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8.2 Problems Leading to Quadratic Equations
8.3 Solving Simultaneous Equations by Algebraic Method
8.4 Graphical Solutions of Simultaneous Equations
8.5 More about Graphical Methods in Solving
Simultaneous Equations
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8.1 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Equations
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A. Fractional Equations
8.1 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Equations
Example 8.1T
( ) . 10 1 3
6
· −
,
`
.

+ x
x
Solve
0
6
7 3
10 3
6
3 6
10 ) 1 ( 3
6
· − −
· − − +
· −
,
`
.

+
x
x
x
x
x
x
3
3
2
0 3 0 2 3
or
or
− ·
· − · +
x
x x
Solution:
0 ) 3 )( 2 3 (
0 6 7 3
2
· − +
· − −
x x
x x
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B. Equations with Power More Than 2
8.1 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Equations
3 1
0 3 0 1
0 ) 3 )( 1 (
0 3 2
2
− ·
· + · −
· + −
· − +
or
or
y
y y
y y
y y
1
3 1
2
t ·
− ·
x
x (rejected) or
Example 8.3T
. 0 3 2
2 4
equation the of roots real the Find · − + x x
Solution:
have we Since ,
2
x y ·
becomes equation the Put 0 3 2 ,
2 4 2
· − + · x x x y
There is no real number x
whose square is negative.
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C. Equations with Surd Form
8.1 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Equations
Example 8.4T
. 0 3 2 · − − x x Solve
1 3
0 1 0 3
0 ) 1 )( 3 (
0 3 2
2
− ·
· + · −
· + −
· − −
or
or
y
y y
y y
y y
9
1 3
·
− ·
x
x (rejected) or
becomes equation the Put 0 3 2 , · − − · x x x y
have we Since , x y ·
Solution:
Squaring both sides of an
equation will sometimes
create a number that is not
a root of the original
equation.
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D. Indical Equations
8.1 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Equations
Example 8.5T
. 0 6 2 2
2
Solve · − −
x x
( )
a n a
a a
n
mn
n
m
log log · •
· •
Since y = 2
x
, we have
Put y = 2
x
, the equation 2
2x
– 2
x
– 6 = 0 becomes
2 3
0 2 0 3
0 ) 2 )( 3 (
0 6
2
− ·
· + · −
· + −
· − −
or
or
y
y y
y y
y y
3 log 2 log
2 2 3 2
·
− · ·
x
x x
(rejected) or
Solution:
) 2 ( 58 . 1
2 log
3 log
places decimal to correct x · ·
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E. Logarithmic Equations
8.1 Equations Reducible to Quadratic Equations
Example 8.6T
. 6 log ) 1 log( log · + + x x Solve
When x = –3, log x and log (x+1)
are undefined, therefore x = –3 is
rejected.
6 log ) 1 ( log
6 log ) 1 log( log
· +
· + +
x x
x x
0 ) 3 )( 2 (
0 6
6 ) 1 (
2
· + −
· − +
· +
x x
x x
x x
(rejected) or
or
3 2
0 3 0 2
− ·
· + · −
x
x x
Solution:
MN N M log log log · +
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8.2 Problems Leading to Quadratic Equations
Strategy for Solving Word Problems
1. Read the problem carefully – understand the problem; know what
is given and what is to be found. If appropriate, draw figures or
diagrams and label both known and unknown parts.
• Let one of the unknown quantities be represented by a variable, say
x, and try to represent all other unknown quantities in terms of x.
3. Set up an equation.
4. Solve the equation.
5. Check and interpret all solutions in the context of the original
problem – not just for the equation found in Step 3.
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8.2 Problems Leading to Quadratic Equations
Example 8.8T
Consider a rectangle with an area of 100 cm
2
. If its length is 3 cm longer
than its breadth, find the length of the rectangle. ( Give the answer correct
to 2 decimal places. )
Solution:
0 100 3
100 ) 3 (
2
· − −
· −
x x
x x
Let the length of the rectangle be x cm, then the width is (x – 3) cm.
