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Chanhu-Daro Inscriptions (Selected Rebus Meluhha Readings) (S. Kalyanaraman August 4, 2013)

Chanhu-Daro Inscriptions (Selected Rebus Meluhha Readings) (S. Kalyanaraman August 4, 2013)

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Chanhu-daro was the Sheffield of ths Ancient Near East producing exquisite metal artefacts
Chanhu-daro was the Sheffield of ths Ancient Near East producing exquisite metal artefacts

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Chanhu-daro inscriptions (Selected rebus Meluhha readings

)

Chanhu-daro40A

6306

Chanhu-daro40B

bhaṭa ‘six’ (G.) Rebus: bhaṭa ‘furnace’ (Santali)
ayo ‘fish’ (Mu.) Rebus: aya ‘(alloyed) metal’ (G.) kolmo ‘three’ Rebus: kolami ‘smithy, forge’ (Telugu)

mõṛẽ ‘five (count)’. Rebus 1: Md. moḍenī ʻ massages, mixes ʼ. (CDIAL 9890)
Pa. mōdanā -- f. ʻ blending (?)(CDIAL 10356). Rebus 2: maṇḍua ‘booth, shed’ meḍ ‘body ' (Mu.) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) kolom ‘sprout’ Rebus: kolami ‘smithy, forge’ (Telugu) ) Pa. kuṭila— ‘bent’, n. ‘bend’ Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. āra-kūṭa, ‘brass’ (Skt.) (CDIAL 3230)

koḍa ‘in arithmetic, one’ (Santali); rebus: koḍ. ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi)
ayo ‘fish’ (Mu.); rebus: aya ‘(alloyed) metal’ (G.) Fish + corner, aya koṇḍa, ‘metal turned, i.e., forged’.

Fish + scales aya ãs (amśu) ‘metllic stalks of stone ore. ãs, cognate with añc ‘iron’ (Tocharian) may be a determinative of ‘iron’ as the ‘metal’. Hence, the ligatured glyph may connote ‘iron or stony metal’.
1

dula ‘pair’ (Kashmiri) Rebus: dul ‘cast (metal)’. )) Pa. kuṭila— ‘bent’, n. ‘bend’ Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. āra-kūṭa, ‘brass’ (Skt.) (CDIAL 3230). Thus, the pair of ‘oval’ glyphs read: dul kuṭila ‘bronze cast metal’. dula ‘pair’ Rebus: dul ‘cast (metal)’ kanka ‘rim (of jar, kaṇḍ)’ (Santali) kárṇa— m. ‘ear, handle of a vessel’ RV., Glyph: kaṇḍ kanka, kaṇḍ karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali. Sanskrit). Rebus: furnace account (scribe). khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ Pict-40 Ox-antelope with a long tail; a trough in front. koḍiyum ‘heifer’(G.) koḍe ‘heifer’ (Telugu) bullcalf. Rebus: (G.) sangaḍa ‘lathe’ (G.) Rebus: jaṅgaḍ ‘entrusment articles’. Glyph: loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali) Rebus: lo ‘iron’ (Assamese, Bengali); loa ‘iron’ (Gypsy) lauha = made of copper or iron (Gr.S’r.); metal, iron (Skt.) kanka ‘rim (of jar, kaṇḍ)’ (Santali) kárṇa— m. ‘ear, handle of a vessel’ RV., Glyph: kaṇḍ kanka, kaṇḍ karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali. Sanskrit). Rebus: furnace account (scribe). khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ 6121

[khōṇḍa] m A young bull, a

[ kōṇḍaṇa ] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) koḍ ‘workshop’

Chanhudaro Seal obverse and reverse. The oval sign of this Jhukar culture seal is comparable to other inscriptions. Fig. 1 and 1a of Plate L. After Mackay, 1943 Glyph shown together with stong of scorpion on Urseal 1. Rebus: [khōṭa] ‘ingot,

wedge’; A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down)(Maratthi) khoṭf ʻalloy (Lahnda) Hence [khōṭasāḷa] a (
2

&

from

) Alloyed--a

metal. (Marathi) Bshk. khoṭ ʻ embers ʼ, Phal. khūṭo ʻ ashes, burning coal ʼ; L. khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻ base, alloy ʼ M.khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, (CDIAL 3931) Kor. (O.) Glyph: tagaru ‘ram’ (Tulu) Rebus: tagarm ‘tin’ (Kota). damgar ‘merchant’ (Akkadian) Another antelope is looking back. Hieroglyph of ‘looking back’ connoting an artisan. Thus the seal shows that the holder of the seal is a artisan and trader in tin ingots: [krammaru] krammaru. [Tel.] v. n. To turn, return, go back. or revoke, annul, rescind. or .

