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Introduction to Physics

Aim Inference Hypothesis Variable To study the relationship between length and period of a simple pendulum The period of the oscillation depends on the length of the pendulum. When the length of the pendulum increases, the period of the oscillation increases Manipulated: the length of the pendulum Responding : Period Fixed :the mass of the pendulum Retort stand with clamp, 100 cm of thread, bob, meter rule, 2 blocks of clamp wood, protractor and stop watch.

Forces and Motion

Aim Inference Hypothesis Variable List of apparatus and materials To study the relationship between mass and period of oscillation Period of oscillation depends on the mass of the object The period of oscillation increases when the mass of the object increases Manipulated: mass of plasticine responding: period of oscillation Constant: no. of oscillation Hacksaw blade, stopwatch, plasticine and G-clamp

List of apparatus and materials

Arrangement

Arrangement

Procedure

Procedure

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure above. 2. Measure the length of the pendulum,l = 60.0 cm by using a meter rule. 3. Give the pendulum bob a small displacement 300.Time of 10 oscillations is measured by using a stop watch. 4. Repeat the timing for another 10 oscillations. Calculate the average time. Period = t10 oscillations 10 5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using l = 50.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 30.0 cm and 20.0 cm
Length, l (cm) 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 Time of 10 oscillations, t (s) 1 2 3 average Period, T (s)

1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. Plasticine with mass 50kg is clamped to the end of the hacksaw blade 3. The blade is displaced horizontally and released, and a stopwatch is started simultaneously 4. The time taken for 20 complete oscillations is recorded 5. The experiment is repeated twice 6. The period of oscillation is calculated 7. The experiment is repeated at mass of 100g, 150g, 200g and 250g
Mass m(g) 50 100 150 200 250 Time for 20 oscillations, t20 t1 t2 t3 aver age Period , T=t20/20 (s)

Period, T (s)

Period, T (s)

Length, l (cm) Aim

Mass, m (g)
To determine the relationship

between the height, h with the velocity, v for a trolley Inference The velocity of the trolley depends on the height from which it is released Hypothesis The velocity of the trolley increases when the release height of the trolley is increases Variable Manipulated: The height of the trolley, h Responding: Velocity of the trolley, v Constant: mass of the trolley List of apparatus and materials Wooden blocks of the same size, ticker-timer, trolley, ticker tape, wooden track and a power supply. Arrangement
Ticker tape timer
Trolley Ticker tape

Aim

To investigate the relationship between the force and acceleration of a trolley Inference The force applied affects the acceleration of an object. Hypothesis The greater the force, the greater the acceleration Variable Manipulated: Force Responding: Acceleration Fixed: Mass of the trolley List of apparatus and materials: Trolley, 5 rubber bands, friction compensated track, ticker timer, ticker tape, a.c. power supply, ruler
Arrangement
Ticker tape timer
Trolley Rubber band

Track

Procedure

Way tabulate data

1. The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram. 2. The trolley is then placed on the inclined track at a height of h = 10.0 cm from the surface of the table. 3. The power switch is switched on and the trolley released so that it rolls down the track. The power switch is switched off as soon as the trolley reaches the edge of the track. 4. Based on the ticker tape reading, the velocity of the trolley is calculated, taking into consideration the last 10 dots. 5. This experiment is repeated using values of h = 15.0 cm, 20.0 cm, 25.0 cm and 30.0 cm. 6. The corresponding values for v for every value of h are calculated. Height, h/cm Velocity, v/cm s -1 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0

Procedure

1. The ticker timer was switched on and the trolley pulled by 1 rubber band stretched to a certain length. 2. The acceleration of the trolley was calculated from the ticker tape obtained 3. Steps 5 and 6 were repeated with 2, 3, 4 and 5 rubber bands stretched to the same length

Way tabulate data Force, F /Number of rubber bands 1 2 3 4 5 Way analyze data
Acceleration a / cm s2

Acceleration, a / cm s2

Way analyze data

Velocity, V (cm/s1 )

Height h(cm)

Force F / N

Aim

To study the relationship between

the acceleration and mass of an object under constant force Inference Acceleration depends on mass Hypothesis The greater the mass, the greater the acceleration Variable Manipulated: Mass Responding: Acceleration Fixed: Force List of apparatus and materials: Trolley, friction compensated track, ticker timer, ticker tape, a.c. power supply, ruler
Arrangement
Ticker tape timer
Trolley Ticker tape Pull Track Elastic cord

