Study and Thinking Skills

LESSON 1 USING THE LIBRARY EFFECTIVELY THE LIBRARY • Derived from the Greek word – librarium – which means a place for the custody or administration of a collection of reading materials. • Is the heart of the school • Is a storehouse of books and other reading materials. • Is a collection of graphic materials – books, films, tape recording – organized for use. • A reader should: a. know the librarian b. Discover the policies concerning the use of the library c. Have a knowledge of the kinds of materials the library holds. d. Be familiar with the system of the library classification and physical set up (sections of the library) e. Have the ability to pick out the kind of book and materials needed. Sections of the Library

A. Circulation Section – This section contains the general collection of
books, fiction and non-fiction, which the students can borrow for home use. B. Reserve Section – kept in this section are books that may be requested by some teachers to be made available for their students but for a shorter period of time because of the limited number of copies per book. Therefore, allowing students to take turns in borrowing these books for just a few hours. C. Reference Section – This section contains books containing specific facts and information about anything in this world. 1. Fiction – novels, short stories, and drama (books of imagination) 2. Nonfiction – these are books of information. The books are about real things, people, places, and the like 3. General References a. Dictionaries – give a lot of information about a word, such as its spelling, syllabication, pronunciation, meaning, stress, function, its etymology or origin, etc. b. Encyclopedias – reference materials that give information on almost every subject. These pieces of information, arranged alphabetically, are put together in book form and are sold to the public in series of volumes. 1

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c. Indexes – an index material indicates where a particular article in a magazine or journal can be found. As a guide, it gives the title, volume, series number, and date of the magazine containing the article. d. Yearbooks (annual) – they give information about the yearly activities, accomplishments and composition of a government or a private institution, or company e. Almanacs- contain pieces of information about the economic, political, astronomical, and statistical data on the commercial and sports status of a country. f. Atlases – a collection of maps, contemporary or historical. g. Gazetteers – a list of names of places plus information or description of each place such as its location, terrain, and the correct pronunciation of its name. h. Bibliographies – it contains list of names of authors of a certain book. It also contains the date and place of publication including the name of the publisher. i. Directories – it contains pieces of information about a person – his address, telephone number and some information about organization and companies j. Biographical Dictionaries – a reference material that gives information about famous distinguished people, dead or alive. k. Special Reference Materials  Pamphlets  Government Publications  Clippings D. Periodical Section – This is where one can see magazine, newspapers, and journals Periodicals – are published weekly, monthly, quarterly, or fortnightly. Two Types of Periodicals a. General Periodicals – these contain articles on different interests and subjects (Readers’ Digest, Newsweek, local magazines like Mod, Women etc.) Magazines – it came from the Arabian term makhazin and Italian – magazine to French – magazine. Newspapers – a paper printed and distributed at a regular intervals. - a reading material or publication for news stories Types: • Broadsheet/National – a newspaper that contains comprehensive information of events. It uses formal language • Tabloid/local or community – contains bit information. It does not use formal language 2

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Sections of a Newspaper/Essential Parts 1. Front Page 2. Editorial – newspaper’s opinion on an issue. 3. Foreign News 4. Sports 5. Entertainment 6. Classified Ads 7. Community/Local News 8. Home and Culture/Life and Leisure 9. Obituary 10. Business Section b. Professional Periodicals – These are sometimes called professional journals containing articles on a particular field of knowledge which are written by members of the profession. E. Audio-visual Materials – This is an optional section of the library where variety of machines for listening or viewing may be kept. F. Materials Center – A section where student who wants to do his class projects and some special activities not needing books prefers to go. G. Multi-media Center – Another optional section of the library which houses materials reflecting “breakthroughs” in technology and electronics such as computers and other modern machines. Arrangements of Books Classification System 1. Dewey Decimal System – named after its developer, Melvil Dewey. A system which uses numbers to classify books. It is usually used by small library such as college/university libraries. 000 – 099 General Works/References (Encyclopedia, Dictionaries) 100 – 199 Philosophy (Logic, Ethics) 200 – 299 Religion (Bible, Saints) 300 – 399 Social Sciences (Sociology, Psychology, Law) 400 – 499 Language (Composition, Speech) 500 – 599 Pure Science (Physics, Biology) 600 – 699 Applied Science (Electronics, Automotive Agriculture, Aeronautics,) 700 – 799 Arts and Recreation (Music, Paintings, PE) 800 – 899 Literature (Poetry, Essays) 900 – 999 History, Geography


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2. Library of Congress Classification – a classification used by big libraries. It uses capital letters. A General Works/References B Philosophy and Religion C History, Auxiliary Sciences (General) D History, Auxiliary Sciences (except America) E History, Auxiliary Sciences of America (General) F History, Auxiliary Sciences of America (Local) G Geography, Anthropology H Social Sciences J Political Science K Law L Education M Music N Fine Arts P Philippine and Literature Q Science R Medicine S Agriculture T Technology U Military Science V Naval Science Z Bibliography, Library Science Call Number – it contains the number of classification, the author’s family name initial, and the year of publication. Number classification Author’s initial Yr. of publication 539.72 G2 1995

The Card Catalogue – it contains several sliding drawers and situated at the most visible part of the library. • It also contains index cards with alphabetically arranged records of all books inside the library. Kinds: 1. Title Card – the title of the book appears on the top most part of the index.
793.7 L34 Games to Play Larsen, Harold, 2nd Ed. Illus. by Berthold, Tieman, California: Harper and Row.1995 1. Mathematical Recreations 1. Title


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2. Author Card - the name of the author appears on the top most part of the index.
793.7 L34 Larsen, Harold Games to Play, 2nd Ed. Illus. by Berthold, Tieman, California: Harper and Row.1995 1. Mathematical Recreations 1. Author

3. Subject Card - the subject and or topic appears on the top most part of the index.
793.7 L34 Mathematical Recreations Larsen, Harold Games to Play, 2nd Ed. Illus. by Berthold, Tieman, California: Harper and Row.1995

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Arrange the words alphabetically as to how they are written in the dictionary. 1. breezy 2. misgiving 3. chain 4. applicable 5. scarcity breast mistaken chaos appoint scene breathe misty chaff appearance scant breech misplace channel appendix scatter break mishap chance applause scenario breed misstep char apply scan breach mistreat chafe appease scale breakup misjudge change appetite scavenger breeding mislead chapter appraise scarcely breadth misery chant append scamp


Study and Thinking Skills Exercise 2. Education 8. Write F if the book is fiction and NF it is non-fiction. j. choose the section/part of the newspaper that is illustrated in the articles. (10 pts. From among the choices below. The Heiress and the Designer come together in Cool Show 2. c. Kapitan Boom 5. e. Life and Works of Rizal 6. The Adventures of Aladin 7. Choose the letter of the classification system in Column B that Column A represents. Malacañang Laughs off Whistle Blower’s Claim. Law 7. The Return of Superman Exercise 3. i. Technology Column B a. Global Warming: Its Effect 4. History. Tom and Jerry Cartoon Show 9. Personality Development 8. front page classified ads sports obituary entertainment business foreign news community/local news Lifestyle Editorial 1. The Necklace 3. k. d. b. h. 1. f. Medicine 9. l. Applied Science 5.) Column A On Dewey Decimal Classification 1. Arts and Recreation On Library of Congress System 6. Music 10. Geography: A Retrospect 2. g. Physical Fitness Volume 2 10. Geography 3. UAAP: Four foreign dribblers get clearance 6 . 3. 100-199 400-499 600-699 700-799 800-899 900-999 K L M R S T Exercise 4. Philosophy 4. Language 2.

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid 8. Honduras coup: Mixed signals for GMA: by Raul C.Study and Thinking Skills 4. 5. Tax exemptions 6. Cecilia Ungco-Tuazon passed into the loving hands of our Lord. Pangalangan 10. The Haunted opens July 8. US Marines Launch major Afghan Offensive 7 . 2009 at Movie World Branches 7. Banko Sentral ng Pilipinas seeks change in Charter. MILF claims killing 500 Soldiers 9. She was 58 years old.