= 11.61 (correct to 2 decimal places)
The length of the rectangle is 11.61 cm.
(rejected) or
2
409 3
2
409 3
1 2
) 100 ( 1 4 ) 3 ( ) 3 (
2
− +
·
×
− × × − − t − −
· x
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To solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns such as
The key step is to substitute the linear equation into the quadratic
equation to eliminate one of the two unknowns.
To solve a pair of simultaneous equations in two unknowns in which one is
in linear form and one is in quadratic form, for example,
8.3 Solving Simultaneous Equations by Algebraic Method
quadratic
linear
2
,
4 3
1
¹
'
¹
− − ·
+ ·
x x y
x y
，
¹
'
¹
· −
· +
1 2
3 2
y x
y x
One method of solving them is to substitute one linear equation into the
other one in order to eliminate one of the two unknowns.
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A. Solving Simultaneous Equations by Graphical Method
8.4 Graphical Solutions of Simultaneous Equations
Solutions of two simultaneous
equations are the solutions
that satisfy both equations.
When solving a pair of simultaneous equations in two unknowns in which one
is linear and one is quadratic, we can draw the graph of each equation in the
same Cartesian coordinate plane.
The point(s) of intersection of the two graphs will give the solution(s) of the
two equations. However, they are only approximate solutions.
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B. Number of Points of Intersection of a Parabola and a Line
8.4 Graphical Solutions of Simultaneous Equations
To solve a pair of simultaneous equations in which one is linear and the
other is quadratic (in the form y = ax
2
+ bx + c, where a ≠ 0) by graphical
method, the graphs of the parabola and the straight line may:
Case 1 : intersect at two distinct points, indicating that there are two different
solutions; or
Case 2 : touch each other at one point only, indicating that there is only one
solution; or
Case 3 : have no intersections, indicating that there are no real solutions.
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8.4 Graphical Solutions of Simultaneous Equations
Without the actual drawing of the graphs, the number of points of intersection
of the two graphs can be determined algebraically by the following steps:
Step 1 : Use the method of substitution to eliminate one of the unknowns
(either x or y) of the simultaneous equations. We can then obtain a
quadratic equation in one unknown.
Step 2 : Evaluate the discriminant (Δ) of the quadratic equation obtained in
Step 1.
• If Δ > 0, then there are two points of intersection.
• If Δ = 0, then there is only one point of intersection.
• If Δ < 0, then there are no intersections.
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8.4 Graphical Solutions of Simultaneous Equations
Example 8.19T
Without solving the simultaneous equations algebraically, find the number
of points of intersection of the parabola y = 2x
2
and the straight line y = 3x + 5.
Δ> 0 corresponds to the
quadratic equation 2x
2
– 3x – 5
having two unequal real roots.
Solution:
¹
'
¹
+ ·
·
) 2 ..( .......... .......... 5 3
) 1 ......( .......... .......... 2
2
x y
x y
) 3 ( .......... .......... 0 5 3 2
2 5 3
2
2
· − −
· +
x x
x x
0 49
) 5 ( 2 4 ) 3 ( ) 3 (
2
> ·
− × × − − · ∆
of
Substituting (2) into (1),
There are two points of intersection.
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8.5 More about Graphical Methods in Solving Simultaneous
Equations
When we are given a graph of quadratic function such as y = x
2
, we can
use it to solve any quadratic equation graphically such as x
2
– x – 2 = 0 by
the following procedures:
Step 1 : Write the equation as x
2
= x + 2.
Step 2 : Hence, we can write this quadratic equation as two simultaneous
equations ( one linear and one quadratic ) in two unknowns x and y,
namely y = x
2
and y = x + 2.
Step 3 : Draw the graphs of the two simultaneous equations in the same
Cartesian coordinate plane. The xcoordinates of their points
of intersection will give the solutions of the quadratic equation
x
2
– x – 2 = 0.
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