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AG'ENDA

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Progromme of Actionfor i nobleDevelopment Susto

RIO DECTARAflON
on Environment ond Development

Stotement of

FOREST PRINCIPTES

Thefinoltextof ogreements negotioted by Governments ot the UnitedNotions Conference on Environment ond Development (UNCED), 4 June1992, Riode Joneiro, 3-1 Brozil

in thisbookisnotsubiect to copyright. lt moybe reproduced Moteriol contoined for strictly purposes, provided is givento the UnitedNotions. non<ommerciol ocknowledgement Address enquiries to: Deportment Proiect Monogerfor Sustoinoble Development, Informotion, of Public Room N o t i ons, N ew Y ork, N Y l 00l Z, U S A Fox l 2l 2) 963-l l 86 9 .| 0 3 2 , U n i te d

ISBN:92-l-100509-4 P u b l i c o t i o n s - S o lN eo s . E . 9 3 . 1 .I1 United Notions Informotion Published NotionsDeportment of Public by the United

Toble of Contents

PARAGRAGHS

PAGE I

Foreword. Introductio . .n .......... Acronyms

5

RIO D:CIARATIOI{ OI{ E]IYINOililENT AIID DIVE1OPMENT

ACE]IDA 2I: PROGNAftlllE OF ACTloil ;OR SUSIAINAB]E DEYETOPffIENT...... r. Preomble

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15

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lnternotionol cooperotion to qccelerote sustoinoble development in developing countries ond reloteddomestic policies Combotingpoverty.... Chonging consumption potterns..... Demogrophic dynomics ond sustoinobility ... Protecting ond promotinghumonheolth Promoting sustoinoble humonsettlement development... Integroting environment ond development i n decision-moking ........

2 . 1 -2 . 4 3 3.r-3.r2
4.1- 4.27 5 . 1- 5 . 6 6 6.1- 6.46 7.1- 7.80 8 .r - 8 . 5 4

l9 27 3l 35 42 52 65

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Secllon 2; Conrervcllon ond ilcnngemenl s. to tt i2. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Protection of the otmosphere......

of Resources for Developmenl

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Y.t- v.J5

75 77 84 88

Integroted opproochto the plonningond monogement or lond resources. Comboting debrestotion ... Monoging frogile ecosystems: Comboting desertificotion ond drought... Monogingfrogileecosystems: Sustoi noble mountoi n development. Promoting sustoinoble ogriculture ond ruroldevelopment Conservotion of biologicoldiversity Environmentolly soundmonogement of biotechnology.. Protection of the oceons, oll kindsof seos,includinqenclosed ond semi-enclosed seos,ond coostoloreosond thJ protection, rotionoluseond development of their living resources

r0.t-r0.'t8 il.t-1r.40 12.112.63 r3.1-r3.24
14.114.104 t5.t-15.11 16.116.46

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114 131 136

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PARAGRAPHS
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Protection of the quolityond supplyof fresh*oterresources: Applicotiorr of integrotecJ oporooches to the cjevelopmenr, mCInogernent ond useof woter resources E nv iro n me n tos l lo yu n d monoqemen otf toxi cchemi col s inc lu d i n g p re v e n ti oo nf i l l e g o [i n te rn oti onol troffi ci n toxicond dongerous products Environm ento Ily soundmonogement of hozordouswostes, inc lu d i n g p re v e n ti oo nf i l l e g o i l n te rn o ti onol troffi ci n hozordous wostes E nv ir o n m e n i os l lo yu n d monoqemen otf soi i dw ostes
ono sewoge-retotedtssues
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20.1-20.46 2 1 . 12 1 . 4 9 2 2 . 12 2 . 9 206
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Sofe ond environmentollysound rnonogementof rodiooctivewostes

Section 3: Strengthening 23
)A

the Role of Molor

Groups 23.1_ 23.4 24.1-24.12 25.1-25.17 26.1 26.9 2 7 . 12 -7 . 1 3 28.1-28.7 2 9 . 12 -91 4 30.r-30.30 3t.r-31.12 32.1-32.14

