use1. the remaining canine references arC! On the other hand.ypes see-ms to have had a widespread r~putation in a. 3l1) are not clear. 239 ID8.!.sically .t~n'ti. p. 238. l The .Ch} urine in mp 33 (III.ng the vulture eyes to preve:nt ophth:a. Pliny 26.d the use ·of :mad dog sal i va to rust gold (mp 4~e. on line 13~.r is pot specifi.tural and supernatural uses). tLn. N.. line 3) ailments (this last provides another verbal contact. 2.inst warts. 231).. but the. 223) who prescribE!s the use or . In note .le in mp 3 and its eJltidote <1.bove in the discU6Siof.ith n. h-6" p. brains on a bandage to speed.g. Vieillefond Buppl.1t1on • • • synape- ~leisan~line 6) of' warts.. 17. p.de fl"OCl f:resb dog (probably bit. 231). IX.s. ':' Urine of all t.the prescript. 22'r) .0 fl. 81 is more dire-ctly po.Zoological Passages common.ies it. 'With mp 3). 233 ~ esp.y (thanatesion~ lin~ 16)t and pestilential (loimikon. 1-3. injuries. and o:f putting dog's.

ck ani. 241).0+Y13onon ~ as an l!IJI'JU1et to promote easy birth. 22.everal of" the!D hl!Lvt!' various. in vine.orthopnoia of pE!. smoke inhfl.1. 123). Most are mammals! the ot1)era arthropods. tions~ t line!a ]-4}.mals (tDp 12b. note the use in human =edicine fOT lethaTgia (taken vith ~t(!:r).. The' dog 1 EI. but s.from more than one standpo i nt.e matches the use for exhaust.. . 149) t or many bedbugs are to be tak~n for asp bite (mp 30.y a of' the came ~. 3L L 3 Ibid..15ed 'With tortoise urine in an external !lpplica'tion (ibid.relB.."bly !lJ'\ointed and cleaned t is ua~d as a container 1 :for the pla. Among the artbropads! lice or bedbugs . III. are prescribed 'for exhaustion Or .n with the verb Other 1 and animals go. li.nus I 8 Vie"..ing the reputaIII!l.Sp.nt p. These prescrip- especially the la5t t have close 'Parallels in ancient sympatbetic Richter cites several passages sUPIX>rt."t tortoise urine yag specific for asp bites.. afterbirth t sui ts. 1-2! p. n medical idea. 53-51.ion of bugs as an antidote !'or poi:i:iOnloespecially that. I p..ariety of liquids. or their use (drunk in a..ion or Gtrthop- ~ .. 1. 3 Pliny also prescribes purpose (~. prescriptions. Afte-r- birth would be a natural choice for such a use ~ a.s.bedbug '!With tortoise blood or urine. or may be 't. 12.. made more e~ficacious if bugs (cimi c i bus) were adde d (~.238 Africa.ed. points of simils:ity. rubbed &round the nogtrils) &ga.. levigated Arthronods..ytha. of" the including the uae of the.inst leeches in t"he throats of . Pliny cites the :Magi as authorit. 32 .nd that of a. 30.connectio~ tively prolific y and this idea could be strengthened b. dog vould be appropriate. t. 2 l{olle of Richte-r 's eX8l!Iples quit. 2 1 & use of dog afterbirth for the same Hyan2e~ n coL 82:4.

deer antler pt:mda.us gives in tnp 3'1) to tales about scorpions {such as t.gee (pentagon nine. II. cedur~ The otherme. 17 and 16.. Al. 16-11 J p.. mp 158..) 2Hopfner characteri~es the ass as being regularly r~g&rded aa an l!lJlillla. Strom.eu in a.tio[] of' Clement and the s)'st. I ivel" or ash es.epsy.S Africar:.ssage is not regard.. " colg. I. 'They are ~ wax from 'the right ear of an a.ic:). l~ 21/1 43). 2.>oCle of the fatbers [e. C B. Diosco1'1dee (!1:. sleeping 'Potion in 'Wine).lreB."'llmEI.t28}: col.rallov 'h" ' 1 ac t1 ... a. Ma.16. 56) ~ a possible source o:f this pe. L 1. IX..B.ch.cht.dy~ in the penta. ~ 1 i nes 62. t prop.a..nces were used in va:riou's &pot. 11 ~ p. (pfl. 3. 221. a. l~~pa. nestl in gs ). 3 f'awn or ~ alI skin (mp 23b. ric6nus~s I Numerous :ma..e procedures (cf~ Riess~ nAb.. I!.ls. .o hold the g".) relating to scorpions {mp 4~g. (See Chapter IV fer a pr~s~nt2. Richter traces the :rationale for this 'Droc~dure to the repu1si ve sm-e-IJ. -does not specify this element (see the discussion under "Fowls t" belO\ol'. g..).66 ) (~~i th thi s compare the IThis could cover anything from a procedure against scorpions (such 8.E!das certainly au~hentic by BJorck). 317)" but there is no fUrther evidence to indicate even v'hat type of passage 1"t vas.ItlJ:::Jals bl!!sides the canines appea-r in AfBat~~ procedures. ) U . 6 ~ both as from '·Aps~rrtus.hy vi t.in wond~r Psel1us says t.ss 2 (mp 26.ns ~p~ I gtOI!l4:! . 1. The speeifiea. Clem.Zoological Passa~e5 239 cer-t:a.1:1.·1 4neer and cattle' suOst.iJl". 3ef.e-r'glaube . 2.gfU. 12.-t l (1s..1 of Hu. 1-2 ~ p. noting that this pa. 318~ lines ~3-44}.ncient sU})e:rsti tion and magic ('tz-1ageia/' PW ... though it might not be especially significant. 10. the only ones exteneively discussed~ have been mentioned a.hat of: their communication and [!J"'lltual help recounted by £.l"a- doxa.nt (mp 21. 26-28J L a::. ( mpp 22 an d hedgehog Totted dog's bead ia mp 12a [Vi. 1.. one ingredient of e. 72 and 16}. t. as \fell ~!J seculor vriters). I I r... .b the prob- able youth~U1neSB of the victim at the first appearance or the dis~ase (or or the sour!: e 0 f the stone s .ropa."1heilvoller ~ja. veterinary apot. Geoponica 16.g~. of the bugs (ibi d.hat AfricanuB relates 8.ropail:: or preve:ntiv. 211.tion of the young animal might 'be in SJo"1llpat.gon pfi5sa.&SS.rntnals appear only brie"fly ~ most in only one pro- eo..em of citation of his vorks.

14.H.lternative Bubstance to res-tore the virility of horse): hare's blood {mpp 4~a and ~5..rious types of Ifpu.n for this purpose (~. Va. If it is the la.3" pp.H. IX. . Pliny N.·o (. 32-34. Pliny prescribes tb~ eating of significant parts of it by the \. :male is unclear" but. the Tetraoc('m tahaks. III . p.ble. 2. ) 'i it might be an aquatic or somE! sort. pp .g. A 1''Pu:rfer'~ might be intended. a. Galen 3 pres uma. thr(!~ or more specif'i. I!:. 229. (1LA.'ld around 'the globe.. pig m&!"rov~ especially the spinal (mp 25.. t DiosoCorides (~. 1." inha'bi ts the lAelian N. 3. This OJ" toad of some sort ae. p1"'Jaa1os."1tiasis &nd dropsy).nd bear pUdenda. 248). 28. :2.los. 1 and 12.pr-obably fl.1" p. which puffs itself' up.of medusa. as So cOlltraceptive L Why it vould be e. 4Aelian .rine anime."1icals. 119 mg) mi ght be 8. :for elepba. 18) dt!Ei~r1bes a.gon t". Joke).ce B. Four procedures uti1iz~ whEtt are. IX.eally in at least The second of the thr~e- of' them mfl. 1. 317 I!lnd 321~ to produ. "puffer" 01' som. and ot. 37-38.mp 2. :4 and 4.! Red Sea.~ tY'P-!. III. an B. 19J preecr1be51 its renniE!t.. 105 (dried flesh for dropsy}. :225 and 235.I'oWl... 4 Ont' eo pee ie-s.S mals{' (On) (mp 44n.e.f_ ers" (TetraodQntidae)" most. \fe-50 tbe pbysa or "river" PhYse. IX. to cause human a practical.. di s cuss ed above ( "_hib1a. l. per contra..ns .quat1c 8.4. :fQund in thE.t'. "marvelou$ helps"). 1.1s. .. poisonous to some extent:lo are f'ou. 30. animals said to be in pent.2 ~a~t ·1e excret10ns .her ani- elimination 3 !!i.tural prolificness of the hare would sUggest its use to 14~4i6. 9-1.Afr1~anUS'5 View l 30A. it might be either a..tter .A. ~ (liver for elephantiasis).. mal~~. .p~ci:fic:ally connected to the 1>roductiQT\ of fa.c n connection. o. prOl:1lot@ C'oncl!:ption (as . 'Poisonous fish. but many of' the d~tailB seem unrelia.bly by some typ~ of' "sympatbet:s. (mp Jc~k. 2The na.

te-d.t5 portrayed by Africanus (L 2.. in a. So .snri. this is not necessarily magical or even Buperstitious.is poison.. 5..v.ra.a t or Portuguese man-of-var.tion of the creature. t could be "captured" and trBJl.lso in th~ Medi t..llj' • 24l 1 Severnl. Th.ed 'by their proper utiliz.ults promised f'rom the procedure seem t·o be based view of its natu::oally poisonous n. 91-98) have some s1Inilarities to there~rult5 of an attack by-tbis organism {and 'thus might have 'b~l. Roulin 3 suggests this t specifically the PhysaH.n perhaps conflating a description of the physa. lie also regards them as the creature described b:.n 1~or speci~5 on the other sid~ of the a highly the: preparation of ~ st~. how'ever'll i5 very potent and relatively quick acting t killing by :r~:spira­ tory pa:ralysis through depression of" the respira-tory center of the brain (ibid. an exaggeratE!:d I!md an e-Xpl!ctlltion that they fOnD. but (citing Strabo ~1lysa 17. the roeOf] s.·er the ~o:t'rect identifica.oxin s survi ring the cookj n g pro(: es s. ". t et rad.ugD1~!1t.')gerous ~ dish.r1ll.l!rranean.ed in Ja. 1.OO"a" '"' &::Fran~ Y..).he phxsal ia occurs e. .onize with the deacription than & puffer + (Or Is Aelia. 3 In Vine ent s ttNot1 ces sur t·ro! B manusc ri t·s ~ n p.!n a5sum~d f"or its properly prepareli re:m. Aelian deacribes them as a Red Sea fish t but t. 312'b). the description of the s'Welling or tbe body could be connected to 'the puffing up of the body of tne puffer when disturbed.dattempt to eat a physalia? Also. regarded ~ but de.he tisb &re icproperly prepared: the poi son i nvol v~d . pro- cedure.at'W:'~.&tion. 11 WhElte'l.rapp'll "Puffers ~ rl Grzimek l 5. 252. ~inistered intern- ally). As no'ted in the previous discussions of thiel. !:l'I~1me AJ- type of: ~dusa may be: the animal intended. ) 4 Conversely. &pparently llX>re poisonoUB t globe' 8. 2 t~rnately.ains.lia vi th the effe'c:ts of' eating 'the puff~:r' Who vou1.pa.Zoological PaBsages Nile and thua would tit Afri canus I B adj ectiyes potami os 10 li t~.s used of a Nile fish .1"e utili1.t.n tJ.according to LSJ ~ 4~ and AthenaeU5 7. The re~nJJ. if t. 2. 562.r Aelian (3+ 18) ~ but thi 8 identification seems harder to hB.

. echeneIs t or remor~.. ns.A.l". ~ (a. 'Would seem to fall into the category of nature magic (magis.. 8. 19.rni bus Bui s crf:!:t'!19.la. 3 All these itetIlS. 8.n be identified fairly confidently t at least by zoologica.A. 32. cf.nd vu1 ture gB. ibid. Ae1ian ~..st. The other tbree. daemon i c:> type.J (probably 50m. The fish. Pliny N.H. UBe of appropriat... 26. 3. Pliny N. 2-4 . Aelian N. p.n animal with I:t18J1ge vith the body of a Bea urchic. II.turalis) 10 not the indire-et . hinderl. ng them.1t ure geJl and eye 5 have alresdy been discussed 4 l Arist. easing childbirth.n ) • ~ See above 10 p. its ash i L 3Cf. 11.. 36. 32. 6 (or. t i . 237}. 32. Aelian ~+ 1. 'Which . 9~ 155.H.. if magical at all . 'lrlth the The first is the: sting-ray. p~ 203. ("s c::i ecti fic H 1) realm.l ord-l!l" (or sub- order). The final item is the rubbing of 8. 218" no 2" re partridge a.e vulture parts in such procedures would see-III.e species of E~hinidae) to produce soundness (mp 31. and Pliny N.1 cum ea.. 15. 9.lso Pliny N. • . 32~ 61: . III.. H.. III. 1 .ll. 25). thereby acquired a repute for holding other things. and 'Y'U. pp. 2. 2Cf . 1h). 2. The . 36 and 2.a s 6rIciently credit. so called because it supposedly held ships ~ .H. a'tt:r-ibutes to it" the use of its sting in killing treeS ([except apple] mp 17. s~ procedure~ involving fow~1~ or noted above: 1IIP 23c" part ri dge ga1..ing mis-carriage and proconcept-ion a9 reported by Africanus in the..ed ]:iO'We-l" Africa-nus.Afr i canus I' S Viev more ltd sdi l"ec ted ingenuity in the phy9 ic a1.veterinary frag2 ~ents (mp 29. 50S b 19 (2. It!Oting This includes its uses for prevent.H.creatures al'e all marin~ types and ca. lh. 231" 233).

3et . a. into whom he hag of' moved~ virtue- wise (lines 12-17). resUlts in the: the bird's invincibility to the man.":I stones found in the 13i~- z. and the maintenance of vhol~ness of the bones (though 1ndividually~ not 8.~ the burning of the remains-of Jewi sb BB.a. which 'Would seel!l tranB:f~r to be intended to keep the virtue inta. for poisonous bit. in hea..ct.ll a. by soldiers and conteste. 12:46 . l44}.crif"icial fea6ts t ~sp@~iall)r the P6.1lnics.te ass. .~ipg. Africa-nus' 5 ovn ~ontri'but.es.. as well as in the lforse tal es of ThQr I IS goats).. DIP 38n.ective magic (esp. These two procedures..Zoological Passages 24) 1 mp as opht.umption:> that the virtue lli lie in th.. 317) and Ort h {PI thUl11. suitably prepared~ is eaten by the keeping the skeleton vhole.."ing it (line 11)..l contexts = e.t the beginning of N. 29.L. . 123. 12: 10).! l:s bro. vir~ Africanus proposes two methods for capitalizing on the tue.ets 2 or under the tongue. The one suppos. 2 coL 2533} call attentIon to the signif'icance or the chicken ~ or at least the cock" in prot. ~O:t swan testic1e~ a5 8. For chicken brtJ.nd vi ctory ~ of c-haJnpion ga:tIle-c oc:ks {DIp J. 3" pp.im. vhile i~con:si. lBot n Hopfuer (nM~1! ia t n col.H..S a vhole skeleton) (Exo. note Nic6nder Ther.e cock itself. The cock.es the power to. 2533).Ji.plrt.than in the cock itself. and then burning it+ 3 This ritual.H. 29 • 78 (in wi ne. 12~n.nts~ in amul.nce Bnd sharpness of sightPliny st=ems to ilJIply such a. lie in c~rta. .rds of the eocks vhen sacrificed .stent with natural in viev of' its repute for disto. rathe-}. het. col. 1250.sover lamb (Exo. 37. These stones were customarily 'Worn . Qr hen brain on 'Wound). 551~58~ 562-63 b1Jter membranes in wine») and Pli ny . 8. I' pw. the partial parallels in other ritua.. 2 t Pliny cites this as the practice of one notable champion) Milo of' Crotona (N. colonic.. The ather method se~ to operate on an opposi.s. 1.hfJ.ion is the suggestion of" a more secure method or carrying the stone--apporl!'ntly bJr svulo\. con~estant. rationale for the use of eagle ga.li. g .in.

te ms.low-plant.J:isti!nce of the foraJe:r [..Af'ri canus 1 S Vie'iot each othl!l" in their vi~.'ollOVing Vieillefo:nd' 51 interJ)retation. Stone-s from bi~d t s g1 :uis:rds a1 so appear. though r1 the sources e. Bjorck. and Dela. 73.mple from Pliny N.. sharp reed. b The ~o. M pw s IIA. 24. n@st11ngs·' (line 11) and In thef1rst procedure. 20 J ). 34. .s of vhe-~e-in the virtue la.s being white and black ~ 2 found llhen the birds are opened wi. 3 &l"e used as an ophthalmic pendant. then tbe enclosure of tbil!" stone in a gold.tte (Her'barius 1:2<1 ed. 10. IT1).gic}. This use re~ quires the sacrifice of a vhite dove. 'l'his last is also presented in So sui tably rhetQric"al manner.llov being dedic&ted to her {along vith other house- hold gods} (Ae-1iM N. "Schwalbenund Segl er.i r 0 f procedures ~ mp 23 a and'b (III. for both procedure-s: The1!listocles'victory over the Persia.!L.ll suggest 1This passage tLl10ws Afric:anus se-veral rhetorical flights.ns {lines la~21).. 175}. JlAberg1a.voida. 3An example or the 8.and 1::01. ptphysical" transfer of -the virtue to t. 1938J ~ pp. 169 ~ coneernins vhite as vell 8. part 1 (1.re~ to svallow9 also . 11 (chelidonion L and thus presumably !'e.y..ube1o" cola. e~cially :.. SO-51 (iron neutr-al.H.in Mother po..ck [and 'Whi t~J swallows. also Riess . 1333~) there cited.." t'Wo stone!:!. and the invocation of Aphrodite.. the references ~1ju1d conceivably be to their being found in both color sval10vs (see Goss ~n.921): col. oe'cklace ~ Th~se a.he one vho uses 'the power Bouree in an appropria. 34 And 11. t1 pp. th a. 10. and other references in GOfisen" On the re-lation of the dove and "Schvalben und Segle. 58-59 . but of coming victory (linl! 15). 11-1. It is also augmented by a. magi~" princlple.5 the usual ble.a.1zes ma. operate on & They aSS\m:Ie some 80rt of a ilni lar. sui table Irhistorical u prec:eodent.A.A. identified a. this.::rr col.~"eontagio-w.. that concerniog the cock as ~essenger~ not only of d~y. Aelian reports 10 Eie~ond-htLtId ~ the e.. ttApsyrtus . 2.'lce of the use of iron? Cf. line 11 (&n ex. They follow a paragraph d@'seribing the supposed origin and pOller of the "SwaJ.nner ~ 1.9).re referredtQ only ~ "spring nestlings·' (lin-e 15).

p. This also llouJ.e end othe-r rttferen-ces. Ch. "the first batching . 2.iaines.nl!' .pe- rl!'te-re'nee to the stones. 2 and tbe procedv. 16-18.nd Daemons .t~ e-t Citt..xippo& ~ which ia auper~ededb1 his ovnprocedure in mp 11 CI. 2.. used also by Pliny (}L H. i on (see above. 356 .)!1.voidance of religious references (cf.gi... 169) .1. 3.Vl.p. Dare!:nb~rg and Edl:i. 141)..es s~n epilepsy .. ed. •1 below.) While Africanus I s literary embellishmenta also include mythological items. nSc:hwal ben und Segle r . Hubert:l' I~agia. " i..' to pagan re 11 gi oua acts." c01.Zoological Passages a ma. WQruldrate a gold necklace). 91.. p."rtU!. 56-58} ale 0 a:ppli e s large1:. poasi"bly Dioscorides M. and the chapter Aphrodite .. c1fie~ th~ spring ne5tlings~3 the stones a~~ id~ntified as variegated and cl ear in color 't and the use is di fferent" to CUTe or.M. see H.caJ. 2!~5 The power still 50urce~ to arise from the nature of" the stone &Id its but th~ invocation 0 f' a Bpi ri t (Aphrodite) k.220.chet. VII. 1520 (first col. of the t'W'o broods year (Gos sen. 2891..4!4!'P s i t from being purely n&ture mag i c •1 Th(! next puagraph (DIp :2Th.rm) I Bource lying behind it . mp ~. The references to the sa. 3. J~ ( the preceding and following paragraphs. his a. (Bnd otherwise nOll-Christian) procedure~ s~ems. 56 (ed. V. tt a. 1:. ( Compare also his mention of sacrifice to Poseidon-'J"ara.ibut. :p. n. 15-19 ) co~s apparently :from another source. 8. V1eillefond (Les Cestes.l U!lC E!!'tainty} }. and othere-. . .:. lIt should be not. of the proced:ure] in the last passage d1scuseed.re fits in only by virtue of the The source of the stones here is more s.) or 2'In this case . and 769) cite thE!s.. 186 {giving the DiQs~orides ref'erence as 2. part 2.nd 'IGods a.s. II r.l:' pp. fI. 11. 2.e..e in his prQbe. Sagllo" 5 volE). 91).citing Pap.d argue against the accuracy of" the Al"'ricani an 1I. 1877-1919)..b~yAfricania.crifice and to Aphrodite IIrlght support this (but note the referencE!' to sacrificing [though not a part." cola" 773-7 L.:a list ("Aps... 60J) and Gosse-n (rrSeh'W'alben una Segler. 15-16). This passage would appear to be one of those that had it6 origins in human medicine (fe". in 10 (Paris: Librairie He.ed that this is one of the hippiatri~a passages w:hi. Paris.cn BjQTCk does not inclua. 'Ilh i ch GYallovs produC' e in ~loscoridea BayS. n. Les Ceste. and Pap.r horses. ~).. h Thi s passage· also VQuld seem to derive froPi human medic:d. T Cbut 'Wi th same textua. vol. (See the further diacussions under nRites. W~11m!!.imilar animals. or s...t tr." in Dietionnaire des antiquites ID"ecgues et rOll'. I. pp. 30.

i e'W Or ~4w:.. Galen 1nclud~s goose fat as one element in l>repe.lady being oppose-d.5 . 319. 63 .use of the supposed JDOon rell!!:. 1. common magical or superstitious proscription)t 1 they are to be bound in f&Yn or ~al~- skin {Diljsco1"ides: heifer or deer)) lIJld this must be: done durirlg the of the moon. The 5igrJificanc~ of the l:IOon phase 'Would likely be bece. 2 beg! nning fLnd increasing phas II! C1"OV fat in heated ~ine (with hedgehog ashes as an alterna- tive) is Fres~rib~d for dr0P5Y of an animal (mp 30A.nd 4. 356. phase of the .n).ted nature: of the ma.le? (cf. Ed. a~ Goose fat is. col. 2'10 contra. 61.. III. The same may be true of' tbe rl!!'st of the chapter. moOT! a. l . 14. 1: 19.se-d by the fel:llJ3. to be u. 187.~ the us~ of partridge bile in Galen (see above). 5 (and thus may be non-Africanh.lly . ~enera. 301ck • 11Gans t" F'W. . IX. 1923.. re. 235}. ~hich contains bQth goose fat and 4 Thid.but not its L use in Afrlcanus.ti tIe J cone ern the Ery"e-s}.416. 64 1 73 1 75. p.. 4 t a.. 1'29-30. (NeW' York e..closer WIDen ~ and it:$ aphr.pparently at the nev moon t or in the f"i r s t ~ 'Waxing 'I (whether quarter ~ third t 01" half). 5 . note. ~ C!. Lynn Thorndike. Uni veTS i ty Pre sa. Vieillefond. n. lI cola. to be used an ointment to secure thE! conception of a t'e!Il!l1e hnpp h480 and ~5. lef. :Iti!l. Les Cestes... K"uhlh 14.2 e.. p. lin~s 32-37"10 vith numerous I!xamples fol1owing~ cols. 119-20.ra. Hi5tor' of _ ic: and hDerimt!!ntal St:ie-!i~Ct B vol s ..odis iac c onpect iO. ~4..l'1jo' Goose fat had use5 in Greek and Roman Wl"iters t especially in the treatment of female problems. 12. n.nd London: Colull:ibi e. . the veterinary eoncep~ion-promoting pessarY .g.l:H. So Indeed.. ferent: The procedure :for us ing them i 6 also di f- the stones are not to toucl1 the: eaxth {a.~ . Riess. 7 t part 1 (1910): cols. the counterpart of the h!lre's blood for production of n male noted above}. e.tion :for the conception of a male. e: .ed of Leos Cestes... I. e f. ·'Aberglaube . 3 ass oc. 79 t 80 ~ 82 (all :from F1it:ly). Foll4rt. .: i ation vtth s~ecific These fit yell vith the goose' s. p..

But the goose fat might. theae ref"e:renees ha. 'IApsyrtus.e l1 in GeJ. sO'l."hQseA:fricania. distinct magieal tion. Bjorck. and f'urther ~ is one of a nUlllber cfpasaages ". an ac compan1::nen t 0 f the sJ)ells in the 11hoplocri sma" r it uo. 32-hO).for a wound by Tom Joad in Jolm Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath (:Nev York~ Th.ve a. . :?:1~~-~51)."Terful of h1JJl1a.td. spit and aJ.mited~ and even smne of th-em are of questionable authenticity.fi Subs'tMces. On th~ use of animal \U"ine t see above cone erni ng .. to hippiatr1ca.s' i. C..i"tu::te-ristir:s (SE!:-e.ly po.n authen- ticit.11 pp. note the use of it in a mu.. According to Riess.ctive one. .n substances in Afri- e8. :U.d plaste:r .a"'ce which ha.llu. vitll. Bj5rck" "Zum Corpus Hippia.a.19) 61.l1Ipp 33 and 36 (us e 0 f' dog and torto. 85.. simply be the ttvehicl.ive Afrieanian chEJ. hI. 16 (po 235). . ~o-4~1. 14 (Oder-Hoppe. 86. Cant. Ib-18) ~ a.. 2) evidence~ since from. vith t.aJ6rck t "'Apsyr-tus. 25-1. This l. 67-88. 2:2-26. but this is unHkely since Bj5:rCk t s analyses shm.ek of' posit. en 1 s recipe. . P8. the e..sius. 2 8...d us. 1 HUIi:l.: le.~ Viking Press]o 1939 (reprinted 1966J)~ chap. tion 0 This connection is genera~ly to r'nature magic ~.o\m to modern times. 5.at te r. 11 pp.h~ excer- f the i nvc<: at ion 0 f Aphrodi t~ ..C'orum. '1Ab~!'"glaube't 11 eols.l 1• procedures.. that the redactor here used Oriba. 10.i:e eo urine).H.Hwnan Substances eonne~- On the whole. (c:f. 57-58.1. U pp.. Ril!'ss.ul. ~ tu-rpentine.e. the other ingredient. Galeo). ~tc.fln Substances The nIDJIb~r 01'" C)ccurren~es of use of bum. rt IIIi ghtbe B.los~ .) directly (ibid.~ly li. J most Qf" the items in III.nd transfer of:' a (series of) prescription(s) (i.]I pp.. pl"oce-d'ltl"e~ is extrem.r is suspect.l ) • hare rennet (among other thingsJ in Hipp. hwna:n medil::ine (e-sp. 2 urip~ are among the most DcCurS t:lagic~ The :former in mp 6 (1.!"gued tbat AfriCanU5 was the medical sourc€ so converted. IThis is not a case: or ruling out disr-uptive the passage is sus:pect on other grounds.ed the major medical V1"1ters of th~ tittle (A@tius. also. The use of human urine as a medical substa:n~e continues d. however ~ is H SOlllle- what out of character with Africa-nuB 't 5 other magice.

S menstrual blood~ generallJr for negative or destructive uses. .tneBative~ protl!'cting by countering some 'threat. 1. 20.. lOvols. however. 58. 3r-o!" other uses of Bm.. is :much smaller tban in the r-~sult ~ase. 2. tl The number or pla. Na:tural Hi story. 251 L Another potent me.24B Af'ricEUlU5' s View th~ though it is act of spitting rather than the spittle that appears Urine of a ~pe-cially to be significant there.! far exceeds the number of' Bnimals named passages fOTlD. "Apsyrtus..~ see the discussion above-(pr 207.hfl.her below.:r' Me-Meine in Ancient ltaly. plague}. &1 potent kind.. Harvard University Press~ 193B-63)..g. It and p. (:ols. 237 t n.-er ~lasse-d r The -pum'ber of as magical. H. (rott~d dog's head" to Telieve Q suffering horae) (Bbove~ p. 26. which is also of disputed a. et al.41-86. ~A sim11tsr disproportion is noted in Pliny by W. III. 206 11 'With n. L2. . undeT "Other Factors" (10051ng) Plant PassBges or nRites.. p. a virgin cou." that of infant. 32-31 } e-ye-sa1ve)~ the greatest in vine SiClilarly..d use: he"!' girdle to ewe a hor-ge suffering frOlll ('!!:IP 30. quest ioned p a. 1 occurs in.a double st&Iltlard I ~gpeeially lE. 11.ssage t m:p 23e (III... S. 2) of mf' 3 :mg. urine of s.uth~nticity. dysu:r~£L the smoke] f'rom a ~nstrual rag injures horses. n in Pliny.t~!'ial \lB. uAberglaube~n 2 Riess . .ak.H. III.1." p. On the positive side.sica. s 'With its apparent refl@ction in mp ~41 (s~ke and i~~ense vs. but apotropaics b:. Jones.rpopul. This rtJay be somewhat the of .. This usage . (Cembridge~ H. child is adt!Jinistered bites (mp 38b ralso questioned]. 65. is discussed :f'urt.. 65-67.nth n. s-e4! tLlso Pliny N. and of mp 12a 1)+ Th~se uses are ba. trans. a..jarek.' their nature are eome". 85 . ll). 8 (1963): 513. ~g~icst poisonou~ ll-12. . Loeb Classi(:al Library.lly apotropa1c.. various procedure!. 2 According to trip lIb (1. Rack-ham.nts mentioned by Africa-nus in his. 32.h 3).

te:r1a medical! to "pharmacology. Chapter one~ uDrugs of Vegetable Origin~t1 covers pag~s 51-811 10 'With chapter t'ilot"Drugs of Animal Orisin~1t occupying only page-s 812-51'.])tel"s.S botan:5. This is not a ur. such as the u!.r~ rather complex development and/or extrac:tion In contrast.Plant Passages but if so~ it results from an attempt to restrict the discussion to lih1ch are :f'airly clearly magica1.Blnkiston's Son&: Co .s~ of vhich tnani:f'ests other magical cha.1 one 6 31 and are 'USually the produ.ra.e. al S0 in their scient1fic~ ~edicina1 der1vativ~s. As.. Philadelphia: P. In both ~h8.he procedure-s 'Were included .re experienc) t ine: sC4nethi ng of a re'li val of pop'Ul ari ty in Tee el1t year $ but. of plant culture and u.a.l t.. and enL.l appeuance.3 For this reasOn t only those procedures which use p~ants ~hose supposed virtue seems clearly based on some association of its n.• 1936). for example 7 the e~raction or insUlin from animal pancreaSeS. This shif't in DitlJ'lner of use correlates vith the medical terminological shift from Hms.or externa.s abundBJlt fL. n'l.l prepa. dow"n to 2IlOdern times t :2 but by their continuation in use not only in the uherbals ti (which a.'1d of' animal origins.as po- tential1y :magical.?).me.cter1stics~ a:re considered here.n&erous chem1ca:L sUbstances of medical aigni:f'icance found in ream1y usable form in various plants.' .e:d and preser'l.a­ ed.55ages~ l!Llmost a. e e. This is evidenced not only "by their popularity in ancient times. Heber W.d versaltruth t of ~ourse t some treatments." nosy (~th . and the production ~~d extraction of v~ious vaccines and antive..Ie of TrIilk to soothe ulcers t require no specira. signfficflDt medical products fr'oo animal sources are not a. '1'ert Book-of P~&~ac0." rev. Y'OU1:lgk~n .se we-a better orgattiz.lso partially 'because the misinformation in the area.a. This work devotes one -chapter each to drugs of' 'Vegetable .r'ugs.ct or 1 procedill"~s..{ed (fIJld thus more HrespectableH.ration~ only the recognition of their valu~ (cfa also the second note following) • Perhaps e.nner of use is largely ~xpressed in termS of derived p:reparatiofHl rather than of th{!' crude d.l. In the CfLse of the those passag~s zoological pB. hovever ~ the mB. 1 2 3Note • for example . or the u.nins.

4.s So i cal Re"V'i.. (H~ illustrates its usage in this form by certain lines from Rabelais) concerning one t Monsieur Panurge."ell boiled a.ght (mp l~&. I. HAncient Chemical Warfa.this i$ s.6te-r~d on). pcnt. since he presents a rationale itsopern- lIn addition. 235)" Africanus prescrib~d boiled squill (with vinegar and pumice? Cline 5J) to piodu~e a white coat. B-ll) involves some unkno".p. red-hot 'brandi:ng iron.ust hO'. 36. U Whethe=.-n GUbstfLfice which cou.250 Polygons and ancient medicanl.1. ) 4Vi e:ille:1"ond. euphorbiU!!l resiniferaL being capable of producing the resUlts promised. excerpts (Vi.J1ce V'i. l4l" 143) . but A. 255) . Les Ceste!3~ p.and t"he surviving hexagon reference (heXB.se 'Was to be ".:re~" Cla.r. 27.. legu:ne~') cannot be identified .~id? > in the plant is not specified. 7l.80n seven.ents 'Two 01" the pRss6ges referring to t·he geometric figures.. Since the plant (osprion. l)~ p..pp. l7-3D.. Thol::lpson. plant sub~t·!3.upposed to occur from the residual heat (the puJ. th a....a.r11er in the hi~piatTi(:6.e 'b~en puffed in pmtdered form . In 8. 9" line 3 in .he blEning.nus. 3 In tbe latter" the c~e is not so clea. 13. to effect such a result. p.nd plB. 11. resul 1. ~Qr natural" physical result.. 1ts actual effectiveness cannot be judged. 255. in1 volv~ plant s • In the i'onner passage ~ any magi cal connec ti on is in 2 {~. ew 41 (1933) ~ 171-12. algo~ 'tS~tlloge~" 280 identified by MSS V ~d D. or frotll something (perhaps an e.lEhorbia th~ use of the pentagon. lq3 mg~ r~ I. Vi~ p. 3See DtArcy 'Wentvorth Thompson. pp. rather tban squirted in liquid form. p. it yields 'White hair.. lines 6-Tr ItPor scar:ring! ulcerating by t. If' this ~ould be the plMt intendedti t might produce sonlething like the . at lea5t~ Beema to regard it as a. III. "p'Ulse . che.e.Jules Africain (e. III. :passage appee:ringl!'il:.f1"ice.. I. but if the plant is a legtmle" in tbe modern sense~ none or the~ ~ould seem to have ~ 5u~~iciently aetive nature 7 acid or oth~~is~. high enough specific heat. similar to B.. 5-6. ".gon ej. mp 41. 11. sugge st 1... to ei'fe<::t B. It is diff'icult to il!l~ine 8.1 that as a pr?-ctical lL'€Elsu:re the drug '[r. pentagon four {mp 5. the drug specified. 4-6.ld be botanicaL ct.

Ga.lt calcium ox. The English Institute in the University of Upsala. ~ II I. Liljegren.for the briars of' a. p. 1 are: mp 23e (III.ppearance ~ and B. the "greatest" (ouden de meiz. 6 nJpsala ~ A..vy root and infant. Accordi...udJ Gri eve t A Modern Herbal.l8y fI. 1" + rHildaJ Leyel li 2 vols. [Ne~ York: Dover Publications. B. ) A. p ..i n (Mrs. .. Lundequistka Bokhande1n. vhether common ivy {Reder-a helix) or ground ivy ~GlechOllJa hederace-a).~ metal cleaner ~ etc. urine.'Orst examples or variations on. had an ancient and oontinuing :reputation as a medical herb (c:f.. 229) s stat@d resUlt. J~" p.ced gloss:l Vi.~ariet.gnus Castus. irThe tva . unboi.':ied of' i. ed.. l' 2Though this particular procedure is not. 19. Va.1ate cOtrJponent .tion (Grieve. "Alle1UYB n .len prescribes for . 36. the jui~e of the squill . also t Youngken y Phtl.. vhich containS a signiticat..l ed . In the medieval herbal called "A.. slu~tch of tne ha. Th~ruily is ai~ilarin :o:. Camb ridge: Harvard Univers i ty Pre 55.gen~ Ejnar Mu." this herb "roatyd on co1 ys lr is credit@'d with the 'Poverto Jrfrete awey dE!d f'lesch.r. 127 (s. 1950. 2~ 32-31 . 13..es xaothoxalis) could be mi:staken . JV)r. 1 t produced the opposite :re sul t. attested elaeil"here li the key el/!'. nO. piC'K~d out as most magical a. p. 153.0.s .Plarl t f'a3 sages 251 Even among 'thOse.8L (There ma:{ be some quest ion 0 f its e ffi cae.• It. ~f.ndoned by modern medicine as usel~ss (or at lea.ollli line 32) eye-5al. of Stoc:khoh }ofS X 90~ the publication 1' base)) . 164 ~ lines 1-6.ssae. C()Clpany~ 1931) J 11 2=761. l84't lines b and 15). including use as an eye: medica. Inc+ 1911 {reprinted from the edit ion of Hare ourt ~ Brace..rious Manusc!"ipts. C. lJar s. MS X:.'1..-B. i bill ty trdght b-e s orne var i ety 0 f oxali s (vooa sorrel) ~ the eponym of oxalic acid {produced s~rnthetica11ys i t is used as e.. 1950 J ~ p .st not worth furtber s'tudy to see if~ or how they did fulfill any of the ancient claims). II (Costa Brodin .ng to Grieve.ppearof~ number seem to be at v. ~ in modern ti:me-s}. v.ys. secotHl tolum.Mnts in it are !lot unusual in ancient m~dicine.glish Herbal j.5tUS~ p. Agnus Ce.-i th verdigris from the exterior of its copper eontain~r after it had been b'lll"1ed in horse manure for LO da.irj stems of some of i{.any vays to the leguminosae~ vitb seed pods or :eome'ilhat :similar s. 5J • But in the one case it functions as a dye~ in the other as a bleach. a black color rv 1. is hi@hly irritant to human s k.a.]~ 2~442~ ~~3). blackberry (as in the :mispla.es if.. combined . Essays ewd Studies on English Languag~ and L1 tera.nksgaard. bl each.ie-s (especially those sometimes separated into the subspecd..tional connections in ancient med:ical practice. ed. M[ o. y Agzms Castus: A Middle En.!'m!lc06t':0SY.:. Reconstructed :frOID.c:learest :r6.. 2 and nIP 25 (III. 101" perhaps 'W~ak or unreliable substances aba. 6). Cope-nhfl. however" since. e~ compO.ture:l ed~ S.'1other pos 9. &. 11 III. Modern Herba.p!l. p~ 227)..

. .n status Ila!.ly ~ a='. 12..crud. Pliny .ppliclltion to produce inte'rnal operationa.terium applied to the navel.. 1).nd cOPFer filings produced by '\oI'o. 2. the wine in which the lice or bedbugs ~ere nd- ministered ttdght have ~ome stimulating ~~fect. ed. 'WellmannJ) a. l. 114 C. III. and ancient (and/or folk) med- icine sometimes using externala. as ~ell as a general tonic for old people Qfl.gicfLl) • mp 12b (I.252 AfTiCaJ1US 1 s View aveet ci<::ely (M. 1 Ano-ther might fall into this category exce-pt for ita pemp L3a {VI. 193L Grieye . but giving the virtue of the plant as against 'Phthisis (Les Cestes. \lith it. (.M.medicine.yrrhls odorata) as a restorative of virility to horses... not regarded as proven by Bjorrt:k (see the discussion above. disctlsSl!d below culiar lZlanner of use: as & "Sympathetic" operation} t the prescribed substance. having .!.t 'Iofi th ela. 297. 2 Cf. l:!..Q B.. mp 23 a-eo} is one of th~ hippie. cyclamen. 53-55). .nd 26+ 108).e HerbalJ:Io cite-d by Gri eve~ 2: 4 ~ 3). it could harilly be regarded as other than El'I8.otls may be to SCi~llti fic.tive effect". from wine of a child a. line 1 . eventual.gienic moderns ~ thE!:Y are It maJ~ be noted that this passage: (Vi. ro3~ volf f B fa. n.. p.:!' resin) prc~uced are resistant to treatm~nt a preparation. seems to be derived not therefor-e . while in thealterna- tive prescriptioo t the barley groats should belp restore the strength of an exhausted fl.J!.) Thus ~ howE!:ve:r 'We i rd or repul sive such pr-escripti.irldlca. The whole passage". b~.'W' pi t-ch.nimal. fOr :fistula.magical. in a copper mortar with a copper pestle ~ until both mortar and pestle are vern away and the urine beco~es honeylike {ed. 356 .odil"!rn Herba. from human . 28.hose Africania.nd Pliny (24.ld the ~oreswhieh l"tI. 1. 115...l mtly possibly be of 'i/alue~ but even if SOt the resUlts promised seem exaggerated (such that if really IT! accomplished.t~s the reputation of the pl&nt as an apnrodisiac.p.d adolescent girls (M. ~ieillefond r~port5 a similar de-scription of the plant in Dioscorides (M.s and hollow ulcers CTP. over a period of' days. p.ybe a related pres~ription'" ground ivy jui~e and veroigris.l~ 1 =201-2) . KUhn t 12 =286-(7) • (Gerard r~ports 'Ilhat mJJ. 245~ n..tr1~a passages \. 2 SOJ!:e: other of the prl.s various prescriptions.!:scription!.a recogniz4!d purga.t'king it".. .

es J..a stimula. this by 6.l.pplie:d to other plant s 0. [Pine 'I'ar)" and "Oleu. The other plant..l"b of the edible type. miraculous (or ma. "Pine t n and "Pin(! U.Plant Pas~ages 253 could be of help in c~rta. pbifSl.1n respil"tLto:t'"y p:t'"oblems.ling by first intention".s@'d..'ast (At!'iC!UlU. I'. e. bu..m pini jJ1.. identi fied by And:t'. 13.u. It 1s possible that the plants were chosen to!" thi!ir na. (Oil of Drawf Pine lfeed1.. 354. v. ev~n if none ~::dst~d in the origineJ.v.. 209} ... p .tribolOs. 8 t p. L fIe.ini U.P.e as Museari cO!=!osum ("purse tassel.!'t of' 'tranquilizer. S . could good aJltlseptic materiaL . 4What is promised is be made pose. ) . LSJ.13 and th~ s'l1gg~sted remedy .ell kno·.m:dlionis U. ~odern Herbal.. intent of' the prescription. n.i ble ~ but not ~a.rn to: the ancients. MriC:fl.rdly be In procedu. near rela.p:parectly has some value as . a 'looound without sutm-es.:pa nate.lue~ ellen if it did not proThe bulb .uanner of USe does not suggest such 8.. 1'"01' 1 In the treatment a kic:kirlg mu1e.r~ 20 (II. and 636 CcoL 2J.is duce a. s.S.l. the presc1"ipt1on ms:y be some 2 but.) ~1tch fro~ various 2Boxwood at l(!. e81trop.kos iss eeming1y used here in the Sense of 'Inatura.thres. as implying enclosure (boxing in} or damag~ to the toot (cf. rather than the reverse. 172)." a.gicll1) closing of the wO'U.xpected to last six months. cannot be certainly :identified."1d. connection.m gk en. but the .f See a.ti ve pines. s ve 11 (see. 3As Vieillefond arguea (~s Cestes ~ p.ns) caltrop . .rere ". even if so ~ theres. the rJdlitary caltrop) . :Both the land (tribulus tel":rest. In viev of Africa-nus's rhetoriC'&l proellvit1e-s. nh~B. physik-os (line But thi 9 appearanc e is proba.mes . 6.nus 8..!""is) and the water (tre. or its deriva.ulta could hB. may have had vo..Q. PharroaC'ognosy~ PP' 95 and 1 03 10 S. 1~121).. mp 13b (I.l S 0 Yo~. . closing gon~ so. npix :r:. verbal connection .ppears at first sight to have too far.:t'"chJ.1o !. v • ttl" P tSo)"o s. one might expect such 8.ting eJqle~torant (Grieve t }~odern He:tbal" 2 ~ 635 (coL IJ..S prescribes the seed) is said to be narcotic and sedative (Grieve. even using one of the "code" 'Words 3)_ rOT magic.bly dec ei ving.. 3-5). theternJ tribolcs ~ould be: Q.

.=mpathetics l1 In several procedures. rI. Mo dern Herbal ~ 2. Ceol.}~ both it and ga.f! . and thus ~ou1d h&ve been vie~ed as & counter-poi~on to anima1 toxi na ~ .ed species"" . Polygonums and other "s.ucts valuable for similar~ .'1acea {ibid. 8Jld A...Bryonia diQica.s the onion t 2 and garlic is near related to both.s€ tures. p..S r ec ent ly as World Wa.f the appending {pl!!ri~ptomene} this could be Is here taken &s referring to binding around the vie~ed vound~ as & medical prescription t being intended as a counterI: irrit&l1t . 208~ ~~d p. 231). etym. H. 1(9). 115 and 118.. The berries also at'1!' 1!metic and possibly poisonous (ibid.)ll1~ 2/f tl lJtlA l.alue even in I:Iode~n wars {e ~ g . ""ith th-e suggested of perie:pto rat. li3.' c1ea:r t and c. closing vounds (eartllvonn. mp 27 (TIT ." Cf. T See also PliJ1. ~973]. 6. E.nd 600.1 2 Les Cestes~ p.l-proo... knotgrass). and 107 ~ as vell as anilIJ8. 1:133 (col .r I) (Gri eve.li and i.learly based on the :prim:iple of" nS~"r:/j?a.rlic (Allium cepe:..v.. 103. 3In addition to the onion' s ancient reputation as . the basis fOT the prescription is fairl:.12-4~.!. s.tJ. 2)t :for use of the root of ac1osel~f rel. " The with an ~ost striking of them. 3. 1J).o~ogica.1 But that invo~v~s a somewha"t extended series of conjecu. 8. Polygonmn ("t:n. as B. and horned 0\1'1 brains vi ttl goose grease) in If. (onions" leeks i "red bUlbs. p~ Dutton & 1~ 1~31.s.bltL 1 by Vieil~efond e. 5See Grieve. 47. 39!.of tlgrape hyacint. sativo:E) ha"Ve a significant antiseptic action 'Ilhich made them of.:. 354~ n. .:tr 8 d(!sC'l"'iptions of' t.P8pO\l...he value of various bulbs. 32~ 31a-35~ p. 253) is bryony (Bryonia alba) . Ii" .y .:IlY-Joints". LSJ.. CO' t bsvid Conwa.and "a-1JjI't~OS..in irri- tant.at.tr. 1-7 t p. The Magic of He-rbs [New York.38e (III.' .her unlikely . n(J1''''. Mode-rn HerbaJ.y. near pa. begins 'Connection. 599 :> e...' 11" the "Yild vine H of mp..e.. n and bul1:)ine) in !:Jir 20. 30. 4 2. sk.

n. note the description in ~nus Cas. dry them up (mp l7.ong the 5ta. 2d e d • . UEPI0. and they ~ertainly se(!1D no't to be t}1.. line 5J). 352 .Iifl. lyndon Fennald.. 68-64.!." and "Mercury "A.l. C£l.. p. An Illustrate:d F' ora of" t he' Northern Un:i ted Stat~s &"l d Cana.v.. ~ _ I~" antt On mt!:re:u.. 111lEp lC1iEP10V.. 63. 15. ~51].!l~ Quint ill i . "Aberglaube.• York.! Knotgrass is abunda.30 ('·Me~~'Ury..n'Us P s de-scription. ed..1 and strengthened by a nickname:..ely rewr. s. 460). gn 2 To ensUTe the product i on of o.ted sources of the Geoponica (book 1.lJ eel. 3 Cf • LSJ ~ B.. 5-6. This similarity is probably not entirely coinciden~al. 5.. The Quintilii appear after Af'ric8Il'Us a."r:I .. 1913) J t 2..Plant Fassl:1.' to TheophrElstU5 C. 60." 1 MS X...he~ritjsh Possessions l Cha~'les Scribner's Sons. 171.rn. 8th LCl!'nt. 529. 59~ 60..T.h the na.. 2 It is to be appended II. It is described as being "abundant e'V~t'J"1oi'heren (line 1. A\~U~OvT16.:4. II i~ dog's att~rbirth. cols. 11. lines 8-12. esp. l89 rWellmannJ conc:e-rning thevS1"i~tie-s of these plants. to prQ[!]ot I::! eonc ept Ion {line s 1. MQ t. 163~ reo the Quirttilii).An rJ. 5. .. put on theioots of trees. . 16la. Ir[thJis her"be groTN.r Merritt d:ifferen<:E!'5 a. pref..nus s. 3 .sto be not<::d e-xcept b~{ a very ca. CNe. 2 concerning the female and mele varieties of linozQsti:3 and their c:orrespondillg uses).5 meaning '·prolific 1.nt everyVhe:re~ p ' ~ n [Modern Herbal. asvith the vervain . rev.lis annua and/or pereflnis"!j.P'Pl'opriate gender of merc:w:-y (~- euri.da. Diose.. na1) shoUld be add(!d to the pendant (lines 3_7).·mual PI ) • Mercury may be dioecious Ok" monoeciotls (Grav f s r~an\lal of 13otS:J1Y" i11us. "Centenodiurr. see also n.d eX]). 3 vols.frica.rO different speciea of each of the n~d genera (cr. the e.l~st:ru'ted Flor6. and e:tJi..lblieations" 1910 (rep1". h the vi ev that shells. cf". n.l'I.3 /L:fl'i~e.M~ ~. of . 1. Modern Herbal. b:.ri:tbJ ny oue::-ELl" (p.ry ~ see also: Riess .~p~w~ . usually the former ~ 'but the 8. esp.rently interpreted 8..nada.appa..tus ... la:rg. drosa ('rdoer") 't is prescribed as a pendant. Grieve. or of' vervain {Verb€na officina11$ and supi. re.3 }.o.).e(lt.me..nimal of the desired sex..~r·'" ". n col. u'I'h(. 960).would Gee~ to be betve:en t~. M..&es 255 "Wit. Pl.ose intended by J1..e\. 2. tIJld. C!fev York: Dover P>.re:ful observer {~athaniel Lord Britton a.re not such a. of tbe Northern United States. American Book Compa~r ~ 1950J" p.nd Addison Brol. discussed above. 189.. the similar opening of Grieve's description of it. . The distin~tio[) here. Dog t s.. 4V1 eillefon d trac eg t hi 8 vi.ttribute-s to t. 2. 1 (Ires Cestes y p.

J.l.1.s 2Riess t ItAberglaube.l'gue against & Jev1sh "backgroWld for Af'ri- eanus (~f..erythlng dOlm (lines 6-9" concluding:> Ntbis indeed is a. 67 is d~voted to the subject . 1 This ccould be connected \lith the general assoccifl. wheth~r it is c. or to prevent untimely loss among olives (Geop. sting-l'a~. 1 78 • 8. the pl~nt may be of eome B.2 {Af"- r1 canus f s ovn :pTe:ferre d met. B. In the :first (li!)~ 7). :3 Lactually 'the "\thole o~ chap.. it B).hod is much nlOre utili t a:rian t though in its own way a. H co.'V t pimp-ernel (An. pl:l~r N. poesib. ove:rt:oming the '\ota!'t. 121 (both th~se items are ci"te d by Geoponic:a as from uDemocl" tt us n ) • 3if'his po.hc.~ttia.suggested \1. of course~ be Heroal t 1:241."hi~Qrj (Cichori'l. E'!je~ting The habit of this p~ant or its ripe seeds might eause it to be regarded as having an expulsi'V"e pOlier 'ilhich could be turned to good use (or the. based on a IIs~at.nd funerary rites (cf. 118).!l:pparently irritating 5ubstances in the plant 4 might hQve caused it to be used as a.1. v.l value.s unrealistic 60S the J::IJethods it replaces: eut e'. Deut.o his "Christianization.ttributed t.1 of" the bean:)). 3 involves the oW"ia. 20.3~ note tLlso i ts use~ cited there" against nut trees (Geop.:"Vensis) . 3. (The ~berration could . &1... 111.. Yould seem to B.10.-rts (m. . Mode~n 5Aecording toLSJ. preThese may be sents t\!'o 'Which involve p1ants (mp 33"0.lnlintxbus) or. . destl"uctlon u J.5e of the sting of (II. perfect. Africanu!.9.." it is so used in Diosc. 61. but se-c. crushed squirting CllcU!Dber {Ela- terium) is put on.l. lI~tX~PlOV. M. 2. In the second botanic itel!l here.yrmekiai).rticular bit of advice t lthich relates specifically t.though 'their basis cOuld beempirica.o 1"ruit trees. 203). 11.)3 In the procedures against va. Gri~ve.. !-~. 18.'5 Bot.het1cPI conn>t::ction.. I') 4 ct.h plants have been used lThis follows t. 4-5):t discussed above..-tion of the bean 111 th death a. -counter-irritant).p.Mallis s. H.19) 20).

to be transferred to 'the wat't"1).h~ \ttI.. light ~ont ail:: t 'With t.ed before sunrise. 58~59 and 65.t is the root. since the proeedure appe~Ts to be more magical then therap@'utie. p. Marcellus 19. 1115: fIJlagal. 116 r.ao. 161. .heliot.. Ces.) ~ieillef'ond.eJ.e5 the :fruit.qui et U( pau.! of th~se feat. If. line 8 L. e:r. or sun-avoiding t pO'IoI'el"s will be at maximum .ved.1"8.Plant Passages 257 1 On the against inf1amma. circumscription and a three:fold repetition art!' recognized !IlSgical procedures.11y efficacious (in the: case of the ch::l. See also the discuss.t. if the plant intended is really t. 611. (But iu Pliny i.!. 208 (citin. n.. if t.tes 3Un1.he skin. sOll1e pressure so t hat the Juice :from the f'lQ\l'er (augb1e[']ted b. .bly have value.l power if' dug up and exprese. er. Conway... re pi:rnpernel t Conway ~ l~agic t P' 131. eno other Elkin conditions.i) t. other hand.rope (genus Hel1otropi urn. 61. may be pointleg:s~ hove.Id 2~633~ .! D1oscor1d. note esp. 2]).. thri~e eircumscribed Both the ( t ri So per1gn~.1t1 nvol. cf:.. 2. the 'Wart in the pl'o~@as. 1:l97~ and 2.picked before sunrise 11 (so its eontracted.Cter (Grieve. it has explieit. and Dioscorides Eup+ 1. Mod.tion~ freckles .H.~BS the eircumscription actually involvt!'d more than a to:ken..B Pliny 22. Plill}" N..lis hali a spe-~iti.~rn Herbal ~ 1.ther than thetlwer~ which 1e Bp~c:!fied.167. and ir. :ra.h.s 10 JI pp.2 The precise identification of the plant.he :t"..he plant prescribed vas re6.. p. and t.h(!. it could coJ)<:::eiva.ffected sJ)Ot (topos) is to be j.1m&nn.''Ohe-) this viII . Both also have a ttheliotropic:" ehQ....tes .)f dew from the pr~-da'\n'li picking?) vaS expressed on th~ skin around. 5 ey~l8men juice is ~or prescribed as a purgative+ cYclamen has a long history of use IGrieve~ Modern Herbal.... 3 T:'le flO'-'er is to be.t:ory 1tvas material frOm t. 5Cf • Bj8rck t "Apsyrtu. 358. 1:198-99" 8.:rt..ures in th~ r~l&ted sections belovo L- . encient use agaiDst warts .1or. 198-99:1).l eta.. WG'1.. 131).e a.loller or leaves which vas uaed CGrieve.632.

but this ·". 137 I!I. 1.raint tt ? b~cause the Uo"lripe fruit (a~ in Pliny's uses) are still Or. 16~.H.ers to See also Pliny N. tbey must not touch the ground.t::rioes t. 6 un der the earth. 203. the la. Wel1JI:. 136 (twigs vith 1. This use n styptic might b-!' bo.a. 50!" "restrainingn the bloody juice of 'th~ ripe fruit? of its budding suggests its IIrest. 3. Riess.st!d on an analogy with the berry sap.ists.mples ghTen there are as t:o\1.ube} H col. harmful Dagic w}ucb is not the use here.J1.lfIripe berriee.yptic penda. for itst!lagBut toe exe.5 t h e s t tLrs milky nature- or mul- Africanus reportedly directed that they be appended while ..teness Vieillefond treats this as a separate atateme:nt ~ nan amulet of the stars found under toe earth'· (cf.'. s~eret spel~) v~re Thia feature ~ as vell ag p ae. 193 1:194]. 317) has ancient precedent (Pliny ~ N.rination..:.S [unripe berries]. 65 . .258 this purpos~ t 1 but African-us pres. Grieve. t1Aber-gla.6L. 61.as the method also used by bowelB~ late E"ill"Ope-Bn herba1. 26-27.. 2. Cited. ~ (Diose. tor increaaing u.M.nt in procedur~ 44d (IX. According to Pliny. not only for purging the but also . p. p. and for the latteruse~ th~r must be picked at the 1"ull moo. Les Cest. 1 =2h5.mnm).. the preceding reference to the mulberries (from which it is separated only by a I:o. 1. 1W2.rly 2 in~pt to the navel. 3Grieve ..es."1t. by Poiess. 319) J bals&llI juice is an Note Vieillefond w Les Cestes~ P+ 296 w n.o.65 . appli~d over the. 23. 3 Tbe use of mulbet'ry boughs aa a st.llus . s reference to tbe t10ns be low. 1.J).28. but gives no explanation of rationale. Modern Herbal. M.. will be eonsidered in theperlinc::nt se-c- In prooedu:re 4~i (IX. . 1:2JI5· 2Cf w 1 ical reputation.. way of using it. except by some sympathetic rationale. or of (:onnection with 6Line 12.bladder. the use of volf's fat with elaterium noted above.a:ud. lines 23-26.hat it be applied e-xternally t This seems a sing-. nAbl!rglaube/' col. }'{·:)der:l Her'ba. H•. 11~13t p. 31.

.bove .. 2 pro~eedinge Numerics and other susEicious As noted a.Cticali ty or fumigat.be much the s9J!le ~ th9. 2Since the. in proced'. ~ III. 2 and 32) is not regardi!'d (UApsyrtus. vi tb incense Cthymiamata] provided in a. other""ise rather pro:s-a. Th(! use of bota.hat is the question of the prB.he resinous juices or oil from the juice. it l':"aises the . th~ 80S next tvo items d~ter-minable by Bjorck discua5~d .t it overcame by the good odor rather than the evil one.~nomena as th~ obje~t.eto:t"" perh8ps thou. (The "Ecloge" is not too clear here~ tb~ smoke is to be produced by m&ny grea~ torches.rer.e£l'l!e-n t ba. 15-16). lines 28-30)..ing a whole military camp 'With such a substance. of the infinitive antima.om1lliphora .. another .y" in prescriptioni' =up sugge s t some: magical c onnec ti on = 1A:ppfU"ently ~lm of Gilead/Mecca Balse.ddition ..yr:ti atere s ~ VL 't L 2 ~ po. 311. 9~ Jl.nce 1i its use must hs...ct of magic.nJ. ") ~e genuinen~$S of t.b~r.. 123 mg t re Ii ne 13~) t i. 2.ti-onaJ. 239}~ tbe wart is to be thrice circumscribed with tlle specified :flo". exc~pt The re.tive to the u!'Ol.t is COncei vable tha. 253) t 3 also !UB. 1. and thetestimot.. the use of' censers ( t!!.ly of the "Ecloge~n which refers to the gmoke also 80S be:ing dy:sodias (Jul~8 Afric:a. ttTIrr1ce it alone is not enough evidence to cOIivi.ght of the inc~nae !!LS providing relief frOlD the smell of the protective smoke s.1:tJ:I' t. of th~ £. Opposed to t. e been on & small (almost individual) scale.1.. 1..pp. Grieves Modern Herbal .his and (Vi.Plant Passages 259 alte!"nB.ving mis'Ul'tderstood th~ original ta l)Yab t hiimOn e.l.bly an allusion to the counter-procedure to n:rp 3. 1: 78T. to that part of the pro~edure. Th~ reda.opoba'i SWllU!!!J (&~~ t me~canensi s) {c:f.in lo s.~ica1 nUIC.t"e 330 {IlL 17.first part of the counter-procedure involved.e for it woUld presumably. to provide smoke to tight against CantimachesthaiJ the smoke coming from [ptL:rtJ us (ibid. chap. 1 Due to the:! !lature and value of the substa. discussed above) for the stopping of pestilence. but together with the other ~lements in tbe procedure .. p.t this is Psellu5' s count-er-part.spic:ion of magical intent.s its "subjet:t.ehe-sthai rather thl!U1 a. H pp.ic t largely 39 (I II. and other USeS of signi i'i cant numbers. line :28~ p.J! smell of tanning" (proba. 78).

3:2.bov~). and t more spec:if'ice. for ancient examples . :2Asn oted above. 111.s that may 'be mentioned here t thougb the f'1 :rat is not really bo'tani. While this it~:nl 4 comes at the end of a long pa~sage of miscellB.v. reo the vine counter-magical. formula :for soot. hen bra.from other such can-us.hing inflammation of horses' l"e-et is $ellen figs.ard of the sllaJ. alae 30. 20).C- remedies. llApsyrtlJs~n PP. Bnd re both iron and bron-ze~ Riess t nAberglau'b-e. mixed itl (1.1l. 3. all discussed B. SL.ins" infant urine" frogs~ .I1~ous B. See also Pliny N.. (IlL 2.260 th~ m. most of 'Which seem intended medically (vhatever their tual virtue s )" there s.. 102 ~ eutting Qutvi thO'llt iron .. 56 (use wood hoe . muriber of' probably magic ~l' i t~nI. 'Would be "Unexcoept1oDable. then no irOJl ne!l:.Ia efT R1 e s So" "Abe:rgla ube.lov nestling inmp 236. H.. for -the use of the wi ld vine as an amulet (ci ti~g Pliny N... 11. 30n the ritual non-use of" iron. tbe se C ond i 1 IS not See the discussion of" "tfumbers" . p. 60..c al.. l references in Af"ri- Another somewhat 5tispicious item is the use of a sh~~ reed (kalamos) to open th~ gi2. mp 38 a~ b~ t=" and d . 13. 34-35) is quite likely magical in origin. 50-51. it suggests a ritual avoidance of the use of a meta. cr. 6. 225). 114 ~ for t. below. 20.ain ingredient or s.H. .2 This might be simply ~ conventional directive~ but in viev or the inefficiency of 5ucb an implement tor such a task.r h 61. 12.r~ a.S .ss flge i a questioned by Bj orek .e.~" col. 66 t line s 58-60.. note BJ5rck .llic instrument. This is really the only suspicious. 3 The appending of' the root of the wild vine (or bryony ~ see above) in DlP 3Be (III. 10 (no meta~). 6~.. Ps e llus include s three· other i tem. 73.." eols.el"olQgic~ passage t and apart .z.and reptile heads. 29. this pa. part of the nUIll. 61. 2~. 23.. 58-59. 62 ~ 65.b4!' use of a reed for cutting or opening.

tt the: account. embroidl!l"j7 of' an aphrodisiae prescription.ong the mi SoC: ellaneous i tettlS tI.JoB (s. a l"'e~ dy f'Qr varicose veins is paired~tb 8.gorgonium.nd moonbeams (mp 44m. 14.. um. p. 1 =!. ItHolly" Sea. 20) . t Aelis.ter 3 No ~1-44) ~ hE!! isas. v.id to hB... 2 Cf .. "Zo.tion (Les Cest!'5 s p.2.lit!JUs quotes Af'r1cMus as 11 st i ng plants as a fourth item" along vi'th metal B.46 (the follorlng quarter C01UJD. b'l...~and the. 6 lBesides these references in Psellus.!1 of text describes l)re- c:a. reference to "some other night-Bhining thing (ti allo nyktiphaes)" (ibid. . among the substanc es "Used as dye a ( in a." 4Gri eve.t. 31). Suetoni i Tra.. 32~. ) This general approaeh is favored by Vieillefondls transla.M..n 7LA. rd is not t'erts.l. 27).. and earths.rde d as authent i c.e.e5tre: LS. Ii quids." 2.. l"~put&tion since eryngo had a in such usages.. Modern HerbEU.g.utions for digging. it mig. am. 319). 169) . 324 ~ lines ~2-. t the end f Psellus f S summary.nus i8 Bl!rld to gather the moonstone (!:'e. Thevenot' 6 edition of kfricanue in Math. usage is mentioned. 1. 0. 320).J. {But the: item cited is che. 69 1.s :sag~ also note~ the l~rge size of t. given by Psel1us vould fit well as an Afri~s.hing like the night-lantern credited to Atricanua by Casaubon . 1 rics.s use in lo\"e IIIfl.inly identi fiable .c hemy? )( Vi. ''Mageia" U coL 312.·\re spoken of' the.p.ll~ction" .pe of the TOots of som. 0 ~ A little later. 6Visible only 'by night.p.2 (lines Af- A fev lines la.nian an4!"t:'dotal.ntton. &nd uses of. P l im·' Ii des cript i one onnects this usage wi th the supposed she.ube." one of tbe chapters not nov c:omlIIonly rega.P].'It~t.11. the plant.e specimens.gic "eiting Pliny 2'2.:h"'os.t refer to somet. : 141 <"In I u1 i um Caesa:rem~l1 ca. This item C6. which had such !"'I!:put. 35-36 . 11 • u~p..:):E:rY!!l5i . p. ~ IX.. 54:0 lines 32-39 {lines 36-39 note it. lines 43-48 • . Wolf! us" 3. note" e. 321). re-fe-re-nce to "the paeony.'·) (t his pa." line 49.. be!! 8.'1t P a s s a g e s z 6 l strictly magi<: al. IX.'1 col. of :E. 5C. Riess t I'tAbergl8.n- not "be identified eyen probably.r. Berthelot and Ruelle ~ CQ. s. Hopfner.u col. c~iva'bly 5 but it could -eonB. maritimum).ngui 11 i Opera" ed.Ple.. cret_~cum/C8!ll.he roots" esp. v. "yopy6\:o1. p. by 1X'on11ght: Hopfner" "Mageie.hrose1enon) from plant dew o.

.Sed on princ:-iples~possibly types of S.g. 2 Also .t. be gh'". Mi.nce (l!Ipp 28 an d 4h c ).pit-e tlleir in superstitious and 1B8.ppear to be generally :so Us~d b~t tOl" At'ricanus. 62. in his vie'il~ the virtue of the! stone ~ is from its own na.262 The uses of tion e.re.gicll. !I. Africanus I s uses prims. 127) ~ the a tOfles f'o'. It can easily be:! si!?envhy dif:ferent descriptions \O"ould. and it is specifica.1. teri a.ure.gical" reputa. 66!1. In mp ~ (r. linea 59-67 t concerning oiL See: IrFowls" ff above next paragraph + 2 ~ieS5.~ mpp 23 c.nti-ma. based on 'their appea. 1 they do pra. material for suc}) fL use !I.l vh i ch 1 s noteworthy. ptAbergltl.r~ black. 1-11]0 p..v of oil and vinE! are as vehicles other substances~ ~ot as active agents in themselves.rJd b) t or formal.:ril.. the usuaJ. but according to Afri{:tLnUS ~ they (the potent ones?) a.md in the giz~ards of cocks are probably t.. 3. and 23 B B.rue minerals.efl of their tenure and color (line~ 5-6).ympQthetic SOlU"ce (mpp contagion.ne-ral and Silllilar Substances n e tones" Stones and . tor a contrll.ctice:s ~ and til@' h"e.A]J of: the operations involving stones seem to be bfl..!' Sll1B-ll stones or th~ gravel picked Up in their feeding and x-eta1ned in giz2:a. note also col.t'd..tion of some other ma. L1nen~ while specified ~s the maseems to be t~rial ~or seYeral pendant~ <~.tion of tbe first . not a..:ry theory in Afr1canus T S . based on their 4.oove~ vine~ oil) and linen have been excluded USE f~om considera- sine-ell des. d t and ~4c) .. the victory of the cock only demonstrates line 56.ub~.t1 <::01.