If you cannot find one. Look at the illustrations to give you further information about the topic. Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph.Study and Thinking Skills LESSON 2 SKIMMING AND SCANNING SKIMMING  Is the process of quickly running or passing over an entire selection or passage to get the general impression of it.  It is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Let you eyes skim over the text. examples & definitions. then write your own topic sentence by combining important ideas from several sentences SCANNING  Is the process of quickly locating a particular fact. 2. Continue to think about the meaning of the text. try to find a topic sentence in the paragraph or section of the text to use as a topic sentence. Don't read every word or every sentence. Steps  Look for key words. First. 8 . eg dates.  People usually skim when they have lots of materials to read in a limited amount of time.  It involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. A topic sentence is a sentence that captures the meaning of the entire paragraph or group of sentences. figure.  It is what you do when you read quickly to get the main ideas of a text . It tells what the passage is mainly about.  It is the technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. subtitles and subheading to find out what the text is about.  It involves reading a text very quickly and superficially in order to get a general idea of the content Steps: 1. taking in key words. Read the title. 4. or word over a selection or reading material to find the answer to a specific question. numbers.  This is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading.  It is a reading skill used to locate key or specific information quickly. or words that are repeated. 3. 5.

that 137 species of plant. provides jobs. taxes for the government and cheap products of all kinds for consumers. This alarming rate of destruction has serious consequences for the environment. Much of Canada's forestry production goes towards making pulp and paper. 1 hectare of the world's rainforest is destroyed. where. colonial expansion and the establishment of a world-wide trading network would not have been feasible without hemp. Canada supplies 34% of the world's wood pulp and 49% of its newsprint paper. Exercise: Direction: You will have a very short time to read the text and identify the main ideas. ex: words in bold or italic.Study and Thinking Skills     Look for definitions. In a year. textiles. Logging. 142 species of salmon have already become extinct. it was essential to the economies of many countries because it was used to make the ropes and cables used on sailing ships. 5. and the habitats of grizzly bears. Finding the plot of a short story 4. An area the size of New York City is lost every day. If these paper products could be produced in some other way. According to its proponents. Nowadays. that adds up to 31 million hectares -. insect or animal become extinct every day due to logging. Checking the date of “Fall of Bataan” in the history book. You are given 2 minutes read the selection. Every second. including diagrams. oils. Recently. so the government is reluctant to restrict or control it. wolves and many other creatures are threatened. That's equivalent to two football fields. Look for examples. thirteen rainforest valleys have been clear cut. for example. ships' cables are usually made from wire or synthetic fibers. Look for highlighted words. Looking up the meaning of a word in the dictionary 3. *Skimming or scanning? 1. but scientists are now suggesting that the cultivation of hemp should be revived for the production of paper and pulp. however. Locating the telephone numbers of a pet shop in a directory. Look for numbers. four times as much paper can be produced from land using hemp 9 . For centuries. Reading a newspaper 2.more than the land area of Poland. fuel. Canadian forests could be preserved. Hemp has been cultivated by many cultures for thousands of years. profits. In British Columbia. scientists estimate. food. since 1990. According to the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association. and rope. ex: dates and statistics. a possible alternative way of producing paper has been suggested by agriculturalists and environmentalists: a plant called hemp. It produces fiber which can be made into paper.

This second group has had a major triumph recently: in 1997. One group of activists believes that ALL cannabis should be legal -.both the hemp plant and the marijuana plant -. Although both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp in large quantities on their own land. resulting in the eventual banning of the cultivation not only of the plant used to produce the drug.despite the fact that marijuana cannot be produced from the hemp plant. related to the plant from which marijuana is produced.and that the use of the drug marijuana should not be an offense. hundreds of farmers are planting this crop. However. Canada legalized the farming of hemp for fiber. two major movements for legalization have been gathering strength. For the first time since 1938. and many environmentalists believe that the large-scale cultivation of hemp could reduce the pressure on Canada's forests. there is a problem: hemp is illegal in many countries of the world. In recent years.Study and Thinking Skills rather than trees. is a species of cannabis. and soon we can expect to see pulp and paper produced from this new source. so useful for fiber. The other legalization movement is concerned only with the hemp plant used to produce fiber. oil. any American growing the plant today would soon find himself in prison -. a movement to ban the drug marijuana began to gather force. Questions #1 The main idea of paragraph one is: Scientists are worried about New York City Logging is destroying the rainforests Governments make money from logging Salmon are an endangered species The main idea of paragraph two is: Canadian forests are especially under threat Hemp is a kind of plant Canada is a major supplier of paper and pulp Canada produces a lot of hemp The main idea of paragraph three is: 10 . this group wants to make it legal to cultivate the plant and sell the fiber for paper and pulp production. but also of the commercial fiber-producing hemp plant. and that it is used by large numbers of people who are not criminals but productive members of society. fuel and textiles. In the late 1930s. rope. They argue that marijuana is not dangerous or addictive. since it contains almost no THC (the active ingredient in the drug). This plant. They also point out that marijuana is less toxic than alcohol or tobacco.

many people have been working to legalize hemp Hemp was made illegal in 1938 Marijuana is not a dangerous drug For Scanning: Questions: (Refer to the same selection) 1. What equipment on a ship was made from hemp? Ropes waterproof cloth engine fuel 11 .Study and Thinking Skills Paper could be made from hemp instead of trees Hemp is useful for fuel Hemp has been cultivated throughout history Hemp is essential for building large ships The main idea of paragraph four is: Hemp is used to produce drugs Many famous people used to grow hemp It is illegal to grow hemp Hemp is useful for producing many things The main idea of paragraph five is: Hemp should be illegal because it is dangerous Recently. How many species of salmon have become extinct in BC? 27 31 137 142 2. How much of the world's newsprint paper is supplied by Canada? 31% 49% 34% 19% 3.

"Every second.  Examples: (from the selection) 1. however." What does "clearcut" mean? a) a few trees have been cut down b) many trees have been cut down c) all the trees have been cut down 3. "Logging. "In British Columbia. 1 hectare of the world's rainforest is destroyed. Where was hemp farming recently legalized? the USA Canada Singapore the Netherlands A.  Are clues derived from the meaning of words co-occurring with the unknown word. 142 species of salmon have already become extinct. What drug can be obtained from a relative of hemp? cocaine heroin amphetamine marijuana 5. taxes for the government and cheap products of all kinds for consumers." What does "equivalent to" mean? a) more than b) less than c) the same as 2. That's equivalent to two football fields. profits. Vocabulary Building: Contextual Clues Contextual clues – are words or phrases in the text acting as clues to the meaning of a difficult term in the selection. so the government is 12 . provides jobs. since 1990.Study and Thinking Skills life rafts 4. thirteen rainforest valleys have been clearcut. where.

" What does "reluctant" mean? a) doesn't want to b) is not allowed to c) would like to 4. "According to its proponents." What does "activists" mean? a) people trying to change something b) people against the government c) people who smoke marijuana Types of Contextual Clues 1." What does "proponents" mean? a) people who are against something b) people who support something c) people in charge of something 5. four times as much paper can be produced from land using hemp rather than trees.Study and Thinking Skills reluctant to restrict or control it. "One group of activists believes that ALL cannabis should be legal. a movement to ban the drug marijuana began to gather force. 13 . Semantic Clues  Are clues derived from the meaning of words co-occurring with the unknown word." What does "gather force" mean? a) appear b) get stronger c) get weaker 6. Example: The register is the book in which the names of the people are kept. Types:  Definition Clue – a word maybe directly defined in the context. "In the late 1930s.

It was as buoyant in the air s a cork is in the water. Syntactic Clues – are contained in the grammar of our language. Example: Lucy’s unusual timidity bothered her parents. especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by association. she is very diligent. They were bothered why she would not even want to talk to any visitor and would rather lock herself to her room. on the contrary. Example: She is not lazy to study. her teachers were complaining too. 2. pronoun. 3. which is a large African antelope. we saw a gnu. Kelp and other kinds of seaweeds can be made into food. In school. It tells how words in the sentence are used whether the word is a noun. an action word etc. Example: Euthanasia. is a very controversial issue. mercy – killing in plain language.  The Appositive Clue – an appositive may offer a synonym or description of the word. Examples: A habitat of species is important for everybody needs a place to live in. Examples: have do make 14 .  Comparison or Contrast Clue – it may give away the word’s meaning.  Explanation Clue – the succeeding sentences may provide explanations that may clarify the meaning of an unknown word in the previous sentence. Collocation and Completion Collocation is a familiar grouping of words.Study and Thinking Skills At the zoo. At last the balloon took off.

Study and Thinking Skills have a bath have a drink have a good time have a haircut Take take a break take a chance take a look take a taxi Pay pay a fine pay attention pay by credit card pay cash Come come close come complete with come direct come early Miscellaneous Time bang on time dead on time early 12th century free time from dawn till dusk do business do nothing do the shopping do your hair Break break a leg break a promise break a window break the rules Save save electricity save energy save money save one's Go go abroad go astray go bad go bald make furniture make money make progress make trouble catch catch a ball catch a bus catch a chill catch a cold keep keep a diary keep a promise keep a secret keep in touch Get get a job get a shock get angry get divorced Business English annual turnover bear in mind break off negotiations cease trading Classifiers a ball of string a bar of chocolate a bottle of water a bunch of carrots a cube of sugar 4. alumni. Faulty Diction  refers to the wrong use of words.  You must use words according to their recognized meaning. alumna. alright 15 . adopt. adept affect. effect alumnus. except adapt. alumnae all right.  Examples: accept.

a. wolves prefer meat. erased 2. repeat b. always seeking and enjoying the company of others. end b. intelligent c. a. The dean is a gregarious person. Attempts to solve the problems were sporadic. a. a. 1. I will reiterate it now. Like all carnivorous. mean b. excellent b. Choose the letter only. careful 4. The meticulous professor checked the test papers herself. bright b. Ecumenism could herald a new kind of Christian brotherhood. The housing project was meant to alleviate the miserable housing condition of the poor. Snow White and Cinderella are characters 2. happy b. changed c. a. 1. mythical 16 . scattered 3. tough c. Nobody dared to stay in that haunted house. a. Maria Makiling. Pull the taffy as elastic as rubber band. inborn c. I told you about my plan already. sociable c. explain 5. The witness gave a wrong statement. lessen 7. ask c. You tell his innate characteristics. rough Exercise 2 – Read the sentences and carefully note the underlined words. a. worsen c. good 8. disapproved b. seaweed-eating animals 10. The lawyer refuted it. a. a.Study and Thinking Skills Exercises: Exercise 1 – Determine the meaning of the underlined words by using context clues. allow 6. bad b. introduce c. Then do the matching exercise that follows. flexible b. meat-eating animals c. a. plant-eating animals b. spontaneous c. not the acquired ones. but. strict 9.