217 219

Preomble

Globol octionfor womentowordssustoinobie ond equito b l e d e u e l o p m e n t..... Child re n o n d y o u thi n s u s to i n o b d le e vel opment Reco.gnizing ond s'trengthening the roleof indigenous people ondtheir communities ^. . . S t r en g th e n i n ge ro l eo f th orgoni zoti ons: ,n o n ,-g o v e rnmentol !-orfners tor susto rnobledevelopment Loc ol o u th o ri ti e s ' i ti o ti v eis in n s u p p o rt of A gendo2j .... sirengthening the roieof workers ond theirtrodeunions S t r en g th e n i n ge ro l eo f b u s i n e so th sn d i ndustry S c i e n t i fo ic n d t e c h n o l o g i cc o lmmunity....... o S t r en g th e n i n ge ro l eo f fo rme rs ..... . th

220 224 227 230 233 235 237 240 243

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2B 29. 30 31.

Sectlon 4: Meons of lmplemenlalion 33 34 35 36.
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F inon c i ore l s o u rc e sn d me c h o n i s m s o Tronsfer of environmentolly soundtechnology, cooperotion o n dc o p o c i r y - b u i l d i n g . . . . . . . Science for sustoinoble development. P r om o ti ne gd u c c ti o np , u b l i co w o re n e ss ond troi ni ng...... Not ion o l m e c h o n i s ms o n d i n te rn o ti o nol cooperoti on for c o p o c i f - b u i l d i nig n d e v e l o p i nc go u n t r i e.s ... I nt er n o i i o n o l s ti tu ti o no in orro l n g e m e n ts. int er n o ti o n o l g o li n s tru m e no le ts n d m e c honi sms . !nforrnotio nr d e c i s i o n - m o k i n g . . . , . . fo

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34.1-34.29
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36.1 36.27 37.1 3-7 . 1 3 38. t- 38.45 3 9t .- 3 9 . t0 40.r 40.30

38 39 4a

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SIATEMENT OF FOREST PRINCIPTES

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the compelling needsfor action.scientiststhose who. and debate over.economists. Industrial countriescontinue to be addictedto the patternsof production and consumptionwhich have so largely producedthe major risks to the global environment. more secure.that will make this shift possible. While it is still too early to provide a precisely calibratedmeasureof the ultimate of the Earth Summit. Industrialists.Strong.There are signs of it everywhere.on everyone'sagenda. Though in the aftermath of Rio there is a heightenedawarenessof. it seems roots. MouriceF. hopesand aspirationsengendered In short. for all the people of the globe-they are exhilarating. Since last June. I believe it has ignited a wildfire of interestand support success at every level of society in every corner of the planet. zZa. Nor do we possess specificationsfor the tools we will need to forge this secondindustrial revolutionthis eco-revolutionthat is essentialin order to shift the world onto a new pathway to a and equitablefuture. there is not yet a concertedand decisive detailed response to the magnitudeand urgency of the task. in truth.sustainable There is much to be done. where population growth compounds the problems of alleviating them. seminars.are still appallingly pervasivein the developing world. hold the levers of economicpower and change-have joined the in a commitment to the fulfilment of the constituencyof earnestenvironmentalists by Rio.and for the thousandsof dedicatedpeople who were involved in that extraordinary event at Rio a year ago-indeed. albeit a highly encouragingone. but are daily deepening.Hunger and povertywhich are both a cause and an effect of global environmental degradation.Foreword Humanity today is in the midst of a profound civilizational change. The Declaration clear.symposiaand other organizedcolloquies of major sectoralgroups. The economic gulfs which lie within and among the world's peoplesand nationsnot only remain.the new global partnership.financiers.engineers.there has been a profusion of conferences. the movement to turn the world from its self-consumptivecourseto one has unmistakablyspreadfrom the grassroots to the brass of renewal and sustenance of Rio and its Agenda 2l actronprogramme are now. But this discernibleincreasein momentum is still only a beginning.uplifting signs. And I look to the new United Nations Commission on Developmentto be the focal point for the massiveeffort neededto create Sustainable the new era of internationalcooperation.Secretory-Generol on Environment UnitedNotions Conference ond Development .

