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The Monsoon winds arrived late in the Indian peninsula last
year. This was in no way something very unusual. Even last
year, the Monsoon rains had arrived late in the month of July.
But, what turned out to be very unusual this year, were the
areas where rains hit hardest. Usually the rains crash on the
west coast and north east regions of India. This year however,
these regions received only moderate rains. The areas or
regions, which get scanty rainfall normally, got the heaviest
rainfall. By third week of July, monsoon winds had covered,
most of the subcontinent, right up to Hindu Kush mountains in
the North West Pakistan. In next few days, North-west and
central Pakistan was hit like a blitzkrieg with such a fury that
the rainfall recorded in these areas was highest in last 80 years.
With this kind of onslaught, it was no wonder that the water
levels in the rivers soon escaped the embankments and started
flooding the adjoining areas. What followed was just
unbelievable. A natural phenomenon soon became a disaster
and later a calamity. In next couple of weeks, almost 20% of
the land area of Pakistan was flooded. 4.5 Million people have
become homeless and about 1600 persons have died. It is
simply impossible to imagine the after effects that the people
of this region may have to suffer in next few months or even
years. Why did this happen? How can heavy rains for a couple
of weeks, turn into a national calamity? To search for the
answers, let us first try to understand some geographical facts
about Pakistan. Pakistan happens to be one of the luckiest
countries in the world to have an elaborate natural river system
in the world. There are 5 major rivers in Pakistan’s landmass.
The backbone of the river system is the Sindhu (Pakistan’s
region of Sindh, gets it’s name from the name of the river) or
the Indus river.
This river rises from a glacier near Kailash mountain in Tibet.
Tibetan’s however believe that the real Indus rises as ‘Senge
Khabab’ north of Kailash mountain and is joined by a
subsidiary flowing from Kailash glacier from the east. Indus
enters India, near village of ‘Demchok’ and flows in northerly
direction. It soon turns westwards and passes near Leh city.
Indus is joined by Shyok and Gilgit rivers in Kashmir and later
enters Pakistan. In Pakistan, the river finally changes it’s
course to southerly direction, where It is joined by Kabul river.
In Punjab, water of 4 major rivers, namely, Jhelum, Chinab,
Ravi and Sutluj again joins the Indus. There are still few more
smaller rivers like Bolan, that join the Indus. Finally near the
Pakistani city of Karachi, Indus joins Arabian Sea. This is the
reason why Indus is called one of the mightiest rivers of the
world. I always feel amazed, when I think about the landmass
covered by Indus. This was the reason for Vedic texts to
consider Indus like a deity. The ancient civilizations of
Mohonjo-daro and Harappa came up in the basin of Indus and
had perished later.
Even by third week of August, the floods have not receded. So
far, 263,000 houses have been fully or partially damaged in the
two worst affected provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and
Punjab. According to the Federal Flood Commission, 1.4m
acres (557,000 hectares) of crop land has been flooded across
the country and more than 10,000 cows have perished.
Pakistani authorities have evacuated 500,000 people in 11
districts of Sindh and issued warnings to people in low-lying
areas of the Indus river. Flooding has submerged whole
villages in the past week, killing about 1,600 people and
affecting another 4.5m. From these facts the extent of the
damage and devastation can be well imagined. When details of
the extent of damage became known, many people started
asking the question as to how can such widespread damage be
caused over such a huge area by flooding of few rivers?
It is apparent that this is not the case of a few rivers flooding
because of heavy rains. There is obviously some other reason
for the wide spread damage and devastation caused by the
floods. It is now believed that the real cause for this calamity is
the wrong and unscientific way in which river waters have
been managed in Pakistan over last few decades.
The landmass in Pakistan, where these rivers flow is essentially
a flat country without any major hills in the region. An
elaborate system of Dams, Barrages and canals has been
created in this region to support the agriculture.
Satellite Image of Indus River in Pakistan on 1 August 2009
Satellite Image of Indus River in Pakistan on 1 August 2010
It is true that before independence, i.e. Before 1947, British
had already built few of these levees, barrages and canals.