He was made to explain a vague statement in the report. the telephone beside his bell rang. A recycling system would turn garbage into animal food. ____ abroad 9. obesity a. 5.” Then he put the phone down and went back to sleep. Jones was asleep in his hotel room. recycling ____ 4. picked up the phone and said. haunted ____ 3. Mr. 3. ____ astray Underline the appropriate word according to their recognized meaning: LANGUAGE FOCUS: Sentences/Fragments Processing Activities: Puzzle Story In the middle of the night while Mr. do 1. ____ prepared 10. The reducing pills seem to be of no effort. vague ____ 5. d. e. ____ by credit card 7. ____ in touch 8. 2. Jones woke up. c. B use again in another form not clear imaginary excessive fatness A frequent resort of host Exercise 3: Choose from the box the correct word that would complete each phrase. mythical ____ 2. His main health problem is his obesity. 5. Can you guess who called him? Phrase Answers: 17 .Study and Thinking Skills 3. 4. A ____ 1. “hello. 4. b. Exercise 4: have take break keep save pay come get go ____ a record ____ someone’s place ____ divorced ____ lunch ____ money 6.

The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery.action)  Simple Predicate . Tourists view beautiful sceneries around the world.the sentence consist of one action only  Compound Predicate .the sentence contains all the subject including modifiers Predicate – it describes or tells something about the subject. In. 7. 9.Study and Thinking Skills 6. 7. or idea doing or being something. Dancing keeps the body supple. Subject – is a person. it has to have a subject and a predicate. The man carefully drives the car. (what the subject does. I find a second self. Aerobics is a system of exercise. The parents and their children pray the rosary together. 8. 6. The American Dictionary is kept in the library. 5. 2. 10. thing.the sentence consist of two actions  Complete Predicate . Sentence • • • It is a word or group of words that express a complete thought. 4. my friend. Honesty with one self pays dividends of courage Examples: Compound subject/predicate 1. the front desk clerk making a wake up call the hotel manager his wife his business partner The man occupying the adjacent room called him.the sentence contains all the subject including modifiers Examples: Simple subject/predicate 1. His wife called him. place. 9. The specter of spiraling costs of commodities and services looms large and menacing. The hotel manager called him. 3. 8. The attendant spoke to the guests. 18 . In order to express a complete thought. 3. 2.the sentence consist of two subjects (doers)  Complete Subject . (doer)  Simple Subject – the sentence consist of one subject only (doer)  Compound Subject . Sentence answers: 1.

5. Fish is bought and sold in the market. 8.  Examples: • Eating in the Batalan under the moonlight • By helping others in need • Baptized on March 4.Study and Thinking Skills 2. 7. Divide you’re your paper into two columns. Forest rangers talked about the kaingineros. The scented roses have not been the same. 3. The hotel guests promised to come back. Illegal logging may have been practiced in Mindanao. 5. 3. They met on the beach and talked to bygone days. carelessly punctuated as grammatically complete sentence. The nine-hectare demonstration farm uses limited quantities of water. Write F if the group of words is a fragment and S if it is a sentence. Analyze the statements below. 8. Identify the subject and the predicate in each sentence. The subject and the predicate are structurally the mainstays of the sentence. usually a phrase. 9. Cops are perceived and suspected to be involved in hanky-panky. Some people can’t avoid exploiting their environment to satisfy their greed. 4. 6. 6. Exercise 2. Write the subject on the first column and write the predicate on the second column. The ruthlessness of their attacks on the cities and the atrocities committed led to the complete mobilization of the people. The mourners broke up and walked slowly away. 7. 1663 • The man standing under the tree EXERCISES Exercise 1. They have been tested by Israeli and Filipino scientists. The farm features two specially-designed greenhouse. 4. The car blew the front tire and crashed into the concrete wall. 10. 9. a clause. 2. 1. 19 . Samal Garden City seems like little paradise. Unique Christmas Lanterns will be on display and will be up for sale. 10. Sentence Fragments  Is a sentence part. The huts were seen by the hotel guests. The ring and the bracelet were lost.

14. 7. 3. The bracelets of luck are lines on the wrist. The underlined clauses in the sample sentences written above. Crossing the deep blue sea. The man who has done his best has done everything. 9. Most of the ballot boxes have been brought to the city hall. These pieces are so beautiful to be used as mats. 4. stocks shall be under of property custodian in the central storeroom the custody 3. The necessary use of water has been repeatedly emphasized. When two sentences are combined. 5. and alignments uniformity of all tables there is in the set up 2. The doctors have uncovered the cause of the disease. 12. Make necessary capitalization (2 points each) 1. 10. 6. 15. 9. 8. Arrange the jumbled words and/or phrases to form an effective sentence.Study and Thinking Skills 1. 11. 4. Cutting trees indiscriminately in the forest. Loving is learning. Would you mind closing the door? 2. that operate below are usually 6. Exercise 4. Most women have sloping lines. Ambition destroys its possessor. and sanitized all are clean utensils 7. While Kaye was looking at the parade 8. The collector tried to restore the large broken shell. A survey of clinical trials shows that garlic lowers cholesterol level. The stars indicating restrictions and difficulties. 6. A person with a relatively clear palm. must be cleared to avoid losses as soon as possible soiled dishes 8. 10. 1. Underline the Simple Subject once and encircle the Simple Predicate in the following sentences. A long heart line shows an outgoing nature. The orchids under the shade do not bloom as much as those in full sunlight. The cool colors of young plants have been placed in canvas by the artist. Look at the diagram of a palm. To spend the day in luxury 7. Exercise 3. 13. 3. usually happens of food and beverages 20 . The hungry leopard leapt at the photographer. 2. 5.

Note Taking . calculated based is usually of waiters on the productivity ratio the number this problem when the quality falls short 9. .The best notes are as brief as possible without missing any vital points.General Guides: 21 . is under in big hotels room service a separate section is the recording of important items of information for future use. . each banquet function by a banquet captain is usually supervised LESSON 3 GATHERING INFORMATION A. with voluminous usually have expanded and complex operations outlets divisions 5.Study and Thinking Skills food outlets acceptable standards handicapped 4.

On the top level.  Example. and this uses more energy. burns petrol Exercises: Here are two passages.Study and Thinking Skills  Read carefully all headings to understand the purpose of the writing and its organization.  If the material is not difficult. Main idea: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Minor ideas : _________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ 2. and trains that carry people around the city. • • Main ideas – cold climate.  Make use of a topic sentence to find and understand the main ideas for your notes.  Identify main from minor ideas. more energy used in winter Minor (supporting) ideas – shorter days. It comes from various forms of traffic such as cars. read a section through then take notes as you re-read it. An elderly woman missed her step because she could not get through the crowd to the door and now the bus could barely creep up the steep hill. The staircase leading to the top level have people in it. buses. take the notes as you read. 1. Notes should only contain key words (important words)  If the material is difficult. three people were sitting in seats designed to hold two. Separate the main idea from the supporting points then reduce the number of words in each sentence. It was soon clear that the bus was overcrowded. people talking. use lights longer – lower temps. use of energy increases during the winter. And furthermore. 22 . there are noises of people and animals such as crowds cheering. In large cities anywhere. so more petrol is used or consumed. noise pollution is difficult to avoid. And people use cars more often in cold weather. take notes of them. needed heated buildings – cars used more in cold. and dogs barking. Days are shorter so lights must be used for longer hours. Lower temperature mean that buildings must be heated. In colder climates. Planes also cause noise as they land and take off.

Types:  Topic Outline – ideas are presented in words or phrases • It is more practical because it is more economical in terms of space.Guides for making an outline: 1. Outlining . Use Roman numerals (for traditional method). And helps you organize the ideas and information you collected from different reading materials. 5. time and effort.sub point of main topic 1. 3. Arabic numerals (1. . Example: (Topic Outline – Traditional)) Major Aspects of Aids I.1 for Modern Method) to label subdivisions of details. Use a complete sentence for each item in a sentence outline. . Transfusions -------. 2. Arabic numerals (for Modern Method) to label the main point. 4. .The data are grouped into major and minor ideas and each type of idea is numbered differently from the other type to show that. .1. still. single word for topic outline.An outline or hierarchical outline is a list of related items arranged hierarchically to depict their relationships. and punctuate exactly as shown in the models. -for Modern Method) to label chief sub points.  Sentence Outline – ideas are presented in sentences .1. Indent. though the minor points are under the major points. Non-sexual 23 . Use capital letters (for traditional method). Body fluids --------.sub point of main topic B. Use Arabic numerals (for traditional method).Drawing up an outline allows you to think before you write.It is the skeletal framework of a paper.Study and Thinking Skills Main idea: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Minor ideas : _________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ B. there exists a certain degree of difference between them. capitalize. Transmittal of AIDS (Main Point) A. Arabic numerals (1. Sexual 2.