011 this might provide 8. he says that S'val101rr6 V{!<["~ repljrt~d to give a.Mineral and Similar Substances it does not give~ the virtue to the atone (lines 6-9).ion.. bit of st.c.t i. preca.!"asraph of the passa.OIle to each cohick B. 2 See further the dis. 2.t hatching (N . 1. the latter is a. Probably because of the r~putatlon ch~lidonia. are e.amage the I' stones . For this use t.ge)" the stones in the- first instance (238~ lines 11-14) are used to prote~t fram ophthalmia.ppare-ntly ao called because it gives e.son for the use of' a reed to open the bird--a.on. . at the prope-r phas t! 0 f t be moon. metal knife-. ~ure- ftJr e-pilepsy.he "stones" Yould seeIll to be some type of sto:uy concret. milk. If' 1. used" have transferrable power (mp 23 a and b~ III.car~ 263 thus ident1fied t transmdts its virtue to man also. a bez. ll-l~.ones n found in the gizz.he :p:roduct of the :first of' the swallOW's two yearly broods.1ned end. tht! uses to be based on the appearance of the-stone.tone. of' swallows (especially associated nth the plant de- sc:ri'bed in the precediI18 pa.as 9." . and mu. IF In the other two passages which specif'y uses. of' 'the spring nestlings?) 'Would seem to be associa.>' 1 I!l In thilJ caae t aince the birds are nestlings.J.ards of swallow nest- lings".ted vi th Q their use against moon related malady. rather than true mineral. a. In:mp:28 (III. 15-19). morl!!" prosaic rea.pe-cif'ied. "st. t. The !'onner requirement (as well as the speci- tic: 8. In this case theY a:re to be used . p.H+ 30. Similarly.oar.u5sion aDd examples-above ~ under rlf'Oloi'ls. common rau2 S~of!:nJ. if properly ried (lines 2-5) 9-11).11 (Thus proving the deleterious ef'teets of iron ~or such use?) But Pliny .€ to its hard- D.hey lJ1Ust be p1"o<:: ur~d.regards them as true stones. spring nelJtlings" t. lines 15-19) . 231 L the milk a. 91).1.ution againat the loss of" "power.st not touch the ground. persti tious/magice. du. 1 properly obt6. In the second instance (23b..e-SS t eould d. The stone.

. 37. v.ssage-s.:fl}r further details. HyoJ"O:"::Ti'Tns. ita slick s. is to be used to iner~ase production of milk.264 AfricMuslS Vie. p. (M. 6.27-tc.. hyacynthine.udder 11 or pov- dering and adJn1nistering in a wine and vater mixture.non [selenit~1:J) from the dew of plants and the be. In tbe other passage? in Psellus (mp ~~C'.. Holm.ys of use are gi V'~n. LSJ . I IX . 196. 3 does not give f\u"ther indication of method or of purpose ('though it HI! would be easy to suspect Bome ~gical intent).nus's gathering the JII. 5~ Psellus &1. 1 color to water". by night .so refers! as noted above. 1. and thus of organic origin . 39-LO).it s.s that Afrlcanu!3 fOTme. & dii"- If the material is Jet. ~learly mag- leal. 797 197).hrosel. 4 ~ioscorides says selenite is found in moonbeams.. smaragdys. .. 8-9~ p..ppearanoee and feel ri::ou1d suggE!l.subject.lt is the clearest . Lagercrantz. Pliny reports that there were: various yorks vhich told hov to simulate these very stones :from crystals I etc.M. The stone is to be put into 'the left hand of the.and sardonyx (Vi. Two di fterent wa. k:z::erinos).80 tells u. 319).pl!l.. not true udnerals. see a1ao pp. a-2~. not just gupel"st:1tious.. othe~se no special procedures are directed~ :Besides these. (y. 1. The :f'it'!. In the sixth IrpC!'nto. 141 . Psellus BJ.Br. 317)~ a gagate:s "stone" (jet 1l or possibly lignite)2 is to be uaed 'to ease and qui~k(m 'ficult birth.4 MettLls Afri~anUB has possibly threE references to bron~e or copper (e:halkos. IX.2. This SOWlds like some alchemi!:al feat..u~b a use.. Les Cestes) p. but ye are not provided with fI..gon passage" (mp So.Oonstone (&. L 29-30 .29 {ed.'· 2Both are types of' coal. to Africa. 357]1 n. fast II! ning l!U"ound the. Wellmann).fLJ:IS of the moon (IX.d va.Id is. pp.rious stones . I"ieillefond. 92 and 100-3 f. Note also P~.

2.30.Erm:.y in other d"irections. of RomtW prescription.ente of" the 'P8. 3 iOn the 'R)B. mi ghtbe: tht'! :. st-uboorn horse ~ Tl1e use o·f under proper conditions 11 vith a bronze pen (line 27).fIJ1d thus effective for brea.. (~p 23e.y. MQ~~rn Herbal. 2 mas:ic..nuB dries up breasts s~"Ollen after childbirth by So " 'Copper ce-re. note Riess . modern presentation of' a9trological berbalis.Y'thraceae).:r.... "Aberglaube. p.:fuJ.. ·"Ma.ly in keeping with tbe otber magical ele- m. In the case of the other sa1ve (IIlP ~L. 6 + 23.b. Similar Substances 265 7 ~ I.in.l' in the discussion or rrCha. with loosestrife itself"." coL 326. b1Jt whilf! he-nna vas used in some skin conditioning salvea (cCGl'ieve:. it might be. 32-31)...t -) ..geia. its real reputation la. henna. bronze 1 for the pen tEl. be more :fully dealt "With b(!lo'l.. a moon herb.bove.ms and Rites·')" tli. In the one~ the eye salve of ivy root. there is the questio:n 'Of' the nature magical or medical. 1~~05)... 51 ~ and Hopfner.. re~dyll On tbis questiorl~ it is the use of copper filings ll with infant or child urine. (But according to 8. A:f"rican:u. Le .plant kypros . at least 11 he equ.9 preacrfbed ·'a threElt. besides the que-stion of the of Africanian origin.Z.an) ikt! method (te~hniki methodQ.. ete.ated Arrieanus f S technike vi th !oetike. 2 In line 31. kerot. whieh is most clos. . 132. 3The act1 ve i ngredit:!'nt.engraved in th@ proper hoof of is. It to be. rathe:r than copper..s:sage (whi~h vill.. also t Vieillef"ond" Les Cest~s~ p... both of whiCh involve-a salve. IF col. Africa. member ·of' the loosestrife family [l..te " (. perhaps it should work.jineral and. . III. 22-23J. 133 L..t't! T"ne otber re!'erenc~s toC':op- pE!-r. by a craf"tsrr.ely s-i[!lila:r to the Galenic parallel present~d a. nctl! 'b. Psellus notes that in addition "to prOducing milk.) . less clear...gicaJ significance of copper and/or bron~e.Magi(:~ pp. As 8. :CL 1~ 5-6). at least in Psellusts view )..m.st complfLints [C'onwa..

ri~ the J~iless]o ItConc erni ng the o::d d1 zed matel" tal frOlil 6i 1"'fer]i lead and iron"). .gainst sec ond t again from Fa ell us. of the suspect p&ssage 238 (III. 8 p. 166).s ita. 225)~ specifies the use of a gold ophthalmifl. 2perhaps as a ~'e or tinting substQnc~? Cf.na. not es eni g- that Africanus corrodes gold vi th :mad dog saliva. quoting Ma. 331 1 n. medica.. 15.round tbe throat f' an ani:oal l to prot ect 1 t from scorpion stings. 311Apsyrtus..ce for wearing the '·~rwa. In t\lO final passa. ~L~S Ceste~t p.:kle. 243) directs the use of an 0 inscri~ed tin sheet..he doubt attfL. 1 127) t 't. 311).que of some sort.1 procedure.her supports this dOUbt.s a. 'P.11ow-stones·' a. pl. pentagon four~ I. the insc ript. 15-16. as Iloted below.a.266 The context seems tQ indicate as sore ero'Qs .d. 2 O\r'TI The in- tended use is not specified. the dryness of the copper (presumably pONdered) being suppos-ed to p1"odu~e the desired effect.Ches to the. Collection't 2:170 (Zosimu6 3. 2. Berthelot and Ruelle. n pp. 1 the~ Psellus regarded the procedure Two p&ssages involve gold. ll-l~~ p. 23. 3-5.he other passag~ (mp 5.ture of the thing applied. however't "have been originally intended a. l. Wa.ps of metal (Vieillefond compares it. Ix.1i part.y specify the use of some type of plaques. The t'irst... The ne{.. In t. ~. 47 (citing Plin)' ~~ 34. (mp matic~ly 4~e. or 'Was it some other Bubstance ··sprinkled on" lIt couJ.ges" each questionable for its reasons t Africanus mlJ. 2 .io:t:J it a-eIf :f'u:rt. perha. 18.4 applied to th~ sur- gical incision. ti ed e. to P1i ny t s referenc~ to the use of lead PlaQUeg). Passage 37 (III. ~.. This passage 15 not accepted by BJQrc'k as being proven Afri- can1an t 3 and.

1'alleled 3 but is quite: similar t. tirs~ par.s magica.re coocerned.". 23-30.reto be used. in invol'.o is considered 'belw+ 3Cf . 129) 5 t 'WQverbal pronouncoement s a. the fomer cannot be exact 1::.go~l pas sage (pentagon si x 10 mp 7.hapter in Kesto ~ 7 16 C 10:6ely 11 nked to thi s ex8Jl1. pro<:edltres) .) 'the wound or tbe bandage?1 267 Charms and R i t(! s This tOpi~ is probably th~ ~ost signific~~t as ~ar as the magical views of Africa. o~ n.s spectacular 10 over-all.rus a.bitJat.. The only real. the other is the pentagon f"j"e. .magi c : of . Gpoken spell ..h the manipul9. type of . Vieillefona . 5'10 p.ps not a. B\1t it involves an inscription r6.. Les Ceetes" p.gical ma. moat of the Fassages involved here can only b(!l regarded a.l. que s t ion i:s wha.l in inte!!lt an~ fom. p . 337..'ld in!3criptions Spells Along wit. USe of" a Latiil expression 2 which vas 'to be found in Tbe le.S here -considered is perhs. One is the triple repetition (see belo'W on this element) of the sounds IIta taFf. lir'hile tht! group of passa.t.tte-r is now lost.Charm5 and Rite!3 (epip&Sato.o various JrJS.the-r than 8. ~8..' p8. Latin prescription" as well as being the n. and e.tion of the 'IlOunding iron in DIP 6 (1. and Ancient MedicEUflents.133).hat is Africanus guilty? and is it something completely inconsistent with the views of his Christian colle-agues? Spells a.ges 8.n 2 The next c.gest1~ lSee the d..ple-.ext IJenta.:ions of vowels'lo 01' o:fvowels and "Plant Pa:ssa. T ~ 6. the pen- tagon se'rles (with which it overlaps in sev~~a.is~ugsions tL'bove under "Pentagon Passages" and Wlder "Polygon a.l'lipulations of sound 1rn701 ving com.ing 8.

' lus.bto {eDik:::-ousa.. It might be a corruption or developDl.fL.ing it with the Latin formula. 4Not-ably WGnscb~ nn.ted na.... rether rhetorical address to Sleep:> follo'lled by count... 132...gi c ian example~ in DMP xvii-Iff.. 3See the diBcussion~ IIOx:y-rhynChus and ~yond)" in Cha. 'lifith.5 ' J:IIaJlU- nekyomanteia. 412). rt 2Expli-oitly identified as such in lines 20 and 21 (e-paoide . Africanus's View ~4-~9t pp.tt'erer and then . 3 mechanic~ and have indicQted the spiritual ancestry and the aspects of interpol~tion process. vh1ch Afr1cfUlus reports having found in HOOIeric socripts in three widely separated libraries + Nu:merQus studie:. p. line 3) or COlJ. pressed on this point vere regula..a.:tibut~d to the clarification of" indi.i:moniaka)" PI>." fot'IUS in th. is "driven i. 280-83. for "I J eSU!3 the l~a. Tat t To.i} the wound.268 consonants.83). and the:diacus6ion by Vieill(!-fond .. 167) cont~ins a .."lte ract. so it is mol""e likely l. but AfricMus gives no direct-iona to B use it. 17.nus· literary embellishments ~ beginning Thl!! most e-xt!!nsivC' h~re with an apostl"opne t.pter I. ~5 (Kenyon~ Greek Pa. Lea Cestes .rly derogatory to Af"ricE...idual points in t.. and ep~sai. lNote the Vai"ious Ir_a. 15ft.. Variollspos5libilities f"or its origin could be sU88csted.'.llr'J?lified vers ion of Odys se'J.I<e"1l2 is in mp 42 (V.~ but have largely left the question of The opinions which vere e.l n.. 0& . PaE. Thi s is the iI.pyri t 1. 1 Mp 1Sb (I.ent of t. 'brief mythological ac- This might be a.5!J itt i n g it out (c f. pp. "Tat. variation (or corruption) of "tatai n &5 an expression of pain (tSJ t St. respectively). 165... as suc-h. . It could be B. rrTcn:aill) sthl! performer 1iaosor'b1ngU the pB. v. pp. above.e..v.eisida. 206 L It might be ..JDagical papyri e. e.i 0 or the s u.y repea. llf"f (cit~d by Morton Smitb t [San Franc is co I Harp e~ &: Rov ~ Publi shers ~ 1978].ve cont. func'tionally. vii.ttJe. B ~X8JD. a sort of soothIng or distracting sound while the weapOD.he tripl.t n 'Which appears. s:J. g .imply another of Af'l"ico. PLonq ~7."plement t S.pell:. 2-19.p~e of a 285-89. note on p.o Sleep.he text.-:He vas Africanu5I·'s relation to it unsolved..

being taken in such a forgel"Y. It m&y be Clott:!d" in defense of Africanus against Ludw-icb' s cha.11otria..s "overwrought lf (perier-goD t line ~5) ~ not in accord llith the dign.3 (not e. Greek 11 and Hebrev e~etr)el1t. p.atioll of him as udem Durchstoberer &1ter Pe..lt f'Ol' its a"b·sence are o-missions by the Poet b1:nself" or by the PeiaiBtrat1des in their supposed revision (lines 45-48)+ no hint of' tbe: possibility of a l&ter interpolation.ated reason for in~luding it is that it is a very valuable conce-ptionof e'pic (krema [poJly- tetlJeaterof.. 290).\l.racteri:z. 2 but hov and why" he report s 1 t are les s clear.thentic i ty of' Susanna is hardly credible. Its location. 1502.ine 49~ p.ste pape:r. 1 There Is no question about the magical D. .l epik[eJs~ l.Charm. hawe.t it was not Afrit:&nus but 1IIOde-rn s~hola.ity (axiOma.rs who found this s(:ra. line L6) of the work. :2See Vieil1efond.fI.. Kroll ~ "5.er t suggests that it is a sort of grand finale for the f!!ighteenth . 281 {and the studies ~ited there.s.D no question about its &uthenticitYj the only two theorIes suggested ttl aCCOUf. n:roreign" (a. But despite.s 11 PI coL 122 (if' not a forger:. 1503) ~ tha. :forger.this ~ he seems to entertai. . 00 Ie f. I~ is almost enough to drive one to the alternatives~ Lud.Le-s Ci!"stes ll p. . There is Such a lapse on the part of" the critic vho attacked the 8.ture: of' the compoaition reported by Afri eMus. At:ricanus tells us that he found it on the shelves: in respectable I1brerif!!'s.. 288. but a Jloor cri tie) .Kestos! ch~ry B rhetorit:al literary flourish similar to the ar- tales whichconelud~ Keatos 7. Africanu. His st. yell eos the othere ~it~d above). a very poor critic). andp. co-is..pierkorbfetzen U (col. an amalgam of Egyptian. cause he is under arcr illusions ~s This appears not to be be- to 1t~ literary quality~ he has just deseribed it a. line ~7) to its progression.wi ch.p while going through'li8. ·Julius. note ]a (cont. &. 289). eV~!n 269 bjr vorse. .s and Rites charged with either forg@'ry!. or..

gine of the.rpected by Afric-anus).41.) .thenticity.ion is concerned with the . it col.t in designa. 122. suggests that the three ma.ribution t they :r'@'Pi"esented only one vi tne-ss.h. Julius Ai'ric!l. factor not S\l.a..nuscripts were related (thus. p. {VieillefondTs major reservat.:27Q either a torgery or a joke.rd to inw.fricEl. 262).he lines is not ha. pp. and Bjorck. .tlUS I s View There are" however t at. finding th1a passage attested in sev- di5tribute-d manuscripts:> had no reaaon to suspect their This vie-v wou1. either of !is It is possible tll8. Crant (UHistorical Cri ti-cism .. 281-82). 2L-25.2 be inconsistent with an ironic I 8m intent is his evaluation 0'£ the lines.tion of hO'iot Q copy of the 'Work vould have gotten to Jerusa1-em (p. 0.a de Carie. vide~" source~ aDd thus.Qt au.\tist". either This is not impoasible t historically or for current and could coincide with possibility is that ~ or bot. 191) ~:r-itici z·es Africa-nus· s failure to take sufficient cognizance of the diffil!rences "b-etileen the Rotnan manuscript and tbe others.tions in the Homeric text.vriter of same of' the other passages preserved under Africanus·s lef.s deelared sm-plu8 and disposed of in this manner? [How we-re lib:rari~s 4!'sta. Kroll" '·S.. copy of the Jtde-viant II manuscript wa. t Afrit:u.ques.2 bib110theque de N:o.d J!. Louis Robert C'J. Might it be that a transcript vas made from tbeRoman ex.:l. ~ithel' 90S of the preceding two views.nus has coml2' to regard them as variant lines from a common er8. Thl2' other pe:r-haps being a:ware of numerQUS aberra. but a historical regard t :for the :magical contents of t. this last at least ~ viev~ rather inclined tOlo-a. least tvo other ~xclude5 possibilities.." Hellenica 1 (19LOJ: 1~Q-q8):I :followed tentatively by Viell1efond (Les Cestes.blished and stocked in Roman colonies'!).ab~err Africanus is thinking of practice~ its magic contents.ry of [or some individual int or~ lIho went toJ the new colony of Ai!!lia? 01" eve-n that an e:xistine.l. On the other hand.ting the passage "very valu.amplar for tbe libra. I1ApsyrtUStll pp. lines 37-. 1 /l.nus.rd including the ironic t. though neither of them neceasarily the preceding two. de-spite their geographical dist.

. 2 Chr.rtain bites and eye problem!.that they vere bronze (nahustayim}. This vould be especially true' of" such items a.23a ~ and 35 (I. for tb~ latt.). ll-lQ. hovever:o the i t.tion ie strengthened by the reference to the fetterB being iron (ta. it. con:sidl!:r~d simply in itself. .ion possible. Man.!t our final decision can only be a subjective judgnJent based on consistency vtth the reading of' the oth~r ps.. onta L They are soidentified in Fr.ra~ 2:292J.. • . Sine e.! to pendants and u enc h8. the mulberry (epQdjt~ni bough styptic was given its power by a secret spell aporrhetQt line 13). 10 (des. desma. ..ss.s. incident seem!'J to be ruled out.f"l'iCanUS'B introduction to the passage- to indica. while the Hebrew text of the Old TestM".. In the former..i tud.l n in- tent. and III.em re ferred 2 to is lrnovn . ~nd Passa.Charms name. 1.. Since ve dQ not h&V'e . f the magic is. 17.er vould be tLS fL. XI. not 1m- But a more posit 1ve:t act i ve eva.. migbt be :regarded as referring to iL magi cal spell (Ode:).t.ti.g.tion as a "song" is a re- .ge pTQvides o\U" earlil!!'sttestimoniU%ll to the Prflye:t'"' CAna.c clBSsifieation of" its "miraeulous" reault evidence of Hmagice.A.. pp.D. 11-13 30-32. III.m for epOde t "spell" or ltt:harm. the 5Q-called Prayer of Manass·eh . 1 ~~d Rites 0 2l!. The third pB-ssage...e 32). autol:J8.tments" {ewmasin.flex or its poetie rorm~ not really a synon:..cited t:r--om thl!' Ch!"ono"grap& (mp 48/ch:r 31- Routh" fra."ste.. The latter attributes certainhealings of poison ~e.l ue.leeta saC".. 33 ~11]o SU8Sif.s ropp 14 .te his purpose in using it and his att.ges 44 d and j (IX. rr Th~ only argument.e to\mi"d.mti s1d~rou) . (Pitra suggests 'that this passa.ges.ent refe-rence.) . 2. this conception 01' the Ita dee-1gna. 317 &ld 3L9} give Ps ellus' 5 ansveron t'W'O such Items. 1 it'l. 19) ~ 1 2This id~ntlfieQ. Bid-era.

29-3L..t .tely . It vas to be engra. 3Oder-Hoppe . Note also another charm of the same type to be worn in the right sandal {Plpnd 124. of the horse.re and various s:rrobols .trica codex. under it is the line "~~A~XOaW~AV. p.. in 2 th~ bOttom of' the l~tt hoot foot..ved with a bronze pen on a lead~n f'le. on pp. lozenge OT diamond form.ble insc~ibed vith bronze p~n.H. OderHoppe r~ad th~ ll!l. followed b)r approxi1l1B.. Arranged in faur UIl- equal lines ~ithin a. .&. :po ~33 mg. It has a '·necessity of obedience ll (ananke:nechl!'i t1eitbarchias. mp 1.a. clea.gea. is introduced a. 6.o. pent&gon..s an Uart 01' nature" (tee-nne horse~ pby~eOs. note c (cont. 1:11314). 926-39. gon six (I. "a threat of Roman pr@seriptiofi ll . in a ~&rticU1ar manner~ a. and most significant . 2 . 122-23). 136. use of an inscription in the preserved fragments is closely associated 'With the f'irst spell example as noted a..ole of the left foot of the person desiring the power. ~ 2 ~225. the present passage .. .• pp.n the sixth. Greek PapYTi. Les Cestes. 138). Compare and contrast the ~'P9taktikon charm given in f'Jpnd 121. particulw. . '1iei1lefond deciphers the last line as 1 E:1 ther element of this expression could be used as a Ircode-'· \lord for ll':Iagic.time-.n3 Using & system de- scribed by Gardthausen . may be preserved for us in a c:ryptOgz"Bm in the C~bridge hippl6. and p. The inscription.!!.10 lines c:ont. occupies lines 931-39 (Kenyon . Vieillef"ond. C..272 Inscriptions The first.1 which 'Was to be found 1.ining four columns of names. line 28) ~ This inscrip'tion. squ. rather than !!.1 The inScription) to tame ~ Bll unmana. 134 .ke frOJD a mule yoke and placed under the er..st l~ttil!!" as Q. i~ reads M~~/6Q~~\1 Kccro/~ct'·. is to be 1ine 2.bove in connection '\lith the discussion of' it. sur:roWlded by I!I. 23-30. 133).rly magical procedure9~ Both involve penta~ indeed . ibid ..4}. 132. (re line 28). or .

if Afric:o. .ttack."'1other inscription occurs in :mp 31 (III. The s~e note 6ttributes to .o de e (quo) • It interpreted as "to be about to b~ ¥i'antingJ fail ~ cut off from (being?) a horse"'] The solution does not necessa:ril::r~ ha.ined.. n." fond points out tbe Aramaic background of thi.).ve to be good Latin.. to run cO~"Jter to the non-tneolog1 ca. having tvo grOU-P.s from scorpion a. such an item as this is e'J'en mo~e likely (es]J~cia11~l if' the possibility of regarding such ttems ..rli~illef'ond suggests that it is a. rer~renc:c 'W'ould seem.tion of Afriea.se£. (unit... 'With certain other aS8U!11i'tio:la t thismi.Dhi~. only such as a tyro ndght ha. " and '*' t remaining un~hanged in the cipher (V. 138 (cQnt.. final group: A-I. The syst'(!ll!l in Gardt hausen is a r. 3-5 J p. 3 vhic:h ~ou1d support his viewo! AfricBJ1us's Jewish Qrigin (thOugh he 1 do~s. 23.en ~ Griechiscb(!' PalQeop.l vi rl g the first tYO lette~s of the a~phabet. n An nd hoc cipher co.1 The lett~rs in the figure have not yet been l.n therJ be set up usipg th~ 24 l~tt~rs of the ROmfltL lLlphabet... not so Les Cest e s ~ p.ra. 243).Charms and Rites 213 'le~O'UAalC1'O\l.l symbols..ch.:lg the three older letters: retained as. of' n. 2 vols.11. 2:311). s peei fie ally" one 1 nvo. In addition.. Jokes is kept 8. 2 A. ve ean p~~h&ps regard the theophylaJtton as a..as prf:L.-M.ve produced. This 'Would be true 'Ilhether Afri c anus got the "presc r iptior/' fr O~ someone else or concocted 1 t himself'.l of" 9 E!'8. A. l-~. E..Cti<:6J.ble in thl!' first t'YO gz-oups. 3Le~ Ceste~~ p. and (). ~-a. .ection of an an1:mal Vieille- The in5criptiQD is.s t tens.£). rLe1p~1g: Verlag von 'l/~it 2...d T-Z... Using this cipher:> the letters decode as "DEfOREASEKODEE. 22~. numeri!:l!I. 6cribal ~ue to the pToc~durE! rather than as an original part of the formula ( such e.. ~ Comp.in the Kestoi noted above) .l strain . solution to the cipher. vi th the center letter of each s eri eB ..J.n open option) •. the \ford nabbal.nus can be suspected (even if innocent} of CO!JIposing the nekyoma.l.!.ht furnish 0...J&tisf'a~torily expla. Desrou5seaux th~ ob~ervation that this is" in effect~ a palindrol:ie (though the term is not use d)...s wQrd.e. 359. divide-d into three ~hcrter seriea of' nine ll!:t:ters efL~h. It Could this have been intended to represeC"Jt aomethibgsuch as "defore fl.nteia it"Jterpolation!il. with E and 0 central and unchangea. It uses 'the Greek alphabet includi.nus's Le-tin fQnnula (ibid. K-S" ar. transla..S a.e original t and then using the remaining 6as e. The latter is not outsid~ th~ realm 01" possibility. Q prot.. Gardthau. as in tb. 1911-13J.e.. 2d ed . 'The i~sC1"iption tan be transliterated into the FtOC'la-:tl alphabet as nF'EI DOLEl/lCESO!FEE. the prescription of' a tin :shel!!!t pendant e.Jmerical variation of' athbash.. hundrE!'ds).

its Christian use.ding of amulet s. charm vould be in a dif'fel'ent category from the use of Ar~ic (or other native) names in common prescriptions orn~r1"a. 3See the discussion of "Foreign tJ. "tl.nd Strange Elements.ps eVen mort:!' to the th~ po1nt~ tbe very t'e- 11gious backgro~~d of wOrd cited by gi"'t~s. 2 Also. wTitte-n spell engraved on them). truncated torn of a corruption or Abl"Q. 3 though prob- ably not unprecedented.ll 'U.t1ves. tL.) their poyer comeli from a."ld is lik~ly to h.Jlian origin of the Prescriptian. Ferha. 'WOuld be unusu. 56-58.. This pa.fri~arms's Vie'Ll use it).ama1c significance vas lost from sight.. a person :from a Semi tic background 'IIould presumably not have used sucb a form.l!mJ.bove. the others involve some type Dr s¥~athetic 04 apQ- tropaic: prin~ipl~.ssage is not rJ. by soml!'on1! from an area." un- less it has sui'fere-d 11') the transc. ch~r. the use of an Aramaic: phrase as a magical charm. which 'LI'ould strengthen the objection a. Vi~il1efond} emphasized by the New Testament passages 'Which he vould also see-m to argue against the Afl"icB. The use of such an item in a. a tJo-'lle of' prot I!'ctil1e item kept on or nea.uthenhow~ver.s. vould ae~ to req'Jdre eome sort of In Afrlcanus's case this 'Would come from. The precise form of the inscription. qBut such a use in & Nnuminous tt quality in its background.214 A..tLv~ b~en added in the Greek tradition once its original Ar..bba!."1der the hea. Lea CeBt~s~ pp..m ..x?) 2 Note again Vieillefond. IThis is not unlikely since the l!I.atter suspicion. does destroy" the symmetry of the palindrome.J:!ssion.n e::tpflllsion of ~" but 0. ticity.ddl?d !.r the body ~ One or two of" them are cha:nns (Le. (Or is it possibly Jlot B. where th is was one 0f the ~O.cc(!pted by Bjorck as of pro"Jen n.on ~ ll!:Lnguage s. A number of" Africanus I s :procedures fa.1 would suggest this l." beloW'..o.al ..

p. 'Itet:!s in parentheses aTe h!ppiatrica 1'a. 125.tter (or the fO'I"Irle'r t fo!' that matter)). usually on or n~ar the specific part of the body i nvol ved ~ if any ~ Th~se pro~edurE!'s are U mpp: 10. 11. l~) and a skin container (vi th no spemp' cific order to wefl. oth er pendant!3 A number of Af"ricarlUsr s other procedures involve lLttaching the pres eribed i t. volf tail and wo. tJ1e th~ 37 ~ question- The . n usually i nvolvinge. . 9 mp 4. 3. skI. 35.Charms and Rites Amulets andcharrns Airi {! anus i lets {peria.rn lIn place or the bat's head~ fipparent1y the whole bat might ~ (L 17..and ~2).. 165). in vhich the tin sheet is to be "tied aroWld u (peridesmei.amulet (1. which involve a gold necklace (horm. and m1 et s of eyel3 by 7 IUIIU- and incantations {Psellus. device. p. but it is borne on the body (in the hoof) as a "proteetive l . 319}. and I.atoi S } 275 6 sai d. 121). to C1.t:ea fl {peridera. mp 23 a and b.nd 31 . 1..y: Roman prescription for BnUJ1.Q.former may not be strictly an amulet.nus sugge-stsfl. J. and 9J. and a. Two a.t hea. 9-10). 2.) 3This also applies to mp 15a i above (1. (The ston~ might lI. more secure container (apparently body} for the former (r. mp 15a..d. contes~antls the 2'I'hough Atri(::B. !IIp mp T. where Africanus refers to nnet:kl8. 1t~s T IX. III. leather. 17.::hioni Pllorouroenos (I.U"'e asp bi tee.. 30-32 10 p. ba.S6~es questioned by Bj8rck.1so 'be carried in. 23. Vi.. The exceptions are mp 10.Il!anageable horse.at. 1 T.. 3. a. 3. and two of the he prescribes 10 the stone found in a cock.ble tin eharm against . other passages prescribe a cham to b(! borne on the bod. and th ~ vi there d. 1J~ri br. p. under the tongue (lines 3-.ti s .scorpion stings. 4:2).. L 10. 1 IDR)rbe ~o:rn in 2 B. III. 8 and 11).also mp ~.ems to (literally U around.. 3. 36 .io1s ~ and 12erithema.r the la. f'Ol'"l:! of pe~iaEtQ)3 the sUbject.Q. 5) the animal's thro.t. Note . th~ mouth.

s:sages~ mpp 6~ 7. also the lIn daily" though apparently not ~rn continuously (mp 23c. l!.rth. In addition. Famous magic~ areas passag~s Three DIp involve names or places noted in anci~nt magic~ 3" a Thesselie.passage invol. another.. mp 42. the Li'ovan In. 21. (23 a and stones in 6 gold necklace and. the nekyomarItfda vith its mmlerou5 magical nwes. and the cross-ref'erence to the latattTibut~d 13a~ involv~ prescriptions to the Romans (ct.fter'b1.a:m- pies of dures. Roman prescriptions Three ter in pa. though per- haps a.ygonum in dog's !:L.ri tb e.s. 21-2~~ p.. frog'S navel (brains?). 27. in favn or. 2..aron in mp 36. addition~ vulture eyes in linen may b@ applied ~o ~res . (23 c and d~ vulture eyes in dog skin 1 or :frog eyes in linen). gloss).2J.276 Arricanus's View b~ s~allow teeth. and mp 41!chr 2~ the book by an ancient !sypt~an king. Sy!'ian name also given. deer antler ornament.c::alf' skin).es a near neighbor of the EI!J1)tian5. Foreign or strange- e-l~~nts One of the fairly ~onstant elements in most sys't~ms or ex. III. Souphis. B This fe-at-ure is somewhat minor in magical refer- etlces de5pite the f~t that he is something of ftnarrn!!-dl"opp.n snake (.. 227). and d" the mulberry bouah styptic. masi~ is the foreign or ~xoti~ atrain in the various proceAf'~ieanu8t 9.errl and retailer of e~oti~ (and/or esoteric) in~ormation in his general narrative...

ht.ing special knQwledge or pO\o7@'rs in su. nde. 01) theothil!r hand t a5 noted above a.ni or barbaritJ.tthe end of the: disClJ. t.Charms and Rites the..lu-"'"Prisl!. 2 Above. 3 :t'.. or they might be so regarded as having contact with distant. since the ROInans were not.tlve antiquity (approa. But the fact of their dominanetl!'. &nd their rela.e} or dis taot (Wlc i "il i zed) areas (1.rded a...re ~ &ught most ea-s ily t1 (mp 128. i ~ tl. e ~ ~ paga. by reflex" be regil.nt raCE! in th~ 1 or especially ancient days of their empire. and sailors {mp· 29) may be nfWled only because tbey are those who 'Would ha. p.ogether '\lith their relative dista.5 having i:iopecia.he DiasporfL (as in Vieillefond's view). lIIjJ n.2 00 ~ote thE!' other question5 abOut the latter page'. 213 .ve access to and possess knowledge of' the :remedi~8nBlD....cC es sf bl. might a.. 272-73 10 with .eneraL fonne r ~ a!.ch areas.9Sicn of' the npentagon Passages.l.ed h/olf :fl e Soh ~ and the r'el!Ora} • The:-e might be sOliIe tendency. in mp 37.ching a millennium).ns) might 'be so regal'd~d. Sa. pp.S coming from either a Palestinian resident (a cO:lmlon viev or Af'rice. i nhe. 1 {above.).agi cal clas s es "! lTTnose by whom "IlOlve s a. if it is r@g&Xded 6.e di snbili 'ty woul d also apply to the ArAmB.vitb n .ccount for their inclusion here.bbas.t these points. exotic s places.ilol"S" regarded as a superstitioub lOt.nee from Paleetine. however 10 to The :regard them a. hi.nus) . lTh i s sam.s ha. or a Jew \ITt ting for Jews s I!!'venin t. This is so~ething or a 2Tf J. a dista.bitants of' more r~te 'icB. at least a.ref'er~nce to the Quintilii in mp 11).11:2 the-s~ referl2'nces do not eontribute greatly to belief in Africanusfs seriousness.l l::nQ1l1edge of' magic in e.

or other requirements or 'l"hes(! factors. rituals.'Will be c:onsidered belOW'.irem. it ye.sa~s $iderat1on 01' I::ertain mOTe which present combinations of"them in extended. and the right testic~e of a 5~~n ~e.B..in :restrictions (limitations) or requ.' (mp 16). wolf W'hieh was supposed to stop a four-norse te~ (mp 18)..tric:-a is shnply too short to provide any atyli6tic criteria to support its claim..s the :r-ight...ccepte-d by Bjorek...ry to use or Th~se substances prescribed.. ~eft Right or Several passages spe~ify that a particular procedure uses Or de 10 or is per tormed vi ttl a certain in vol'. 5i Four passages invol.!3t procedUl"e vas not f1.xed by a conpas.e s a part from a (: erlai n hand.. . clil:D..1 These seem to be explainable by the idea or the right as the :more lThis ~B. they are manipulate th~ 51 ot s imply acts neC:eS£i 6.. the sl~eping potion for use in wine inl::luded wax from the right ear of a donke:.bus .. There seem to be no particular reasons based on content to ~ither oppoBe or support it. II ~ertain numbers. 15-16+ The report of the procedure in th~ h:ippie. astragalus of" e. e the right side: 'the 'Wolf tail to pre- vent fright in horses is attached to the sUbjectls right ear (mp 9)..s to be applied to aid colon dis~r~ss in horses {mp 40).olve the perfol"Il!ance of cer- tElin actions) or the observance of e~rt. involve the U5e of a certain Bide (right or lil!!ft) for some function t the observance of proper times) the use of "ta.emts of behavior" in lIhich 'the actions seem to be of sig- nifi cane e in themsel ve s..a.278 ~ites A nwnber of' the pl"ocedurcs in. "Apsyrtus~f1 pp.

. choice of side seems to be rather arbitl"Q. These cases of att&ch- ment (or placem~f. . a. 2 Ibid .st proce- dures. left side occur a little more fre- Ope~ations involving th~ quent.. 12.l.the lett vas regarde-d as the side of ill- ottlen (colCpElTe the reverse ..he unusualness of its use which conveys the Guppos~d power. p.·e en i terns a and b of 12 is to be infused into the lett nostri1 of the ailing beast As not ed in t he pre-cedi cg paragra.271 potent 1 and/or the positive difrl!rotm~eJ g1d~.. ifolthe sprir."1 ophtha1=Di C' (ltIp Or) (mp 44c) arC! to be used against vorms (mp 35)~ the left band is used.t use as the.for the designation of it.ly. ~ver~ betveen the wolf "tail to pre"Tent fright "ilhich is attached to the right side.ra.d the 1i ~i t e ston e "to a.. ~~ 7) • eyes as a..to aid birth (mp 44c) which is put in the left hand.tionale.d the frog eyes to protect from opht.• ~ol+ 8~.2 3d} fl.probably to be explained by lIiess· s suggestion that it is t. l!ll'I.. linea 46-50.mia {mp 23d} which are attached to thl:!: 1e-:ft shQulde:r~ 01' the 11. in the first and la.ha.i d bi rt h the left side.Jt) on t. ~y A veteri nary presc r iptlon gi yen bet. 83-84. 2 This ndght also carry over to such a "pass1ve.!'Yt at the unconscious whim or fQrtlutous r~tiona1e o~ th~ originator.t in mp 4Lc (ligni te s"tone).ll.·o such rei'erences: the taming inscription foot~ is to b2 engraved in the left front t and it is to be done vith be 1 e rt hand. are.. abo"!!:.he left :side can perhaps be explained as an apotropaie: f'Ll.ph ~ "the frog's . Also. 11 cols.ling (1. ql...gThe nite stone. The fact that the frog~ s eyes in mp 23d could be ~ieS6. since. In mp 7 there are t\.'nction . There seems to be no 5igni~icant ~ ho.s E!UOnynlc9) • The uses of the left hand.k. "Aberglaube.

supers. 29) seems to co-nf"irn the of. p... 221) for £0:' ti~ to do so. . The spring nestlings in 23b are not 1 1.se~ to concern the authoi" . 30n the phases of th~ moon in Guperstition see Ri~ssJ IfAbergla:ube .sumed. 2~ 19~ p. sele:ni (Ode r-Eopp eo.tion. III. with D. 39-41. Thorndike~ On various times. follO'Wing the London mMuscri:pt· s p~os t.epecifi~ation Times. H. 51-68)..250.a.n1ng lo iLnd thus could carry mp a".H. 15) reads prot' selene .i~-~6.... A reference to the day might haVe droppl!'d out~ or be as. 2: 2'50 mg.of the .0 be cut open until the new or waxing pha. The <:lolor-t:hanging plaster horses in 1!Ip ~l (hexagon ~even..cript 2])]0 the timE! might 'be conceived to be l'before the JilOon [:1.280 Africanusts View n~~k worn on the left shoulder or (JIL :2. 25~."l 1mpli~d thre-n:t 'to the anieal.) Alternately. 255) specifi~s both a da~ and ti~~ for its use= 1 the :first See above~ day of the coon. ibid. n cols. ~iess pro\~des nucerous other @xamples of both factors t especially in his discussion of superstitions involving plants (cols. time of day. on a moonlit night) at the thIrd hOUl'H (of the night .e moon's . 2. The text as given by Vieillefond (rol~owing Oder-Hoppelo C.:? at the third hour {line 5).3 2~6. Les C~stes.o C. of course ~ help 'tQ count~ract anyefi<::ourage~nt the :f"O:nnulamight give to horse thievery. .y of the moon lo perhaps because this JtI&rks the beginning of th. but that does not . 38 t l. p. thr~e Three of these specify days in relation to the moon ~ and In the form~r speci. re 11 ne 15 n-ss C i"ea. (SUCh a ~estriction would. col:. Five passages specify times at which the procedures must be perfoTr:led. H1stoEYt 1~91... ~olloving Vleillefond·s transls. 36 t p.. 2. some'W'hat arbitrary nature..se of the mrJOn t this the performer vaiting (epide~hom~non. .ds II 'It: i th B. This could !Dean the "first month J" but the specification of the hour ~avor~ Vieillefondls int~~retation. II!. e. grouPJ the taming inscri:p~ tion (mp7) is to be engraved at the sixte~tlth de..fy a. but this ~u1d Testriet its use to once a y~a~.' a :side. or after moonrise).

bout th~ir ~xigtence o:r."IIUlet r~lat. "the dark of t.ppended vhi1e the phosters are under the earth {IX.ing the term to mean tbe two major nsta..st .s a.1 If this is inter'Pre~ed simply as 11 star s .b magic .nd/or Bi. s. not to be a.eparate clause of this ~ Uamulett.:rs" (the Utvo great lights Jr of Genesis).blical ba. If it wo. 316) ~ but gi ves no e-xplanation of ho'" the Itsta. Pt!!:r'haps ~ especially in vi~ of' his Semitic a.. B.. The preceding context indieates SOIDe uncertainty on Af'ric:8.*.acts~ this .es to the muJ.c:r. along wit.e des astres qui s e trouvent sou!:! 1& terre n {p. Tbe uncerta.. but in view of the reference to the moOD. definite pl!lrod.nus t s part concerning thl?se angels. ho'lotev~r.. 12~ p.ud apparentl~r have to mean the d. 1.n a moonless night. Rel..ther ~umberl..and sorcery (mageias kai Boete1as)~ ainong the thi n gs taught t·o VOmen by C I!rte. 2:2lil-~2 (Fragment VII~ first pa.'Oclear in its specification of time~ The mulberry styptic (mp ~4d) is to be a.. 2Cf + LSJ.ay~ light hours ~ but . 3Routh .o uld seem to be a ra..WCli I1P t 11 roe Hot oGo 4J.. the l:lOo:n~ SUD and tbe :::' If BO~ this 'Would. and the type of operation which might 'be involved (hors~ theft). V' + u..ckground ~ A:f'ricanus ia us. Dindorf).viel11efond makes a.h~ moorJ.berry styptic:.Charms and Rites 281 The hoUl" of vhat is not 5pecified . 3 Such a l. then mea.lOl!le vay of express- ing the id~a (unless it is taken e. Syncellus l: 34-35 t! ed. Night (or at It!:a. n Numbers Ai"ricanus inclu. it might be the third hour of the night..des the Itpower of nUJ:Qbers" (arithmOn kines~os) as.. specifically. 317). tl.inty seems.r'l a.in ange ls (mp ~ 6/ c hr I}.v of such magical pre !il cTipti-ons ).sa.rt. th~ non-day) is clearly spe~irie-d in anoth'!!'!'" operation: ehicory! "heliotrope" to be used against warts is to be picked bef·ore sunrise~ The final operation of this sQrt 15 USO 'U.

o:ra.lly" bu. = Routh 2 =2~2. be se-ems to a. I!j3rc-k~ . Ma.rgy.1 i ty i So really di fficult to transmute into Fhilo8ophic insight. in contrast to the earlier bos oimai . .3b is th~ic~ ~i~e~ciibed~ and the maggoty SQre in mp 35 is sprinkled three t. a1·h ce d ure.) 2The use of multiple (~speciallY triple) items or repetition of peT'f"ormances 1e ?ddespread in magic ~ ct'. Syncellus 1:35.e &s ~stfJ.S the progenit.tApsyrtus ~ fI p.he~lI this made lrlOst of' the 8 e thi ngs :~rusper: t ethi c a.pter rl~ below] these fallen engels'iJC'!"1!!: C:Ontmonly identified as the source o~ magic.s would not undercut be-lie-f' in th~ir objective realit. ~ols.h 2. 4..ors of the da. 4}~ not as demons.. Af'r~ca..) If this identifie:a. Inc atrtame:r..nus rather doubts this (ei • • .. lO! vith nUlDerous illus~rat1on6 in the :fQl1ov1ng disr:U9SioIL of plant. No~ ~ oer:essaril.emons. Three other passages involve numbers specified for their sUPJlO~ed ~h1ch ~ayhave been power t rather than established on a. Synce11u.ges involve the mUltiple repetition of some pro. 19-20.2~2. di d not affect be l i ef in th ei r 1 effectivenees. the vart in mp 3.tainted origin of the mowledge concerning these thinB.! c: fallacy.t. IC on~ were looking for any available proof of Africanus's philosop~ica. :2). 2 Tbus the Pita ta" in mp 6 i g to be t hri c e repeat~ d.." p.ges from the Restoi which re:flect this idea Several passa. (Amcng t.blished <cf. 65 (citing a tert from He-im.11i still sees the progeny only &S gi~ts (Rout. 551'). . Hubert. .j' church fathers 1:sE. metallu.de" At!"iean1. I EnoDh 6-10). 11 (But cred \1. nooito • • • .Jt &0.ny of the other :fathers included various pra~tical arts (e.• and~ identified as the "soPs of' God.s" It Abe l'glaube: r eels. 1519 (col. are tr i pIe..s. Africo.tion is mn.s 1: 35~ 1 and.l acumen ll he coUld say th~t Africanus here refuses to fall into t he trap of the 11 ge net. Riee.)' ~ of 'their moralit:rl.t p. J.l Thus it is not surpris- ing to fied several passe..Dd 24l. e .imes. pagan ~orship~ etc . To t. 3 !l. • .SSill'D. Thorndi k e! Hi story ~ 1 : 91-92. 38-5Q.he efirl. ~4) in contrast to mast early Christian and contemr.!e Cha.g.ry Jewish opinion (and I Enoch}.y.n l t. mining) BJtIong those taught by the angels. 6:2. cosmetics. ." 8."1ian example-s the~ . i. 5l-68j. "MagilL. 3~. J 19.. The \IDcertainty is whether the-y should be identified vi tll the tl 50ns of God" of Gen.

Several other reatures noted in the various procedures discussed in the preceding pfl. the dog brain rrylaster n on the baJ1dage will heal a fracture in fourteen dfL-ys (mp 32) t and the :foot trea.!!'!'" or lesl$~r extent.1c rr proced\ll"es in mp 23 involve rituIn the first (Z3a). Otherto"iae!t as noted a. In the other. lJee sbove'.sis. a .. 2113). i.. seems to 'I . 1. 1. .bite dOve is stl. 2 and th~ frog :from vhich the eyes lUApsyrtus~1't pp.tment in 'Pi"ocedure 39 starts torith seven figs... these procedures.svallov stones are the n~s'tling and used in an elaborate is opened wito a sharp reed. most ela.n bi~arre.and invol. a.ln. n..ices. 2~'St \rith n. t actions significant in The victorious cock from "Which victoIJ·-gi. The eye 5alve preparation is to be buried in horse dung for forty days: (mp 23e). though not too :far removed from ancient medical (folk. whicn is the a.l bfL.nd then p..ct. ar~ the diBcussion of each.two items. 2 See above t p.e.} pra. "the stone f'rom the s'W'allov nestling in 231:1 ttoust not touch earth before use.gCs could come under t. ..bove l. 246.the . 15-16.he heading of rites.CharmS and Rites praetico. and then the stones are put into a gold necklac!!:. es a f'oe:ature (eacrif'ice to Aphr-odite) wh1cl1 pass~ge confir~ Bjorck's omission of this fo~d from his authentic manner~ list.borate.. .st. Three:: or the "ophtha1.1s of' great.erificed and Aphrodite is invoked.-med1cal t at lea.ing stones are to be used is to be eaten 50 as to leave the skeleton 'Iothole. the~5elves. p.

rfere:r~ thus threatening to return the dise6rSe to hirn.al.n aCToss tt it aga.p~cifica. having loosed (11860580) her the face with it. maintem:wce) as much as possible. 5.tiontbl!l:t it be relea.rl ti. gi!"dle~ should strike him a. oe:cauae of their close repetition 01'" adaptation of the texts of Aeneas 'I'acticus ~ et al. of the "wholeness n th"-t its ..ded 1. :2. but he did not answer the objection on this point+ 9. also..rck specif'ica.r carry the disease away.. the release of the frog serving only as a way of disposing o'F an "unsightlytt by-product of' the opera. ~ •• its death taking along the illn~ss.l. 18. This interpretation 1tfLS avoi. 5.potropaic proced'lJ. To cure f!. This sounds reasonable .1 or redactional ~d~ptation direetly . N pp.n the previous discussion.lly rejects the authentieity of this pieqe chapters credited to Afr-icanus in the manuscripts and 'the printed editions of Thevenot and Lami. f!.in.t extent of" its v~rbal coincidence vith A~liB.gic transfer of bealth ~ It might be a better description. virgin . 3E•g .return to the vicinity of the su.froln Aelian thana passage co:rning through a \n"i ter such uS Af'ricanus (I1Aps. II ~ p. 514) suggests that such an EUm. 11.any o:f the otner 1 2Bjo..l in thei:r "pot-ency. 233) ~ 1 :f it is retl11y Afric. Thorndike suggests that this type of procedure may come under the head of nma.yrtus.eyes symbolize. All of th~se passages exeecpt 86.tion.. 86.tur~ into nature.oosing~ beli~. p. V1eillefond aFparently does not accept Bjorck' B reasoning on this pa~HLage~ since he included it in his 1970 edition. 58.Uet . .." p.28~ Africanuli f s View 1 are taken in 23d must be released where it vas takl!n.. This is the sa:ne type of' evide:nc'l! ~ed by other etudent:3 of Africanus in rejecting :m.3 and the st.lei!'i!. .) Jones (ItPopular Medicine.r The ke)r element here would appear to be a virgin probably being specified because of' a cOl!lIllOn magica. 1 ~88-89) .215.vsuree. it is more likely to be ~ 5criba. but vould restrict the usefulness of theEUBUlet tet:lpOrally+ because of' the grea.. 9 and 86+ 4~ (an innocent boy). of. a. 72.bout l.0. or to die: leaving the disease where it could return to b1m~ or where helZ'dght "ru. Rieas~ nA'berglaube~n ools. Perhaps a Hma. The I:.rik. Th~ passage 2' desi gnated as ntp30 (I II. 85. since there is no fLctual contaetbet'Ween the diseased pereon and the releasedani:m. horse of 2a. 61.v..gictrBilsf'~r'l of dif. 39.ra~sorbs 1'1 the illne5!!1O and '·transfers it to the mutilated ani:nu. it seems to i:IrIply a :r~-int~gration or th~ ~T~Ei. 80. (It could" hOl1eYer~ b~ a precaution that the Mimal does cot remain in or .sed ·'vhere it waa taken·· would S~~l!J an urme:ct::'ssElrY detail if' the anima.c (Histor.anian ~ would probably fit into 'this eategory.1"e. l7~18).! need onl.ing a means or transferring the power See &oove. 5 inyolve aome type of he~itl:g or a.. n.

s tha.p. . Circum- scription or the &!fe-eted place.sho. 59~ cf.! of plants ~ if thl! Stib8t&nC~ prescribed. Ri~ss euggests that the term was appli(!d sometimes to the middle finger" Bometil:les to the ring finger (nAber~ 81aube)N col. of the looaed gird1. involved. 20-21.. Les 238. pra.(8. and thus the simple use of that finger provides :l. or the ring tinger.l::t. flowers of chicoryr'he:liotrope. . force could most natura. also p. 3h2).ples inF:iess. 239)... such 8. 20.t the lat...(ibid . 239). picking be-f'or~ sUtir-ise a. {Two other items ~ if they are magieELl. might be a..nd th~ t~eefold aeThe tion.a.teris 1teo reference .lly be vi ewed as "personal t I' but need not be. cf.ical YS::l of tureEi of the proc@dure-. 11. Cestes t p.aube. st'!e also Bj5rck~ "Aps:yrtus ~~.animal which. 7-9. 19.. .e to -tbe.ntinisch-neugriechische Jahr"biicher 1 (1920): C~s tes. at lea. 358). The strik. hOll.. 1t cols. "Aberg}. Ganszyniec." hali some medicinal value ~ this. @'x. wart) is one procedure prescribed in mp 33 (III. l. act. t'ApsyrtlJs/' p.. 358]0 nT 209... is in need of.~t in some Vi'"!ter-s and passages.nslated by V1e111efond . suggest that the i::ircUIri5eription itself' is a ritual.. Two further passages invo1ve ritual prescriptions. BjorcK.ing ~ou1d."ieillefond~ Les 2Eitber 'the ind(!x finger (as tra. p. both C'ite the 'brief note by R. 2 p.§y7.eve-r t be: vi~ed as a means of driving out or subduing some hostile force. Ga." sort of 1008- ing. or even superstitious.aJD.K'tUhOe:?". sprinkling vith ~at~r against maggots (mp 2~ 1 35) ~as to be donevith the Hphysicianta flng't"r lt (III.Te some special use in connection with healing . 64" lines 62-65).16..Iucb a virtue to an act p~rrormed vith it... 'W'he..tever the precise finger its designation suggests tbat it has cowe to ha. but vi th re-s erYB:tiot) S:Ji see hi 5 note 213 ~ p. p. 62. As sugg(!sted above in the discU5- sioT. 61 . 60.Charms and Rfte~ 285 Q.nszyn1ec ~ 11Welches 1st dertCl'tp'll(bs 66.

Bjo:rck~ "Ap. 1-9.. !..xpre$~iQn 4 tie h use 0 f the · LB. no1:..t al. triple repetition of" uts.N. 3 In this proc:edUJ"'e:lo the 'Wounding iron is to be anoint. 28. Thorndike.n - lef. Th~y are the speci- fi cat i on of' the us e of a ~ pot in mpp 19 (neO-l. varning: Ifgua. 297J.. But a ne-w pot ]My merul no more than one tbat 1e: clean". or l. 11. " Abe). black It.. iiieillefond . . 35 6Syroviding numerous examples of its use in medicine). This is t.Orlar f'or r:!1i tin g theautom. o43b ()t~ i non] elI.286 a. 355 1 3See the discussion above:t .l of the procedures involve the pe1"fOL"m&lCe of is.U?ge Ii J a. 11 pp..58.bly {lome under this "heading.ngt by a. p.Cant acts. I. ~nd the specification of I a.ton pYr [II.p.ed and thoE!'n struck.::: al the 11 te ra1 sens e • signi ficance 2 in a delicate procedUl"C' 'Which must be perf'ormed under a. p.~ p. . 48 (citing Pliny N. 129). 60-61. . Histopr~ 1: 62-83. 'II hi 11! sJl~tt. I .. erB. One of the most ie:Jpress1ve of thes~ series is the rlhoplocrism. .ing thrice) {all re Pliny).) Extended rituals Se.e especially Pliny .he color of the mortar mi ght have p:ract i. 11. 1 and the re~erences in Thomas.l.vould proba.o be act:ompanie-d .s a.nd.8yrtus~" pp. D~clin~ of MBgic~ cited there.n apotropsic (o:r medical) procedU%'e ll note Bj crck 11 "Apsy:rtus . 28.!IJples 65. 51. con- neeted series of signif'i.t~n (Rhomaie.a u passage (mp 61' pentagon ~ive. 5.e-ss.H.rd the facet for it kindll!:s sUdd~Il1y]on lines 6-oJ."glaub e t Ir c: ols • 87-86 1 vi th other eX6.:J. 211 t ·. 85.e. 211) . n.e:. . 92-93 (spi tt. onto (or~ driven into'? repikrous.Ii th n. Ri. the anointing of the wounding ve-apOn. ~No'te Vieillefondls parenthl!tic cOl!tDent" ? Les Cestes l p. :3 p. 22-2~. 36... e. testes.ai~ line 2J) the 'Wound.. t a".U1:contaminated in 1 and t. H. 11 d fLt':!. 1 T4 (Galen). 205~ and VI~ line h~ p.. 5.. hOn spitting s. 337 .

2. l33} is perhaps even more elaborate.- ture be corrected" (kakia oh:rrseos techne 'Ohyseos.ved in the fl. 2 10 P' 321 (again ~ = &1chemy).le ll ) .~tion {eircumscription} acC'ocpanied by triple spitting by both parties. 26-27). 15). tTiple B.nt~ ~ Pap. 5'7.rj ritual in using any remedy.elle ~ Col1ectio~. p.!!ling inscription.• pp~ 90-9). 109-10 (Til:! Berthelot a. . The lines describing the inscription provide opportunity for :f'u.n array of' pawer- it is not bard to see hO'\or the inscription coUld be de- chias . (plIysikos in the senSE! of U 2 .is to be engra. on tbe rhetori~al character of the first paragraph of this chapter (lines l-13~ pp. . 23-30~ p. 108. diorthoustho . L 6. 3-15).raphip ehalkO 1 (lines 26-27). 3 (re '&:rthelot and Ru. 2 A t8. lin~ 28)11 apart from the question Qf wheth~r its preserva. see Berthelot and Fluelle ~ 2~ 272.. . hen ou phob. Considerably lesselaoorate) but s'till quite striking" is a Bpi tting on the ground three times as tl customa.tion in a pentagon (see tbe discussion of" the I1Pentagon Passages· 1 above) was of real :tnil. 257 This ela.. line ?I~). cheiri e-. of RonIal'i orie. . stylus 11 'Under sixtE:!e-n-da'V-01d :moon (lines 24. ho1Jr:l . lSee Vieillefond~Les Cestes. h:t.n cueh hypopt.. On Ifnature by nature..te the suffer irlg from the vound 11 it must still be treate d by the medical aides (iatron paides~ line 7). .h the left hEI.l progrS1Ilt1l. an the Itart of nfl.ture l l (= alchemy). 130~ not.e~.gical significance.Charms and Rites . hert pho-ron • • • (line 25)..in:. I!Intl the title of IX.J"Jd:l with a br on z!:.. icullyl stated l!Iagica.ture by o. gs Cestes.~~ It is introdu~ed qy the rhetor- 'Il et evil of" na. 22-53.ge:rc:ra. 1e:f't frOnt hoof.encharatte .g. 129 ~ 131).. See-also:lVieill~ro[Jd. is to allevia. :ful elements. . 3-~.nd Ruelle} 2.rt of na. and pp. note!. "'''i t.. I' se~ Le. vi th n. . DJagiq1. wi "th such e. II. 132. The following procedure {mp or 11 pentason six.borate proced'UI'e .rthe r rhetori cal di 5 play. and 30.43.

. prescrib~d. presumab1Yl would shov a little more c~on scose:. ]j5r~k~ 16.nd Daeltlons A number daemons. But the original authority.ms elve 5. involvicg vhat would not be disproof. A:tri canue! S lI1.. including th~ in~antations and charms . A more elaborate procedure could be proteeted :from apparent failure' by charging failure in some detail of its pe~formancet but such & s~pl~ procedure . n.1 scribed by a poetic line: is that. unless something crucial has.i' prooedure for driving maggots from a. .v~ been passed on by the successive scrlb~g with little real thQught of its rationale. Clear water . 19 .. 358-59 .Qj'.. It is difficult to see how such & procedure could be presented seriously . p.. 2This argument could apply~ o~ course l to its transmission in the ~us(lript t~adition~ but once an item entered the t~adition.&gi- cal pro~edures. 21L.. vol. 2 B Nlre ~onditiQn. are 50mevhat . not one being left behind (lines 4-5).nts" finger or the left hand.ri ty liP it seems to ha.. Les Cestes~ pp.to pagan gods L~d/or or these ref'e:r-ences occur in connection with tbe yet few if any of them are directly inIn this iI...t f'ollO'iling one another out.:>n or transmission. the maggots em~l'ge. th~ vater 1s de... unde~ the ~:uspi-ces of some nautho..n the conde-nsati.t or p~Bsag~5 in Africanus refer. sorl!'l1 gf ven in mp 35 (III. Mos.288 Africanus's Vie'l..rApsyrtus .. been left. is sprinkled three times on the infected place. ~leillefond.. 239). various I'JIagical proc~dures. ve din the proc ~dU1""eEi the. out i. Whi~e no spell is t.e to empiric Gods o. I' p.. seems too vulner-ab1.. oy a stl"l!:!:am of pure vater. The res\lJ. tflken up rith the thUJ::lb and curled back uphy_ sicia.

of the Africanian corpus. different '\. 4~-4S!< p..Jr.23--JO~ p.nus. . .rd. it still would not exactly be an invocation (and .tber a challenge alsO!lIJl than an .1on belO'il+ 1nvoca- tiOD of Aphrodite in eonnection w:Hb the use of stones from s:walloll neatlings (mp 23&. character is illustrated by the references to invocation o·f tne gods in Africa. III.) 2 See above. ibid.crifice of tl. apostrophe.:rgina. and .. with me. The th1:rd~ 42 J the Oxyrhynebus fragEent of 't. (passing) reference to th~ 1 The relation of other three to Africa-nus' s beliefs is 4!fLCh uncertain in a.1 note on line 28). 1 T. The first.Gods and Daemons Invocfl.dre39 to Sle-ep in mp 15[> {r. p. nor any indica. 'T'h@-:re. is definitely part... 125).fa.~ the ad.he end of Kestos 18.victorious cock in mp 1 (I. There is no :refer~:uce 'to the invocation of e.tin expr~gsion. and \l'ill The s4!cond. 11-1~}:I! OCC'Ill"S in a passage of suspect Afri~anus's authenticity.hus be considered in the nl!tX't sect. ~d n. magical IThere is a ref'erepc(! to the sa. is re:.need not be in re~­ erence to e. if the t. 16-17) p.invocation (cf.. p.. r~g8. 3.. if from Afric8.t. In the second procedurE!! (lines 12-1T~ p. 1. but OtLq in desc~ibingthe finding of the stones. 245:." lines 30-32).f.heophylakto!J should be part o:f the o:tigino. 2. 141) is only that ~ pagan practice in that..t suspicion. but tbel'e is question as to th~ in'tent of its inclusion: is Af:ric:anus recommending it ase. 11. B.uch references . 127}) there appears to beso:me sort of ritual. In mp 1 (L 6. 7-8.1.• of' "Which one (prelude to mp ll~ prayer to Poseidon Horsetroubler. pagan god (though orlgipa11~t so .lus I s time?J. 165} "even if it should be tt10Tr:! than a rheto1"ical.l "Le. including the burning or the bones" but het'!!!! there is not even a. 6n t. 1. specific reference to the procedure as sacrifice. god . 133. l!lb.is itself practice 3S 80 out of keeping with 2 usual :PIP to provide support :for the.ion that the sacrifice plays any part in the virtue of the atone..tions This atyPicB.are possibly tour s.

.221~ on p.d as refle-cting this latter goal-~'II subservient tD 11tY' practice ~ that vi til me alone this master and allsubduer may dwel1 u (Elp lLb. .ivine id~ntitying by union . also hia argUI!lentra and eX8lI:. 11Cl ailtJing to be fl..nus's basic att. go d or a son of' a god. • . Africa. 96-106.290 procedure~ O~ simply including it only as a litera~J cmbellishment~ eye~ a Homeric novelty rediscovered by his own sharp Rivaling the gods 1 The goal of mn~Y ancient magical rites seems to have been the po\i'~r attainment of divine Dr Be.e es]).tural entity. n...entirely otherwise. 240.i'ed) 'With them~ or even hOGtile 1 . 'I". 1. lines 108-9. 1. 151. l1Q-221)... he sets hittlSelf against them~ 8ervil~ he seeks nothing less than equalit.im or are designed to achieve identity or 'Wlion vith a god! pp. 17. OT un i ted wi th some god or superna. 220-23 Tincitiding p'. ~. e.68-80).t. '~fany JDagi C 801 operations 'Were designed to produce s'Ucll incarna. 27-29 t p.55. 113~ 145-~6 ('With not e ).2 This is an ambitious procedure . 511ff) ~ and PT 103 (PGM Til. 165)3_-bu1.E.r:ni-c. and compar@ the various "ego eimi'. 472 ~ J. Note 8. 268-71. 15 ~ . Bjorck) nApsyrtus~n p.lly the rites which cla.! deities. the rel~ted lines from 15b and 14b discussed just Blve~ th~se above) • .y (self-achie'l.ples in Jesus the Magician. :eyedro5.cquiring of a 1'farniliar. It e. 6h (this occurs in the di6cussion of his passage nco 1. 222. or by or ~asoci~ting oneself ~ith a god (or the gods) in some way. fonnE. 221) not.g .ted in B.. in ~ 46. Note. i '56-. 226. 98-99 (rot-1 1.g.1 so . I'. 67-68). . esp~cia. 9 11 on pp.itude to\iards the godsiLnd spiri'ts seems to be. rele.76-17 (Ken~. Rather t. Morton Smith~ Cleme~t of Alexandria and a Secret Gosnel of Mark (Cambridge: Harvard University Press~ 1973). ·236 (wi th note}. and cites p&ssage no.e.. and p.oroe ways to the e. pp.han se~king union ~itb such spirits (or even their subse''Tvience}. ith a god..Jr·~ nr. 154.. . . p. on s Greek Pa~rri.bov@'11 pp.ro lines in Africanus might desire Sleep to become be rea. See . 'I 2 3But sucb an interpretation ofthes~ lines is probably excesseem to b~ only rhetQri~al e~aggeration of a personification of sleep (ct.. PF. .

de is shovn in pa~sages: tb~ 291 introductory lines.32) and in mp 15b (line s Q. challenge is not to the men who conquered them. 25-26..lity of priv~ ilege with theI!lU (1. of th-e.l' gods.ct) is even more striKing.ture Te.. I. Thi 5 is the set tins for th e a. 23 . Montana: Scholar S?ress. spontaneous fortune by our art s will "be produced~' (I." lines 555-73 {Marvin W. but daicone-.4-~ 5 )• ar~ probably & literary device.r.tribute t. t.. and Edward N. king. This attitude of' d~:tian~e toyard the gods is.t. It is also shown in the "sleepThere (mp l~b) the element lessness rr pa.. 10) ~ Graeco-Ro-man Religions Series (no. bu~ Further t his real to the one ~ho had really bound them~ Sleep .r~ make 1:..rs of such kind to theirpe(:uliB. 1 This is not !'"eally parallel~d by the desired pover to command various gods in th~ passages cited by Smith (~.the Society of Biblical Literat'l.s none the less.0 Pos(!oidon (lines 16-1'1"). p. 165)--is directed toward EDen. Meyer. This attitu. 1976):0 pp.'.117).. n The Society of Biblical Litera. and trans.it. ed.xts &nd Trt1t.he follOYi ng line 9 (30.ssage. f'o:r.!ithras Liturg.first 01" our magical "The victorious a.reterred to Just above.g. 1mi tate.lsQ "We will lIa."hose pas. lines 28-29). 11.Gods and Daemons doodnance of the:rr:a. 1o The ''Mi.sness toyard the gods gained during the 'tz. and King . t'he a. Clement of Alexan- p. but if it is held that Afric~~u3 really conceives of Sl~ep as a daem::mic being t his attitude of de- fiance and concl!!'it (outright hybris~ in f's.t. 17-20. 11. Of elmUfl.ll--conquering one (Merx kai pandamat6.tion--"I do not d. m. II~ t.U'e. 57- 59" p.eel:1J n1y'Self lln'W'Qrthy of" the equa.ntage over daimcnia/ -es t -earthbound and humble to be 5we (line 26). 2.sages the statue 1s gained by the protection and nsponsorship" of' a bigher pO\ler (TyJlho. further manifested in regard to the horse-troubler drug (mp 11.hras Li twsv .lsla..he These gods a.po s"trophe s to Sleep in Thes e lines. 8-9). ed.ed by Hans Dieter Betoz. 1 . but ltIen who had gained advfi.9r1&. God of gods. :221) t or the: attitude of fear1es.e. OrN~il (Missoula.tiorHl Cno.