However after independence, there has been a phenomenal
growth in the construction of these. Over the years, river
managers in Pakistan have expanded the canal system. The
overall effect now is that instead of the natural flow from the
Himalaya in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south, the
Indus is diverted, piecemeal, east or west, wherever it is needed
to support farming. Obviously this kind of diversion is not
restricted to Pakistan alone. Such river diversion is a common
sight in India and also around the world as populations and
food production boom. The expansion of river canal system is
one of the principal reasons of boom in world food production.
The flip side of this unnatural diversion of river waters can be
felt and seen when a calamity like the present one in Pakistan
Mr. Tahir Qureshi, a former government forest officer and
game warden and now a forestry expert with the International
Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) says that “ The
Indus and its canals are the largest irrigation systems in the
world. Pakistan’s irrigation system has turned this arid country
into an agricultural powerhouse, but it has had its downside as
well.” He adds that “In the past couple of decades, many of the
embankment forests and trees have died or been chopped
down. This also is one of the reasons for the catastrophe.”
Mr. Daanish Mustafa of King’s College London, recalls the
fable in which a man sells his soul to the devil in exchange for
a life of luxury. He is a geographer who has studied the history
of Pakistan’s river management. He says that “The major river
engineering is basically a Faustian bargain. Until a few decades
ago, there were typically mild floods each summer—the time
when the monsoon rainfall hits, and the melt from the snow
pack in the Himalaya and Karakoram Mountains is at its peak.
But now, because humans have sculpted the river and the
surrounding natural floodplain and wetlands for farming and
other needs, there are fewer floods, but when they hit, they are
far worse. Over the years, there has been an absolutely mad
rush to settle in these floodplains.”
Mr. Asad Sarwar Qureshi, a water resources expert at the
International Water Management Institute (IWMI) branch in
Lahore, Pakistan says that ” There is not very much space [in
the river channel] to absorb all the rainfall. We need to get it
back into shape, so that it can carry its original capacity.
Wetlands along the river’s course, used to take up some
floodwaters, and the government also used to divert excess
water into “no man’s land” during the monsoon season. But
those areas have been converted to farmland”. He also points
out that “Another part of the problem is that the Indus River
and its tributaries carry some of the highest levels of silt of any
river system. More silt equals less room for water as monsoons
and snow melt inundate the now-confined riverbed and canals.
Most of our rivers and canals are already silted up.”
From the explanations given by these three experts, it becomes
quite clear that the main reasons for this catastrophe are not
natural causes but creations and actions of humans. If that is
the case, there must be solutions, which would avoid the
recurrence of the disaster at least in future. These experts talk
of following steps.
Allow the river to flood more regularly, and naturally.
This would help temper the floods and make them more
Give the rivers room to expand. If not along the whole
way, at least some of the wetlands along the way
should be restored.
Majority of levees may be kept in place, but maintained
Plant trees along the riverbanks. Earlier practice of
promotion of seed planting of Acacia Nilotica tree
along river banks should be restarted. These trees are
soil binders, and a physical barrier to the flood flow.
They are the flood guards, a biological means of
According to these experts,Managing Pakistan’s floods is a
delicate balance between giving the river more room, and
building barriers to protect people and their land. They have
however expressed that the chances of the situation turning
around are rather dismal as it involves major landscape
changes and are afraid that government may not be in a
position to affect required changes considering the pressures
and power plays of the government.
With real reasons behind Indus flood catastrophe becoming
clear as man made and not natural, I feel that it’s kind of
warning bell for India. India has been building similar canal
systems in states of Punjab and Rajsthan. The threat for similar
kinds of disaster striking there, appears to be quite real. While
we create better irrigation facilities to feed the human hunger,
we should not neglect the river basins and wetlands. If we do
not do that we are likely to invite peril with our own hands.
This is the lesson for India from this Pakistan catastrophe.
21 August 2010
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