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Why do we use raise face flanges and flat face flange etc.
My answer: Flat Face Flange - This type of flange face is for all applications where "Cast Iron" (or other brittle material) is used to make equipment and valves. Cast Iron is brittle and is commonly used only in low temperature, low pressure applications. The flat surface allows for full contact across the whole face of the two flanges. Only Full Face Gaskets are to be used for "Flat Face" flanges. This ensures full and equal contact between the two mating flanges. Raised Face Flange - This type of flange face is widely for all forged steel flanges including equipment and valves. The face on these flanges has two levels formed by two "Rings". The inner "Ring" forms the raised gasket contact surface and the outer "Ring" forms a non-contact area. Gaskets for the "Raised Face" flanges are the same size and shape as the inner ring area of this flange. The Bolt holes for these flanges are located in the outer ring area. When a gasket is added and the bolts are installed and torqued the "Step" transition between the heights of the two rings allows for grater force to be applied to the gasket area thus achieving a better seal. So what happens when you bolt a flat face flange to a raised face flange? That is very simple; the force exerted by the bolts on the fulcrum point (at the edge of the raised face) will cause the weaker cast iron flat face flange to break. All pipers must learn the problems and preventions related to Flat Face and Raised Face flanges. They are like "Oil and Water", they don't mix. When you are working in a pipe specification (pipe flanges, equipment and valves) with all flat face flanges there is no problem. When you are working in a piping specification (pipe flanges, equipment and valves) with all raised face flanges there is also no problem. But, when you find that you have some flat face flanges (on equipment or valves) mixed in with a raised face specification then you need to take action. The action to take is to ensure that the raised surface of Forged Steel raised face flange is machined off to make it a flat face. Make sure that your piping material Data Base has an out of spec call out for a modified forged flange. Make sure you select that item when required. Make sure the Isometric drawing picture and notes reflects the requirement for a modified flange and make sure the Bill-of-material lists a modified flange.
Less surface area - more pressure. Less effect due to surface irregularities (flatness etc)
1 Flanges. Forged Flange Ratings: Forged steel flanges are made in seven primary ratings. and a Class 250 Cast Iron flange will mate to a Class 300 forged steel flange. the temperature goes down and vice versa. Mating forged steel flanges to cast iron flange can pose a potential for damage to the "weaker" cast iron. Pressure ratings are used as a guide to safely design piping systems and also to standardize manufactured piping components. Pennock Note: This article covers ASME B 16. For many years the only practical method of joining steel pipe had been by connecting threaded pipe ends with couplings. In most present day piping systems. While some flanges are made of Cast Iron. This same flange could also be used at 100 PSIG at 750º F. Flanges (3" and larger) are also the default standard for connecting to most equipment connections and valves. valve or other object to facilitate the assembly and disassembly of a piping system.47 and while they have the same attributes they will be covered at a later time. Larger pipe (3" and larger) is normally joined by butt-welding of continuous pipe and fittings or by flanges at joints that may require dismantling. Flanges larger than 24" fall under ASME B16. Definition: A flange is defined as a plate type device. The vast majority of flanges are forged carbon steel. Gaskets & Bolts (Just the basics) Revision 1 By: James O. The solution to the potential damage problem will be discussed later in flange facings. The main point to remember now is that a Class 125 Cast Iron flange will mate to a Class 150 forged steel flange. Cast Iron Flange Ratings: The two most common ratings for Cast Iron flanges are Class 125 and Class 250. that is attached to the end of a pipe. threaded joints are usually limited to pipe sizes 2" and smaller. Cast Iron flanges are generally found associated with low pressure cast iron valves and nozzles on cast iron equipment such as some pumps and turbines. Example: A Class 150 Forged Flange is used for 150 PSIG at 500º F. These primary ratings are as follows: o Class 150 o Class 300 o Class 400 o Class 600 o Class 900 o Class 1500 o Class 2500 The Primary Rating is on a pressure/temperature relationship. Improvements in the welding of carbon steel reduced labor costs and provided a completely sealed and much stronger joint.Section .5 Standard Piping Flanges up to 24" NPS. normally round. Note the inverse relationship. This same flange may also be used for 275 PSIG at 100º F. Materials of construction: Flanges are manufactured in all the different materials to match the material of the pipe and fittings to which they are being attached. fitting. The same ratings hold true for screwed and socket-weld flanges. Other flange ratings are available but are not as common. . When the pressure goes up.