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are presented force of internationallaw.established it will examineprogressmade Conference. No nation can achievethis on its own. Togetherthey fulfil the mandategiven to the Conferenceby the United Nations GeneralAssembly when. the Rio Agenda 2I-a programmeof action for sustainable the statement of principles for the and Declarationon Environment and Development. the adoptionof the texts carrieswith it a strong moral obligation to ensuretheir full implementation. While they lack the the Surnmit and finalized in Rio.it called for a global meeting to deviseintegrated strategies that would halt and reversethe negativeimpact of human behaviouron the economic developphysical environmentand promote environmentally sustainable rnentin all countries. developmentagencies.United Nations organizaand independent-sector organizations non-governmental tions. groups.in every areain which human activity impacts on the environment. of those Or we can changecourse. of forestswere adoptedby more than 178 Governmentsat management sustainable the United Nations Conferenceon Environment and Development.hunger.sickness divisionswithin and betweencountries-which increase and illiteracy and causethe continuing deteriorationof the ecosystemon which life on E. here in final form.from 3 to l4 June 1992. in implementingAgenda 2l globally.known as the Earth Summit. can-in a global partnershipfor sustainable Nations Commission on Sustainable partnership be the United will Central to that to a requestof the by the GeneralAssembly in response Development. Togetherwe rnore prosperous development.The Commission will first meet in June 1993the first anniversarvof the Earth Summit. in 1989. .We can better manageand protect the ecosystemand bring about a future for us all.arthdepends.Brazil. held in Rio de Janeiro. We can continue with presentpolicies which are deepeningeconomic poverty. which were negotiatedover two and a half yearsleading up to The agreements. It is hoped that the forest principles will form the basis for a f-utureinternational-levelagreement. The Agenda should be studiedin conjunction with both the Rio Declarationof forest prinwhich provides a context for its specific proposals-and the statement ciples.Made up of Governmentrepresentatives. blueprint for action to be taken globallyAgenda 21 standsas a comprehensive from now into the twenty-first century-by Governments.Introduction developmentworldwide.We can act to improve the living standards who are in need. is the idea that humanity has reacheda Underlying the Earth Summit agreements turning point.

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Acronyms APELL CFC CGIAR CILSS EEZ ECA ECE ECLAC ELCI EMINWA ESCAP ESCWA FAO GATT GAW GEF GEMS GEMS/WATER GESAMP GIPME GiS GLOBE GOS GRID GSP HIV IAEA IAP-WASAD IARC IBSRAM ICCA ICES ICPIC ICSC ICSU IEEA IFAD IGADD IGBP IGBP/START ILO IMF IMO INFOTERRA for Emergencies ot Locol Level Aworenessond Preporedness c h l o r o lf u o r o c o r b o n A l eseorch Group on Internotiono l g r i c u l t u r oR Consultotive P e r m o n e nItn t e r . T r o i n i n g Reseorch ond I n t e r n o t i o n oL l o b o u rO r g o n i s o t i o n Internotiono M l onetoryFund Internotiono M l o r i t i m eO r g o n i z o t i o n (UNEP) I n t e r n o t i o n oE l n v i r o n m e nItn f o r m o t i o n System .S t o tC eo m m i t t e e o n D r o u g h tC o n t r o li n t h e S o h e l exclusive e c o n o m i cz o n e Economic for Africo Commission Economic for Europe Commission f o r L o t i nA m e r i c o o n d t h e C o r i b b e o n Economic Commission Ll i o i s o n Environmento C e n t r eI n t e r n o t i o n o l t f i n l o n dw q t e r e n v i r o n m e n t o l ls yo u n d m o n o g e m e n o o n d S o c i o lC o m m i s s i o n for Asio ond the Pocific Economic f o r W e s t e r nA s i o Economic o n d S o c i o lC o m m i s s i o n Foodond Agriculture O r g o n i z o t i o no f t h e U n i t e dN o t i o n s Generol Agreementon Toriffsond Trode Globol AtmosphereWotch (WMO) t ocilit'y G l o b o l E n v i r o n m e nF (UNEP) l o n i t o r i n gS y s t e m M Globol Environmento Globol Woter Quolity Monitoring Progromme A s p e c t so f M o r i n e P o l l u t i o n on the Scientific J o i n tG r o u p o f E x p e r t s i n n f P o l l u t i o n t h e M o r i n e E n v i r o n m e n(tU N E S C O ) G l o b o l I n v e s t i g o t i oo System G e o g r o p h i c o lI n f o r m o t i o n s r g o n i s o t i o nf o r o B o l o n c e dE n v i i " o n m e n t G l o b o l L e g i s l o t o rO Globol Observing System(WMO/WV\A//) Informotion Dotobose Globol Resource generolized systemof preferences vy irus h u m o ni m m u n o d e f i c i e n c Internotiono A l t o m i c E n e r g yA g e n c y Internotiono A l ctionProgromme on Woter ond Sustoinoble A g r i c u l t u r oD l evelopmenf Internotiono A l gencyfor Reseorch on Concer I n t e r n o t i o n oB i o o r d o f S o i l R e s o u r c eo sn d M o n o g e m e n t i n t e r n o t i o n oC l o u n c i lo f C h e m i c o lA s s o c i o t i o n s Internotiono C l o u n c i lf o r t h e E x p l o r o t i o n of the Seo Internotiono C l l e o n e rP r o d u c t i o n Informotion C l e o r i n oH o u s e Internotiono C l i v i l S e r v i c eC o m m i s s i o n Internotiono Cl o u n c i lo f S c i e n t i f i U c nions integroted environmento o l n d e c o n o m i co c c o u n t i n q I n t e r n o t i o n oF l u n df o r A g r i c u l t u r o D i evelopment I n t e r g o v e r n m e n tA o lu t h o r i i yf o r D r o u g h to n d D e v e l o p m e n t (ICSU) Internotiono l e o s p h e r e .B i o s p h eP rogromme G re r o g r o m m e / G l o b oC l hongeSystem l n t e r n o t i o n oG l e o s p h e r e .B i o s p h eP re for Ancriysis.