krammarinṭsu. V. a. To turn, send back, recall. To
. Same as

krammara. Adv. Again.
. krəm backʼ(Kho.)(CDIAL 3145)

Kho. Krəm ʻ back ʼ NTS ii 262 with (?) (CDIAL 3145)[Cf. Ir. *kamaka – or *kamraka -- ʻ back ʼ in Shgh. Čůmč ʻ back ʼ, Sar. Čomǰ EVSh 26] (CDIAL 2776) cf. Sang. kamak ʻ back ʼ, Shgh. Čomǰ (< *kamak G.M.) ʻ back of an animal ʼ, Yghn. Kama ʻ neck ʼ (CDIAL 14356). Kár, kãr ‘neck’ (Kashmiri) Kal. Gřä ʻ neck ʼ; Kho. Goḷ ʻ front of neck, throat ʼ. Gala m. ʻ throat, neck ʼ MBh. (CDIAL 4070) Rebus: karmāra ‘smith, artisan’ (Skt.) kamar ‘smith’ (Santali) Chanhudaro. Seal impression. Fig. 35 of Plate LII. After Mackay, 1943. 6235 tagaraka tabernae montana (Skt.) Rebus: tagara ‘tin’ (Ka.) kanka ‘rim (of jar, kaṇḍ)’ (Santali) kárṇa— m. ‘ear, handle of a vessel’ RV., Glyph: kaṇḍ kanka, kaṇḍ karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali. Sanskrit). Rebus: furnace account (scribe). khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’

Chanhudaro17a

6122
3

koḍiyum ‘heifer’(G.) koḍe ‘heifer’ (Telugu) Rebus:

[khōṇḍa] m A young bull, a bullcalf.

[ kōṇḍaṇa ] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) koḍ ‘workshop’ (G.)

kanka ‘rim (of jar, kaṇḍ)’ (Santali) kárṇa— m. ‘ear, handle of a vessel’ RV., Glyph: kaṇḍ kanka, kaṇḍ karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali. Sanskrit). Rebus: furnace account (scribe). khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ meḍ ‘body ' (Mu.) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) One horned body. meḍ ‘body ' (Mu.) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) koḍu ‘horn’ Rebus: koḍ ‘workshop’. Thus, koḍ meḍ ‘iron workshop’. Glyph shown as an ingot. Rebus: [khōṭa] ‘ingot, wedge’; A mass of metal

(unwrought or of old metal melted down)(Maratthi) khoṭf ʻalloy (Lahnda) Hence [khōṭasāḷa] a ( & from ) Alloyed--a metal. (Marathi) Bshk. khoṭ ʻ

embers ʼ, Phal. khūṭo ʻ ashes, burning coal ʼ; L. khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻ base, alloy ʼ M.khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, (CDIAL 3931) Kor. (O.)

Chanhudaro2

6128 [khōṇḍa] m A young

koḍiyum ‘heifer’(G.) koḍe ‘heifer’ (Telugu) bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: ‘workshop’ (G.) sangaḍa ‘lathe’ (G.) Rebus: jaṅgaḍ ‘entrusment articles’. ranku ‘liquid measure’. Rebus: ranku ‘tin’ (Cassiterite) tagaraka tabernae montana (Skt.) Rebus: tagara ‘tin’ (Ka.)

[ kōṇḍaṇa ] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) koḍ

4

kanka ‘rim (of jar, kaṇḍ)’ (Santali) kárṇa— m. ‘ear, handle of a vessel’ RV., Glyph: kaṇḍ kanka, kaṇḍ karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali. Sanskrit). Rebus: furnace account (scribe). khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’

Chanhudaro15a

6213

koḍa ‘in arithmetic, one’ (Santali); rebus: koḍ. ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi) Ka. guḍḍu, guḍḍi eyeball, egg; guḍasu anything round; guḍi a circle, halo. Tu. kuḍu
testicles of dogs, cats, etc. Te. g(r)uḍḍu eyeball, egg; guḍusu a circle, round; goḍḍa cylindrical stone; guḍi halo round the sun or moon. Kol. guḍ (pl. guḍl) testicle.