List of apparatus and materials Arrangement

applied force The extension of a spring depends on the applied force The extension of a spring increases when the applied force increases Manipulated: the applied force responding: The extension of a spring Constant: the initial length of a spring Spring, slotted weight, retort stand and metre ruler

Procedure

1. Set up a friction compensated track. 2. Attach a ticker tape to the trolley and pass the tape through the ticker timer. 3. Pull the 1.0 kg trolley down the runway with the elastic cord kept stretched by the same amount of force. 4. Calculate acceleration by analysing the ticker tape. 5. Repeat by adding weights to the trolley so that the mass is 1.5 kg, 2.0 kg, 2.5 kg and 3.0 kg 6. Record data

Procedure

Way tabulate data Mass, m (kg) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Way analyze data
Acceleration a / m s2

1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. Record the initial length of spring, xi 3. A slotted weight of 10g is attached to the end of the spring. 4. The new position of spring is recorded, xf 5. The extension of spring is calculated as xf- xi 6. The experiment is repeated with 20g, 30g, 40g and 50g
Force, F (N) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Length of the spring, xf (cm) Extensio n X= xf- xi (cm)

Acceleration, a / m s2

Mass, m / kg

Force, F (N)

Aim

Forces and Pressure

Aim

To study the relationship between mass and pressure Inference The pressure depends on the mass Hypothesis The pressure increases when the mass increases Variable Manipulated: the mass of the object responding: the pressure/ depth of depression Constant: height of the steel ball List of apparatus and materials: Plasticine, weight and metre ruler Arrangement

List of apparatus and materials

Arrangement

To study the relationship between weight of water displaced and the buoyant force The buoyant force depends on the weight of water displaced The weight of water displaced equal to the buoyant force Manipulated: Buoyant force of object in water Responding: Weight of water displaced Fixed: Density of liquid used in eureka can Spring balance, load, eureka can, beaker, water, thread and triple beam balance.

Procedure

Way tabulate data

1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. Drop a weight of 50g on the surface of the plasticine 3. Measure the depth of depression made on the plasticine 4. The experiment is repeated with 60g, 70g, 80g and 90g Mass of weight, Depth, d m(g) (cm) 50 60 70 80 90
Depth, d (cm)

Procedure

Way tabulate data

1. Weight of empty beaker is recorded as Q1 2. A load P is suspended by a spring balance in air. 3. The read of the spring balance W1 is recorded. 4. The load is immersed completely in water in eureka can. 5. The apparent weight W2 is taken. 6. The water displaced is collected in a beaker as shown in the figure above. 7. Weight of beaker with the displaced water Q2 is recorded. 1. Weight of load in air = W1 2. Weight of load in water = W2 3. Weight of empty beaker = Q1 4. Weight of beaker with displaced water = Q2 1. Buoyant force = W1 W2 2. Weight of water displaced = Q2 Q1 3. It is found that W1 W2 = Q2 Q1, in other words, the weight of water displaced is equal to the buoyant force

Aim

List of apparatus and materials Arrangement

between volume and buoyant force The buoyant force depend on the volume of an object The higher the volume (or depth of iron bar/surface area) the higher the buoyant force Manipulated: Volume Responding: Reading of the spring balance (BF) Fixed: Volume of the water Measuring cylinder, a metal rod, spring balance and metre rule, beaker, water, retord stand

Inference

The size of the molecules of the material are small influences the force of capillary action. Hypothesis The smaller the size of the capillary tube, the stronger is the force of capillary action Variable Manipulated: diameter of capillary tube, d Responding: Height of liquid in the capillary tube, l Constant :volume of water List of apparatus and materials: micrometer screw gauge, metre rule, capillary tubes, beaker and coloured liquid.

Arrangement

Procedure

1.