roc IPCC rPcs IPM IRPTC rTc ITTO IUCN MARPOL OECD PGRFA PIC SADCC SARD UNCTAD UNDP UNDRO UNEP UNESCO UNFPA UNICEF UNIDO UNU WCP WFC WHO WMO WWF WWW Intergovernmentol ic Com Oceonogroph mission Intergovernmentol Ponel on Climote Chonge lnternotionol Progromme on Chemicol Sofety integroted pestmonogement Internotionol Register of Potentiolly Ioxic Chemicols In te rn o ti o nT oilnC o unci l Internotionol Tropicol TimberOrgonizotion Internotionol Unionfor Conservotion of Notureond NoturolResources Internotionol Convention for the Prevention of Pollution fromShips for Economic Orgonisotion Cooperotion ond Development plontgenetic resources for ogriculture prior informed procedure consent AfriconDevelopment Southern Coordinotion Conference sustoinoble ogriculture ond ruroldevelopment UnitedNotions Conference on Trodeond Development United NotionsDevelopment Progromme Officeof the UnitedNotionsDisoster Relief Coordinotor E n v i ronment U n i te d N o ti o n s P rogromme U n i te d N o ti o n s Ed ucoti onol S. ci enti fiond c C ul turol Orgoni zoti on UnitedNotionsPopulotion Fund N o ti o n s U n i te d C h i l dren'Fund s UnitedNotionslndustriol Development Orgonizotion UnitedNotionsUniversity World C IimoteProg romme {WMO/UNEP/ICSU/U N ESCO) World FoodCouncil World Heolth Orgonizotion WorldMeteorologicol Orgonizotion World Wide Fundfor Noture(olso colledWorld Wildl.feFund) World WeotherWotch (WMO) .

Rlo DECLARAilON ond Development on Environment .