3. AIDS babies C. Overburdened health care 3. Epidemic disease pattern 2. Other viruses EXERCISES Exercise 1. Read the selection carefully. Teenagers ---------detail about A 2.2. HIV virus C. Transmittal of AIDS organize your understanding about the selection by using the topical outlining . Women 3. Homosexuals B.1. Epidemic disease pattern 1. 24 .1. AZT B. Overburdened health care III.1. Transfusions 1.2.Study and Thinking Skills II.3. AZT 3. HIV virus 3. AIDS babies 2. Sexual 1. Increased homophobia 2.2 Non-sexual 2. Homosexuals 2.1. Societal Consequences of AIDS 2. Body fluids 1.2.1.Traditional Method.1. Increased homophobia D.2.4. Societal Consequences of AIDS A. Then. Research Solutions to AIDS 3.1. Teenagers 2. Research Solutions to AIDS A. Other viruses (Topic Outline – Modern Method) Major Aspects of Aids 1.2 Women 2.

fire towers and oil wells? These features appear on aerial maps or maps pilots use to guide them in their flight. Today maps are still based to some extent on observation.  Omit ideas that are not important  Study your summary to make sure that all necessary ideas have been included and all unnecessary ones omitted. Map making begun with primitive man drawing rough sketches on the ground. Exercise 2. Even being tall can help a person succeed. Can you imagine what kind of map would show things like railroad tracks. accurate restatement of speaker’s or writer’s words. Then.  The summary may approximately be one third of the original. they were incomplete as well. in your own words. From the sky. the underlings work below. Astronauts use celestial maps chart their position in space. In early times. maps had to be based only on what man had observed. organize the items according to topics and write them in outline form in the blanks.  Steps:  Read first the selection carefully and list down the basic/important ideas. .Study and Thinking Skills Kinds of Maps You are probably familiar with maps you see in school to study history and current events. These are called political maps because they show the boundaries of the different countries. football fields. Since methods of measuring and recording these observations were not very advanced. many of the maps were inaccurate. Read the selection carefully. Studies have shown that employers are more 25 .  A summary is a lot shorter and contains fewer details than its original. You have probably seen a driver of a car pull out a road map showing the lay out of streets and highways. put these basic ideas in as few words as possible. a set of railroad tracks is a welcome clue to a lost flier. Use the Modern Method. Summarizing – it is the restating something more concisely than it was originally stated.  Following the author’s process of is a brief. Executive offices are usually on the top floors. condensing and choosing words that would encompass these ideas. C. Because of undiscovered land.  Example: Height connotes status in many parts of the world. But photography and telescope astronomy now produce accurate maps for any traveler. Seamen use navigation maps to steer their ships. or even used one for yourself.

One student found that only 3 percent of the signals among rhesus monkeys were not accompanied by gestures. Topic sentence: “Height connotes status in many parts of the world. those in top positions within a company are more likely to work on the top floors of office buildings (Locker. every extra inch of height brought in an extra $1. In the Eyes of a Child 26 . Write a summary paragraph of the selection. Studies of real-world executives and graduates have shown that taller men make more money. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous positions in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game. “In the eyes of the child”. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves. it is almost universally associated with success. In one study. Further. 'At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls.300 a year. 3.” Main point: “Executive offices are usually on the top” Main point: “being too big can be a disadvantage” Summary: Though height may connote slowness to some people.Study and Thinking Skills willing to hire men over 6 feet tall than shorter men with the same credentials. Exercises: Write a summary paragraph of the following passages: 1.” Main point: “Even being tall can help a person succeed. brawny football player complained that people found him intimidating off the field and assumed he "had the brains of a Twinkie. For example. or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. 2003). Animals’ communicative activities thus differ from human language in that they consist essentially of signs not arbitrary symbols. Vocalizations that might be construed as symbols of various sorts in different animals are usually accompanied by gestures. damage stadiums. But being too big can be a disadvantage. taller men are more likely to be hired and to have greater salaries. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off. Whatever animals express through sounds seems to reflect not a logical sequence of thoughts but a sequence accompanying a series of emotional states. A tall. in the business world. 2. often behind the referee's back.

I heard thumping on the door.. Regaining my composure. There he wrote in gothic letter: The Seven Wonders of the World: 1. “Ate. “How could such an innocent little child fathom such things in life? Trying hard to push back my emotion to the farthest 27 .Study and Thinking Skills It was well past 10:00 P. I went home late again. I felt a twinge of guilt as his words lingered in my thoughts. I immediately dismissed the thought and moved toward the nearest couch and plopped myself into it to rest. FUN 6. I thought.. WISDOM 5. But feeling adamant. I was about to close my eyes when I remembered our hematology project which was due the next day. It was Michael. My attention was so glued at the computer screen that my brother had to nudge me and pull the tip of my blouse to get my attention.” I snatched the paper from him and looked over his written assignment without saying a word. The harrowing news of my parent’s marriage annulment began echoing in my head again.” My brother’s words didn’t seem to filter through my mind at first. I struggled to lift my weary bones to get up and set out for the computer situated on the other side of the room. but there’s something I want to show you. JOY 4. The wind was whishing overheads as I walk through the door of our home. LOVE 2. I sighed a few times and continued to polish my school work. The next day. FRIENDSHIP 3.” he began. I could not believe what my seven year old brother just scribbled on paper. PEACE 7. FAMILY I stood there stunned and speechless as the words make their way into my brain. When I was about to turn off the lights. when I came home from a grueling day of school work and extra-curricular activities. “I know you are busy. All I wanted was to get rid of him and finally get some rest. it’s about Seven Wonders of the World and …” “Look. Michael’s words fiddled in my mind. I convinced myself that the urgency of my work seemed more important to me than my brother’s. Defeat and exhaustion filled my frame as I laid back against the soft cushions. I was wondering if you…well. I felt a wave of jolt sweep over me. not right now. I am busy” I snapped while ticking on the keyboard. I was just wondering if my classmate was right when he said that my assignment was wrong. Suddenly. For a moment.M. “You’re always like that! You’re no different from mom and dad!” he wailed stomping back into his room. I went straight to my room to change my clothes for the night. can you help me with my assignment? Mom was here this afternoon but she was too busy packing her clothes to even mind me. “You see. Just then my little brother Michael in Osh Kosh overalls dashed out of his room and headed straight at me.

pp. I said” as I whisked away the tears trickling down my cheeks. 16-16) D. Hungry?. 2. someday they will. Asking Information or Confirmation A: B: A: B: A: B: A: A: B: A: B: A: B: Conversation A Single? Double. October 2006. it’s not. Rising-falling intonation – is used simply to invite confirmation of something that the speaker already knows. why are you crying? Is it really wrong? No baby brother. (Health and Home. I didn’t notice the tears welling up in my eyes and threatening to flow down my cheeks. The real meaning of peace is not clearly defined. key? key? Key. Conversation C Cup of coffee? Milk? Coffee. he just deed as he was told. Milk? No! A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: Conversation B locked? locked. is it? 2. He didn’t say a word. I hugged him tightly then gestured him toward his room. Peace springs from within. Ate. Sure? Take it. Okey? Okey. Double? Yes. When the first statement is negative.Study and Thinking Skills recesses of my mind. doesn’t it? 28 . the tag phrase is affirmative Examples: 1. I paused for a moment and gently closed the door. cone? cup. How a Tag question is Transformed 1. I wished my parents were here so they could read what Michael wrote. Rising Intonation – is used when a question is asked. Information Question Patterns/Tag Questions The intonation pattern of tag questions vary according to the speaker’s intention. Perhaps. the tag phrase is negative. This is the other set of answers most people don’t know. When the first statement is affirmative. Pardon? Black please. Conversation C Apple? Starved.