Procedure

Way tabulate data

Procedure 1. The meter rule was clipped to the retort stand beside of the iron bar. 2. The volume of the iron bar is set at h = 20.0 cm3 3. The reading of the spring balance is recorded. 4. Step 2 and 3 is repeated for the height, h= 25.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 35.0 cm and 40.0 cm. Volume,V/cm3 Weight, W/N 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Way tabulate data

Measure diameter of the capillary tube, d = 0.02 mm with a micrometer screw gauge 2. Measure the height of liquid in the capillary tube, l with a metrerule 3. Repeat the experiment with d = 0.04 mm, 0.06 mm, 0.08 mm and 0.10 mm. Diameter of height of liquid capillary tube, d in the capillary (mm) tube, l (cm) 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

Way analyze data

height of liquid l l (cm)

Way analyze data

Volume, V/cm3

Weight, W/N

Diameter, d(mm))

Aim

To determine the relationship between the capillary tube, d, with the height of liquid in the capillary tube, l.

Aim

To study the relationship between

the pressure and depth Inference Pressure of liquid depends on depth Hypothesis The pressure increase as the depth increase Variable Manipulated: depth Responding: pressure Fixed: density of liquid List of apparatus and materials: Tube U (manometer), thistle funnel, rubber tubing, metre ruler and water
Arrangement

Aim

To investigate the relationship between the temperature and volume for a fixed mass of gas at a constant pressure. Inference The volume of the gas depends on the temperature which acts on it. Hypothesis The larger the temperature, the larger is the volume of a fixed mass of gas. Variable Manipulated : Gas temperature, T Responding : Gas volume, V Fixed : Gas pressure, P List of apparatus and materials: beaker, stirrer, heater, capillary tube, natrium hydroxide (con), thermometer, metre rule, water, Arrangement

thermomet er heater

Capillar y tube stirrer

Procedure

1. The mouth of thistle funnel is lowered vertically into water until depth, h=5 cm. 2. The height difference of water in manometer is observed and recorded 3. The experiment are repeated by h=10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm Way tabulate data Height, h (cm) 5 10 15 20 25 Way analyze data
Height difference of water, P / cm

power supply

Natrium hydroxide

Procedure

Height difference of water, P / cm

The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram above. 2. Switch on the power supply so that the heater will heat the water. 3. Read thermometer when the temperature reach 30C. 4. At the same time measure the length, of air trapped inside the capillary tube. (The volume of air is comply to the length of the air trapped) 5. Stir the water continuously, and repeat the experiment when the temperature reach 40C, 50C, 60C and 70 C. Way tabulate data
Temperature,T / C 30 40 50 60 70 Temperature,T / K Volume, V / cm3

1.

Way analyze data

Height, h (cm)
Volume V / cm3

Temperatur eT/K

Heat

Aim

To study the relationship between the air pressure and its temperature at constant volume Inference Air pressure changed depends on the temperature Hypothesis The pressure of air enclosed in a container increases when the temperature increases Variable Manipulated: air temperature responding: air pressure Constant: Volume of the air List of apparatus and materials Round bottom flask, beaker, Bourdon Gauge, thermometer, rubber tube, retort stand, wire gauze, stirrer, tripod stand and Bunsen burner

Aim

Arrangement

To investigate the relationship between the pressure and volume for a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature. Inference The size of the gas bubble depends on the depth of the water Hypothesis The smaller the pressure, the larger is the volume of a fixed mass of gas. Variable Manipulated : Gas volume, V Responding : Gas pressure, P Fixed : Gas temperature,T or mass of gas, m List of apparatus and materials: Glass syringe, a short rubber tube and Bourdon gauge
Arrangement

Procedure

Way tabulate data

1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. Some ice is placed into the water to lower the temperature of the water 3. The water is heated slowly and stirred to maintain a uniform temperature 4. At 400C, the pressure of the air is measured by using a Bourdon Gauge 5. The experiment is repeated at temperatures of 500C,600C,700C, 800C and 900C Temperature, Pressure, P T (0C) (Pa) 40 50 60 70 80 90 Pressure, P (Pa)

Procedure

1. The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram above. 2. The piston of the syringe is adjusted until the volume of air in the syringe is 100 cm3 at atmospheric pressure. 3. The syringe is connected to a Bourdon gauge and the pressure of the air in the syringe is observed and recorded. 4. The piston is then pushed in so that the volume of air trapped is 90 cm3. The pressure is again recorded, 5. This procedure is repeated for enclosed volumes of 80cm3, 70 cm3 and 60 cm3. Volume, V/cm3 Pressure, P/Pa 100 90 80 70 60 Way analyze data

