The Psychomotor Domain
"We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit." Aristotle Psychomotor learning is described by Gagné as "coordinated muscular movements that are typified by smoothness and precise timing". Psychomotor skill development is very important because it works hand in hand with cognitive thinking. The skills required are physical in nature, and the individual must “think about” what he/she is doing – at least at first. Three Classification of Psychomotor Learning 1. Discrete vs. continuous Discrete has a distinct beginning and ending points. It has single or very few steps to solving the problem. Continuous has a beginning and ending point but are more difficult for the learner. 2. Close vs. open a. Closed - not influenced from the environment. b. Opened - influenced from the environment. 3. Person vs. object motion Type I - person and the object at rest (driving a golf ball) Type II - person is at rest and object is in motion (hitting a baseball) Type III - person in motion and object is at rest (shooting a lay-up) Type IV - person in motion and object is in motion (aiming at an aircraft from a bobbing ship) Three Critical Elements of Psychomotor Skills 1. Massed vs. spaced practice a. Massed – all-at-once; very intense practicing with little chance to rest. b. Spaced - shorter practice periods; many of them over time. 2. Whole vs. part practice a. Whole - practicing all skills needed b. Part - break down each skill and master one before going on to the next step. 3. Feedback issues a. Proprioceptive feedback - feedback that is gathered internally (body position). b. External – external feedback provided by a teacher or coach.
Tell your learners about plateaus. that can be both reinforcing and motivating. Three main groups of psychomotor learning are: 1. knowledge of results. painting a picture. Motor skills are often divided into two categories: 1. playing tennis. jump. acting. Practice is an essential element in skill acquisition. riding a bicycle.g. 4. Singing (2 and 3). shorthand. so that they don't get discouraged if their progress seems to slow down or stall. The repetition establishes habit. It can be difficult to distinguish the stage to which a skill has been mastered. Most of the literature suggests that spaced practice is better than massed practice.Teaching in the Psychomotor Domain
Psychomotor learning refers to learning skills that involve physical movement ("motor") as well as a mental ("psycho") component.” which often creates bad habits that later have to be unlearned. 2.
. reading. Gross motor: Controlling large muscle groups (walk. e. flagging motivation. fatigue. a skill is believed to be a manifestation of subconscious thought processes. thread a needle. 3. playing a musical instrument (1 and 3). operating machines 2. Learning plateaus seem to occur in most skill learning. dancing. Very precise analysis of the task and very careful description of the skills can help you evaluate student performance. Several factors are involved. Language-motor: such as writing. Incorrect practice can interfere with the learner's progress. Fine motor: Precise control of small muscle groups (paint. need to practice. However. There may be overlap between these groups.
Some ideas about skill-learning 1. etc. “Unlearning” a skill is very difficult. Practice also provides feedback. Feeling-motor: such as playing a musical instrument. run. but not predictably or with the same pattern or frequency for every learner. Object-motor: such as typing. learning a foreign language 3.). or writing (1 and 2). it is important that the practice be guided: practice does not make perfect. perfect practice makes perfect. complexity of material to be learned. Once acquired to the point of automaticity. 2. Plateaus may occur as learners progress from one level of the psychomotor domain to the next higher level. Therefore it is important to avoid “trial and error learning. etc.).
5. Transfer of learning can be positive (helpful) or negative (hindering). Reading music is common to learning different instruments. To identify. physical or emotional. select. associate. Is their performance still jumpy and step-by-step. locate. select. Teachers should help students take advantage of positive transfer. listen. and provides positive transfer. etc by way of senses. similar. and how? Have they required perceptual awareness? 2. compare. etc. making previously learned responses on one machine inappropriate or even dangerous on another. taste. adjust. Do they still have to concentrate on the execution of the skill to the exclusion of all else. Do the learners have the necessary prerequisites: knowledge of what should be done. respond. etc. situations? To what extent are they being creative in the execution of the skill? How well are they planning the execution of the skill activity? Several attempts have been made to define a hierarchy or "taxonomy" of psychomotor learning. or following model or set criteria. translation. or have they started to transfer control to senses other than the eyes and achieve a smoother. performing all necessary steps. Perception The process of becoming aware of objects. feel. scan. Simpson (1972) describes seven categories. inspect. recognise. To what extent are they capable of variety? Can they generalize the newly learned skills to other. identify. qualities. more integrated pattern of work? 4. Are the learners applying what they know. To recognise. Stages of skill acquisition Romiszowski suggests that learners be observed for progress through the following stages of skill development: 1. hear. arrange. May include imitation of another person. cue selection. why. Set Readiness for a particular kind of action or experience. smell. organise. 3. or have they started to "automatise" the skill? 5. This readiness or preparatory adjustment may be mental. May include sensory stimulation. Guided Response Overt behavioural act of an individual under guidance of an instructor. notice. 2. or trial and eror until
. comprehend. Basic in situation-interpretation-action chain leading to motor activity. in correct sequence? 3. and warn them against negative transfer. These are described below with examples of the action verbs for stating the learning objectives in italics:
1. Different positioning of the controls on two different machines can cause negative transfer.
match. mould. Adaptation Altering motor activities or skills to meet demands of specific problematic situations. develop. correct. To assemble. Origination Creating new motor acts or ways of manipulating materials out of skills. At this level the learner has achieved certain confidence and proficiency of performance. Chapter 19. To adjust. repeat. etc. The skill has become part of his/her repertoire of possible responses to stimulus and demands of situations. done with great ease and muscle control. practise. Volume II. etc. 6. Mechanism Occurs when a learned response has become habitual. The Classification of Educational Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain. To imitate. formulate. Reigeluth. 5. DC: Gryphon House
. shape. standardize. J. 7. Washington. Often includes a resolution of uncertainty. adapt. abilities and understandings developed in the psychomotor area. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Complex Overt Response Performance of a motor act that is considered complex because of the movement pattern required. combine.
Romiszowski. coordinate. the action is done without hesitation. etc. mix. set-up. Mahwah. the learner requires no guidance. integrate. manipulate. fasten. reproduce. Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. convert. simulate. adapt. C. correct. alter. is finely coordinated. etc. invent. integrate. (1972). adjust. 4. construct.appropriate response obtained. Simpson E. order. A (1999) The Development of Physical Skills: Instruction in the Psychomotor Domain. NJ. regulate. To manipulate. To create. M. design. etc.