This type of flange is preferred for severe service conditions.Flange Dimensions: A flange has many dimensions.5 has a standard for bolt holes that are used by all (US) manufacturers for flange sizes up through 24" For instance. Unless specifically noted otherwise by the piping designer (and then only if for good reason) all flange bolt holes shall straddle the "natural" centerlines. This means that the two of the holes straddle the centerline. etc. 12. in graduations of 4 (i. The most critical is the "length" of the flange. "V" bevel weld. understood and followed by all responsible equipment manufacturers and pipe fabricators. When an exception is found the vendor can be requested to change his bolt hole orientation. There will always be an even number of bolt holes. Flange Types: Weld Neck Flanges: Weld Neck Flanges are distinguished from other flange types by their long tapered hub and gentle transition of thickness in the region of the butt weld that joins them to pipe or a fitting.. the number of bolt holes required varies with the size and rating of the flange. o For a horizontal flange face (the flange face is horizontal and the line is vertical up or vertical down) the bolt holes shall be oriented to straddle the (plant) north/south centerlines. 16. A weld-neck flange is attached to a pipe or a fitting with a single full penetration. whether loading conditions are substantially constant or fluctuate between wide limits. This is not always successful and if not then the piping designer must insure that the piping fabrication documents call for the correct orientation. I assure you that 99.999% of the time that to "One Hole" a flange is a mistake and will add cost to the field. The key dimension for a weld neck flange is the length through the hub from the beveled end to the contact face of . This "natural" centerline rule for flange is known. The bolt holes are evenly spaced around the flange on a concentric bolt circle.e. and produces an endurance strength of welding neck flanged assemblies equivalent to that of a butt-welded joint. Care must be taken to check all equipment vendor outlines to identify any flange orientations that do not match this rule. This dimension will vary with each type of flange and will be covered in the section below covering Flange Types. It also makes the piping foreman very unhappy. These common dimensions include: o Flange Outside Diameter o Flange Thickness o Bolt Circle o Number of Bolts o Bolt Hole Size o Bolt Size Bolt Hole Location: The ASME B16.). The weld neck flange is used in each of the seven flange ratings and has the advantage of requiring only one weld to attach it to the adjacent pipe or fitting. But the number and size is the same no matter the type of flange. 8. All other dimensions for a flange will normally be the same across all flange types but will vary with each flange rating. The smooth transition from the flange thickness to the pipe wall thickness by the taper is extremely beneficial under conditions of repeated bending caused by line expansion or other variable forces. The long tapered hub provides an important reinforcement of the flange proper from the standpoint of strength and resistance to dishing. To "One-Hole" a flange means that the flange has been rotated so that one hole is right on the natural centerline. This rule of bolt holes straddling the natural centerlines is sometimes referred to as "Two-Hole" the flange. This is the flange bolt hole orientation rule. 4. The rule is as follows: o For a vertical flange face (the flange face in vertical and the line is horizontal) the bolt holes shall be oriented to straddle the vertical and horizontal centerlines.