Way analyze data

Pressur e, P/Pa

Temperature, T (0C)

Volume, V/cm3

List of apparatus and materials Arrangement

To study the relationship between rate of cooling of water and its mass The rate of cooling of water depends on its mass The rate of cooling of water increases as its mass decreases Manipulated: mass of water / volume of water responding: rate of cooling Constant: the initial temperature Beaker 250 cm3, measuring cylinder, water, electric heater, stopwatch and thermometer

Aim

To study the relationship between real depth and apparent depth Inference The apparent depth depends on the real depth Hypothesis The apparent depth increases when the real depth increases Variable Manipulated: the depth of the water responding: the apparent depth/ position of the image Constant: Density of the liquid List of apparatus and materials Beaker, water, pins, retort stand and metre ruler Arrangement

Procedure

1. Apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram above 2. Water is heated to 55oC 3. 50cm3 of water is placed in a 250ml beaker with a thermometer immersed in the water 4. The stopwatch is started when the temperature of water is at 500C. the stopwatch is stopped when the temperature reaches 35oC. The time is recorded. The experiment is repeated using volumes of water 100cm3, 150cm3, 200cm3 and 250cm3.
Volume, V (cm3) 50 100 150 200 250 Time, t (s)

Procedure 1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. Depth of water 10cm is filled in a beaker 3. The pointer is adjusted to measured the apparent position of the pin in the beaker 4. The position of the image is measured from the surface of the water to the image 5. The experiment is repeated at depth 12cm, 14cm,16cm and 18cm Way tabulate data Depth of water d (cm) 10 12 14 16 18 Apparent depth, h (cm)

Time, t (s)

Apparent depth, h (cm)

Volume, V (cm3)

Depth of water, d (cm) Aim To investigate the relationship between object distance and

Light

Inference Hypothesis Variable List of apparatus and materials

Arrangement
White screen

image distance for a convex lens. The image distance is dependent on the object distance The greater the object distance, the smaller the image distance Manipulated : object distance. Response : image distance. Fixed : focal length of lens. light bulb, convex lens of focal length 10 cm , white screen, metre rule, low voltage power supply and lens holder

Aim Inference

To investigate the relationship between the wavelength and the distances between two consecutives bright fringes.

Hypothesis

Variable

List of apparatus and materials Arrangement

Ruler

The distances between two consecutive bright fringes depends on the wavelength of light The higher the wavelength the higher the distance between two consecutives bright fringes manipulated : Wavelength of light/colour of light responding : distances between two consecutive bright fringes fixed : distance of slit Source of light, colour filter, screen, single slit, double slit and metre rule

Procedure

1. Arrange the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. 2. Adjust the bulb so that the object distance (filament), u is 35 cm from the lens. 3. Light up the electric bulb, adjust the screen position until a sharp image of the filament is formed on the screen. Record the image distance, v. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for objects distances of, u = 30cm, 25 cm, 20 cm, and 15 cm.

Procedure

Way analyze data

Image distance, v (cm)

1) A green (suppose value) filter is placed between the light source and the slits. The source of light is switched on. 2) The distance between two consecutive bright fringes is measured by using meter ruler 3) The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different colour filters ; red, yellow, blue and violet (state the value)

/cm x/cm
Way analyze data

x/cm

Object distance, u (cm)

/cm
Image distance, v

Waves
Aim Inference Hypothesis Variable To study the relationship between frequency and wavelength of a wave The wavelength of a wave depends on the frequency The wavelength of a wave decreases when the frequency of a wave increases Manipulated: the frequency of a vibrator Responding: The wavelength of a wave Constant: the depth of the water Ripple tank with vibrator motor, stroboscope, ruler, white paper, power supply and wooden bar Aim Inference Hypothesis Variable List of apparatus and materials Arrangement To study the relationship between the depth of water and the wave length The wave length is influence by the depth of water The wave length increases when the depth of water increase. Manipulated: Depth of the water. Responding: Wavelength, X
Constant: frequency of the waves

Power source, ripple tank, a transparent plate, stroboscope, a piece of white paper, meter rule, wooden bar, Perspex plate and vibrator motor.

