• Business intelligence (BI) is a set of theories, methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business purposes. BI can handle large amounts of information to help identify and develop new opportunities. Making use of new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.


• A performance indicator or key performance indicator (KPI) is a type of performance measurement. An organization may use KPIs to evaluate its success, or to evaluate the success of a particular activity in which it is engaged. Sometimes success is defined in terms of making progress toward strategic goals

• These raw sets of values, which are fed to systems in charge of summarizing the information, are called indicators. • Indicators identifiable and marked as possible candidates for KPIs can be summarized into the following sub-categories:
– Quantitative indicators which can be presented with a number. – Qualitative indicators which can't be presented as a number.

– Leading indicators which can predict the future outcome of a process – Lagging indicators which present the success or failure post hoc – Input indicators which measure the amount of resources consumed during the generation of the outcome – Process indicators which represent the efficiency or the productivity of the process – Output indicators which reflect the outcome or results of the process activities – Practical indicators that interface with existing company processes. – Directional indicators specifying whether an organization is getting better or not. – Actionable indicators are sufficiently in an organization's control to affect change. – Financial indicators used in performance measurement and when looking at an operating index.

The key stages in identifying KPIs are: • Having a pre-defined business process (BP). • Having requirements for the BPs. • Having a quantitative/qualitative measurement of the results and comparison with set goals. • Investigating variances and tweaking processes or resources to achieve short-term goals.

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