.292 Africanus'sView This theJIle of imitation of or contempt for th(! gods appears in t\io other :references.and l5b.urgyn (e1".n. in Sndth. Georpj. ed. p. 113).Id vines to the Greeks--by pro- viding alternative friendship eups 1"Tom othe-r pl"oduce (T. In a late~ eha:pt~rt vhich. narra.ppe. III the former infll. ~ 5-4 7 ~ p.~·· p.are not really the same.oricELl del. 1 ael"E: 6. 6~-65..nu. of gods . Africfl. 21-25 ..l rea. 1507 (col. 11. . 9. he adds comparie<m to an enigJnatic event relating to the nuptials of Pasi'thea and Sleep (1. Dindorf) toward ~he gods.]en~e pair ~ Africanus gives rhet.tive prt!"s~nting a IImythological'· back- ground. for the: result proposed..his t but Yl!!'t .lcript!on o·f the eit~s or associates of Sleep~ and then the cases o~ the Ph~'gian king 'Who bound 511an08 . 165). 2-3. resu. de-spit@ its title. :pri zed by A:fri c anus.a.. e.as is the use of" e.dy noted :in the preceding tV'O di.l:7/c-hr 2 5 'We l~arn that Souphisl'a book.sleep (I.1 t.s Lit.l.: Bj3rck t IrApsyrtus .e. or some even higher power? 1inf!s 639-~3t pp. and 7-11:11 and 21-25). p'p. r'Ma. I!~ the latte:r t l5b ~ besides the apostrophe to & discuss...s :earadoxa. ~holoBical na~rat~ves Anoth~r characteristic of magical proe~dures of various ages and are. 14-15)} while African~s 1s a~@d only with a dead bat. 6.l80.~r anoth~r hero 'Who found a satyr a..ltb 2 :250+ 2~ Syncellus 1: 105. " pp..ree. From another source 1 mp . Helios Mithras:II :in the "Mi thro. 17. Sleep . lSee.:s proposes to imitate Dionysus-vho had given vine aT. RO~.g. 1).:r close to t. fL sort of" preternatlU"al precede-lit. AfrieRnus has passages t'hata. lines ~8o-8~. Mpp 14 a 5 and "b . is not magical. .ed. 19.scussions~ fi present ~uch items.gia. ed f:rom Souphis' 9 hauteur or s uper- cil10usness (h'z:p~:ro"tltes.~ 69~ Hubert.

15-16~ p.~8is Da~ons 293 presented as being used in any vay in the 6. The other I>8. 6-9. "na. VIr. 167 L th~ to a magical applieation. 8. in 15'0). 1:.s It is presented 6.fit.hor- 1a1 "'conceit.5t or 16. 1-2.pters. 2But despite the rationaJ. 22.ssQ. T.. II.S an aDoeient idea which by the improvement of wines by boiling. into the cha. sics involved in tht' procedure. IV. A reference to the birth of DionySliS. 7.2.allions. Africanu..t ural tt rationale for the procedure. III.les 4J.c:e the. 'lthe uni vers8. and Night/the MOOn b:.-45J).C- tual magicaJ. 1-15~ 1. in this very chapter~ ~ine-s 1-5.. leading rather to B.Gods and None of these it.hological :references provi de a. 19.r'ted some of its quality to the vit:le (lines lL-15). 20. I.thetic or association8J. D~5pite their obvious strengthening of the potentially ~ymp8. 4.11~.6- 3It is not clear that this reference indicates that AfricWius .' mtLres 3 explains why facing horses to the ea.n.sage. Ja-5.. I.lg [liir.15-41. reporte-d taet that the Sun/the Flame is dra.pteT simply as literary embellishments such as those found throughout these cha. vitb Fire as midvife (I. op~r&tiQn in 1580 (lines 33-43)~ and . 9. t. g .ut.istieexplantltion given to the myth. 11.t maeicaJ. also.vn by st.ll a.'W'ingl:!u-a.they a:r-e given a literary turn by the reference to Hera.ssfl. elements. 3 ~ pp. 15-16} also illustr~te the point 3 insofar as the evidence concl!'rning them is convincing..1a4).150.lly true in the one o:f these pa.here does seem to be some ttsuperstitious" ph~. 1. appearance (lines.:2 a~serls is explained In mp 2~ (III. 3. literary embellishment. as if the fls. and is independent of the conclusions concerning this pas. 18-21. 2~-30. in the precE!ding apostrophe (Night's Bon- Night's bird (line .me impEl.. l E .power of fire and/or vine in BO[!]e ritual]! but appears to be a..12-15.ges 'Which has the greates. 1 This S'I!!ClIlS esp~eio.ges discussed in this section (esp. 227. 229). (5). If the ref'@renc~ to "the Kestoi" (line 48~ p. I. vit. 173}~ is not uaed) for example~ to @"nha. the myt.

6 _ J. and its 1n- .-5 .urcu s i O~ ~ the borse-breeder tl ) just different (pl!!:r-haps another attempt at improvenumt 1'} 0'1" 'lImS f't a." could be pa. 1 49. Is this rationale a.lSQ given because Afric~rms is consciously giving & syst~m which differs from the commonly accept~d ones1 The usual -oa.gn:. V. 239) seems to require something more.ttern f'or male-fe:nale dete1'l!linat1on \I'B.' appea:r in one personi~icatiQn of the Sun and Night.ent (mp 112.inst :m.. narrative to provide i t poten~y. 27.t standI. 7. 231).lo. What we do ha·"e of' his s.294 Africanus's Vi~N vest wile 'bre-eding produces male or f~:lII. ~ V) might be. Da~on5 Besides the occurrence of the designation daiman for th~ gods or simi.he poet i cline. 10. 3}~ or of north and south (e. intermixed vi to supportin. of the sun and the fema. t tributed to an unkn O'lln "Ma.te r . :f'ra."') ad hominem argurJlent to sbow that the malenesl2. Pliny N. str~alII: of pure 'lKB. again ~ 8.g incantations:> but we do Why not :rCfLl. respective!)'.ale orrs. it may be 1311:1])1)' B.mple of su~h a narrative.g. Was JlSr i canus 'a 6YS t em (f1.tion~ 1 not a. dei 12.! to BUpport such elusion si~ly use.. 17+ 26.g+~ Pliny ~+ 30.IJJentation wo'Uld be consistent with The Oxyrhynchus Africanusls style as sho-r.2. III. p.as fI.aggota (mp 35.e tt and I'te:.thetic type oper8. the:. 6.. p. DIp 1.S a distinction of' right ~r le£t (e. ~ Aeli&1.Qge8 discussed above (!!IF 1) 1.H. It is a sympa. 19.. verbal one. U. But there is. The drench aga.tatements about i t suggest purely liter6. nothing in the text as i.ly kno'W' Africa-nus was citing it.l" pers.leness of' the :m:oon is comr!Jon knowledge.ssages. parody of the common system? believes in this ICC the "meJ.male. "by a. l8o).m in the preceding pa.:rY (1) and antiqua. .. 2.considered an extensive exe. and t.onages in some of the pas~.pring .rian interests. De OF.rt of' E1uc:h a..n pl&n:ts in blp 21 (III. 30). lite:rary ornB. Vi. Lactnntlus. t!I]J l~'b ~ 1:.

Of this A:fTicanus..rious acts and SQunds.a men didaskalin kai tecfu.witb road June-tuxes (tTiodos. Compare also 'the eU5tor-l of erecting I'herms" and other shr1ne$ at crossroad$. '. 2 . 1. product or the or it 1Il8. 3 lE... in accord vit.. line 12). 3fJ 3Numerous things which horses IIdivine" are given in lines 611 10 probably derived from folk beliefs. Some of' them are pure ly natural reactions to sounds or smells inaccessible: t. 137. .s ["Aher'" ) • glaube~ n col. especially those with diff"erent- coloTed eyes {heterornmatos~ line 15}.teo .s regarded as significant because of their "unnatura)" character (ef.Gods (uld Daemon 5 :2 95 In other pe... • ka1 oida pollou5 .ncertein of' the Free is e SOUl.erienced n (as:Gl. Kenyon~ Greek Papxri .1so line 3~ p.r e i nt eTirii xed vi th the Buperst i t ious beli I!!'f's 'iii tno1lJt dist i neti on. this passage it is used of crea..e. he is u. ~ Horses. p.. horses. but they are at most superat i t-i QUS.2 can see them and give warning of the danger {ape11en. 8.tures mort:' like the Christian concept of d~ns ..a. not actively magical.o human senses.ine 13). also lines L-5: ttthose now connnanding clea:rly need to learn divining trOll!.. il. rea 5 on for the It ma:.. l.. line 14).. 135)... thQugh abili ty.ssa. 1~1~3-2~).g .J Bl"e ~s- pecially associa. byv. • . 12 .re inexp. Rie-ss's sixth category of superstitious belief. cf.. Perhap. ta de ~hrontidi! lines 17-l8) (~r.tion 'Of "the old se1'Ving voman of" Apollonius of Tya~af' was to be performed at a spot beside a river or a lake or a triodos (PLond 125. he seel:lls to regard 1 t &6 a noatural phenom~nontone which can be f"urthel' developed (ssketeo-n. 8. but they s.h popular belief.ge~ mp 8 (1. malignant beings ~ but bei[]gs whic:l..th~_i_s]).j be due to the ~ines 16-17). but they a. invisible.. the: evoca."hic'hever it is . line 17)~ ei th~r by teac:nng and ski~l or by attention.4 . respecti velj' (t.' be a...> certain (pisteusoTi legonti.

.gieal " usage cited above).. and p. 265! with n. however" Afs~nse r1canus uses 'the t. p .nus t s CMl tenni:no10gy2 (IX. . 18 = dl vine. .t1on developed by te-at=bing andte~hn.3--technoo?J. to de GcTi be aom~ f the proce dure s. also mp 8.ps re. 2 . 28. e. L 8. 8.erm simplY in the general nskill. 5 (-te~hn..UI:Ilary'l Psellus 0 usedth~ adJ eet. also p. it may be that this and/or related fo~s_shculd be assumed as lying behind Psellus's 5ennes1s and sennethesi:!'tai in IX. III. 1.ival f'orm.. pe-r- ha.. 3 t!!:chth~nB. l~ p..st perhaps in & ge-ne:r-al sense . The word tecbne may be uSed in this sense in lIij). 111.rt.-pe favored by Afr1eanus. 36. This . I. teehnike . of the t:. 13. first ulI:I8.1. technikos. 34. line 3. 2Sinee kfTicMUS uses t. "device.19.i of generation (ot 3E• g . 41 (III.. Ii "artifice"). n. 3.23 (the line preceding the (technoo) . HI. 5..Otber Featur~s Designations of'" the I-art" Arricanus~ on at least ~ne occasion~ Tefers to the procedure nature" (ef. 6. p. ! Vi' l 1. 1. with tt.lso. 2.rl~c'ting Afric8.. 272. counterpoint.echnike.. 1. line lOt though tbis le."ould provide a.tos). 3) of ··cra:rt" or Africanus also us~d the term~eiTia to describe bis pro- cedur~ for ov~rCQmirJg ~leep (JI!. quite proba.J). (Elsewhere . 25.255 [ef. 2. though it may simply be used in the general sense there).he tonn desired sex~s) in III. and te~hnaSltla. lSee above J 'P.bly in the sense of "magical a. I .2. 13. 287. neat rhetol'i~eJ. and in seve:t"~ 1ine-s in hi 5 s. 165). to the t. 1 T.p 14b. 227. l~ 2.

)l' on the surf'ac e.appears. The pa.rrenness to II.'bly 'Was supplied bY' the (:o1!l'piler~ but could veIl come from the introduc'tOr)r lines of" thl!! abstrs. procedures ~ t.d.u.J1 the IDElgical sense (th. 1. but va s or'ange vi th1 n when it 'l. in con- trast to t.are used 'by Africanus · 1D sev~r~ 297 ~..Hi he d. 363 tn. mp 4~1) ~ Psel1us also use-s the noun f·orm. 23 (m. name i8 described by Galen (11~127~ KUhn ) t but t1Jtj.s does not seem to regard it so). is ..esS i. ~A plaster of' such a.ipiI:theion ricanus I S of Af'~ ltIeans of yrodueing barr-e-!1D.o produce ~ !JO presume. later lice ll {35.c:te-d t~xt.eame category. hO".2 rfbid..'! not be.bly Psellus regards this operation as (The ve:r-b font. ~ line 1. cOri:lpares "this ba. In this last passage) Psellus uses it to d@scribe Afrfcanus's use of the Jttwo-faced plaster li {te di'Oroso'OO ewlast!.ough Fsell.ain line 1n 10 (I..l'e "eympathet1c 1.nrl!:d gr8.nt. 1 The a.Other Features Antipathies Various forma of the te~ UantipathyJr . is also used in two being in the . This hI. 5 1 On the ot. In 6.he technik.her hand. against 'W'ou.oetiken.thr:!! swne + Galen • s pll!lst~r (al so cal~ed ~­ ch:r-omous) vas so-n&med because the material used in it (some type of iron c orxlpound?) appe.tl'Qf may vell be in tne gene'!:"al (01' medical) rather thB. is one of uncertain authenti~ity. 3The title prC!:sU!IIEI.nds :from poisonous beasts. o. c against. 139 mg)..n fields.jective form~ antlpathes 10 .l passages seem to invol'l. 8 corpi on s) :..ther. \i'hil{! aev@ro.ID!J or ra. concerning the wolf and the borse) 10 in the title of III. 10. 2' (p~ 2'03) ~ which t though partly enigmatic". B.6J1& In this case the Bnti.rever.p 37. 3 an din mp ~ 1~ f (IX.he term is not used by Africanus to d@scribe any o:f them. productivity he vaS sa.in DIp one mam1Script 2 in the textually uncert. 2 Lauren'tianus Vieilletond's L (Leg Cestes~ p.po. pa~sfiges.ssage. th~ apotropai.tQS C1"'.id t. 270}. 1. 15). however. 5Vieill(!fond {lies Cestes:lo p.

f'rag XI (Rel. 2:385)10 and Routh (Rel. 32.""Ice of the nekyo~nteia interpolations as really Homeric. E.. 251. is Quite vo~k likely to have been a of oceult lore~ but the ident5~ieation of it as one of the nercetie ~O:r'ksl is probably too speciric ~or the evidence available.lcellus 1:101" .ttributed to Soup'his. Ancient books The EgyptIi1. 412]).n book a. e-d.se-d in Egypt. 1 Syncellus. p. Purposes of USES The ends proposed for fiChievement by these means cover the not especially magical.lal desolation on the sites of enemy cities) t. Ill.ges . 34 . sacra 2:247.dv.. vblch Africanus purcha.s critical abilities (and respect for tradi- tion?) and the likelihood and/or 'Ireasonab11i ty" of his B. an anatomical 'Work ~ to an even earlier kine. SYf.rudg~5 9 =45)" though :mo~e . AfricMus apparently had no suspicion abO'Jt the authenticity of' this vo:rk. the treatment o~ Cartbage) and the Je'Ws (. g.. Atbothis .tter is a traditional destruct!ve technique long pra~ticed by both the Romans (cf.e. 8" and III. also l r. in Or.ions of AfricMus'. 'the gods (. Ells. s~cr..' Goar in his "&Jendationes et-Annotationes" as rep::-inted by Dindo~r. ~outh.!riP L7/chr COnt€liUler of the 2L... 2 r~it­ i08 also S~aliger. 2 con5idera~1on This provides an fiddit. apparently regarding them a.s as historical precedent [cf. Not. cited and r~ j eet~d b:!.st~r of Egypt.pass-a. I by Seal i ger (Anim. A~ricanus tbere prescrIbes the cultivation of hellebOre (citing Alexander and the Alar.k4!m into in evaluat. for he also attributed books. 2:386" note to 250.han on a large s~Qle as a strategic devic~ in &n ongoing caDPaign. the second king of tbe First Dyny. but apparently in the general sens/! or a counter-remedy [but the IfJ.s being still ertant..ccepta. Dindorf.. 2. 30. The la. 16]) J or the 5C'W'ing of fields vith salt. p.as symbolic (pel'p~tl..3-5).iona! datwn to be ta.'ttE!:r' is ]Jnrt o:f DIp 38eJ}.

tausing sleeplessness or sleep. giving aid/victory in battle or contests (np ~}.. detel'llli.y fL. changing the color of horses as.. specifically~ from eye trouble or epi- lep~y (mp 23 a-e [or.ea. and 45) ~ . ( 4~ s kindling or q uenc: hi ng l-ov~ Ei L..... The procedure:s f"or banning are onl.rming Md helping. thief' to convict himself (cp I 14h [harmful to the thief~J)+ The F-rotec1j.1enching love (mp 14s) .d (mp 11).illing of' . 411g?J). and 11).. . horse' s natural divinatory Jlowe:rs (8)."ltering plague hnpp 3 mg.iv~ pro~edures include cou. either fOr S(!riOU5 h~ or as a joke {mpp 15a. k.). to heal one already suffering)) or varicose [or is this healing?J). and protecting from fright (mp 9). and~ They deal with procedures for both in the: latter area.e-...s.. empowering ~ etc. with both passive (protecti ve) and act! '1ft:' ID~8.e of hUJll.n and b~a5t hnpp 1) 2. possibly so~~ ca6es of' kindling 01" ql..es . from ~cnception (QP 4~c) or mi~carriage (mp 29)~ from ai~kne~s or veaknesa (mp 21).Purpoa. eontrolling unmanageable animals (1 and 13 B. controlling dreams (4hq). 18. :from scorpions (rop 37 (cf.l"eas of specia. and bL giving easy birt. in~lude.ni ng of sex cone ei ved ( 24 ~ 21 ~ 448.i.rH.l concern in magical operations t i. (healirlg.egetation (mpp 17 and ~J~])" 6topping or maddening horses (mpp 10 ..and taking advantage of a. prett~r 299 much tht! f"uJ. of Uses B. and ca. .ElJl concernl.h (L4c).us-ing a.l rang. 16 ~ and lIJ~p) I causing eli:tnin~tion (mp 4J~k}.. small minority of: th{!' The:>r include pas s a. :mainly occurring in the tnili tary sect1Qn+ poisoning of ma. of the procedures gave These poYer~ ~i~her ~ei~s (4~r S~e to achieve SQme- tning or to control events. a frau. 3). ha. and h~~i).

ts of A!'ric:anus' S JDagica. 'trea..l (12 So.reas of' human endeavor and CODc:el"n for vhich Af'ricanU6 provides prescript.aibil!r of procedures are concerned ". procedure {using f\Ulles or jet) to detect. (27.. 36. b..nus's procedures.. All if!xeept the last e.·i th tbe cure of illnea se-s ~ vound. ~ c ~ d t I!!:.gi c The a. childbirth) and choking (.r. . the type:a of proced\.l problems. ~!lgi9. 4~ band q. cf.t.r~ g1 ven by Hubert lcompare th~5e vitb Bj5rck's list of conditions most susc:ep- fairly vell represented in Afric8. 2 ). mange>.reas of ma... eye trouble (23 a. dy5Ul"'ea (3D (if Afric.lies behind the procedure~ given by Africanus.Q. I Cf. and a. or other phy B1(: a.list 2p11ny refers to s. Areas of Ma.ial (40.300 Arri~anus·I s View The. also the. birth~ etc.:rts.a ricose veins (h~o). proeedur~s have been brought The se inc: lude items :r-elated to the a.U"es prescribed..gical operation. and . VenOIUOUS bitlJ!s. soothing feet of horses (39). 43). 1495 (c 01. andre-storing virginity SUlI!IIlA. 3q. 35). bavel problems) actual 01" po"t~n1. 44n).1. several aspec. 1~1).. attempts to s1mulatl!' viJ"gini ty (y.nl. 2 (4.1. i nt 0 rather clear focus.. also ~4c~ above). 33.ent: bleeding.s.ions cover .tApsyrtus 1''' p.lo d and to).. 66). >" p.'( of Afri-cunul!I' s Knowledge _of Magic While the preceding studies have lett some items undetermined. 21.riOUB sources concerned with magic]o vhether tbose makillg charges of magic:lo tibl4!!! of attempted magical. bleeding. 1 wounds ~ frae- cure Oi help t in genera. Jabj) ~ g~ne-!'atiol'l" C'onc-!:ption. 29."liaoJ). largest nU. 'Iltl.mtLny of those pr~sented in the- Vs.so the general type of ~1Q&l theo~/vhich . and maggots (31.

Most. and thus perhaps.1sia.!. especially in the erotic realm. 31 the eounter-proced"Url!!! to poison air (mp 3 mg)..ctical question s not a legal One.edieal.l systems only as it involved charges ot· 'harmful acte" malef'i~ii ~ a... So-meot-bers are p?J)~ passed oft tLs pr.hey in- volved 5ubvera. lJ.sis.ming!helping Several of A:fricsnus' v~ll B proct\dures a. possible examples of non. 29. 'by providing an extra (Wl...c" prescriptions in th~ .. His ~~reren~@ to Atr1c6nua.irect-ly.rest examples of th16 type of' procedure are a :few "aphrod. can escape that label.nd/or as t. Magic was JIliainly of concern to the ancient 1t!'ga... pra.faiJ:') advantage to (~ ~d 10).SUIJmla.ion of affection. s and 44 c and L Love magic Psellus says "th&t A:f'rieanus kindles l!lIld quenche~ love (mp h4s. however . :reltlit~d to this area) but the D~e...:S VB.-ry of Knowledge 301 or those giving :magical prescriptions. ~9). 16-19. a.~ IX.. 1.l ba. clude procedures l . Most of them. Only another step removed hom this last is the apotropaic f"unction~ helping by &vert1ng SOl:lle threatening evil. Hs.g+~ 158. and ~4k rand or har= the user only ind.or only send-medical apetropa.ic proc:edures are: and mpp 7" 9 ~ 13a.. it erally ignor~d fL. ::3.re of the type that could.nd possibl)r 44. of these are nl. other are as of pri vat elite t medi c i tie. are prescribed 'for military use against These in- oppos ing armie s.. 'be: ~lass@d as male!'icii if they were practiced on an individWl. agri cult ure .actictll Jokes (e.'e restoring o~ virginity (mp J.4o) is somev'hat.S In gen- b-t!-ing 8. etc.

.) Medical (a~dv~terinary) magic o~ The l&rge~t single type Africanian procedures is the ~ed­ leal one (and .helIJ. mpp 25 and 26. hole group of fragC'Jents from the hippiatricfi (most of the procedures from 22 to 1. in the ~ but they can no longer be certainly identi:fied.. 19" the chapter of "Agricul..g.re net magical a. Most of .e to either human (mpp 5 t 6~ 20 t 43 t 44 ~d. fo.. On the other side.. ponica~ There are probably examples of thet!l preserved. j~ q» and ~5) or veterinary medici~e (mp:p 12 and 21).t a. a. e. g. the vet~rinn.ll (e.l" references in the preserved portions :from tbe other :l:iou..te- gories n6D)ed above:to though the:Jr are.h~ ca.1) . I. tural Pa:rado~es n ) • Other fLl" eas Several procedures dQ not. the "agril:u1tura. f .ry).ility ~~ that Africanus produces a sorc~rous in fields (lDP 4l l]J t as vell !:LS various other mBr\"els find recipes about agricultural matters (IX.~thin that.302 veterinary relatip~ ~ragments. Agricultural magic Psellus also tells :r~r't. 1.y into aP-Y of t.are only magical uses of bottLnical items for otber purPoses (especially m£!dical)..~a {The other prescriptions ~ro­ to generation birth are medical rather tban erotic cedures.closely related to t.rces do not fit this category--they .» I. 22-26~ 27-29 Lef. 19J~ and 40}. :Besides the . Or a..... there are 6everal in the other <:hapters that relat.ll exact1.

The Use or sp~cial subst~ces is illustrated in l!Jost of the procedures. from the sympathetic principle. and numbers {see the discu9sions of' these areas in the preceding pages~U11der nChart!lS Type s of Magi c Magic is frequently divided into dir@'ct (or impersonal) and lCompa.Summar'! ot Kno1l1edge 303 11 theOl ar(! exa. time a . inc antati on 5-6 ~ l5b ( 1). :20 { '? }. other sort of association vith the subJect or the condition to be achieved or removed. Besides these factors. though he presents the items in an order Bomeyhat the TeVerse of this 7 and derives the otbers. 1501 (col.re the discussion by Hubl!rt (l~~l!lgia. in ~sBence. 1 Africanu~'s procedure5 present examples of all these types = di T'e~t lTJ9. of Uses l l ) vnith are t not pr~cisely -examples of' tDEueticii or apotropa... 2)1509 Ceol..). 1)).11us's procedures also involve other considerat1ons l such as right/left. PI pp. and/or by the us eo 0 f spec ial su'tJ ::>tanc es . inscriptions--7 and 37.n:i pulat1on--mp:p 6. 42.ics Types of Procedures Magical operations mani pulation of tbe rt can~ in geneTal~ be performed by direct ~ ubj tect n to be af'fec"ted ~ by vocal h:a t ions {i n- C'antations]o et.ricfL. 35 . 01" The se last by SOlJ:e may receive their reputation by syc:Jpathy or antipathy. tr "proteeting t " or g iving power" (cf' + those given in the preceding a~ction IrPurposes. including several of those just listed.C'. Af.. by gr@lphie representations or po'W'erful vordE l it ems. etc. ql d and j .mples of "harming.. .

ssages. This concept he regarded as approximating to the concept of cause and eff"ect seQ.uences in science (Religion. suggests that besides the Personal pO'We'r-I:trIpersona! power pair (vit..in disc lJ. but also to 2 and 3.. 1n general t I!l. impersonal type (eJ1d the very 8m. otherS are clegly of the e.lid d1 stinction one that.h the Impersonal approximating the concept of mana)..he 61 tuat.n p.gical proced'llres are essen"While a fiUJ:)ber tiall. is productive 'When applied to the Afrieanian examples..t they cannot be de-finitely assigned to either ca. If such a f'urther distinction is Justi:fied~ Africanus's position :lnight be closer to the thl'rd category. in lines which torn tht!" pre-lude not oc1y to mp 1. there coUld alSQ be added a concept of Automatic."Magi c (Greek and ROlMn).t." p. or because t. 1506 (c 01.lnpa.nd to be a va.lved ~ some expl ic i t. 2). personal apas noted in the discus310ns above.ion proved to be even more complex. of procedures are ambiguous. demonic) types.~rm9) A.f'ric~us'e 1I!Ia. of" thi!! impersonaJ. beexpected)~ e to the-m \rould Only in a feY cases does an indirect. proach seem to be presented~ ~d~ there are questions that arise about each or th~se cases.~go!'Y.e:i{:a.Y. e-fri~ieney.her in a system. Direct magic At the very beginning of Africe.) Kirby Flower St:!Ii t n. :for example . .. of such a nature tha. type. pa. In the-se t.e.r personal int~rpretation direct ~ im- of mO!3t of the others.. 'Norbeck. if de:monS or other r~ferenc per sonal beings 'Were i nvo.'biguity tends to f'avo.distinetlon of :2 Re-ligion and Magic. .indirect (or personal. if not exclusively. or Mech~n­ ICiI. ~ •g .rti~ul&r Either 'because both factors :might be mixed toget.l The-re are som~ 81tuations 2 to which this distinction ~ght ~ot apply~ m.nus' s I~. 4851).!3sing tbe. 279 ~ Hubert ~ ''Magh. pp.pp~a!"s not be possi 01 e ~ but.i~bt or in Which a decision as to the t:ype represented it 9.

.1~ presented to!' tho\! operation of the stones ia! in the one case .t1c operation. The preceding lines also refer only to ·'him.rties to the action than the inscriber and the animal vhose hoof" is1nscribed. 6. 8 .. p.spirits in conflict t but in terms of tUliles counteracting Hpestilential vind'· (pneUlD8).utoms. Africanus's procedure is presented as in (:cntrast (and lEven the counter-action to procedure 3 is presente~. Again in tDp 11" despite an opening r~f'e:re:nce to prayer and saerifi.. I.tos tyche hypo tea hemeteras technes Binetai ~ Vi. The poisoning pro~edures which follO'W' eonfi1"'l!i this impression 01' an impersonal .. also mp 18 {Jl. but vri t:te-rJ in the and there is no hint of any other pa. in mp 10... ~25). 59 . vith the sol~ c:ontrol instrumentality being the inscription. p. This could :fi t in to the "pera onal'· type opel"Qti on . 123 mg).:e.ra.. not involving per6ona2~ spiri~ual mediati~n.~ but 1 t is not spoken to a spiroi t. not in terms or .l burning of the cock skeleton in the second t the . and in the other the cock's "virtue '1 of Hinv1.graph! and the ri tua. 28.. ~.tl!"! the god5! producing nautomati~ t()rlun~" by his "arts tt {!... py1l7). 3.s a necessity of obedien. au'tom8.. Similarly.Summary 0r Knovledge 305 Af"ricanus p!'oPO~iI!:S to irnitB. p.ncibili'ty'1 in :tDp 1 ho. it 139: by th~ us~ of h1s teeth) (cf" . ~ p. 8Jl:icl&l1 5 hoof..:e (ananken ecbei Rei tharchitl. the nature of th~ stone (tea physeos tou lithou. n the recalcitrant hor5e. 205): the wolf' B astragalus to stop a team).t1onf!.s! 1.l In mp 4 t de6pite the reference to sacrifice in the first para. Or rather "corrupted aiTtt (Vi." L 2. 133).

..tion. Les IDE! a. milk stone eehene~s 01" (III.tr for a ho'I'se' 5 e. 3c.t (~ 15a. with the possible . mp 26. as. p. below). n. I..nation of the procedu:re io "ulceration 'bY the burning lt (III. ~-1 s ]J.. 22. on an earthly planes n.bi Ii ty to se e demons No~e Vieille~ond. (Note also the mp 23 series . p.ygonl.Ur.t-ion in 11. 33-4 3.1 t 1 is 01' & simils. based on et. In passage ~ls Africanus attempts to provide a. so much . 112. on~ of' the pentagons (pentagon eight ~ L Mp 20 (II.thetic procedures. p. 241). 231). 231}. and mp 29..n or these passages above" Md f'lu"thel'.sUp~rior) to such t lIIeans. 6. the sle~plesstlesS paragra.ppefU"ance~ etc. and in an earlier p6. a.ch other's poison (III.n Cestes. 231 ~ 233). 8. p~~sikos here pt'obably does not magi c .. having any indirect connection..nts (111. 165») the s\~rounding referen~es to Sle~p beingap- parently rhetorical embellishments <see the discussio.:fterbirth."1tip- Qt. p.. physical ex- ple.ot involving any mediation through a higber realms appears in mp 21 t pg1. 16-20.be placement of 1 ts identif'icQ.ssage~ mp 8.phs (mpp 14 and 15) is the "s~'mpe. pp.addition of ''male'' or ufemale 1' pla. onlY the opening item. 35q.ymology or similaritj' of 6. t"he "nature 1 -the ~Jo·e s .r nature. 23a. specl.lliL:ted about. 11..:23 ar~ basically sYlf. in dog's a. 141}. if" it 1s magical at a.pa..by. 209) . .theticlr operation of parts of the: ba. Its counterpart.) The ttsympathetic H principle. p. b-eJ:t vhich" even if AfJ"icenian. The active principle ir... 255) s 6. the fish remora (III. may be involved in the latter part of mp 36~ the use of asp &)d hemorrho!s as counters to ea.p.1. p.A The procedure presC'nted~ uae of euphorbium 20 juice (or dust) 18 clearly udir-ect II in ope!"a. such a 01" bas iss.ttJ&giC tbat its only connection vi th is t. 7..

at 1east~ were evil.essariljr involve tbat idea i but is an untenable position. least~ of thel$e evil spirits call." se-v't!ral of them similar to items in the Eveo in the Geoponica~ r~ther than strictly m&gic~. IX. about ha~f of the items aTe "t:uri08ities" or "paradOX~5.gic Despite these beliefs~ hovever~ there are no examples of the lEvert the alternative Buggested.. in mp 8 ~ "the threat n (1. . and he re2Unless 'the ref'erenceto incanta. B.Il!arized Africanus believed in tbe existence of spiritual some of . 117-. l37J).Su::rone..ated. being5~ only be recap! tu1.2 Indirect (daemonic) maBie? The various passages in vhich Africanus's n~eted proced~es are con- io One was' or another with spiritual. t. and sU!J:I. beings hELve been dishead~d cussed above in the section "Gods and.8. but that the resultQ. had) come into con- taet .magical ite!IJs~ nothing sugge!3ts the use of "sp1:ritual" int~~diaries. rrl' P' 137L 1 In Psel1us's l$umma:~r (trip 4h. and with somet at..cly"sJ!J..21). These same passages indit::ate that.. 13~14 ~ p... "vork of the soUiJ 11 IB).nth :mankind".smasin .. {~- garded it as capable of development by teachiog and craft (lines 17- tha~ ... At the same time.. th~re deseribed as tlangels 1 • as related to ma. rf and thus ne~d h~r(!:...rtd mp 8). line 32) is held to ne-c.he pagt. the former passage pre7 sents these beings. 0. of those cOhtacts ·"ere evil {in !lIp 46.8. line 13~ epe. bom.hese beings could (ar ~ in t. 4!til resUlting in the ~&tB.ry of Knollledge 307 1" pp.tions (eJ29d{. ches e~gon~ lines 16-17)t 15 not necesgarily di£ferent.ed daemons (!lip 46/chr It a. DtLelDOns.

Although such beings are named ratber prominently in a.t. 'Butt QS noted this pass~ is not accepted as of" prove:n a:uthentic:ity by Bjorck. or lack. point is 5trength~ned by the tact that this pASsa.8ical use.. num.ther litl!rary embroidery or the accounts. This applies lis. On the other hand. t.ity'.308 1n·. B. th~am'bigu.pproach.nd b. should thereby inerease the likelihood that such be B@en daemoni~ involv~ent in some of tbe other passages above oM invocation of InApsyrtus /' pp.espit. 24 t and 1&2).esages which he accepts. rather great length .- b4!r of the passages (mpp 14 a a.ly alone as an example afdirect .gestands essen- tial.e its clear ~haractel" as 1Dag1ce. Though Afric8. Exc:ept in oneinstance 1 he provides a rationale only for thOBoe pl!l..l invocation. bowev-er. nor Th~ 8.h~ are not called upon in any actual proeedurepre~ented'by Af'rit:anus. .nus presents i t at.. This leaves only DIP 23a. :re.r with the Afr-icanian outlook toi itself: 8.g i t to lIlB.l and the very reference to Aphrodite and the sacrifice seem out of' charat:te.mpl~ of daemonie magie. hav!' influenced Bj5rek t s evaluation here.. His only surviving r~fer~ @-nces to it aTe eon.S revealed in the This Ke~- it preaents. 15b. hepresenta n-o 'Programme for puttin..c 80S ~ tor It s appeal"anc e bere..pp~ar I!U"~ any directions given to utilize them in asrh~torical Qr B. & genera. 0 f'~vi denc e tor it s appearanc I!' ela e1lrh ere weaken s t be. ol vetnen't or Such b@'ings in the accomp~1shment of Afrieanus' spro- ced'Url!'s.ny way.cemed vith its literary and Inanuseript Bncestry..ctor 'Wlder diseUSB10n may. if this passage should be authentic~ it doe6 not.lly "seculal"11 a. 15-16. The fa.o to IlIP 42 d.1..aeznon1c involveml!'nt in Afri- canus I S magical :proc eduree. the invocation and sacl'if'icl!! to Aphrodite t as a possible &bove~ exe.

or a. . Thia reference itself provides a para.l.ttitude tOl1ud hiE!. 1.la1-4b.gi-cs. but it would be..(!:rlfic~s to Poseidon (in the prelude to mp ll) 11 or to the custom&." proc~saes.. p. t1 manifold These h~l:ps are :pres~nted 80S natu:ral]i Utechnical rt of a ~ecular natur~.procedures 16 Bhown 1ts o1"1g1 n 11 it appears to be more (: losely psrBl1~1e-d by the 56.IDes This mixture &pp~ars throUghout his york!. is an amalgfl. or beautif'ul expl"e. (mp 42). n (1. 1 ('What~ver else Psellus ma.c:tical intent ~ fr-uittul b~lps. proenl.6sions . 103). p. Natural Processes Afrlc&nWi I S gene:ra.yom..S sketehed in the 11proem '!'l to 'that book .think OJ:' 8ay about Africanus]i he does not charge him v1th that.l. in incongruous forma: med1c8.ry sacrifice of the victorious cock (referred to in JaP ~) t than to the invocation in the ne:k.Attitudes toward ProcooUl"es 309 Aphrod. ~a tever Aphrodite doea appear in Psel1us. IX. . but only in the euphemism in the ae: ~ount of the sorgon! on (Vi. or secret a. at least for Kl!:stos 1'. (either} j treatment of ills.dea5 carefullyeearched out or fortunately &t:quired.arrteia. "long lost" (magica. But ov~rBN:hing &1.nus I s Chrlstianrepu- tat1on. 3-~.l. som~t1. 319)..L s not me.1 prescriptions and military accounts are decorated with rhetorical flourishes and augmented "With i.lll of the utili tarian ~ the eso- teric" and t'he aesthet1c~ t1 gathering • • • fruitful.1 this is the pl"o. belps.llel to A:!'ricanus's "literaryPl' use of pagan religious tercdnology~ 2 . snd fond ml!'m- oriea of" marvelous sights are gent!'rol.h AtricB. l!I.y. 8. .ceounts.81y Bh&r-~d. on the surface at least" 1dolatrow.2') Attitud~s tovard Thes~ Procedures At:dcilllllil'S progrt:lJmi:1e.ite would be hard to correlate wit.l) passage is presented as an epic prize.

6 ~ 23 t c f also 1. l6l--the attempt to explain why his "t. ~ or intermixes.testhiEi last ~xplanation from 'the others.'/l~ been presented above (under "Designa.gical. 6 (p. Thus the three poisoning procedures in I.esin the sazn.nd &1 so desc rlbes them as "natural It (phys-). 18-20! p. U8~ of the teI'm lIo.gical and non-ma. . 11 ne 2h.ion.nU6 provides for some of his magical pl'ocedu.!Io I. pu sage 5.ve been to mani fe·st a.e. botanical a~- The only thing that sep·a.*' real distinction between the procedures 'he pr-esente (to have done so would ha. atI. sarily profoUtld) medical or surgica.d's avoid!LnJ::e of 8. 33.s of the IArt 1") and It is su:ftic1en't simply tOJ:Jote a. 253)..!Io the ma.. g. "modero" distinction betveen .g.t. Thes e us ages ha.ence/technology)~ Not only in the use ·of the tenns!lo but alao in presentation of procedures) Af'riC-MUS alternatee. that he usee the aame termi.3~O by the tel'llL1nology US ed to describe them ~ ...ra. the light.. Furth~:r.bove}. p. The type of "physical" explEUlAtion that Afl"iCe.l (sometinJ. yhether lfJElgi c a. 303). line 59).magi<! and sc:i. . and in part VII (Vi.i"ea is also provided for non-magical ones (e. e. 19t cf..hert of Bound" procl!:dure should york).gain need not be repeated here. t is ~ote also the same variation in thl! tipat:ttyu {a.n_ . in III. note Thus he appl!ars not to draw B.te vith definitely non-magical suggestions.!Io I .nology tor magical and non-magical it~ttls. 4 and 5.fOrmE He uses va:r i o'U:s 'te<: hn- B. he presents eount of' the origin of cinnBJ:tlon. 2'.2 alterna. h@ pro1fid~s.1 or non-magi c::al. and sound (though not neces. 16. ue-thie&ln explanation of' the toa.l advice precede-a mp 5 and fol- lows mp 6 in I.

there is alBO the reference to Dionysus a.At. various associates.. as yell as. Horse-troubler before !'tI.eia. P0'l(~l"S from . There are also references to Pan and a possible reference to Erinya in the context of mp 1 (I. 17-25 . ~uch like those of a modernetudent o~ t..ly.look 311 Pagan references Afri.nt.ve be-en discussed above from various "ievthe reference to pra.yer Md sacrifice to Poseidcn 6.nd b .. andline78~'p. these a.ct t. While ILea Cestes. and to Night. type of reference in Af"ricanus. the references to Hypnos.re.le and female gender and use of' corresponding horses by Sun{:FlalD. (mp 42).titudes to'llard Procedures t. .be fB. this out as an eX8m:ple of the pagan inspiration of Afr1canus.Night/Moon inmp 2~.as. an appeal to t. s H:''Pnos t Pasithea. 2.hat.ppens to be correct.s giving vine' a.heclas- A nUll!iberof thet!J ha.ions of the corresponding concepts. 51.fl.r.ce he ha. aPd Aphrodite 1nmp 15b.S points.ry flgUl"es (the P'hr'Jgian king and S11anos..he mEJ. another chieftain and a satyr) ill mp 14 a. 6]o12~p.l.1l3.nd 'Wine to no VleillefQnd po1nt. 173). e. 19. the l-engthy roll-call of dieties and.. nature.I":fs not a religious. i:f not entirely. Eros~ Hera.. 119). sics. and to legendB. 'rhe references to these figures illustrate especially clearly the literary nature of this. in this inat. p.e ond . e-speci&1. of a lite:t'EL. I!lnd.ces (to vhich At'ricanus presents mp 11 a better alter-nat! ve). they are sillIply pe~sonificat. p. Non-religious (Secular) Out.t:lorted baekgrounda iIi the Nekyoma.s 1 peoples but the Greeks (I. Besides th@s~.canus makes a number of references to pagan gods or heroes'\l but they are mainly.

Y' sus . in 1. p. lulling Zeus to sleep (I. but would probably find its closest parallels among the CbristiM 6..h~ on~ Challenged. not 0.s't th~ or those areElS ~ost of the sepas sage s ha. not pagan religious~ re~erence. 163) is nothing that iIJly pagan literary man could not have SElid.also be added the functionalistic explanation of t.ve been noted aoove und. I.pologetirt ltriter~.in outline-a the surviving fragmetfts. considers the drug he presents as sharper "than praye-r ( t 0 Pose i don" e:peci fi cally).agan atti tude.inst t. 17.f it is held to be !Ion anti-p. 2~ 5e-59~ p. 165)~ as di seuss ed pr~vioua.) r~S~ntat 11ft'!: 0 r :P1Or~ than this'll it would still be more 8Ybr~6 than r'ep- .) th1 B at tit l1de [h:ib:dsJ might be b&E1ed on confidence in the magical procedure. 17~ 30-32 1 p. Anti-pagan references Some of these 6amepassages.a ··contemner of" the gods t1 {mp 47/chl" 2). s birth.terial involved.s1~ who are credited ~th gi~ingvictorie6 (I.ing the Gods. 15-16 (p.312 this 1s true. l~ p. ( If it 1 s such. along. contain references vhich in on4!! yay l Or another are actu. I't 2Africanus·s challenge to Sleep (mp l~b. and in mp 11 (I.:1 some othel"' spirit) fO'rcontrol of' and def'"entie aga. 17. 29.er the beading uRi "·al. vi ev cannot be dt!duc ~d :from ana. Af'rica:nw:l will 1eimitate these god.he mid'Wife at Di 0 n. with others. which Africanus prl~ed~ yas vritten aa . 111). To these E!xalIIples ~ . but a procedure relyin8 eolelY on the D:J8. 1~1).2 Souphiglg book. or greater than whatever Th~ refer~nc~ they ~y have~ to th~po~te. is a pagan literary. I!Lt lel:l. 1.ly'Ii i sprobably rhetorical pers onif"ic ation . In mp 1. 173). fL. it is jU5t as true that it.ally derogatonr of the pagan gods and be-liE'lfa. 11. World-vieW' Vecto:r Summery 'While Afr! eanus 11 s eomplet~ world.

and are a danger to 5pe~ial IIl.p. H~ believed in the power of sympathy though not necl!'ssarily in a.nts nes~ v~re 'born. It is not indi- cated if their spirit.ure ~ animals ~ etc. the!'e are I!lspeet. inhabited by at least .re vielled as having more tha. e.!. or biologi-cal phenomena. Thet'e are numerous refer- ence-s to other gods.liai'Son rlth 'Women.. resulting in vicked- bringing God t S judgment in the flood (ibid.. but it is uncertain vhl?ther 'they o..thj. God is co~­ cerned.mation and misinformat. ~ whioh Afric&nus shared with the &. t.n a literaryexistencf!' (fIJld if' so.ted in some va. with good and evi1 (mp46/ chi' l}. and daemons..r to 1JIagi c and sorcery s and taught vomen other oc(: u1tarts.c~ord DaeC'lOns do evil.nd 'by lesser spir1 tuaJ. being!.Tl. God (the Judaeo-Cbristian God).hl!!y hElve sOme eonneot1on 'With crossroads (mp 8).no!":J:tLEil amount of infor.. from thei:r.fs.. a.S. realm A~rlcanua believed in the exiatence of a spiritual realm."'lcieot llo!'ld.Y area50 (~dicine'l physics s etc.s survived and/or if the:r have connection "iiith the daem:::. wha.ion about nat.!.n exclusively magical vi~\led this principle vas by the ancients asoperat1ng in !DB.. gh. bowever.r.! ~ B. Spi:ritueJ.t their relation to other spiritual entities might be) ~ The evil angels were rela.f.).l realm r Besides the. .ns.)" and is even utili zed by aafle of the churcb :fathers in explanations Q:f physical..Igels (good and bad L. P1:li> s i ca.Attitud~5 tovard Procedures 313 vhich border on magic can be sketched. sense~ b~lie. in wlth ancient view-I.s of his beli4!'f which are especially connected 'With occult or magical &nd antipe.

even .iotJ of a spirit intel"'I&ediELl"j". enqui}j'. o. and many of the others a. Africanus does not appea:r to be of Q disad- vantaged status" eo his interest in magio cannot be explained by such a sociological factor. at leastinso/ar as this 'Work (the Kestoi) is concerned.utomatical1y.ndlor U$e. Perhaps in the cases o~ hQTSe- thievery (DIp .terial. of' ce-rtain appropriate times in their acquisition o.ged political group.re tbe-re the va:-ious persona.. Such pover could be .at a.l 1Except. without int.Afr1canus does not appear to be in any disad. certain vords {or sounds}~ eitner spoken or vritten.inc:reased by observation Also. perhaps" under Vieille::fond i Ei view of hiIl'l as a.lso.r certain (or~ atones from the birds in whicn they were found had alr~ady trans- mi tted power to them).ar~ concerned.. J eWE> ii 'but that view is que at i on~bl e . Civil and.re medical (veterinary or human J in nature.. Not oruy a..s are :military strat- a. .41) and tampering vith affectionS (mp 44s) might such a charge lie..ge:us.a apparently believed in 1 t also: power CQuld be acquired tr.314 lLhic-anus's View Insof'ar as rrcontagion'N oan be distinguished frol1J "sYIOpathy .e-rvent. period wh~ll magic might be regarded ag actively criminal (vhich was QP~V not true in Atricanus ' £ day). this result expected to follow Q. ~ cou1.S plicit indications . had pOwer to cOmJIel results i'f u.. anta.aed in proper ways • At least as 'far aso. .d in turn be imlHlxted to other beings by binding them to 'Persons or animals. Jew W'ri t ing for Diaspora. 1 Soeially. they vould be re-lati vely immune to legaJ. " Africanu..ny exII"e. social aspects Since the main bOdy or Afriean1an "Cle."lces. and the power 01' th~se stones ~ and of other suOs'ta.

2Thus indicating tha. be seen as an attempt to take up aOt!1e' of' the sla.t he was on a level compatible 'With the hmleiis it is viewed as a. procedure 1'01" embart'l!los:sin@: rivals.hieh AfriC&nUS ca. events &150: the stone froJ:ll cocks (:mp 4).ged or p~rl~ss class {and thus in ne~d of magi cal ai Ii to redl"e s s the balanc e} would be trom that of hi s human conditiQn 1o 3 p010rerless bef'ore the . and Further.vay vith a good horse vas vie'INed more a. the aids for horses swi:ftness (top lO. ci. But he seems to have had (or :JI18.Attitudes toward Procedures re.ck in the nebulous rein5 of 1 ~'s control of his own tate.e of T'w'o of them are applicable not only but to sportine.forces of nature (or supernatlU'e)subject to poor crops1o diseas~~ wild beasts t the uncertaintlesof Inthe. Does th. but the nature of his procedures suggest this tLlso.de) ad..bei" of a disadvanta.ons fOT any pressures from that Area..'hosta lP but there is nothing to suggest tbis). the 8.c:f. to \oral' SOlll.~ompensation for ea.s a "dirty tric:k H than. also mp h1).vine: personal contact vitb the emperor.ter passB8e suggest that he JIloved in circles where making a.n be regarded vi~oint as a me:nJ..Bc Boreas 10 his procedures could generation andhere-dity . provincialt 8ubs~rvie-nt to Rome.e lat. AbO\lt tbe only 2 t:r-om . as a. 30r~ possibly.equate persoIlit:11 compensa. :r-e:1ation to the court of Abgar" etc:.rcles" even 315 hl!l. level. c:rinL4~1 .ge? His r.tely high sociaJ..ti. etc. {Or was be possibly tL nouveau bOlmle whose relation to the emperor was an ultimate.e-t@'recces to places seen. 9.ferrmees suggesting circulation in the higher eoc:it1l.rly disadvanta.) . 1 reference to para-8ites (putting to sleep: mp ~4p) would suggest modere." seem to suggest not.

£.t ions .~nt chapter.r~ r~ta.ries to pas.pr. :I. such as Apology). s the folloving general order of discussion is observed.s t it is nec:essa..r ~ider~tion "ill' i ted s ) j..ext c: 1tl9.CHAPTER IV THE EARLY CHRISTIAN VIEW OF MAGIC Introduction In order to est~bl1sh an early Christian background. ).he seneral attitude and i"tLnge of knowledge of the part i cu. eJld the attitudes toward its among the eaT~ Christia. .sages in the fath@":r's are given in in-t.iJ)ed (e.ledge of magic: sho'loln by the various individUfl. with vhic:h to c:. and De .ted ~ in English translation. Or.Q.re probably related to magic:.thers. thi 9 i So followe d by a C on- of any passages in which magic Qr rel&ted areag are disre~erences cussed. That is the 'Purpose of the preQ.tin t'OI'IrlS of the title fLnd their abbreviatiQns s." Irenaeus Ad"lf.igen.er. theorde-r of items and the emphaeds Y8.ture and extent of' the knowledge of t1Iagic.tin forma (exce'ptiona are those with obvious English counterparte.sse!3s t. he..s1ons to items or areas vhic::h a.he magical ideas in AfricamJ.. ~efe1"enC:l!!s 316 .om.. The DLajor part is a fathers~ consideration of the kno.tion of magic: in the early fa. Within the discussions.heir La.6.ry to COllai del' the na.. in the <:=ases of a f"e-w especially vell kno'Wn works the traditional. are regula-rly used in t. Titles. then follows a consideration of' additional and all lu.lly or by groups.la.n writers. Titles of Latin yorks. or Greek works &r~ usually give-n~ and abbrevio. g.:. This area is introduced by a survey of their references to :magic" to suggest t.pare fLnd a. In the considera.

with the emphases pf" the various writerE. fLnY- thing c:a. ons of related a~l!'a. and any items closely rela. .ttitud~{s) of the fa.pell (pasa mB.l s1.~eB. supplemented by some mentions or dis cus s:5..c on the.tius asserts that ever~.l1ed magic 'by the tathers.ther 11:rait~d.birth or Christ sorcery and s. rere-r~nc@" Most su~h :r~rert'nces are of an incidental nature. A.pfl.lllllZlarY of the 'ba.J.thers.ss1ng r~ferenees to magic 'to magic by the vri'ters of this period is Direct r!L.geia.rlIll1lB:ri~s 317 Some Dr thepartic: ular'\.postolic Fathers and Apologists Apostol ic Fathers Pfl.ted to it i~ th~ir discussion) are included.Apostolic Fathers eom.DDlnary s~lf then concludes vith of the e.ITiter . l!L S'l.evhe.i de- Cined or listed in the Introduction~ modified and amplified in aceord In g~nera.i discussed.s.t') tic eording to the emphasis s'l. froo tbe.rt 0'£ the early fa. This includes the various areELI. occun-ing 4!ither &lone or in lists. In deciding lol'hat items to include in the presentation:o a broa.thers r~lati(Yn to''Ioi'ard t..:sic 1'h(! chapter i t- and the se~tion 1tnmlledg~ o:f magi. Single rererenc~s In the a.l.tion of ita to their be- lief system(s).gic is used.hese 1tems) and a considera.d interpretation of UlB. oflG:olated n every ref~reDces. Igna. are included at significant points in the presentations_ is eoncluded vith an over-a.

ker Book Hou5e~ 1956) • 2 In t. 4 J.. 5: Pol::tc~:r:e.~ Thi s 1 B a :mir.. lIapids. ed. may be a reference to magical pra~tic~s.. 1 L Tht!"t~rm used here ~ kakotechni. bt Robert M.1Ge teachers as in PbiladeJph1sns 6. Ignatius 2 S.or.3 though 1i~~tfoot concludes ttJat it i5 pI'Qbab1y the deaigna of fa. Grah~.. 3 ) • t.atiusof Ant. 126... Igna.ic&1/demon1c poyer. Kraft.. g..a€.?ld Commentary I vol. B.ian Yiev 1 (~.Ba.J Martyrd~ of Polycarp:l Fr. by Robert A. "The.te-rs of St? Ignatius of Antioch t liThe A£.his chapter Irevel"t to the usual ~rpell.ewhat idealized. Gra.Publishing Co •• Ine.nd Camden t N.: Thomas Nelson &: Song. 2: 3L6-.thers of the Church.er 2 the superiority of Christ/Christiacs to JD. vol. of e ourse t would lPdssages f'r00l the Apostolic Fathers are quoted (with occasional DJOdifications) f'ro~t.t it has ref- ere pee to adult~ry or i t. 1J (New York i erMA .ioch. (New York [before 1966J ~ a.tthe. vol. WB-lah.:> Grand. or rather hold thou discourse about these" (Pol. ~ Apostolic Fa.. 1889-90) t p~ '2= S. vol. kai PQ. ~ and t. and Gerald G.LuChotig Sc:hopp [vol. 2: 'Firat and Srtcot'Jd Clement" by-Robert M.tion or.318 Early Christ.:I The Apostolic: Fathers: Ii. 2.llation 8.s de SlI''..h1ch it is only loosely connected on e-ith~r o. Nell Tran!. Lightf"oot. vol.he translat. Grant.ion of J. Light foot..F'clycan>. Fran~i& X. t Tbe Fo.amerlts. vol. of Papias't by William 'R..l11ed viles ( 'Which. Mat:tni11i!Lt'l and Co .nt &nd Holt E. Olimm 1o et al.. 1891.he'. Snyder. 5. L: Ign. 3See I e.tius !Uso exhorts Polycarp to ·'Flee evil nts.ing I demon.. (London and New York. Rob~rt M. and som. 4: 133. . 1: AP Introduction~ by gobert M.m. B.!lI. The AM stol1 c FathE!rs t 2 parts in 5 vols.. . 3: Barnaba~ and the Didache .oS J vas dis sol ved" 19. 6 vols.s. anticip8. Schaedel. 1947)t p..Let.ostolic: :F'athers t tr'8r..a. reprint ed.hl? eonte-xt ( to ..s a.as used in connection vith the Greek "liev in which tt is a. 1961~-68).J.t least partially synonymous 'With theos.t these two nell's) might Bugges.. ed. 6: ~ Shepherd or Hermas t by Gra. Harmer (London: Macmillan and Co:mp any . Grant. in contraat to daemoc which .ther:s~ ~dited €Uld cOmJIleted 'try J~ R.a apologists: developed by the lat. Grant.ydon F.

lt not murder a child by abortion COl" kill them llb-en born • .. ~th ed.. for from all ~ 1iB1. r'l!'\!'.. 150 .s three pB.t-not deg. in 'Which maBie Wld related practices appear as po.are Wilfred 1. the vhole 'pM sage is an interpolation and expansion of tfie Ten COZlIliJandD:ierits 3 J• The latter two passages lCOlIl]Ja}""l!' t.ems in the l..bortic'n might be base-d on a conneet.a. Mondesert~ no.$1y of death 1 m. 11JiEPI]iJl..ion oflt wit'h ma. .3mY]... Les Edi.r (:2.Apostolic Fatnera 319 not completely ~xclude magic-).n astrologer nor a magician (I!lede~aoidos melieme:the:rnatikos mede p~:dkatha:l.vcarpede .1 in ma.a 5 its most li k~ly means (though it mo.cbe ha.Jr be s imply an ampl i fi cat ion of' Teferenc:~s to mur-de rand lLdul tery II vh1 ch 'have pre- ceded these it. of Theologica. In th~ f'irst o:f these 'p(J.eiai l)~ phar- makeia-iJ .ist. l~lOl) .2 ).. the reference to a..0AIPP. p.. thou shalt do no sorcery (ou mageuseis. idolatries ~ the . 2 h '~fy child" be no dealer in om~nG (oionoskopos) ~ since it.tioDS du Cerf.Jt thes e thing s idolatry is engendere dl' (3 ~ 4) is this. *. plunderings • • • "(5. 10. :2 t 'tpl\l.. leads to idolatT)~'lo ncr an enc-ho. 1969) .gi c/ sore ery . (Paris.aglcal a:rte.N (Didadle iii~) /1 JournoJ. Ii Ignace d t Antioche" Pol.l Listings The Dida.l Studies ~O(l939): 146-49~ of the commands not to commit adU1. Knox.olic Fathers. SourcC's ch:r"~ti(!nn{!'s:) I!'!d..tot de metiers int cordits !tUX Chret:1 ens:) So pee i&1ement de If: eux qui i en t pIus ou moins entaehes de Jtl8.. Th. witchcrafts [mM. • .. 3Grant ~onsiders the refeTenc~ to ttagic to be an expansion .t'on • . n.gie. thou sha.te:ry or steal {Apost..h~ aattle'W'hat more general view of' P.ssages.akeuseisJ. and corr. ou pha:nr. n~ithet'" be 'Willing to look at them.:ne j Lettres 1 e'ta 2Com.rts o:f longer lists of various evils: Jltho'U shaJ.g1c.55F1gee.p. Camelot t Martyre de Po:!Yearpe .-tJter nor. c.

. 6 and.as. of courSl!'. 6~ 2.y (dis- cussed below). . witcher-art. various other r~feren.s has no interest. hO'Ll'ever ..l or & related .pistle of Barnaba. 5)~ and 65. 5 (81m. bas a close parallel to the las. 1. ..!e5 to idola.<:h~ :3 and 5. 1).g. the ~lose ~onnE!t:t1on.vs" document: "!Iut. or even identity.<.ral lists of evils similar to the preceding {e. l} . but none of them make any explicit connection of it vith magic: it is ~ejected !.t passage above in his version of t.ted items in any of them. Herma. though h..i. In contra. tor example .don or t. Herme. church.~ and r~a1 r~lat. ~" (Barn. he thereby plaj.limply &s irrational. the clo. The:re ue... th~ 1la.try . While be gives idolatry greater prominence" putting it at the head of his l. 3. Discussions o:fmag. vhich come near the ~nd of the list of vices. of magi<: and pagan worship (idolatry ) ~ The £. 5J)t dOe"s not Apart from referenoes include Dlfl.rs dow. referred to abovE!'.Black One magic~ ~oyetousness t't'110 'Wa. . 6. 5 and 8. and 38. 5 [M~.s seve-.n the connection with it of magic t ~t<::.st to these two 'Vl"ltings.lt thing bl!!'ing the assertion of the connection of ma.y . 5. 'Ilherein a. a fairly erttIJnsive diBcussiot..re • .try {..~d. idola. There is. 20.. 3.ee!. .s.@' hQ.. 2 CleM.s...rue and false prophe{.320 Early Chrlsti~\ View cited illustrate a common theme: extensivi!:!!ly developed by later writers.he Qf th1!' .. • .8ic or rela.. 3. t 36.in magic. tLreas Tllere arC! no discussions of magic in the Apostolic Fatheora.gic and idolatry in DidQ. apparently 1 t pre- sented no perceived danger to hjjn or hi s. to soothsaying/-erg in a dilacus!.is't.

ccording to their requests and 'Wicked desires (sec.11y in meetings of right. for in it there 15 no power. "But.ve the Spirit of d~ity.s the-minde of the servants of God.1 noted iothis passage. but ncl eaveth to the doubtful-minded &nd empty .I 6. speaketh . t filleth the :tIIaIl t a. tor the devil tills him with his spirit t to try to break the righteous (:3).tries.r points may be emphaa. t sooth-ss. 11. . by the Di'dne initia. but is a sort of sequ~l to the discussion of double-mindedness in Man. 4).soothsaying [ma.his is the qu(!stiotl of' submission to the divine5QVereignty in contrast to a "5pecific. The false-prOphl!:t corrupt..ie area. to find objective criteria for d.s to a soothsayer (manti~) and as~ concerning thei. The on!'! vi th the earthly spirit I on the other hand" exalts hi:mseH\ e-tc . . 11 sec. Second. For he that consul teth a faJ. fold) vith 'the first part itself double.thers 321 Fo u. and hath power. He also shuns the assembly of righteous men.ying.Apoato11c Fa. but in the earthly andempt..re doubt e-rs... They come to him s.5e :prophet on any matter is an idolater and emptied of tbe truth and senseless" (.4!'ou:s me. here also~ 8Jl bet·ween such (magical) practices and pagan wor-ship (ftidolatry. a.l th re. l!md intercession is made from them. He i6 empty and speus empty l!lJls'lotl!!:rsto empty m@n.isThe an.he:!' pO'loter of" the Di V' ine Spi1'1 t. is earthly and light (6). in Herm. and frequentlJl' change their minds t :practice. and prophesieth to them in corDers" (13). but some true verds. 1 [Man. there is an attempt. but 'io7hell God nshes (8)..as (43 [Man. The strong in fo. There is.nd bring upon themselves greater sin by their idola.a.nteuontai J like the Gentiles.fr.t.." lThe discussion there com::erns falae-propbets. The true prophet is !D~ek . eape<::ia.:. bu. speak 8 a.. 6.r :future. .~ where the "angel of' the prophetic' lipirit t 'Who is att. l}.. conduct of t. But hOll does one tell the dif":fel'ence7 By their livl!s (7 and 16) . . 11J) . 9 (39}. . to Quest ions.o him. When he comes to 8.t s.is on the t.).bly of righteo'Us men who ba.Ssem.aver to this is pre5ented as tvoThl!re is first the personal tinguishing false frcan true..peak1. he.tive( 5 ) J vhi le the spi ri t tro 1c h repl1 es.he pr-ophet t but incorporated into t. '10 not e-pe-aking by himse-lf'. the man 16 emptied and tbel!'&l"thly spirit fll!es from him in fear (1t. 2).r spir1 t Jlut no trust at all.nd does not :prophesy 'Without them (11 & 12).. lives in luxury" &CC1!'pts r~rds. according to ~nr s desires . do thou trust the Spirit that eometh from God.ache-d t.Ia).nd the man . but only of the double--mioded t not of" the :faith:f'ul {43. tor 1 t cotn(!th f'rom the devi 1" (17).s the Lord villeth" (9). etc.in from :such Gp iri ta ~ ''but as :many as a. a.. . .ing t. This is so because the Spirit from above is not cons~ted. not ha..

. that all Bore ery waS di ssol "Ie d iL t Chr-ist 1 G birth (~. that this is simply a. 2 References and allusions to related area. The idea of exorciso among the Clu'isti9J1 pra.rthly spirit rill boe driven out bjr such metl.. 2'). 1.l.be pow~r (and t.. a eurse or binding . men? the one who e.ctices finds some- thing of a. 8" 9. '"!d\.lit~r~ Finally.. e. The concluding line and the fOllowing p~ayeT seem to ipdic&te~ however ." . .. 19.o t h i 5 i of e'lfil spit-its 10thich is m. 1 Then. • .nl3erous .gic given "by Willie.la. spirit is not just I!arthly.1y points 1.uch relied on by" 8 the idea.o the meet ings 01' This question leads to the thirdnote\i'orthy point: righteous. the!"~to:re ~sp(!:e1fLlly da.e. therl? is also the religious conduct of the does hE!' at tend fLlld join in J or :shun.ruth) of Christia.322 Early Christian Vieli "goal-directed ..f. th1a. . 53.• let them understand thB. pro-phet .. instead 01" a deliverEL1lce) 1n Clements's warning to his readers= "But if certain.. . Though Herm. Ill.ch to prophec)· (or divination). Go()d~. it. the eleven point polar distinction or relie:ion I!Lnd m. . The Pre e... 2).t they will entangle: th~E:!lves in no slight transg:r~ssloo and danger~ but we should b@ guiltless of' this sin·' (1 Clem. Hermas 'P rovi des one possible allusion to this area. it ia: 'Possible to eJi!!e the apposite of" this <1. Religion among the Primitives (Glencoe.5.s Drug. "instrumental" approa. . of the- ~xor(:ism later writers as a :proof of t. be disobedient . 2Tho u.huns does sO for good reason" tbe ea.gh the ~onnec:tion is rather relIlOte. 11 uiodi.Press.and 11.1.. 'li"arning of' potential divine judgment l not a ClU"se (ef. 3 & 11)" and. 3). 1951) t pp. for it thus presents Bome true' 'Words (3).54'11 espec ia. 14.cited above fro:D Ignatiua.n anticipation in the passage. let.&s d.oes not use the llord. is devilish (sees. 59.m J.

hove·ter.J in boxes .rry The sorcerers [pha.akon kB. The eaTl:y homilistto the Corinthians (?) 1s pot reall:J. the devi. oecult m&tters. 2) t a. 6.not ye like lIDto tl1e 50Tcerers.l (18. ion) in your heart" (rr.S.rrays of' angels a.lose conne~tion of the ideas of sor- cery B.~ or in a polemic: against it.oi J indeed their drugs Cpharma.. He names "the a.o:-ers . ~ could easily be so connecte-d t either aB a basis for magic.. .l"'III. this. e side. the limited explicitly ref~rencC'!a e~mnec't As might be expected..nd rulers <'. t judgment B. but he does apeak of' a ba.nd drugs which is refl~cted in t. 1 CVis~ 3.ist of' po-orers on t. Ignatius cmnpare-s those who poison Christian truth with beresy "to those who IrfLdmiDister a deadly drug in s'\(eet wine" (Trail.vaiteth them also" (Ss)rm.he translation of the preceding passage in Bernas.venly beings and glory of fLngels a. as among tbe I1h@a\t'E!!:n!y things" he cOE:IIprehends {Trail. none of" the Wl"i ters in. vi t h ..gic and the spirit vorld. in view or t. Ignatius presents an infonnal hierarchical l.sit: thi s world and the next are two ene:m.hen la.r con- cerned \rith polarity s tr Bu~h abstruse. 6~ 3) t and t. Spi1"1 t ual b e-ings and . ma.he pOsiti.l opponeD t. present a 'View of that wo:r-ld which t in other hands. 9+ 7J).ter refers to the spi r i t ue.ies u (2 Clem..p.nd sa.. .. 2). 5. but ye carry your drug and your poison Cl2lHu·1II.o magic~.k. 6. '2. This could refer to ComrJOEl poisoning and is not specifically magical]i th~ though the lexicons support (:. 1)."ia i ble andi nvis ible" if th~ b~lieve no.ka.i .ys concerning I'Ibea.onishing church rulers to .nd the musterings Elvis i of the prim::ipalitles 'II th ings vis! ble rind things i ble .Apostolic Fathers th~ 323 &dm. . .t in the blood of C1U"ist • . group They do.'be. Cl!l.

. 6J). This ltLtter figure is J of course . speaking of the h~a. B. II (16. vhich chok~s or CTUshes the Moly Spirt t if a. witchcra. Most of themvou1. i8~ 79. but not able to overCaIle those aided by the uange:l of repent.h as b eJ. wider fie-ld 01' n~sati"Ve tl powerB.Ol"rOV ( or beac. TraIl.d not be noteworthy in a distli'@'f!.l spirit. 2J. 1..S cussion of magi!: were 1 t not for development ot these by later Christian ~iterg.ian Vie". 6}.rnabaB pre-sents Early Christ. 6 [~. Snyder presents tbis as anthropology ratb4:!r than demonology.an<:e H (41-49. -\Ie-fore veo belil!'Ved on Gnd "a temple truly built by hflJlds~ for it..ft. 4-6 J especi. . 6. Iff (36.32Q t.2.l of idola. with only :slight.tion or literary de~ce. ~xt·ensi In short y the 'Vi ellS in thi s area are simp. and 40+ 2 (10. 4..1c Fath~iS. r4:!spectlvely).Hermo.tlon. in~~'Ude51dolat. pp.hi s c: ompare Ign . . Hermas" in a pair of ref'erenceB which seem t.l 8S b4:!ine: f1Ll... glimpse 01' eo. l:ft) fLnd 9. 1. especially 47. .£i {-A:g.5 .llo1led entra.try and vas a. 11 (39. edt Grant.rt. house. 7).ng elng the result 01'1) the most evi. as noted tLbove . a prominent one in the Sbepherd ll and also seems to go beyond e. 'W8. He further presents the d~vil as continUfLl1y tempt. JIlere personificfl. l:But note Man .ing eve:r-y man. 2. WBY which. BlJ. ll) and the 4:lomments on themby' Snyder .osto1. and magic. d e. ulativl! development. and 83..oce into the heart (33. 1 person1 pre~en t s anger an.ly an On of sp~c- those presented in the New Testament 'V!"1tingB.of demons . He further reters to their leader as "the Black One" in introducing theeecond of' the 11two vaysn (20. 5.ry. 2). 1)) 8.a11y 4. 1" 2J.o go beyood si:mp:le • f" 1ca. 34 [~.