A. We need to avoid persons afflicted with AIDS. ________ Exercise 2. 3. Exercise 3: A. It will not lead to new conflicts. You’re always like that. wasn’t I? 2. don’t we? EXERCISES: Exercise 1. did they? B. It must be rooted. 1. Michael wrote the Seven Wonders of the World in gothic letters. The Rising Intonation 1. World peace must be born of the spirit. Change the following statements to affirmative simple questions. ____________ 7. _________ 3. I didn’t notice the tears welling up in my eyes and threatening to flow down my cheeks. I was just wondering if my classmate was right. 1. _________ 4. You will promote justice and peace. Good leaders establish laws based on God’s laws. did he? 2. aren’t you? 5. did they? 5. The students did not understand the lesson. It does not bring any good to anyone. Nations and leaders must be governed by God’s laws. guarded and preserved in the soul. Michael’s sister realizes that she really loves him. Mutual interests and aspirations strengthen universal solidarity. ______ 10. Universal solidarity will help us escape this mess. Nations must be ruled with kindness. ________ 6. Justice gives to each what is hers or hers. All humans don’t give love to all. ________ 9. Some teenagers who turned 18 did not register for 2010 elections. Pope Pius XII didn’t speak of peace for the world. 5. don’t they? 5. 2. ________________ 2. Get a partner and read the sentences in A and B which illustrate two ways of expressing the tag question. 4. doesn’t she? Rising-falling Intonation 1. didn’t he? 3. Supply for the tag questions in the following statements. Personal peace is important. It cannot be achieved without social peace. nurtured. Nations and leaders must be governed by God’s laws. Understanding does not lead to greed and social disintegration. It precludes economic and social conditions. 29 . did he? 4. did I? 3. will you? 4. He didn’t say a word. _______ 5. I struggled to lift my weary bones to get up. didn’t I? 4.Study and Thinking Skills 3. _________ 8.

was. Change sentences in Exercise 3A into negative simple questions. • Example: action: rum. dance. Exercise 1 – Identify the root words. He likes pizza. dictionary adequately addition spacious natural 6. gracefully 30 . remain • Forms of verbs We like pizza 1. They liked pizza. 8. S-form She eats pizza.The part of speech that expresses action. look.Study and Thinking Skills B. He is hungry. knowledgeable. condense. 5. inform. 9. or state of being. liking 4. swim. Present participle (-ing form) eating being liked 5. teach. Write the base word. knowing. 4. serviceable. Base form I eat pizza I am/ they are hungry. 1. gracious. 7. 1. 2. 2. Language Focus: Verb • Verb . excessive interview government independent maladjustment Exercise 2 – All the words in each number are built on the same base word. He was/they were hungry. disservice 2. Past Participle eaten been Vocabulary Building: Structural Analysis (Identifying Root words)  Root words – a word which other words are formed by adding beginning part or an ending part. were. density. unknown 3. sway State of being: is. become. condensation 5. 3. 10. am. deserve. Past form She ate pizza. are. 3. deformity 4. uniform. disgraceful. eat.

Study and Thinking Skills Exercise 3 – The words are all but one are built on the same word. request. refinish 4. or plea. busybody LESSON 4 GIVING AND FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS Imperative Sentence .It expresses a command. carrying. 1. finely. 31 .The subject you is not stated which is represented by an interaction between persons: the speaker and the listener. carrier. unrefined. perilous. business. period. bushy. Find the word that has a different base word. provide. imperil 2. . reprove. career 5. approval 3.

/Go back. Go along … Cross … Take the first/second road on the left/right It's on the left/right. sisters. Turn left/right (into …-street). race Promote genuine harmony among Brothers. Turn back. Sow the seeds of peace Allow no barrier: creed. junction signpost 32 . straight on opposite near next to between at the end (of) on/at the corner behind in front of (just) around the corner traffic lights crossroads. and nations 2. Come. religion. let us all unite and Bond together as we Enrich the world with diversity and uniqueness Be happy under God’s care And love for all humankind Word List (Asking for and Giving Directions) How do I get to …? What's the best way to …? Where is …? Go straight on (until you come to …).Study and Thinking Skills Examples: 1.

With every step I take. 33 . 3.) 1. ______ at the next corner. Selected Activity: (Group Singing) Let There be Peace on Earth Let there be peace on earth And let it begin with me. 4. With God as our Father. Excuse me. please? 2. Let there be peace on earth. Let this be my solemn vow. Let me talk with my brother In perfect harmony. The post office is ______ the cinema. where is the post office. there _______. Let this be the moment now. To take each moment and live each moment in peace eternally. Brothers all are we. The peace that was meant to be. Let peace begin with me. 5.Study and Thinking Skills What's the best way to the post office? (Use the map for orientation. Then ______ until you come to the traffic lights.

between. 8. by way of. How can you promote peace on earth/ 5. with.It links nouns. The book is beneath the table. spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table.for 12. Purpose . to under. Different relationships a preposition represents: 1. at the beginning of. from.for 9. . The book is leaning against the table.with 7. at the end of. of Prepositions of Time: at. To whom are these commands addressed? 3. by. out of. What id God’s plan for all his creation? 4. 10. and in 34 . Manner – by. in front of.Study and Thinking Skills Let there be peace on earth and let it begin with me. until. Direction – toward. Association . to 3. in 5. at. Agent – by.The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. The book is beside the table. on. . from. on. by. like 4. in. In the capacity of . Place or position – at. Processing Activity: 1. What are the commands expressed in the song 2. in 2. on.of 11. She held the book over the table. pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. What is the message Language Focus: Preposition Preposition – denotes different relationships. with 6. She read the book during class. during. Measure – by. . Time – before. By reason of . Accompaniment . into.A preposition usually indicates the temporal. Similarly .

Her house is on Boretz Road. a season. It's too cold in winter to run outside. and continents). And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns. 35 . inside. With the words home. we use no preposition. Durham is in Windham County. The train is due at 12:15 p. a month. countries. downtown. Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. We're having a party on the Fourth of July. We use in for nonspecific times during a day. Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition We use to in order to express movement toward a place. counties. We're moving toward the light. on. He started the job in 1971. states. use whichever sounds better to you. These are simply variant spellings of the same word. or a year. Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. They both went outside. downstairs. Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. She likes to jog in the morning. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. upstairs . They were driving to work together. We use on to designate days and dates. uptown. outside. She lives in Durham.m. He's going to quit in August.Study and Thinking Skills We use at to designate specific times. Prepositions of Place: at. This is a big step towards the project's completion. and in We use at for specific addresses. avenues. Windham County is in Connecticut. My brother is coming on Monday. etc. We use on to designate names of streets.

____ bed (due to sickness) 10. so we waited ________the restaurant _____one hour. 4 Ecoland 6. 5. The headquarters of the United Nations is 2. ____ March 2. 1. ______the airport we went to our hotel ____ bus. days. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty. ____ the graduates (divided the tasks) 9. Last summer I took a plane _____ Munich to Rome. In the most countries people drive New York. He held his breath for seven minutes. _______summer I like to travel _____ Italy. ____ March 8. hours. 2000 3. I'm Peter and I live _______ Germany. ____ two friends (secret) Exercise 2. Supply for the correct prepositions. because ____ the weather and the people there. months. She's lived there for seven years. minutes. Exercise 3. ____ Rizal Park 4. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions. EXERCISES: Exercise 1. The driver was walking ________the small park _______the restaurant which we did not know. Nobody could find the bus and the driver. ____ the rooftop 8. on or in 1. 36 . But my holidays were great. ____ 3 Jade Street. We stopped _____ a small restaurant for a quick meal. He's worked here since 1970. the right. We sat _______campfires and went dancing _______the early mornings. Fill in at. ____ San Pedro St. So we were very angry _________ him. We use since with a specific date or time. years).Study and Thinking Skills Prepositions of Time: for and since We use for when we measure time (seconds. ____ the bridge (pass through) 7. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. The driver parked the bus _______ the restaurant.

Put your hand in a classmate’s pocket. Stand behind the teacher. Write the name and address 10. Put the students into two teams and form them into two lines. Put your shoe on a desk. the front page of the envelope. In the theatre we had seats 9. the front row. You then give them the following commands and count the score on the whiteboard. Command Prepositions Game Introduction: This activity can be used as a review of prepositions. Say the word “over” 3 times. Hold a pencil between your legs. Put your hands over your ears and shout. You then give them the following commands and count the score on the whiteboard. Put your foot under a table.Study and Thinking Skills 3. Put your hands over your eyes. the window. the front page of the newspaper. Dance between two classmates. 4. Stand between two desks. Sing the X Song in front of a student. the Swiss Alps. It's dangerous to play football the west coast of the United States. San Francisco is my way to work. She spends most of the day sitting 7. Jump between two classmates. Put a kiss on the whiteboard. The report about the accident was 8. Sit on the floor. Look under a book. Put the students into two teams and form them into two lines. Write the teacher’s name on the whiteboard. Put a pencil in your shoe. Last year we had a lovely skiing holiday 6. I usually buy a newspaper 5. the streets. Put a pencil in a pencil box/bag. Take a book from a book bag. Vocabulary Building: Prefixes and Suffixes 37 . Write your name on the whiteboard. Stand behind a table/desk. Put your foot under a classmate’s foot. Command Prepositions Game 2 Introduction: This activity can be used as a review of prepositions.

inside under. b. b. volcano a. beneath later. 2. b. Mayon is a _______. chemistry a. postsubpreinterintraa. chemist. Suffix – a syllable or syllables added at the end of a word to form a new word with a different meaning. Exercise 1 – Choose the appropriate word to complete the meaning of the sentence. e. c. c. Thomas Edison is a _______. Column A 1. d. 5. When he was in college. b. electrician. e.a word part added to the beginning of a word. . his favorite subject is _______. 4. d. below. electricity a. Column B between. afterward Exercise 2 – Which prefix in Column A goes with a word in Column B? Column A 1. autotrimiscircumdisa. Column B understand navigate contented angle biography b. b. among before within. It is made up of one or more syllables. 4. _______ is the property of matter associated with atomic particles. 5. Mt. 3. 3. 1. Exercise 1 – Match each prefix in Column A with the correct meaning in Column B. An _______ is an expert in handling tools and instruments in relation to electricity. 38 2. 3. volcanologist. Prefix . 2. Mayon’s latest eruption.Study and Thinking Skills a. The _______ headed the group who investigated Mt.