List of apparatus and materials

Arrangement

Procedure

1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. Switch on the vibrator motor at a frequency 10 Hz 3. Observe the waves by using a stroboscope and measure the wavelength 4. Repeat the experiment at frequency of 20Hz, 30Hz, 40Hz and 50Hz
Frequency, f (Hz) 10 20 30 40 50 wavelength, (cm) wavelength, (cm)

Way tabulate data

1. The apparatus is set up as shown in figure. 2. Arrange a ripple tank, and placed a piece of perspex with h = 0.2 cm placed in the centre of the tank. 3. The waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope and the wave length is measured by using metre rule and recorded. 4. The experiment is repeated with h = 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm and 1.0 cm Way tabulate data Depth of water, d /cm Wavelength, / cm 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Way analyze data

Procedure

Wavelengt h, (cm)

Way analyze data

Frequency, f (Hz)

Depth, d (cm)

Electricity Aim To study the relationship between the current and height of the load Inference Height of the load depends on the current Hypothesis The greater the current, the greater the height of the load Variable Manipulated: current Responding: height of the load Fixed: mass of the load List of apparatus and materials: Ammeter, rheostat, string, load, metre ruler and dc power supply
Arrangement Aim To study the relationship between the resistance and the sectional area of the wire Inference Resistance depends on the cross sectional area of the wire Hypothesis The resistance decrease as the cross sectional area of the wire increase Variable Manipulated: cross sectional area of the wire Responding: resistance Fixed: length of the wire List of apparatus and materials: Constantan wire, ammeter, metre ruler, voltmeter, connecting wire, rheostat and switch Arrangement

Procedure

1. 2.

Procedure

1. Supply a current 0.5 A in the circuit 2. Measure the height of the load goes up by the metre ruler 3. Repeat the previous steps by increasing current to 1.0 A, 1.5 A, 2.0 A and 2.5 A by adjusted the rheostat Way tabulate data Current, I (A) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Way analyze data
Acceleration a / m s2

3. 4. 5. 6.

Measure 0.01mm cross sectional area of wire with length of wire, l = 20.0 cm with a metre-rule Adjust the rheostate so that current, I = 0.01 A throughout the experiment. Voltage, V is obtained from the voltmeter Current, I is obtained from the ammeter Calculate the resistance, R =

V I

Repeat the experiment with cross sectional area = 0.02 mm, 0.03 mm, 0.04 mm and 0.05mm.

Height of the load, h / cm

Way tabulate data Cross sectional area, a (mm) 5 10 15 20 25 Way analyze data
Resistance, R ()

Resistance, R ()

Mass, m / kg
Cross sectional area, a (mm)

Aim

Inference Hypothesis Variable List of apparatus and materials

the length of wire, l with resistance, R The length of wire influences the resistance When the length of wire increases, the resistance also increases. Manipulated: length of wire, l Responding: resistance, R. Constant: diameter of wire, current Metre rule, voltmeter, ammeter, dry cell, rheostat, constantan wire

Aim Inference Hypothesis Variable List of apparatus and materials

Arrangement

To study the relationship between resistance and temperature of the water The resistance the wire depends on the temperature The temperature of the water increases when the resistance increases Manipulated: temperature Responding: Resistance Constant: length of wire Thermometer, beaker, power pack, ammeter, immersion heater, connecting wires, rheostat, water and stopwatch

Arrangement

Procedure

1. 2. 3.

Measure length of wire, l = 20.0 cm with a metre-rule Adjust the rheostate so that current, I = 0.01 A throughout the experiment. Use current with smaller value so that the temperature of the constantan wire is constant. Calculate the resistance, R =

Procedure

4. 5. 6. 7.

V I

Voltage, V is obtained from the voltmeter Current, I is obtained from the ammeter Repeat the experiment with l = 40.0 cm, 60.0 cm, 80.0 cm, 100.00 cm.