2) J and this continut!::S :following hi a d~ath (116 1) ~ Though thwarted in obta..".ls with his assertion concerning the dissolving of sorcery and spells [19.htl.~B.strolog.o. speaks of the order of creation.thers 325 Related field Astrology.it.1ly con<:erned 'With evidence of c reduli ty.:!pt.r.s which are lIIOre Y8. not of" mod~rn ones. :2. where "a.is ~:x:c e 5sive: eBp~ciB.c:ea to Cll!m~nt th~ h~a.rt of the fai t-hful.11 the rest of th~ eonste11ati.t of Di.i ning bis body (17.bsenc ~ • All sut: h eX&l:llple s must be judged t of' cours e. 11th€' sun and the moo:n &rid the dancing stars ac- cording to His appointment circle in haT1tJony vithin the bounds assi.'WorId-views.)rcar:E. or of its a.ith the sun and :!DOon f'onn[ing] themselves (~.st. probably don~ Altbough this was :from vorthy motive's a.1uable tban pre<::ious stones and f1n4!"r than refined gold • .ok up hi:. 18.Christians Ita:fter".. 1) 5 the.y-" is included in th~ list of" evil practices ~I!!'ading to idolatry." (l~L 2). beginnings of aom@ such att1tud~Gw Chapter 13 refers to the ueaire on the pa. in terms ot anc it.v­ en1y bodies a:re or B stri~tly rhetori. The onJ. 2. . roo 3) 6 19ntltius waxes eloquent in deseribing the nativity of Christ and spe~s of 1'0.ion1i Jete.tory .s t.Apostolic Fa. to touch Polycarp' s f"lel3.gned to them J without any swerving asideu (1 Clem.rt~"l"do~ (13.h even ber-ore his ma.nd was given an edifica. reveals: tn.e S. Other reteren.gpe. knovledge: a. 3)). bone.nd.dache 3 t1 cited above.y spec! fie reference in this area i. he then follows tb. chorus about 'th@: star" 19. The Mart)"rdorn ot PoJ.ons .l nature. into 0. At ti t '!ide s :reV'eued The discussion h1!'re .:rds to.

Polycarp ~ Papias: <-Apostolic Fathers. ..:. C onc!'rning bapt ism (93. no.tic comment that uthose wbQ vere raised from.ter ertended even to the accoW71t of' tbe martYJ"- dom itself (22. 3.nt.as became ~ ~ases in the later apologists and polemicists. 2 by SChoedel. . 3-7 10 [Siln. 3-1J) could oI!ll-sily l~ad to a magical viev of its opere. grew.. not as connotations. 3-5). 16.) Some or Herm&8 t 9~ S B tat ement s.. 3)t it was from souch roots that the cults of saints. ma.round God-appointed lea. O~d Testament and Ne'll Testament miracles.c against magical He fwther utilizes the signs and wonders worked 'by Moses (the prim.io.ttitude la.l of eharges of .326 Ear1y Christian Vie'll explanfl.' a. 43). hQvever.d :t'elicB~ witb their magical overtones and UB&ges.~ M. Thel. sort of test butta. survi V'ed ti~l the t:i.ed by the sole surviving fragment from tbe Apology of Quadratus (who lived tmder Hadrian) vhieh appeals to the fL. example used by later vri terti ) ~ but only t.me of" Hadri an .rtyrs.tion (17.le are. p.. but to r~i~tor~e the idea.d.t length the case of Aaron's budding Tod {I Clem.ary O. lIncludil!d by Lightfoot'i Apo!i:lto:li<:: Fa:thers ~ In his "rra.he danger o~ recalcitrance (51... Gra.ers.tion and e-f'f'ect~ thoU8h that 'Was not his meaning. . 5). Cl~nJ. the dead by ehr is t . 5 ~ and &G fragment XI. in the re- In this period. tL pol@mi.bidine. P~pias (in afraBment preserved by Philip of Side) makes the some"'hat enigma.~nt cites a.gments ot Papia5 t .o prov~ t. 3). o~ unit. they were simply ~xamples.1 'l'h is i So POS s i bly to be expla. T.. (This a.magic levelled at Christianity. 18. e-d. 1~9. as:sUID~d with little explicit citation of In the Old Testament are£L. .

. 3.g~ 4. .tive). Henna. 76. This dating is supported by Kraf't 11 Earna. the lWre specific passages occur iQ \that a. 3+ 2.lly an alien "fa.s .5 and the Didache (~. if the vriters in tbia period ha.t!lRgic vas ba.reas ~ and the rhetori c:al u.hile Christ l!l.ed them.d been forced by circumstances 11 they would probably have arrived at much the same positions as their Buccessors. not materially different frol!l that of' later Christil!Ln '\triti!rs. mid-second centW"Y date for the Didache in its present form. . concern about magic.sica. worldvi~. as. 39~ 9} of (notes on?) the statement of Qundratus given i. In addition. noted above 11 Hermas'!l especi-a11.y. but was far fro~ being the church's great~st vorry. . 2).'Uch Vi~8...s I!' of' them \lhen they do appear to les. ide an occasional Also I flouris. or..ury earlier. p.. Ot he!' s 'Would dat e at least parta of' it up to a ha.h t eit.n H. . ha. Grant 11 3 L p.:s that it is simply a misattribution to Pa-pies (who appears in fulL H. 2Asauming B. .ctor ... if presented with s.rs '!' 4!d. aS5~rting 327 that but thos@ healed or resurrected not only survived ·... lived~ considerable ti:me after t 6om~ even dQ'Wl') to his Olm times (pree-erved in Eusebiu6 H. 119) sugge~t. . "WOuld hav!!' accept.ve suggests a.a and 'the Didache. 3. and 'Was of no other interest to them (except to prorhet~rlcal .Apostolic Fathers character of Christ's works to prove their reality.hich was regarded as presenting some danger to the church ~e~bers (as having S~ attraetion to them).ba. so that. But they 'Were not em confronted. The small nwnber of references to JI1agic and re- late'd a.re probably among the 2 latest vorita ill this group.ves the impri!'8sion that .little rea. lSchoedel {PolyCal"p.E. 1 The evidence we ha. Papias.E~.APQStol i ~ Fath.lf c-ent.her positiv~ or nega.l.

1951») 8. B... Sil:)j. (Cited hereafter as ANF. Ameri can ed. rev."TIentation in 'the te>. Grand Rapids: W!:I.h voluroe EUlO 'Page n~bers.serts ($5 part.tion of idolatry) tha..s to "explain n magi e ~ but most ot the: passa.. Pl"fLtt(!fl .cte!"istic:s vhich the Greeks represent the i r gods as di spla:dng . subsequent rer~!'4:!nc::~s are included in the doc'il.ally repres:ent (as t. 3).:.s~ . lists various things as among the ins~itutions of the Greeks which lB.. In three pa.nd Coxe.. 10 vols.l.. Eer-d.."t .larJ. Passing references to magic The apologists see a close and va:rioual...752-53.sso.ion between maa. 325 ..he inJages of" Nebo a.t- tempt. in his ApoloW7 Ar1stides connects the pbar. Donaldson. Thra~ian and Persian 1 ~gQi~ respe~tively~ who bad praeticed in the a. HRemains of" the Second and Third Ce:lturies 11 H Ante-Nicene 'Fathers: Transla.Al1F vit. TatiB. In 6.re st illrelatively brief..tions of the Writings of the Fathers Do'lNl'l to A~D. Cl evela. h~lol.'iE.t). t:ra. ed.ious portions are identified in first references.v ~ 1885-8T j reprint ed. Tran9lators of var.ges in his dis- c"USsion of' Greek religion .Cinsof'ar as thl$ information is ~rov1ded b. of' B.y:t the Syria:c p:eeudo-Melito o!. lndi vidual listing of gOd-5 7 Hermes is presented as .n t in the opening rebuke of his Discourse against the Greeks.mans Publishing Comp~~!1.he priests kno'W') Orpheus and zar-adusht.makeia in a list or .. P. Alexander Rooerts and James.actions or eh&!"o. E'Uhc!!meTis~ tic explana.!d cl~a:rljr even by those who do not discuss tb4!' mat"ter. ) -- .manifested conne:et. cit~d as ..at l-l~bug a~t1J.a :magos (lO. la. among other thi~gs!l..rea (ApologO this passage is di!.ges o..lcU5sed f'urther.ic 6Jld 'pagan worship~ This is ill~tratf'. A.t t.ter".nd liadrELn .. (New York: Chri st ian Literature Compan.r the ~ditors::i.328 Early Christian View The Apologists In the pe!"iod of the apolQgists we find more c:-onsclous o.

"But these things are only t·be quackeries and deceits o~ the magiciana M (terateiakai plane ~angOeton) (8. other related arl!:8. Justin Mfi. :related areas Tw"o writers in this group! Justin and 'Fe. Di sellS s ions of' :magi c and. to use m.r iOllS The author s'WnS up 'the the- philosophers 9. " a. ed. as lCited according to page and line 01" Eduard Schw'&rlz.1 All -ex~ept the last tl. The translatiolls of the apologi at Bare ll:lY0Yn. ora:tio ad Craecos. Anot..hough he accepts its real1 ty! he does not approve of it: its operat.rt 1 (1886).Apologists they have derived from th~ 329 Barbariansa The first.ic (and r~lB.a:oen t. ! 14. geometr!. Egyptians.) of" the Greeks.s.gh dreams.n! discuss ma.. for the m. . \ ( 8 . pra~tices Justin seems to accept the r ea.ure or -God (fi re . 1 .s a simple pejorative ~ is il.1 it)' of" magic and relat~d without question.hese have definitl:! m. Cy])riat1s~ to astronomize-.5 ~ng the Hillstitutions N (epitede\UIle.. sacrificial.. l~ p. CfI.:rians ~ prognostication by stars.l)iC.lustra:ted in the Epist. 4).le to Di9AAetua. listing is: The most t.-rust'llorthy of' the T£'1I!H'~ssians di-scove-rll:!d divination (mnntiken) throu.her use of' tee term .agi(:~ Persi6. lines b-6).! Tatiani.agi~al connotations t though Tn.ns.tia. ori ~ s of ". t rea t s t hem neutrally J s iClpl)r Ii st1ng them 6. etc?) by saying. by flights of birds:> Phrygians !II'ld the most ancient I saurians .S eome in for less e-xtensiYe c:onsideration by some of the other apologists.ions. the instruct-ion througb letters:> Phoenicians (Disc. Babylonians. t hm. 2). areas) a:t sOm~ length.tO of t.9 to th~ n&t.tel'."IU J~ t pa. He even appears to class himself with those who fonnerly used JIl&gical arts (Apol.ted. nut ~ t.Imagic .

330 Early Christian View de~:mic.2 but the fallowing lines indicate their close connee- tion--the fallen angels end the demons become tbe goda and their offspring of the poets and l!IYthOlogists (5.rentheses/square brackets at the first reference to each.marvels 'WOrked by cagle art (:nagH:.ssage he does p)"eaent s4!!"\t"~ra.oho 69 . 3 are in sec.Js.ms ~ sometimes by mae. i th the fallen angels 'l.l means of divina- 2 Another of their means vas tea~hing man to offer sa~rifi~es~ ine~t1sc t a!:)d libfLtions (5. II 5[4J.pters fQllorlng the manuscript order t but th~ alternate ehapt~:r. 1).ic:a. did not origin&te with the del!lOr. them (Apol. 5)-and elsewhere Justin does not ma. in 'W'hi~h the empbatically identified as the angels iLnd powers Test&ment texts reused to sho\l that some demons of' sec. the devil and his angels work in i1!'lita.. h)..e techne) (26. magikon gtrophqn) (llJ..ee.int.l in d!"ea.- 1c::al impostures (dLa.ong vitb de-moni fI. are thorousbly control of 2Den~ 1 Demons attempt to gain so:metimes 'by ap-pearancef. 2..li ty of the hUIDEUl soul (ApoL I 18. lBut in one pa..l distinction. 56. lao .. 9).tion of miracles. and the Magi had been Mheld as spoil ~or the doing of all evil deeds by the energi '2ing of that demon" (but they revolted froJI:: his do- main by coming to \l'orship Christ) {jB. especially' in Egypt at the time of the E:xodus ('!'ry. (Passages in Apology II are t:ited by traditional chfL.rumer-ation resulting f"rom Gra~ t S transfer o~ chap.~ Strietly speuing~ magie -nut .r.jho fathered. 2-5). lIell as its origins. it 1$ de:mons who have put forward various he-~~tica~ especially Simon and Meno.on t al.C s or lIJadne ss t as '\. 2-~) t s. position after chap.ns of -enslaving mankind {5.. 79. 4). 4). 8 :are included after them in 'P-B. ) ~ote especially Trypho 79t in vhich Old ferring to angels ~ the devil ~ and demons are all angels sinned and revolted. and 85. 3 to a.nder ~ support- 1:og their teaching by great .ain this termicoloe.'i tne s s to the i:on:norta.1.s one of their 1D. 4. 3 "tJ. 1).

I 18. .Apologists Related areas.ses techne and dn>amels {modified magiketai). The following I1ne5 add ttthose who are sei zed and flung a.S of dead men.re usually preser.Iho have died iI ". A~ol. 23 .g.led dream-senders find ilssist- an:ts (oneirol:lO:mpoi k..ssert~d to be phan'ts..hom all (I\nol. 2~ 4} I of spiritual powers. t~ .ho knO\!' these things (Atlol.ncorrupted children.ois) ~ and wha:tevc!!!" is dooe by thosl!!' ". 1).rypho 69.!D-mf!£iken ~ aecord1ng tQ onE!' paasag~ (T. but in Apologr I 18 10 they ELre apparently the 60uJ. Apology II 6 and TrYPho 85.. ener6e1n~ e.jar divisions . by In addition.lted as demonic.si. The one minor e:xc:e:ption is in regard to Christ's VJiracle6 'Which th~ opponents a. 'those ca1.).iI but this is standard terndnology and reveals nothing 1 _ . Justin does not discuss the theory of magic~ 331 other than attributing it to the operations or ene. in- vok!ng (:k1.. •• episkepsin) these things (18.ting to divination (-which is introduced as te-s'timony to 'the iJmiOrtali toY" of' the soUl} nBlIle:s its !!Il8. . ~ L Ju~tin then concludes his examples "by re:ferring by authoTS~ especia1~r name to classic Greek oracles (mantela) and Homer's description of Odysseus'B trench and descent to inspect (eis ..1JZlall souls.el!i.50~ etc. I 18. 1.:rgi zings (strophon.at naredroi) by the Magi (para tois mae. and see Odyssey l1. he regularly u.es..iE) of h'l. He does. 3~ see also Trxpho 105.1J]O 5). 26. The passage r. which serve as a sort of catalog of its pre<:e-duree ~ necromancy (nekyomanteisJ ~ divination (epopteusia) by u.bout by the souls of those 'I. however !to give some :In::for- Pla-tioD regarding divination in "the passage Just ment10ned t 8.!)d regard- ing exorcism in tvo ~8ter passages. I 1~. about the actual pTocedures end resUlts.. These p01lers a.5.

f the pr~ceding argument against idolatry (chaps. Magic is regarded 'by Justin as ..Y. :2).. 3). In ApoloftY I I 6( 5 ) t he ref'er g to sue ces El fUl Chr1 st ian exorc is IZ] t 8 i!:Opl~r in t.si k~i }. whether ldngs I righte-ous me.he ntJ. The ref'erences to magic.n ra. Butt in general~ the Jewish exorcists (epork1stai) use the aame craf't ( te t bne) as the Gentil es vhen they eXQTc1 se 10 employi rig both f'1.ai epsston ka.1 are This part o.keuton) (kool.atade5moi5 chr9n:tai) (85.m:U.IlUJ.me of Jesus Christ t in contra.o. and of" Jacob. This li. 9-1L}. II 6. -prophets.332 In Early Christian Yiev th~ ~ontinua~ion or his discusaion t Ju~tin also includ~s a passing.rguing the 5uperiority of Christ to Judaisrn.sting is ampli- fied in Trypho 85 where Justin is a.)r since all three are demon inspired tmd empovered..gic.ltle of the God of Abraham t of" Isaac . 'but the Jevs' The Christians exorc15e successfully in his na. reli- gicm and of' the heresies 1oespeciall.t Eharme..gan. fLfid tbey and their."ll.ce to th~.e (B5.dell10n offspring ar~ directly identified vith the . or patriarchs. connection is f'Urth(!i ~mphasized in ApologY II 5vhere the..ionabl~.f "all the other exor-cist. 6). be might perhaps (isos) succeed.l!lSe1 ve e (5...f&llen ln~ens~) I!Ltlgels introduce not only 1IIB. 8. Exorcism b~t any of' their great nemes. ga- tions and.st to the uns'Uccess·:ful ef:forts o. I 20. 1).11. but also sac1"if'ice . 1+).s and ~nchanters and soreerers tl (eDorki stan 1'. incantations (kai thumi8. vill fa.. rather (JLpol. SUC(:E!$S is que-st. I 11.rious procedures uaed in exorcism.re of" va. but if anJr of them should exorcise in thi'! n8. non-commjttal~ r~r~rence to the Sybil and Hystaspes Justin is also awa.an integral part of pa.nd 11bations ~ in order to subdue the hu:me.in AE"olo5.

''what prevents that the one who ia co.lly temPQrary Chr1 stian act i vi t iii! a • in Apology I 30.l his mira. lLIIid indirectly (and perhaps lDOre signi t'i c ant l.ols.e. 333 1 The variQusheresies result from men put for~ ward. albeit by d.so Apol. 2. TrYpho 69~ To--var1ou5 ~ablee and the Mithra. IfPla81c does produce.l. being a man fr(l!I! menjo did what we ca.so-called " proof frQln prophecy u : 2 things ha.tion of the Eu- charist. I 9. I T!:Y.> and appeared from this to be Son of God Of" He .on vas 1"aised. 56. by demo~s and gaining recognition by magic J even to the extent of being 'iiOl"shipped. in regard to conThe quest i. vas apparently deci sf "I~ tor Just! rl p~rSOiJW.Apologists pagan gods (5. 1).mighty vorKs . I t was aleo used extensively by other apologists and later Christ..ern assessment o:f this proof ~ it.agiki techni.g truth ( s) (Trxpho 69. B. 5.od.cles by magic art tm.p:paI"~ntly T'he devil hB.pters If'he folloW'iag elaborate this assertion.e- Mi. 6). 66.y ).in. 26+ 1-4.i()nt di~ec-tly:t in relation to Christ's workeo.erfeiting 1s a The nat ions test iltiony to the unde-rly i n.re expe-c t 51 it to be bi 8hly regarded even by hi 8 pagan read ers . what is the status of ChriBtian miracles? Justin raises and anavers thi. 1.nter- feit. I . • ~tt!V~:t" the common JIl.s of prophee i e l.s also prof! t~d from prophecy. 1 Note a.ian vritera.racles.s qu~st.ve happened and are happening as f'o:retold.ic ~steries d1 abol ic imi tatiorJ.lly (Trypho 3-8) and be he. monic: power.a.ho 120. cov.lled Christ by us.g tht' things prediete-d~ though the very count. I--nalilea and forms of' id. ~ha. ~-- bread and cup in Mithraic ini tiat10na demonic 1m! t.reeog- ni~es that mere assertion 18 inadequate. 6). the. sp@c i fi cll.l. even by the pagans (Apol. and propoees a proof (ten apodeixin) vhicb he thinks vill appear even to his readers as the greatest and truest proof.

.mt!!c:tion wi th the D(!rt topi c.. pr~sent Justin does not a discussion Or def~nse of 2 mi rae les (i.g of power to the apost lea. Christ.rorks 35:1~7~ are presented here &s a fulfillment of' Isaiah pre~eding s~etion). II Tmho 85. 2ThOUgh J'll6tin refers to '~ighty vorka (dyg.cohing the nations (cf~ a.' S lIorks stand ae a.Q. not in the present. 6.!U"ily an. exception to this since Justin uses this..s i ve • Note aJ S.g done asser-tedi t to b~ magical a. 6. fOT' th~y even dared to call 'hi:m a :magician (mason) • . . that he env i sages the ir l'eatoration as taking place at the !"~surrect1on. II 6.wbil e hope i 5 not proof. e '!o exorc: isms ) ~ rather t he B.se tbings bein. 6).o !:!~orC'1sms in Apol. 2. quoted in the But this Uproof" tlpplies a!e. H {69. e.. persuasion to those who will later believe (tous vill @pt auton uisteuein mellontas): even it ~imed in b~1y . 3) are the only 6peci:fic examples he give5~ The reference to healing in !D'Pho 39. 2 is not Jl~cesa. Trypbo lIT... . it e an be hi ghly l' e-r s ua.1\'001. the apread of the Gospel.Early Christian View w'-:ill ultimately believe.n faith {Awl.lso be raised "Up vl101e at the second coming (69.hantasian magiken). .one t. "to pUb- lish these things").. 7).o to the future. they 1 Christi~ I!I.aIt1e-is) even now being d.. I 50. sce. 8) 11 exor~ i ams land the wor ldvide spread of thE: Gospel.. On. g. "those seeing the. to their being sent and tes. In the tvo cain l.e r to the charg~: the 11 proo f from prop:he-cy~1 still stSIlds de-spite the counterfeiting. '1 .hroue. Md is even enbElnced by it. but as to the Jews who had the propbecies when they vere fUlfilled. in cor. 6. 9 eOnne ats the givi rJ. 3.h Hi s name" (TryphO 35. 16. ~21.. In this passa.. these. Bnd argue'S :from them for the power of the name of Jesus and the v ali d1 ty of t'he Chri stl a. 1}.ge Jus- tin simply amplifies his previous ans. 2.rt (:E.lso 31. term in relation t...Gsumes them aavell knOlrn:> both to pagens and J~s.also II'Jpha 30. 5. 6. 1.·.AIso!o by th~ nature and the greatness ofh is 'W'Orks:o Salt Christ importuned (~QYsopei) tho~e who them (69..

hevould probabl:.resented rather a. but as ultimately non-probative. also 88.. they had revolted from the powi!:!r 'W'hich hE!ld.bove \Utder Justin'sempb. erCtve r the One who bears the Name. bee-n instrumental in converting him ~ile 'this could 'hI!" regarded as the use of a "name of power.ll~r p.Acts 19:11116 ).pti'Ve) captive 'to every evil dt!t!'d b:..ans).uence ov~r t. Trypho 85. 3!1' on which see the discussion a.name (though Justin does not mention it. such acts need no defense against chal"g@'s of mo..he energizing of nthat dt'fllx>n lf (Tx.cles is unintentiona. his perspective.i lure.gi-c since they" are directed at tbe de!llcm forces which lie 'behind magic.ions either from simple knovledge and use of the nam~ or (B. 1). . 5). cf..nd) by preYiously gaining in:fl.! th the rest of his teaching. by the c aBe or Th1. .g+:. The st. them ~a.. IrJ Justin it is only Christ1ans 'Who can use the.asis on Christian activity in this it lies at the beart of' his soteriology. In 1ioe w.cc:ideJ)ta2~ ChristTs <coming was "in behalf" of believing men.atUEi of the Old Tes"tfil:lent miro:. further contra!.emons" (Apc'.mbiguously. etc. and for destruction of the d. who c) by coming to Chri st t that.. 5~ 6. II 6. Further t f'rODl..lts the Christiansl' by the- simply use of'the name of Jesus." such use diff~rs from th&t represented b J' Justin and other Christian vriters . He l"ep:resants the old man \7ho bad. but submission and obedience to Him. Further) to Justin. The "nam(! of' po'W'er" :funct.of the pagan and Jewish exorcists using various traditional techniques (Apol. 9. . "Related Areas'''). 11 6.. 1 and 19. agr-@'e with the transmitter of'the "sons of" S~evan story • .area is not a..vpho 78. ~he l t 0 th~ fe.' t.he Hpover 11 by proper rites. Justin represents them as imitated by t'he demons (e. 1.Apologists refereDce8~ 335 he implies that his readers will themselves have been ab1-e success~ to observe Bueb l and. Trypho 69. 4 t tb~ Egyptian :magic1.s point is emphasized Ei how~d the Magi. 1ts use represents not po.

and John M.wameis) whi<::h they did. dilelmD4 by th~ app~a1 l Justin tries to escape this al80 to prophecy J but this .ge: Transcendence &nd Imm.t...Jld the mons. but more intense. 641. 1 .l:.llY" Disc. This presentation va.bat the prophet. b~ understood vithout an enlighten- This 1.. end result of this seems to be that miracles are a vitness to the truth.. It is not easy to delineate Tatian' s idea of lmagic 10 s1nce J for hi~. On belief-systems 6. orthine.ly the same as those of his m&Ster Justin..se del!X:mstration (Trnho 1. Magie." in God-§. Frame 11 "God and BiblicBl Langue.:tnt Word: An Int~rna. but this vitness cannot Jnent o. p.hows inT}'YPho 76.rmposium on the Trust. g~or1ficlltion of deceptive spirits a. In:e.tione.s folloved by prayer for his enlighter.ane-n~@. it 15 all of one piece with the almost total demDnic dotDination of all things eartbly alld material {not. gr Q:cripture J ed.tiQnal p:t"oof or e.cles glorified 'the Creator and proclaimed: Christ:l in cont:r-6.The ment t vi thout which no one can under8tand theaethinge (7.. the p:t"Ophecies could cot be under- stood unt.r:r."shipJ 191Q)1o pp.5 closed S. But this was becaust:!' their rnira. yet they we:r-e \lorthy of 'belief because 01' the.sit::-belief'systems are not amenable to ra. 3).s did not lJ.s to the t:ruth.e especia. To. and less broad in presentation.8 one manifestation or the ge-n~ral dilemma.336 Early Christ1anViev as arguing t. John WtL-:r-wick MontgomeZ}r {Minne&poli&~ BethanJ' Fello". 2).ian The views of Tatian al"l!: e-ss~ntie.il clarified by Christ.st to certain ones vorked by" falsE!' prophets (filled vith deceptive and unclean spirits) for the: n.as he s.miraeles (.ttIB.c-ont"'ronts difficu1- t.te1DS nDte = Thomas 11 Religion .nd de6...zement of men I!I..ies .l..ya... 6.ttack.l S. confronting all apologetics: bo. 166-71 ("Basic Colmtlitlllent Langu&g~").

7 (p. 2 10 12.1. 23-2~ J ).) (lines 18-20). 19. Ii.ra. 3.te .ta. venge6nC6'. 19. nto:re p:rer:::ise references are cited by page a.herapp11cation of 01' "the juncture of. if they continue mocking. 12. 18.t@ kai osteon . Chapter 17 .ina. fLS just men inve:n'ted tbe alphabet (pp. Jug- In the u.sth~ gl.etes. 2-qJ }.. human rems.. ainevs aDd bones" p. 18. 13-1~). 23-2~. Imte J pp. 26-19.rt7. 11 . 9. 19.~. (11 an 16. 2 l~ather amulets:Jo p . . as eo co-unter-theory--de:monie conspiracy (pp.. this chapter is connect~d vith 80S tnagic: by a refeTence to De-mocr1tus "the one llho boasted in the . . p.~ of aympathies and antipathies of D~critus (po Apart hom its content .Magian Ost. most pitiable death" p. ha. lB. hO'\feve.. the da"OTJa have dete:rmi.. ~ia. 11 . magi~t The demonic goal of as of all their operationS t ia the enslavement of lAs noted&bo. ayst. &nd 19.p. not so much its theory. 11-5). inter 16 .ers/sorcerers~ (go.. 18" but a. and~ above all.y effe-ct of t. 6-12 ..ek on magic:. 15 ["p. herbs.nd 1ine{s) of S~h'Ws. 19. . especially of one vho died a.. 1. 21-22) tmat~:ri€l tipath1es . 19.• 18. 23. 2-~J" find 16 tp..~ ''vill enjoy the sfI.he essence 01' his at.anes u (line 17) and bya th1"@at that Tathm' 8 auditors .ned a purpose for each (p. 9-10.lso. is t. fev lines of' chapter 11" Tatian refle(:ts a broad spect:rwn of JIlagical coneerns: l~L goala (bealinS J pp. 19. the end of chap. in addition to t. 25.he opening of chap. and t. 10-1. 3- but. p.r. 8-9.hemselves (p.Apologists 337 1 7. 11 eit.9. 19.. eapeeia:lly as represented by the 18. 18. 211 10 roots. and 19. 27-1.11 :p.5)· The various ~aterials do not have ~) t Wi.ale vengeance a.. including ~edicine {espec16J.. 18.~ralepseis. 26 and 19. 18. 25. pp. 18.ditional chapter-so " 2NeurOn . 21-22).tter of a.. 25 J and 19..ly cha. pp.2).

and then . and cure of illn~3s (po 21.'j' ~ "the t. :25-26~ 28-30) The chapter t::onclud. 12 ~ p. 16-17)..11~t to thesfI. IRe also asaoeiates it vith ~ bit by" or ancient animal lore= and the stag a viper~ and th~ pie: by the river crabs t and the lion by the ape?f'I (chap. But medicine (th6. 1"1". lB. c:. 22.k of' demons (chap. p.he man. The discussion in cha.tion are the 'Ilor.:ring 'to cure the sidmess ('P .v ignore God and uae@'k t.) and ever.reas. like the dog by graBS. 9. 22. 21. p. vhen satis. Simi1 a:.rma.. 19+ 6-7.:: in chapter 17. 18. chap..e di scussion of the work of' demons t. 19-2~.. 2-3~ re the soul and IlI8. lB. 25-26).1T.1i is port of the S9JD. 11-12 and 18. 19. 19. also:- chap.keifl.I!Ie hwnan des1l"ea aQ does ttl.ly the same as magic.1 &re of the same substance.ur~ins of man frOllli God (po 19. Tatian regards it as essen-til!U. 1)~ from the 'W'h..f. 15.o curE! yourself . Though he cannot completely deny the efficacy 1 of medicine {cl1ap. 26-28).rly " oracles and divina. I)~ lust (p.tion known to Tatian are birds~ dreams~ stare. lea. p.g greed (p+ 21. 20.at~ring of ma. . 19. &p:pe-il. cf.discussion c. 20. 6.. ~lightB of and s&erifiees (chap.. Related a. chap.ed as b8.gi. presentation of tbe demonic operations. 15" re chap. l~. l~-p.es with a. 21. 16) .siC6.{thing in it ig a c-ontri vance (epite c hnes eos of the Bame f"Ort:!l. and esJle~ially chap. 15~ p. and. :21.gic. Chapter 18 opens.pter 19 B.. • • • As harmful compounds ar e material ~in the same manner thos~ 'Which hea.iI.he.. 20. 11-12). as well e. 20~ p.ve t. and chap.tter) ~ and the t.:dckeries of frenzied demons". 6-10).338 Early Christian View b1~dicine... 22. they poSS(!SS lb man. 18" p.. (P. 2). war (p. 16~ p . 16~ pp. 8-12). 15. p. and divination is present. The means of divinf'1. mankind (p.fi4l!d. 1-5. causing sicknes~ .

ious1y discu.lly the openi.t he iG not ril!!s:ponsible for thetll--(chaps.9tronomy" ) a..... 21. his major interests were elsevhere than the argument from prophecy (note especially the imltledie. and as a.11y design~d men from true God..on. t.e context of the passa.. the introduction of" the doctrine of Fate to ensnare man by giving him an excuae for 'his (evil) acts-- i.as impr~ssed by the: Scripture prophets (chap.s tha. vat.. present magic as specific:a. 16.1 in Ta ti B.p.. and to lead Cbim into :furt.h~ hO\l'ever . 22-23). As sucb t a~trQlogy'B connection . but chapter 9 goes on to indicate its underlying demonic fOQndation. 19 t p. 11-17). 9.ult . and birds <ch&p. 19.nd 12 (lrthe Babylonian prognost.tion 11 ) .. Religion and magic. In rl!gard to the relation of magic and roe-ligion. 18 t 21" lChaptl!'r 8 t in line v1th Tatia.ho'l«. appearing only bri l!fly {an d obl iquely ) in th~ pr~. Similarly. 20. 11. 29 t p. to t\h. chap. Astrology~ especial1y~ is rejected by Tatiarl as being a key part of a major de1llon1c !3che:me.. 8. 22. 15-18). 30. 8~ 1 p..e.ge in ~haF' 29).n's doctrine of" free~w111t a. pp.icfl..ctices and lnElgic. both.t.:reaHe a1so lists the: pagan gods vith the tion (cha. vitile Tatian .. perversion of Hi s good c. 3.t. l!!!:specia.ng lines of @'6. 4-16).Il • 8 pr eser.. .emonic domination.cular oaks (chap~ 12).. 17 . p.ter s:rstem of d. If 1fB.. by a.Apologists 339 Babylonians and ora.""n He do~s.er and by :fum-e-s of" f'ranltincense t and again.. tha.ome woman frenzied by drinking. J:rJan himself beat's responsibility for this res. ith prognoBti~ation is nLin- i. 8 and. '1'atiBll does not directly ide-ntity pagtln 'pra. are subsumed under the grea.l't!l t i. 19-20. 'by an oak. 29-23.$sed r4!ferences in chapters 1 ("prognostieation by tb~ stars.her sibs (chap..Ch ). ratber.ma. divinatory practicl!'s presented in chapter 19 (p~ 21.

o exorci am:l< A!iingl. 11'.p. t. 11.etim. they depart t and the' suf'f'ere!' is healed" (cha.g+~ p. Convereely .. 16. 18. chaps . 1). 3-. while he bas much to say about the 'Contra. p. 30.u:re of the vorks is acclaimed a.f 'should anyonevish to conquer them. Basically. p~ 20. or other 'W'onde-r-vot-kl!!!'s:I or they might be the 'Work of some l"ecogni!. 25-1:2. in a highly rhetorical p&9sage in his hOOlily On Baptism . p.. ~egard1ng Ch:ri~tian View these practi~~a. let him deprecate matter 't ~ chap. pietures Ir1s as "fil1[in8J the . 22.ed pagan deity such as Aesculapius.. 11-21). ~l.. ch~p. 8-10.1 chapte~ rivers~ invoked by a vater- .e passage. 18. &s th@y v~re~ as an 1nte- greJ. There are also r~ferenees to ~urning to God for healing i n 18 (e.1 realm that they have usurped (e. Other apologists Quadratus I:s re:ference to thecontinuing~ :real w. terrified. In any ca$e~ the abiding nat.ial 'WOl"ks by some other per- son(s).j 29 and 30. "being stricken of God. 10-12). 14).lito. 22. 27-2B. 18-19.ea vhe-n delllODS have di athe 'Word of thl! po'W~!' tur'bed a human body. . ~ba:p.leems to refer 1 but is not quite clear: by so:m. Me.gtcianl3. p.st be- tween pagan (d~monic) religion and Christian beliefa~ Tatlan has littIe t-o say about ChristiWlm1:racles.4-. these might be 1IIB.Early 26.s a test of g~nuineness in a CODt~st of miracles. 16. part of pagan r~11gion. pp. g. 20" p. p.orks of the savior implies non-eontinuing~ insu"bstan1. 19. th~ defeat of the demons is not by combat ~ but by reje~ting quiet disengagement:t them and the matt!ria.

Mfil"st-bol'"D-" angel). . 1. Zaradusht (respectively.> bas nothing to say dire:ctly about ~gi~J but he does present.~ Se-cood-Centurz Christianity.as an unclean spirit.'r'th ~ to t. 6.ritor ruler of matter . etc. so that the spirit should not cOme 1J.tLndard Christ. 2-6.19-8..r Ma.g.gic at a vell in a wood nea.gian system bade Simi..heir appetites and natures.!iQml to relatedPlS.s 6~ Select Passag.. in acc:ordanee with what va-eo .P Md commit.teriB. seorie.ion of the r the pagan gods.rently tradi t. Grant.... and begat the giants {Flea 211..so involves 'Water...ppl!l.. th(!: a.preemin~nt.ughter o:f Hsdad.S Thracian and 8.r "1abug where there...IJ. the da.. Ref'ereo. ass Qul t.er'fered with those passing by"~ so these Magi .ional ma. also TatisllDisc. pp.became subjected to the flesh. led by one special one.pologist se~s to accept it as authentic" sinCe it. the clearest reference to magic in pseudoMelito' s Apol0Jt'l."ld allu!.. This .tters Athenagoral.s of the B. the spi. fell into 1m- pure love. 73.. demonology ~ Some of the angels created by God to exercise providential care over creation. el@. 3~ re:thiEl. mankind is ~hus eordi ng move-d hither and A Co:l1ection of Fra. 1951). 7. Translations of Chrietian Li t·erature. lC1ted f'TornRobert M..t"sian magus) pr&c- tieing lXI8.spirit int.Apologistfl le&ding spirit~H 1 Though this ~pp~ars ~~ be based on the traditional (pagan ) religious language" it is olose to magic8-1 ideAs.es (London: SPCK. It pict. cf.'{l3tery in thei.C tac air s:nd!or eB.ces B. ed.~ water from the sea and pour it into the vell.Pe-. The:se angels andth~ soul.t. (ANF'8 ~ 153 ) While this is a.1.ments . is part of his true origi fiS 0 e~ltm9. Coincidentally.\ll"@s Orpheus and B.a m.itI.1DI!nts of' the st. aJ. to dra. p.

as beicg immortal and moving i~ conformity with rea$on~ either predicts (promenyousa) the futuro£!' or attend5 (the:ril. Further. to the PlnallYt in contrast re:r~rences demonic 'forces. as noted above. It as llwo.l.b'ine~ so that SOme have concl\l.. 26). in the !JflSsages cited r~buked at the o!'-t!'ning of the discussion of the apologists]o the Greeks for connJ!"et1ng the gods W'ith magic. and pseudo-Melito not only identified t'\lO not~d id-ols as Mcient Magi. of itself... "Writings Athena-goras) rr A. These OeD'. They take possc!ssion of' tbeir thougbts to pour in empty visions (phantasi8.l chance (Plea.. caught b-e-tveen the tendency of' matter and the aff'inity fo'r the d.) the present (ibid..bove Aristides.e.. eagel" for the blood of sacriticE!s! dray :men to idols t vsing tor the gcds the names oT bistorical men.- thither b)r their operation.342 Early Christie.. greedy of sa.n Vie".. 25.p~uoU8a.llov[ing) on the ground before tie- mons and shadows" (ANF 8=154).: is also ref'lected by other apologists. This oC:onnection of pagan wo!"ship with masic and/o!' demo::!!. 8. but a little later in the: Ap~logy describ~d the pagans.erpo1aed and &r:lt. there are also to an angelic hierarchy eou.hep the soul . ~atten~ 1 Quoted from the translation of B. but aeting according to theil" own natures {chap.cedent to it.ded the universe has no order~ being dr1vec by 1rrat1ono. or . This latter would appear to be eo reference to either oraclC!!s or (ar. the dellX)ns."1t.r!io1oiledgeable souls. P.I) t or take c!"edit .ons vho I1hover about matter.. l-~).).Jd) the Asclepieions. "severed frolll the ltno'oIledge of the living God . 2)1 take advantage of un...\..W :2'= 143.crificial odours and the blood of vic- t1ms]I and ever ready to lead men into error l1 {27..

Apologists .But the a..":Igelic ra.nks, ...... bile e}tercisiog pro-videntifl.1 C6.J"e for
~ind

(e.g.,. Athenagoras

Pl~a

10. 5, and the passage from 2h. 2-6 cited
Though the

above), are Dot open to h'lmla.n contact a.nd manipula.tion.

angels tunction as God's messengers .. basically He de.als directly vith
l%IM..

For

eXOJ:lple~

vhen He ......ished to make His great revelation to

~kind,.

He sent not by Ira. subaltern, or a.rJgel ~ or ruler, or one of
01"

those that direct the e.f:fail's of earth"

one of' those • • • ent.rusted

with the dispensations in heaven, but the very Artificer and Creator Ei,oself" (Diognetus 7. 2).1
C&L2Se

It is on1:( tb! eyil
ri:s~

8.Cge~s,

vho be-

of' their f'a.11 are no longer a.ble to
regUlarl~r

to heavE!r:.ly things, ....ho

inter6ct \lith ma.nkind

(cf". Plea 25 . . etc.).

The
6ElC:e

at~i tl,.;;des

tovard r:::.agic a::nong the apologists are ml.::ch the
expresse~ lI:.-or~

as those in the pre...-iolJ,S period,. 'but a.re-

explic-

itly, due to the ou'tvard orientation of the apologe-;ic task, and in
C)Core detail t bltcaUSe of the grea.ter length of the 'Works in'.-ol ved, The proportion of space
de\~ted

to

zagi~

is not

sigcifi~antly

greater

tha.n in the Apostolic
cOrlcerns.

Fat.h~:t"s--magic

is st.ill

on~

of their lesser

Within tbe grOUI:" the vie\i's of the a.pologists o.re the same

e5seotial~'

'but 'W"ith the individual emphases \lhich cha:t"aeterize their such as Justin's 1!::Itphas1s on
th~

'Works in general

"pro-of :from proph-

eoy" 8nd 'Tatian's ~xt:reme reJ e~tion of t.he pre-s~nt rnat.iI!!.rial vorld.

Fa.thers t P' 255 ..

~rom Lightfootts translation,. in

Lightfoot-Har=er t Apostolic

Early Christian Vie..,. The dominant terms for magic/magician are the: va.rio'lis ~.a­

for1tl8, vi th oc cun-enc:es

0f

pharmaJl:- .forms in the senSe

Or

II

mag icd ian ) ~ n

"sorcerer/-y11 in Aristides l' &nd $oe:t- in Tatian and Diognetus..
Various forms and compounds of mant.ik- uso a.ppf!'a.r,. tlJ..ong with some

general

s:r'1l0nyllU:l.

The powers seen 'behind magic tLre usua-Illr referred

to as denx>os (commonly- dailJlonia t but several times daimon) .. but they

are USO ref~rl"'l!"d to as (uncl@an) apiritS t or

a$

]lO'Wera (dynameis).

The last term is also used to
Christian miracles.
gene~al

r~~~r

to

eith~r

their aets t or to

The \fOrd techne occurs many times:> botb a.s a

term and also as specifically conneetedvith magical pro-

eed.ure.

In the a.reasof praetices and m9.terials, Justin provides
several. indications of the
proc~dures

in two related &rE!as t divinaTat.ian
Pseudo-

tion CA.po1- I 18) and exorcism (AP91. II 6 and Trxpho 85)?
provides some ex8ll!ples of the ltoater1als used (Disc. 17) +

Melito also provides

8.

partial example of a magical procedlU"e.

While all these are regarded as evil, th{!-y a.re also seemingly

regarded u

actual effects (except for the nOrl-Christian exorcisms
The reason for this 16 the underlYing theory
vhi~b

mentioned in Justin).

or detnonii;: poller behind 6uch acts t Tatian (especially in Disc. 11).

is moat clearly outlined by

In the area of' the oveTls.p between :IIlAgic and religion", 1:.wo
probl~ms are ra~edt th~ relation of magic to Christian miracles (in-

cluding thO:l:H!! of t.he Old Test·aJIlent) .and to pagan t'eligion.
f01"rll~r

In the

8.l"efL, no elearcut ansver appears J though both Q.ua.drat-us and
it~

Justin address

Quadra.tus suggests continuing results as

.flo

test

Apologil;ots

(a test 'Which does suggest

SQID.@

question of th~ rl!a.lity of the res-w.ts
Justin, ap&rt from an empirical answer
s

of non-Christian operations).

(this. exorcisT!! works t that dOe~m tt)
proof = rev!!:! lation, i.

is forced back to an unp:ro"l11l.ble

e.,

the "proof" from prophecy PI and d1v1nl!! i'iI!'n_

Ii e:htep.Jne:nt. iP
In the latter area, the apologists see no essential distinction; both magic and pagan religion are manifestations of
th~

del1lonic

po'l,l'er and activity.
dof!'S
s~em

Y~t.,

in t.he demonic interactions ..... ith man, there
In one type of .action

to be some distinction maint.ai.oed.

the demons impose on men as dQminant beings from behind the faeade 01'
idols
I

directing the a.cts of men (including answering then-.) for their
~on­

own benefit.; in the other type .. they let men think that they are

trolling e....ent s (c f. Tatian ~. 11):> though it 1 s st i 11 all part of'

the demonic plan.

These two area.s .. which could be described in modern

terms as -the "sup:plicati...~e~ and the "manipulative, If are ba.siea.lly the

.apOlogist.s P pictures of pagan religion and of magic (and~ for Tatlan ll

of medi cine) .
In essence, magic did not Ufit" in the Christian wQrld-vi~ vhile it vas a natura.l counteT]lart of' the pagan religion.
tbe pagans: (e.g.
2

ThO{;~

fLmong

some

or

the philosophers) who

rejl2ct~d

one commonly

l"ejected the other al50.

Early Christian View
Gre~k Pb~ici5t5

and

S~st~matizers

!renaeus

~e~erences

to magic

An accusa.tion of' masic is a :fairly standard item in Ir~na~u..'3':B
id~ot1-rication

of the variou,6 heretics and heretical systems which he

COl:lba.ts (agai ns t M.e.rc us in Ad,,~. b,aer. 1. 13. 1, et ~ .; Simon ~ 1-23- 1;

Simon's

foll~~rst

1. 23.

~, Menander~

1.

23~

5; the rQ110vers

o~

Ba.silides, L

2~1.

5; Ce.rpocrates. and the Carpocratia.ns, 1. 25. 3; but

not» expressly .at least .. ind1cB.tl!'d of Saturn1nus, 1. 2~. 1., and of
"Tar i ous othe r- S t L 26- 31 L

1

It. s.1so appear s as e.. regular appell at i on

added to the names of Marcus "the MagicitLn u and Simon Magus in suose-

quent references to them (e.g., 2. praef. 1; 2. 9. 2); and is commonly
used as the sole designation for
Mar~us

in the lengthened

dis~u,ssion

of his system (e.g., 1. 13. 5. and 1. l4. 3).

Discussion of magic and related areas

SUch a
gibUS

charg~

of

~gic

is probably to

b~ ~xp~cted

in a re11-

conflict in ...,bich each aide cla.ims superna.t.u.r!L.l validati.on. but
case~

in t.hese

in

Irena.eus~

it se-ems to go "b-eyond conventional relicorre~tly r~pr!!Se(Jt8

giouspolemic. OpJloneot.s,.
Magic
t.h~

If !;renaeus

the practices of his

charge of ma.gic 'WoU1.d seem to be s1Jstained.

Marcus, vho ie presented

f1;rst~

15 also descr-ibed at greater

~e chapter and section Teferenc~s are given according to the system of 1~a.5SlJ:et (and Stieren) a.s given in PO 7 .. and in ANl-'" L {The book num.b~re go back to Irenae-uB hims~lf. )

length ~ ",.i th the later sys tem.~ compared to his.

Marcus is fiTS t

introduced as ua. perfect. adept in magicaJ. impost.ures n (rna-gikes • . .
kyb~~as

emneirotatos) (1. 13.

l~

ANF

1:33~)~

1

as is Menander after

hi1n (1. 23. 5) , 'While Simon was especia.l.ly" named tor his lD.8.gical

powers {l. 23. 1).

Behind

Iren~eusJ5

derogatory

pictur~

there appears

to be e. showman of' cOJlsidera.ble ability (note especially 1. 13. 1-3),

but Irenaeus has nothing good to

~ay

Qr bim

expli~i~ly.

At least SQme

of Ma..rcu~' so results (prophecy 2 specifically) ar~ attributed to a de1:).')oic f8lIli.liar (kai d2.it:lOna. tina pare:dron e:chein, 1. 13. 3}:a and his

IT.Qtives are entirely base (1. 13. 3,. 5),. as 8.1"e those ofhi.s disciples
(1. 13. 6) and later groups (Simonle..ns, 1. 23~ ~; Basilid.~:s~ 1. 24,. 5;

Carpocratians. 1. 25. 3.

~).

To ~her his immoral ends. he com-

'PDunas ph il ters and love pot ions (ph i 1 tra. k~li_ agoe;ima.. 1.. 13.. 5) ~ a
<;:hsrge also made: against 'the SimorJ.ians (1. 23. 4) and the Carpocra.-

tians (philt.ra .

et che.:ritesia .. 1 .. 25. 3).

lrenaeus t

S

disparaging

picture of' Marcus is s~~d up (ana amplified) in same poeti~ lines

quot.ed from a cert&in 1~divine elder·':

he is a nPLaker of" idols and

inspeator of portents I Skilled in seotrology a.nd the magica.l er'ts"

(magikes techne:s.) .. he uses tricks and signs, Jrundertakings of apostate

"through an angelic power .. Azazel" (1. 15. 6).
But MlI.:reus t s venders were perfort!Jed in
BB.Cr~rl't9.l

or pro-

phetic

contexts~

o.nd were, of CQurse,. not regarded by his followers

EIlglish translation fro:nCAlexand~r Roberts, et a.1. 5 J nIrenaeus :I! Jr 1 ~ 307- 578; Greek and Lat.in ten s are 81ven a.c cording

1

to PG 1.

m

E:a.rly Christian Vie\i'
as maBie, 'but as mira.cl-!'s (1. 13. 1; set: also 2. 31. 2 .. re Simon and

Carpocrates ) • just, as Sirn.oo I s acts broU,ght him honor.. not as a magi-

cian! but as a god (1. 23.

l~

c.t. Justin Apo1. I 26).
8.8

Simon, noted alre-l!I:.dJr

a magician ~ gave himself more zeal-

ously to studying the "whole magic art n (un! v.ereamme.gicam) after hi s
cont.a.ct vi th the apoa.tles. Be8ides the philters a.nd cha.rms already

notl!!d, hie :f'o1.1ow1"s '\itere i::ha.rged 'vith using ejlorcis:ms and inca1:JttLtions t "familiars n and "dreoB.m-se:nders" (par-edr! et oniropot!ll}i), and vh8.tl!'ver other curious art8 ('D~rierga.) t.here are {L 23. 4). Simi-

larly, the Ba1iilld1.&.ns us@' images, inc8.0t.ations, invocations, and

every-other kind of ~urious art (reliqU& uni V~l'"sa perierga) (1. 24. 5) ~ while the C&r1X>c:rat1.&ns vere accused of the whole composite liBt (l.

25.

3~

6).
Most COIIm:::.nly these- things
8.r~

mentioned in (:on.I1oect.ion 'Wit.h

this-worldly &ct1vities

(~spec1ally r~cruitment, r~1nforceEent
T

of

loya.lty, and seduct 1 on of fQllo'Wers., e .. ,g

J

1. 13 1-6).. but J in at
T

least oce case J Irenaeus also applies the term magic to their othervorldJ.y acts. or te&chings:
Menandert for eXl3.!!lPle t was said to a.ff'inu

that the magic (!!!6ian.) he ta.ught enabled one to overcQIae tl1e angels
~ho

made the

wo~ld

(but even t.his

h~s

a t.his-worldly goal--evasion

or

death) (1. 23+ 5).

Si~ilar ideas

vere represented by the other

grOUp8 ~ though Irenaeu6 uaes, at EIlOst~ the term uinvocation '1

(~pilc.l;5i8) in oeser! bing thee! (e -S..

'!I

Ma.rcus .. l'e prophesying .. 1+ 13.

3i Marcosians. re deliverance from "the judge'1 or various principalities and povers~ 1. 13.

6

CB1mp~r

tade eipoie~J and 1. 21+

5).

I:t"enaeus
Theory e.nd praxis
Irens.~us

basic ally regards magi c a.s a demoni c a(:t i vi ty .

has a. demonic fwniliu ((laimona

+

+

pa.l'edron) (1. 13. 3, ef. also

sees. 4 and 6) .. s-tr'Jd the Simonians and Carpocratian.s operate with t.he
"familiars'· and ·'dream-si!nding" spirits Doted above (1.. 23. Ji and

25. 3; SE!e .also 2. 31. 2 ~ 3 fo·r ot.her demonic a5sociations of these two groups).
At the end time, the second bea.st Qf' Revelation (13:11-

17) ",,111 uso do YOliders (si.gna) "by the working of' magic [magic&.

operationeJ

+

..

since the demons and apostate spirits are at his

service" (5. 28. 2, A1fF 1; 551).
But
Irena~us

seems to be SQJDelol"hat divided in mind rega.rding

thesf! things.

tf'l"hi1e he recogni'lies the: ef'fecti veneSs of Marcus's
activit.ies~

propagandiz.ing and seductive

and vhi1e allo\ling the like-

lihood of' delDOnic \tOr-kings, he seems to haye aome re:servat.ions about

the reality of t.hese things.

r-'arcus '·Join[s:! the buffooneries Cpaiggia)

of Anaxi1aus to the ers.ftiness [panourgiaJ of tbe Magi" (1. 13. 1 ..
ANF 1: 334); Simon ,. Carpocra.tes, and others "are said to perf'cH."m

miracles" (virtutes operari dicuntur). but they" are "by
:Ill8.gi cal

m~ans

of

deception a [ntagi ~.!ls
~annot

elUl~ i one s J ~ an d
d~moQS

yi th uni ve:rsal deceit .. ,,1

and they

free from any

exoept from thOSE! they themselyes
11i 1"

send ~ if' even this much (:2. 31. 2,. see also 3; cf'. also 2. 32. 3
in f'Act they have accomplished 8,r.J:rthing by" magic [per magicamJ
U ).

1AIr? 1: 407 . The charge of fraud and deceit could arise from the fact that tbese are del!Onic .. ra.ther than di....ine J acts t bUt. Irer.Jaeus's ~6J1ing seems to go beyond this to the questioning of the real! t:r of the acts themselves.

350

Early Christian View

In a.dditiQn, tbe effects prod\1ced are illusory (phantasmata; phantasiodos) and trans it ory (stat 1m ce EJsant:5. a ). not real and perm8Ilt!!!nt (~t oe

qu idem at i I I i c~ d,io te.rne.Qr1 B ..ReTseverant la) (:2 • 32. 3 t t.I).
The rete-rene!!:s to incantations and. cha~s \lould support tbe

demonic explana.tion of the magic

a~t.s,

'but -the- use also or physical

means,

fI. uch

a,s- drugs ~

~

be impl i ed by' Irenael.:l.s' s use Qf the terms

philtl?:t"s and love pot.ions (?, ~ha.rms?).

or

the two specific pro-

cedures which Ir-ena..eus de-serf bes, one, cha.nging the color of a liquid ..

seems to be checically based {i.e., drugs, Eharmaka)" and Hippolytus, at
lea6t~

explains tbe other t fillies a larger cup from a

5~11eT~

in the game vay (1. 13. 2; ct'. Hipp. Ref. 6.. 35).

-

f1elated ueas
Irenaeus does not
di~eU~9

collateral occult areas, but, in

the lines quoted 'from "the elder~'1 ~fa:rcus 1a ac:c\1.sed of observing

portents (teratoskopos). i. e. ~ di v-:ina.ti on, and ast rology (astrQ1 ogi-

kes . • • technes).

This is perhaps a variant manifestation of Mar-

cusls prophetic interests which Irenaeus does elaborate on (1. 13. 3 t
4) •

The Basi1idians are represented

a5 following th~ id~&s of

the mathematicians, Le., astrologers
ology,?) (1. 211. 7).
etc'
lI

(01"

is it some kind of

m~er~

The speculation concerning the various Haeorls .. It

with the prevalence of the numbers seven and twelve 'Would also
var1o~B

support astrological interests in the

other systemB, but

Irenaeus does not develop this &rea.

Besides this, in the general

description of the heretical

op~r&t1ons

in hi5 second book,

Iren~eu9

Irena-ens refers to what is some boYs,.l
{pUI!!:TOS

351

typ~

or

divinato:cy practice involving "mere

investes} whose sight is deceived by an exhibition of

phantast!Js (ooulos deludentes " . " phantasmata ostendentes) (2. 32'. 3;
cf. Hipp. Ret'. ~" 28; a1.ao Justin ApoL 1 18. 3; contrast Tertullian

Apology 23, and £Us. lLE. 7. 10. 4). Magic other
religion~

6.ll.C

Due to hi Ii pri:ll'.arily polemic:lo rat.her- than iLpologet-ic. pw-

p.?ses ~ Irenaeus "had li.ttle to

a.~'

.about pa.go.n religion.

He thus has

nO occasiOn to conneet it vith matic as do his predecessors and conte~orar1es, exce~t

ror the assertion that Simon Magus vas honored
He does.. however ~

as a god be cau.s e of hi s act i vi ti e 8 (L 23. 1).
assert a strong
~onnecticn o~

magic and heretical beliefs and prac-

tices.

In addition~ Marcus is idetJtifie-d 6,G Hthe magician" in cOn-

nection vith bis proph~tic activities (l~ 13. 4) and after the expoaitiQ~ o~ some of his esoterie doctrine {the body of A1ethei~} (1. 14.

3); the ~arcosiB.ns use various "Hebrew" words B.Ild ot.her in...'Ocations

(1. 21. :3 • 5 ~ 6.lso ~ 1 3. 6 h t.'h~ Bas i 1 idians, a.l.ong 'Wi t.h the-i.r magi cal

:pl"ftctices. coin names as if of' the angels (1. 24. 5 L follow the practiees of the uQ.theIDB.tici:ans 1" and na:tll.e their chief Abra.xa.s (1. 2~. 7).
Menander~

also, is :said to

r~pr@sent

t.bat by the magic he taught the

ang~lB vho mlI.de the world ~ould be o,vereome (l. 2]-

5).

The hereticB are I'said (dicuntur)11 to perform mil'ac1.es
Compare on 'this pn.ssage (and Justin ADO!. I 16. 3) the para11~1 ancient and (relati.... ~ly) modern descriptions of' divination b J• boys in John M. Hull, H~ll~nistie Magic and the Synoptic Tradition St udi I!!: S :1 n Biblical Theology, 2d ser +,. no. 28 (lfapervi11e.. Ill. = Alec R. Allenson" Ir.Jc., 1911:)" pp. 2l-2h ~ eap.21-22.
1

352

&:Lrly Christian Vic'!,;' the basi 51 the 1 r r'~a1. i ty

(vi rtutes >.t, but Irl!'nae~s c hall~nges them
8t.I.~ th~i!"

Or:J

01'

reau.1ts +

They are magie8J.. deception and dec~it (magicas

elusiones, @'t universe. fraude) (2. 31. 2)~ error. mislea.ding influence (seductio), magical illusions (magica. phantasia) ~ deceit
i

demonica.1

working (ope1"atiOtH~ demoniaC'a), phantasms of idola.try {phanta.smo.t.~ idolatriae) (2. 31. 3)~ phantasms t.hat instantly cease and do not
endure (phantasmata •
.0

5ta.tim C'essRntia. et
n

n~ •

&

perseverant-in)

{2. 32. 3).

Those who vo rk such things

strive de<: e 1 t fully to lead

fooli sh people tLstray·' ( 2. 32. 3 ~ /IJW. 1 ~ 408 ); thes e thi ngs axe all done for the benefit of those doing
the~Jo

not for their

fol1o~cers.

The meth{)d{s )e:m.ploye-d bjO the heretics had been preserrted at

length in 'book one; in :2. 32. 5., I:renaeus
denying tha.t the t:hurcn lUles any of' them.
r~ ang€'li~

5 u:rnma.rizes

thes e methods,

The church does not W'ork

invocations:t

01"

in(!antat.ions, or by any other wicked
by

curious art n (nee religuapre.va curiosi tat.e); ahe 'WOrks !"tl.t.her
prayer in a.
p~e4

"pure~

aince-re-, and atl'aightforward spirit [m1.lllde.l et
~ame
rI

et manifeste orat1onesJ, calling upon the

of our Lord Jesus

Christ~ H and this name "ev~rJ no'\07 ~onfers 'benefits

(2. 32. 5:t AllF'

1: 409).

This S~erns close to the- modern su.ggestions, based on Fra2.oe:r s

of supplication in cont.rast to manipulatiQn/coropulsicmas one possible distinction between
1
r~ligion

a.nd

mag1~.

1

Such a. distinction had also

James George FTaz.er, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic 6nd Religion, 3d ed7,Pa.:r:t; I: The ~~ae;i~ Art :!iind tbe Evolution of Kings, 2: vols. (Zlev York; The Macm1118.r.l ComptLny, 1951 [1910J, 1~22t,. 225. See o.~eo, Goode, R~ligion, 1'. 53, item 2; and Misoeha T:it1ev Jo uA Fresb Approa.~h to the Problem of Magic and Religion .. H Sout.hwestern Journ(L1 of Anthrollo1ogy 16 {1960): 292-98~ reprinted in Reader in Comparative Religiotl, ed. William A. ~:ssa. a..nd Evon Z+ Vogt .. 3d ed. {:New York: Ha.rp€1'" &; Row, Publ.ishera., 1972L pp. 430-33 (B~e pp. h30 and 431).

Clee.ent o:f Alexandria
b~en

353

explici tlyapp11ed previously in Irenaeus I s reJ~et.lon of Marcus's
~ctlv1ty:

prophetic

.• . it

will

:follav t.hathe who cot:nnands is greQter and of higher authority than
the prophetic spirit" thoush he is but a man. which is impo.Eis1bl(!.
But such spirits. . • are eart.hly and
IF (

"Wea.k.~

8.udo.eious and impudent

1. 13. ~). 1
Anoth~r

idea or Frs,:ze-r Is, the connection of magic and I'sciIreoaeus 1 s t.reatment of e.
~ommofl

ence ~ IF is

posgiblyillustra.t~dby
exam'pl~,

Old TestEllDent

Mos{!os tLnd thl!!: Exodus.

Due to unbelief" Phar-

oah IS hea.rt 'Wa.s hardl!!ned]o so nvhile seeing that it was the finger ot

God,;' he still believed 1Ithe exit was accomplished by magical

pO'Wl!!!:r

[p(!']" ma,gicam operationemJ ~ . . .

Jlot

by "the ope-rat-ion of God that the

Hed Sea afforded a pa.ssage • . . bu't

by merely natural cau~eel'

(sed n&t'l.U"a.lit~:r sil: se habere) (oh. 29. 2,

A!tE. 1=502).

Unles8 Irenae-uS

is distinguishing be-t'Ween the Exodus as eo vhole complex of events lL."ld
'tb'!' specific evt!'nt of the opening of the Red Sea. ~ be 'WoUld a.ppear to

'be equating opera.tions by

"~1cal

power

(~ca.m)"

s.nd "na."turu

causes (ne.tura.liter)" in some 'WaY + 2
Clement Clement's 1ntereats Irenaeus.

or

Alexandria
different from those of
",,1 th cha.rges of magic discussion of ma.gic;

ar~ cons1d~rably

'While tbe latter deals

Bpe~ifi~s.lly

against various heresies. Clement has no
1

dire-~t

Comp6.l"e Hermas' s d.i st inetion of true and f&lse prophets

(Shepherd ~:3 ~.. 11 J, esp.8 ec 5. 5 I!lrld 6), disc UJ!i s@'d above Ji pp. 321-22.
2

Or 1s naturallter a

tran~lation

of Ehysis in

5Qroe

magical

sense?

Exh.~d by H~athen with B running account of' the fabulous things music and BOon introduces such tenns as " c ha:rred.phS ~ both BjPstems axe given t s@'pal"'a. of the 1·cnarm1 • of the COWlHe tn9... 5. 1.~" 3 . I'lthe occasion~ specit"ically of Christian magi -e of' fQJll. . even~ on one prayers «((....)l'e com:mon Dr rhetorical designations in preference to 'technical terms.016. et Alexandria. page. He USO !!lakes some.k I':s var i ous U8 eS of.S. are given according to the edi tiop or Otto Stahl1n. 2/22.D..i.nd related forms. 5/65..11y uses 'JI)'. of the olde:r editions have been broken up into Bhorter sections and paragre. C1emens Alexandrinus . !n. :::'..in in 2 ~ 4). Hinrichs· sche Buchhandlung~ 1906-36 L They are cited as St •• 'With volume . 1-3. o.I Early Christian View howev~r~ numerous allusions to related areas are scattered through- out hi s 'WOrks.USe of eJQdi. 17 .~. of charms 'tering 6 t ra. C. nClement of 3The Gre~k text and more precise re:ferences:) "Where needed.l ite:rns Clement manifests no real vorry about magic. 12~ 15. Refertmces to magica." ~. 2 8l. 1/3. (2d ed.r (the-lgee- Pdais kai epQdais. 39). (magois. and section numbers. Exh. note also pharmakOtl. l)~ Clement Is using these ter~ rhetorically~ his target here is pae:.' the idee.r 11 tan i e s n [A~W 2: 60 3] } ~ Though he be gins hi s Exhor- tation to the vork. Griechischen Chri5tlichen Sehrittsteller der ersten drei Jahrhu~­ derte (vols. 163-6o~ .~ English translation by William Wilson .an 'Worship and the poet:-J which caters to it (Ex.ers.tedb. 3 ~ageia. and line nu::mbers.ptel'. using rererences to magical itelIls l rather freely for rhcotoric:al purposes.. etc. ft!'\l timi!'s..l times of the Magi. ~ occur only fI. of vol. 111. as i03trul:tors of' the Greeks... etc..!epaoide.. l) (Leipzig~ J..b . .i 1 i e. Di~ . Clement generally pr~fers t~e ev~n rtlOl"e pejorative goeteie.. when eo cited they follow the (book~} cha. but genera. 2~ am::-ng EleLJsinian celebrants ~ and se'le:ra. 4). wnere the lon8~r 'Chapt..)' a virgule.

bearing charms and incantations kai epOdasJ from soothsayers CaoetonJu ANF 2=278) in ~ngage. 1nQ. t. 6/35. the Chalde-am. 1-5.. 15/66. but expanded and modi fi ed) appears itL Stromateis 1. 4/28~ 3 (but this tim€' in a li tel:"al senij.oioi) but of those who "tumble on ~vords vith a c@rtain dexterity" (Strom. 20/120. also..strology.gi) and some also f:rOC!'.~. bjP la/Q7..ished among the barbariar.s- ure). 11/ lOn one occasion~ 66. 2/20. 7. and sorcery + .atQE.lth "by the char:m of the WOrd" {3. . by the sentences of' the Sophists.Cletnent of Alexandris 2/6.roaria. 16f7~. 3~ in dremns Plee. &nd :m..s) again in Paedagogus 3. Strom.. 8/ 1. 3-5. l}--and negat.n3 and such groups as the R~'1)tian uprophets ~ . respe(:tively:.. 1/2.. and magic. 1 He. • old llives whisperings Cph11tra •• + + • + .: ~ the Druids. .ively... 3. 355 m.athemat1cs . vhich many women 1lr:iproper1y Another li~t of metbods of divin- ation (\fith their be..t ian '5 1 i st COi s c. apparently related in some 'W8J" to Ta. 1 J. (1. 6~L 6L and that philosop~r itself" first flour.. :2. .E\. 3).fi cnn only dl1!f'eat the serpent of weo. the Magi ~ and: others Exh •. 2. be also uses the t~!'m thElu:m. 1.again io 2.l the secret teach- 1ngs of the Egyptians (Strom. and . 2.. ~}. He reverts to the idea ·of charms (epQde.be "1ove.hat a numbe:r of the noted Grf:ek phil- osophers learned f1"ol7l the Me. Clement identifies tbe Greeks I bOasted "highest ~eiences" as "a.2 . 15/72. of being bewitched ([(~) goetelJesthail-einJ not by ph11osophy~ but by ples. 3.further suggests t. 'While in 2. 1.sure. A~W2=5~1)..n origins.[J is 311. l}. 5/65. fortune tellers • .c harm u (philtra) which causes God to love 'Wi thin JJJlLn (1. .e) along with various ether practices ('·sacrificing and practicing divination .