Nk. (Ch.) guḍ (pl. -l) egg; kanta guḍḍa eyeball; ?gaḍḍa stone, pestle made of
stone. Go. (Ko.) guḍi variety of small bead (Voc. 1114). Konḍa guḍu eyeball, egg, testicle (< Te.); gurḍu, (Sova dial.) gurzupupil, eyeball. Kuwi (Su.) guḍu egg (< Te.). Cf. 1695 Ta. kuṇṭu. / Cf. Skt. guṭikā-, guḍa- globe, ball, pill guḍá1 m. ʻ globe, ball ʼ MBh., guḍikā -- f. ʻ kernel ʼ VarBrS., gula -- m. ʻ glans penis ʼ, °lī -- f. ʻ pill ʼ lex., °likā -- f. ʻ globule ʼ Kād. [Cf. gōla -- 1, *gōṭṭa -- ] Pa. guḷa -- ʻ cluster ʼ in mālā -- g°, guḷikā -- f. ʻ little ball ʼ; Pk. guḍiā -- f. ʻ pellet ʼ, gulia -- m., °iā -- f. ʻ ball ʼ; A. guri ʻ minute particle ʼ, gurā, gulī ʻ sinker on fishing net or line ʼ; B. guṛ ʻ globe, mouthful ʼ; Or. guṛā, guḷā ʻ pill ʼ, goṛi ʻ pebble ʼ, guḷī ʻ round clod ʼ; Mth. guriā ʻ bead ʼ; H. guriyā f. ʻ glass bead ʼ, gulā m. ʻ ball, bullet ʼ, gullā m. ʻ small pellet ʼ; Si. guḷiya ʻ pill, ball, lump ʼ. (CDIAL 4181) Rebus: Ko. guṛy temple Te. koṭika hamlet; guḍi temple; guḍise hut, cottage, hovel. Kol. (SR) guḍī temple. Pa. guḍi temple, village resthouse. Ga. (Oll.) guḍi temple. Go.(Ko.) guḍi, (Mu.) guḍḍi, (S. Ko.) guṛi temple; guḍḍī (Ph.) temple, (Tr.) (DEDR 1655) See Turner, CDIAL, no. 3232, kuṭī-, no. 3493, kōṭa-, no. 3233, kuṭumba-, for most of the Skt. Forms. Glyph: taṭṭai ‘mechanism made of split bamboo for scaring away parrots from grain fields (Ta.); taṭṭe ‘a thick bamboo or an areca-palm stem, split in two’ (Ka.) (DEDR
5

3042)Rebus: toṭxin, toṭ.xn goldsmith (To.); taṭṭāṉ ‘gold- or silver-smith’ (Ta.); taṭṭaravāḍu ‘gold- or silver-smith’ (Te.); *ṭhaṭṭakāra ‘brass-worker’ (Skt.)(CDIAL 5493). kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kaṁsa= bronze (Te.) kaṁsá1 m. ʻ metal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metal N. kasār ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; A. kãhār ʻ worker in bell — metal ʼ; B. kãsāri ʻ pewterer, brazier, coppersmith ʼ, Or. Kãsārī; H. kasārī m. ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; G.kãsārɔ, kas m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ; M. kãsār, kās m. ʻ worker in white metal ʼ, kāsārḍā m. ʻ contemptuous term for the same ʼ. (CDIAL 2989) Vikalpa: P. kaṅghā m. ʻ large comb ʼ, rebus: kãgar ‘portable brazier’ (Kashmiri) kanka ‘rim (of jar, kaṇḍ)’ (Santali) kárṇa— m. ‘ear, handle of a vessel’ RV., Glyph: kaṇḍ kanka, kaṇḍ karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali. Sanskrit). Rebus: furnace account (scribe). khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’

Chanhudaro22a Glyph shown as an ingot. Rebus:

6115 [khōṭa] ‘ingot, wedge’; A mass of metal

(unwrought or of old metal melted down)(Maratthi) khoṭf ʻalloy (Lahnda) Hence [khōṭasāḷa] a ( & from ) Alloyed--a metal. (Marathi) Bshk. khoṭ ʻ

embers ʼ, Phal. khūṭo ʻ ashes, burning coal ʼ; L. khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻ base, alloy ʼ M.khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, (CDIAL 3931) Kor. (O.) Alternative: ( ) Pa. kuṭila— ‘bent’, n. ‘bend’ Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. āra-kūṭa, ‘brass’ (Skt.) (CDIAL 3230) dula ‘pair’ (Kashmiri) Rebus: dul ‘cast (metal)’. Thus, cast bronze.