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productive life in harmony with nature.shall be anddevelactionsin the field of environment ternational of all needs interests and the opmentshouldalsoaddress countries. ment for sustainable in standards of living and bettermeetthe the disparities needsof the majority of the peopleof the world. PRINCIPLE Z to in a spirit of global partnership States shallcooperate protectand restorethe healthand integrity of conserve.the soverinternational principles of Nationsandthe pursuant to their resources their own eign right to exploit policies. . PRINCIPLE 2 with the Charterof theUnited have. The specialsituation and thosemost environparticularlythe leastdeveloped given specialpriority. PRINCIPLE 5 in the essential All States and all peopleshall cooperate requirepoverty as an indispensable task of eradicating in order to decrease development. I PRINCIPLE Human beings are at the centre of concerns for susThey areentitledto a healthyand tainabledevelopment. of present PRINCIPLE 4 environdevelopment. key sectors of societies ation amongStates.in accordance States law.ond Development on Environment RioDeclorotion Having met at Rio de Janeirofrom 3 to 14 June 1992. a new and equitableglobal With the goal of establishing partnership throughthe creationof new levelsof cooperand people. Inmentally vulnerable. and the and developmental own environmental juriswithin their activities to ensurethat responsibility to theenvironment dictionorcontroldo notcausedamage limits of national the or of areas bevond of other States jurisdiction. adoptedat Stockholm on 16 JuneI972. the Declarationof the United Nations ConReaffirming ferenceon the Human Environment.our home. which respect Workingtowardsinternationalagreements of the global protect integrity the of all and the interests system. In order to achievesustainable part of the integral mental protection shall constitutean in process and cannotbe considered isoladevelopment tion from it.oand seekingto build upon it. PRINCIPLE 6 and needsof developingcountries. and developmental environmental natureof the integraland interdependent Recognizingthe Earth. Proclaims that: PRINCIPLE 3 The right to developmentmust be fulfilled so as to needs and environmental equitablymeetdevelopmental and future generations.

In view of the different contributhe Earrh'secosystem. global environmentaldegradation,Stateshave tions to The developed responsibilities. commonbut differentiated that they bear responsibility the countriesacknowledge in pursuit development of sustainable in the international global place the on pressures societies their view of the environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.

'I2 PRINCIPLE andopen to promotea supportive States shouldcooperate international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainabledevelopment in all the problemsof environmencountries,to betteraddress forenvironmental Tradepolicy measures tal degradation. purposesshould not constitute a meansof arbitrary or restriction on or a disguised unjustifiable discrimination international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmentalchallengesoutsidethe jurisdiction of the importing country shouldbe avoided.Environmental measuresaddressingtransboundaryor global environmentalproblemsshould, as far as possible,be based on an internationalconsensus.

8 PRINCIPLE developmentand a higher quality To achievesustainable of life for all people,Statesshouldreduceand eliminate patternsof production and consumption unsustainable and promote appropriatedemographicpolicies.

PRINCIPLE I3 9 PRINCIPLE capacendogenous to strengthen Statesshouldcooperate improving by development ity-building for sustainable of scientific through exchanges scientific understanding the deenhancing and by knowledge, and technological of techand transfer velopment, adaptation,diffusion innovative technologies. new including and nologies, Statesshall developnational law regardingliability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmentaldamage.Statesshall also cooperatein an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further i nternationallaw regardingliability and compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage by activitieswithin theirjurisdiction or control to caused areasbeyond their jurisdiction.

IO PRINrcIPLE issuesare best handledwith the particiEnvironmental pation of all concernedcitizens,at the relevantlevel. At the nationallevel, eachindividual shall have appropriate access to information concemingthe environmentthat is held by public authorities,including information on hazardousmaterialsand activitiesin their communities,and the opportunity to participate in decision-makingprocesses.States shall facilitate and encouragepublic awarenessand participation by making information widely available. Effective accessto judicial and i n c l u d i n g r edressand adm inis t r a ti v ep ro c e e d i n g s , remedy,shall be provided.

I4 PRINCIPLE States should effectively cooperateto discourageor preventthe relocationand transferto other Statesof any severe environmental thatcause activities andsubstances or are found to be harmful to humanhealth. degradation

PRINCIPLE I5 In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approachshall be widely appliedby Statesaccordingto their capabilities.Where there are threatsof seriousor irreversibledamage,lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective on. measures to preventenvironrnentaldegradati

I1 PRINCIPIE Statesshall enact effective environmentallegislation. objectivesand management Environmentalstandards, and developenvironmental priorities should reflect the mental context to which they apply. Standardsapplied by some countriesmay be inappropriateand of unwarrantedeconomicand social cost to other countries,in particulardevelopingcountries.

PRINCIPLE 16 National authorities should endeavourto promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of taking into accountthe approach economicinstruments, that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of

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pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting internationaltradeand investment.

IZ FRINCIPLE as a national instruEnvironmentalimpact assessment, ment shall be undertakenfor proposedactivities that are likely to have a significant adverseimpact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority.