. 1). Chal'm1l: and amu1l!'t a Besides the refe. 'While the second suggests that they have a symbolic import. &nd illustrates this by r:ertain examples (5. a. 1-3). as being W1"i tten :magi c ..an Let. two pass. Incantations (epao1dais) are named as the mee. 3).1ong 'With numbers in music. ma.lects have terms by nature.ti on .g:l.356 Early Christian View . r~t.iscussion of magical theory and praxis In~lUJtations C1~ent eit~s Plato to the effect that tbe gods have a diaoracles~ l@ct. ae does. MW 2: 333) .ters.Eit" he at t ributes thE!i T i nV'E!. 1.Ot i on.implications a theory of though Clement is not considering such a topic~ his interests here are hi5torical and linguistic.s posEiible. espetially) de:l!lOn ra. L 15/73. however. 2l/143.cs ~ who speak the language of the and.Je6s. 6 . better clas-sed as amw et s: rather than ~s incant a:tions (L e . p:r~fers uttered 5in~e alac men ~onfess that in a barbarian tongue are more powerful" (1.Phl!'si.h4!":r than spoken). to the IdB. in~anta~ion~ Thig hs.l coonection to connection which Origen makes explicit . 21/1lj. B/~5. this idea being derived from dreams and from demonia.Q.rences in the previous discussions and the ..ageB" Clement re:fera to the IIso-(:alled toE. In the :fir.ean Dactyli (Strom. as we sba11 see later..ther po~i!.3.ing than their fo~ 01ffl (Strom..ns by vbich the In In Magi compel the dell:lOtls to ~erve them in b::horta. -assert in the next paragraph that the ·'first and gen~:t"ic barbaro'Us dia. But they are" perhaps. This is an idea with obvious potentia.. l).c~ 13.4 (58.

perhaps..as).l disturbance.e. of healing" (4!'!'.Qdas taB hygieis) as being derived f'rom the Thrac:ian:s: (Exh.d originally been pa:rtof a gre-ater hiera.L/5B. 2... 1ndividutl..lone: i.l. 'but also throUgh ane. and bad angels . speculations (cf". This fits well into the larger pattern of' Cl. as well as some being over . ordered verticallY]I from. c:ouldaverl impending ha. 1. 6. Reria.il by incantatiof. and 7. and the like. 3/31. PJW 2 . Si!!'t &nd.ls and saCr i:fi ees. 1-2.er of demon:::. 11/81. (Strom. received frOID necromancers "to ward off evil" (b2s soterioU5 ). ~omparing these to "the heavenly Word. 6/10.. These angels ha.pta. 2/9.n c::onsequerJce of ~aterie. derived from Jevial1 Enoch 7 and 8). 5). which still existed.ed secret5 to wome~ (Strom~ 5. 2/6. arevoT'st to t·ake place:lo not a. e. Am' 2 ~ ~87 ).nd horiz. 1 He held the cOJ:!lIlOn vie"il".s in The first speaks of P1 c ha.. th6. 'With various re-gime-nts over ne.>').t the demons were the1 r min i Sot ers th~ir reckoned amocg household eel"vants J the :tI." asserted that the Magi.20~ ) • Spirits Some people. ka1 tas epaoid. the Saviour. that :f'a11l!n angels revee.. holding that i'plague ~ and bail stoI1:lS :10 (Lnd tem- pests . 7. 16/80.1:soooast ed. ~f.gl "by their cbarms Cepaoidaisj <::om- pelling them to be their slaves" (~.Clemet1t of referenc~s Al~andria 357 to 'the "Ephesian Letters ~ U Clement· mentions charm. 3).rmsn (!!. 11/115.el1ll!mt· s view of the spiritual reaJJn. 11'/151.s other r:onnectiops. ~ regarding the origin of philosopb..onta. 5~ 1. 1).ls (6. God's ownch 8.tians ~d citi~a.rchy . L. 'The second t'etersto IrBlDulets and ~h8.. 1/10.""IlJ. 3~ Al'fF 2: 188).lly".rtDn (epQde) "Whf ch men ref'use (Ex:'). God down to us (Strom. 2. ~ The Magi B.

.nge Is f'unc t1 on as agents of di .ed by the Greek poets.ny of'f"icia. curing Sa:ul pI ague d by a det:X>n (Exh • 1/5. This opinion is held . bestoving good things on the IIGnostic" (6. ~ 7/161. 'These spirits also operate in prediction (St. 'but they ~ daemons. 2).. t 'that some souls were by nature kept.W 2= 487) ... 2). Discussion of related fields Oracles and divination The abiding hum.~h to minister to men (6+ 3/3l. &ugury~ and d1 vination b)r dreams (each derived f'rotn some barbarian nation or tlle otber). in the bodyl' (ibid.. 1.rom. he lists the . "tor they lme... being 3aved and saving (i. so far is their vorship from tbe truth that David not only did rtot celebrate them in his songs . 2-5)t he gave the list similar to Ta. ~E of t.... then attention to the flights of' bird5~ haruspicy... J~).358 th~ pls.an interest in 'the future finds ~a..l and unofficial outlets t and Clement .y by his music.. 3).nclude souls of the dead" empowered in consequence of" the purity of their life (in the vie""" of "their "HQrs-hippers) to vanderoeu i:he ea.. evil spirits liM receive sacrif"ices may be <::o'll4!'tl gods or angels {Strom. While these beings are ~~leb~at.. so continue .. 21/135. but actually dro'le them .ne-t s Early C1tristian Vielol' (5. 6/31.. 2).hee 6-V a. In the second chapter of the Exhortation.'iDe providence~ having co-operated in the :production of' things below (ibid. 3/31.. 6. '1'h~ 2/9. 4L.tian r Ii already lIIentioned: astrology (credited to the Egyptians or to the Chaldeans)... 5). and may i.) end. folloved by prognostication by the stars {from the Carians). In Strom&teis 1 a~are of a very large variety (16/7h. A.. Theunf'all ~ a.n~.

.yt.l of various types and places.ia) of e"il (Strol:l. krithomanteis)" the ventriloquists (engastri- nJYthOUS) yet honored by many..lat.e. L 21/133. sup~1"stitious drel'J.JIlS. 3L .aleuromWlteis. pr~B.st~:ria. 1-2).d in divInation.des the secret shrines (ad.t1fLlwa..r~ CleJJ'.he . 3..y3 applied his mind to prognostication. 1 f'ollOloted by other more individual varieties ~ e!!X- pounders of prodigies. despite their ws. 4) + 2As not ed above. the second 'Use of this sam(! paronom&sia In the passage) . from Aristo'c1e Pol i ty of the Phocians (now lost). Thes~ are all insane devices (manika..t~r ~ along vi th ~O/104.1.ered by treachery (Strom. &. .gine all events as signs and.lso ridicuJ. kai t!'oodas) (~.ti?s with his inner l:Besides 'these he also knows.. • .. causes (se!lleia . 3.·t Zoroaster the Mede . and Sotrll.tion results from 8. that ExecestuB" the F'hocian tyrant.d of" "ira. 2 be. the ja. 15/72. those divining bj' flour or barley {.ach other ~ but . wor~ tvo enchanted rings and judged propitious times by the sounds the:. augurs" dream interpre'ters (teratoskopoi. 3).. and the..C~e~en~ of Alexandria 359 noted pagan (mainly Greek) oracles (man1. Clemens.ckdaw.Etruscan Elec:romancie~s (nekyoJIl.Myrtai} l!lnd goetes~ f'ro:m the 1a. 2). oneil'on kritai) ~ as well by a9.nteiai) (11.ed in Exh.ent can present a long list of Gr-eek.>1d ~onsortW'lth fortune tellers (. • kai • • • ait.' mad. A. 4/214+ 1.6..gainst ~. 1.tter -of whom they learn charms and incantations (phil trs. This situa. 1. But it is not only the igno:rant who observe such things. notes on lines 1~1~}~ that among the Germans ~hirloools and eddies and the noises or streams ~ere observed to predict-the f'uture (Strom.a) of the: Egyjl:tians.scible-" (euorgetous) gods that causes l!:Ien to 1.eia. 1. Empedocles 01" AgrigefltUl!l.l"[']ing~ vas Dlurd. Plutarch Caesar 19 (c:ited by StRhlin. oionoskQw1 . idle women sac-ririe eo Mtl practi c:e di vin6 t i or. 2:146. ch:r../28.hagoras. t. Jlotevorthy SJ!long them Fjo1:.e g.. . and. but they reach their ~l!max (or antl- cllmax) in the us e 0 f goats and crows (11. philosophers.NF 2: 529) .. and thei:r decessors t who were invol. is a.l. apparerl'tly 1"rom. ""he..

. 6.e!. other pr~~titioners judge people by their Coreheads (meto~oskopOg) (Paed~ 3.st accordirJg to S~rapion the 'po~t. or from disturbances by water t or (St. l~ 21/132. 1 See the second .ome sort or air 21/135.4)..h onlJr me-ntion of the names (Strom.tal Sibyl. 3. not~ ~reced1ng.oQ's or e.ch :for the Sibyl" (Strom. TheY' come ··to%' the most part t'rOll:i observations and pro'babill ty) just as physiclans and sootbsa.' .%"01II. 'by conn~ction natne [St. 1 things (Strom. in Strom. 2:82. nine are then ~cif'ied. and the beasts which chanced to feed on it ". eotly have .l"t!! a. 5/113. all thi 5 inc ont l"tLs t to "t he: Hebrew prophets vho were moved solely by' th~power and inspiration of God).ls of the Hebrews H (!) (EXh.mong the Gl"eflk diviners that Clement passes 1['] review 'Wit. the earth naturally produced . At her d~&ths he sayS1l i t vss her vocal powers which proceeded into the air ~ but her body vas changed to earth. once the Sibyl is mentioned in vi th Hyst~spe-Q (in an alle:g~d.grass.a pbys1 cal base of some sort: proph- But oracular powers fl. quotation from th~ apostle nt.. still divirJes" at lea. l-~ J !ill[ 2: 330). 2. 16-18:3). exhibit~d to lllen an &eC1U'8:te knowledge or :futurity by their ent~ails. L tum.. • So Im. These pt'e-dict1ons are produced by various means.pparthe origi r. ~ Am' 2: 316). J. ANF 2': 331. 'Who s at be!. .lide the oracle of Delphi. 21/133. The "host at Sibyls 11 fL. :reservations about such . 6/71y ..l.d. 15110. Aristotle 1l bov~ve-r t Early Christisn appar~mt1y Vi~~ ha. 1)" and once she is identified as E!t. 1. The Sibyl(s) again receive spe<:ial mention.360 voice-. 1. 2).rers Judge from natural edgns 11" but others ~ome f'ro~ demons . 3/1.b~ Paul.

.ndria.ion 01· t.tiof:l:> two express its theory" and a fev suggest its 1nfl uenc e ~ at le est rhetori cal t on Chri s t ian thought. of astrology. fut. 4/35.Js of knoving the :future1l&S also very prominent in thean~ient vorld t and has left several refer~nces imp~essionB QD Cl~ent'6 works.strolQgY' ~ not astronomy" (!!h.-at. .gins.lso p:raetic~d by the: Indian holy met]. thE': Chaldeans and the Egyptiana t Strom.test sciences (megistais episteroais)( Strom.A!fF 2: 191 L and boast. Wit.tion by the st.a invented by tbe Carians {Strom.re.of the planet e. (3.o the tradit. 361 Ast-roloe. .h such a not. wha.ttest to lts ride~pread innlli!"n~e and ancient origine. 16/7L.ional vievs of magic. one in the who knev course of 1!ll. ~inomi5 Plato introth~ tvo philosophers.ure: a.ntE':d scienCe of' a. and sorcery ~ as the grea. ~ and One Qr both of the flTst two claimants are supported by other refe-renees if] Clement.1 gen eration.rently of compound origin. 4. 1.tever its or1. it he. A number of a. 1 . events \f&S But o'bs.e:u. As to du~~s ~ it 'Works" the mechanism is sympe.eworthy art t various cla. vhf ch oec urs by the i nstTUmentali ty. lllagic . 7/60. and "similarly also tbe ChaldeaD3 t PI while some said "prognost. l.tby.onor of its origina. he attributes: "astrology" to the Eg:)'"ptians. 4). 6/67. and Clement obliges us. app. While astrology d1seussions~ and magic are sometimes opposed in modern theoretical Clement preaents astrology as closely related in places of origin end in 'theory t..tion a.Cl~(:Ult of' A. 3. 2 ..ars" va.ims as to the D.:!r.lex9. 1/2+ 3}.s been thoroughly takrm by the Greeks y they "prat. In One passage . 23/153.to bee~ected. 3).tl.he heavenly bodies to predi~t.y This othe-1" meat.1 O"Ve!" Eut. mathematics. th~ Egyptians t 6.ica.teJ loftily of thE!' heavenly bodies in the PJUch v. 2..

t~r tYa (esp. poets famed in stOrtI and song f'or the magical povers of their musiC' (1/1. 24-39) Most of' the rest of chap- is devoted to the demonstration of this lOn uSYI!lPathy. deett$ thi nk I' all which cone erns mortal.new the motion ot' stare B. tt belovo di5cu~sion of "j3iolQGY and Medi- .hyu a1 sO ext. lL.and incantations (~da..T1d their 6j'1!1pathy and association (sxp. According to the mathema. 1-3}t and the ~steries contain hidden ~rom the popular ones sorcery (goete:la. I' compare tbe cine . ANF 2~ 513). 1}:o men possessed by a spirit of artfUl sorcery (entechnQ tini goete i 11 daiClonon te-S ):t anti c:ing manki n d to i dols ~ 5 ubj e-c t ing them to the yoke by their songs ." them t h~ ChaJ. Thi s "sympat. In chapte~ t~o:t the official religious oracles are indistinguisbable (2/11. 1.is) (3.and their arts are less than divine t and there is something strange about their b4!'ing 'Worshipped. 1).. 1). the f'ig~rative While goeteia is quite probably used here in tri~ke~' O~ ~raud:t th~ sense or vhole r~int is that these beings .ii3k.1 Magi~ In the openins chapter or the E~hortation.5 ~ who F~rly Christian Viev th~ 11 as an astronomer ~ Jr. and religion also undertake to tell 6. Cleoent presents the pagan religions as intl"oduced. 16/143.!.lIllbe!'" seven (while discussing "the fourth commandment).a$) vi th one' another (St rom.t1cians...full of deceptive 'Wonders {apates kai terateias. 25/166? 1).ai eROda."1d propagated by the poets:. 1-2. the planets a. as Clement asserts in suggesting sy. 1. 1 i f'e is ef'f'ect ed th~y through sympathYt in consequence of which things :r-esj)ecting the future II {Strom. 1) and are . sees.re seven ~ and b:.Eatheias tekai koinoni. ends to th~ and aff~cts earth~y thingg. a.362 another ~ Timaeu. 12.m- bolisJII of "the n'l.

became the source of' wi~kedness and re- sulted in the multiplitationof demons (3/4~.e-ligious group . The concluding sections of thE! chapter turn to those asserted to be in second rank to the gods. or the st~s t as gods (Exh.s of: magic. were originallY a r. ) .he dem·ons.upel'stitiouEl attitudes and acts: . they approach Chapter three develops our Ii ve-li hood.g t'hat sup~:rstition (deie:id. lJ/58... 1 . tLllured by the SlEIOke n q. It makes no d1:tfe'!"ence whether the spirit..)r by demons. 5/65. it is: b:e-cs..aj. . 16/74. 2).l'l) as their teo.is of a piece 'Ilitb &11 these. 2}t it continues to hold a place in their worship (Strom.l purposes) from soothsfl. t. cons idering the un!verse.re offered to avert evils are called gods or angels (Strom.use flatterl!"}-s. These are gluttonous and impure u like ( (~O.nge18~ 31. whM the Greeks Ol. 4. 4/35. Astrology. 6.g divination from templ~ to temple'. Having originated with the Egyptians (or the ChtLld(!'ans) (Strotll+ 1.ard apologe'tic patterns. and spending time with fortune tellers and learning .yers (3.tions and sa~rifices hail (StrQJI!. 1-3).d of those irascible [gods. tbeeponym. The Magi. 6. 3) . prl!!.acrificea a. 11 are pictured vithout.Clement of Al. 2). 6. 3). but now employ their Cba-l"lQ5 --- to enslaye demons as t.ached by men led asotra. 6/61. 1). 3/31..heir to avert servants (~.. or use 1ncante. Further. 4). ell3Phas!z1n. 3/31.cherl> in many areas (Exh.J It a constant leads to these other a.exandr fa point in st.l.. "Buperst1tiouLi drea. and a fev lines earlier they 'Were identified as demons or evil a.::harms and int:antQtionfi (for immora.s tovhom s. l} t and if" they have any con.. etc . thisrurther. 3). '!'he idle vomen in Paedagogus 3. 4/28. 4.monia).::ern for man.and. distin~tionas sacrificing and pr&cticin.

7.. 32-198. book 6 (St. Apparently such purifications were required by religious scruples~ but were perrormed by sorce~~rs (goetes. 1 ~ 2'.anus ~ The -types ofi tems V1U"Y from specimens of actual lIlisinfor- ID&tio'Q or .E..Bupera.and portent5) dread of inscriptions. Bulphur) "be'llitched by sorcerers ~ in certair. ThU6 J while he does not discuss it I!!xplieitly. It" the story from Clement being only tbat i::once:r-ning the writing or the gospel of Mark. Stl'om. E. Simon's power 6nd its (H. he seems to regard the heretical sects as deviB. sorts of' things (vool. 2.l ..ting mainly in intel1.reas. 4. possiblY ~rom Clement's !!.slo trates thig vith linee fro!!! a comic poet ll Diphilus 'Who repeats the last three items of' the list. Simor. (On the othe-r band ll coa- trary to Irecaeus's views. and also adds asphalt (26. ~/26. 1. Cl~!!'nt further illu. 4.O line of division bet'Ween the ~gan religious. and. d~struet1on! r~port .tion'l (Strom. 15 ~ 1) the ~rt ingui shing of along yith hi~.364 Early Christian View looking out :f'o:l' signs . Which. 1!lDd. range from natill"al history to medica.l:t squi1115. not as engaging Indirectly related areas Clement includes allusions to or dis~usaions of other !l. 2 ~ 529). 3~19. though not directly magical. 4/2~.l lEusebius does pl"!lctic~ to music. and magical p~actices. l!m:. torche!. manifest.aa1t lumps. St. 2. :2). a sow:Iewhat analogous &t~itud~1 or ~e related to items o~ eigni~icance for the 5tu~'of Afric.science. but. seems to 'be of no conce-m .ll to Cleme-nt.tition to what 15 simpl.es r. 7. 3: 197.ectua1 and ethical in rna.ypotypos~s.:rpoor1y understood na:tura. it is quite: ~lett frOll1 these items that Clement se.gic ~ 1 ) view~. and fear of &11.. tbis episode probably belongs to the conclusion of H.at 8.J impUT@ rite-s of ~xpiB. 10-18). 26.

v.l8. also aware of the pO'W'el' Along llith me. 0 S" {W-d1 8. T.ny . t.ff (ibid. :2). . 6/26.gneti sm. attrfJ.t and according to the atands.ent is to 1n:f~uence (helkein) of' eta-tic electri~ity as manif~st~d by the po~er of the amb~r drop (d&k.s no concept of the modern notio. Phys io sand na.t u:r@! or mf).1 hi story Clement knows of the touchstone (he ba. ).tls of such things. 4.bis illustrates how the virtuous. he ha. bute..only reports its supposed power of di.tUl"fI. could one to thee &<:ceptance of other. 5.steel rings (7 ~ 2/9. ~ app arent. genuine gold (Strom. . "the Heraclean Btol1e .:sanos lithos) or Lydia. 2/9.rds of that day. CleJD.n stone.nne!' of UBe Jo 1 since~ though. 2} artd its spirit ('Pne:tJ:I1Iat_i) even 'When diffused oyer. or .pparently i e llna.stinguishing spurious from.ldings. n 84 "a:l)o S l' rr l'T.J j "iDf'luen-ced by . using it as fLn illuS1. 2). 914L. or of th@ piece of amber (~ll!:~tron).Cletnent of Alexandria bo'll~ve!'. tor him 'thl!'Y a..ration~ he. He also lrnows of the po~er of magnetite to attract steel (Hthe CDuch2.l'1 ~ 15 1...o1e Carrhetos] apiri t . &ccurate 1 'I1TCCPO:TP{~.ly.. 2.nd move (anakin.ein) chfl. less trustvortb}r..." touted stone t" Strom. tt See LSJ ~ s. 6/26. Blo1ogy and me di eine Clement has. l~ave 365 OP(!tl Thl!' nlisunderstfLr... Iith-os )..~ted [helkooenoiJ by tbe Holy Spirit:> are added Loikei"ountai J to the first abode [mor:..rna. Naturally.yngi!!neian) 2. 4) t 'through afTinity (dis. ideas. 1. <~pispa. 6/26. at rone.an 1ndefir. to attraC!'t. a fairly bro&d.)'on soucheion).e1n) t'Wigs e.r@ simply examples of the power of t be: spirit. interest in t bes e ueas..a re or it B na. tI 2.

of the magical ideaa of Sj-mpe.thy and antipathy. @pil~psy 2~3)t and goat meat contributes to (Strom. 71. 1. 6 {36. 9/83. 3-4). seems to ). beans caus e bal"renne 5S. Q~ 66. 8/61:.. 2). 6/33. 3) . 3/211. but :mustard lessens i t (~. 15190..l or birds (Strom. 3-5. and/or personal observation. cian who has had large Strom. 2}t vine does te~r1ble things to adolesc~nts (Paed. 3.A1lF' ler. 7. h). Early Christian Vi~w In the lat. 1-3. 2.ter part of Paedagogus 1.1&). Clement also ref"era sevel"al times to the dif'f'erent. 27/111. . l. 'treatment5 used by phys1ci81HI (bh. 1-51. . whether 0f 2Ilank i nd • trees. MeawHhile t Clement ia sure th~t soft beds are bad for diges- tion {Paed. end a1.Ieem to based on the lDedical c:=ounte-rpart.y PauJ. 1" . but some ot'herl3 !. 203).366 kno'lliedge.ructed. 2.nd nutriment EUld digestion I relation to blood:lo and blood and its relation to other bodily elements--all to prove that "children" (in various llew Testament pl!lasQges J es:pecialJ.2 • 2/2. while bitter roots arrest eating s~reg (1. Afrieanus. 2).o be t a. 2).ine l does not m~an "ehildish '1 and uninst. mp 11 (V1. jurioua . b~ing s\l'eet~ generates bile.0. 1.k. 4-65.. p. 70.~ II.60 to 'th@' different systems or schools of }}hysithe nempiric" (except that he I!lB clans (StranJ. 3. 3-. especially the name only by hearsay t and defines it 4!"xperien~1!to 11 "the physi2: 310) . and of' vllr-ious unguents made "from thelZl (2. Strom. Paed+ 1. Th~!. invarious flov~rs (so~ sho~~ d~~gerous:lo o~ by the et~~l­ ogy of their names [connections based on associations of ideasJ). 8/61~. items--mill:.en more or l.. he it~ presents various b101ogi'Cul.le i t~s have t. 1/8.a.nOll 7. 3. 11/96. 9/77. 76.. or C1e~nt is also aware of the properties~ be:ne~icial. 5-6. 9/ 4~. Honey."'e less on faith. 1-4). 2.

th~ "e!'iticELl creduJ.nd rrenaeus Adv. it in'Was. 15 ~ on thE!: days of creation and the s.s in pro gre-ss. 8.anizat..l1y with the Ten Com:m.no.ber seven (and otber rf~'bers) in 'bie. 1). demons themselve3 Note ~ e. ratios. a deep interest in number symbolism.reas presented a.ion and emphases.2."ld the end o~ 5. l.mp ~6/ cbr 1. 5. the introductory ~aragr~pn on the Dumber ten (133.rd. 3 3 on the same topic. some- thing 'that Christians (at least retLl.igen Origen believed in magic: 2 not justM fraud or sleight of 8.. (c~..ture of things t th~ not in a pre-determined system of signs which had es.S hend ~ or ~s a s. on the numbeT 666.ls in the: various e. volved demonic workirlgs.yt s article VllS dl!liberately avoided while thisstudJr ve.Origen other atti. and the d1scus- sion of' the' num. did not need.ctice. based in the nattU"e of things. 28. note espe-cie.-88)." A review of Be.ndmerrts.s!o a. consideration of Or.. and mue1c.sions are essentially the same..28. he ms. but the C'onclu.tudes Br!-sidoes. haer. equally. This is shmm especially in Strolflateis 6..ystem of detnOn1c responses ~ but something that really existed. . also. ones) did not pra.bove.. dealing In 'the latter discussion. g.ni. BaTOy".l. There was fraud.long vith his conte-mporaries:I! both Christ1an 1 and pagan". 16 (133-1~a).tablished (as Tatian ha. A!ricanus..g@s of the llorld lo e.ity" llbich Clement revee..'bers·''l) 2See alsO. "power of Dum. 10 BarI]. '·Oris~ne et 1& tDagie.a.fest. 11 (81. 'but this grounded in the . 60 the 1:\10 studies differ in o!'g. in its :purpose (to deceive and lead from the truth)~ but not n~ces5arily in its ~eans (in the true cases). dealing explic:- itly vith proportl~n. and 6. But it 'Was .d argued).

o:llmltending magic and sorcery (.gegen Celsus i Die Schr.. Koet.scbau.utions "that it should not be 6:t most the demons can onl.enil:!s Werke. 18-20)... 11-14.C!'!. .eo.AP. 1913). zvelter Band: Buch V-VIII .{arty:riUlll...1ng of the terms.. ni':l:es this als.::::e=ue=in:.ed terms... 2: 276. 6o~ K.nding of what tbey involve. e: l!l.ng of cha.1 11 Origen a!J!3UJ!1es a. Paw. the openi. lDIJ... (Cited as K~.e such items 01" corrects misund~r1i..p. and an und~rsta...n1 ty ~ asserting that this is tantmount to rec...::1~no. or other thlnga re1~ting to this life {8..bout lOris.. Origen is not fully eonvin~ed tha.' Buch I-IV g!"!gen Ce-lsus. erster Band : Di_4!" Schrift vom }....~-=-. 60).. Discussions of 'What is magi~? l!I~ic: In generfl.t. :followed by volume~ paget aDd 11n~ number3~ wh".ematically and on a grander sc-B.Xnrn. £&. ed. Die Griechiechen Christl1chen Schriftsteller del" ersten drei Jahrhunderte [vols..:.. :cg~a~n.:.368 In ~ost Ear1y Christian Viev detaila.. 50 . b0\7~ve-rt recogoverdon~...=m...-=-'.ift yOm Gebe:t.ndings of what he conce1vesto be their true . 2 11 3~ and 22J (Leip~1g~ J.. or foretell :fortunes.Oeia in line 9....bove) &s bel ng n cur i ously i nquis i ti .l:g:.t they can do e.. 'Near the end of" Contra... chapters l!I. en this (lines 33-3'5) ~ but in the next chapter details the whole ~omplex (whicl1 he has named timagic: Me! sore ery" just a.. lr. C+ Hiorichs·sche Buchhandlung~ 1899.1"e desirable.y hee. 2. espe<:ially the goe.o.'ta.:. CelsUlIl favoring of Egyptian b~lief"s at O:rigen reacts to Celaus's l'egQl"ding the deoons over Christia..e. 276.groups). Origen's views &re quite similar to those of Clil:!lIlent ~ but expressed more syst.nowledge of the meUl. 6 59'J + lL 2...and manaan..) .o t and ca.1. aJ.an~ .pleaning..-=..u:.:. for magie (Jnageia and relat. 1 CelBus.:e.J:ka=i=-.l the' body. f'iinfter Band ~ De Prl~cipi is CnEPI . but in a fev passages ~ he lists SO:tD..re more precise ref"e::rent:es than the traditional books and.

obliquely blaming him for confusing matters concerning magic . "The denial is reinforced by B. and in 6.noth~r list. aft.3 These proeedures in~lude "methods of purification. 29-109· 3).· ) eJ) d sore ery (ph.ANF 5.t serpents a. l. Or t. .yron t a a.662-63 (italics to a.2 Ori ge-n r hi :In a... 2: 108. of magical opera. 22-25) for not be'ing ab.same fOr his understfl. .inted vitn prophylactics for poisons Md diseasest and.po q'llot~srol:lJ te smagi ke 5 goeteias. or re:siI!!mblanees of demons.1 de ring man)' of grant1~g t.1~.er correcting the matter of demonic Wld.hinBs rr (6.a.C. 2He is similarly taxed in C. Co 5-. 28~ 32~ fil!tc::. or roots'lo or generallY in all kinds of t. 39 t ~ 4 ~ 591" K.u~stion.. n (6.Origen thil!name-s o·:f demons.. Even tb.d} in . El a f!'Jthere) ho'Weve:r" Orig~n ha. re-tusal to tr~o. 7_10). the virtues lEnglish 'translation frOJl!.he various sorts of antidotes against poison {to be foun. 2::2'71. Frederick Crombie~ "o:r1gen t n ANF L: 221-669.g1es are acqus... Or1gen hi1!lSelf present5 tbia distinction in 6.TraBsing Q..nding of ma. -or 4!!~iatory hylrtns (lyterious QdasJ .i n g of') lll)8.1e to keep the ma.ddedJ.8 {K~ 1:109. or spells for averting ~vil [aP9ppm-oimous phOna'S ] l' or (the mfllt.ttribut~d by C~lsus -to Christians:> a:ttrlbution li"hich Ori- g~n ~phaticall1 denies).u'ther + Sine e Ori gen does not dodge hard . 2: 108 . 2: 15120-25)" but he does not do the.1 C~lsus 011 Some tittle nBllles p!'1()~ this. 6.geia and KOete1a. .. 6.clcthes~ 0'1:' in numbers t or Qtones) or plants.1 s sues @lse"i7here t there voul d appear to be no reMon to question his inge-nuousness her!'. .goi and the Ch&ldaioi correctly dis'tinguis.s obj ected to cons.tions {ap&II parently a. further . their powers and !Seney" the 1 ncantations I the 369 herbs pl"Oper to them t and the stonesvith inscriptions gr'Etven on th~II1 corresponding syaibOl ically or othervi se to their traM'tionAl sba.hed.:t th~ matter f1.nd e-a.. 80 (K.ges. K. 39" K.hese things as sorcer'j. St!@ Origen 'l s disclaimers at the end of 6.pes. 26. he is Dot pleading ignorance: to avoid an e-mba. .

"f.1 Th~ v9.. and &. 35. if so.. that Or1gen regarded magic as a distinct 'body of k.")d Horaeu:!iI'lo and from the Hebrew Scriptur~s" various other n~s (6.d:.. did not r~a.sn (tez ton or. while he 5 as apparently an E)..0 K. ) ..e. ! ~ 231.nowledge and practice: (going back to the Persian l:!!4B. 7-10). Tha.oU5 (and their refuma~e po~e'r tation more difficult) ... since CelsuB does not does he believe his examples of Bupernatural his own or not? 2 vie~ clear: If not..1"ding supernaturalism~ an apologetic coup). K. 86.l"lie'r in the cha.lly 'believe in it. 2~102. as frequently regarded today.JoJt.lue of Celsus' £i arguments are ambig:u.ence' of sor- ce:ry (goeteia)as it.oi?). opposed to the dominant Gr~ek view (vhich would put the Greeks on Origen' s side in the question !"~gtl. ANF ~: 588 .r admits the lE(f. 1=357. K. revers~ Or1g~n. these are not evid.leit..gic [ta mageiasJ . vhic:b follows in the t. ... ¥here Origen ecores against Celsus's ad hominem argument 10tbieh seems to allow the existence of magic: . etc.her understanding ma. 12-29). ll-21). then he should ad. ... 11 having '1bor_ roved from magic the names of' IaldabEtOth ~ and As'taphaeus. 1.&. a. 11-20). also e...ext above. then he has fLdmitted at least the basi!'! of' the Christian view of ehr i st (£.) 2Cf . The vhole passage serves to suggest. is commonly underetoo-d (4. (Modern scholars reverse Origen's verdict on Celsus's Epicurean vievs.).ln.it it.r of n~e. seems to be confirmed by the totality of his references to magic+ (Note espe~ially :3..c.. he a1rea.:Jicurea n .oetes) ~ho ttdelude those _ho are easily ca. on 'the other hand.rly Christian Viev th~ of various stones to preserve young.rried away b". is in no danger frOl:!l an a. 3 ~ 35. confused amalgam of remnants of old~r r-e1igions.o the dilem:na.370 Eo.. 11 ~ 12}.ttempt t. l=l22.pter Drig~n :speaks of them as "aorcerers 11 (p. are ther::lSelves confused. 2 :102.t this is Or1gen's vie.r the glitt. or. not as itself 'being s. Those from whom Celsus d~rived his a~cusations against the Christians (Ophites . 68 (K. nor discriminating the meaning of holy Scripture~" and have Hthrcvn everything into conf-usion [pant' ephyranJ. 32.i"gue openly as an Ep1cureaJ'l .aton ph~T1tas ias {AlW ~: 588 ~ K.

Uld believe a. 45). 3 ~ortation viev is presented in the- to Marty:rdom~ the demons.he :reality of the lesser trOl!J wh i ~h he argues. 20.&. AUF c:!!'rt~i n pm. .an &::rbitrary t convent. 39). fuIesu lfa.4. 2.m. 15-21). 18-75. or other povers sumDloned. :m.e.m~8t pronounced in the right set of cir- languAge of his area.hose countries..ssing the natU!'~ T of mlJnes.rious nations (K. but something they themselves believe. 5.accepts t. cf. Not e al ao De pr. Q.Origea ex:1 stene e of demons t only denyi ng them iI.S the va.s a 25.C. 12. 2qt Bffrl"dy cites Selects.t us. 5~ In Num. 3. 1. t ho:m. l35~ ~ith n. 2. view at some length in.he nature of things. Ir p.is Wi argument !roo the 1 es se r to the greater (if it is so of d~na t hOW" mu~hmor~ care should be used in the na. :3.J . t p. :3Age. 27). Origen vieW's magi c as a conal gtent r:!aJ!JeS sy~t.65 and 6. hQEl. d:iscu.o C. 4 ("O:rig~ne et Ie.o rule the ve. fl. 5.r. further. 25. also. 5. 'Where the 1\ris dom of the rulers of this yorld" (occult 1rlsdom) is not something they impose on mankind deceptively. 371 high st a. .rious nations ex- pert in nLagi~ knm. The same h~406-7. 17.. hA"Ould not respond to . ill the next chaptert by arguing that incantations are vitiated by 'trans1atiofi t it is "pot the things signified.!!2El. K.es of' God). 2 He develops this idea.ionallJ' lOr i gen t s exp1 i c it point her. 16-22. 258. the~e nl9. but Origents real idea of t. for the of the demons in various languages a. y 2In a. also t In Ies1J. Nave. in Genea. but he . l. 1 (ibid. How doe s i t work. have grea. 1.o be an ad hoollnem argument. :3.re lIe expands this those appropriate to the dem::tns of t. to distinguish these nan:aes properl.C. but the qualitie$ and pectU i ar i ti es of wrdsvhi ch p-os Ses. 5:257- 60 esp."e-r Ir (C. (i n general)? Names. It is i:mpor- tant. 134 t continuation of n.. re'peated i~ C.C. thi s ti~ems not t.n- certain thine. C. 1:76. 23.vt!'t .em ~ not an u.i n. 1~74..s beings appointed t. 34).t pOll'~r 1 (c.ddition t. K.agie.

1j7 death for tbe common good. c. 5. vithout a true lmovledge of th. but they do eom-e qui ckly at the properly pronounced Bounds i' as by gome: UXlobaerva'b1e na. b(! the Dlea.lpport the repre eentat i V~ na. 1. I t ef.henta) name. Mar-..y thus use thel!l ef'fectively. and the use of SCl"ipture names and e.. K.. 92.J affinity 'With e.rt or Ja.coO~ or Ab!'uham.372 Early Chri5ti~ Viev a. Isaa~~ and l' in tb~ conjura.C.lCl2Jagic in In J~su th~ir Ns. ude. Those vho knov the appro- pri. This i B Sho'lo'71 b.. K. . in an argum. L.v(!. 3~.tural 'force {phYs~i atneoret~) (Exh.ture of Christ's death by the use of the variol"ll.in specie!iJ of' animal'· (C. cert e. 93 [quotation from chap. 22. Further.l.ate naJnes ma.OfiS A aiJIlilar situation f!x. 93 y Am:.n..1 r. :303. 46. vol'Wl- t8.!sts in a..ture of' things (~n toe physei ton lop..i t. 1.e [phvsin toiB:utenj that one just. 21-73. 1:366. 1.tion or exot"cism of d~on5 and in other incanta- tions and magical rites by the Egyptians.ed. dying E!.ent to Sl.ble u (eikos) tbat "in the na.ces (H. 1:72. 31-304~ 4.ous) which are di ffi c'Ul t to be under5 tood by the mult. thed(!DI. "the God or Abraham..lo Creek and barbarian acCO'IIDts of self-sacrifice for public adv·antage ~ Origen suggests that it is "proba. h. "each speciea of demo~ .~ hom.4-153).e being which is n8JD. 1.ugury responsible for it have enterl:!!d into the sever&! speeie:s of animals... and 30~.. 22-30)... [there isJ such a virtu. 33. :J:tIan. AlJ&!n' and di vinati0 r1 and divinatio... 45.. 4~539" K. K.ns of removing vieked preesions: by the natiQns in ~ote also £&.ss i gned (thes ei. 20. and in treatises on magit 1 found in ~y pla. C. 10-1i). might.:pr It tbe videspread use of" -e::<pressiona such aE. 1. 1:42. Lseeming] to pos sess a c ert8.

K. or their inclinationa~ in certain operEltiona (C. ia.£.ention to In Ies..oll) Similarly the demons &re led by in.om~noti kai o.oc&tions.power t'rom evil clemons:t vbo are spell~bo'UJld by elabo:rat~ ioc-a. 22-26). K..pon 'by e bantls" {phi 1t:r--ois ~. 23-26)..he supernatural strength of: the spirits ~ou1d accomplish by using spelle (epQ:de) vhieh invok~d the spirits (c ~ C. on familt.£. 2: 218. 2. 1i 2~216.i manganeion) lBardy ealls Bpec=iB. 26-30).r terms with evil spirits. incantations li and use of nflmes ("Origene et la nLagie. 1001' e IiJpe-e if" i cally t they a. K. K. 61.ces ttoy a eort of m&gie 61 torce n (or rites and 1ncan tat ions.lled u. (s]Jells. K. Magic and sorcery "deri V~ th(!ir. 1 ~110 . 1.gi.. 20..opois goesin hypakouonton) (C. &I1d 'be-CO:ll1e subject to sorcerers u (k~takl." (. ANF t While the specific mecbani~sof magic are in 60me myst~rious ror~e:t the operative means are 1ncanta. 2Q-21}t 01"." p. Row does it work. This includes the dedication or famous temples ac- complished by n~u:rious magical inca.nganeion} (ibid..C.f those who zealously served the demon vith magical arts {1:IlB. ..:409 ..:.u Nave I hoaJ.ions. 1II0l'l5 Elsewhere t Origen simila. 1. worked s'Uch things &8 V&y ~ontrol The Mo. incantations and spirits)? 373 of plagues ~ o. 51. vhich are the cause 1. 69. .5esip(!:riel"goig thelg. lines 30.tat..rly speaks of the de- beingattachedto-. ka. W'hieh lists various tbings the pagans aceoIllplish by eh&3"'nls. O". 60.nthr.re ea.n.. . 7. teleot on .ntations'" (kEltakliseis pe-riel"gous) b'-.r ._C.1 att. . 32).. 1:32~ l!lnd ~.Origen spirits.C. 13). (c .. or rel:lloved to t specific pla.. 23)? . to induce them to do the-wish e-s of the one invok i ng ther. Am' 4:~51. 1. 7. 1~17L.tions 1 vhich in s01De the demons who are 'the operative power behind it. 31. 1:82.

B. 1:231. iIUld 3. ic:k transla.lit. . 3.e.. 5~).8.radoxoiJ. 4-5). ex epQdon dynamesi) (1.157. 1. The picture which Celsus gives further suggests that ~r of tho~e- 'Who have learned from the Egrptians then travelled about giving public demonstra. 1. 19-2O):Ii and t.rve11ous powers of incantfl. K. 34. 68~ K.tions and teaching their kno'!Jl- edge to anyone for Is it I'true·'? 8. fe".te's . . but 'to O.~2'2 . the main contemporary adepts seem to b-e 'the Egyptians their :m..rconfuted·· (Origen = Contra Cels'Um [Cambridge: Univ~rsity Press.y of ma. 8 and 11. yet he spbk~ usa of: the refuting (or convicting. 6!J:a K. 58 and 6o).. 1: 81. . :p. 33 t K. Origen believed in the :r-ea. 1=304 .. 'Who does it"? The Magi are the prototype practitioners of nmgic.. 2..re only historicl!IJ. 30 j. 1.C. 7- 5~ K.!I1d Jacob ~ ar-e found in places" (4..of terateia in the same chapter [179.. K.. elenchtheises)l of the so1'- eery of the demons done for the Magi (c..gi c: ~ and he even scored Celsus for seemingly doubting it.teuesthai) 1 thr~e times (2.ri- gen they a.C.R-Q..tiotl (tais. also 7..c ~ . 1-2) and on(! oceurl"ence each of the ~ut paired with katalrtbeises . plus one oecurrerlce. 55".. 6o~ K.374 or by their awn evil prerer~nces (C. figures (C.10). 1-3. 10 179. Is8. K+ 1=178. . and "for CelsuB also . 1953J.. In one ehapt~r alone he refers to Udoing tr1cks l1 (tera. 2). 1~111. and 60 -perhaps simply a f&ctu!ll statement rather than a moral j'U~nt. Henry Chad. 2:214. 5-13).. For him.c.he: books of" magi c vhi ch in"~r elude the :names 01' Abraham... Aa noted above (page 367). <:oins (1.

1: 228. AJW 4 :. assuming that they are not inven- tion.rigen volved.t~iQ or inv~r.n and the caus- ins. re Abaris the ltrp~rborean)~ or a de-man contrived that the "the Cla~OllJ. 1 ~ 179. 1. J man6a.sically an ad hominem argJ. Such reports mus.io['] (Rlasmata) (3. 32. 13-15.Se Origen does not believe the could actually contrive for Stich things to bappen [K.ra. 10-13. 315 He uses the pejol"Qtive t1!ms goes ~ go_ete:ia. lC . but he returns to the question later (3.Jt. goeteuein.e di scussior.flgl"ee \ti1:. 26-28J).. 1:122. 27 K. a. se~nLS In some cases.453-54. 1: 228. 5-182.argu. regu.t it is ll. 30 and 180.224. r~port should be eommitt~d to ~riting (3. they must haVe- ha. along with a liberal .~ert ahow tha.ppene:d throUgh the cooperation of: aome demon (3~ 31.ot The sp~cifi~ il!"xampl~s si:mpl~ fakery tho. howe.J. of non-li.nce ~ banq ti~t s vi th no real existenc e 'but only e.Orige-n ba. utili~es In tb.. 23J). re d~mot) in this C6. which appear. ing things to move.t is inthough O.. 5).J immediat..ely fo11oving. or the d~oo oaused people to think they saw it by a dec~ption (au~te) .. these are quoted from Celsus~ but Origen ap- pel?.h the I'Jev" or Celstis that many '\. and ~restatioD of a resurrection..gre~s as to the nature - 55.sprinkling Q1" mangane1a.arly. .en1an".01"igen noun and the verb in the next chs-pter [179..t be 4!ither t t~ra. haying only an appearance of life (l~ 68~ K.~ho practice such juggling tricks" (teratl2'ues'tbai) do so to de.. that Plight be the BO. ~xp1at1Qtion) not to think EXBl!Iples of this 'Would 'be the pl"oduction of app~i!). 26) using a more revealing line of' . 55-58.:t the "Jew tl (2.a~tual1y l6).neuein.lment again:!. - 1~179. 7-12) t he dis- The specific "trick" re- ferred to is the pr~diction. K.rs to accept theo as true &ccounts). or the decepti on. K.. ~~i"'re and !D!!ke gain (:2..ment. While Origen would seem to .

K. K.. 1:230. hovever~ 1 The . ..376 Early Christian View (3. or effeets 'Were produced b J tbi!' ftmaBical arts tlnd rites of the :Egyptians" (manganeias 7 an Aigrpt100 tai teletas) who s~t up a.noesses a. C.an practitioners. turn thl!'!lI fran God (7. 36:10 K. In the la:st case ~ gome: test..xis.hose whO ma. hum. 02:" punishing (3.eified person .ion of deceptive' appeEll'aII.. 5-6 [in contl!!rt monic use of poyers of prophecYt but it is appli~a.le there is human fraud involved ~ at least some is demonic...6 This constitutes the vbole system ttdeceptive" irr~specth~e 01' the queation of possible frauds among It ends in the corruption and de~truct1on.~ coneisting of the p:roduet.jor duplicity.blYt a grea.. 8.. is in the purpose: to deceive men and thi a ~e fers to de- 5:11 K.1. 1~232.ons" and other5 HWe 1lL1"'e misled bY' their O'Wll guilty (or ak. ~ote 6~ h5-the . re Antinous).t.20-24).. 12-1L~ roe Cleome:des of Astj'IJalaea). 1. 17)..y gain.W ~ =~ 7B~ 6 J{. of all who use it {6. 36:10 A. theory Bond prs. 1-271. flo.. 2 =151...id far surpas!Jing that vhieh 'th~ demons give th~ sorcerers (tous goetlLS) who deceive men for the lowest purposes (ta pha\tloterta. demon to impersona.210. 2. 5h y K. 13-20. sO:ttle lIit. Discussions of. 2.ble to all their actsJ. C.re det:eived (apatomenoi) by diE!!m..proph e:e:ying and healing 1 ~ :232.t deal of' overlap between the preceding d1scussi-on and that \ojhi~h rolloW's]I but the preceding vas in- tended to identify Or1g~nls basic ideas of magic and thewagicians y devil him5elf' aids Antichrist to simulate good ~ do l~ting miracles 11 etc . 21-30)." asthenous) consciences (3 .ces:to etc . -fl. Thus'l vhf.tapseudontai) by t.l2lS.e the d. 22-25) . 116. (K. 2:151.imony i lyi ng (ks. There is t in@vita. 33 .

t ions .) to t. 8~15). 1. 24 it is logo? b~thys ks. 1. 301~ 310~ 31~).JJl. names ~ 'than with th~ . ref'erre d to by Ori gerJ.r-58. 1 Though i.b~ir properly pro:n.ge expresses most accurately t.n. b6 ~ K.£.t-!ar. 1: l6.Q.mateia.. K.Ofl.Dorrheto5~ K~ 1:74.s (c . and the key to demonic action is the proper use of mmes and assoc1t1.ctiQn (which will be.J The same applies to the nam.lled by various names ~ approp:riately to the du ti el!i the-y perform a.kristot~lian.")QWl1 to those \i'h(.C. 14-11).. Rxh .l:lleti The delOOns respond quickly (tacha.ncantations are t'r~qllently .1.gus. bathytat. oot from humM convention or invention ~ but f'ro:m nature its-elf (fLgree- ing more closely with t. 11). Names and in~antations The key to magiC' in Origents view is demonic fl.Orlgen while that vhich follows concentratfts Oil JT7 its methodologf~ both the- oretical and pr&ctiC'8. 39). and.oun~ed as thou.d to them either. 1 derived~ Nl.ted incant a.ent pover QV~r de.:.e s i t (6. .C.Stoic.e hfl. 2 :IlB.ture of 'the demon5 spe:ak it (.gh led by a certain unseen ni!'lt'1ll'al poyer (tin! ph. s.ll!les are like language in g~neral. lO-ll. own gods c . 1 ~ ~2. and each la. 24).D. k.spre-em!r.he.rsei s. theEpicw:-ean~ vielis of 'but not quite bO'U. 1. Eaeh nat i On nam. 2compare also his distinction betveen belieV'ing in Jt!'S'Ils" nSJUe and believing in Jeaus ~ snd their results in Co:mnentaq on John (10.er £ (prap. 24. 25.T + 46> K. namt!'s see:m to be the potent ~lements in them. Nature of names.ht! n6.dis~ussed below) .c cording toGQd I a wi 11 ) t and also to Cbri st Vhose nalii. 1.the-oretg) (Exh . somewhat. 5~ 45).. This is a very deep and Bubtle l!ItLtt. 44/[28J. 1: 42 in~.e ka1 anakechorekuis.es and func- tions of angels (vho are cs.

hose!1~es! curiou'Sly inquisitive about de-mollie etc. 2This despite th~ fact that Origen elsevhere has argued agaicst a.oeem to question its va1idi t~r its. 2:217.l that Cnr i sti B. of.tions (which he appea.ngu... T.:ria ties of vords Chai pgiotetes kai idiot. ine-ff'icac:iou6 and feeble (atonon k. eontrary to Celsus ' s charges (e.lly. 1-5.ss~l'tion of th~ indifference of the divine designation.hip practices of the unschooled (and the contrast doe~ further empba. 25! ANF' 4: 2107 5 K. 6l.those &<::~E!Ptable to God are 'thOse who trust lii. God hears them all 3-~3 2 but :pray each in his Olo"n lal'lguage! sin~e (e. In 5. repor-ted.tes~whieh posses~ certain power" (c.e.. 3r. C.y~r). the::.~ Incantations. a. In addition. 32 he is desr:ribi:ng actual vo:rs.:m. 18-28. Christians are so far :from this.. cf. 12-1~)..~ninJ" if t!"ans- 1ated.nS are inval. while: in 6. 1..rs to assume to ~..1 Origen re- ports 'this as from utbose who are 5killed in the use of inca.e. 14-15). K. 1:75.fI. in both these pasaages~ Origen is speaking so:ne"n"hat pedantictl..ntations lo the 6~ result is They are of' f'orce (energesai) only in their p1"op~r la. 2:252. 45.e cording to the numerous 11sted variables of' pronunciation in Ex}).c.318 Early Chri stian Vit:!.i whir:h their translations vould not ha'Te (c. ed in these areas (ibid. Spirits The domnant e1em~nt in Ol"igen" s theory of l!IS. really ~ff'ect1v~). 1 =161' 16-22). c~c~ 6.ntations [hoi .. 32~ Lo.ltl t not t. K. 8.gic is one that ~ote also hi semphas i g on tlle proper SOU-"ldi ng of n. lines 16-17). 40). K.e-s !i.ge-s t and are . Celsus·s ..). 1~~2. oWD realm. thus it is t:lot the thing said but to~ ~honon Itth~ qualities and pecul1a.ai ouden d:mam.. that. hOYev~r~ Origen is referring to magical ~ses of these and ot.her nBIIJea in incanta..45.g~. -. In tlle use of inc.size the non-l:D&gical \'i~ of pra. 8.. ill epodon deiJi:oi J" but does not r. though he den i e!.' do cot even use the precise Scriptural names of God. r~ar. also L 2~ .e. . 46 (K. K. 2:50.nd attributed P0\l'(!-l" to Sabaoth or Adona. 5.

in Num. 1 and ~. t.. K.. 8... crop-a" e'tc.y into his whole 'World-v1ew--his theory of spirits.£. 5.e11c status a.he detl)Onfl69~ they are evi1't daimOll is not a neutre.1'term (c. T. 65. rea~~. t K.5. component. 6.. :2: 5.C. 1.. those 'With slight of'fense are l!l.o.)... 1.218. 15-16. as. ~rve..tbe d~ns can a:f'fect them only negatively. 'the natures of' demons lDaY bring 'them into Hom.. 16-20.2. is subject t.ve. g . but not. 3. this includes the sun'!' ~ moon" llnd stars whi'Ch EU'e se!1tient) volitional beings . . De pr.t . geographical or othe:rvis. 7. 2~ 11. cf . C. The most guilty are demons. c. pOW'~r 2 But this . in of God). 5.£. or influence:.=.. 31).. 1-12 }l__but Ori- gen'B controlling belief in fl'ee-vill required tha.'ld po sit ion also be determi ned by de sert (De pI'" + 1. 24. o.in emphasis is on 'l.£.. pr. 1. 1. 1:8 unihighly organiz.. '3.o ce-rtain restraints: only the angel5 are assigned positive power over the good things of human life (air.~e orders" 'etc. 2-3" 5. In this matter. ll). or ~hoose. 25.ed.c. their various areae.. praef'.DrigEm 379 irJtegrate~ it f'Ull. respectiyely. 8. 5: 94 .hey cfIJJle to their preeent statuses as al"esult of sin (r~be:llion). 5. to human under standi ng lUld l":ontro1. 3..cter!:! (De pr.:. The spiritual versally of which man is a lCW'-leve1.ne.e. 25 t therE! are BI'lgels of the devil as veIl as angels Th.els of variQ1. 8. . the ma. 8. of spirits is in the cre'a- t10n of' God. and at least partially 6ubJe-et.. On Pra. 1. 3.ine judgments or discipline (C. executioners of' di . 4.ne. 7. 29-30). 4.e de:mons (and angels) are assigned to.si. 8 + 1 16-22. the char6-Cter . 2 In addition.cC'ording to their chara. 10-11 . 1. (f.yer 7. 6. The origin.

2~276.he sattle (6.first reference.380 Early Christian Vie~ I. The Magi had such contrO. 39. K.lHlm t Isaae ~ andJ.aeob rt (C. Celsum 8. 5. 22.. Origen i E. 45). 2).s (as in divination) (C+C+ ~. 33. e...nd do other things.er t.he dis. 1.t be kept distinct ~ the dl!!:lDOns of the varlotis nat ions aT@! not t. OTigen puts no lim! t to the demonic poyer in or- dinary eir~u:mstanc:e-5.ere inV'ol"'ed in this kind of a-ction ll citing (:ertain I1p:resbyt~r5" VhOCl he found using ba.ric nB. In the . the eartlfbo'lmd (p(!Tigl!i~n) demons re5PC'!1sibl~ for l1188ic . ~t c + ). ae did the Egyptians and those taught bY"th~m (e. Other "barba. c.ve great pO\l'er which is availa.1 (G.cussion of na.. 60. K+ 2:108. 1.£ove-d by conjuration of the spirits using the proper names and.Lpe:c:ia1.e. 1520 )) but. related to morta.so used by pr. Especia..) The: appropria:te control is aehi.~ 1. 92. in the final analysis.. . etc.rigen again holding that tbey mUij. K. g . 27-73. 1. 93). of demons" were aJ. 1-23).t the Further. see also 4..cti c:e S I!ems to have "become videsprl!!&d ( ~ ..ent ~ appearances only.. Celsus -:::h!U'ged that Christians . 6o~ he pictures C~13us &s backing down his claims~ e. The demons ha.rbarous books containing the names of delllons and .llggesting.l existence (K.ble' to th-ose: 'Who can eor. 33 . but in the second he seems to imply tha.l not :fully ready to concede tbe real i t.rtrol them.. that. CQntra. 34.sed above.mes).l the body.lly powerful (and videlll!Jl"elld) !U'~ those involving the 1't "God of AbrahamH or o f' Abre. for@-t~ll the tutur!!:. 1 = 304. othe:r appro- 'Priate forms in the spells (as~oted above und..have been discu.'{ of even ~Othel" a-:::ts--deceptive resurrections these acts (lines 33-35). 68).2lleS 1:12. and the pra. c.actitioners t O. 1 n 1~ work3 are ess enti &lly f'rQudul. relations with varioue anim6J.can only hea.

23- 28).K:eLi manganeion) (3. 31). 3L . the t'urtheranee of evil.3:2) • Fto1eII:iY" sima. llourieh@d ec. 30..ces or i.rol ~ the c3. 3. 2:157. . g_.Origen marvels. For this r@'a. 5~ 6~.demon {e.nkind (6.C. 45).. 611> 6). a prominent agency of the dl!:mons (8. K.ma.c. IP!"i t~s &.nd itlcanta. they a. 1:122. blood. There Is thus.. 1. De pl'.crifices.tes appear to 'be.231.C'. Orige-n replied by a denitl. ons It (tele:ton • + .. Exh.2. and specifical.C.. 9. 6) _ Further ~ even when the human go. Origen" B ar-guments against invoking 5. 8. l'espectiyel. (On ~. . 1. ~ontrol becomes obvious (1.C.of Sera-pis ~ for pecially attracted by the: smoke.tor no good purposes. 3. 3 . but to ha. 20 11 218. 14). 2. 61 . K. 69 .1 !Supported by popule. llt-1B..116. &re being served (C. a l'l!Ltionalization of their seeming success is pre.d l.rning in... 36. which they need to survive 1. whicb they pro:fessed to use. 216.Yt K.re not Prayer 27..ges b~.ge. the same demonic forces are behlnd both (C. The' demonic power~ hovever~ is ~vo-sided~ and the hu=an may be 1 the one controlled (possess~d) by 'the.Mar. 3. 10.. ef. De pr. In general.ly. 2:109. 6... 68. 32. of the sa.wot e angels in ~~ &lso 'the wa. 3h t K~ 1. Angels apparently she.. .. 5.rm ma. ~5. 4-6}. 8. et.re this need. no real boundary between magic. 13.aon 1l even magic provides for the exorcis~ {exelauneitl} of d'!!mons in its repertoire (C. Mt. 3. 5. 214.eJ!Ql1ic ends.tmd 'pagan worship.sent@d in ConmJ. also 1. the demons are bound to certain ple. K... 40. 10J ~ yet they were attracted on materia1 bro!'8. t:5. their In the ease of oracles.r knowledge or Chri stl fIJ] character) . 541 . 7.in cont.

lines 12-13 L 2 Further.t1 yes concerning him (tE!S s:otLnPjelias t_on historion) {ibid . 6~ 7).lly so in vie\l of Origen IS intellect:ualist bent.. They are at his side as he 'Praya. ed.. B. ~eJ1 and angels {OJ. Joseph Needham Of ell York ~ Macmillan Compa. n t ht!!! pI-ayers are Dot 1 addres sed to them. b~' lLn assembly of' Celsus charged that Christians also worked by the demonic nQ. "Magi c Seie:oce fl.nicent of worship in C. 1.e. ) The vorshippers and the att ending spi r1ts form a double e. Origen state!illo t:tl."lY t 1925). reply. accompo. K..ttl (11.it Encyclopedi a. 1: 59. they may be ac:c-Oi1t. lIrotl i s 16"" }~a1 i novski.ssembly..rd (On Pr~yer 11. !n 8-10). but if the l!len become lax and sin:fu1. and a1so pray with hi. 8-11). p.nd incantations (ke.d Rel1gion..ngels (31.fLssing for the furtber :pictures of angelic aid and. they hear and do what tbey Can he prays t gen~ral for him as having received a cOJ:!lJland (to minister to ma. as Jesus had 'Worked by sorcer:f (goeteie..gical inte!"preta. 6. Gardi ner" rtMag.takelesesi) US~ of (c.! Pr&er 31. 5:91.tion of the matter likel.) (lines 21~22).C. ~). to enlighten the subJ ect and produce faith. nli sten1 ng in. (They are.) On the oth~r bide~ angels &r~ associated vith the worship of the Christian.. g. HB.n in Science :Religion and l1~ality... This seems ~spe~ially probable in view of tbe context~ If' Origen had considereo any ma.Panied wicked a. even llhefl unasked &G (lI. but need not be.y" he voUld hardly have introduced it into lS~~ . 5+ ~ and 53 and the irrationality of invoking them in the latter chapter.pt ia. 64). 5)..he name o~ J~sus t a. 2This Dould be seen as the IJI!Lgic&1 use of a narrative (see. 8.!ong vi th th~ r~eital of the narrll. on. s ti ngs.i c t Eg. &nd Et hi C' s ~ ed. bj1}..n] . c. 5).II. howe ver.ll1es a. 69). e. It K. 8 ~ 26 5.kletoi) aiding him against the demons (C. Alan H. it is more likely to Tefer simply to a narration of Christ's pO\ler. c:f.at the Cm-istiB. of :R eli gi.n:ll: use only t.r~rly Christian View to the altars of Israel and there were nourished [De pro 1.. This is especia.

ttre. c. .. h.• C • L 6 S up:port thi 8 vi I!!W in gene :t6ol.a.ator.1gen elsewhere speakS of a Bort of "natural B.tb of' ChTist is uniq·u. (c. .are difticult to be understood Ckata tines aporrhetous kai 4. fear t h~ t!'t::Uni ty 0 r the demon s (to.. 230'10 l1nes2C-23)" tnougb perhaps mutuB. either is limited without the ot.nger to their country: "For it is probable that. 1. the discussion. seemingly gratuitously (cf.e-rlins us~d it successfully for auch purpose-s (lines 16-17). . Robert Girod.c. but th.s which . 27.~nt&ire sur llEvangil~ sclonMa.U"e Pi (lines 28-32). K.ction" (tina. 3) i and not only so.. . 13-15. The death of Christ has re- due ed the demons t.e name of Jeaus and which are The pove~ o thel' vords r~lied on e. ~ 3. but even from anl1J'. dri ven myr i ads of demons. the-re is in the nature of things (en ti physei ton pragm.Origen the molrll!nt the S01U'ce of Jesus I yorks ~ it is clee.. ComtrJ. .20).tthieu t vol. But this also 1 S~~1:i to be founded on a general principle.. ~ven of Jesus' name is such that wicked men nave on occasion It has alrea. 1.ion vould be ~ better description. 26) '\!tho try to destro)" Chri stian i ty ( 3.iennea..I!' t but there ue ana10gies to it in those """'ho have di~d 'to re-n:ove 0. 32/37 )..17. B. 3.. from thE! souls and 'bodies of men 'lo power (energe:sa-I'))( c.l interrelat.. 27 ~ 43) '10 they ar~ pro- tected by the supreme God (8. 7. 29. and 22. Mt.. a sort of" natural 1a.Ysleptol. Henry Cha.o im'potenc e (7 .d)r ~x. 1: 76.I(3-~6). no. &150 1 On Prayer 12. but do note the other possi"b111ty {Orig~n.ris~ Les Editions du Cerfo 1910J lo p.JJ ~ tor certain mysterious re-asorJ.J. p. 32.s . K" :2: 258... 10. '10 p. K- C'hri st ians need not.. 1: Livres X et XI t SQurl::~S -c:hret... 36).omm. lOr.. 67. 25.eeording to the divine 5cript'l.r that thl!" Cbris·tians N do not employ spells (I!!Jiidon). 232'10 lines .. 7. 162 [Pa. B. 67).h~~ (ibid. c. Origene: Co:mn.a rd the hUtt!'An rae e . lO~ notes 1 and 4).d:wi ck ' B notes on C.7. 43. 28) andfronJ ilnag~s (8.. the dee. .. ..al:s 2: 216. E!?Ysike holk~) ·of faith and the divine power (£. 8. 19. also. d. C. J n.

ehap.. in~luding J~phtha. 6. Conzn. such a virtue [physin to1autenJ that one Just man. The first occurs in tl quota. but vit-hout i nforma- tion as to their specific manners of use. vith &n emphasi s on its u..:.t'l.i zed po. 5. 372. on~ a.ddition to the :pas e.1so~ p.gica Origen T 9 main cOncern wi"tb magic is in the areas of' . reprint ed . n. 31.rio~iS 1(5ee above B.d &"1 d VOle e t not only hi So a tarr t so :!os not to &110'1 b~11et' .1.thfor the common good. 1. te!"'. mag1e. 24-30..2 t. 48 L 3 In a. might be the means o~ removing Capotrop!asmoua empoie1nJ wicked spirits y which are "the CELuse of plagues y or barrenness to or tempesta.. in C.C.ges [or~ noises: typous! Jttypous J.r~ n :ime.hat h~ worked by me. but he does~vidence some knovledge cone er-ning the physi cal materials 'US~d in ma.o "us. 3 I~ two passages he gives abbreviated lists of itas.rapol oget i c" 11 terat UTe. A further i ntere st ing example of e. Nev York~ Me.) A similar usage appeare in 1:11!. aCid unequivocally denied the apfllieability t. alGo.• New York: Collier Books.wn of' Time" (The Lion" tl1e 'Wit~h+ ani the Wardrobe [London~ Geoffrey Bles.ni que cess.<:y..tion from Cel- sus" of' which Origen equivocallY denied the accuro. a power aboliahe:d with Christ I s cire:umeisioc (C. 1970:3.chapter title.cm111an~ 1950.so nega.' Christian View logousJ qy the multitude. AlW 4. 15). . Levi 6 • 9..'r 1 (C. ~ cited by Btlrdy (1'Orig~ne ~t 18. "De-ep~r M~gi c tram Be-fore the Da. rt p~11t2.~el'.1. thoB@ of them vho are not circ-umc1sed~. K. 28GBJ). S. 55 {POt 12~ col.<? daugh- Materia l:nB.dern .. c. has sind1ar powers}.t::111t iSII»:ms] of demons.Earl::.ted by Christ to is that of thl!! pr~sumed angel vtJo i:$ hostile to'W'ard "the JevEJ (and &11 who wor-ship th~ Creator) but has power only to h!i:nll.res. or similar calami"ties. 1950. dying a voluntanr dea. llhe-re 11.gi~a1.0$ es is sa i d to USf!' hi G hB. Qr res e:nblanc~lS (e eh. 216-81" vhere tbe death ormartyrg.82.gic.pro-cedu.409. 0 r "the va.names (ineluding in~antations) and spirits.. but. In. sp eci aJ.6ge s below:to note also Selectaln Exod.h's 54/36..

t. K. (C..£.v be eont ext.!'re presented a.l:!Ip1es of the kind of things.. K.ook of ture thel!!~H.! i!!ntidotes and prophylOi. '7 -10). 2: ~2 ."v t heir power (C.nd roots. 1-3 ). K. Zb-26 L Further .ry.. knovn to &n11DalB by inst..entions (K. ~. 39" AlfF 4: 591. 86).s eX8.ur] I'l (De pr ~ 2.in properties are aseoeia. on 'the contra.avert.38 ~ K. noted abOve (p . 8.a. c. 5 and 20)2 the "eagle- Along with tEl:t:1ons( lines 7~8).and ~Bg1es) constituted knowl edge of sor(: ery by them.bout the demons.. inel ude-s both natural and supernatural i t~ ) ~ among the things Paul (and any other Christian) vill learn after dl!:i!l. or plants..ppropriate (botanas oikelas) to them and stones wit.26-29) . 271.'Whether symboli e or othe:rvi s~ (C.ct1cs by animals (specifically serpents . 109. 5. 5 ~ 188. : ~nd other herbs o.ls and plants governed by n&- C£:.ences or all 'the anim. c. Th(!se items y. 6. and appropriate inca.tion bymago1. be&nt( the h~re A 'third pas sage abo ~ though p\tt'E!ly medicinal pOW'ers ma. ~heir nal!le!'s" pavers ~ deeds.ptions (glyplJas) c Ol"t'espond ing to thE! ir t rad!tions.inct (ph:[sis) or experience vbieh men learn only bY reason and understanding.lleged use or :fennel b:"r serpents {lines 14-15) is pore physie than magic. etc . 61.. but he does not den.ted 'With certain :roots or herbs" . ll. is probably related. .enius the Pyth. 3Bl). including] the plants a..h is tithe reasons certe.l forms .h in- 5cri.inst poison (to be clothes t or in numin 811 kinds of or eton~s. 2.aBore-an that the Sera-pis image ptJ. 5. This statement is conne~t~d vith the aecount of its prepara. repel [or~ depe11unt. c. 2. or rootS J or tbi Ilgs '?. 1:357..Origen sorts of antidotes bers~ 385 fOlmd) in gen~~&l1y aga. The second refers to those who are "curiously inquisitive" a.s read in Num. Origen hQ. 1 He: esp@:~iallY nJ.n- 2. Origen denied that knOWledge of natura.rt.rhe a.

ted at the ends B. 22). Clarian~ in myriad oth. vith :D. . 6.fO:rll1er). the field of music appears in t'W'O incidental ref~rences. K. ." stone I" which Siupposedly p:r'eservea the Y01lnS of the eagle in the nest.. 6 atld i). orni t.u.VS in vhich these oracll!:s l1light be g1ven+ De pro 3.!'ding I!lagicwas B. Cbalde.. engastri. and 18-20.pparently e.ns of d1 vina- portentEl 1 o~en51 birds ~ ventriloquists" :professors oionot1 .hen .the :references to this in Justin and Irenaeus [see esp.ysteri~s.e.1ogou. Tlu!!n t in his d.ion genethl1e.numerous mea. :3 includes 6. C.ides the major areas exaIQined below.ytiken f!pangellomenon 1: 87.re of e. (c. 1. . or i. and in A:mnJon. ~s.ges (~specially "the.tes s. vide Yariety of v8. referenCe to th~ use of boys as r~c:ipientB of" a spirit (here a poetic: one) t a. . 2:154. the Pythian t Dodonie..tions employ.n point in the preceding passs.386 Early Christian 'lie.ian musician 'to Dio!1y"51us {c . 45 (K~ 2: 259.e-rs 2 Branchidae.. ton ten th. Discussion of related fields! O!'scles and divi. These are besides the I:Iu. 3. eomlb::m magical operation (cr. large ot' procedures for learnirJg the future.iscussion of Mithraic m. 7.nton)( C.bnumb~r i tants ot the ancient world. . was 8. g. is a contrast of pagan -divination to Hebre'll prophecy. 351. above]). like his apologetic predeces50rs~ and all other inha. 26-29).ython . al~o vi th l!JusiclLl con- 2 C. 1. 23-28) indica.DlerOUS established oracles (chr:e5teriai~ theoprORriai).... ~ ~.e. . One of Celsus's info:t1l1ants regB. t'110 Or1gen I S msJ. 36. 3~ K. 2h). 2 :109.m. repes.. 8.n.s allegedly added musical reasons for the order of the stars given by the ··PerEian theologyll and then &dcied a second set ~ nections (c. C~ls.lle. 6~~1 t K.nat1on Origen. C. p. tion (manteiai): by The na..t.n Egypt. • .

le.he grea. 3~ K. 3 18-260.of the virtue of thef:r lives (7. Orig~n also provides a rationale for divination. 3. l1:n g.ke Ii perBans t 1 overpovering the ir :minds ~ claud! ng tbeD1 an d causing loss of self-control (C.C~ 7.use. 26-27). who enter the bodies of their spo. 'Wit.C. 30-31). 1-6 . 160. DO ..eetice.ed spiri tiS. :36. 1.nifieant2 prophecies sm::mg the heard Bome persono. le~y.olling the prophets even to give predictions about events of e9p .C. 7.ga. K. 5-8.utou Dar" Oligols (K. 12-23). 9). 2=155.e11" ichne + + + SOIne a. 1: 87. 7. 4. note But this concession is altttost the only point of si. :Joost una eeJJUY JIlanner 1n the ~aae 0 f the Pythian prl es tess. K. 10-12 regtLrding the eff"ect on the 6ubj eet ). 2: 160.1ly in Phoenicia.hem~ tices ~ God instituted propheey among all. and Pal. 19-22}. 7. spiration of the divine epil"it~ Those under the 10- hoYever t should have then t. 3'1 K. or 'Were made vise J and were chosen beca.K.h the Jewish prophets (7.n pra.Origen The Je'IlS shM'ed in the normal human &nxill'!ties about th~ future (K. 2-4). one in keepIf there 13 anything to ing with biB other views expressed above. :32-156. 29-30}.test This is the case In fact.m. 3-5 7 esp. 3. 2~-25 and 156.importance eC. 2:155. 2. 14-20 and 88. were eith~!' \rise men.5~259. and to keep them from polytheism and pa.so 5.r1 ty between pagan divination and Jevish (and Christian )propbec:y + The or-ac:l(!& at'e the produ.155. 8~ Origen asserts that there are no sia. 80 7 1 ~87. 2)~ but in C.'ct of viek. Ori~n has heard (C. tenBe t in De pro This contrast was developed" in the present {K.C. they clarity (dioratikoteron) (7. 2:But he does allowhima. pl en kat nun et i .. 2:159. see 8. K.ct. 2~155. 42 7 K+ 2:46.l.

man.£. K. ~ot Origents. into the future . th~ unclean animals of the Mosaic legialatlon a. nlan. 25~ and. Celsus . 97).. C..re.lso 2 :But the demons also work directly on repe-e.)vemerit s ( C. n~i the!' good nor evil in itself (C+C+ 3.emons being simi. 3) t 1 it is du.ls and d1:ree tine: the1 r lD.ed th1 S B. 6.388 E~rly Christian View divination by birds and other animo. 1: 36:2.ted at the end of' 4. just above) 1'. 1:221. 4.re more..e to the llork. 96. K. C• b" ~2. 11-19). ~ith~r by possession a5 in the noted oracle's (C. foreknowledge is non-proba. 86.. 360.S The J evs recogn1 z. c. not The dl!'- because birds a. e.nd reject ed..:=:-on). J. 5. 2.l eli vi nat1 on In any case.~spec:ially thl! d1itinatory t diffe.ve I sioce it (like the pover of heoJ. even from a Fython1c daemon CDI!' pro 3.ti. apeeie-s of animals. 93). as So uming the existenc= Ii'! of" divinat i On tOl:" the sake of the argUll:lent (C.. 1-2).a. c.gically lB'I1tthat wal. 13-14. 5-10" snd Astrology Orig~ 368..y' 3Some are possessed trom their earlie~t years. 22-361. L * 90. 5" K. ~ b1rth~ This occurs in a quotation from. v~rsus But. .v:lo th~ arguments ere theological testimonial (lines 14-19). etc. 1). 2As testimony ~t tbis.nt species of d. 23-369. or d@lmons. c. 8l.if'esta littl~ int~~e8t in the somewhat ma. h... indicate it by r.intelligent or more divine than man.lar to different. 6:Jo Q.hould have established before arguing froM it = C.J. but Origen makes no spec1fic objection to this element of the quotation.. K. 3.nore B ~ntering the 'bodies ·of the lover or avage ani.: Celsus'e responsibility. so while pointing out that ther~ were good ar~~nts On both sides) he bypM ses it... 89. 1: 360. eyeD weasels (!) (£:. b. 4 val n (mat en) ...m. ~si{:al.re.ing) is neutral (me. 3). 3. K.ls(a prior question that eelslUl ij. 5=262. ~3 or through influe[](~i ng dreams (C •.

trology of t.d t (De pro P1 3. Pra.rheophilus in P'hot.and eit.: The NeVll!laJl Press So 19511. 2:151.ra. not unavare of" it.c.7.her bring thi.ns ·'hom vhom the deceptive c-asting of nativities (senethli.sertioos of his belfl!!'f in it by later detrl!u:::tol'S. prae:f. 2..:r"er:EJcltorto:tion to Martyrdom .. 271.re Origin·s view of deniOnic: operation in divination. bukt::s Celsus for calling a "most.bove-. 3..2 to pa. etc. 3.. This visdom t ho'Wt!'ver . that fits in w. 5:251. a. He re- He is. 3. 3. Green and Co. does . Further. inspi:r~d nation" the Chal- dea. see: above under "Spiri ts") .pe".i th all the UDi VeTS e . 5:259.d despite ae. DO.. O'Meara.. This impression 1s not veaK'I!n@'d.. 1. 19 [Westminster Md. t 195q J So p. lo-ll~ trans. London = Longmans .l) e-xpres s ion s in On Prayer 7. of course . 6. 6-'7. This \louldgive sometrelative color to the chargeo:f Theophilus that foreknowledge of events So • • • he . . !. and t presumably.So :fully in keeFir. to ·'t he maN: h and move-me [It of" the stars. .latitm from John J.. He also classes '·'tbe ae.ndrlfh and chat"ges quoted 'by an Illlonymous 2CODlpo. .un)" as part of the "visdom of the 'l"uJ.ers of this 'W'or1. Ancient Christian Writers:> ed..). divi nel.s ~ not to individual influences by . the (somewh&t lyrica. Plum. n~ly t that f:rom the-ir courses and the variety of their :forms daemons can t~ll the future . !lct in accordance vi'th. This laek of' interest.as'ten and Joseph C.ss or else require them to be brought to pB. 5: 258.~ w • :t .h~ Chaldeana and Indians (Chaldeortm'l astrol0f\!a et Indorl.. or Alexa. on De pr. and stars (De pr. 20-22).and its tbeory. the free vill of t. Johannes Qu.85 by tbe star::.~ympathy or whatever. a. attributes. hovever. 2:316. b~. De pT.rology.tg vi th his ~mphasis on free-viII {cf. 3. 3 t K. is onevhieh these "rulers" believe (De E. BOt K.1).he stars that dance in the heavens for the good of the universe" (K. 5}..te his b.. to the motions of the ste.bly refer only to the grand benef:1c1~nt ordeTing oral! thine. 36).ngs.e-- lief in tbe "personality"ot the SWl] moon... though these expressions probo. l This Oo:ttitude is". ll. 15-21).a1ogia) C~ to use by men·' (c..ius (cited by Koetschau~ OTigenee Werke . 2 So K. i3 despi.O:rigen related area of' ast. 3).