a. Globes – are circular representation of the earth’s surface which can be very useful in the development of such concept bodies in space. _______ is an art of producing images of objects on sensitized surfaces by the chemical action of light. Exercise 2 – Add an appropriate suffix to make the word in the parenthesis fit the sentence. 5. 39 . pictures. and the like. The process of (digest) of food starts from the mouth. b. the comparative sizes of nations and continents. technologist a. A person skilled in (letter a) technology. charts or diagrams. b. of longitudes and latitudes.Study and Thinking Skills 4. of time relation and distance. (Distil) is one way of purifying water. LESSON 6 READING AND INTERPRETATION OF GRAPHIC MATERIALS Graphic materials – The term graphics is a Greek origin which refers to the art of expressing ideas by lines. 2. Maps and globes – Maps are flat representation and projections of the earth’s surface. ________ is the science of industrial arts and manufactures. One of it is (carbon). They are sometimes referred to non-photographic materials. 1. There should be a specified (admit) policy for students. photography a. 4. All living things undergo the process of (reproduce) 3. One who learns the technical details and special techniques of an occupation is a ________. 5. Chemical weathering is brought about by several processes. photographer.

c. There are types of charts – time chart. flow or organization. or pictures to visualize numerical and statistical data to show statistics or relationships. force. There are types of graphs: circle/pie graph. tree or stream chart. remain Principal Parts of verb tenses: 40 .Study and Thinking Skills b. lie. serve. condition or state of being in relation to the time of action and condition or state of being in relation to the time of speaking or writing. are. area graph. and comparison and contrast charts Diagram – is used to show the parts of a thing or stages of a process. were. interpretation. become.action verb – achieve. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Verb Tenses Tense – is a verb attribute that shows the time of the action. Charts and Tables – are diagrammatic presentations. walk.state of being or condition – is. They represent quantitative data for analysis. Graphs – are flat pictures which employ dots. am. give . was. line graph. and pictorial graph. d. lines. . and comparison. bar graph.

Believe it or not. laundress. formulate. after centuries since eve of “doing her thing. nanny.” that she deserves and needs. 4. Mother’s Day movies and other festivities dizzying one and all. Indeed. whatever the gift. At 84. In 1908. bringing. brings. the paragon of all mothers. As other Catholic-populated countries. In the Philippines. West Virginia. 3. started the crusade for the celebration of mother’s day in honor of her beloved mother. the best way to celebrate this sentimental day is to be with dear ever-youthful Mom. formulated. including Japan and China have also adopted the day as special occasion to remember mothers. In a growing number of households. answered The Present Progressive (V+ing) . a mother’s work is never done.” Mother was first honored just 75 years ago in the United States. arbiter. and adviser. commercial premiums. 5. then American President Woodrow Wilson officially proclaimed every second Sunday of May as Mother’s Day. not even after a child has grown up and has her own children. Mother’s Day in the Philippines assumes greater significance because it falls on the month of Blessed Mother Mary. With book launchings. Baring Definitely and indefinite harder than bearing a child is being a mother. Because of this. treasurer.takes. MOTHER’S DAY TODAY by Carmelita T. among other things. survive. brought. But her mission was successful. In most families through out the world. doctor. her fortune devoted to her crusade. Read the selection Mother’s Day Today and answer the questions that follow after the selection. formulating The Past Participle (has/have +V) EXERCISES: Exercise 1.Study and Thinking Skills 1. 41 . Today. showering her with “Thank You Kisses. living or dead. and the now popular Mother’s Day. are rolled into one unsalaried package. formulates. but lasts a lifetime. Asian countries. she is also a career woman and Father’s business partner. the lush and lusty month of May brings with its fruits and flowers the season of harvest and fiestas.taking. The Simple Form – take. mother is cook. most English and European nations follow the tradition. the true spirit of Motherhood is always felt but sometimes overshadowed. bring. Flores de Mayo and Santa Cruzan. For motherhood does not end after 9 months. she died penniless and nearly blind. survives. essay-writing contests. wherever the gift-giving takes place. 2. A certain Anna Jarvis of Grafton. cleaning-woman. whoever the giver. theater presentations. survived. answer The S – Form (V +s) . answers The Past Form – took. Miss Jarvis was 41 when her mother died and from thereon spent the remainder of her life to establish the second Sunday of May as a memorial to all mothers of the world.

From the selection. “Fret no longer. and ____ (go) continually to visit and inspect it. who. As a child. said. he _____ (weep) and tore his hair. the stone will do you as much good as the gold. the curiosity of one of the workmen. predictions. not on assumptions or on other’s predictions. as you never meant to use it. and generalization.  These inferences may be assumptions. MAKING PREDICTIONS  Is stating something about the future behavior or actions based on present or past actions or behavior. Exercise 3. But a neighbor who _____ (see) him in this extravagant grief. conclusions. In what month is Mother’s Day celebrated? 3. _____ (suspect) that there ____(be) a treasure. When the miser _____ (return) and ____ (find) the place empty. Are these roles being done by all mothers? Defend your answer.” LESSON 7 DRAWING INFERENCES (Making Predictions) DRAWING INFERENCES  Means sensing relationships that are not stated but implied by the author. and ____ (think) of it as your lump of gold. Processing Activity: 1. to make sure of his property.Study and Thinking Skills After all. _____ (go) to the spot and _____ (steal) it away. 2. how do you show your love to your mother? Exercise 2. and ____ (learn) the cause of it. Compare mothers of the 21st century from mothers during the olden times.  Predictions with high probability are based on facts. underline the predicates used and identify the tenses used. Enumerate the role of mothers in the selection. 4. A miser. sold all that he had and _____ (convert) it into great lump of gold. your mother may have just about the toughest job of all: loving a face that only she could love. but take a stone and ____ (put) it in the same place. list down 10 sentences. which he _____ (hide in a hole in the ground. This ____ (rise). Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in the parenthesis. Selected Reading: 42 .

Processing Activity: Group activity 1. While the eagle is the greatest of all birds. The eagle spent his whole life looking up at eagles. longing to join them among the clouds. he looked up a majestic bald eagle soar through the air. they responded. and clucked like a prairie chicken. He walked around. a prairie chicken found an egg and sat on it until it was hatched. igloo. ate garbage. abandoned for some reason. crude. prairie chickens are so lowly that they eat garbage. common 43 . When he asked his family what it was. old delicate – coarse. Unbeknown to the prairie chicken. Why did the little eagle act like a prairie chicken? 3. palace. latest. That’s how an eagle came to be born into a family of prairie chickens. condominium happy – jubilant. Why didn’t he try to fly? 4. soaring above the heights with grace and ease. the egg was an eagle egg. depressed.Study and Thinking Skills BORN TO FLY One day. But you could never be like that because you are just a prairie chicken. the prairie chicken doesn’t even know how to fly. One day. sad. Predictably. merry. The eagle died thinking he was a prairie chicken. modern. Ex: house – mansion. being raised in a family of prairie chickens. recent delicate – fragile Antonyms – are words with opposite meaning Ex: happy – gloomy. “It’s an eagle. joy. What happened to the little eagle at the end? 5. thought he was a prairie chicken. excited new – fresh. In fact. How can we be like the little eagle? Vocabulary Building: SYNONYMS Synonyms – are words that have nearly or similar meaning. It never once occurred to him to lift his wings and try to fly. disheartened. dipping and turning.” Then they returned to pecking on the garbage. What possible problems can you predict from the situation presented in the first paragraph? 2. the little eagle. lonely new – old-fashioned. aged.

victory – defeat Exercise 2. drowsy perilous manual ornament arrogant decoration dangerous Exercise 3. plain 3. 4. for 5. waste 4.decoration 5. new LANGUAGE FOCUS: Compound Words and Modals Compound Words – it is a combination of 2 or more words which are considered as one word.  Examples: One word eyesore underground overcome dreamland Hyphenated mother-in-law sister-in-law editor-in-chief attorney-at-law Separated back pay fruit salad safe house traffic jam 44 . optimist – pessimist 3. 1. 3. perilous – dangerous 4. made 2. Choose the synonym of the following words from the choices in the box hand-driven proud sleepy 1. 5. 2. ornament . Identify the homonym of the following words. fresh – stale 6.Study and Thinking Skills EXERCISES: Exercise 1. Arrogant – proud 2. or two word. Indicate whether the pairs of words are synonyms or antonyms 1.  It may be separated. hyphenated.