kolom ’sprout’; kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolma hoṛo = a variety of
the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) kolmo ‘rice plant’ (Mu.) Rebus: kolami ‘furnace,smithy’ (Te.) Together, the glyph reads: Bronze furnace, smithy.
6

Glyph: koḍi ‘flag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). Rebus: koḍ ‘workshop’ (Kuwi) dula ‘pair’ (Kashmiri) Rebus: dul ‘cast (metal)’. kolom ’sprout’; kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolma hoṛo = a variety of the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) kolmo ‘rice plant’ (Mu.) Rebus: kolami ‘furnace,smithy’ (Te.) Thus together, the glyphs read: ‘cast bronze furnace, smithy’ Ku. khuṭī ʻ peg ʼ Rebus: kuṭi ‘furnace’.

Chanhudaro23

6402

6131This is the only text on a large Chanhu-daro seal and occurs together with ‘one-horned young bull’ glyph. Kur. kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali.lex.) Mth.ḍagar ʻ road ʼ, H. ḍagar f., ḍagrā m., G. ḍagar f. (CDIAL 5523) Rebus: damgar ‘merchant’ (Akkadian) Thus, together the composite glyph reads: kaṇḍ damgar ‘merchant with furnace’.

Chanhudaro21a

6209 Fish + scales aya ãs (amśu) ‘metllic stalks of stone ore. ãs,

cognate with añc ‘iron’ (Tocharian) may be a determinative of ‘iron’ as the ‘metal’. Hence, the ligatured glyph may connote ‘iron or stony metal’.

7

kanka ‘rim (of jar, kaṇḍ)’ (Santali) kárṇa— m. ‘ear, handle of a vessel’ RV., Glyph: kaṇḍ
kanka, kaṇḍ karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali. Sanskrit). Rebus: furnace account (scribe). khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’

kuṭi ‘water-carrier (woman)’ (Telugu); rebus: kuṭhi ‘furnace, smelter’ (Santali)
Thus, together, the composite glyph reads: kuṭi kanka ‘furnace scribe’.

kut.i, kut.hi, kut.a, kut.ha a tree (Kaus'.); kud.a tree (Pkt.); kur.a_ tree; kar.ek tree, oak (Pas;.)(CDIAL 3228). kut.ha, kut.a (Ka.), kudal (Go.) kudar. (Go.) kut.ha_ra, kut.ha,

kut.aka = a tree (Skt.lex.) kut., kurun: = stump of a tree (Bond.a); khut. = id. (Or.) kut.amu = a tree (Te.lex.) Rebus: kut.hi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore to smelt iron’; kolheko kut.hieda koles smelt iron (Santali) kut.hi, kut.i (Or.; Sad. kot.hi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kut.ire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of e_kut.i has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kut.hi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in t he centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari.lex.) kut.hi = a factory; lil kut.hi = an indigo factory (H.kot.hi)(Santali.lex.Bodding) kut.hi = an earthen furnace for smelting iron; make do., smelt iron; kolheko do kut.hi benaokate baliko dhukana, the Kolhes build an earthen furnace and smelt iron-ore, blowing the bellows; tehen:ko kut.hi yet kana, they are working (or building) the furnace to-day (H. kot.hi_) (Santali.lex. Bodding) kut.t.hita
8

= hot, sweltering; molten (of tamba, cp. uttatta)(Pali.lex.) uttatta (ut + tapta) = heated, of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure (Pali.lex.) kut.t.akam, kut.t.ukam = cauldron (Ma.); kut.t.uva = big copper pot for heating water (Kod.)(DEDR 1668). gudga_ to blaze; gud.va flame (Man.d); gudva, gu_du_vwa, guduwa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715). da_ntar-kut.ha = fireplace (Sv.); ko_ti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kot.ha_ house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kut.hi_ factory (A.); kot.ha_ brick-built house (B.); kut.hi_ bank, granary (B.); kot.ho jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse (G.); kot.hi_ lare earthen jar, factory (G.); kot.hi_ granary, factory (M.)(CDIAL 3546). kot.ho = a warehouse; a revenue office, in which dues are paid and collected; kot.hi_ a store-room; a factory (G.lex.) kod. = the place where artisans work (G.lex.) Rebus: kuṭhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore to smelt iron’; kolheko kut.hieda koles smelt iron (Santali) kuṭhi, kuṭi (Or.; Sad. koṭhi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kut.ire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of ēkuṭi has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kuṭhio of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari.lex.) kuṭhi= a factory; lil kuṭhi= an indigo factory (H.kot.hi)(Santali.lex.Bodding) kuṭhī = an earthen furnace for smelting iron; make do., smelt iron; kolheko do kut.hi benaokate baliko dhukana, the Kolhes build an earthen furnace and smelt iron-ore, blowing the bellows; tehen:ko kuṭhi yet kana, they are working (or building) the furnace to-day (H. koṭhī) (Santali.lex. Bodding) kuṭṭhita = hot, sweltering; molten (of tamba, cp. uttatta)(Pali.lex.) uttatta (ut + tapta) = heated, of
9

metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure (Pali.lex.) kuṭṭakam, kuṭṭukam = cauldron (Ma.); kuṭṭuva = big copper pot for heating water (Kod.)(DEDR 1668). gudga_ to blaze; gud.va flame (Man.d); gudva, gu_du_vwa, guduwa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715). dāntar-kuṭha = fireplace (Sv.); kōti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kot.ha_ house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kuth ī factory (A.); koṭhā brick-built house (B.); kuṭhī bank, granary (B.); koṭho jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse (G.); koṭhī lare earthen jar, factory (G.); koṭhī granary, factory (M.)(CDIAL 3546). koṭho = a warehouse; a revenue office, in which dues are paid and collected; koṭhī a store-room; a factory (G.lex.) koḍ = the place where artisans work (G.lex.) Water-carrier glyph shown on Chanhujo-daro seal is depicted vividly as a hieroglyph on a Gadd seal (Ur.): Seal impression, Ur (Upenn; U.16747); [After Edith Porada, 1971, Remarks on seals found in the Gulf States. Artibus Asiae 33 (4): 331-7: pl.9, fig.5]; Parpola, 1994, p. 183; water carrier with a skin (or pot?) hung on each end of the yoke across his shoulders and another one below the crook of his left arm; the vessel on the right end of his yoke is over a receptacle for the water; a star on either side of the head (denoting supernatural?). The two celestial objects depicted on either side of the watercarrier’s head can be interpreted as a phonetic determinant: kōḷ ‘planet’. The whole object is enclosed by 'parenthesis' marks. The parenthesis is perhaps a way of splitting of the ellipse (Hunter, G.R., JRAS, 1932, 476). An unmistakable example of an 'hieroglyphic' seal. enclosure signs of the field: Rebus: kol = metal (Ta.) Two kōḷ ‘planets’; rebus: kuṭhi kol kin = two furnaces for metal vessels.

This is Sign 12

kuṭi = a woman water-carrier (Te.) kuṭi = to drink; drinking, beverage

(Ta.); drinking, water drunk after meals (Ma.); kud.t- to drink (To.); kuḍi to drink; drinking
10

(Ka.); kuḍi to drink (Kod.); kuḍi right, right hand (Te.); kuṭī intoxicating liquor (Skt.)(DEDR 1654). kola, kolum = a jackal (G.) kolhuyo (Dh.Des.); kulho, kolhuo (Hem.Des.); kros.t.r. (Skt.) kul seren = the tiger’s son, a species of lizard (Santali) kolo, kolea_ jackal (Kon.lex.) Jackal: kur..i-nari jackal (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Ve_t.an-valam. 13)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kul tiger; kul dander den of tiger; an.d.kul to become tiger; hudur. to growl as tiger; maran. d.at.kap kul a big-headed tiger (Santali.lex.) ko_lupuli = a big, huge tiger, royal or Bengal tiger; ko_lu = big, great, huge (Te.lex.) kula tiger; syn. of maran: kula, burukula, kamsikula, the striped royal tiger; syn. of maran: kula, lar.okula, the brown royal tiger without stripes; syn. of hur.in: kula, soncita, leopard: sin:kula = the lion; kindorkula, kinduakula = the panther; tagukula (lit. the shaggy tiger), the hyena; d.urkula, a smaller feline animal, which when attacking a man bites him in the knee, probably a tiger-cat; kula-bin: collective noun for all dangerous animals; kulabin:-o to become infested by dangerous animals; kla (Khasi.Rongao) tiger (Mundari.lex.) kros.t.r. = jackal (RV.); kro_s.t.u = id. (Pa_.n.); kro_s.t.r. = crying (BhP.); kot.t.hu, kot.t.huka, kotthu, kotthuka = jacka (Pali); kot.t.hu (Pkt.); kot.a (Si.); kot.iya = leopard (Si.); ko_lhuya, kulha = jackal (Pkt.); kolha_, kola_ jackal; adj. crafty (H.); kohlu~, kohlu_ jackal (G.); kolha_, kola_ (M.)(CDIAL 3615). Fr. krus’ = cry, call; kro_s’ati cries out (RV)(CDIAL 3613). Kot.ho = a call, a messenger; kot.ha invitation; kot.han.u = to send for (S.)(CDIAL 3614). Kos’ to abuse, curse, blame (Gypsy); kosna_ to curse (H.); kosn.a_ (P.); akos’ to abuse (Gypsy); kros’ati cries out (RV)(CDIAL 3612). kros’a shout (VS); kuru_ voice, word (Pas’); kosa_ curse (H.)(CDIAL 3611). kul. = the tiger, filis tigris; kul en:ga = tigress; kul