PR]NCIPLE 22 Indigenouspeopleand their communitiesand other local managehavea vital role in environmental communities ment and developmentbecauseof their knowledge and traditionalpractices.Statesshould recognizeand duly support their identity, culture and interestsand enable of sustheir effectiveparticipationin the achievement tainabledevelopment.

PRINCIPIE 23 of people under The environmentand natural resources oppression,domination and occupation shall be protected.

I8 PRINrcIPLE of any natural States shallimmediatelynotify other States that are likely to produce or other emergencies disasters sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States.Every effort shall be made by the intemational community to help Statesso afflicted.

I9 PRINICIPLE States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant information to potentially affected States on transboundactivitiesthat may havea significantadverse ary environmental effect and shall consult with those Statesat an early stageand in good faith.

24 PRINCIPLE developWarfareis inherentlydestructiveof sustainable ment. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of in its further development, armedconflict and cooperate as necessary.

PRINCIPLE 25 Peace,developrnentand environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible.

PRINCIPLE 20 Women have a vital role in environmentalmanagement and development.Their full participation is therefore development. to achievesustainable essential

PRINCIPLE 26 States shall resolve all their environmentaldisputes with peacefullyand by appropriate meansin accordance the Charterof the United Nations.

PRNICIPTE 2I The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership developmentand ensure in order to achievesustainable a better future for all.

PRINCIPLE 2Z Statesand people shall cooperatein good faith and in a spirit of partnershipin the fulfilment of the principles embodiedin this Declarationand in the further development of internationallaw in the field of sustainable development.

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on theHumonEnvironNotions Conference Report of the United 5-.l6 June 1972 lUnitedNotionspublicoiion, ment,Stockholm, o n dc o r r i g e n d u m c) h , o p f elr. No. E.Z3.ll.A.l4 Soles

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AOENDA2I
A blueprint for octionfor globol sustoinoble development i n t ot h e 2 l s t c e n t u r y

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Preomble

at a definingmomentin history. l.l Humanitystands We are confronted with a perpetuationof disparities between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing on which we dependfor of the ecosystems deterioration our well-being. However, integrationof environment attentionto them and greater concerns and development improvedliving will leadto thefulfilment of basicneeds, ecosysand managed for all. betterprotected standards future.No nationcan temsand a safer,more prosperous we can- in a global this on its own; but together achieve partnership for sustainable development. mustbuild on the premises 1.2 This globalpartnership of 22 December of GeneralAssemblyresolution411228 1989,which was adoptedwhen the nationsof the world called for the United Nations Conferenceon Environof theneed andontheacceptance mentandDevelopment, to take a balancedand integratedapproachto environquestions. mentand development problems of today the pressing 1.3 Agenda2l addresses and also aims at preparingthe world for the challenges and of the next century.It reflectsa global consensus levelon development politicalcommitment atthehighest lma n d e n v i r o n m e n tc o o p e r a t i o n .I t s s u c c e s s f u i plementation is first and foremost the responsibility o f G o v e r n m e n t s .N * a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s ,p l a n s , this. s r e c r u c i a li n a c h i e v i n g p o l i c i e sa n d p r o c e s s ea I nt er nat ionalc o o p e ra ti o ns h o u l d s u p p o rt a nd supplem ent s uc h n a ti o n a l e ffo rts . In th i s c o n text, the Unit ed Nat ionss y s te mh a s a k e y ro l e to p l a y . Other int er nat ional,re g i o n a l a n d s u b re g i o n a l o rgani zat ions ar e als oc a l l e du p o n to c o n tri b u teto th i s effort. T he br oades t p u b l i c p a rti c i p a ti o n a n d th e acti ve ol rg a n i zati ons i nv olv em entof th e n o n -g o v e rn me n ta and ot her gr ou p ss h o u l d a l s o b e e n c o u ra g e d . objectives and environmental 1.4 The developmental flow of new and of Agenda2l will requirea substantial in resources countries, to developing additionalfrnancial