might. Modal Auxiliaries – are helping verbs which are used with the principal verb to express certain moods like ability. I can play piano. and conjecture. Example: I play piano. could EXERCISES: Exercise 1: Matching Type: Column A contains the first word and Column B contains the second word that will complete the first word to form a compound word. ought to and had better 3. inability. (possibility) I should play piano.use can’t and couldn’t 7. For permission – use may. requirement. To suggest obligation . For inability .use should. He can played piano yesterday. 45 . to suggest ability – use can (present ability) and could (past ability) 6. 2. 1. ALWAYS: He can play piano. willingness. permission. To suggest necessity . (obligation) Each modal above changes the IDEA of the verb.Study and Thinking Skills freeway chalkboard schoolhouse timetable thumbtacks outlay officer-of-the-day officer-in-charge lady-in-waiting baby carriage potato chips street car trash can extension cord American flag Modals – are little HELPERS to the VERB. Can is also colloquially used. FORM: Modals are ALWAYS used with the SIMLE FORM OF THE VERB: NEVER: He can plays piano He can playing piano right now. (expresses ability) I might play piano. Match Column A with Column B. obligation. (it’s a good idea to play) I must play piano. For desire or determination – use will 5. Write your answers before each number. They help change the IDEA of the VERB. To suggest possibility – use may. or the imperative – use must or have to 4.

gain b. causing serious 5. board h. 6. you objects lying around. _____________________ Column A chest hand card fore bar under straw mush handle ear Column B a. When you have a small child in the house. _____________________ 3. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out. I can't. can could have to must might should be 1.Study and Thinking Skills 1. You little more before you attempt the ascent. some e. bars j. berry Exercise 2: Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. _____________________ 5. head d. He get some rest. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It have cost a fortune. He exhausted after such a long flight. _____________________ 9. _____________________ 4. _____________________ 10. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. _____________________ 8. 4. ring k. Hiking the trail to the peak be dangerous if you are not well research the route a prepared for dramatic weather changes. If they don't get enough water. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. 7. _____________________ 7. ground l. Dave: you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No. fast c. Don't forget to capitalize when necessary. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 6. prefer to stay in tonight and 2. 46 . they die. room i. Such objects injury or even death. 3. you walk downtown and explore the waterfront. leave small be swallowed.

I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But we read it if we needed read it if we don't want to. I just say a few things in the language.  When the reader makes a conclusion. It be in there. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. 10. I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. But after we moved back to Canada.Study and Thinking Skills 8. The book is optional. 9. he makes a statement telling about the nature of an evidence or a fact. Selected Reading: Group singing "The Impossible Dream" (from MAN OF LA MANCHA (1972) To dream the impossible dream To fight the unbeatable foe 47 . LESSON 8 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS  Are statements based on written materials or observed facts. That's the only other place it be. Now. My professor said we extra credit. In doing so. he must see to it that his statement really consists of factual evidence instead of assumptions. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer.

Homographs – words that are spelled the same but different in meaning. What kind of person is he/ 3. Why is the dream impossible? 6. Who do you think is speaking in the song? 2. the home run he made 48 . tail – tale b. What does the speaker want to do? 5. made – maid. Does the speaker have the qualities of a hero? 4.  Cain – cane. scorned and covered with scars Still strove with his last ounce of courage To reach the unreachable star Processing Activity: 1. What other dreams are impossible aside from those mentioned in the song? Vocabulary Building: Using Contextual Clues – Linguistic signals a.  the run in my stockings.Study and Thinking Skills To bear with unbearable sorrow To run where the brave dare not go To right the unrightable wrong To love pure and chaste from afar To try when your arms are too weary To reach the unreachable star This is my quest To follow that star No matter how hopeless No matter how far To fight for the right Without question or pause To be willing to march into Hell For a heavenly cause And I know if I'll only be true To this glorious quest That my heart will lie peaceful and calm When I'm laid to my rest And the world will be better for this That one man. Some homographs sound the same. Homonyms or Homophones – words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings.

49 4. 1. Fill in the blanks. a part of he body with special function c. to prepare c. I forgot to dress the chicken a. We placed cream in our salad. _____ the _____ answer? 2. a musical instrument b. meat – meat He promised to _____ us in the _____ section of the market. he feels blue EXERCISES: Exercise 1. a.Study and Thinking Skills  his blue coat. 5. Complete the sentence by supplying the appropriate word on the blank. a publication You have to pass the bar to be a lawyer. to wear b. a. by – buy Did you ____ this for the two of us ____ yourself? plain – plane She wore a ____ dress which is required by the _____ attendant. 1. 3. exams for lawyers b. right – write Did you say. 3. 4. one must have enough capital. the best from the group She is the editor of our school organ. Choose between the given words before each number. . Exercise 2. to adorn 2. 5. milk b. knew – new We ____ there was a ____ hole near the garage. something that divides or blocks To start a business. a. Choose the meaning of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence. place offering liquor and drinks c. a kind of cosmetic c.

“Experience. Processing Activity: 1. Read the passage and find out how wrong decisions can help you learn better. How can you learn from your wrong decisions? 50 .Study and Thinking Skills a. How do I get experience?” “Wrong decisions. The young thought about that for a moment and said. I don’t have experience I need to make the right decisions.” was the gentleman’s terse answer. most important factor Exercise 3. that is very helpful. The promotion was far beyond his widest dreams and very frightening to him. “but sir. “Thank you very much. What was the advice of the old man? 6. Why did he ask for advice? Wasn’t he confident of his knowledge and experience/ 5. Are you afraid to make decisions? Why? 8. RIGHT DECISIONS A young man was appointed to the presidency of a bank at the age of thirty-two. “Make the right decisions. To whom did he go for advice? 4. “What is the most important thing for me to do as the new president?” he asked the older man. How young was the man when became the president of the bank? 2. official seat of government b. But can you be a bit more specific? How do I make the right decisions? The wise old man answered. so he went to the venerable old chairman of the board to ask for advice on how to become a good bank president.” Exasperated. that’s why I’m here. What were his feelings when he was first appointed president? 3.” came the old man’s reply. the young president said. money to invest in the production of more wealth c. How can the young banker’s experience be compared to your own experiences/ 7.

51 . deals with one point or gives the words of one speaker. usually indented line.  The sentence that expresses the main idea is the topic sentence. and typically deals with a single thought or topic or quotes one speaker's continuous words.  a subdivision of a written composition that consists of one or more sentences.which means that all sentences in the paragraph directly support the topic sentence.  A distinct division of written or printed matter that begins on a new. Unity/Oneness .Study and Thinking Skills LESSON 9 PARAGRAPH AND PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT PARAGRAPH  It is a group of related sentences joined together to develop one/single idea which is called the main idea which deals with the topic. Characteristics of a good paragraph 1. and begins on a new usually indented line. consists of one or more sentences.

they would not misuse the tools. the paragraph is disjointed and difficult to understand. Transition words and phrases. spatial order. If people felt they were a part of a team. Inductive and deductive c. The topic sentence indicates that the paragraph will deal with the subject of "employees' attitudes. and this is frustrating for students who would rather learn about other subjects. Management's attitude toward its employees should also be improved. Coherence. • Note that there are two main ideas presented in this paragraph. 3. logically ordered and easy to follow. As a result. Such a course might begin with a discussion of where to find employment. the writer should begin a new paragraph when the switch is made from employees to managers. If schools offered job-skills courses. students would be well prepared for the difficult task of finding a job once they finish school." but the paragraph shifts unexpectedly to the topic of "management's attitudes. Algebra and history don't help students with real-world needs. Managers treat workers like objects. or deliberately undermine the work of others. then cover resume writing and interviewing. Example: Schools should offer courses to help students with the problems of unemployment. 2." To achieve unity in this paragraph. which means that all the information of the paragraph is well-organized. • In this paragraph. Emphasis – it is making the important ideas stand out from the rest of the details. This is accomplished by: a.Study and Thinking Skills Example: Employees' attitudes at Jonstone Electric Company should be improved. Managers at Jonstone Electric act as though their employees are incapable of making decisions or doing their own work. not human beings. Arranging sentences reasonable – chronological order. the writer begins with the topic of job-skills courses. but veers off onto the topic of algebra and history before returning to the subject of courses on employment. 52 . Repetition of key words and phrases (often from the topic sentence) b. They are required courses that students aren't interested in. The workers do not feel that they are a working team instead of just individuals. order of importance.

the body of a paragraph explains. Supporting idea 3. 1. narrate. develops or supports with evidence the topic sentence's main idea or claim. 3. Many well-known. or detail the steps in an experiment do not usually need topic sentences.Study and Thinking Skills Process of Writing a Paragraph: 1. Topic Sentences • All paragraphs start out well with a topic sentence. perhaps most importantly. It may come. however. Compose your topic sentence. and not all paragraphs need a topic sentence. Topic sentences are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused. • Topic sentences are also useful to readers because they guide them through sometimes complex arguments.e. unified paragraphs (i. • Topic sentences help these writers develop a main idea or claim for their paragraphs.. 2. Think of a topic and a controlling idea that will narrow the topic enough to support it well in one paragraph. after a transition sentence. 3. Write your paragraph in topic outline form as follows. For example. • The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph. it may even come at the end of a paragraph.6 supporting ideas that do a good job supporting your topic sentence. 1. • A topic sentence is a sentence whose main idea or claim controls the rest of the paragraph. 2. Brainstorm supporting ideas. Supporting idea 2. 53 . • Topic sentences are useful. • Topic sentences are not the only way to organize a paragraph. experienced writers effectively use topic sentences to bridge between paragraphs. paragraphs that describe. for example. except for the topic sentence. Topic sentence: A. they help these writers stay focused and keep paragraphs manageable. 2. writers who tend to sprawl). B. Supporting idea 1. in paragraphs that analyze and argue. C. but not necessarily. 3. Choose 2 . and. Don't actually write sentences in the outline.