seren ‘the ‘tiger’s song’, a species of lizard (Santali)
Rebus: kol metal (Ta.) kol = pan~calo_kam (five metals) (Ta.lex.) kol = pan~calo_kam (five metals); kol metal (Ta.lex.) pan~caloha = a metallic alloy containing five metals:
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copper, brass, tin, lead and iron (Skt.); an alternative list of five metals: gold, silver, copper, tin (lead), and iron (dha_tu; Na_na_rtharatna_kara. 82; Man:gara_ja’s Nighan.t.u. 498)(Ka.) kol, kolhe, ‘the koles, an aboriginal tribe if iron smelters speaking a language akin to that of Santals’ (Santali) kol = kollan-, kamma_l.an- (blacksmith or smith in general)(Ta.lex.) kollar = those who guard the treasure (Ta.lex.) cf. golla (Telugu) khol, kholi_ = a metal covering; a loose covering of metal or cloth (G.) [The semant. expansions to kolla_puri or kolha_pur and also to 'kolla_ppan.t.i' a type of cart have to be investigated further]. kol ‘working in iron, blacksmith (Ta.); kollan- blacksmith (Ta.); kollan blacksmith, artificer (Ma.)(DEDR 2133) Text 6118 erugu = to bow, to salute or make obeisance (Te.) er-agu = obeisance (Ka.), ir_ai (Ta.) er-agisu = to bow, to be bent; to make obeisance to; to crouch; to come down; to alight (Ka.lex.) cf. arghas = respectful reception of a guest (by the offering of rice, du_rva grass, flowers or often only of

water)(S’Br.14)(Skt.lex.) erugu = to bow, to salute or make obeisance (Te.) Allographs (from epigraphs of Mohenjodaro): m0478Bt erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying uprooted trees]. eraka, hero = a messenger; a spy (G.lex.) he_raka = spy (Skt.); e_ra = to spy (Kui); er = to see (Malt.); he_ru = spy (Pkt.); he_riu = spy (Kl.); hero (G.); heru~ spying (G.); hern.e~ to spy (M.); herna_ (H.); herai (Oaw.)(CDIAL 14165). heriya_m = prying, peeping; heravum = to spy (G.lex.) ere = to see, behold; erye to peep, spy (Malt.); her to look at or for (Pkt.); er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.); e_ra spying, scouting (Kui); he_ri kiyali to see (Kuwi); e_rna_ (i_ryas) to see, look, lok for (Kur.)(DEDR 903).
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m0480At Sign 45

seems to be a kneeling

adorant offering a pot (Sign 328

)

Signs

45/46 seem to ligature the pictorial of a kneelingadorant with sign 328 Rebus: eraka, er-aka any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.) eruvai ‘copper’ (Ta.); ere dark red (Ka.)(DEDR 446). erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) Metal: akka, aka (Tadbhava of arka) metal; akka metal (Te.) arka = copper (Skt.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.) erakaddu = any cast thng; erake hoyi = to pour meltted metal into a mould, to cast (Ka.); cf. arika = rice beer (Santali.lex.) er-e = to pour any liquids; to pour (Ka.); ir-u (Ta.Ma.); ira- i_i (Ta.); er-e = to cast, as metal; to overflow, to cover with water, to bathe (Ka.); ere, ele = pouring; fitness for being poured(Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) eh-kam any weapon made of steel (Cu_t.a_.); eh-ku steel; eh-ku-pat.utal to melt, to soften (Cilap. 15, 210, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) eraka, era, era = syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.) erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) eh-kam any weapon made of steel (Cu_t.a_.); eh-ku steel; eh-ku-pat.utal to melt, to soften (Cilap. 15, 210, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

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