Way tabulate data

l(cm)

I (A)

V (V)

R= V ( ) I

1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. The rheostat is maintained at 0.5A of electric current in a close circuit 3. Water is heated at 5oC 4. The reading of voltmeter is recorded. 5. The experiment is repeated with 10 oC, 15 oC, 20oC and 25 o C Way tabulate data
Temperature T (0C) 5 10 15 20 25 Current I(A) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Resistance, R

Potential difference, V (V)

Resistance, R=V/I ()

Resistance, R ()

Way analyze data

()

Temperature, T (0C)
Length, l(cm)

Electromagnetism
Aim Inference Hypothesis Variable To study the relationship between the motion of a magnet in a coil and the magnitude of the induced current The magnitude of the induced current depends on the motion of a magnet in a coil The magnitude of the induced current increases when the speed of the magnet increases Manipulated: the height of the magnet Responding: the deflection of galvanometer Constant: the no. of turns in coil Bar magnet, cardboard tube, galvanometer, insulated copper wire, retort stand and metre ruler

Aim Inference Hypothesis Variable

To study the relationship between the current and the force The force depends on the current The higher the current, the higher the force Manipulated: current flow Responding: force Constant: strength of magnet Metre ruler, sliding copper wire, dc power supply, connecting wires, C-shaped soft iron core, magnet, ammeter and bare copper wire

Procedure

1.

Way tabulate data

The apparatus is set up as shown 2. A solenoid with 50 turns of insulated copper wire round a cardboard tube. Connect the ends of the wire to a galvanometer 3. Hold a bar magnet at height 5 cm above the top end of the solenoid 4. Drop the magnet into the solenoid and record the deflection of the galvanometer (Induced current) 5. Repeat the experiment by changing the height to 10cm, 15cm,20cm,25cm and 30cm Height of the Induced magnet, h(cm) current, I(A) 5 10 15 20 25 30

Procedure

1. The apparatus is set up as shown 2. The rheostat is adjusted to get 1.0 A of electric current 3. The displacement of sliding wire is measured 4. The experiment is repeated with 1.5A, 2.0A, 2.5A and 3.0A Electric current, I (A) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Displacement of sliding wire, l (cm)

Current, I (A)

List of apparatus and materials Arrangement

To study the relationship between the current and the strength of electromagnet The strength of electromagnet depends on the current The higher the current, the higher the strength of electromagnet Manipulated: current flow Responding:strength of electromagnet Constant: no. of turn of solenoid A soft iron core, insulated copper wire, pins in a petri dish, rheostat, ammeter, battery, battery holder, switch and retort stand

Aim

To investigate the relationship between the e.m.f. induced in a solenoid and the number of turns of the solenoid Inference The angle of deflection of G (pointer induced) in the solenoid influenced by the number of turns in the solenoid. Hypothesis The e.m.f induced in a solenoid increases when the number of turn on the solenoid increases Variable Manipulated: Number of turns of the solenoid Responding : e.m.f induced in the solenoid // Galvanometer reading Fixed: the speed of magnet movement into the solenoid List of apparatus and materials: Magnet bar, Galvanometer, copper wire, ruler
Arrangement

Procedure

1. 2.

Way tabulate data

The apparatus is set up as shown A dc power supply is switched on and the switch is closed 3. The rheostat is adjusted to get 1.0 A of electric current 4. The number of pins attracted to the soft iron core is counted. 5. The experiment is repeated with 1.5A, 2.0A, 2.5A and 3.0A Electric Strength of current, electromagnet I (A) (No. of pin attracted), N 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Procedure

Strength of electromagnet (No. of pin attracted), N Way analyze data

1. Wind 50 turns of copper wire to make a solenoid, then connect to a galvanometer 2. Release a strong magnet bar from the top into the solenoid and take the reading 3. Repeat the experiment using 100, 150, 200 and 250 turns of copper wire No. of turns, Galvanometer N reading, V 50 100 150 200 250 Galvanometer reading, V

Current, I (A)

Number of turns / N

Electronics Aim To determine the relationship between base current and collector current of a transistor amplifier circuit. The strength of the output signal of the amplifier depends on the input current of the amplifier. The larger the input current in an amplifier circuit, the larger the output current. Manipulated : Base current, IB Responding: Collector current, IC Fixed : Supply voltage

Inference Hypothesis Variable

List of npn transistor, 2 batteries, apparatus microammeter, miliammeter, and rheostat, connecting wires. materials Arrangement
mA

Battery

R Battery

Procedure

1. The rheostat is adjusted until the readings of microammeter for base current, IB = 25 A. 2. The readings of the miliammeter for collector current, IC is recorded. 3. The steps are repeated for the values of microammeter, IB = 50, 75,100,125A. IB/A 25.0 50.0 75.0 100.0 125.0
IB/A

IC/mA

IC/mA