they learn to feel envy. If children live with security. they learn to have faith in themselves and in those about them. Concluding sentence: Reading Comprehension: Selection: “Children Learn what They Live” Children Learn What They Live By Dorothy Law Nolte. If children live with jealousy. If children live with shame. • Time and place and person are normally established. they learn to feel sorry for themselves. they learn justice. If children live with hostility. D. If children live with recognition. they learn truthfulness. they learn generosity. If children live with tolerance. 2. they learn to feel guilty. and a resolution. they learn to fight. they learn to feel shy. • Narration usually contains characters. It helps the reader understand the authors feelings. If children live with encouragement. a setting. 3. they learn confidence.Study and Thinking Skills 1. they learn to be apprehensive. they learn respect. If children live with ridicule. • A narrative differs from a mere listing of events. they learn to love. Narration • Best used by the author to describe personal experiences. If children live with kindness and consideration. If children live with sharing. 54 . If children live with acceptance. they learn the world is a nice place in which to live. • Normally chronological (though sometimes uses flashbacks) • A sequential presentation of the events that add up to a story. If children live with honesty. Ph. If children live with fear. they learn appreciation. they learn it is good to have a goal. they learn patience. If children live with pity.D. they learn to like themselves. a conflict. they learn to condemn. If children live with praise. Types of Paragraph Development 1. If children live with criticism. If children live with approval. If children live with friendliness. If children live with fairness.

a goal (to camp). the nights are filled with the busy. Exposition • • Exposition is explanatory writing· • Exposition can be an incidental part of a description or a narration. hundreds of visitors suffer each year. · 55 . Around 2 a. she was awake. something woke Charles Hanson up. a setting (the park). Across the distant forest floated two muffled hoots from a barred owl. What makes your explanation believable? This family was a victim of a problem they could have avoided-a problem that. It was gone. And light: At home he can read in bed by the glow of the streetlight. was outside in the darkness also breathed. He found where his pants were hanging and. too. hold her breath." Those people picked the wrong kind of park to visit. He lay in the dark listening. the key problem with exposition is credibility. something rustled in the leaves right outside the window. tree-frogs chirruped. Specific details always help a story. or it can be the heart of an article· • Aside from clarity. But it just wasn't the kind of place the couple from New Jersey had in mind when they decided to camp out on this trip through Florida. a climax (his panic). comforting sounds of traffic. It was then he decided to pack up and move to a motel. If they had known about the different kinds of parks in Florida. Wanda. At home in New Jersey. Something felt wrong. Then. inches from his face. and the huge silence of the night seemed to come inside the camper. and a resolution (leaving)." ranger Rod Torres of O'Leno State Park said. 2. as he felt the pockets for a box of matches. whatever. but so does interpretive language. the "story" components are: a protagonist (Hanson). He felt for the flashlight beside his bunk. Outside. You always have the comforting knowledge that other people are all around you. He heard his wife. Not that there was anything wrong with the park: The hikers camped next to them loved the wild isolation of it. according to Florida park rangers. "Several times a month. they might have stayed in a place they loved.m.Study and Thinking Skills • • In the example below. stifling them. It was the darkest dark he had ever seen. And much too dark. It was too quiet. an obstacle (nature). crickets sang. "people get scared and leave the park in the middle of the night. Even starlight failed to penetrate the 80foot canopy of trees the camper was parked beneath. It was too quiet.

Definition • Informal definitions of term to explain what it is the writer meant. tree-lined pool. object. paddle your canoe. • The success of a description lies in the difference between what a reader can imagine and what you actually saw and recorded O'Leno is a good example of a state park in Florida. slowly swirling. Surrounded by the tall. and. person." and even the ones called "parks" come in several varieties. etc. to impenetrable mangrove wilderness. 56 . "Park" is difficult to define in Florida. shaded woods of a beautiful hardwood forest. your comparisons will benefit. expanses of longleaf pinelands stretch across rolling hills. the Santa Fe River disappears in a large. camp. because there are so many kinds of parks. Be especially careful to make real observations. draw up a chart and fill it in. ranging from acres of RVs ringed around recreation halls. 5. • Before writing a comparison. you find 65 campsites. walk the dog. but what readers need to see in order to imagine the scene. sudden sinkholes open in the woodlands-rich with cool ferns and mosses. Comparison • Seeing how things are similar. Description • Describing the topic sentence to give a mental picture to the reader. cool waters of the Santa Fe. To make things more complicated. the river rises three miles downstream in a big boil. After appearing intermittently in scattered sinkholes. • There is a helpful technique for writing a comparison. In the midst of this lovely setting. If you follow it. then continues on to meet the Suwannee and the sea. hike. stands of cypress mirror themselves in the still waters. It is then supported throughout the paragraph. Florida has a rich variety of parks. in some places take rides in miniature trains or swish down a waterslide. 4. not all of them are called "parks.Study and Thinking Skills 3. A diving platform marks a good place to swim in the soft. 18 rustic cabins. Farther from the river. picnic. walls of dense river swamp rise before you. Basically. • Description requires you to record a series of detailed observations. Nearby. play tennis. or different. and canoeing up this dark river is like traveling backwards in time in the direction of original Florida. and a pavilion for group meetings. • Description is not what you see. a park is a place to go for outdoor recreation-to swim. to make certain you have all the elements necessary to write a comparison.

After you have all four poles in place. Process Analysis • Describing how a process happens or how to perform a series of actions. When you find the park you are looking for. jam boxes. Lift the pole on the opposite side of the tent in the same way. By contrast. there is a chance you will have a hole in your comparison. Place a pole near each of the pegs. Lloyd Beach is the place to go. 6. Where O'Leno gives you so much quiet you can hear the leaves whispering. O'Leno is the park to visit. and the criteria by which they will be compared. Put the steps into sequence. 57 . • Always think of your readers: can they follow this? • Analyze the process into a series of steps. When you walk at Lloyd Beach. so that the pole is held up by the guyrope and the pegs on opposing sides of the tent bottom. though it is easier with two. Lloyd Beach is busy with fishermen till well past midnight. Thread each pole through the two loops leading toward the top of the tent. You can walk a few yards in O'Leno and pass beyond every sign of human civilization. One person can set up the Family Proof Tent. snap together all four external tentpoles (they are held together by shock cords to ake sure you get the pieces matched up). Lloyd Beach State Recreation Area. Next. limbs. is dominated by the oily bodies of sun-worshippers who crowd into it every summer weekend. umbrellas. At night.Study and Thinking Skills • List the two items being compared. but this time. and browning bodies. you will need to make camp. Forest and river dominate O'Leno State Park. near Fort Lauderdale. If you want to fish near town. Then isolate the steps: number then. use bullets. yet almost impossible with three or more. you have to be careful to step over the picnic baskets. clear a 9 by 9 foot area of snags. put them in separate paragraphs • Use illustrations keyed to the steps when appropriate: people can often read diagrams better than they can read lists of steps. lift one of the poles. or dive into the busy bustle of an urban beach. If you do not make such a chart. O'Leno wraps itself with the silence of crickets and owls. pull its guyrope tight and peg the guyrope down. Lloyd Beach is a place of boisterous activity. Unfold the tent so that the corners of the waterproof bottom form a square. Here's how: First. fit it into the upper end of the standing pole before securing its guywire. But if you want to stand at the edge of civilization and look across time into an older natural world. While holding the pole up. Peg down the corners of the bottom. and anything that might pierce the bottom of the tent.

Don't wind up in the wilds when you want to be near Disney World. and context they need to form their own opinions. English Plus. CONSTEL Teacher Support Materials 58 . they will be glad they read your article. plan ahead.Study and Thinking Skills Assemble the two remaining tent poles in a similar manner. and don't wind up on a concrete RV pad when you really want the forest primeval. Communication skills: Improving study and thinking skills. al. Quezon City. Revised Edition. Katha Publishing Co. Patron. Ida Y. 2003. Casuyon Armida G. · Bibliography Alcantara. and what your options are. et. Inc. Private and Public Speaking. 1999. Rebecca D. · 7. unroll the front flap to form an awning. Rex Bookstore. 2001. Inc. and what they are like. Quezon City. Rex Bookstore. more is needed than your opinion or sense of conviction.. analysis. Finally. Rustica C. If you can help them formulate and deepen that opinion. Persuasion • To persuade people to change their minds or take an action. and take action. 2005. et. Prop up the awning with the two remaining poles and secure them with guyropes. Now you are ready to move in. 2005. • Remember: Readers are interested in only one opinion--their own. Esther. Manila. Get good information on what to expect. Baraceros. Great Books Publishing. • You need to supply them with the information. This can make all the difference in the quality of your vacation. Manila. Carpio. Essentials of English Grammar. al. Find out what parks are available. make their own judgments. Before you go camping in Florida. Manila: Rex Bookstore. English Plus: A Communicative Approach.

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