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1.5 Liquid petroleum pipeline systems approach to design
It is interesting to note that liquid petroleum pipeline systems have been in operation since the late 1800s, and, as illustrated in the title of the Code, a number of different commodities arc transported via pipeline, with widely varying properties. Therefore, to begin the discussion of liquid petroleum pipeline systems, it is useful to illustrate some of the characteristics of fluids based on examples of real pipeline systems. Then, since this project is prepared to be an aid in the selection of the preferred pipeline design, the concept of the “system approach” to design is introduced wherein the hydraulic, mechanical, and operations, maintenance and construction aspects of design are integrated and evaluated with economic analysis to select the most economically attractive system. In the design of an oil transportation system, it is necessary to consider many aspects of design and operation as well as project economics in determining the optimum pipeline system to transport a commodity, or commodities, from a source to a destination. On a technical or engineering level, there are three aspects of design which arc interrelated in the system approach to design: a. Hydraulic b. Mechanical c. Operations and maintenance Decisions in one area of design directly affect, or limit, the options in another area. For example, it may be necessary to locate a pump station such that it is accessible, for example, on a main road, near an electrical power source. Thus the pipeline route will have an intermediate location point set in addition to the origin and terminal points. Likewise, preliminary design and cost estimating are not separate and independent procedures but are instead closely related and proceed concurrently. The hydraulic design is the process of evaluating the physical characteristics of the commodity or commodities to he transported, the quantities to be transported, the pipeline route and topography, and the range of pressures, temperatures, and environmental conditions along the route. Identifying the number and location of pump stations with respect to the hydraulic characteristics of the system is also part of the hydraulic design. There may he several viable hydraulic designs for any given pipeline design basis and route. The most feasible is identified in conjunction with the owner or operator of the system, giving consideration to early use requirements and future capacity plans for the system. For any one hydraulic design there are a number of mechanical system designs that can he developed to meet the criteria of the design basis
John Samir Zaky Mina Safwat Sobhy Samir Fouad Nassif Usama Boshra Habib
Other aspects of the mechanical design include the type. The investigation of any pipeline system begins by establishing the design basis for the commodity. and the operating and maintenance costs for the economic life of the investment. and economic analyses and design of petroleum pipeline systems. preparation of environmental impact reports. wall thickness. size. grade of steel. and mainframe computers for separately performing the hydraulic. acquisition of permits and rights-of-way. These include technical and environmental surveys of the pipeline route and surrounding areas. If die preliminary estimates indicate further consideration is desirable. yet within the limits set by the Code. if alternatives require capital investments (e. and operations and maintenance designs. The final aspect of design takes into consideration the day-to-day tasks of up-crating and maintaining tile functional integrity of the system. then making a preliminary selection of pipe diameters and cost estimates for comparative economic attractiveness. the pipeline project team will also he performing many tasks related to the construction of the pipeline. John Samir Zaky Mina Safwat Sobhy Samir Fouad Nassif Usama Boshra Habib . mechanical. development of construction costs considering pipe diameter. and welding procedures. Programs are available for hand-held calculators. and horsepower of pumps and other equipment or any facilities required to meet the hydraulic-thermal design. seeking to identify the system that yields the best economic return on investment dollar depending on the initial and subsequent capital costs. Operation and Construction Introduction and deliver the commodity from origin to destination. and the support or burial requirements for the pipeline. these costs should be compared on a present value basis and discounted at a real (after inflation) interest rate to ensure a valid. preliminary feasibility considerations begin by selecting possible routes and developing a preliminary design. The mechanical design is governed by the codes and standards developed from experience in operating petroleum pipeline systems. The details of economic analysis are addressed in financial analysis references.g. The preferred pipeline system for a given set of conditions is selected through an economic comparison of several systems. and preparation of contract specifications and bidding papers. for pumping stations) at different future dates. procurement of construction materials. mechanical. the method of financing. These include the necessary control systems to operate the system with in its design parameters and to promote safe and continuous operation. Concurrent with the hydraulic. personal computers. such as heating stations. unbiased selection of the optimum system.. and it focuses on selection of pipe material and the specification of physical line pipe properties such as pipe diameter and wall thickness as required by the stresses imposed on the system by the hydraulic and thermal conditions. thermal.Oil Pipeline Design.