390 Early Christian View {Theoph11us Alex. ~. Go~. Society for Promoting Christian Know-ledge. 2Eng11sh t. Ep •. Contra~ to their theories .rs? So" It is 't..t.ion 58) tend to appear . 1. th~ on an ecpiTice. 5=13]1 3-5)7 Note also Origen'g discussion in his commentary on Genesis (in Eus • Prep . . 1=110.oster:nant1 led. 3."Qrtb llhile ~ then. pae:e:o anli line(s]}....es (Londo~.ranslation by John PatricktUOrige:n's Commentary on the Gospel of Matthev..o the course and :motion of' the stars (K. ~ ~ .e.~ Die Griechiscben Chr1stlichen Scp.5 t leave open the possibilitY" that some things. The Cathedral Lfhr!U'Y~. 3Ll Origen does attribute significance (direct OT indirect) to tvo possibly astrological itf!blS. Werke].J5 6Jld every demoniacalpossession to the phases of the 6]1 AlW lO.. hoyb~t it 1.. establishing basis. then vhy not other spirits operating in phase vith the other sta. It ANF 10: 409-512.Synod~ £.Butterworth. followed by volume [o·t Origenes. those outside our freedom of" viII. is eonnected to the moon. W.icians a. K. Origen On First Principl. 13-1~) 2 E.. 5=259.' l. Pot.~78t KL 10:195.riftiSteller der ersten lire1 Jahl"hunderte . at til!les of gr@'at ee.. a. arE!' due t. 1. lIho refer the origin 01" I:w~ry form of' llladmoon. IJ. 1 1966).l? 6.2.d or good things (c.hly changes ~ signifying either ba.logonJ. ~ver.rt..c. 59 .r:' as phy::. obs~rva. 3. to listen to the <lasters of nativities (ton genethlill.p1"aef. Hinrichs· fiche Buc:hh6ndlung ~ 1935) (c1 ted as lCL.5 not caused by moist.. trans. On a more mundane level ~ nlunacj. Origenes Werk. If tbis 15 so. C. Erich lG..t. Harper To:rchbooks. .. Publishers . 225·~ n.. reprint ed.Leipzig = J. 1936. Harper and RoW'.l I: !}ie Griechisch erhalten~n TOl!IQi~ unter Mitwirkung von Erf16t Ben7..""i sympathy 0f 'Wi th the moon.G.C. Greek text..h1iuserklaruno. (COtmn. vol.. at De pr.l Comets (such as the "star" at Jesus' birth~ C.s shows. humouxs in the head moved a. but by irnpUl"'e sp i:r i t 'W"hi eh obs erve s th~ phas ~s accordingly~ the moo~ and varies his influence to mislead men. cited in 1(. 13~ ne!. 3-16). ll).. zehnter Band = Origenes Mat. qO (.ttest by their dis- cUBsions. Ne'lot York.

..i) . i.lrrentl:{ having either none 2 or not even thirty ~e~b~rs &&Ch (1. 7.. 23-26:10 probably switching fa. like Celsus ~ thought Jesus simply did 'Wonders (tera. K. 7. 2:51.. 61.. C. 1 The pavers invoked in magic were th~ same as those worshipped.c.e:r. 6) 2 because he and DositheU9.en 14-19) - (e.reater so.!nt of u lt8g i cal H rites (mllnganeiai) are involved in the such "o::rship (S£...on in C.. 4. 12-13).a. .C. 52 2 Th~y &:ie 8. 2-3). 3h.e a distinction between th~ broad areBS of re-li gion and nla.QOne: ChrisIn the to heretics or heretical groups. 37. 6. K.:£+ 1. 8. 8. 57. 61. 6+ 32 (K. 1 L and they 6 (proof from HOIl'. 5+ 46 .. so. l'... !tot onl:.favOr purchased by sacrifices (e.re:r of the e. past.ns in Palestine and none else1lhere.. De..Origen 391 Other r~ligions as magiC Pagfin religion Orlgen s.e.gi~.ro::rship from. g. 2=61. or by demons in 6.. 3.. 11. 41 (K.... 8. 3.g. 36 1:I. 21102..c.C..stery over m..gi C!o as toe.. 17-19)!o and a slight distinction between beine carried 8.. These groups ~ hoW'e.aw no sharp line. ~1.eig} (£.mari tan magos w1sbed to aed uce some by magl c (li map:. 11.- of' sacrifices {:Exh.Va.er~sles LAntinousJ t S. hi s seeming vi ev 0 f magic: as a distinct traditi.. 1.~ demons {C. also .r. 57. e~tablishc(. and so tried the same means to gain nm. and 1He did. 1. K. 45. 5). their . 2: 277.. no Simonians. can be inf"luenced. 1=109. ri!'cognit. 61! K. Q-rigen parried some of Celsus' g tians by attributing th~ c!:Jarg~s of magie 9.0. Si:mon the 8a.p:r.v 'bY magic. 2:110.. 32. 38 CS~rapisJ. hove.teuestha. er~ ax~ obsolete. not likely even thirty Simonie.vor to the offe. dieted to the blood . but various.dividing pagi!lJ1 o. 6. etc. c.cri ff c es ). C.e-r J and J5.. m9.

K~ 2:100. 83 and 92}.£:.1.." Society of Biblical Literature 1976 Seminar Pa1Jers (Missoula" Mont.). etc.her~irat mdracles/marvela? 1 Origen's stat. sort of mngicnl sorcery {map.ber of explicit discussions of the question. use of power for evil purposes (maleficia). doctrin~ The heart of their seems to be a set of s~t:ret th@ charges to be addre:lsed to t. 16.392 Early Christian Viev not thirty Dosit. = Published b:)' Scholars Pre!.he keepers of the various gates in Christian practiees Origen~ natural1y~ h~avens (H. 17-19). s 32.ving . 3. 9.. 3. 102. 6.hl!!'Bns total h the current group that Origen (end Cel!. 5 to 24).. 1s there to support these assertions? Wha. Morton 8m!th •s li st {Jesus the Mag! c ian 10 pp.Q.1.ed criterion is the non-use of let. ~O.~ 1. :22L.) not by mae.laO). 3B~ K.t Chri5tian miracles are done b)? thl! pover of' God (. 2. 31 and 7 . 6. 6. Origem is emphatic on the point the. 3J. 2. 6" (!·. 2:102.tlll. fi'l. 11. They are sorcerers (soe:te-s) (ewe.Ius) seeIr. who profess a.! g for the Soc1 ety of Bib1i cal Li terat urI! '" 1976) ~ p. 5) or demonic poyer {I. '51.re: 8ubvel"sion. 28.h4!".lkin tina goet!t:l.· Miracle Doers Count!!!'" Charges of Magic in th@ lielleni stic Wo:r-ld. 9. 190. etc. 3. 23-2b) ~but t.t distiI1guish~s But vhat idl!nce Christian miracles from magic or ot.QJ3)' relation to magi C'" but Celsu5 did. 1. 2:107. 2. did not consider Chrietian practices as There are thus 6. 38. 38. and use of miracles to gain riches or other power. 107 ~ '!'he three charges a. by the nMle of Jesus (1.Y scramble together elements {nam~Q) :from magic and Scripture in their s)'stem (6w 32~ K. .a:h 6. 6. to know best is t.ical means or a:rry sort (1.. . ha.he Ophites.. Note aleothe thre-e charges against mi:r-acle wo:r-kers discussed by Anitra Bingham Ko1enkov~ irA Problelll: of Pover: Ho.

38} . 2.g.l.t and how mira.e. 2: 156. :3. a series of interr\'!!:lated mo:r1U arguments.ly developed.. 2.&. (£. Clement of Alexandria .ed COIlJ:Il. 1.dual. 8. 8." Hull . 55-56.tsand to 'the reality of is the unreality of the yorks of' :magicians and t.B. are notco:umitted to the doing of evil (6. pp.ween belief in Jes1J.£. he especially notes that it is the 1d1ots.re:nuts of such works are a crucial test (C. also ~ Comm. peri~:rp.O kai mo.. 4. end}" it may be noted that Origen almost eeems to anticipate some Bucb obJectiQn: in £. K.or-igen 393 9 ~ 10 J 30} or oth~r sueh means (hoiasd. 1: 11 L 1. C.ving been previously prophe-si.x1stence of' churches full ot i::onVert. tbe founding of' ( eo) new nat i on {s} (2. t thes e 'Wor. 1.. 3. 4. 2 .pot e hodo'U ~ 2.cked (e.s been frequen. in 2. The character of life (and death . 1.oe churches· 1 :mir.tt. 27't 42.gician.cles are an attestation of III teacl1~rJtefLching (C.C.. 51).~4) of the one(s) performing the works (1. other results also distinguish Bib1it:s. 3. 1. 3.s r name and belief in Jes~s .cl~s.s (1.s es not curable by mn.. 68. and . . 12. results in the indiYi. 301-14.gikQ e Dh!U'm~~eJlt1kQ p:ra. 2. 68. Comm.l and Christian miracles 'the e. 410 f L8} are a. 8 . 50" 51).222-23.tly s. This criterion ha.... :2) &l1d moral changes {c. 2. and J4!'SUS the Ma. pp. and most ~l!:~ently by Morton Smith. 38.tinction concerning of' 'Wha. 52. Mt. 32~ 51. 1. 14. 5 ~ B. 47-48. 4~J 51. 7~-15)~ but . ~3s 67. H(!:llerdstic MMic l' pp.C. 54-55. In.2~ Comma In. Mt. note aJ.C. . . 'besides tbe moral. 12.C.2Q}. h.part from his dh. 1 Ori gen 1 a next c:ri'teri a are hi 5 most tul.. 2).Q.exorc 1 sms. cf. and even the multitudes know the Christiane..a. 14. 68.i!C28J. 5 []>1osai claws J. Lo).ll :pi'oofs the.so his distinction bet. In contrast to these resuJ.... 68.i who commonly are involved in . 61 L and the teachings connected with then (.. 10. 2. 49 ~ K. ~4/(28).:. 3l. fr~ magic: 61). 49. The. 2As a matter of fact ~ they &r~ conne'Cted with the teaching of thereject10n of magic (C. 51 So 52) ~ curing of di sea. 'thei r re sul"tins ~4. 2.ks are not t be result Furth~:r-So magi c • 2 t.hl!ir diVine origin is confir-med by ha.gmati 1 7. 5. 2B and ~6. note also 2. De pro 4.n or daemon (3.

iaJ of the .l around us. by what power a. and Babylo~. al so HippolytU5 A nev dimeosion in tbe attack on w.Tfth e.1'" as the moon. But th~ ultimate test 1s. 4 10 Heraclitug's vievs vere similar to ~edoclesr.no te line 20. c.ud Though HippoJ. Note especiaLlY the following chapters.ttempt at..Early Christi&) View similar deceivers {l.. entirely abandon the den:onlc eJqJlana. 1. and . here perhaps following up a lead of' his teache:r-~ lrenaeus.nourp.gi ~ a'S fra.Ld HippolytuG does :1:10t.. l. 2..s full of evil things.rcus of adding the nburfoon~ries [paigniaJ of A:laxila\:ls to the cr.11t s come t'roms oce other 'Source. haer .y'tus begins his Refutation of All Heresies . are the r esu.5 1 fraud.:urrer]'t religious error. the 1othOSe Druids ~ and Hes1od) many idea.re tb ey done'(" It Mi rae Ie 8.ught that the regiot.ln8gi n (Ad"'. 1 . 16.iIIJ'. 'but t. he ta. lo"E1.. ~nti. 51. Ma. 11~ Demoeritus studied vith tea.2 his IIl!Ljor cont:ribution to the lIs Hippolytus.agic is emphasi zed by H..1 vine :power magi osl re s 1.. a rat.ught that evil is sublunary..he:r-e is fI. This idea.nQtion of the phenontenft.gic ~ 3) Empedocles taught many things about the natUf"1!' of' demons. vho accused Ma.. 2. AIiF 1: 33'-1)? 2Ref. 13..122~ 11-13~ quoted :from Celsus l' but . of' \l'l1ich touched on magic-.hi a all other te sts a. 2~ Pythagorus touched on IP6. 1.s underlay 1..he an~ient pbilosophers (including the Brachma. . va.S net.ns. to t. major shift to an a. 68.e..1 t of d. as f6. 11:1 Aristotle· ta. K. . Plato tau8ht the existen~e of' demons.ft1n~ss [pa. Egypt.relj· lacking in the earlier vri terfi .ional explQ.chers of the various occult sciences in India..tion of his pl"l!!dece'!'ssors.re only support i 'Ie {C. surv~y of t.. e i al:Jode1xeos.ip- polytuEi--the concept of magic (/. tni s part apparently ace epted .

Mac]l1ahonJ..irly si:Q!iPle sleight.s being the result of fraud.1ng tr. in th~ ri!tU:m.. GQnEiehiniet~~ "Hippolytos I CB. 28).attempts to e:xpla. H. 3." 2 E • g .l kno'Wl- cbemistry. These were suppoa edly ~xpl9. 3~).l. 5 Other aspe~t~ of ma~ic General references to tnagic: (especiallY incantations) As noted a. . the killi.ined in a preceding bOok (= bk. and 35J (cf.. cf. ~..l"S EO it ~annot breathe ~ (q.ng of a goat by put'ting Y&X in ita ee. haer.. Unfortunate-ly.pters by Gansc:hinietz .T. 1.) 1 See tne JDaJor discussion of' these cha. and Hesiod in 23. Jtmagi~a.A. and reading s~aled letters (~. (The chapter nu:mbers in brackets are those given in . Iren.e of them qUi tl!' c:.1l!'arly. The methods range phenomena.rQugh hidden tubes CF:e~. 39 and LO r3lj. HHippo~ytos' rl 28-42. (The Bra(':hmans are discussed in 21. magnet on coals (L.t1on o"r Al~ He!'esies~1t trans. of' hand~ or eimi~ar trieks.. J.nt portions or it. but the fault may be more in his sources than ~ith btmself.o lving at least edge of various aspects of physics 01" eJl empiri~e. AlSO. Ca...ined with magic and related ideas..rhe di vination by a cauldron.5 discu6sion is in book four.. Adv.se1 dung vi'th Q. the Druids also resort to roa. Hippolytus seems not to have gotten 50ID. but are not in the erts. 31). 28. . Such as the ~nvisible writing and tri~ks with incense and coala in lj. 35-38). 4)..p1t~lt l' p. Note also MarClJS'5 displaYs vith Eucho.ristic cups in 6.il. . and various illusive . invisible vritings and speal'." 395 1 He ther€.HippolytlJ.. a.l.bove t Hippolytus t S opening survey of philosopher's sho'Ws that they also ·"e'r~ til. 13).) 5Causing an I!'Qrthqu&ke sensation (vertigo in the observers'?) by burning wea. 1+ 13~ :2). The 22. .p1tel gegen die Magie!" ~ Refut.).NF 5=9-153 [nTheR~fut8.g1~a1 :riV:!s (ta:U8ht by ZamolJC.in various. fro:m fa. of biolog. 39. Hae:r.appearances (4.2 to rather large-scale proauctions t 3 some in.

396 heresies dev~loped Early Chl"istiW1.er. 10.ldeans. ct.}... :from them folloW' this lead t and Hippolytus follo'lots lab~1l1ng the lead of Irenaeus in geneTally t!%'S the he~~siQrchs as SOTcer- and magicians..strologers . enmanuel Miller rOxford. 6. 7. 13 [8J.. 19~ 20 LcoD..s those (:al1~d ... see Uso ~ 9.a) the re- aU].oidag)~ love spells: and charms (~hiltro. PO 16.bylonians (alogistQ :man!.16~ 3.. 15-16 £10-11) for ex. 6.mat1kois kai. nor the Greeks. the Peractics were devoted to astrology (5. re t. . - 9.gomenQUS olleiroP9JlWous da. or even the a.g. 3: 341~A/B).T the teachings of these mathematicians t astro1ogers t and mlI.. t 9. 5. etc.y :for those bitten by dogs or de!llOn posse-ssed (Ref. 32 [20J . 2Greek text cited fi--omPG 16.ntations (mageias epitelollsi kai.gi~iarJs {matl1. and column of' PCL) 3 Note als 0 9. 11 r: ~ont ents J : E1 cbasai d~"otes himself t. 4" 14" 15J.imonas):o as well o. - 3~3390C.epB..h~ Elchasaites.a t ed.tents. PO 16 .7.o the tenets of th1!' Gnostics. But the truth is not to be f"o'Ulld in the wisdom of ofth~ Egyptians . .tians. part 3: eols. S:iJn11a.. . 39 {cont.ts. 34J re Marcus. and the: arts o:f SQt"eery (!!'8:Seias).d d:r-eams (tOllS le.rt.Ps. 1 The disciples of' Si~Qn ~s use magical rites a. Vie".ts of thecuriosl ty of the Cha. nor the tenete (dof5!!l&t. 9. 29 1::25].r1y described (7. udi' ene1"gei{l. 50 (lJ.ees).. (Cited in tbe text by vol'l. 32 C20J).ima):t and demons vho s-erJ.rly . espec:d. 6. nor the operat ion of' demons in the irrational fren7.a.3 teaching certain incantations and formularies (epaoidaste kat epi1o&OU5 tinas).y of' the 'B6. !Q. re the Carpocra. . 2. 2.).blished as Origents Phi1osoph-oum.nd inca. 2 The CarpoeratianG are similg. 14 ['9J t 10.a. te kai agQ..3226A}. 29 (25].mple~ of their procedures in th~se and other C'l!I. C9J. ~ef.1J...redroi (Ref. 1J.lttle t pa. 10. astrologiko15 kai magikoi:~. 1851J). 3011-3454 (pu.20 (15].re Simon. The Elchasaites fO::UO".5 dai1llOnon) (Rtl.

a:ud.~litus ~p(!cu1ated Erupedocles of deaons concerning the nature and r::fa ~ocs:tio!l (Le.. Marc~s.o o. 3=3339A) of sorcery.. a. the demons are "said to be 'senders of' dreams..niea (uaiu.E.ct:epts t. . 32 C20 J L operated 'by both.!'yn (or.nd 41 t34 and 36).. while Wlable to Samuel~ c8.ead.Y1ce of decnons. operates only partly 'by sleight of' hand (dis.'Ie' He vas adept at sorceries (mageias ~. kako'.ibeuon).39 a. 20 [15J. m 16.n1nspiring Marcus and his fol-lowers. PC 16" 3: 3206D). l6 and 17. sublunar} (Ref.kYbeia~k.BJple. he was. 6.11y as fraud.Ssiste. But as "explained above ~ n 8J1d p."ork- villai.nd Though the invok. how- what operations the d~ns perform otter tha.ing of Pb. Ariet. respec t1vely) or ot her demons in 4 ~ 28 1s part of the fr. .artly &lEO by the Q.a) partly" by the art (te:C'hn~n) of Tllras:y11ledes. demon..S2~e) &nd :full of folly (Ref.roi whDse use be chELrges on the Simonians and Caryocratian.. 'I [2J ~ IuW 5: 74. a che:s.he actual i ty of the ac'tivity of the demons c: aIled one! rODOm~oi and pal'ed.s (Ret'. Plat.he other hand.3: 3090C o"nd 309lA. 20 I: 15 J and 7. could have conjured up the fom of further l .ot. 6.ll ba. 32 (20)" tbe naming of' those de'lI1ons is tollo'Rl'ed by referenc·e to Nthe :regt of the tricks l1 (tEL loiQB. ipg his SilDOn hilnself t hov~v~r." and in i . it is not cl@ar if HippOlytuS B.v.a1so 1. 16" 3 =3:258A end 3259B) + ever~ It is not clear.liippoly"tu3 391 Spirits Though li!ppolytus treats magical displays btLSic&. seems to ha. 6.. In 6.ck the d.l~).Jrgemata . it is also partlythrougb demons (Ref. Sim11arJ. Phrin.PG 16. 1* 3t~. for eXe. and Hera. On t.t (.~ he does not entirely reject the idea of demonic activity.eiros)~ . pc.

as) vri t~ I~. arguing that they were not created in va~n 2. or by an herb deter:nined s im. t u'I'he Extant Work s and FragmentS'Of Hippolytus t" ~ 5 :163-258) (PG 10 :605-8}. 5.followers of Ca1- . 12 (7]. 6 [Greek G~C.ther the Ess~ni sho~ great curiosity ab~ut ~lant9 and stones (pam~ de wriergos exousi 'tier! botan8. ro are 16 t 3.. among the. D." AJW 5 ~ 169-70 (8. anid. 3:3381A. 41~ ~ M.he 'physiology of plants.mond.. 11.• while the demon could infer Sa'Ul's fate. ermine d (ps epn i s.koi s L and n gi Tar i ng J the:nse 1ves round 'I ep eri des2 meisthai) (.i lar ly (Re:f.:=learly occult. amulet l(ith the name 'iDe i ty I' (to theos) t numerologi cally det. or som.. 1 The Egyptians c:laim to cure b)r the use of an. mals ~ and of the cure of but Hezekiah destroyed them be~a'ilse lyragme-nt of a tractate "On the Sore ~rl!'s S" Dr nOn Saul and the Wi ten.. ides a va-ria-nt. dif~erent c~tegories.."F ten on it. 8..?). Sa1... ~ 1 ..h n.i"'IlLS. Hi ppolyt us t s rival) are vomen who resort (for immoral purposes) to variDus birth-control or acor~ive procedures~ us ing drugs ( 'OhEi.398 Early Christian Vie.5 kai lithotis) ~ 'b'llsying thttmsel'toE's I::once:rning the1J" operative povers (~erie:r:goteroi ontes pros tas touton eneTg~ias). could not really foresee it. 5:131 (vit. Ii st us (bi shop a f Rome. 31D1C!D). 8).amulets. F. trans. . PO 16.is~ase:s ~ pro. 136j)~ Sucb interests on the part o~ a Jewish to the tales of Solo~n's seet VQuld possibly be th~se ~~lated know1edge in areas s tales concerning "IoI'hich another reference in Hip-polytus Solanon wrote of t. l~ss Other referent:es to drugs (and possibly UJrtUlets) In 9.. 2 m.e t:r"P~ of press'lU'e bal'1dage. In ra..

5· 9.T (Btl." cited as found HIn Ga. J05epbus also attributes to them a strong belief in Fate (. they prophe ay by" reading the holy book s 11 by purifi ca t i on. 9. 13).F' 5 :176. 1'l [tJ? pl'opheteuein kai prolegein ta esomenaJ~ Ref. and they show special r-everence tor the S'Un {9."l calc ul at ionti ( L.ctice o:f prophe~y and :prediction of future events.t lef-st in Hippolytus f s. a.nd :rami li&l'" i ty yj. Exh~ 2/11. 15 ta m~~tein/manifi. Ve:rnJes {Cl~v!:l&nd and. 2. 3. However. paronoIDasia.ti on (sf-eei f'ically th6t by examination of foreheads) was rather madness (4.nt. 159).tte:m. Dupont-Sommer ~ The Essene Writinss from Qumran.J. sec. E£ 16.[] B::>oks. Gr~ see. n but the pursuit of the idea led directly into astrology. To Rippolyt us. PG 10: 621-30 C629BJ>.llandi~ from Ana. 8.pts fI. \tho claimed to have the "pover of presci'ence t were cba.est 41 ~ P 320 tl (.1fethe one interest ('t. Gr.Hippolytus the people looked to them t and not to J99 God~ for heali~g..&rt. 14} a~e closely related in Hippolytus's presentation to the P.5 [20Jr Joseph\1!i1 makes the point stronger. 4. 21 J. 13. 1967).rg(!dwi tTl lIbustling activity (Beso'b~nta.A1f. 172 L whic'h :rits in with the discovery at Qumran (Ca'¥"e nr) of a work containing horoscopes (A. ~.s 6in.110 attempt to prophesy 'by calcula:tion and nwnbera (R~f.ny' ~ MeridiB.iJ in reglU"d 01' a. cr.ai ta:lo qua.pra. 2-3J). 2. Possibly a garbling of the tales of Solo~onta occult knovledge with 2 Kings 18:41 2Though both Pythagoras and the Stoics derived (pa.stasi'tJ. trans. the Elchasaites.rts of) their them (Ref.rthag- orea. :2 l:-ragment uO n the Song of Songs.. 10. 29 Essenes he."t specific contamination with the: other.th the discourses of the prophets (JOB. Clem.3406B)~ withot... 9. New York ~ World Publishing Compa. G. ac~ou. a. t divine. 52 and 338) • EYst~s from . 21 (22J. A1e~. SilfJi1arly. fa. 12.strological and: :mathematical science t' (as well as sorcery ~ magikois) 0n1~. p:p.l Those '1.

the Peratics1! anthropo~ogy ~~d On especlally~ derived a~ their doetrineB from it.. in t. (Naphtha (Indian naphtha:! appears aga. and chaff is moved by amber).50 1. 46-50 . philosoph- ers.. 1 inc:=ludingseveraJ.st partially due to the nature of his survh"i.. This latt~r triad was also us~d by the Naaaenes {5.1ngU fire So and of magnetism and static electricity ~ in 5. 17 [12J (the.in in 1e 25 [13J in Basilides' illustration of th~ natu. on Pythagoras) • lEe. 5.. not. ~. g . 6.l. e.gic:=. belo'W'" (ReX.l. drs-OW" a direct cO:rJ. 9. 3The pover of I.one.l. 17 [8 ~ 12)).lc:on ~ gold alone.nd ma. ri!"fe~ences connectiog its practice with b~lie:f in magic.ng ~"Prk5~ lHppolytus does.c) ~ligious roots (note.al. [25]-':Eiohasai te-s (cf" . he does~ however. their as their eosmogony/coBmology thetic principle 50teriologj' well Byt!!pa- being 'based sO variations of the- "as a.neetion be- tlJrE!en many of the h~resie5 a. Hippolytus..i n in chaps. a1soR~:r.3 Alt@rnate views as magic Probably a.. 39 C3bJ ~ with 55 [50J-·Marcus." &nd "Spirits t1 ) . . 2 According to Hippol:rtus.t dominates the first tventyseve-n ~ hapt. 9 r~J and the Sethians (5..ers and appears aga..n religion and magic as do his fellow Christian w:rite::rs.from.r@ of the Son of the Great Arc:hon. connect paga.urn:to had (oceult. by the analogies or naphtha "d:ra. Many of th~se contam.peciallY in book four where i. says (15J~ Basilid~s . h This in turn is related to e.magnet &ttr~~tB iron aJ.bov~.ination or eVen Creek philoso!Jhy by it. 1.."]Jt.l 4Besides the rfd'erences tbere:to note the Great Archon of Basilides is Abrasax. se& fa. 21 (16J) in e'xplaining tbe nm~~hanicsl't of the-ir Boteriologies.ympatr"y is suppo:rte-d.lpecial e:ttention . 13.Early Christian View Astrology itself l'eceiv~s I.). 2. 1+ 26 [14). 7+27 Jesus 'Was instr-ucted 'by sages in Egj. tbe backbone of" 6. 14 [9J J and 10.t lea.. As noted above {uGeneral Referenc\!'s to Magic.• . ll--Democritu. 29 ~ef.

s. Platonic b~is. lIn his discussion of Christ'a birth. Also. . because 'tThat . for t. t.ppe~s sudc1e:nly" previously unannounced. AlW 5:113). aft!!!" BolL" still a participant in the culture H~ and beliefs of' his times.ly cou.ttitude tovard ma. . 4. and he \laS. 2. he seems to correct the latte1"'s figUl"es on e. f'u:rther. It may be that tbis i san ad hom! ne1n argum.. he conclud~d that it must have been in the year 5500. lO .yt US 401 While Hippolytus took a critical a. 12)!! but Hippolytus mani- 1 fests a similar sort of number myat1cisI!I elsewhere. ptolem.y s.ld not explain them all..ny of t. is & e:ounte-r-presente.tters (Ref'. they should not be in harmony and sYlD]lhony • • • this 11:' inrpossible" (~. he ~ou1d e. faiT smo1.. thus accepted the possibility of de-monic!! as ve11 as di'Vine . the Bixtb day (On Daniel frag.ent) pitt fog philosopher against philosopher (un- less it. ANF 5 ~29.. the end wlll e ome at 6000 .cerning the dee-r and the bird!i "'cemphuli.he dimensions of the ark of the C OVen6Jlt add up to 5 1/2 cubi t. W"orkingf>. 4). in chap.iterary t empirical h~ mnniof knO'lll~dge "scientific" ma.he ''magical'' displays: o:f the heretics!i he apparent. Pf in his Cocmnentarv on Proverbs (1: 22.tion of Ptolemy's view.lso retail animal lore such as thoBe con.AHF 5 :119) + . vith his ovn calc\lJ.U1t of at least l. while ridiculing the numeric&l f&ntasies of Pythagoreans and Marcosians 2 and the astronom- ieal labo~s or such as Archimedes ..Hippo l. e.ations in.he next chtLpter). 5 and 6.. cf. also 2. 1I C. This ambiguity is visible in other areas also. While fested.

gories and relo.n' 6 viev of JZIagic i:8 t!lUc'h like Origen· s: there is 6. 2 vols."'ld all equally involve a. 8. certain real i ty to magi c ~ yet it is a. 1 \~e!1e!10.ted.p. and demons (ange1i) .lsh e means to turn men frO'lll God.) . areas ~ viewing them all as bad..l"ii • • • Dl6..402 Early Christian View Latin Polemic~6t6 and SY8temati~ers Tertullian Tertulli6.. Bee also De pud~ 5. or magical enchantment (ferro d~uinctionibu!3) (D~s'pec. soothsayer (haruspice~) and . .:r's life]o l!L. He is not rerrponsible :for their use in znurd. 12).gic op~rations Origin and Magic originated from fa. {~~ere needed]o cited as CCSL 10 with ~olume.esa. uene.i) Di5~uss!ons of ma..ud. The demons operate by various dell. .. tho-u. 1 and 2'.ud upon mankind (including the ltItlgicians t etc:.nge1e .re perversions.hings asiroo. not human fraud.er by iron ~ poison.rts originated angels who sinned 'by (a~ange1is desertQTibus} (ApolQSJ~ 35. h o taught various occult 1The Latin text bas usually been given from 9Hinti S~£timi Florentis Tertull1ani Opera 7 Corpus Christi&norum~ Series Latina~ vcls. 'but this 1 s a de:moni c :fra. (ifurnhout: 'I'ypographi E:repols Edit-ores PontificU 11954) 'lo but the traditional d1viaions of Terttlllian t s texts are. ) .nQ.llen s. page~ ~ld line numbers.1 These things l!'l. p Introduction Tertu11ian mak~s reference ton brQad range of magical cateAgtra~oge:r and.short enough that ~ore precise reference has not b~~n deemed ne~essarJ in most cases.augur and magus are all eqUAlly consulted regal"ding Ca.gh God ci"iI!!6:ted such t. 11 for further p references to murder by pQisone-rs and magicians. fr a. herbs. magicis 2.

. . th~re But is an I!:'lfen darker side. 2. 1. The operations carried out by means of magic include producing appa. ll!ast. or dl'V'ine: by goats at. 35. . 3).me source. Ma:rc. and third with pagan religious rit.. MinuciusFelix connecte. CCSL 1 :130. 2. 10. • .Jd tables (~. about virgins wearing veils {~ V'i. De But besides the u1. 23.i us Div. c f'.BO comes fro1!l the Ba. 6-9} to 'WOmen <De eultu feJ!i.. l}. 10). .ritions (specifically 2 of Castor). tascinatio (the "evil ~y@11l. 7 and 27.ome :pov~r in relieving scorpion stings (SCOrE' 1 .g. pulling a ship by a g1rdle~ reddening a beard by a touch (~.e1. In the.. CCSL 1 =344. there are usc traditional human o:dgin9.ome of: these a~(!: apparently not "purely·' magical. at tbe least. 9..JtlOnic origin.ors of magic. idol.t.Q.ue ad st. [= Je'lol'ish ~xpla. the :first. ) 2 in short.2) t and. Dsmigeron . L 3. Ostanes ~ Typhon~ Da. 2'. to the idea of .:. inst.. 4.nem argtJJn. 'but he argues for at least partial a.t. and Berenice: (De anima 57. served to reinforce his ideas.other. arious pr(!tended miracll!:!s by juggling 11Iusion (cireulatorii~ praestigiis.larlllIJ. et herbarum in. 15.. 1.. 12 .eve.~nia . apparitions and ... 22.nat1on of 3. Ap¢1. interpretationem..cceptance: of" it (De cultu :rem.llorwn 0:e:. in exorcism tuld healings of various types (Apol..:rdanus. carrying va.. they produce supposed soUls or the dead.'rert ullian ~03 arts (meta. in two passages .abis. .ter in a si..he Book of Enoch on vhichtbis is based ~ vas :not universally aC~E!:pted. 1. 1). 17 Jesus facts] j see also Ad. Magic is also credited with e. In the on~ case he pree:enta it in a sort of 8d hoJt:d..era. cf.'..es (Oct..) l (Astrology 8J. 2 2 At least e.. 21.ent I 8:!.I a pagan idea yhich at.tionum uires • • • e. tot inCfLnta. uso Apol.r g.timate de. 12l. 2 i 3. also Lactant. . :2}.mnem curi9sitatt~ ~Q. 1-3). but rather ambiguousl. York p~haps by the 6. 23. in general. be quote 5 amon g Marc ion •s 3T~rlulli&nalS0 r~f"er9. 1. 3 ITertullian is aware that t.. 1..Nect. (tV'et'J kill boys fo:r o1"acular purposes ~ and. l)...id of demonic assistants to send dreaIllS. 6. vel.

and magicia.ke· s accounts of Jesus· natiyi t.t. a. 2. 2. 2. 1 and 3) l' while the supposed calling up of those 'Who died. 35. hapt. 13.:tel"&l fields).l.ated by. 2.nJjra. 12. 10. 2.nd work for t. Elsevbere Tertullian divided magic:.em. "Which appeared in the Gospels only to 'b4! cond~fIUted~ sophist.Early Christian Viev There were variQUS sub-divisions. also De cultu rem. 2. Apol. . 1 and 6). 9.nl. 5. oper9:tio~s~ The calline. up of the aboros and b1e. 7. 1.c~es" (De idol. The daemons a. 7). 2. 3. alternately. 22. . 19). il1-di sposed toward God. 19).ing Vi!U"ious groupe.n (nJagos} (De idoL 9.on lr vhen this group of s:piri ts is specifically in view.h(!.. 1. 12. Adv.ruin of' mankind ~ trying to turn them from God (lwol. De idol.pped it by list. 5. 1.ons~ properly speaki ng ) ve:re pl"OOUC ed (Apol. lBecause of this distinction 'by Tert'Ullian hil:Ds~11"t I have retained 'the spelling of 11d&@:III. naturally a. I From this union the ds. Ad na.nd veTe properly buried (57..thematicis.. 3).:rc. Spirits The angels) :2.hettl as f'amiliars (De BJIil!la 57. of t. Cha1dea. throughout the c:hapter) and "the other epecie$ vhich 0F- er. 2 and 6) vas either for show or for purposes of divining or both (like 'mOdern eeances).t Besides this ~ the evil spirits (both ob.eothan- atos 5eemedto be for using t. cr.hes~ magic:. lest she bewit~b Cf'asc1netJ tbe child" (De carne ChT. and eo. vel. 22.oLu. and eollo. 9. diviner (confect-ores).1 ections t.strologis and me. 8) ~ but SOr:le lik~ &1l ereation~ o~iginated ~om Gad (De ~pec. nLet the old woman [lmnaJ be silent . Ad nat. 13.re thus. 4. not too (:learly~ into astrology (e. 2). 16.y the remark.n~ enchanter. 14.. .i. Me. of them fell through dt'!sire tor earthly VO~n (De virg.

question of the level of th~ frl!l.e also Tenull ian •s simi lar view {) f the soul:> Re!3. 23.bi t ed Pythagortls (De ani. 2. mtl.a 28.d ~8. Tertullian suggests various natural "Ways Pythagoras could ne. 6. Further) theY ca-use diseases so they can then appea.ed and thus can be everywbe re in a =nomen t (over e. ~-6). 8 and 10).. There ue vaX' i ous type-s 0 r spirits ~ catabolir:os and paredros and m. Adv. only e.. 1).:d a. mort.U8e distresses (Ap. }.. 8) c f. B. but then goes on to gbre a magical explanation (Scimus etiam roagiae licer~exp1orandis oeculti~ CCSL 2.Jed the necessary knowledge. not. 6. 'W'ing. and they :perform the vario'Ul.a.. 2 .d be en :in Euphorbus inhs. Their acts and ma.U'!l communioneJ. and do . men phys1call..nd blood of" sac:rifi ces for f'ood (ABol + 22.e bodies of' such a nature tha. th~ :soul Ir sympa:tb i Zf-S Jt ') 1 but they can.. 9 ~ lO}. . 22. 22.. they do not ha·.. et.~onic) desire the fvJnes (nidori:. It is" however. In the case of Pj"thagoras· s recognition of Euphor- bus's shield. 1 of assuming 'bodily .m. viththe body [passion1. 5 and 6. ar. perhaps the sue daemon lih1 c h ha.gic6-1 a.vem.ol.:)t and thus are tlbll!' 'toa.honicos.hil!> origin.cts llioted above (22. 48) which he seems to pr e:f'e:r . 23. 12. 825.y (AWl.i otber decePtive.. De an ima 5. 5.Jd I!!Ost drefIJD5 (De anima All spirits~ angels or daemons t are 46.arc. 3.ian !~05 angelic and d. l~ ARol.ve ga1r.. 8).weal" to divin~ (Af'!?l. Prax. diEiIl!!a.ud ~ all Bucb oper~tions" explicitly magical or otherYise.eM As spirits.r to re- Ii evt!' them miraculously. are simply deception pow~:r- On the oth~r hand. by "new or con-traTJ' remedies" ( 22 . 22. 1). h... 7.llearth or up to the hee. Adv. 47. 17..11).t they directly affect. 12 ~ 23.nner of 'Working ar(!' conditioned by t.'.Tertul1. angels ho. Ad Scap.vethe form temporarily (De carne Chr. S). llJ.s~s &D.

vi th the ChriE.9 relating to this area. 57.tors. e.J bis> discussion he simply various common terJt.aic names. is the oppo.e:rahori or biaeotbanati (51.o do na:tut'al. 4).. 1.. the special conn~ction of unclean spirits \i. f!'voeaturam~ _1nvocM'tur (Dtt anilIL8. god:9(~ec.tla. edunt. (De anima.e on (De. a). 2:rndeed ~ his thcwry of demor.ll f allf1.tionum. 1. in\ritatoria oper~-- tione). 2. 51. 5).ly Incantations . 2' 1l. 15. as deceased 1"elat. In those CQ.:r (e'xeept the two incant.ure s of daemons re:v~aled in the~r 2 and 6)...ns . De idoL 9.CY. 23. 3. Tertullian does not h!lv~ a theory of' incantation such ~J:. s Le..ked is what they thl!!nlS~lves What they do or desire t.d s eh:.are daemons (Apo1.idol. 1 and (falla. 2 and 3} t vbether appearing as decea.406 Early Christian ~ie~ by t.. bestill. etc. these ref~r to tne ~alling upon or tne calling up iJt spirits. De anima 57. to the incantations do not work IThe deception extends even to imitation of divine things. 2}. impt:lst.~ ) • lac-ked nar:nes unt-il superstition provided empty names of gods vhich they couJ.sed relatives. incanta.ec s. 1.passtLge~. T). :J:rAkes the action <:leo.S Ori- gen developed.s {D~ anil'flB.ci~/-ae. gladia. 5)~ or 81.. c:f'..rii. etc.h~re the context.g....W'hen exorcised they Confess t. 51 . 2. do vhen invo. 5 11 6). sees. even though they had previously pr~sented themsel V(!s.le5 8.23. ~ invi tatorum (A:E0l. are a.he spi:r-it. in vhich it is still a reasonable a~sumption). and de"l"iTlction1'bus (De spec:."1th vario-t.ivee.site: they . 2 s 3). incsntatore:s (De cultu fem. 5.::s types and bodi~s of vater (in malic ious imi tati on of' bapt ism) (De bapt... But their true nature is conflict.S@S . 2. or even proph@'ts {s.1 The various categories of spirits invoked s whetb.hat .

. .. .ling power (ApD~. De D. .nimA2~. 3~ De a.. .} are alDong the t.mly made (De'~or.. 2-5).Tertullian 407 directly.n ag-ree6 vito 'the general Christian view. 2.t .use diseas~s Ta. pllysiciBns t!l:tIfIloy k'emedies \lith like properties (quod feme pares adhibet gualitate-s medellaru:ro aduersus I'homoiopathi~" tLp. 1. there are other t gCDd.. fb:t' A possible popular ('n re~dy epilepsy (corni t i ali morbo) ~ drinki ng 'the fresh-flo'!.. 12) . while the de1l'..tian~ that while the demons can ~redit and t.ths 'Were c01l!!lH." on l1 na t urI!' . Qgninst ~a.. 22. guished in the. :sources of heal- ing (remediis naturalis t l and medicina [alongside magiaJ in ScoIP+ 1. The powers of her06 (herbarum ingenia.n tbe arena (AF"~l.ons ~ommand remedia . 22.Jimsls (~ pM!.. l)~ but the herbs theMselves are a creation of God t so their use :for evil (in potsoning. 2.. lSome'i1hat related to this idea 'Would be the reme-dil!!s natural~' kno\j"n to varioua sr. through spirits. Related fields Drugs and medicine In the area of medicine and healing. nou& siue contrar1a (Apol." "automati e&1.apd a160 the e:ffecta of thl!! ~:dous materials of whiCh 'WTe8." but \lork indil'ectly . Tertullie. "antipathies"? or just contrary to accepted exar:!Ple of' the lat.aen.. lit CcSt 1:130. in generu . critnine.ter 'WOuld be th~ practic~?). 10}.1 slain i. 9. ~ 11} . 51-52.1y . 7.fi ng blood of 8.p!"Mch to medicine). OJ.hen wi thdrav tbePl to gain for ben. 4 fLnd~ esp.bings the fallen angelg taught wom~o (D~ ~u1tu fem.

~1. 1 !:arly Christian Vie'W De Spl!'c. of nn infant prae s chms habenda. more &"]alogous to the.. 1) ~ is ... 6 and lO).t.:pr demons. misuse (con- versa .:Ss aTe appa. 5.ch action by the soul \tas not full)1" settled in Tert'Ullian 1 !3 lJIind~ 2 1 Equ.. 22. 8. 22. of ~very man: praesElgeun animam SUa. 2.a.u.general qua. 2. if they Can b@' controlled at all. and Test.a.De aniIr. even though sometimes they are true and fa.li ty of' intelligence (De anima.tion to this ~bili ty of the soul. by its very na.17. 1).e!3itg1 i IIi eenJ. an.s. 1.J:l sentit taut 79-8o~ ominis aut . s. 2" ) • Dr~ l'I.1 yill. 2. tor itself. from attention to eirc~tance5 (ex intentione c~Icumgt&ntlar~. di ui n. 1 ~ fO. 22.lly a misuse is the use of various mineral or other compounds to change the hu:ma.nd a'Strology Foreknol. 24. 2. ra.ing ext1!nd~d examples in chap...a.ted rela. i n o~ i bus s.:rent. 19+ 8. 8. an.De spec. 2. divination. 5.u. complico.1uinsre '] Test. C01!ie from God (1&1.ly cr~ated by the soUl itself. Oracles.rotJhet. 2: dreams are under the control of a. man! 1.t ri cen!. ~ote also t-be tinal eentence of De ani~ q8. 1. 11.dedge.llO".- having SOl!Je limited po-ole:rs of divination (~H ulnatione:1lJ :inter= dUlI! t De anime. in lrre.. Apol.I.. 2) t and a third ~lB.S TertuJ. 5. The possibility of s.r~e. 112 e-u~ti bus pros- Mirum. • 0.gu. Most d. 10" Recogi ta.rem. 1. si • .th~l" a. 6 and 8). 43. 22. S ceSL 2:818. 8. 2)" especially enab1 ing the soul to knOll God (Test.o prophecy.vorable (De anima 1. Th1Bis distinct from the special gi. :2 ~ CCSL 1:180-Bit lines 12-13). De pud. 1. .408 etc. 1-3. Un t em. 5.:eericuli aut gaud!! augW"e1I!i.l i an regard s t be soul..n appearance or even tbe color of ~lothing (De cultu fern. 3).f't of prophecy (E.ia . 19. tttte ~ 8. 2. 46) ~ but some ~ comparable t.I:!lS st and in if}..ms are eaused "b.

. "e~staticH ~09 possibility (!47. Apol. 1 and so plagiarize His d1vinatiot1 {dum f'llrantur diuinationem~ 22. of old. "there is the moTe visible l widegpread pheno~enon of demonic oracles and divina- ti on . or as catawlic.an presents the actual operations of the demorJ... and l3. they appear as Mori and biaeothanat. because of their ubiquitous nature ~ can know and.s l or from tbeir vrit1ngs as they hear them read {et tunc rotJh~tis contionfl.. rep':)n events anyvbere in the world (:22.:ughtered tor 1 But apparently they cannot read~ since they must have heard them.1 • 2 AS noted earlier. also 35. they Coope'Tate sions and go prom se Tal n (22. In W1Y ease.f tbe soul. 0. 1-3 1 6). also l 23. 9~ CCSL 1 :129. De anima. view o·:f' the "dj vina..e 1 e. ~. 22) followed by their ostens1 ve procedures (chap. 12} ~ 'Who. or as souls of' the r~sponses dead~ 2 operating in oracular obtained through boys sle.. It originatef. w.ntibus excenerunt et nunc lect10nibus re-sonantibus carpunt. sees..:nd their daetoon offspring {22. 1).Tertullian so he hesitates and suggests &noth~r.<:ity o. 46 1 esp. The 5 e la..he prophet. from t. 3. 5). 4) '" but the third category lIol. They lmo'W something of the pUl"poses of God from t. 80S . 23). 12. 10)..e. or oth@1" t1@ad (n~ anima 57.l~ or pvthonic spirits (28. In the A~ologY.t to~!' . Tertulli.act ually overlap vi t 11 dreams {not. 9 L ing in the air and clouds l th~y INell- sense the: processes of the upper rePubli ely t however. :2. Besides the limited natural :fore- sight of" the soul t and the 6peci&l divine gifts of prophecy s.i. 8).tory" ca.pB. 22.heproDQ\Ulce:ments of the pl'opheta. vith ~icians~ appl!:Etring as phantasmats. 11.ith certain fal1et1 angels o. 3.p.lid seem to be consistent with hie. Terotu111an' s vie'il of fo:re.s in divination (eha.aredra..knO'W'ledge lieems to fall into these same three categories.

1. 18.tion (9. 1.rus'Dice appea. note ~lso 9.I?) . rem. CCSL 2 . 23. 35. AstrolQE:r..ltu.hose~istl. CCSL 1 :11~6. somewhat garbled (and non-comprehending?) ~xpfl. . I lB. The vhole of Apol.. 5). harioli I 1!lB. 'With :magi:lo -etc:.and ·'funeral director. ]. (9.410 that purpose~ Early Christian Viev sending drit!ams 1 when invoked) or making r.y on the meanings of dlssignatore~ IImaster of ceremoniea lo " . o:t') at the end of' a list of the early teachers of man vho wore the mantle t ~t Qui ste'larem coniectat et gui uolaticSJn spectat (De pfl. 3-4. 2. perhaps induc:~d b Jr the bre'ELthing of' :fumes frOl:l the altar (All0l.gen t S) Appe a:r wi th varyi::lg nBL!les all'.~ima 28. A$trolo~r.. which appears in the lists in the p:re~ ceding paragraphs under thxee different designations. 1: stella-rum interpretationero). and 6-7~ ~gela. 59-60: haruspices l thOB~ consulted aboltt Caesar' slife). 1. re Phere-cydes).r~s et ma. CCSL 1 ~236. 1-2.rs also.spices et (Apal. 5 .c rorum.l?).75-0.el'.ns). as duobus . 1. 6. 2 The ho. a 1. 1. 3. 23."1 ~rum et 6 e. 12.U"e3: PI controls'· (or ~ a. Tertul11an then adds the rhetorical question: Bow much :tn. 23.u.or-e pmrerfuJ. ~}. also De a. In the public or9. The i r human aria prOC~dl. 6-8).l ~ but in De idololatria is explicitly classified by Tertullian as a spe~ie5 or magic inter se eocietatem). en its origin from fallen see also De cu. Chr1stia. lef.. not only shares a place witb magic in t. 2.JtLnnY-goats and (sacrificial?) tables divine (23.xhibitions (De spet=. the on (e)iropompoi of Justin (A~ol. (Is this :perhaps a gruesomepla.cles J acts indistinguishable from madness appear (~.'.gos flStrologos et haJ"'J.thematic1 2 (43.1l. 3) and Irenaeus {Adv. 3~ It shal"~s vith magic botn its ··deltiionic" origin and apostolic condemna. 10. 14-15). he. • aTbi t!'"i S tlt. :2. 5.!lo those vho can JU50tly COmplAi!~ about. 23 appears to be a. in concert with the undertaker (di 58i matore j. t heatrical e.nsion of Justin Apol.ly vill they operate when they do these same things for their o'lotn ends and vil.

10 [Fr!fQl1entum Fuldense"..e is evil:to and Chr i lit.rue. 12. and relates to a point (the time of origin of the soul) rather peripheral to the main body o. proof' of the origin of the soul at conception (De aDima 25. there is no question as. Further .f astrological beliefs.i"sJ and :for abusing the heaV'~nE .ti vi ty {geni t uram) :from conception vas in opposition to the COllUl:iOrJ p. 4) + .o it (A£.x:plicitly equate pagan beliefs and magic as did some of his pr~decessors10 but the same general attitude is lThis is t of course 10 s. T"ne SibyL On the other hand". 35.1 terms .~ De idol.he stB. 1.and charge the MaTc:ioni tes n. 9). to T~r- tull ian" s attitude tOYai'd tbe 8i byl ~ she is "our 'p!"ophete5 6 11 who se tr nar:ie bas lH~en usurped fo·r tl1e prophets/propheeil?s of your " daemons/gods (Ad ne. 19. AtJol..omething of" an ad hominem argur.nt.ractice of' casting the horoecope f"rom birth. 18.ll tullian does not clearly indicate vhethe-r he believes i t u. 35 . Marc. as a -matter of' :ra~t ~ do not hJ1V~ reCOUl'se t. 12 L. but Ter- h. He can ridic:uJ..anti~n't astrologe-rs (ueteres 6St~ologi) as 1 1I.t.st.ol. 8) ~ and ridicule Mar cion' 8 god in B.eimpo!3-f)i ble to dete-rmine ~urat ely (4. 2.nB.e the astrologer for not seeing his own danger in t.nent. ~ + 3).rologiDfl.h addiction to astrology t but also with supporting th~selv~s by the Creator's stars (Ad~. as HippolJ~us argued (Ref. but he also uses the pl"a(:ti~e ot the.Tertull ian Such origin means that this knowledg."rith bis finger or rod (diRt tus autradiU!.ot only vi t. This l~tter vas ~ praetical necessity. 9.. 1). . in CCSL 1:11920J) • Relation Faganism o~ other beli~fs to ~gic Tertullian does not e. though everl the ti~ of'this va.1 tIJlS .the practice of' the MOO i ent ast rologers 1n determinin g the..

p the human r6.the~ (De idol. 6. Jus:tin Apol . I 26~ 2.lndeed the @.ns vith a. statue and the ti tl~ Sanct1 Dei (ApoL 13.tua.J~12 Early Christian View The demons who manifested themselves in magic. 2. Apol.eized on them and began operating under.as part of apparent. and numerous occ:upatio!l:S are BO ~losely involved with idola.. 9.l. 1. 7).gicia. :2. 3) opera:te b-ehind 'the idol s (~o.n. and The same f8. 15.s ritet or describe magical operaBesides these~ t10ns in connection with religion. 2. 22. 6). 12) are perha. etc-. cf.. and the fUrther recounting of a. 22.. 1. and 56. 1 ~ Atl.lBJIles 'Were empty until the demons B. with magic in one yay or another. Everyday practice is saturated vith 'W'Or$hi]) of various demons! SO it is ilnpossible for a Christian to marry a. Simon.ol.try that they are iIeThe vhole of De idolalatr1o. .mall ship by e girdle) in such & pagan religious: ~ontext by Minucius Felix (Oct. a.llian (Castor apparitions. 22. 5:). haer.odti' f.ct! (D~ ani1tla 39. etc. 4) . 2~ Iren.ns (De idol. 7 and 27. b~en Furthe-r. had honored by the Roma.te to entra. pagan wi thout continuous danger of c01ltP1"omise (Ad ux.inst. 1). 2.. 1).lly related to this quest. 23.l. not~d ma.. the!!" operations to dl!'!ceive man religiot':l 1 are especially operative in pAgan Men are born to and 'With ido1- l!Uld the whole pagan eult 'U:l'"e • r~sUlt atr:.l1~n proper for Christio. 1-3). 2Note the use of tvo of them (Castor &pparitions and pulling a e.ll of tbem by Laetantius (Div... The decept i ve operations named by Tertu. 2 and eer- ta1nly the out op~rations described in ARQloSl 23. 1. there· ~ be noted the various passages discussed above linking haruspices. angels who introdue ed magic (De cul tu ff!'m. either oscillate with- di5tin~tion from magic to religiou. Adv.ps part of Bome religious r1. rather than pure magic.lon. 5-11). De spectaculis ar~ actua.." as a of' the 'WOrk of' evil spiri.

. Pr.ttr1flnder... 6). 9:> . .t Christian practicl!s tJ:.agicil!l. because of their ded1~ation to t:urio'lls matters (commercia..gi 8. Mare ~ L 18. Va. foretold t. . De idol.ve 1~~ mort&.ximas) in support of deceitful. adv. . \it exime.a.rdf1chlng vas foretQ1d~ SJ1 d proves nothing (~b.1. ·cf. such great miracles. cum magis . ad".s 1!lRgicians 1l but. also MtLrcion :and the )f. r(! Simon end M. Not only are various 1 her~tical ex:pli~it.nder~ De anima. 3 = UA5trology (matht!!sis) today cooceros Chriet ~ theetars-preach Christ.llian Heresies The rel&tiolJ of the heresies to magic is stfL. (uirtutes OIa. h&er.E.rologe-rs.l..rcionites as astrologers ~ Adv.imed biQbapti~m gfL. circuJ.. ManB. he-aled the: sick . eor- rupt p. but. 1+ 2 .e. 1-3). 2'.ted and emphatically.postles since done the SaJtLe things.ly teacherslIindividu- ally.8ophers! ).t!!. h. . 1 :I- CCSL 1=222.1ity (De anima 50~ 2):. 9. as a group.rded as a. . raised the dl!!:9. haer. 1 . The beret1- eal t~aching disproves itse1f=Menander clfL. notable.. Prae:3.~ anima~ 34.es.{!' tIDlturn dab it oui squam. u.Tertu. 35.":J.ophi 5 ] curl os i tat i sci li c~t et dedi t. but no one can c1aiID for magic: such power as 1.e.atoribu8 • .a. . . 2. om.. Carpocrates. note a. 13. . - . 50. 33.lso Ps. 43..11ian Adv. 12.0 exempt from death {Necms. is. 3. "the :IIl.-Tertu.nd magic ChargeE against Christ and Christians The him as a Jells~ being convinced that Jesus vas only a man. charlatans lI and ast. not saturn ~ Mars . the hereti~a are notable for eommerc~ vitb magicians . regarded bec&use of the power he manifested (~agumexistimarent magici~ lSilnon IrIlI. Their sup'port..d. Apc!.2:0 4.n MtiIJ""cus I" Adv.ers~ of course ll ~la.i los. 5). astl"ologis .he future (L~. 'hfLer.im that they dethe~' hail~ serve to be rega. '(besides philo. ibid.

. But \tarcionts Chriat~ on the other h6. se:e a150 h. Mare. expellibg demons.ion .'Early Christ 16. 6. ~ ... 5~ 7. . et decipit et circumue:n1 t on:niun:.gwn b.S l'11!:1"uted by Christ. will they not Beek to explain it as ~ic or some sort of trick (maEia aut eJiqua eiusmodi. 10. 23. ct.:ricking..6trology should not e'il(m be spoken of' (De idol. 36-37). A.s over legions of' demons). 64-8S3. t.. 20. Denial of" magic and rl?lated pra.:u.s tor Chri st.l ~. 12). pOYoIer over wind and larly. eeSt 1. 2). 11. and 4.. glory was not de=:.a.ba. 9. t.f a Christian should ex- pel the demon trom a possessed or ecstatie person.132.~ Apol.en?1t (si homo communis eondic1oniB 3 si magus. f'rom astrology through r:tlBgic.-etices. 1'1 s he (not) an ordinary man ~ a sore erer..1 The P&gB.nd~ lll!"icS such B. . as vell a.Ol. lL.71)~ . but tdshighe·st. 7.cian ~ a conjurer (ms.. View de potest. and teaching: he rebuked dem. CCSL 2. 1 a. eristim. per-fonDing v-IU"ious heaJ. 5. 13... 7. 1"igure. a.ni$ take a similar fL. 3.. 1. (fallit. not as a simple exercise of pO'lol'er.882. The various . 8.. but to teach men of a future resurrect.dv.e'o to die again is no great thing (De res.d1ng the -eyes :and senseI. 38~ 1.ornine:m _ • _ spect6culi ar-tificem) (De carne Chr. deceiving) misl~B.. lO~ pl&ium in signis .l31.ings) re. Further 10 B.rork5 .falla~ia fieri dic~tis .e. CCSL 1. hlJ:! rai~ed ~ve.g demons" but s6ving mankind~ an attitude be viLl"Jted the disciples to share (Advo_ Marc. o.TJt). and..re forbidden by God~ and Christians do not consult them even about their own af- fairs ~ let alone the lif~ of someone else (theemperol") {AxoL 35.ising tbe dead CApol. ~ort. one whose body vas st.ttitude: i. 81 •• o~ 23. 12. 1).:n. simi- the dead. This idea VfL. f s act=:.troyin. ocu)os o~1um sensus) ~ not God-vi th-ntan! b°l)t a I mag:i.o raise m.. 21.-ona. 62-63}.te}.

.lki TI their old vay s (De idol. astrology htLs not nov become Christian (De .. 9. Astrologers hllve no p~t in thekingdOJD of heaven (9. gods or demons t but expels (depellens) the old ones (1.llJ the son5~ th~atre. 6-7). :2 ):lI tmd 'Was cla.y. 9. 3.o ill-Oli:Iened per- the undertaker and the soothsayer (d~!3sig:na.tre J).agi . The other species of magic ~~ich operated by mira~les (9.. idol.imed by a del!lOn as hi Ii s:pec i al territor:.. P 5-8). 1.ur~ (!::Jote the various proi'essions forbidden to Christians.ed '!'he hostility. This negative a.ore et harusp1ce ~ De spec.Adv.t.s of pagan cuJ.fI. perhaps 'the Marcionites. the o.·oman. i. the m.ho be came pog se ss. in contrast to some: group that asserted that it had. ".oni Thi~ 51uperiority~ of Christianity to m!Lgic and c works is shown by the ehr i st ians' power over demons.Gospels. ig present~d in the most sweeping terms at the beginning of De anima.Tertullian 'this maJf be something of an ide-ill ~ the equally taintl!:!d idol-Jna?cers ~ for example~ who sbould not even be admjtted to the chU1'ch~ vere b~ing cbos~n even for church of~ices (7. 5). I!: ']1 not to Y.r t . b~{ Astrology cannot 'be defended astrolog~r::. 8). 16. . eXOre i 8m froo. a.postlef: and Gospellil (9. De idol. 6) was equally condemned b"J..s opened b::.~ this De\< visdam of the Bchool of heaven does not introduce: n~. 6).ttitude extends to most 8os-peet. cf' • . "Christian II .ere Co'!TJTJ)R n de d to return another ve....t. whi:::h \Ti'o. 3). es:pecie.n reference to the "Magi and in the.. 10.. (:::: 6+ 1 tat its at a thea. Marc. I?). and oth~r d~m.