. has a slight shoulder that is square cut at the center or pipe hole. The SO Reducing flange is basically used for reducing the line size where space limitations will not allow the length of a weld neck flange and reducer combination. However. The work simplification comes into the picture where there are cases that require frequent and rapid disassembly and assembly during the operation of a plant. This "length" includes the bevel. and the thickness of the plate part of the flange and the raised face. The ability to spin that backing flange compensates for misalignment of the bolt holes during reassembly. because of the lower initial cost. Electronic piping design software will normally already have the correct dimension built-in. One piece is a sleeve called a 'Stub-end" and is shaped like a short piece of pipe with a weld bevel on one end and a narrow shoulder on the other end called the hub.D. The slip-on flange may be attached to the end of a piece of pipe or to one or more ends of a pipefitting. The use of the Slip-On Reducing Flange should only be used where the flow direction is from the smaller size into the larger size. This flange has all the same common dimensions (O.the flange. but its life under fatigue conditions is considered to be only one-third that of the weld-neck flange. Lap Joint Flanges: A Lap Joint Flange is a two piece device that is much like a weld-neck flange but also like a loose slip-on flange. The raised face dimension for Class 400 flanges (and up) normally must be added to the chart or catalog length to arrive at the true total length of these higher-pressure flanges. The hub is the same outside diameter as the raised face (gasket contact surface) of a weld neck flange. The back or outside of the flange is also welded with a fillet weld. However. the ¼" raised face is not included in the chart or catalog length dimension for the Class 400 and higher pressure rated flanges. This is simply a larger (say a 14") Slip-On flange blank that. over the Weld-neck. The sleeve or Stub-end can be the required higher cost alloy but the flange can be the lower cost forged carbon steel. The slip-on flange is positioned so the inserted end of the pipe or fitting is set back or short of the flange face by the thickness of the pipe wall plus 1/8 of an inch. This is the Slip-On Reducing Flange. There is a short version. A variation of the Slip-On flange also exists. The flange part of the Lap-joint flange assembly is slipped on to the stub-end prior to the sleeve being welded to the adjoining pipe or fitting. The flange itself is not welded or fixed in any way. The other piece of a Lap Joint Flange is the backing flange. The strength of the slip-on flange is ample for it's rating. the tapered hub. One side. The cost saving comes when the piping system requires a high cost alloy for all "wetted" parts to reduce corrosion. bolt hole size. It is important to understand and remember that the (1/16") raised face on the Class 150 raised face and on the Class 300 raised face flanges is normally included in the length dimension. The "Stub-end" can normally be purchased in two lengths. To obtain the correct dimension you must look at a correctly constructed flange dimension chart (see the "Tools" button on this website) or a flange manufacturers catalog. about 3" long and a long version of about 6" long. It is free to spin for proper alignment with what ever it is joining to. the Lap Joint Flange offers a way to cut cost or simplify work.) as any other flange however it does not have a raised face. It is prudent for the piping designer to know which version is in the piping specification. the backside. The back face of the hub has a rounded transition (or inside fillet) that joins the hub to the sleeve. Because of it's two piece configuration. The front side has flat face and at the center hole an outside fillet to match the fillet of the "Stub-end" piece. bolt circle. The thickness of the hub is normally about ¼" to 3/8". this may be offset by the added cost of the two fillet welds required for proper installation. etc. . Slip-on Flanges: Slip-On (SO) Flanges are preferred by some contractors. instead of the Center (pipe) hole being cut out (or drilled out) for 14" pipe it is cut out for a 6" (or some other size) pipe. This allows for a fillet weld inside the SO flange equal to the thickness of the pipe wall without doing any damage to the flange face.