1 1853: 85 ~ note !l (on De idoL 11. 2.ctual pro~ cedures t. "At our touch and breath (contactu dl!'9u~ a. 23..e genn~.g?1t. P+ 690. Compare Ad ux.e. cr. a'bov@'.l1! singleness 01' purpos~ nnd devotion to spirit.m. 2J).i.s tI. 11. 7.l qu~nching of the :f'il"e On a"l incense altar.plodis" MdDe idol. for example .416 Early Chri6t:ien Viev Tertu11ian gives (even) less into:nns.s I!lp.of the ~~am. 5. picture..: even the uf.not specifically brou. 3). w.llil!l. The next section might suggest another proced\U"e.. note a~ on Ad WC. 2 .d 1l in genere. vife) give.liall. or any ot.n the fairl)' conatant fefLture of the use.hout context..s similarities to the magical. Te:rtulliani ua. characteristic ot the ~arly Christian fits well with their contention that iluch things ""ere 1 simple acts of' f'aith..tely the fo:rmer is wit. ( :inti Setimii Florentis. 7. This might be reinforced by fast. (c f..ed a. n~ert!Te-rtu. but such a setting vas not necessary.if a.ual things {as of one no longer having a.le of the t1gign~' is .er interprets.her tha.x.han did II!!ral. . SynJbelie signifi-eMce 90S 'Well B. pn:o:.. Origen~l but b~sic 'What he does say presents the sa.s in ba. c:ourt:rOOl:Q.. also. l!P£l. 15).f'flatu) .! su ersunt o:rnniEL. into thi 5 connection by 'l'ertuJ. both the spitting and blo'Wing out as expressions of cont. and t. 382.true God.empt.Jne The- proc:e-dure is naming the of Christ 3' and Christ as reminding th~ demons of their impending divine fate 2 ny Judge {Apol.ling ~. But the blowing)H. not magi c • Some 60rt of fOl"C:lal pat terD may have been developing but there is no e-vidence of' it t ot.n and his confreres becoming mill taDt ttanti-smokers't?J Francis<:us OehJ.. n. t'tt!:nante-s eras d~s·>JU:J?t et exsuftlabi t. The a. OT Weigel . 'Ur~fortuna. act in the churcb.ccou.. l851-5hJ ...ve . 23. it though the "breath" may be simply a graphic: r~f'e. 2 bis. 1 ~ reter to afonnal. 1'. the demons leave. . 2.rl!'nce to the words of the previ~us s~ction.t. greater self-confidence . 2}.TJt in De spe~T 26. of course.h~ latter could easily be interpret.hysics.ieal ~f't~ct.e ~ et al. a.tt.ke th~ spitting~ could ho.djurit'Jg a demon (si daellxmem adiurat ~ 1 vrite:rg~ and This is .. 5. use of I1myth_ ologi cal narrfl. i~dum flatu e. 4 and 15).t ive 1.be-r settin~h 'Would do (cf. 8. ha. This.ion about the a.. the manifestation of the poyer of the. 3 vols+ [Leipzig: T.

lso 4. 10.13. Marc.LJ~n~a.1>ly to be connected vi th eure of disease in general:> and not specifically with exorcism.8.:.!.. objeeti vl!'ly.QfID~·.:=c. same wr.) Miracle~ and prbphecy &5 Tertu11ian l"ega.E-ossunt: l'e anima 51. 6. 18-21.. as a.. true :for Christianity.an use6 the IFproot from prophecyn 1IIUch th!Ul hia Greek predecessors" using it EJl.1.• .r&cl~s are overshadowea by the teaching S 6. MarC'. So 1 (Anoint1ngis also in Ad Sea].. 10. M&l"c.. 2 In general t Tertul11.UP- r. cf'.Terlu11ian eonf"itU:t sib1 : 417 m~ntioned De exh.pr0.then holdE. l~ss . 2). Even beyond 'this. 5. 0 ij. =--=f":. 1.dle signs may be useful in argw:nent..r. Marc.1vat 1 on 1. and Adv. Ad Scap~ 4. but he views these tbings someWhat fl I! nllraele-s aril! not suf. 5). mi. passim). 1) . 7}..lready various apparitions th~ and vonders do not prove the truth of the magi cians. 3" ~.:=. ]. and . 5).st..!!. He also :reports cl!'rtain :marvels.. this i proba..~i. I La tel' in the chapt er..:t~ur~am::::: .:=. Tertullian report ed a prophecy 0 f ?rises.her exalting the pcn"er of purity" though there the result va.... 3. see 'Ii 5-. and even Christ's deeds needed the port. .1~s_~ • . ca. the- of mankind (Ad v .s visions and other revelations (DiI:! eXh...::. cf. also De or. There is limited utie of it...=.i 1'1:1 them (Ad V'.t the nature of' the sOUl (De anim~ 51..1idexorci51!1~ tty of Christianity (be91des the reference9 to also Scorp. a.nd Marcion in his apQlogies . 4. above. Christ (Adv..a.• cast.phe ~y 2 to c:ont... L. furt.rds 'the power to heal a proof of" the va.7i th vhic hthey are conne cted.e non . in support of his vie'Ws abou.against them (Adv + Jud. 3.=e:.).. in Apol. 29.. 1 ~ and bk. 8). 3.inly against the JeW's a. they cannot control our vie'" of nature (~!. 4.ticient proof for Marcion' 8 ShOV11..:B.. 2 3). but..

S. 34).J1d oracleEi) t but toe lllJrths piotture the gods themselves as using :Ill.e sunt non videri Oct.ggi~ ed. t M. such as apPi!:!a. text from Alo1s1us Va. 26.r ilith the pagan religions (as are the del!lOn-inspired auguries B.lma. (27. p.. Not only are these ~vents connected in one vay or anothe.?pear to cure the:t:l when they release those a. Paraviae et Sociorum (19l6)J. ~d other vonders (27.ors on hor5es~ and pullinB a ship by a woman's girdle. 2). the daemons ~ere earthly~ and hostile to ~ankind (26. 7). 8). 10.1·flic:ted (27. .rances of the Cast. 12). 1111s adspirantibus et infundentibus :ro.re th~ daemons or the poets (20. and vandering from hea.418 Ea~ly Chri5ti~n View Minor Latin Writers Minuciu9 Felix The Octavius include the Tertu11ian~ S~e or M1nucius Feli:x~ rathl!'r nElturally. (5] [Turin. Corpus Scripto~ Latinorum Paravianum. 1-7). 9).ilgic and subJeet to it (22/23.hou. l):p and produc~ disease and. ideri "Tel ua. . The actual GUCce~ses of auspices and auguries or oracles are rather~ in5inc~re not due to chance lJpirits. 10. the perfortn£J. 4~ Jupiter enticed by the girdle of Venus). M1nucii F~licis Octavi~s. 26.venly vigor~ sl!'i!:!k also to de-grade others The Magi work M8. Here also.gi~ {26. 4~ al~o chap..esti ias edunt vel Q'U. other evils that they may a. the. lQ-ll)t a~ Plato also spoke of Thes~ fingels and daemons (26. 1 .. .€ non slmt . the~e a.nces are "refil n (objective) yet fraudul~nt--9ui~9Uid miracYli ludunt . daemons vork through ro~ks~ en- trails ~ etc.m:p 1 their vonders by t. do!!'s not o~ breadth of references to magic as do the writings but such rererences aa do occur in Minucius agree ba~icEllly wi th the vi~vs of Tenull:i an . They produce other marvels ..gh Hostanest th€! first of 'the~a1d de- Beribed the true God and angels and ~ande~ing.. de~aded C~. Rapt.

Co~odi.ns. They taught the arts.inst the latter along the line:s devlt!lopl?d by Jr·enaeu5 = lCol!E!lod1anus also bE!l.e. The of'fspring of the sinning angels s. 8) ~ and perhaps alludes to t.ouch briefl:. 1:10 lines 157-58.nus The Instructions of CO"CIlllodiar. 18.. 3). 6).Jus t.i~v~d il1 the 6000 year dl. 22~ lines 1-8. 13~ JtTherevas none that predicted his [Jupiter~sJ previous birth" (Rob~rtEr:neatWa11is..th t condeJr.U'ation of the earth: 2.· on tlle sane h10 major points as noted in Minucius~ the origin of I!:vil spirits a.'1d their connection to o:raeles. hereti~s '1 r"i iJ'e O!Dl')es haereses continued the charge of and Menander after him (sees. lI0Clen were giants.'ri ters But many of the Romans knov these things lo sin(:e the daemons confess theil'" fraud when exorcised from their victims by the Chrlstis. ~ "Co:c:rnodie. Simon Magua The :poet i c Books 1n Reply to Mare i on" (Carmen aduersus Mnrcionem) added Cerdo 8. tra.t hand (27. 39/00. ~f. They are active in various types of augu:ry and portents (1.nd ~tc. God ~ing pleased to allow the daemons to 9-10).veing of yool t and after dNl. 19).!le. 1.Ild Marc tiS (bk. also 1.l~inor Latin '. 165-67~ rCSL 2:lh2L-2S. d. 22~ lines Pseudo-Tertullianica The anonymous Adversus magic against the 2 and 3).:rcus aga.nus/' ANF lj.1 vand~r the world for our discipline (1.. 6. . subverting manYt being worsbipped and prayed to as gods (In~tr. they wandered a.h~ argument from prophecy in 1. 208-10)..~ dri ven out I'by the torment of our lo'ords and the fire of' our prayers I" flying frOlr. 204). ~~ ~:l~~~ lines 198.J1ed never to be resurrected.bout. even pre~ tended sods confess their t:z-ue nature (27.i the Christians when near 8. 5 nnd 7). It amplified the charge Mo..

page" and 11ne(s) in precise referencesJ. t. 1 vol.. aPPle".rtyrdom bimself holds. 3Gui l@:1J:nus Hartel.noTUI!I s vol. 1: 51.nd Cedrenus.2 :mentioned in Jonah (CSEL 3. ed. th~ . omn i e...rt <in magicae:formam.. parts 1-3 .3--5. ed.nd. 60IDe\l'Mt similar belief s tbat poasibly su~h asP~rpetue a wo=an could not have been slain unl~ss she herself villed it) b~catise she was :feared by the impure spirit (6. 182-90). trans. . line 166) for iJJm". by continuously numbered pa~agraphs~ ~ith numbered a~ctions. A. 17-18.ted also along with Terlul- Dead SE!B..rtmsmit. 124" 1 ioes 9~10.s. 'to include all fruits growing in thefL.Am: 4: 131" 11. .1"ea (CSEL 3" 3 :295. . 4/21T 10).t. 297 • . fol10w~d by volume~ ptLrt. 13-14. ( C1te d by trad i ti onal cha.. e. though not magical.ti.oral purposes . .tea the pagan thl!' tribune.Henry Chadwick (Oxford: elaren don Press s 1972). 1:188. S.)"torrs. CSEL. p..l'ertullianl. relate SOI!Iewhat to Africanus's references to that region. Certain metrical York... and also taught tl'lat he changed tbe Cup to blood 'by prayer (line 167). inter alia" the lText from Herbert Musuri110 . .rt·s (Vi. 5. Th~ "Sodom..w:ford EfLr-. The ~fartyrdom of Pemetua and Felicitas illustrs. incantatiop.420 Early Cl~istian View used :rtI&gic a. at first feared that they would be 'Wi thdraw'tl frcnJ the prison by some 5Qrt of magic incanta. 3/16. 3.n1!!Ei The latter also includes. s. apparently suspicion of magi~ on the part of' Christians: inc1ted by informers.1 The writer of I!I9. O. . Africl!Wus s in Syn~f!llUSt E!d.pter and paragraph nU1l1b!'rs.ly Christia!1 'Texts. The Acts of the Christian f-fa. tQl10wing a virgule. Thelv&11.. ed. 1868-71) tc1'ted a. 3. B@Xker.s. Thase i Caeci 1 i Cypr ian1 opera. 2). 133-:31.NF !li12T-41 t "Appendix" (to '.) 2 Cf. "lines 4-5 in ~ ~ :127).ibus aligu1bus magicis. Gerold! Filho:n Bib11opolwn Academiae. . Dindorf. a.ion (subtraherentur .icorurn La. which. 3 is smpli:fied in SQdon:.. in 3 pe. gen.enna: Apud C. S. s Corpus scrip:to~ ecclesiast.

.gic.U4::. in a Christian system .. H. Prattep" A}lF' B~i2T-29.n a. p. Fa. Syncell1l5 . Segal .ps originated in the third century in Osrhoene (J. but has no references to magic. .in this 8.aren-P6.ers The. Late!" Writers Lat. 2Themost direct references to magic fl. Barde..'landic8. B. tThe Blessed Cit-y I rOxford: Clarendon Press" 1970J:Io p..l experiences between Na- ture.\1l1tiT.s. 219.~van :Ba. J.nd his circle of correspondents do not 6peek directly 1 cr. no. 3"BardeBan ~ The Book of the La:ws of Divers Countries.major Syriae YOrks thil.pe.·(~ some borderline val. includl!'d above with the Greek apologi. Ipdeed:o hif: allocation of causality for h'l.~a. 3 'would seem to leave li.. r1 trans.... 2 thOugh they hB.o the books o:f the Be. 14-15.ns • Mrs. but sinks if extinguis he-a 1 idea t. l. Ed~ss..te.ha t 8. t. One of Bardaisan'a great interests vaS in the correlation of Fate vi th divine providence and hUIll&n tr'eedom.B. Ce-dreTLUs.in Writers Cypria..Syr la.s.c rtIriters 1 i.1san of Edessa.ttle room" or n~ed.v gr~&t interest inllJa. manipulations.st. B.tion about astrology'i and refers t. 35). 6 (As sen : Van Got'"cum. l: 51. This york pe:rha.ghted torch :float. and human Freedom for magicaJ. ( CSEL Syriac . 16-17.re found in the Apology of pseudQ-Melito. studia Semit1ca J~ee. 188.. TN .t hav(! s\trvived from the Ante~Nicene period do not show an.Writ. DriJvers. G. 1966).byloninns and the Egyptians. He thu.. P.s has some info·:nns.rea.

out. . 75. soberly. with a Don~ pura.. 10). at their expulsion by Chrie. 15.ed by the fa. 5-) con fes sed by the da.m. it is B.s~ such a physical event C'/pria.' t VOC& empha.tians (Ad Deltetl'ianu. Ad Dem.. 15). Firmi1 h .'l) }.a. 69. of t'hei r vi ctit:nS t . l5.m. and Ad Dem. Sinning and apostate angels taught women forbidden arts (De habitu virginum metiC5. et 1"allac ias. 12-13). Ad 5) CSEL 3 .m 15).. 1 ~ 7.Felix~ Cyprian pictures the demons as being forced.ct that all this is done simple voice (castite sobria. 2 hereti~ Th~ deIl1on~possess~dl'proph~te:s8 U in (possibly a Montanist) (~.n • s letter was a . 15.gic. What they do say about demons presents the s&.). mente integra. hO'illing and groaning. :Besides tbese exceptiooal cases. CSEL 3 ~ 1 ~ 362. l~~ th~ugh in tbis case the ~tB are those of cos- A demon 1nspir~d or possessed person ~y pretend to ~ r=ause an earthquake thbugh in Actuality i't is only-foreseen by the demon. though that may be largely because of more pressing problems. also Ea?- 69.1 {!E. \rith thig is possibly to be co~ared the de-::::eita and tricke~ies (praes t 1.&1 as . The rhetorical nature of' this pictill"e is c:a1.ggested by Minucius .~22 Early Christian Viev of m..m1:. 10) ~ is in the rhetorical descrip- tions of exorc isms. 75. it cannot CiLU. 5.nd divine power (!Q. bishOPli at the S.siz. "'here Cyprian goes beyond his predecessors ~ and colle!l. 10 [F'irmilian to The one a..ilian t ~.gues: (cf • Fir.e-venth Council of' Carthage).e:nons. the heathen gods..(:complished b~r the.8 courged and roast e d vi th f1 re (Ad Don.. 15). Alnplif)ting e. ..hUJ::!IB. etc.e basic vievs found in the earlier writers. exne~es~a~r orcism is & regular prelude to baptism t especially in the case of heretics 2 (repeatedly ~phasized in the prono~~~ements of various.n voice a.~a. them~ au.

nd to have it. nCyprie. Ido1s~ & The tl'a~tate- On the Vanity of or That the Ido19 Are Nat Gods {Q. wnp1ified (in chap. et ~ l by t1 0ur voi ce and speech 0". 16. but T adjured by the trtl. The treat. . 5-6). 18-22 'Iofi'th 25. uoce et oratione maJestatis occultae.nd more generally 361.. 651 ~ b· J.uod idola dii nOD S1ct}.lQ. by them the Magi have power f'OT haI'l!l or :m. Several 01' the treatises tranmRitted with and sometimes und~r th~ ilo1"ks o:f Cyprian ~ his nome . 1=2). 4-9L. They hide behind (sub) statues and imag~s and cause the different e:ffects of the various ty"pes of' a"Ug-~ and ELuspices. Bnu.t~ also presents the themes of deSome ~laim heretic~l monic acts or tricker!. hi. tortured. !:l'pecifically -concerning magic.. .7.. 26 and 21). CS..dden ro. lEnglish tr611.25. 19-20 vith 25.:ptisma.ock. 3~ 1.aps. it may possibly be effected by game such as thnse of' Anaxilaus.1.Later ~'riters 423 Pseudo-Crprianic:a.EL 3) 1. a. ~.. groups contend The e.lW 595 . 7: nostl"'8.n'l" ANF 5.. . compare esp. is unsure abOut this. pe-rhaps 'by some natural means.peak. CSE!. do s. 10-11) to oppos~ the truth. Felix (Oct.ise: De reba.. 15. or perhaps they only think they 6ee it. CSEL 3. in p9.:ater rl (ehfLp. + e .e God:> they are P driyen out or pos s e ssed bodi e s. or pl!'rh&ps "the 'Work and magic:al poison of some malignant being c:an force fire frOm thl!!' . 5-7) based largely on Minucius.tion by Ernest Wallis .(1. and of for the ne~elisity exorcia~. ~ t pp.. 5~ and Ad Dem.Quod idols.. 6).uthor trick~ of fire at baptism a.aje5t Jt P " ('1uod ido.~ry (.s1a. /l. ~pirit::. . xppen· ~ dU .261".ssage (cl'. presented the as misleading and deceiving and using tricks (!allit et decipit et praestigiiS. 7) from Cyprian (Ad Don. 6-1.

also the "magicians and tbe mysterious learning of the Chaldeans" (Ma.~ Vie'll 111i puta:nt ~ . h (Vienna.. This is I!!'sped. 10- 15). 7:1 On the other hand.10fQrked (uinutes omnes Bolent fieri):o somet1m~s even by those outside.Early Cln"istia. in th~ East. gentesJ 1.. expritDere: of" the nillDe of Jesus is shown by the fa. not only s'WOl"'ds and physical poyer J but. The e.ct that in that name kinds of poyers (in~lUding cast. . the m.1 The Magian Zoroaste~ lAugustus Reiff~rsc::he1d.JS ign em 'Dote'stin CSEL 3 1 3: 90.ignificance.. In a g~eat conflict bet'lleen the AssyriWlS and the Bact-ria.. 7: 22). ed.gicis et Cbaldaeor'llln @ox l'econdi tis discipli:nis) were engaged in the struggle (Adversus nll.... 5-8).u:ry in regard to his vie~s of magic and related area~. vol. Apud C. uirtute-:tn nominis) (chap.al.ns. CSEL ~:7.t. The interests and vievs of the Greek apologists of a or f. .. c::aused the! Jews to regard hiln as a so:reerer (erlstimabant mtigunil (Quod i dola 13.tiones [or Adv. libri VII. CSEL. are tu::custOllled to be.ing Qut demons t Mat. even evil doers may possibly do good \iOrks by t·he super- abounding ·energy of the n8lQ~ (lHl':r' nlmitlJD .nd- ing word and voice euerbo et uocis imper-io). Arnobii 8duersus nationes. Magic goes back to ancient times. done-with commo.racles of Christ.. under Ninus and Zoroa.ster. sf ue Mli &11 cpus et Qlasicum ui M. 15-18).01' invocation a~l !9Ue. CSEL 3 t 1: 29.ly true c~nt.rnob1 'Us are much the sa:me as thosl!: earlier. 5. Ge~oldi Filium B1bliopolam Academiae~ 1875).

magi 'W'ho did anything the lea.).DS naml!'d 'Who a. Marsi. 52 L Among t. A:rnobil. uatibus» haruspic:es .c~ompanying lIn the area of materia.he effects of Christ' G name are tbe overcoming of 8Qothsayers~ evil spirits ~ :titus 1 a:ugurs ~ and l!Iagician~ (}.1 means.m~ ~on- Christ did not USe in working Chri st vas as eerte d to be a magus vno \l'ork~d 'by secret a.m et "graJ:r:iJl¥ sucis). discussion.pter bh reemphasiz.re challenged to g1 ve Jlm7er to any (B:S Christ. 29-29. 29.esold by Psylli ..gyptla.ion (~a. pre. > ad1'Qga!ltimn ma.rts t having stolen the .. 1. he also vill allow any challengers h~rbs [~efici to use their own rites vitb 'vbatever noxious ~h!lteve:r gramin1sJ pO'W'l!:l"S (uirium.e one of sevlI:!!'~ J~25 bl8.Ild sports of' magi~al arts? (Adv. . . CSEL 4~28. Theory and praxi a oj" magi ~ One of'Ar-no'biu8 t s longest passages on magic occurs in the text of a. .names of' angels of' po'Wer :homE. 13-1~.t.ricks of daemons 6.J tbose muttered vorda and a.Flcrorum l. 1 'Ilithout rega. ac- ti ones ~ CSEL 4 ~ 31..nn...ly 'Work themlH!l ve~ (1.S elsewhere refers to tl1e IMll'Ilina. 1).st similal'~ working vithout inl::'anta.2 In 1. or jui~e of herb or grass (herbaru. nox1os spi- .. .. . and others (apparently as protection againstanakebite):> e. 32 }• 2The o~nir. CSEL 4 ~ 28.nshrines.t.ppa:ently ineluding Christians 8. 46.mQng their users ( 2 . sto/!' ullius ritu5 obs~ruatione uel lege CliDe llj J ) • .he t.ibaminum tep!porum?}~ {ibid.p.Later Writers appears alsoB.. libation~ or season (S.rd to sacs rifice .. na.1. :25~26).lg lines of' ehl9. ~ea. did)' t or e:ven to actuaJ.inum.e et magicarum Are there8-'1y nr-ti'Ul::l ludi?.. 43: daemonum. 52..orum . but were his deeds re-&1ly t.&.estigia. of the various hi s mi racl es .e that Christ 'Worked vi tho\lt afJ)'thingto assist t and vi thout observing any t"ite or rul~ (CSEL lj. 6-8).gicia.

.m nemes by di vim::r. 11 AUF ZEls~here Etruria is specially noted in the origination of divination and a. 2 acquainted with the core Indi&1s. 5.ll others 1 6~h03-5~O.s. to open loc:ks or seal lOO'lJ.ntA.>:. repr~sent vestern (Roman} expansions of the traditional eastern (Greek) liBts of ancient~ ~·sterious r~ces credited with o~cult knovledge and poller..ius . 26}.. 4. CSEl.re If anyone doubts this.ugury (2.. Hamilton Bryce and Hugh Ca. t~e.frequently slip in instead of: those s'l. 11). he can as-x the Egyptians . say that at their incantations (acci tionibus) pretended eods . Even Jupiter himself .. .rer is the o!~e . 62. auoc. "Arnoc. Chaldeans t Artnenianr..) by cr-. ~ or impW"e love.ns.. n I:freltJOr ille uerborurn a. together ~ith the previously mentioned Psy11i and Marsi (2. Or. how is it knoioln that invoked:? th~i"e is not one onl. knO'W11 the latte-r.lWtlOned (pro accS. {JlNF 6: ~26.tRue ani unct. i:otDpelling the gods when sUI!nII.'.ti) vo'UJ.th. 12)? The ~t ~ho aTe brothers to the sooths~rers.-etu:m. 2-J.g.Jt:pbell.r snould a. 0:1 retard th~ horses. to seV'e:r affections. OJ' in chariot raoces '\i'~n.y (~otestat~} of those own force {ui). but by the q3~ pov~r they invoke (I.arms and spells (et Quae-nan:... CSEL 4~29. Pel"sian:s . or lungs and livers (4.:d I? ~ et no~inuw terribili~ tre~~res1 .(J.rthe1~ thing usefU1 3 to do it not b.. .iJ:J fOl"oce thel:!lselves:!. .. 1 and 3 J esp..). .). to inflii:t disease.oned fa-cciti) by their o.m (tre. .. 7.Early Christi~ Vi~T spells <:. iLtld a. summoned 'pO'l.s (t~. 4-13).But hov is it "that "the 'Who operates in the e-ntrails. 6.l2:d dOT. 27-176. The Etrusenns. 36 . tis) (ibid." as 5uppos~dly drag. 1)... or. But such invocations (inuocfl. CS3L 4:11. if' the.ken 10 to incite. also gives a list of the of yorks of tbis class: to know the future. 18.e canninunJ)r.. • .. 32) .ttempt an:. 1 43~ A1~ob1u5 Follovi ng the brief 11 st p~oSes 0 f ma:teri Us in 1.d have to have a certa.a.' who comes in place of' all who 8.

13).assert. Va-riou8 t:lasses of dream.err1:m. with n.ood threatened bY" the increase of Christianity.ke access to heaven ea. in tlle veins of stlcri- fices.l2}. .o certain mystit: rites llith a similar J3}. Philesinn.im. the beginning of 1A following chapter presents something of' a roll-call of the clasaic oracles: (Trophon1us ?). line 6) (ANF 6 ~L19) . ANF 6:~19.d th discovering the meaning in the fall or tbunderbolts. .ees. O~acles. interp. 0 r sp i r1 ts In addition . Spirits The pas sages i ntroduc ed a. ~ coniec- tore's harioli uates e:t • ..427 secret arts (:inter1oribus. and astrology fortune-teller~-au.. _ .e-honoured rites of institutions once sacred" (sacrorum.I l. 67)" tlru... CSEL 4:11. the Magi . 21~ e. lungs) or liver (~.16.i ritus."lderbol ts or veins of'sacrifices (2. the devotees of these arts ~ a liveli. aimilar t.rl!!'- ters" soothsayers! 'PTophets" enthusiast5 (baruspices . Tages ·.Tarious sources of' omens are pres~n. ""bethel' Deli an t Clarian" Did:t1lleM . Jupiter of Dodona t or Apollo. Arnobius also makes Thell. 3.l show the pl ac e in magic and related practi... nat. 12-17! "iIith mg.bove al. the.rnobius ' So discussions = the e. or Pythian (1. 2-4)--are pit:tured in Adv.'J"e prayers which can llin over certain povers and mP.Eg{ptiEU1. that they ha.sy for SQuls {ibid . 'They defend themselves as a part of fft. ~d.gu.• 2. • fanatic1. this is perhaps... ibid.s extorting contributions :from. In a passage vhieh eredi ts the EtruSC6. 1. purpos~ referred to earlier" '2. 26. CSEL 4. 62.ted throughout P. divination. auondam uet. artibus) (4. re line 12L .rs . 69).tis.n. or their entr~ils.ky Or :points of spears (2..Tl. .

he questions the ap- prop:rio. .s determined may be avert~d" and npass ava. ~d the priests have introduced relies {rellqua.t divination/astrology have no logical ~onnect1on ~ith magicT In his discussion concerning the Numa-Jupiter ~i~ode.t.. rather th8Jl religious J 'though this is never made explicit. 13). f thil! Roman rites of avers ion Yel'e obtai ned by l(tml8. 8). 69).3 Augury and omen-".ls or the Bs.sian arta (magonrm. 9-11) . 62. Arnobius seems to lend some support to the idea tha.-o. 2.Ie. 3) (2. g • 10 of Etrut'i B:. 3A large part o~ this section o~ book a~ven is de~oted to questioning t. cf. .'V through tht! force of these rit..c:ulation of nativities (ratio • .W 6:490~ CSEL 4:119.hat be ha. are B Part or their art ~o~cerns the :fate of souls~ :2 and th~re T imil&r 'C oncerns in na.ionality of 'lfB.. e. i t true. cohaerentia disctplinig) into the :ee-cret la:l.he r&t. Magi~ and pagan re1ig1on 'l'he l-iagi are still at least partially religious personages for . This would have some implication that they are in essence Buperst1tious (magieal) .c:tl" CSEL 4:104.es" (5.. (Adv Ce-rtai n 0 nat. 2J. Further. 2. 2 t AJ. g~nethliQ..eness of Jupiter-appointed means whereby . other than this" Arnobiu3 makes no slgnifi~ELnt re:ference to s... 257 ... 1). one of s~veral possible explan8. by ebaI'JDi ng JUPiter 11 dro.gging hi m down vi tb spell s ( 5. 19-2!J).t i V'e religions.ars and the ~al.But they ean soften and soothe only the lesser powers 10 not th~ true God (ZT" 62).y idl.Arnobius. of the pagan rites.tiona 1 f:Jt the evils of' the world (l.. 2 .) eonnected with the Ma.cr~d :t"ites CT.rioul3 aspectr.tching (and IBesides bl&m1ngthem on the Christiana. .Early Christian Viev knowledge of (the meaning of?) the motion of the st..$trol0eY" af'ter his having presented it as being. CSFL .

1 Thl!.Later. of Africa.ethe de1nQr:Js in the 'theory of other ap-ologi.ets?) ~old by the Psyll i . and h~ had fa1.) The approach of Arnobi US provides a."l8c!ls whose souls becam.e.1en PJJ1. 2. they 8. connection was made by the \7l"iter of the Clementine :Recognitions [1.ns i l in generaL .rallel to the reconstruction.n gods is not clear-cut. reC'ons tructlon based pe. I not desire worship belonging to lbUn 3.!re is) however~ a large ad hominem @"le:m.ch B. tor exnmple t the suppo s ed giant s' bon~:s found in di f fe-rent places are t. but also to an arch-he:reti(:) Simon..pparentlY in contrast to t1 you" in the preceding and following passage~.S proof of the bette.S being only giantB (not demon.ge cltt!'d in the preceding paragraph (2:. 2 1 Thus Amobius has Iittle to se. pa. nat. Marsi.ns 3 among tho'S e vho us e 'the plate s (lMmlinae. 75). 29.len from the &ir.gels 8. They ~ exist t 'but if' so.ve changed)..em in theiTterror .lmS. Arnobius' s attitude tova. 2. tru:st~d infuse. 2-3). On the 'Whole. though here it. 67~ though Arnobius is here arguins that times hs.r'tiallyoD :8 il~nc @ • 3 HWe "li.ages.. g.. (Su. -amuJ.he :fallen a. fl29 In 2. 19-23). 2-1.re beings ~ill Su. Christian beliefs and practic~s Arnobius s~ems to include himself and other Christie. and so (e. and injury-liable h1.g. PC 1 :122313). abandoned by th.gods.Writers averting) have-been regular parts of public service (e. naming name of Christ. 7. 2 ThuS . abo'. his chariot bad been th~ blasted by th~ mouth of Peter.nus • s view of the offspring or the f6l. may be all "'We mortal. 12 11 Arnobiu5 refers not only to the practices of kingNuma and the super6titioua observances of Though Simon Magus had ~tiquity.ent in these paIJ:. there is no attempt to connect the.rd the paga.sts. 32~ CSEL ~ :14.retate of' lIl~rJ in ancient times (2.BI vi to the 0 ttsprin g of t.!tken il.s) ~ 8. &nd othi!"rs (Adv. 12) 'bei ng sOlllewba t unusual...bordinat~ to the Supreme God.y about dem<:>ns or I!vl1 spirits) the IJ'llssa.

not to his work ooa.s Lactnntius. ~6). 2 he even n.6 he 1neludes so~e items that seem to be garbled accounts of the Da~r of Peotecos't and the transfiguration .'I...charge) atte-mptillg to refute i t by several arguments.O'iI apfl~e"si- pears t·o righteous men .8n. exhibi'ts 'the lArnobiusts knowledge of the Gospel miracles is ~athe1" broad (note t. st h imsel:f in empty Further.al to to shw 'them thE!' na. 4t).11Jl. . continued. unless t.t1.(:complished by as 1mple cO!llIll&nd {i 'IlSS i onibU!3 • • • nudis) (1. to eonyincemen and 0 t a true god.fraud in Christ II (1. nothing h'l.and his name causes evil spirits to lences sCDth5~ers and augurS7 and In S'WD ~ ~strates the ~ftorts of arrogant ma.ri st worked vit'hout material means or 1n45) . 1 work 'Was benef'ici. 36. 52).) or c:ra.~tB.sE'! unknow. 50. ". 4~)" by audible and intelligent words (1..a time (1. 41 ).i!lre that Jesus was charged 'With being a magician (spec:if'ically one who YOl"lted by means of names of angels ofmigbt stolen i'rom Egyptian shrines> follo.i'ty (subdolumJ.. religious system of' mote eountry s 1. .ccounts. 12). J.gicians (1. So re- ~3).hey come frOttl othervl. apocryphal I!l.h~ various items in 1.. 43. his inherent pO'loier vas sueh that he could g1 V"~ po'iorer to others (1. but be denies the.U""e display (1.. nothing deceptive (praestigioswr.· orld vas filled ". 3 ATrtobius holds that the:r-e is Unothing magical. La-etanti u. 52 t CSEL 4. mtLP'J.tion5 (1. 3A great example of' thill poyer 1las the conf'Tontation between Simon Magus and Pete~ ~itnessed by the Romfins (2.'1ts of his deeds.. an. 53). :not hurtful (1.d 2 ~ 11) )bu"t in 1.ins a. nothing of ..Early Chri~tia~ View He is Q.hat tbe such a religion in gO short . of the acco'U.5-7 ). his (:a. Ch.hol~ The ultil:nate proof . ~5-47]1 50. the sometiiD(! student of Arnobius.ith 55). is t. 2Magicians cannot really effect~ by the aid of their gods~ what unlearned (rustic:i s) Christians have ort~n 8.

2. and 116 [with Or.2 th~ contl"iC. adulterer. f"as~icle 1 : Libri de opHLicio d~i et de ira. Cae:U F1.t. 1. these appear in the first ref<!"rence to each..pter numbers dif'fer in the English version (Div. vetera de lac ta. L.ntius .. 2En... I' ...tion of these ideas is natural ~ the a. CSRL) vols.}"t=lj.. <lei * canrine.ry . sorcerers (uenefici) are to be classed with various groupings of lowest types (Div.tion 'by William Fll!:tchcr-.l Discussions of magi~ Lacta. "LBctantiu5. 1890. 2. 30--gladiators t robbers. 1). F. Latin text 1"ro:m Samuel Br:a.. :part 1: Divinae insti t. 1nst. 1893. inst.uti One S et epitol!le divioarum. q ~ 19.ter chapters of 5. ins.nd many others) 01' thefLtlcient 'World toward magie. 2--sac~ilegious and traitors.o te 8 t imo)1i a. 1890 t 1893). A::W 7~1-330. 2 J . lO--assQssin..ndt and Georgius Laubmann .'ScribendoE oculos) (Div.. 19 and 21 {V i enna an d Prague." the nut of ma. 1].. ed. ~. 3314. 6."Orked by (apparently it) contrast to the elaborate incantations and lists ef The Jells . vhich display nothing true and sUbstantial. in def"ending Christls works) distinguishes them from the things worked by II magic al tri~ks [nraestigiis ~agicis). parricide}.gic·· {~ reagica} haYing skill of (lva. where the cha. SM:lue 1 Brandt. Tempsky.il only for l'deceiving tbe eyes" (ad circum.. Samuel Brandt~ pnrt 2 . 5."orks of a magician (magum s 4.rt and po"..gliSh transla. 15.er of the Magi ~efeTences ar~ given !roc the Latin text. 5. CS'EL 19 =330. Chri st -. and in the Epitome)."lti. 2 and la.sso- cie.ani Lactanti opera omnia. thieve5~ poisoners t harlots. i':::-Bgmenta.of b31 Christians (a. eds.Later Writers sene~al attitude.5. The e. 19 C20J... in brackets art~r the Latin chapter numbers. l2). 1.. n. Fr@ytag. attr1 buted thetD to demoni&eal power (l~. beside!3 callieg these the ". Leip zi g: G. 15. institljtit>nwn.. AlY'? 7 :115. 1 . ed .

~. and not really to astrology.gtrclogy. 7).gic art..estigiis obeaecantibus) t they "do not see those things. .A1so. inst. in the practice of t. 10).r~ ca1.l of the eteornality of the soul) (Dh·.432 Early Chri~tian View consist in the inf'luellcea (adspirationibus) of the demons <2. and whntever else besides. 13. These demons had i. done openly I!IB. ~ soothsaying .heir arts (cum arte-s suas . 5) .t 50uJ. .. 'When Invokt!d Unuocati) the d(!D]ons deceive the sight of men with SO deceptive illusions (:e. exercent) . divination end Qracles . 23. atill it is God (vho made and ordered the stars) 'Ybo does a..mag~s &sstoned the names of t. or whof!l they had. hand.Lac=tantius a1lOW"s p1"ovisior.hinkthey set:!' thOS<l! things wnic:h do not en a.etting .lal1y only so as not to delay th~ main discussion).rf!:nce in De ira dei to the oth~r heavenly bodies ( 1 ~e. .s involves calling up souls who to~et~ll future events.neient kings.l.o delude maM1nd (Div. "call upon thelD. whether or in s~cret-- were invented by fallen a. seems to refer to their marking of various seasons. They all--a.S 8.ngels/daenJOns t.. 6up.. 130 that they are at..ceptica. seen by 8. c:L EpitoIl!le2JI: 28J. 6). by their "true nfLrtles. 7. 5-9). 1~(15J.aa noted abo-veto part of t. but lI:iagici6ns t and thQse whom th~ people truly ca.PlYi. J ANF 7: 6~.ll things (De op. those heavenly ne.hose E. caused to bl? mn.3 and speak J f{)r~tel~ing future events (thisiE.mes 'Ilbich are Magicia.he a. del 19.ra. 7) + A refe. inst. 2.he \ol'crk of' magician.rts is pre-aentedas close-ly allied to magic.ng favorable times by their fixed positions (13. Divination of' various so. Eve::l if' the stars should hold the ef':ficacy of &11 things (vhlch . lAstrology r~ee1ve6 only passing attention here and elsevhere in Lactentius.t n (ibid. vllich exi13t'll and t... 1-2." besides the sun &nd moon) 'II at rising and E. convincing proof to t.de. ..1ed from the 10'W"er regions b~t certain incantations (caminib·J:s) human ey~s.lled malefici! . presented a clear.ns (maRl) know tha..l. 16..

2. 1nst. Lactantius astribes the o~igin of' the evil spirit. 9-10) given pre. 16. lO~ l3-19t ref'erring esp.romen. 22.a ys true. as the active &e:ents in the evils befalling me.'World to the fall of certain angels. [2~ 16.e~t and improve ltIe'n.tribut.es their fall to the 'Work of Satan ~ not their degenera. 5). an iIlllll:ediate and remarkable fulfil. Like his predecessors. and he regards only tbe daemons.usly. but has reserved to Himself' the pO'". 12) and Minucius Fe-lix (Oct..t. 10-11). own He a. ~~. .ctice deception.. dei Spirita 18. they" interpoae" that they may appeaf' to do them~ making promises or threats t and pretendirJe.lly through ora.appear to happen through disrespect shO'Lm toward them (Div..Later 'Writers The daemons (or angels) themselves pra. d1'eflJning 'Was given H~ f'or the sake of' resting th@ body in sleep. to by 'l'ertu. io.. hOlleve-r) &om~ eourse yith \... sent by God to prot.llian (Apol. 7-23).s in the. 7 &Wi 21. especia.'l God 1 These examples include als-o De m9rt.vs false (De op. 4). in... In general.. per!. differences ill his et!J!lha~1U5t to ses. 7 provides details on severa. . presentiment of God'!'l arrangements (since 433 they had been His: mini st e-rs ). theY" had b!:@n eorropted and had bad interTher-e are..e part of :2.n (Bi!.l:..- 1 The tniddJ. nor alwa.l items r~ferre-d. . to avert dAngers 10 or contriving that the unavoidable dMgers may.tion and lust.cles.. 7[8::1.. t the angels' offspring. 2.lme~tI though dreaJllS are not s. having a. IlJ to the series of prodigies (p~odigia. er of teaching men :f'utUl:"l!!eVl!!'nts by mf!"tLns ot dre€IJ:IS. CSEL 19=169. dre~ (cf'~ O.!.

43Lj inst. 21. religion The having EL R~ religion recognizes magic.. like astrolosy. Their sole purpose :man~ (li~e that of their leader~ 2.. re- cE!'ive libations~ and are 'llorshipped a. keeping off' witchcraft The sEUnC (fascirluri..p- Christian belit!-l'B and practices In a(:cord with Mao belief in the &~tions of the daemons. inst. inst.. 1). 16. 8.. L :20. 16~ ~) ~ neJ::Ies which they confess" along vi th their true nature t when ad- Jured by the name of' Chris. Ipf t.agic. 10-13. various SO~S or divination~ magic J and other such arts (Div. 2.r:m God (2.. 19.. 30). Eel'ly Christi ~-n V:i e. 1 j(18]. Rnd the gods give aid to ~hoever feeds them. 10)...cmil.. 1L. 2~ and 5. cf. evil classes (niv~ inst. 10}!t cal-ling Upon them by tbe1r true names (2.erlers of' evil. 10. 5). 23. had been lAPpropl"iatelyenough. ind~ed. 1. 21[22J.s gods and a.. 36). 9.. .gi 'Wo%"k. The pagan rites are frequ~[)ted by ELll varieties of the 10\1. l6~ 3-5~ 9-20~ 2. evil th~J the~~elve5 caus~ (Div.• invent~d by them (2~ 16. 2. whatever he may be (6. powers through whom the Magi work also represent themselves as the &. They a. l~ 5) is to injure 6). also" J•• 21 . 5. cf'. :2. 16.re. inst. 5. sec. Sorcerers (uepefiei) a. 3. 5-8). 20) (Div. pear in both of' these lists. l~. at least to the extent ~at(:hes or goddess 'Who over infMts. since m. CSEL 19:T7. 14. 15(16J.t (2. 1). 1 invoking them (ibid. 23. 5). Magic and pae~~ since they can not ha. 2. 2sr 30J.. It is thl"ough them that the Mil. the in- ventors or astrology. ct:. ~.. etc . 2.

4). 27. ~ 5. 10.IDent n (i.ntius (Div. V@. Hystaspes. 5.La:ter Writer s especially their inciting of pe)"'sec:ution o:f Christians.!2!i.pters of Div. 180 2-3 t 5.s being a magician (magu. p~rs.sign of' the cro~s us~ ot t.. 01' even the 'WOrks of Chri.11. 65[70).. cf'. 4.orks were real ("true and substl!l::nti ve. cf.. 5.ri!' knmrn and us~d by L&cta.I6E: 51 J. 1-3. crying out and c:on- fessing their true nature {Di1f. Min. 4. bk. 6}. 2 Chl'ist vas: regard. SibJrls (1.:tee-fo1d: .ntius give spromin4'!nc e to exorc i sm among Chri 8 t i an pr. lBcth Minucius and Cyp~ian (Ad Dem... 6-8.aet ic e s : the da. wi th~. 7: 115)..~ specifically). (ibid. 4:. inst.e~. 2-8).. apparently ba. 5. 3).. n is t:r. apart hom tlle uproof :rr~ prophecy. inst. l}t w1th prophecies of various Sibyls scattered th~OUghout the following c'htl.. 22[23). 2~. 22-24~ and 5. Oct.n):p l~ by d~monia~al pov~rs (Div.sed on Cypria. not.1. i~s:t. sec. }fot only the -eo. Hermes . E~it.~ e. Fel. use elaborate r1tes~ but 'Worked "by a single vord and in a aingle mO. 1 -19). as wel~ as Tertullian. howeve::!". 7. 19). inst. 15.emoos are put to flight b)+ th~ when tl. 12). £pit.."'1lmands of Chri stians 10 but also their . 5. 3. 3.... is not such vorks. 6 t M!E..dJ ured. Ad Don. inst.. the Sibyls and Hermes (Diy. Lacto.. even to the extent of interfering vi th pagu. 7 (alSOl' briefly. The answer to (I) his this. inst' 5. 68(73J. 15. L 6~ h. by implica- tion). Sibyls and Hystaspes (D1v. 1nSt.n [ue:ri ac solidi'].bid. 15.n !'it~s (Di v. 1. ~ain. but the fa.1y .. the Hebref°"t p:rophe1:. inst.gt.s" but 'to some extent even th~ pagan prophets. 4 1 12. 15. 37[42J. and De mort. 5.hey had by been previously announced tlle prophets (Div..he has this e:ffect...h~ Je'W's o. 5. 1 note also.ct that t. (2}"he did. 6-'7~ 9~ 13-1~.ed by ~orking t. 18. divine name... 23}. 2). The great proof of tb-eo truth of" Christianity. ~.n (Ad Dem. in:st. 1.. h. 21. Div. 5. .

8 t. use of "orb" for t... mi:r-abilja t'ecit. 16. 2..ted..p. 34(39). fl. 2. On the -whole 10 Lacta.. as ThoMldi"ke not e S]i P1ut arch di d the earne (Histor'i ~ 1. 8. 2 and 2.reek...he earth in 1..J. 13. Adv.436 Early Ch!"is.as Apollonius did (ibid. g .tian Vic. 13-14 j. S6Jll. r~ f@:I'tmce to the heavens as conv-!>x. 1 . later vork. though a. Which .. 11-13" and 94. 1. refl~cts and develops ideas developing al.a notable example.0 support his own vievs {e.but this is balanced by losses in the area otphilosophyl and science. 1 (e&rl..uation of' Plato in thf! latter of these two chaptl!:rs L ~.. i I: 92JI AJ1. 3-11:1.lly of the pride o:f the phi1o!3ophe:rs (e. 9-10)!t he could also us~ vbat he viev@-d as positive aspects of their teachings 1.e 0. L:~.. 52 [" CSEL .' and (3) it is 10gica. . 3But .lly 'Contradictory--1f' he vas really ~ vondervorking magician (~gus . heaven.c-ape .2 returning to a ridiculing of a round efLrt. .08 .. eonrtb revolving r:CSEL 55 resEt ~:31.. cba.kiltul one'!' since be did not es.ready in the Ante-Nicene period ~ lThough Arnobius spoke sarcastica. 9-10)" sllch 6-S Apolloniue: or ApuJ. nat. note especially his eval. 58 . 5. he exhibits greater Biblical end theological knov1edge. 2~.J1tius I s vie\l's &re much the his predecessors. 2'. with vaul. 1. :2'19.h a. 3. Inst. 2 011 the idea of a round earth" aee also Athenago1"as Plee. Writers The ApostOlic: Constitutions. CSEL 19. 2). in 13-:-2T. citing De :f~cie in or-be 1unae. he !"etreats from Arnobius' 8 mo:r-e advanced view of th~ universe (Arnobi U5 Adv.. . "q-uia. 50) and of their confliC'ting opinions (2. In. 3.. in 1+ 14]). nat. 6.hose of Compa:red t{) A:rflObius .h in center.4: 35. ~.ei us s then he vas an uns.nd the consequent idea of antipodes (Div.. 9).3 G.g.. l8 J.

18. E!:!.ypes of divination. 234).d1 11bra:17) manifest all shadea of' beli~f. vas in agreement with Athenagoras regarding the fall of certain angels who were emunoured with the ·daughters of men (Di~cua8ion on the Resur- rection ~ragment 3. 62.rm. aoot..oidAs.Qs.epitlhoneeeis) tlre among the a. 1. also repeat the prohibition against magic from the . apost. writings of" the Ante-Nicene period. credits magicians with vorking'Wonders (e..er.ntinues.t'th~ tention in the later Greek. 'lictorin! . Rev. 2.e.. 49 (vjenna: F.. 1Q. (p haTJl18koue) among those brought. indec~nt spectacles to be The e anon attributed to Paul E!:xe~ude~ magiciaJl.iones) J "Ifa!"ious t.u. L 3 ~ 6. CSEL 49:128.x. 2'About the: S6llle -period JI tbe Latinb1 ~hQp JI 1/1 c-tor:5. ranging from thoe@: of the fa-thers themselves to those of' the "heree1~su lConst.. 4-5.t:ltis 1 therepOdos J lot6.ven.g. 7 (ANF 6~370]~ f"rom A~oeryph8 PhOtiU5 Bibliotb. 4. 8.o t!'ilL1. 1916. ~ipzig: G. 7. t. lDaker 1 01' Q!Ilulets) ~ha. ~Fao-idos astroloB. even before secular courts (CQf19t..D1da~he.iron.2 and Gnosis Th~ a:poc-ryphal and heretical \fr1tings 'including the pS4!udoC1e-mentin~s and t. 8-11 CJobannes Hause-lelt@r.. diviner t wil d be ast chartDer~ u:endic ant t char lattln.vo1 ded (2. • . {magos.1 l"e~~i. Methodius~ according to Photius. vol. Fre-ytag t 1916»))+ .hsB.32. 6. CSEL. a. o1anistes. Tempsky. e-d . 129. ochlo.n. 52) ~ w'hile enchantments (epo.he Nag 'HJumM..Apocrypha and Gno si s include 5 wi za.tion for the church any who is a astrologer ..~ enchant~rt frOl:! considera.ta po1o. . e'te.ep:iscopi Petavio-nens1s 0Ee-ra. grea-t o. 13:13) by the aid of 5u-eb apostate ..nd neeromancies and in- vocations (.) (8..gogos J periamma.general 'World view co. nUS or Pe-ta. ma.gels "even to this day" (On the A:oocalypse. 1 :1l29A/B). apost...n ~ perikatha.yer.e other than the-5e ref"erence-a t magie does nOt. 'but same.tfiTe :fl"o:m hea. incant-at. 1:152B ) .rds.

held by Africanus. This is especially true."ith a.bove. magos.:li 6C 'USS ions]I two to this general rule: e~ce.forms) and Origen c: OttIIIJ.l1y a.he vie'lol'sthemselves) are in the directions ot a. giving greater prondnence to the more pejora. -on)" a.nd H1ppolytus)" as either general or spe-c i:fi c des igna. goet ~ue1 n ) ..nd attitudes 9...t 10mi of the art.h~re are & f~ occurrences of the use.rently not. prominent use also of goe- forms (ao4ite 8:.discussions of magic I the desigJ1a:tions most COIQ:!lonl~' us4!'d by the fathers genel"fl.group (map:eia.!'e those of the ~. of th~ phannak. they represent only morE! 50 f'Qrms of the-views already presented a. goe teia. only the te~hne . or a." as such. eub-iliv1sion o:f~ the mag- l"ealm~ All these tel'!!ls . rather frequen t use 8... of these writers present As noted aoov~ in the . exc:@pt the techne fo:nns. lZiElgeuein.:l.438 they at tack(!d.tion.evelo'p~d 13ut.ppe.oe. a.sinee tbese develo~nts (as ~11efs with most of t.Only s ubst i t ut~s the :more demeani ng rnanga. of them.s either synonym for. have a somewhat negative connotation vhen used in this sense.tive 5.'1d derived forms (esp~ci&1ly in Justin and the other apologists 10 &l1d by Clement of Alexandria. Ba~ly Christian View d.group (-@-itl ll -euein~ -£::. ~gikos}]I but .ption1:i Clement of Alexandria reverses this pre:f"erence. Besides these terms) t.grQUp. There is also a. and do not require further explicB.of techne a. Sugnarx of Knowle:dgf!' of Magic Designation~and Divisions of' Magic Terms used fol" magic In their.

e some ancient VElTe 1 as well as modern philosophical a. hs. th~ making or use of love chams or potions (philtra and AA0.nd -kelesis. from Justin on. their knovledge would. and divina. a. in opposition to one another.'S no allusions to nJagi~ {at least in the!! preserved fragments}.l obJections" the rea1JIls of" astro1. lArnObiUS.i~s. Divisions and correlates of magic 'Within~ and around. who bas & nlajor place for Fa.rrteia:t mant1k~ ~ and va.ted as o.rious synonyms and Bpecia.:I1d logi~EL.sisfl.ogy (variousl.li2:.strologia . for example~ Bets the id~f:L'S of' portents~ and their aversion. ct. and the uses of cha1"lll!3 and encbantments ( . Procedures or Magic Certain of" the fathers mani:t. magic~ ..Summary of Knowledge of' Magic forms vere used by Africanu.rious of the epaoid.lljima). t.he. in mo9t cases ~ probably have to be described . The varieties of this latter rea1JJ:l es:pecially are dl:!tailed &nd. Bardaisan. despit..i in Hippolytu!3 ) • Areas \(hich the: fatllere relate to ms.te in his systel:i of causali t. fair amount of knowledge about ma. attacked by the fa.keia. Prom--inent among these: 'W"ere pharms. senethlia Cin Origen..~ rather tban deep.forms ~ as veIl as a fev compOU11ds of -kl.gical procedures ~ though...a.rea1J::l of mage-ia..ed types).Y d~5igna.d.5 in a similar senEJe.forms by Clement of A1~xandria and peri- de smei s tha. more specialized areas vere also sometimes designated.gi~.tion (ma.thers..~st a.lso the use of Eer1apt. also the ps~udo~Cle:mentines]) and mathematikos).as broa.

6.. inciting~ or ntard1ng horses in the chariot rB. 1 i sts are provided by Origen (clothes. 39..wi ng. 52.o or. 1"0. Arnob ius . 'Use:ful things.rious 'WOnders eithercla.n's ..ease. .t powers (Adv.c. 9~ 3. fl lea.. inf11 cti on of dis.. Tatian' :I3somevbat informtl. ct. ~acrifice" or libation.s sought 'by :magical operations.n: "antipathies..Jl. herbs~ ston~s with ingcriptions: 4.. n~t.. b erbs. also De pro 2. IIno. lJb.~rous points or contact vith th~ prot:edures illustrated di":rectly by the e'xtant portions of Africanus..ther amulets. occas1ooolly. 1ililtings of mat@riala used (Tat1a.). 1.l. 01" sel!'lJ.. 57.krnobius : juice of herb or gtoass. st. roots. . . sin ews and bone s. vas specially designed to demonstrate the empty and non-beneficial nature of Simon's displays of pover..vebeen originally included.t.e t\tO pe.SJ. 5)... 10.celil. cr. op@ning.age!.:t"!'p-orted by Psellus to ha.. however. ano ve'Pgeance (n!!£. but by oc:cuJ. just cited. 6610 g . This list. II. numbers. 1. especially Tat1a. The predoJiJinant type o~ methodology otthe 1tIagiciails Is list has nmll.1 The sa. oC things: e. :rOot s. in the naming of the va. hate .one5-~ plants . Adv. 32. 8. overlo. B... 2. 9. 01'. 22). ~3).imed by or l. also prov!d@. human remain!'!. severing affections or caueing impure lovea. 117.l listing includes heBling and 'Works of' lov~.1ng mouths ~ veiLkening..rh15 . locking..cious herbs"). Thia type of listing .440 Goals Early Christian View Two of thE! early fathers Jc Tat-ian and Arnobius ~ provide. alSO.:u. all kinds.Dd Hippolytus Methods (!~~f.. other. no. reported of Simon Magus (Reeog. 2. 61.:reaches its extreme in the paeudoClel:llent1nes.lists of the gosJ. 8 I!!ore extended 11 at 1nvolves forek:rlo'W'l~dge..

pped nth other areas (as they atill do in modern diecussions). jtjppo. 2Cf • . 5. 1. 1.general magic (note espec: ially of inca.erl..is~ussion of these points overl. 3 and medicine. Christian writers vho trOlD Justin on. 21J. £.a.mes. but INote the: co!"t'E:sponding sections of: th~ discus~ions of the Didacbe.il&t all . in this last area (o:::f.ie ele-otrici ty. these operations involve the use and .tempt to use cert&in exuples.as illust.bove .gnC"tislJ) and stat. 39. -.: Clement. Theth~ry of names 16 especially emphasized and th~ory discussed in Or1gen as part of hiB. In the realm of t'science. from this area animals (C. 4 .J. a.. . the d.t. 6. 5 ~ 7).and Medi~ine 'Ii n above). Tatian... Exll. still more specifically .rations. especially the realms of science and :religion .lpe~ia.ra. Clement of'Alexandria.also t t. Mart. hO'llever'li vas 8. Tertullian). 30rige-n. on the other hand]! denied Celsus's at. to summon Q. 4 They 'W(!'re used .us.. ref~r Thh: 1s a constant theme of all the 'to mag1-e nth any deta.lian.he reference by Irenaeus to the USe of "foreign'T words and the coining of names by Y&rlous.. Justin! Irene. ~ 5.igen~ Hippolytus~ and TerttU.. 86)~ &!!i proof' of knowledge of magic by Clement of Alexend. the discussion ·of his view of' rtBiology .a. Or.tions.ntations and." Specifically.:£. 2Ji -25. 46). e.eus.i vel~r knovledgee.l of ne.:da Bl!e-msespec:ially to haVe!! been rE!lf1... g~.ations wi th/thTOugh demons. Involvement of Other Areas Inevitably ..lly l:IIS. 2L 3 ~ 5. vere dTaill1 from physics (e:!.tions of spiritual lessons . biolos:r (various wonders. ~. h:!iler. by Clement} ..yt.the UEi~ or incant.ble and inter~at.. 1.. Gnostic groups (Adv.Sunsmary of Knowledge or Magic 4~1 oper. illust.C. at least This factor iB dealt vith 'be-lOW" in "be diacusBion of "Types of Magic.udlor con2 trol thl!'se demons..

Origen .nd for centuries before and after it)) this view vas one of the dominant theories o~ calli> at ion J a maj or element in the Slphiloaophy 0 t sci enc e I' of the day. This lack..th lies behind the cla. to magic in these wr1 'tings. properties of magnets and the "medical H properties or plants (in Clement) to 1. VEls was r ne. ArnQbius lacta. Extensi\te attention 'Was devoted to various ~ aspects of this topie by Justin.. 22.s demonic...-point of the nature. 1 .te" in this realm. and results of the procedures involved.642 Early Christian V1ev \titb no real distinction of then! .nded by the daemons (&01.thate. or demorric. ma~-ic Any real connection of denied. 11).inable wonders 'Which 'Ilere viewed as megicaJ.n p:r-a~tice and magic.. Various aspects of" relig..ion ~ both pagan and Christian ~ wer-e also coop8red.. :m.n's :t'~ference to the Ircontraljl' rettledi@-slt cormr. actually class! tying all medical practices a.of distinction is made especially apparent 'by the vfl. during this whole period (a. Ii. er tru. P'!"rhaps comparable h~re ie Tertullia.. other unexplained or uneXllla..ims of the e.n Pi!£. 18). In all th~se- areas.!"istianity vi th more than just denial.. Tertu.a..n but it vas alsQ dealt 'With extensively frQIiJ the vie". and on a par with ~gic (Disc.nti U5. It is viL. l!l.rge part of their argumentation inv-ol"'ed the and 80- called Uproot from prophecy. but it. · .riety of ref€i'"~nces "to the idea of' 5-j'"Clpathy and/or antipathy.from..strolog~r8 (Clement 8J1d HippolytU5h 01" as the very essence of the demoniC' systil!!m (Tatie. a.ning such a range of items as that from phyeicEU.l1!an.turl1-~ly. distinction vas seen be'tveen Christia. 1 Of eou:rs~. Christ or Cb.!'iously vie"'"ed a:9 a natural principle explai. sort of D~gative ndevil' s advoca.otivation . 1 r).

.tu~monic--the type of :magic discussed and rl!J ected p~:rsQna. by Irellaeus). behind them..l...)r op.se of sOble of Hippolytus I s ph"V's!cal eXI"l6nations (and some other charges of' f'raud.ertly f'or the human pra.erat.ing..n de-sires .1d not be distinguished.e b~en used for both vitllout a clear intent to distinguish the 'While various materi&1s and proced..<::ked as being e'asentiallythe :same as magic.Attitudes tovard Magic Conversely. ov. and those woul.d probably be classed t even by Hi:ppoly"tu5I and the fath~rs.hers is 8JJI:Iost exclusiv@:ly the latter" the type-.l. &nd words.5.n other theY vere connec:tedW'ith ttI8Jlipulations of not as working directly to tbe demons (or . volved irrationa. the l&tt~r former in- 'Was connected 'Wi th the fulfillment or base or irrational h'lllI!l!l. Typ-es of Magical Operations lPdirect (daereonjc) mtLp.nd their 'Th~ methodologies and goals cou.nspiration.Ie~ms to ha. demonie:5.1most all aspects of pagan religion (and various heresies) 'Were attB.~ B. the fathers i.oeteia lo for ~xMJPle.ctitioners J covertly for the demonic po'Wers reeJ. by the tat... e. eo. as trickery" rath@:T thfln magic (insofar as th~ t'Wo conce'Pta were distinc:t in the ancient vorld~ ..l acts t ritl!!s.. demonicmanipulations)~ .ures were noted by areaa~ two meanings).ic In terms of the broad typology of magic used in of the preceding th~ eon~lusion ~hapter--direct/imperaonal/automatic contrastedvith 1ml1rect/persona1/d. g .!. Their oris1. daemonic The only exception would be: in the ca.ns and bases were the 8el1Je..

en- istic .tural. its major (or. 'l'heori es of' p r&Xis Wi thin the b:ro.k to such a question. arbit..entiall)'..tian.an.~y theory. FQllo'W'ir.>r ~ like &J. - _ 1 vie-'Ll' of the nature of thinge.ystem vit!V of To..jor competing interpreta.is !l\a.l"e~ t.lounds~ ma. wer~ potl!'nt t and capable of producing resul.cts.s part of their ov~r-all ~:rt.all. a. 8. n a.l pra. pby:sica..in .tianle. 0'£ The second theory of' magica. trom its cle&r~Bt enunciator.in 'VQrd~ and nmes. 1.y be tel"m. hO\f- ever!' t.ge (s) 'II were essentiuly 10 "naturfl.gnlfieance in themselves. pot.ts in sucb usages. 24. the cle. from..a.l ~ausation. 1). Beem closer to the OrigeniBtic.: do notrea. there \/'ere. theory. 7~..d category or daeJ!lonic magic. J Origen a. me-dicine. but in general!. the:.l lan- gu. all life.ended oy the demons themselves.grounded in the "nature.a. The other lathe!':!. the various materials. tban to the Tatianic conGpira.aking 1npagan religion. and.tions of' the actual tlro.lly.flc~orded JI had :no si. n correct as the designation of the things designated.i:ms of the certa. Gpec:i&1-daemonie-sign-S.a. Their system far beyond magic.gi~ians were.\70 ma. in contrast to the Ari5tot~lian . sole) ~xponent '!I vasa type of r ~'cons'piracy theorylr. 1.~tors - .1 achieve the Ea~ly Christian View desil"~d end(s) by nE!. had Bimply meaning in an arbitrary system pre-determin4!d This v.of things"~ certa.E.:x.441.ed the Orie.y Platonic ra.h~ Ta. 10-15. 'Iolords:II etc been . ~ d-evil9.tions fro~ this position \i'Ould probably bav4! be-en 1.xis.0 the direetion of a more Aristoteli. This vas because the. .:lly sp~a. 2 1 2 Origen bimse1f called i t the Stoic vie'W.ag an essentJ.t ural . K. strategy to turn man from" and againQt'!l God. Epicurean and (C.C.rgued that the underlyine. The first ~ which may be called t.rary-s)"l%lbolizing-1n-general view J than t-mtard the mor~ specifiC'!..

able by their They are also 'typa. as well as in natures. eve-n by thoee 'Who explicitly presente-d this view. about the extent and cause of the varia. The nature and the extent of the variations fL. .ed the. present. the Creator and thatth~ l~r variations at the middle leveL Lord of all else" in.ble into various ranks distinguish- po~er and/or spe~ial int~rests or areas of concern or responsibility.ice. this typology applies in general to both the good and the evil ranks. At the and nwnerous both individual1y in types. so[!]etim~s the fallen angels.8nts. The distinction of t~!"minology was not a. 'Were also called daemons. however. to multiply them.tion to Their Belief Systems Spiritual realm The fathers fairly uniformly view the spiritu.ions.lways conaistent-ly mainte. Origen speculat.most. this The Gnostic groupe tended level are capable of' numerous variations.l realm as sani~ed Ol"- in a sort or hierarcny of three basic levels.comparablY greatC!!r int<!rmediB.a.es..in~d.Attitudes tovard Magic Rela...t.ch aideo! 'this level.ture into the good and the evil {the la. is tbe resUlt of their ovn cho.1 r-e-a. Tbe angelic beings are nov divided in no.p On @-e. they were j not c:reated so. but vith several At the top is God. the offspring of th~ fallen angels and hUltlBJJ :femal.lm. are the human spirits.t.tl!! le-v!!'l o.etlic beings ~ levels.\:l thiij.tter either identified or loosely associated "With the demons) 1 thoug.re &n@. The northodox t' vri ters tended to set!' a Within the ·'orthodox H grO'L.h~ gi. and to ~xpand the~ into a continuum runnipg from God dOlm to 'the 1I1s:teria. At the lovest leve!."P! sharp g9. at least at. lTh@ dat!mons were frequently identified as the souls or t.

the level So pi :z-i.tD.at1 vel)' less guilty tban the demons &t the time or the prima€'1fal rebellion (De pl". but only as penni.C. could 'thus be viewed (as it was e~licitly 'by O. ends. e. p 3Note C. :regarding the angels fl. 2 .. They c tlul d ha." nature or their existence . 4 L t hi S e.. they a:::"e Actually the ones in contrcl~ despit~ the beliefs ~r the practitioners& Ma.ipirit.lllW. 1..n~ maintainedth~ gaps separating the angels trom God and from 1 The hu:rna.. 5. ~ause of' the ang~l i c ~ 1. 5. 10-11".S only re1.rigen)3 as a breaking of the divine order 'by lo"'~r U e.g . 15-17).. they were not gve:r them in terms of po. 6.. Laetantius (Div. is not subordinated to them. trequen t ly Such acts were also usually regarded as being t his-\lor1d"-ly. but bas direct ~!3ponsibility to God. 5 (compare . diabol i c: a. 2-3. 1.. also the discusaion in the preceding chapter of' th~ helpfUl.a t i onal structure.t!3 ( us uall.. inst.nd :2 In some G~'stem..st demonic s jealousy and rebellion. T. t te d or direete d by God.n l... \(hile on a lower 1eve~ than the angels s at least at. 8.· el' ororgani z. the result of' deception bj' the demons. 1.ve lim tee Magi c: cont a.c ts vi th ma:n. intermediaIJo functions of' angels in relation to prAyer and other aspects of hl.Early Christian Viev but still ma. but limited". or enlist the aid of.. and the possibility of M!"ect communication with ' 2 Hl. Thus. s ta t us was Son 01'1 gi mu. praef.terial realm Insofar as magical or oomparable proeedur~~ were vie~ed as ~But he tended to narrow th(! intel"oal gap between the 1'gQod" and the I!!:vil engels.y the demons) tor personal. the present time. 1. . though the angels and de1:lcms "ii'cre higher than man in terms o:fthe HspirituaJ.tt~mpt8 to control.n li:fe: and vorship)..

At t i tudes toward Magic

havi rig e.ny Teali ty (apart "from l'rauduhmt proc edure-s ), they were

usually attributed to sympathetic

principles~

This principle vaSt or

course, not viewed as restricted to the realm. of 1!:Iatter, but 'the vis-

ible {and less religiously suspect.}
Physics

~xamp~eg

of it come froln this

real~.