This pattern is machined into the flange face and provides the grip for the gasket. If you need to bolt a Forged steel flange to cast iron then you must call for the forged steel flange to be machined off to a flat face.The Flat Face is primarily used on Cast Iron flanges. the backside of this center opening is then counter bored to form the proper size socket to take the pipe O.Screwed (or Threaded) Flanges: Screwed flanges look very much like a Slip-On flange in some ways. valves or equipment nozzles. Here the main difference is the Socket Weld flange was also bored out initially to match a specific pipe inside diameter. o Ring-type Joint (RTJ) . One flange face has a raised ring (Tongue) machined onto the flange face while the mating flange has a matching depression (Groove) machined into it's face. Flange Face Finish: The part of a flange where the gasket touches is called the contact surface. Don't even think about it! Flat face flanges are never to be bolted to a raised face flange. storage. This flange is used to provide positive closer at the ends of pipes. No doubt your piping material engineer could request another special finish but that would only add extra cost. One flange face has an area that extends beyond the normal flange face (Male). Dissimilar flange faces such as the RTJ. The backside of this center opening is then threaded with the proper sized tapered pipe thread. Flange face forms are: o Flat Face (FF) . The companion flange or mating flange has a matching depression (Female) machined into it's face.D.The Raised Face is most common of all flange faces. The most common finish for the contact face of a flange is a concentric (or phonographic) groove. With this type the flanges must be matched. The primary reason for this is that the contact surfaces do not match and there is no gasket that has one type on one side and another type on the other side.This is also a form of flange face that in becoming obsolete. Flange Faces: Face Types: Flanges faces come in different forms. o Raised Face (RF) . This type has a higher raised portion on the face into which a ring groove is then machined. o Tongue and Groove (T&G) . The main difference is the Screwed flange was bored out initially to match a specific pipe inside diameter. This area is the most critical area to the prevention of leaks. fabrication and installation periods.This is a form of flange face that is becoming obsolete. Here however. With this face the whole contact face of the flange is machined flat.This is another form of flange face that is obsolete. This area of a flange must be protected from the time it is machined clear through all the various shipping. T&G and the F&M shall never be bolted together. Some forms are more common and others are old and out of date forms. These old forms may be ordered but possibly only to match an existing piece of old equipment. This flange is primarily used to make flanged joints where required in small sizes in threaded pipe specs Socket Weld Flanges: Socket Weld flanges also look very much like a Slip-On flange. Flange faces are machined with standard finishes. With this type the flanges must also be matched. The flange has a raised area machined on the flange face equal to the contact area of a gasket. This flange is primarily used to make flanged joints where required in small sizes in socket welded pipe specs Blind Flanges: Blind flanges are a round plate with all the proper bolt holes but no center hole. o Male-and -Female (M&F) . .
The most common is the Stud Bolt. Gaskets are designed and later chosen considering all the same issues as were used to select the pipe. This leaves a 1/8 inch total gap between the ends of the two cap screws when the screws are tight. pipingdesigners. Cap Screws are also used to attach threaded-lug type wafer valves (Butterfly Valves) between a pair of flanges. These are "Oval" and "Hexagonal. There are two basic cross-sectional shapes for the RTJ gasket. temperature. The Cap Screw must be long enough to go through the flange. Next is normally the Cap Screw. This metal retainer ring also acts as a centering tool to insure that the casket is not misaligned or blocks the product flow. and corrosiveness of the commodity. These applications most often include Cast Iron flanges. elastomers and graphite. The Stud Bolt is used in all locations where you have two normal flanges with access to the backside of both flanges and both ends of the stud. And finally we have the Machine Bolt. Here again we have some variations. In a vacuum system it keeps the outside air from getting in.e. Two Cap Screws are used at each lug position. Gaskets are made of a wide range of materials. Gaskets provide the tight seal that retains the pressure and keeps the gas or liquid in the pipe. Machine Bolts are normally made of a lower strength material than Stud Bolts and are therefore considered only where low strength bolting is required. Having the gasket and the right gasket is very important.: no access to the backside). The Spiral Wound gasket has a graphite or Teflon material wound with a metal strip which is then held in shape by a flat metal ring. The Cap Screw is normally used in all locations where a flange is being attached to a piece of equipment where there are only tapped holes (i. among others. one from one side and one from the other side. Cap Screws: The Cap Screw is a fully threaded rod with a head on one end. Stud Bolts: The Stud Bolt is a long threaded rod (with no head on either end) and two nuts. Gaskets for Ring Type Joint flanges are simply a solid metal ring. Machine Bolts: A Machine Bolt is a rod with a hexagon head on one end and threads on some of the length. No nut is used with the Cap Screw.com . the raised face and half of the threaded lug minus 1/16 of an inch. These include pressure." Bolts: Bolting is the final element of a complete flange joint assembly. For this application the length of the Cap Screw selected is critical.Gaskets: You can have Class 600 stainless steel flanges and have the bolts fully tight and if you do not have a gasket (or the proper gasket) you will have a lot of leaks. These include rubber.
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