Some- prime exwnpl4!s of this principle of s:nl:lpathy are t.he

I:tl&g-

netic stone; 8ZDber 8lId chaff,. and SQ~ relat-ed items (sta.tic electri<:ity) ~
and the mutual attraction of fire and naphtha.
in Clement
o~ Alexandria~

All these items appea.r

but

others~

either individually or in various

]Jai.rsor triada, app!!:ar in other vrit.ers, both orthodox and here-tical
(~.g.,. both Hippolytu.s and various of the grouplil combatt.ed by him--

Naa.senes, Sethians, Basilidea:ns).

Crigen suggests a. connect-iori of
t

celestial bodies 'With earthly eveets (e. g.
a.nd
luna~Yt

the re:ll1.tion of the moon

which sUggest.s other possibilities of influence; and comets

.2£ seem
Biology

to prec~de- sign i tic e.nt event s ) .

The app.lication of the principles of s:.,rmpathy and a.ntipa.thy in

the biolo&ical realm is i11ustrated also by Clement, especiall:r in his

e;xplanation of the e:ffects of certain of the flovers
Another way of viewing biological
ph~nomena

01"

ointments.
by one
paS5ag~

is

pr~sented

in

Orige:tJ~

thougll it. a.eelnS to a.llov tor (and aetually overlap) the

IPsympatheticl1 e~lanation in its uSe of the: '-eagle-stone'· fl.S an ex-

at:IP1e.

In the passa.ge in question., C. c. L ~ 86, Origen rejects Celc:~rtain

sus t s use of

i toe:ms a.s proof of knowledge

or

sorcery

br

certain

~48

Early Christian View

birds and animals-these things are simply re:m.ediea knQwn by inst.inct

(£hYsi s), not sore ery •
Summary

1

EssentiaJ..1y the same explanatory- options for

U

uncanny " phe]!);)d~rns;

nomena 'WerE! available to the ancients as eu-e available to
pt

spi:ri t ual.'· causa.t ion, fraud t or poo!"'ly understood "natural rr eaUB aThe major
d1fferen~~s

tion.

would be in the greater number of phe-

oomena falling into the "uncanny" C'ategory in ancie-nt times, and the
grea.ter tendency 'to propose the first. e-.xplanation", compared to its

almost tote.1 neglect by moderns in favor of the last explana.tion.

But tbese differeDces in attitude and emph&sis must not obscure the
ra~t

that

~he

last option wa.s available to the

&nci~nt

Christianvrlt-

ers, and, f'urther, vas utilized by them on occasion.
lSimila.rly) Tatian, while rejecting such t;ypes of remedies ar;l beneath h'l.IllLao dignity a.nd the divine r~sour~es ava.ilable to man, dD~S not seem to include them B.9p&..':I:"'t of his rrdE!mo.ni~ C'onspiracy·t (Disc. 18).

"-

CO~CLUSI0N

THE PLACE OF JULIUS AFRICANUS IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY
The pre 51 ent e hapt~r concludes theprece ding st.udy with an at-

tempt to

plaC'~

Julius Africanu5 vi thin the SPl!ctrum of belief's of early

Christh.nit~~.

Its main part is a deeeriptive style comparat.ive study

of' -the rela.tion of tbe viewB of' AfriC8.nWl concerning magic with those

.of the other early ChristiQ.tli vr1ters pre5ented above.

'This study-

parallels t.he c:onc:lusions of the two preceding chapters (foll.o'W'ine:
generally t.he order of topics in the coneIus ion of Chapter III,. 'where

the two orders d-iffer).

It cOtt.bine's a.nd compares their results iJl the

areas of knowledge of magic::: and attitudes to'W'ard it. Rela.tion of Afric:anus's Views of Magic
to Thgse of' 'the- Eo.rlr Church

Knowlei!ge o:f Magic Desi,gnations of the 8.l"t

·Pi'here Afric.anus uses a. speeial term to des cribI!' his :procedures

it is usually the term techn;l & term whicbhe Beems to use 7 at most l

only in a semi-technical s@'nse.

While Psellus u:ges th(! tem goetiken

Africanus himself' d~s not

'!lSI!

8J1y of the go4;- or ~- forms

except

in the Chronogra.ph::t (mp

~6/chr

1; Routh 2:242 .. 4; Syncellus 1:35· 2 t

Conclusion: '. Af'ri-::::anus in Early Chri.stianity ed. Dindorf). In this pBs sage he use ~ the terms :f. n a negat1 ve sen se
usag~

in accord with their

in the other early Christian vriters. aa noted
ill the eon(:lusion

These ot.her

'W']"itel"s~ hovev(!-r~ regu1~~ly

of

the preceding chapter,
by preference.

use these and other pejorative terms
f'O:t"'IllS 60S

They do make sOJ!Ie use of the techn-

a. desig-

nation of

magl~~

but rather infrequently.

On the other hand 7 they

make rather f'requt!'tlt e.nd pejo-rati Vf,! use of' the lJhe..rnak- group.

The useMd

nClo-use

of' these terms by Africanu5 is consistent.
Africi!lnus uses

v1th the vi.e'Ws su,gge:sted in the thesis of this study.

the term
his or

techn~ as

a positive .. Or at least neutral
conne~tion

tl!rm,

to

des~ribe

procedures~

but avoids any use in

with them of the oa5-

goe-

forms

7

~hich

he. like his Christian

~olleagues.. regards (aod

uses) a.s pejorative.

On the other hBJI.d. the ph:2:rm..ak- group" whill2

1iS~d pejoratively by the fathers:!, is not necessarily Souch {and is not

al.'ways so u.s ed even by t.h~), and so Mric anus has nO he 9i ta.nc e in the use of pharmak- f'o~s (pba~on~ pharmaxis) in and o~ hia prescrip-

tions ..

~~en

using them or tbe destructive ones.

Divisions and correlates
Besides phart:!lB..keia, preaented Just 1ccluded such a.reas as love
~hBnDS 01" above~

the early f'ath.ers
US~S

potions, and the

of charms The

and enchantme:Jts .. in the magical

pra.cti~es

vhich the]r opposed.

sp.eci:fic terms used of the former, philtra and e.goSil:lEl. ~ a.r-e not us~d
by Af'ricanus t but Psellus (though not usine; th~5e te:n:ns either) does

suggest this type of' operation in mp 44s {'·kindles and quenches loves:!, 11
Vi.., IX. 1. ~9) (ct. llliiO the dil;l,cussion o.! '-love mtigic 1• in the SUl:Dllllry

Relation of Vie....· s to Early Church 1 s
of Africanus' 5 kno'llledge of bIlLgic in Chapter III ~ above).

1151

In 'the area

of chan:ns and. enchflJltments, 01" sp.l!'lls ~ in general ~ tva of" the term-

groups 'Use-d. by the fathers" the epaoid- and 1l€'r1a.rt- stems It a.re used exp11ci tl.v of Afrlcanus' s pro~edures
3l-32~ ~eriapt~is. .
by

Psellus (mp 1,4j~ Vi.• IX. 1.

. kai e~asmasin; aee also mp L4d~ line 13;
passages)

enadi) .

In the pres(!t"'ved

Af"Tic::anus dQes not use the tlJaoid-

fonns of his own proee-dures,

1

but he \Jses Eer1apt- forms, both verb

and noun (and other peri- forms) :frequently in his prescriptions. 2

Besid.es this t the term epikletheise e appears in
13:1

mp

23a (Vi.~ III. 2.

:p. 225). the invocat ion of Aphrodite.

As not ed in the d.1 scuss ion

of this whole passage {mp 23 a-e; and Vi' 1 III. 2 in its entiret)r} in

Chapter III, its authenticity 18 uncertain.

This uncertainty1s in-

crea.sed by, b"u.t not based solely on, this particular procedure.
is authentic, then it illustrates the father-s" charge of

If" it.

ine:!3~apa.ble

tias of pagan \/'orship to 1I$g1c; but it also changes the pr-oblenL concel'ning A:fric:a.nu5 hom one of magic alone., to one of active promotion
of' a. pagan religious act.

The fathers also
nected .nth 1'!Jagic..

vi~

astrology and divination as closely con-

Mricanus has no major references to either of

thes.e

a1"eas~

andowohat he does say does not directly connect. them with

IBu:t two rorms do appear in the Oxyr~rnchu5fra.gment: Oxy. P,ap. 41.2 (Vi•• V J, lines 20 and 21--epaoide and e sai ~ and the whole interpolation is described as t:esenirrhe~eos lines L5-46) in Af1"1canus'g folloving comments. Elsewhere he uses the general tel"Rl rhesin in the Qne instance where such an item is explicitly identified by him (mp 6; Vi.• 1. 5. Q. p. 129). ~sides this, as noted in Chapter III, under nIns~riptioDSlln he employs similar items in written fOnD.
2Se·e thediseusaion of IrAmull!ts" in Chapter III ~ above.

Conclusiort:
:D:I8.gie.

A:f'ric.anua in Ea.rly Christianity
hoW'ever~

Hia views, of them are"

similar to his views of the

lI':i&81C'aJ. t.ype items he presents.

Inso:far as there are other than na't-

ural senses involved1n his discussion of diYining fron horses (Vi ... L

8~

IIIp

8 and the

pre~ eding paragraph).. Afric!Lfius I!ltt eltlpt:3 a natural e'x-

planation of 1t.

1

He does use the "WOrd astrologos io at. least one
Atlas a.s
6n

refe-renee, in the ChronographY (Routh t frag. XXIV: astrologos t

aristos

vheo~e

bisreputat.ion of bearing the hea.vens was der! 'Vi!'d) 't 2'

but it is not

~lear ~hat

he means

&strolog~r r~ther

than astronomer,

in terms of modern
i.nt~rest

~quivB.1ents.

Elsewhert!! the only evidence of 'his

in this are-tI. is the specification of eerta.in tim@s", usua.lly

in relati,on to the moon", tor some actions.
Metho~ologie.Ei

o:fthe art
may

Area.s clea.rly within tbe rea,1ID of magicoal I:oncern

be con-

sidl?r-ed trom the vie'W'point.s of the goals of the proeedures--the a.reas

or

hUlnan concern to'\o!'hieh they correspond--a.nd
methods and
ma.t.~r-ials

or

the procedures used--

th~ a~tU8.1

used in the opera.tions.

Goals
As noted i.n the "S'IllmII.a.ry of'
ceding chapter, the goals of
Knov1edge~t

at the end of' the pre~st.

~agical

operatiQns l as stated
the

fully
rep-

among the fathers

~·Arnobiust ~or~eBpond ~oughly ~th

eonc~rns

resentl!!d by Afr1cSJ1u!3' 8 magieal passages t especially as summarized by Psellus.

The maJority of th@ proco@"dures in Ai'rieanus" hovever, rela.te

1As he does in the reverse- situation in I. 16 (MT'hef't or Sound"), in which th~ :t'esuJ.t of his non-magica.l prQr::edu:re (provided with a "physical 11 @x,plan&tion) is compared to th'!' resUlts from divina.tion.

~el.

Sac:t'.

2:218. 22; S}~cellus" ~d. Dindorf. 1:28].

453
to the :more neutral areas (at le8.st socially .. if not strictly legally or ethically) of medical. and agricu1turil.l magic. and the destructive procedures are pl"e!3ented in a. military context, thus preserving the
appearance~

at least, of respectability.

Methods
Arnobius,. in the 1.;n;troductioD to the pas-sag!!' just mentioned:lo

also gives several methods of the magicians (Adv. nat. 1. 43).

T!lo

of' these me-thods:lo incQntations and juice of herbs,. ,are. compa.:rable to
some of Mric-&nus t s proee-dures .. though the latter does not neeessarily

&ppear in any

or

his really magical operationa.

On the other hand,
obs~rvance

t.he method .1rI0st stressed there by Arnobius:j. the caret'Ul

of

divina.tions of various tjrpes to aecertainth~ f'utill"e (and thus .appear

to cause it}~ doe.anot appear in Afrieanus.
aboYe,
rl!f~rencesto

Indeed. as dil;lcusse-d

divination are 1"e.re in the Kestoi.

'T'he ma.in t.ypl!!S of proc edures u5edby A.fr i cartus :10

1 however ~ are in their
the

among the things speeifically noted by various of
at.t.aeks on mtl.gie.

th~rath~rs

But other of his procedures (for ~xample~

right/left. distinction" eSFecial.ly in :relation to the productiOrt of

sexes; tbe significance of certain

tim~s;

2

the signific:anceof certain
CQn-

numbers) can be eq\Ja.J.ly parallell!'d i'rom the general views of tbe
t~orary

Christian writers.

\1an1pulatiof.l,. vocali z8:tion , graphic representations. and use of a.pecial substances (see under the "Summar/ of Knowledge" in Ch9.pt~r III" above). E.g. ~ the times fo!"' pra.yer in Hippolytus Ap. Trad. 36/1:1 t espec:18,lly the "bl;YthologicaJ. "'basis provided fo·:r prayer at midnight . 2

Conc lusion ~

An"ic anus in Ea.rly

Ch~i$ t.la. nity

Mate rials

All of: the main tyPes of mate rials menti oned
fathe rs in
the1~

by

the

v.a~i oug

denu nciat ions of magic are

r~pre sente d by Afri~ anus' s

proce dures ~ with thee xc ept 1on of: the "huma n rellla ins· r me-nti oned by
ratio.. n (~. 11). and possi bly the sacri fic-e s and libat ions of"

Arnob ius (Adv. nat. 1. ~3)

&

Other wise .. in the anima.J. realm .. there

8.!""e'

examp lea of' the leath er .8J!IUlets .. the 'bones (even if not "the sinew s) ~

find hu::na.tl substo.ncelil (thou gh not Prt'emains n ar-e the
roots ~

);

in the plant rea-a t there
of'

plan ts,

herbli ~

or juici1!s; of mine rals, vario us, typ@s
ins~r i.bed

stone s .. thoug h none insc: ribed , and espe ciall y none

with the

names

O~

symb ols of demons {but tbere are some inscr iptio ns .. one on

thing s" (C.C. 6. 39):

numb ers ..

"a.ntipathies~1~ and cloth es (Ol'" at

least cloth s).
Again ~ hovev er~

it

.~

be noted that many of these thing s apby

pear in pr-es cripti ons wbich are separ ated only
line-s t if at all
ll

the narro west of

frOID othr.!:t" presc riptio ns in Ai'ric6.JlUS (or even so:me
f!'heE:le
1
othe~

'Of the anima l '\lond ers in the fathe r a ) .
worst .. int.o Ries s's "fals e belie f rl
C'ha.ract~:tistic

c-ases fall ~ at.

categ ory~

and are reall y more

or

Af'ric anus than t.he m.a.git::al proce eding s.

T;,']les of oJ?er ationa
Di~l! ct/in d:ir~ ct magic

As n'Oted in the

conC' lusio ~s o~

the

t~o

prece ding

chapt ~r8~

the

'UIlgeniigender und irrig er Natur beoba chtun g. • •• It

1 1• A.berg lfl.ube t" col. 32 ~

i1.. .

f&1s chelD glaub en.

Aus

Relati.on of Vie'rlli to Early Church1s other early Christi.aJl vriters uniformly class magic as
ation~
fI.

den:.onic oper-

It is an indirect

proced'Ur~ op~r~ting

through 'the intercession

or compulsion of demons, of one piece with the other deconic activiti~s)

including pfJ.g6.n religion.

Africa.nus ll on the contrary) while

manifesting a silllilar belief in the existence of demons, and of their connection with the origins o~ magic, seldom, if ever t
with the operations
'Theory of Q,raxis
In terms of the theori.es of magical praxis presented by the
h~

l

connects them

prescribes.

te.;the:E"s, AfricanU9 ~:s vie'll 'Ilould, not wmaturally. be closer to that. of

Origen than to that of

TatiM~

He goes "beyond Origen)
th~

howe'Ver~

in

eliminating the dae'll!l)f)ic role, eVl!'n to

I!'xtent of elillrlnating them Origer.

from an,.v active pa.........-t in t.he procedures 'Iorhich he prescribes.

argued tha.t, "i.n the []ature of things," there was some

po"'~el'

in words

and sounds tha.t compelled demonic obedience; Af1"iCMUS 't!3 view seems
to be a sort of extension of that vie\l' to the inanimate reaJ.m t eliminating the: anim.a.te (daemoni.c) "midllle-l:I.lan n f'rom at least s. conseious
part in his system.

It couJ.d ..

perhaps~

be validly argued. that su.ch

B.

eyate:m would be

(log.ic~lly)

defective" but tilis is no I!l.rg'Ul!lC'nt against

t.he possibility of" tbe existence

or

such a system of
t

'beli~f.

Given

the prevailing belief in IIsympath;:,p ~ .. etc.

and th(!' pressur<=s fr-om his

Christian belief's "for the eliminat.ion of' a.D.=r' idea of ccmn::erl::'e with the

IThequ,estion here is largely that of' the I!l.uthenticity of mp 23 and the chapter in which it OCCu.:rs) Vi.• !II. 2. The main poit.lt.s in regard to the significa.nce of thi!3 question) and the evidence coneerning it:. ha.. . . e been presented above:.lrl Cha.pter III) under t.he discussions of' "Fovls)" "Rites,·r .rOods. and DaelllOos ~" and rtlndir~c't (Daemonic) MagiC? II

456

Conclusion:
8uch 80ll

Africanus in Early Cbrigtianity

daemonic forces:lo

intermedia.te- link coUld ea.!3ily be Buppressed
Giv~n

frOlQ at lee.st conseious consideration.

also the incipient and

tent&t.ivl!' nature of observation-based scientific .knowledge l!lnd. the
tenuous nat.ure of ancient knO"Jledge of physical (chemical .. etc.)
causal links:lo such a E1u.apension of
emph~s.is

on daemonic causation r:leed

not be view,ed

&::1

an intellectual dishonest.y.

Mricanus was not the

modern ideal of the scientific observer .. l r~solutely resisting the :formul{l,tion of inadequate tbeories till o.ll the:
~videnc:e

'Was in; but

neither does be appear to be the credulous dabbler in he is som~t~es presented ~ being. 2
A.t

th~ oc~ult

that

tit udes toward. 1-C..agic

Religious/non-religious
As

implied i.n the preceding discussion of

HT:fpI!S

of

Operations,.'~

the early Christian 'Writers (including Africanus) considered u:n.a.gic" to
be
rela~ed

to

religion~

and of direct religious concern.
S~;

Compared to

pagan religion:lo it was essentially the

and in

~r

cases actually

overla.pped with it; but compared to true r@ligion. the true 'Worship of

the true God! it vas antagonistic.

But. this antithesis vas because they

both belonged easentially to the same thought realm. accepting most of
lBu't then 10 this modern id@a.]. is still only an "ideal t1 even in

modern times.
V8.!3

2 ACt u.allY" he may have been sOr::Jething of a Itnut,t though: he at le~st :mildly egotistical) II ntI.DI~ droppe-r:lo a dabbler in ··oneupsmanship" {whatever the topic:lo Almost, he eoUld think up .. or h.ad heard of, an improvenJ.ent). But 'Why 'WTi t~:Io i r he di d not think be had something to off~r?

~51

"the same basic

vlews~

but e v s.1uating them differently.

At

th~

same time., hO\feve'l", Afrieanus se-e-ms to have regarded
real~..

his procedures as outsid,e this

neither religious ~ nor yet anti-

religious; they were, trasted to the pagan

1"ather~ gOd6~

non-religious, secular.
8.

Even when concompeting
system~

as, in mp Ila. it vas as
1

not as .an oppos i og force vi thi n tb e s.ame system.

This t.opi,c hU!i already

b-~entoliche:d Of]

in the discussion

above. and thus: the main lines of the position presented belolf are
fairly ob..-"ious ~ at least tbose concerning the spiritual and the

physical/material rea.lJns 5 and s to s.n extentt their civil and social

involvement.

Only the last area 50 poas:ible functional

va~ues

o.fthe

Bpi ritu.e.l realm

The views of Africanus and hia fello'V Christian vriters are

eseentia.1ly the same in this area+

Insofar as there vas a consensus

of Christian thougbt in vfl.rio\IS poss1bleramifications of tb1s .area,
Africanus appears to be as close to the center
.&8

any of the others.

In fact, he was closer th8J1 some,
al i c..

8.S,

for exwnple, Tatian, the fanat. t" Vl H

I'an·t l.-maglc. . 1
If

an~

01"

even

t'l..~ u~n

n.-i ....... gen.

hi . B spec ul a t· long about

the

p~raonality

of the stars and the causes of the differences in

~e a.pparent exception to this~ IDpp 14a and 15b s are really rheto:deal flourishes 50 personif1caticm and apostrophe 5o :not actually ~hallenge-s to a gOd conceived of as trUly exist,ent.

nd 'his fello.hos.a..th~!"6 r discussions of discussions of Or physice~ or medieinc) etc. since much or the basic viewpoint \7S.. Physical/material realm The vie'W's of A'fTic6Jlus a.... con~entration cho5e~ for thei~ vriting. . perha.n ll&S A'fricnnus vas not much l!Jore interested Al~xandria.frequently tries to p~ov1de a physi~a1 expl&~ation of the proc~dures. H1ppolytus.sion ~ Af'ricanus in Early Christianity 1 the ranks of spiri tUBl beings."ethical tt evaluations of 1 them. relativc~Y In connection with this point.S held in common with most of the ancient '\iOI"ld....tion to t.ent of and in some asuects of their stuQy.e items from.elves.1ln.~th rOT for their re~ders. The dif~erence is mainly one of the area of Cle~ent. in tb~ir 2 ho"'''ever]i outside the biolo~TI i'a. which could dra'll spiritual berJefit ..ps less Yell versed than Clement or Hippo1yt.. in these refl. tellectual befief"it (including some concern 6-omc of the closest pt!r'$-llels betweer. it may again be noted what & sme.9 tha. classed magic and magicio. explicitly.. Civil and so~ia1 areas ~lication~ All the Christian vr1ters by and eo~e~ such &s La.ll proportion of Afrieanus' s sur. i .ng. Cle..Conc:lu.f1"i t(!rS come magit.r ing fragmer.gain ~ not more than do those 'Ilithin the ranks of the other -'W"riters the:ou:.".sJ. A:frice... Christians Bepar&te sOJrie-what.rr. ith magic. Africanus was concerned their material or inf'entertainltlent value'·}. ana the otheTS gave £iTst considth~y ere. even in those passa.lly concerned .n:l.ges]i be . This unit..nU5 and the other Christian 'I.y) of cours~]i is not GurprJ. The dif:ferences appear largely in the differetl't conflgurations of various el~nts in the systems ~ and in the. &nd that.(:tantius. vith the crioinal.us. here" but a. ts are aettJ.

from a 6e~u1. Ftir:lctionB.l!d nal or lov ~ las e triotic advice.t.t? His Christian colle6.. general viewpoint. e)'at. Magical type operations a.. both pagan &rid hel"eticB.1.ma.ems (pags.bility and error of th~ persons or doctrines associated "rith them.ha. auch op#.n author be blem.l~ but :from a Christian v.iewpoint. Justly punished 'by the 'WE!'r~ ci'oril authorities.status.y of magic. l"einforcer:IJent of resolve in t. or subj ec t to mi suse ~ but shoul d a. orev~n valuable tactical procedures.! stich a discussion.ion of Views toE!lrly Church 1 fl 01" at least the lower~ elements of society. only good pract ic al.re ue. ~ but he doe's notrege.M'ricanus' s presenta. 2IlAY ha. Gnostic1sm~ etc.rded as a bit There is nothing cl"i.iLr find/or Ii ter- ELry 'Vievpoint .!> le-aders of religious groups .e of" the procl!dur~:s ribald".tever funct.nistn..'ected to this type of mtl.!!rations \roe-roe p:rf!'sented as proof' or the real culpa. seems to share such e.n writers attacked--guidance in ambiguous situations.l jokes~ ConsiderIng the semipra~tical nature of mu~h of the m6teria1~ only the excretion and the horse-theft disguis(ts.1"dhis prescrip- tions as falling into these knowledg~~ catego:ri~s. A:fricanus .eria.t.s h~ speaks explici t1.eful pra~tical or handy t~i~k8.iom~ .tions were re:latively mild "by the standards of that (or.hreaten1ng situations. They fl.gic" including divination.ed to"!' t.:r a.almost any other} age.ve perfomed in the 50ciaJ. ~ pa:Iliight "be rega.1 values Whl!'l. m~dica.inaofo. but.Relat. 'help in si tUB.) which the early Christie. SQllI.ions .ssociated with per- aons -of considerable.gue-s \ir"Quld have ob. here". are :really at issuE!' it..

attac ked or reject~d as pe.n.. that ta:sk" but that 'Was not the Tole of the Kesto i. 13.re d . haer.st open for conve r6ion . vas ruled out by t. of' deepe r conf lict. every thing poe.reall y funct ional f'rom the persp ectiv e 01" their 'WOrld viev. viabl e funct i on. 5. 2 Af'Ti<:8nU1h on the other hand.always recog nized llm'Q . vaJ.~H OCC1.ediat ely.er wards r~tu:rned to the chur~h did becau se the "mag ical dis- plays " we:t"~ not .l optio n only f'OT But su~h perso ns need apolo getic or oth~r missi onary type pre~entat1ons.situa tions .ly Chri stian ity of' "help lessn ess .1460 Conc lusion : Af'ric anus in Ear.lsion&11y glimp sed in the Chron ouap! &' (and sha.he terms of the "con tract U (to borroW" a struc tural ist term) . tion of his own to 3Chr ist1 ani ty vould be 8. . In sOllie cases they were actua lly "dysf uncti onal .. " reass uranc e that. Thus magic 'Il&S not peede d (and/ or TWas. espec ially in relat ion to their syste m of ltIoral. Those who we-re "I!'nanared n by' the be-re sies which So used mtl.u es.e.a. one such victim was recon verte d only after uno stnall diffi culty rt (ibid . 8. so At'ric anus tries to prese nt funct ional solut ions from the "scie nce" of his spher e of acqua intan ce. 2E~g.~ lrena eus Adv. U servi ng only "ensnared'~ into .th Afric& rJus by his Chris tian colle ague s).at lea. any posit i ve m.tion T note the exC'uses for the U8e of amule ts'lrlt hich are comb atted at the end of the next centu ry by Chrys ostom (Ad CoL ~ ~. ~-5.gic appea rs J in contr ast to the latl!n t "mag ical Y01"ld-viE. 'W1"ote alway s from a lay posit ion" to lead thOSe and. 3 or other Concl!!:rn1ng t. It is in the K~8to i tha. in the Kesto i (ron! a secul ar on@.t.nd ering to eV"'il dc-si res). ~ sec + 5).his last type of' sltuQ . But such conf licts v~re f:lot . 1.l:1U5 le&ve~ to other '\on' i ters or vri ti I'l8s . 1 In such circu mstan ces" Chris tian .s ible had been done in si tuati one of I!lctul!Ll Or poten tial loss? --vou ld have been met ill the-ir own conte xt by Chris t and/o l' the churc h. In his Chron ogr aphy ~ he had made some con'tr1bu those . and that Afr1eB .. In the situa tion addre ssed by the Kestoi~ solut ion~ ChriB t was not a viabl e funct ional that. F'G 62d5 7-58 )..gic and '1100 af't.!".

.ative thinkers of early Christianity.'lus. 1 Further.." S'lmlmELry ~ C fI...11owance must also be made for Africanus 1 8 la.iani ty Persone.ome8.Relation of' Vie'\ots to Early Church t 5 461 specifically supernaturalistic. stringent inspection and Btanda.l ed mai nly in a separable part of hi s works. Origenl and Bar'daisan.pQ... Origen vas eondeJnn4!d by a later generation. transitory no.. t he tb i nks he his accumula..tior. .ch the Apostle JUles vas neither th~ first ~or the laBt to observe (cr..tions did not (or.. Further". were contemporaries. circ-u1ate-d 'Widely.l status of' Af"ricanus Three of the ltIore s:~euJ. it is lB. Of these Af'rica. Bardaisan vas rejected by the Ugreat church" even innis ovn li.would not) vi t.n existence vhl. and to have peri:ehed quick1y.ddress it circuls:ted largely t. But. it seems not to have B.an his religious YOrks. the secular and.r"topics.trti~e. three. even if ac8. and judged defect. and it was work ~onnect 'Which Dlos'treaders in 1lJ.. solutionsvould have been dysfunctionQl. Due to its I· secu- lo..• should this b~ sO I especially in vif!1i of" the types of material attributed to tbe Kestoi? Perha.y status + As a lay vri ter.o a diff'eretrt s. ...hre ~ not much could have been done in such 1'1' .rds of judgment.ve lost hitD tbe audi ence the. and.udi~rJce tl-.ter genera. they would ha. he'vould be subject to less..ch. beca.Tgel:.I1 bene!! t by Africanus and Early Christ.tion of 11fru1ttul helps. only A...h the "most \t1 seu A:f"ri eanus of Ehnnaus. a.pproa.use his "non-Qrthodox" vievs v€!"e exp~s!.. • •his i8 a fact of hUlOB.tri~'hy canus escaped.. and a.t:u:re of the Kesto1 is probably not the full explanfl.. James 3~1). s. cused.

dedi~ated~ and perhaps pergonally pre- Procedural igplicationa To repeat fL. As pointed out above!. E.mpli!'! . . sO g@ne~al variou~ pa.l such as he? Or of a work euch as this.lso tell ue of the presene~ of Christians in some close Sca. and Much. 4) of Tertu1lio.y to the lo. do the contents fWd spirit of' the Kestoi The answers tell us about t.be Christianity of the time of Africa. ~or early church studies mlIjor qu(!ogtion left unanswered by the hist.lJlo.st t.- a..tion. The very ~emonstrances (De Corona) and boasts (Apol.y (and especially in the case of an ind.tle or but pot.ltud:rr. Little. and thus outside the bounds of this .p~ 1J~ contacts with at lee. 31.he Severan emperors (e. asin unirorm correspond~nce to the ideals p~esented in the Gospelg.d ea. sholor us tbat -there ~le.justified h~re. &nd thus .462 Conclusion: AfriCfitlUS in Early Christianity case anyva.n. Thus only a :fev suggestions are Since . ~ for exa.. the other aspects of the these gugg~stions appear to have a much broader field of application and validity. much of" the Kestoi.rly Christi-8n h:lstory in too glowing a light . for e).t. As the denunciations of the Old Testament pr-oph~ts warn us not con- to read Israelis history in too ideal a light. the Kestoi tells us lit.ially and by implication.ent.nus? are.ds of magIc. it can provide a great deal of intorme. the question o:f magic lies close to p~oblem. ho-wever. sented y to the ~mperor1)..ividue..rts of the Penta- the sermot"lS and tracts of the :fathers should have warned us thougb not to rea.ol:j' of the study of A!'ricanus: Wha.. ~ey Christians in the army. lies outside the bOW1.ch of' the evidence. nothing~ Explicitly.gat Ad 5-6). as if in formi t.ws as promulgated in the teuch.

rerrtly prospering.tould we take this seriously vithout Africa-nus'll Africanus presents us v1~h evidence or a ChristiQn in the higber governmental and social circles of the empire. both Cor the existence of this circle (1."ld such hint.!'ges or warnings against various types of eVasion or ~scll. Africanus might.in a nev light ehB.1 of' one so high in the c:ir- cleB of" presumably greater da.nger lI:Iay suggest thatve should :read .rld martyrd(.". 11. al60 11. Did such a..pe:rs. circle contin\. .h.ith Africanus . positionl' but the absence of I!!:Xplicit. 2. or the later picture of the court of Diocletian in l. 4. and possibly under Severus himself. but appa.erevas an intellectual circle {with a.lltl.. cf.. we have no .s as we do have suggest 'that he was not.&ctanti us De l'nort .lly valid~ ~ation of' Caracalla. DomnEl. " M 2E..e of' others is not PJ"oot' of that fact. in vie.succeeding lActually. 10. a. and something of its religious orientation.. 3.} In the time oj' Septimius t. . 1.ian edueas~ntis.evidence to su...t least mildly philosophic-religious tendencies}3 \thich gatbered around Julia. under at least the later Sevel"aJ1s. even ". evidenc. of their association with tbe assertion of the Christ. (Appare-n'tly Gome in the church thought they 'Were justifiable rand 1I1!re acting accordingly?). s .. do ~t:!' accept them as at least or \fl"ite them off as rbetori~al exaggeration (esp.li:! und!?!" the.. presu::nabl. We also Bee him not only surviving. 3N 'ote Philostra:tusts Life of ApoUonius of TYana. 3).y vi th bis Christianity essent·ially inta~t.. 2 Also.Relation of View~ to Early Churchls but +. the Ad SC&Rulam references.:pe from arrest a. but the survivB. ~. 6)1 and of the stOrjr of the uThundering Legion . 15 + 1-2.ggest that he secured his sat"ety b.r any dishonorable :means. be uniqu~ in such a 6. 1-2.

circle at court proba.. III.t:1ve decision on the auth~nticity of mp 238 (and its containing chapt. 2).1i~tic chara.sion of them lAlexander's religious and l1te.ture of the Keatoi is kept i:n mind • ~ide .r-a"lelled Pal~stinian (of ~hatever original n~tionality). 2 But in addi t.ble.1 If SOt vas the attempt by an "outside:r tt to .ake such 9. of Christianity: T"ne in a sense t a def'ens.ly Mammaea? Kestoi 6.. Belief in d~ns vas" and ia t part of the official teaching of the ehurch t an~thus magic t or aQ~e other sort of traf~ick­ ing vi th evil t vas theQretically possible (c:f.cter ~tually eX~luBive. .t1o~lS in pr8. widt!ly t.. 'Would leS!.rary interests would seem to m. Christian .. but the narn~s t.han 'With the more traditional vi·E..l.nity It AUgUstae.lon-authentic t IIU1d the stri~tly aecu.464 Cooclusion~ Africanus in Early Chris'tfa. if theeXP11citly pagan p. 'but.ly simply vritten discus. 27h). \l'~l"e raised in the discussion of Atri~anUB'S de-spite the strong moral emphasis in Christianit. Bardy) "Origel)e et la .lm of possibility. eertain types of de-".l to its specula. are T. La re-l~gion a Rome sous les Severes CParis:Ernest Leroux. 01' even".~ti~E! less objection&ble than devia.. specific idea of the purpos~ of the Kestol "~u1d f'it better ~~th Vieillerondls viev of' Africanus as essentially 8.e O'f Chri!.n se~l!lS not unlikely...tions in theeOU1"se~ ology? Extt'eme 1'orms" of would not be tolerated..hat actual~y come to us are more those in the politieal and legal fie-ld (~t .y .Ier deviations.I~thil3 both assumes and provides a :further support 1'01" a nega. 2 but the tvo ideas tlre not consideratio~ is related SOQewhQt to the questions l&y status and secular outlook. h and espe~iflJ. pp.d S~e:m lI10re in k~e-ping 'Wi th the tone and the individuB. especi8J.lcientific" na.assagee. ~t! 18.ltian intellectual reBpec:tabilityt former pcssibili ty lI'Q'U1. but it is not outthe rea. 262-63. t:osmopoli tan courtier t t.tte:r view might appear farfetched.3 ArJothel' o:f the KestQ1 .ti ve nature 30 stIch fI.S it \iTi tten as a proof inte~lectual c:apacit)r of' a.Tean Reville.ior.ie...in status vi th 2uch an inner ~ven circle ~ or 01' the to gain admission to it? Or WI!I.!"W of him as basically a.lal' literary and Ui.ga. 188SJ.er~ Vi..

ble 1C nature of the Kest.ve explicit. eOClbats + In some ways . If the circle. creede..te-d fiignificantly from those of the.l bil'liefs dev1fl.oi and his other vritings.inst ~ e.ve shown ~hat net alone in his vie-ws..is extended to include influential writers from the 'Preceding ce. he was involved in some type of: magic.tic: than the qUi!'st. .Addendu:m~ Relation to Cootemporary Vie'l.ions ra. also .gat~d.rts ) • But.nttn"ies of 'the Christian era.gical and non- magical) i..1I) the man. never been viewed a..m18 VELB in the discussion~ above ha. the ethical ~crip.s that (some of) the others spoke strongly aga.g. especially magie~" p.rto".rly ~hurch actua..ry At.ise:d .be-tting) .~s (even posit1 ve ones) J be overlooked? In the c.:ny of h1$ ideas and procedure3 p~tsJ ha.ch a.graph.d it BE presenti ng so~·thing other than l1dael!lonic" magi C' • lperha1lS the resolution of this dileIllmS. in rel&tion to A. yet.tion.s a :mino!' devia. and love charms ~ and possiblyhorQe-raeing a. either in vholeor in variQus in roughly contempora.re (of the most unrest.l Addendum~ Relation of' Africanue' B Vie-wt.s his pre- concerningwarfa. ~ abortive-a.ase o:f Afri~anus.. ue me-re prob1eEla.ised by the t:.lly read the Kestoi. la~t para.. further.. Me.nvolve area. beginning at least 'With Ruf1nus and Jerome .titudes ~it~d The examples Af'rica.other :fathe. 142. sOme: of his prescriptions (both m.ry writers.e. su. If anyone in the ee.ricted kind) and horse-thievery (at least aiding and a. con~ deJ::lned tbe 'Irork %'lLther tha. . parallels.tions q\l~stionB ra..rpe of H mag ic" which he apparently propa. such trafficking haB ~ I think .f'ri~OilUs is found in th~ " sep l!U"o.o. to Other Contempore. they must have rea.nd gladiatoriQJ. there is no evidence that his theo~ogiC'a.l testimonies to the exist- en ce of' ange1 s lend s upp ort to bel i e f i rJ the i r evil counte rpfl. late-r ge-n~rat1ons.

If 'WhiCh f'ollmtB it ~ Umyst. and is a religious IIJ..atement of" the beginning thesis = ~re precise The difference in the attitudes of Afr-icanus and the early church fatbe." B. remediea: techne.y Gl!l1en and Pliny" :most of Africenl"u~'5 ideas can be so parallel~d. This justification of tbe thesis t.:aJ. but e. .agic i~ evil.y us ef"ul matters. A_..t~gory of religion (i.466 Conclusion: Africanu5 in Early Chrlstiatli"t.hus exte:Jds also to the kind of' the "AmplU'icatiorJ of the Sta..'1d Afric6.e. tit the d~s~ription gIven there a~tually fall outside the area of Kestos 1 (vi. This la.. I. coupled "With the wish not to be gullible.s 'being anti-religious)" but Af'ricB.arallels inc111de not only the types of i terns. pref.rs tolll!lrd magic is due to their views of what constituted it..n'lls t s "Proe1:l 't to . studieS seem to justify a slightly rest.ment of the Most of the items vhich Thesis1t seem also to be validated in p. "Epilogue ~" 8.nus does ["Jot regard bis procedures as fiLlline.B. Aelian--a de- sire to do it in a pleasing literary torm. into 'the ca. . . Concl'USions l The precedine. proem. ~. Contrast with this Pliny's boasted plainness of style {N. lCOI!lpllX'~ Aelian ~.st vas especially the desire to present pi"actic-al information.. 'but also m'LI:ch of the spirit of the \oTitings. P:-103). magical) sene-e. 12-13).he "techni.han t.ll. These p.er of' tested pra~til..teliient.eneral.1 50 not "to omit poten tis.thei" as being a t!la:tt.:~l·' (i. e."1ti-religion) .. rather t. ould see lying b~hind some of his procedures should also be characterized as Un on-personal. but 1"8. " The "Related Aspects l1 present.i in the cOll:imon. Af'ri c:anU6 adde d to this a goal similar to that of his near~r contemporarj.atter (a.erioua ~ transhuman fOi"ce" vhich Af'ricanu8 . They seem to agree that m.ed unde~ the nStat...

bi tants of the age of computer horoscopes . syndicated pro!phet(esse)s~ and archeplscopal seances C8.ua t ions than f theo logic a1 belie fa.nus and his age..Conclusions possible magical involvement~ and 50 bfive not been extensively consid~Qre ered a. it may be remark~d that the inhe.1 sc i enc e'l (at.n hA:r~' look dovn too much on Africe.ual experimental one). In general .bove. . Fina.st from 8. the tLl"'eas of conflict are 0 in the realm of moral eval.. 1ee. 11 t.T'Y or t heore't ic a1 (: or :> speculational J approach) not an fl.:nus are ex- plainable as products of his literary interests and/or h1sdabblings in •• empi ric e. however..f the questiocsb1.Ct. sugg~sted In $Dother ~e&1m) it has been in the discussions above that several o.l1y.e passQ8es in Af"rice.erB.

dO=OfPAilJOI Vieil1@'fond.itut Francaie de florence. no.SELECTED BIBL10GRAPHY Ancient and Medieval Texts Julius Af'ricanu!3 Duchesnei' 1+ nIII. Arthus S.r..=tion de la collection des tact1ciens grecs.43-~8. by Antonius Westermann. 20. Etude BID" l'enseJIlble des fl·agm. bploration Fund.ID~t!'Q10giqu1!'a:.lY\I(.pl '1apa66~ul\" Pael1us. Arch1 vefil des 1!I15s10)15 sCient1f"1ques et litteraires (Paris) Jo 3d ser. ~839. nn.rlJr11W't).. Revue de s Les UCestl!s" de Julius Af"ricanus.g Adolf M.ent s. and Hunt. Publications d@o l~Inat. K..0 1908. H!Utlt~rt. I4garde.iIl:.... Paul de.f"ricanus. The Oxyrhyn<::hus Papyri. Parts III and VI. 3 {18't6} 1 318-85. Braunscb'W"eig: Georgius 'Westermann . Amst. JIe." 1932. London = Black & Armstrong. 1963. J. G:tenf'l!!ll. Bernard P. Jules Africain. pp. 1903. Paria: L1brairle Marcel Didier~ 1910. 1877. "Zu JUlius A.lvl. Florence: Ed1zioni Sansoni Antiquariato. 759-60. --Scr1ptores rerum mirabilium Graeci.anI-FU:eneJ. 1839. Iere Berie: Collection d'etudes d'h1stoire~ de eritiqu~ et de pbilQlogie..ion Fund: Gra~eo-Rol!lll.n Branch. coll~. also. London. Edited. Michael.. PI In nAPA. I' etudes g:r~cques 46 (1933) =197-203.1 r es .~ Bud~. Fragments . Nouvell~ de tenes et documents publi4fe sous ll!' pat. Paris: Soc i ete d· Edt tion ftLes :B~11e:s Lettres. 1970. E~t. buchhandlung. Egypt Explorat. a. . reprint ed. ·'un fragment inedi t de Julius Africanus.." Theologie 7 (1881).. Fra~ents des Cestes prov~nant . v~c ~ tion 11 traduct ion et C onment 8. Gottinge:c: Dietericheche VerlagsJahrbucher f'ik protestaDtische MUller j K.t i on Cui 11aum. I.ronage de l ' As soci a. Sybmdl::tB.erdam ~ Verla.

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) IgnfLee d' Antioch~. translation Wld not~s by Claude Mondesert. and aug. Commentary on the Cos-pelsfrOltl the Horreum Mysteriorum.phy The Apostolic Fa. Paris. 2. 2d ed.. 6. Editions du Cerf [1948]. Da.vetur '? Edi ted by K.. Clement d-Al@xs. 1949. OXford BaTly Christian Texts.Bibliogra.. H. Legatio and De t'eswrectio:ne.e. I£tt. 12. Koster. Ed1 ted by Otto St.ris: Editions du Ce:rf.nslated by P.s~h&1e. rev.m.nd Le1pzlg~ Akademische Verlagsbuchhandlung von ..ig: J. B. G. general eMtor.J.J Gregory Abu'l Yara. Introduction. Edited·~ Augustus Reifferscheid.c:ollabor-ation of Andre Plassant. de Lubac and J. 2 vola. Ca.res.ls.ce. !onn~ Ed.. C. Edited and translated by William R...] Leipz.ford = ClfU'endon Pr~s s ~ 1912. [2d ed. Sources chretiennes:lo edited 'by H. Henry Chad. Hinrichs'sche :BuchhandlUfig~ 1906-36. &nd 39). Sammlu. Chronicon pa.e Protreptique.. Frankfilrt: Minerva ~ 'I 1968. Translated and edited by Wilmot Eardley W. &nd notes by F. of vol. introduction ~ traduction et notes. Krttger~ vol.. Grant.thers r A New Translation and COt!lmentary...!. t+th ed. Clemens JUe. 1969. edited bY' C. [The Apos"tQl. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) 1893. C.eus. S~hoedel. MondeseTt~ no. -68 . }litl!buhri us . I. Ox.goras. Frei"burg o.• of the Greek text.e.xa. 4 vo1s. Ser..'1g augewahlter kirchen.en Schriftstel1er der ersten drei Ja.l.rev. Danielou.ml Latinol"Um ~ vol. Th.. Polyea:rpe d<? Smy1"nt'. 10. C'Bar-Hebro. end corT+ Sources chretiennes. with the. 8Jillexe de textes hetiih·Qdo. I!'di ted by B. Corpus scriptorum hiatoriae Byzantin8.und dogmengeschichtlicher Qu@11enschr1ften~ edited by G.iek.ndrie. Qu1s di yes s. Ed!ted by Lurlovieus Dindorfius.ic Fathers. de Lubac and J.Extra1 t IS de Th~odote+ Greek text ~ 1ntroduction.. Nev York Cb ef'o:re 1966 J and CB. Die Or i echi sehen Christlich.!h1in.lm Btbl i opQlamAc ademi ae t 1815. Sagnard. 1. Clemt!ns Alexandr1nus. reprint ed..ndr {nus. Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticol""l.Illelot. London: SPC'K~ 1925. . 6 '101 s. 1961. Paris = Editions du Cerf. Pa.hrhunderte rvo. S~urce-s chretiennes ~ edited b~. ~ • Vi erma r Apud c. Clement d I Alextmdrie. Edited and tr'a.n1~nou. Arnobii adversus nationes t libri VII. . W~bet't 1832. Athena. Carr. Edited 'by Robert M.I!lden ~ N • J _ 1 Thomas }le-1s on &: Sons. Martyre de Polycarpe. 15]1 11. Texte gre-e. no. Gerolqi F11i l.1 Commonly C&11ed Bar-Rebraeus.

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RevieW' of Ju1..s' editiot1S of Pa. f"rom the 2d Erlg. A liistory of Magic and Experimetltal Science.'l~lated :from Valesi\. Quib'IJS su'bjiei till' oratio Constantini ad sanctos .-Sept. ll~ a 1 tEnfer de D"ante. et 6. Vieillefond. 1659Emp~ror The Hist.. Churchill~ 1709.phy Tarn .dnotationibus 111ustrauit.nJ.r of' Christ S9~. London~ Print~d by J." Re\~e des etude9 grecquea 43 (1930)~lix-lx.. W... Valesius'll Henric:us....uni cation = PfSur deux si.ris.tion to the Twelfth Year of the lea.heca Regiae. _ _ _ _• etudes ittl1ie-nn@:a~ ~39-53.ssi~ Thornr.eEi Africain. W.~90 Biblibgra. ed. Nev York 8. Walt barius . Religion! Language. 1659~ 1668." The Cla.. Eusebii Pampbili ecclesiast. collection des tacticiens gre~s~ ~ J. P~. or the As It Was Written in Greek by Eusebius Scholasticus. 1-2-3 (Jan. Class i cal Revi e\l 16 (1932): 238.. Researc:he:B into the Developltlent of Mythology.ticor"l. .que nunc: pri!Dum edits. ItAde. Eiusdem de .ses au COI:iIIlentaire d'En~~ le Taeticien.. J[ean:J-RCeneJ...J. Uni veJ"sity Press .l1d london: Columbia. Paris: Ex Typogr"aphia. :for A.ltes provenant de Ie.h. 1923-58. Translated by Ed.: Char1 e!j: Warfare. Henriclls Valesius GraecUIrl textum collatis I'll.De S~vero Alexandro imperatore. ReI ig10n an d the DeC' 1 ine of Magi r: • Scribner's Sons} 1971. Thie-le-. ita imp. Constantini'll libri r".ory of the Church :from our Lord IS Inca. ColJllll. 'BerI i n ~ Mayer & MUller.hiluEi Mauriciu5 Tiberius . Vete.ptatio1ls et paraphTs. Ex :manuscriptlB c:odicibus Bibliot. Vitre . Regia ~ 1693.1iorum--opera~ G1"8. M.. Bond 1673.e9 Scholastic us .icae h1st... Ho:ID.rna..henaei t Bitonis li Apol10dori]i Heroni5~ Ph11onis. r1 Rl!!vue de philologie) de litterature et dfhistoil"e anciennes. ATt and Custom + 1st Amer.tm--At. • • and Evagrius Tr!3.gnes magiques. Fragments des Ce!.." Revue des nos. 1909. • • • Socrat. Yells. ThompSO!1:> D' Arc. 2d ed. :2 vols. and J. T)'lOT]i Edward B. V1eille:fond.a. 1965)~ .. 3d s~r']i 6 (S8 of the collection] (1932):24-36. Th. Philosophy. & panegyrlcus Eusebii. codiclbus emendaui t! Latine venit:> et a.of!ct:! et Latine ple:r.or1a@' libri deeem.s l' Ke it. Ch~mieal New Yor}..tlke) Lynn. Thot!l8.-R.m mathema. Prim th-re Culture. 8 vols. 1874..evenot~ M!!lchisedech.lj. "De Ie Ne~iB.! Wen~\f'Orth~ trAneient cal Review ~1 (1933):171-12. Pari~~ A. MSS.~rique D. Nell York: Henry Holt and Company .

Cajua Valerius C'a..acus." Notices!'t extre. "Extl"e.I. L. New York~ Wa. Wallace} Anthony F+ C.its des Cestes de Jules l' Africain . ·'Extralts des Cestes de Ju. et in eum IS&a.H.ires des seances d~ ItAcademie des Sciences (Paris) 14 (18~2 }:L3-~4. & V'ossius" Ge1"tL1"dus Joa.x. avec une trad~tion :fran. The Ameri- . no. ~ t. Amsterdam~ Ex 01"f'icine. Random RQuse J 1966.Wl: eeientitiquea de 1a France et de l·etranger. Vincent~ I:A.-H. d t une Lettre de M. .. .storic1s ara. pp. uHi5toire des Mathe:J:llatiquee.o E opbiq..V'8. le Docteu:r RoUlin re lati vaux a. lIe section: Sciences h1B'toriqu£s. 1932.nnes.. lIe fLI'lDee (ISh5).nd the Protestant Ethic." Re'ifUe arc heologique." can Journal of Sociology 65 (March 1960): 41..i t. De hi. Vossius ll Isa.es l'Africa. -. des manuscrits relatifs a Vine ent. 17 3-75 • [ J. archeOlog iq'l1e EI et phil... "'Musique des grecs.1.. and Abel. London: Apud Iaaacum Littleburii" 1684.. Religion: An AnthropologicaJ. F + -M.1ts des manuscri." Notices et extraits. 1664. "tUsto1re de Is.aise et des commentai:res. Justini historiaI"lUtl ex Trogo Pompeio lib.. Ex Officina !QELJ1IlIis Ma.Extra.. Te-print ed.1' L t lnst1tut= Journal generB. in "Notice sur trois manuscrits grees relatifa ~ 16..ire .T:ltione par Jules l' Africain . bi'blio'theque impel'iale et l!Lutres bibliotheques 19. Leyden~ 162~. 1651.ues 6 (18 ~ 1 ) . musiqu"i!l.! des socH!t~ie ~t tre. rtAne1ent JudaiSD1 a. M Compte s rendu5 hebdooads. View. Vincent.9-55..e~is Iiber IV Editio altera J priQri eml!'ndB. XLIV cum notis Isaaci VosQii.ts de 1s.eyden."luscrits de la bibliotheques du roi et autres biblio- theques 16 11 no.y. 453-55.J. 2 (l847) ~ 34~-63 ~ 561-64.160 texts of Julius Africanus.ci Vossii observationee. num~ra. 11 tWith 'tAddi- ti on: Con:mruni que.tior~ & mul. above.}fodern WOrkR See 6. Sur un certain emploi que faisaient les RomaiDs~ deB Ie lIe ou Ie tIle a1ecle de notre: ~re ~ des vale-urs de position pour 11' expression des nombres. 2 (l858) :401-15.tul1us.!limaw:: m. sa bas ilique et son hi s- toire • Pari s: Libl'airi(! Ernest Leroux.e par M. II in "Extraits 1s.in.des m9.t1s partibis au~tior.-J..e. Murra.t1on. El:tevi:ril!Lna . geom~tri~ pratiques des Grees. EDnna&.

l 'Wax.. tt Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte del'" altchristlichen Litera-tur 13. . . Wel1lns. J Journal de 5 S avants ~ n. schaft 12 (1909) ~ 1-45.phy 'W'ax Rosuil! a:nd 'Wa. ~ M. in deum fide. no. Mu-orray.o:t'"g. '" of' The Oxyrhynchus Pa:rorri.x. Georgi us We~termfmn. und derMa..Bolos Demokritos. WUnsch. "Die Griechisehe lfberset:t'Ung del" vh'i inlustres des Hieronymus. &rtscbius. and enl. A TertBook of Pha. Hakkert" 1%3. YOWlgkell .rong. Nux. 105-9. pal"'t III. 1839 ~ London'i Bl8. Phi la. alBO. 1962-66. add1 tis not!s.del phi 0. conta. Antoni us. &us larissa.ent en Egypte. Wie sner.ck &. edi ted. Weinbe-im ~ Verlag von J+ Cramer. DO? 7. 1928..RosBlie. Went~el" Ge. MEI.hortatio ad mart~iUJII. Hunt.n Areh1v fUr R~lig1ons~issen­ N•'P': Th~ MactId 11M COIaPMY and The Free Pres s.li us von. "The Magical'W'Qr1d Vi6'lor. blr Bernard P. rerum m. 1839. rev. 17 vols.n.. des ." Abnandlungen del' Preuas!schen Akadende der Wiss~nschaften (Berlin]: Philos-ophlscb81storische Kluee . 'JI Amsterdam: Verlag Adolf M.) with 469 illust. Grenfell and Arthur S. MurrElJ" and Wax. Edi ted by Constant. pp. Edited.rma~ognosy. . Teil I. YaJ.1on or Magic. by DtLvid L~ Sills.gic • " In Inte rnat:i onBJ. s ." JourntLl for the' Scientific Study of Religion 1.ining about 1500 figs.gier Anaxilaoe. 1968.. Joh+ Rodolf'us.1. Basel: J.. Ex. W~il 't Henri. Weste~n. Origenis dialogus contra. Ju. ·~fs.Bibliogra.. Encyc lope dia of the Soeial Sc1ences~ 9. no? 2 (1962)~179-8B.d Mricani ~'pist.Jns. P. 167. If Current Anthro[Review pology 4 (Decembe~ 1963):495-518. 3 (1695). Marcioni tas" sive d~ l'ecte. nDeisldai~nieka. Respolisum. ·'Text es grees troUV~8 l"(!C emm. . 11th ed. 5th ed. 2d annee (1904).olam de histol"ilL Susaxmae .. Richard. Armst. "The Not.x. nil! Rohstofte de 13 Plan :t~nrelchs .i rab i li UI!I Gl"8eci + Braunschweig. reprint ed. Heber W.. 521-28 . RAPA80~OrPA to! --S<: ript ore s Wetsteniue.nn.. . a.Bl&kiaton· s Son &: Co ~ J 1936? . Itnle tY~IKA.in 'Von RegeL 7 vols..

(-69. 21~ 24) 69. 13. 16n. 31ll '1BoQkoso Book 3 K~9tos 72n. 95. 36/0. 54. 15n. indieates &. 56. 21~ 2. 87) 970_ 101n. b61. 58. 102-190 passim . 32. LO. 14 .. 60n]l BOn 31. 27. 2. 13. 81. 2. 16]1 19/n. 80. ~49-h67 passim 33. h~On. XL. 100.tJ. 95n. 7~. 31. 199. 87 t 87=1. ~38. 1l/n t 72. ~2/". 21 t 22 t 24.. 48. 271 6 7 and r 11 41. ref'e:r-ence to th&t p8. chapter 22 {=Vi. 31/0... 193n. ~60/n. 57. 19. see at end of' Kestoi listing below chap..gik& --~d. froln Books 1 600 50n 203n SOn 202~n XLIX L 91n 91n VII. 51. 105. --To Aristides. ~6b. 193n ~9/n. 15. 98. 2B~. 53. 80n. 2' chap.. . The~enot-Boivin) 194n.4 t 5. 21 t 24/n t 25.ibf!!" tol1olled by a vtrgula and U (e. 3S t 39. 19hn. 42!n) indicates fI. 90]1 92~ 94. Index of Ancient and Medieval References 1. 35. 591n.. 81. 20. 185 Elias. 103. 36]1 1:0.tu.. 200 Chapter 54 Chapter 70 ~. 16_ and 190. 63n. b20/n-~21/nj Book 5 15n _ 16n. 35/n 48n..E:e and its note(s}. 80-82. 148.. 41. Chapter 3 paasim t 364 t ~20/n. 15. ~ln. ~3.. 6 chap.g. 2]1 13. 1frt 20. 95) 96. Letters. 192. 38 41 6 e. 55. 55. Referen~es J\uius Afrieanus to: Introduction through Kestoi (Cestis)t lin. 32. 86.. Chronography: 1. 76n. 195-99. 193/n. ~6]1 48n]l 54) 15. 20 .l/n. SIt 53. 85/n. 65/n.. 183 .nIDEXES A page number f'o11ow@d by a. 49n. 2.. 37/n]l ~lJn]l 43 t ~5/n. 26n. 23 . 13. 50!n. 80. 21 ChB]). 61. 18. h5. VI) 41. 70. a. 28.De ~111co !ppQ!"t1. On Manasseh's Eseape. 63 . 1. 51. 93 of MOS~B 1~. Appearan~e 17... Scholia. b53. 55. ~39. 31.e-c1ried page. ~29n~ 1&. 28n. XI. 60. 103. 18 --Routh's Fragments X 91n XXII 91n XXIV 452 Kestos l3.. ~7. Strat. 16. refer-en·c:e to the note( s) on the sp.. 36. L65n. ~7. ~ 97n 99 . 81. description of Dead Seal SOl 87. l~. nun. 13. 14. ~h/n. 88) 89. 103~ IB8. 209n. 260_ 32.'1 !!.t. 66_ --To Origen. '1Books 5 and 6 11 36. L60/n. 3. ~6.. 84n]l 17.ld Thevenot-Boivin.

217. 272. 252~ 300 . 12a=I. 2b1lo 267. 306 . (207n L 208/n.53-55 2~O.5 tl. 120. 27~'! the present vor}l. :291.1-3 13b:I. 216 lo 301 129~ 5(. J~p 11~I . 3cl.6-18 216.para. 207/n. 76 --ed. 1 31 3.51-135 J2asJL1ro 112-fg~ 310 1.17. '1 I. 305-. 2Q5~ 207!n~ (*l) MJl ll-I. 266. 1:23Jng J reo 1. 13-15 chap. 212.2.. 301. 250n. 306. 2 .57-69 2980 112-13. 3. 243. 280.15 I.) 310 119. 119~ 200n. 3-02. 276. 199.0. 7-11 lL'b=I.21. 21Ln. 12. 41-43 12f t 24B (222. chap. l'joln 199. abbreviat. 2!15n. 269 309. 2890. . (211- 12). 216~ 301. listed. 299" 301. 128.cha. 2h 8n ~ 277.283. 3-11 271n.16 l~I. l{p ~5=L17. r. 278. 41 12"tFL12·53-55 300 128. proem. 31. 217. 230}. 227~ 237n. 20-2B 121. 310 14a=L17 .11) ~ns. 199.~. 127-28. 226. 36 82n 'Chap. 312 12t~ -25:t (21?).·. 303. 310 !.4 Mp 5~I. 29~ .lg (=Vi.. 292. 311. 33-53 3C"8 ·_. 1 33 1. 299. 216. 301) }~ -. 205. 245n.p 6.2 (5On).. 299. 300. 279.5n. 312 226 113-1L.. 226. 301. 291. r. 303.*2 ) I. 289ns 296 t 301. 289.11.. 457n 136-:n.~.1 (52n ) Mpp 1-3=1."fIl. fJ _ t- 212. 2 50 ~ ( 291 L lJ 51 221n 202. 325 r. 234/n~ 275/n t T. 3]1.34 305 . 21. {210}.rq: 13a=I.. 315 310 118~ 199~ 129. 296."}1 253 1.86-98 30L~ 311.1-21 2L8n. 202n. 300.77.2. 301 123-2J~.ll. 238.72 1. 3tn ~ 313. 3-5 !J=!. Q66n 299. 7-11 10 22-32 136-37~ I. 220. 1 ] :.. 262 t 275/n.).11. 291.11.12.. 30~ 299.b 200 . 302. 30.l3. 195-199. ·213.2.) -'0:0 ~9't'n2.~1. l05-qB:J 299.1-9 (* S. 118-=1 I . Lk (lSVL" 11. 12A chaps. (222-25:0 31i. 290.2o-28.y ~ (references predesignations rr~ 8=r.p.1l-11-20. 308. 452 123.2. 301. 1. 306 (. 200n. 29li J 299..13~ ) 116n. ~1-43 (. 216. 2. 305 122.. 23 4 . 2-92. 202n~ 219. 199:0 205206. Bli 2=1. 12 . 305~ 3090.p. 35 8211 cbap. 2020. 265 ~ 267n. 299. 305n 117-18. 211~ 236~ 23'9:1. 208.22-32 13t:> 208. 206-?/n. ~99.16 I~11 1~5~JI ~3 2 20~ln Mp IheI. 2'r9 22~21). 69 69 351'}$ 2610 286. 299~ 301. 211~ 213. 11-20 (214)..8) 124-26. 215hJ.13. Vi~i11efQnd c~ded 92 92 50n Mp b. 231) ~ Mp 1~I. 259/n.ion t 199n) I (Kestos 1) 103.lLi) 20lr::n. 296.8. 21'1n. 209n t 1. {222.3. ~. 215/n. 5.. 282 ~ 2H9.. 2!9~ 302 (87}t 115-16~ 199.~ 291. 295. 11EE.

256.. 306 160.19. 1~9-155 1~9. Q57n 302 292 269 e~raets) 103.III.Ancient and Medieval (*9) 15a=1. 232. 311. 300 163~205n.. 237. 2.2'99. 306 154 . 330.:111.::. 239. 2li7n) 16~. 247n .1-~ 211. 283.22. 279.266 ~ 271. 302. 262. 301.2. 253. 300. 239. . 259 . 275n. 2h7n.12-1-2 Mp 19=II. 227n.16. 266. 218. 227-28. 283 218/n~ 23c:. 231. 21:5/n. 1611. Mp 22=111. 303.2'.~. 301 227n 153. 293. 299. 2~2.1-2 163-6~. 217n. 278. Jlyr) 69. 26. 283. Mp 2f3:. 277. 284~ 300 157-58~ 248. 2E6 III (Hippiatrica extracts} 103. 11 {(t. 217" 218/n~ 220.5. 293.1 27!:!III-6. (2]"(. 299. 255. 301) 306 161" 2~8.1-5 23a:....15-19 157. 218.11-11J 156-57. 2J~O. 33-43:>50-53 131-38. 22·9-/n.. 218. 303 Mp 306..5-6 31-!lI. (285) 16~. 300) 306 160. 216. Mp 3~IIL17 III. 300.J 150. 300 219. 306 15b:l~17. 216) 283..11. 2C5n. 20On~ 202r~~ 204n~ 208.10. L51. 300 163-6Q.23.1-8 23b-d 23b-~ 214n Mp 37~III. 218..1-6 330. 89b.18. 303. 2hli. '218. 29~t:J. 300. 300. 245.. 300 300 }-tp 35:III. 302 l59~ 217.. 262. 299~ 137~ 23d. 217. 219. 293. 276... 216.17. 299 311 158-59.5 II.111. 299.. 306 166" :e>39r. 289 • .. 242. 300.15. 218.l-~~ Np 21=11. 2T1n . 229. 2LO. 209/n. 262. 237.. 262. 239 451. 219.=111. 199. 278. 21~ .:.300.1-11 Mp Mp 158.4. 2'1"6/0. 285· . 3Dl~ fo'P 3C=IILl1.1-2 2. 239.2 11=11. 217.. 301. 279 . 262. 285. 254. 299.17 .21~25 208. 300 16J.3.1-7 297n 150.. 2'99. 237. 308. 251~ 265.19 I. 21 4 .4~-49 1.. 282. 288. 235". 3-5 165. 29 21 . 2. 216~ 280. 283. 2{)-21 157. 276. 238. ?L2. 2320.. 36ll!1II..ITI.2 !'-1p 23=111. ~64t1 {87'". 260. 1-2 Mp 32=III. 308. 26-1I1-5. 302 ~~ III . 8 . 2'. 2T1. 216.4... II.13. 263. 1.1. 300 Mp 2~=I1I. 215/n. 229. 292.28-32 157. 215n..20 II (Mi12tary Mp 25=III. 299.. 306 23b=IIL 2.. 239.1~2 233n. 291. 251. 218. 289. 218. 275n.!)2.n.. 31.1-2 151. 24. 219 . 263.1-1 1.11-37 156-58. 213 t 215/n. L64n ~56.1-7 159.8 .. 1-6 Mp 20=II.1-6 Mp 1&=11.Tll.. 214. 305 242. 28~1. 286. 263.0 163" 215.6-9 Mp 455n~ 23a-e 252n.19.::III. 156-72 Mpp 22-41&111_1-36 Ea~si~ 156=-{2 pasSim..3. (221).1-3 ~~ 30A~III. 291~ 299. 2T5/n.::. ~55n 1153- * 211. 366r. 2~f6 276 ~ 302 301 Mp 11.

217. 276. 218. 276. 26-27 187. 300. 1.. L5"0 62. 311 VI (Keatos 13" cbap. 264. 2Q9n.16-17 302 187. 1 ~ 36 £. 303.. 186-88.. 186.6-~~1 Np ~3=VI 302 ~3a=VI. 254~ 26o~ III. 103.I. 2k6. line 1 183. 301.37-39 187t219~ 229. 6 298 2310 Mp 39=I1I. 269.2 188 2610 IX. 260 110. 1..151-~ 186.t. 300.32-3~ laT~ 219. 239. (21~rdlo 23ln.l..1.1. 31L ~ 315 44h~IXr1. 309n.l (Psellus) 103. 260 38d=III. Pap. 308. ~9 l8B. 2'51.32~11-12 169t (214 ~.3~-16 38c~III.5-6 4~c=IX.l. 37n. 289 1 291. 91. 185 VIL 1 and 2 (72/n ) 1 185 IX. 11-13 186. 271.35. 1. 215n. 302. 211. 29.33 III. ~bo=rx. 303) 451 ~4~IX. 280. 250.1. 4Li-IX.. 22= Kathartika) b1.C~82~ Mp 42=V {N@kyia) 197. 300~ 301. 300 ~ 301 IX.-36 187 t 261 ~4~=IX.5ln 93~ 96~ 1&. SQ-51 IX.e.3Q-32 181. 33. 2~3. 299. 300 line ~ 183~ 286 VII (Concerning cinnamo~) 315 ~4q=lX.s.-]5 181 ~ 299.17-22 187.36. q51 ~4e=I~. 219~ 26o~ 276 3a~III. 218~ 233Jn~ 262. 96.1. 103. ~llp=rx.IX. 5~.l. 302 44d. 32·9 221n Mp 38=lI1.br=IX. 95n~ l03~ 183 183~ IX.l. 300 112.. 233n l 2~3) 103. 301 ~ 302 .32+18-19 186. 299 95n. 3 (Alchemy) 103 . 300. 300 h14s=IX.~7-~8 188. 265. 299.30 264n 44j-IX. 259t 2B3.sill1 38a=III. 20On~ 212. 219..3Q-32 110.l. 278. 300 7 302 170. 248.3. 232/n. 300 (. 299 ~ 301 ~4l=IX.32.. 32. 1. 9"( . :51~~ 310 4htgIX.. 215/11 ~ Mp 1l~"IX~lr1-51 passim 218. 216~ 279..l. 51" 55.2.3li. 32. 299.. 248n t 258. 297.. 216.. ~3b=VI. 30l . 299. 281.Indexes: 301~ 303~ 454