costsfor the actionsthey order to cover the incremental have to undertake to deal with global environmental development. problems and to acceleratesustainable are also requiredfor strengthening Financialresources the capacity of internationalinstitutions for the implementation of Agenda2l. An indicativeorder-of-magnitude assessment of costs is included in each of the programmeareas. This assessment will need to be examinedand refined by the relevantimplementingagencies and organizations. of the relevantprogramme 1.5 In the implementation shouldbe attention areas identifiedin Agenda21, special gi ven to the parti cul ar ci rcumstancesfaci ng t he that economies in transition. It must alsobe recognized in challenges thesecountriesare facing unprecedented in themidst in somecases transforming theireconomies, socialand political tension. of considerable Agenda?l are 1.6 The programme areas thatconstitute describedin terms of the basis for action, objectives, activitiesand meansof implementation.Agenda21 is a dynamicprogramme. It will be carriedout by thevarious and capacities according actors to thedifferentsituations, prioritiesof countries of all the andregionsin full respect principlescontained on Environin the Rio Declaration ment and Development.It could evolveover time in the This process light of changingneeds andcircumstances. marks the beginning of a new global partnershipfor sustainable development.

* When the term "Governments" is used,it will be deemedto within its oreosof the Europeon include Economic Communily Throughout Agendo2l the term"environmentolly competence. sofeond sound",in porticulor sound"meons"environmentolly "energysupplies", when oppliedto the terms"energysources", "energysyslems" ond "technology" or "iechnologies".

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SectionI Sociolond Economic Dimensions .

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2. Therefore.ith uncertainties.aswell asin thedomestic policy of eachcountry.2 Economic policies of individual countries and int er nat ional e c o n o mi c re l a ti o n s b o th h a v e great relevance to sustainable development.5 An open.not to diminish or subsume .it is the intent of Governments that consensus-building at theintersection of theenvironmental and tradeand development areaswill be ongoing in existingintemational forums. (d) Encouraging macroeconomic policiesconducive to environment and development.It is equally important to strengthennational and intemational policiesandmultinational cooperation to adapt to thenew r ealit ies . It will be frustrated in the absence of eitherof theserequirements. if developrnent financeis inadequate.equitable.3 The internationaleconomy should provide a supportive internationalclimate for achieving environment and development goalsby: (a) Promoting sustainable developmentthrough trade liberalization.sounddomesticeconomicpolicies.if bamers restrictaccess to marketsand if commodity prices and the terms of trade of developing countries remaindepressed. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) PROTVTOT|NG SUSTAINABLE DEVETOPMENT THROUGHTRADE BASIS FOR ACTION 2. inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world economy.1 In orderto meetthe challenges of environment and development. Neither will it gathermomentum if the developingcountriesare weighteddown by externalindebtedness. (c) Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries and dealingwith international debt. The development process will not gathermomentumif the global economylacksdynamismand stabilityand is besetu. It is recognized that.The policiesandmeasures needed to create an international environment that is stronglysupportive of national developmentefforts are thus vital. 2.4 Governments recognizethat there is a new global effort to relatethe elements of the internationaleconomic systemand mankind's needfor a safeand stablenatural environment. A supportive externaleconomicenvironment is crucial.Stateshave decided to establisha new global partnership. if global progress towards sustainable development is to be achieved. 2.in both developed and developing countries. The recordof the 1980s was essentially negative on eachof these countsandneeds to be reversed.This partnership commitsall States to engagein a continuousand constructivedialogue.Internotionol cooperotion to occelerote sustoinoble development in developing countries ond reloted domestic policies INTRODUCTION 2. (b) Making trade and environment mutually supportive. keepingin view the increasing interdependence of the community of nations and that sustainable development shouldbecomea priority item on the agendaof the internationalcommunity. non-discriminatory and predictable multilateraltradingsystemthat is consistent l9 . secure.for the success of this new partnership. International cooperation in this area should be designed to complementand support.The reactivation andacceleration of developmentrequires both adynamic and a supporliveinternationaleconomic environment and determined policiesat the nationallevel. it is important to overcomeconfrontationand to foster a climateof genuine cooperation andsolidarity.

(c) To improve the functioning of commodity markets and achieve sound. and trade facilitation strategies in (EDI) effective have been electronic datainterchange private public and of the improving the tradingefficiency sectors.the expansion andonly a lirnitednumtradehasbeenunevenlyspread. the resources to mobilize. development has shownthat sustainable 2.6 Experience requiresa commitmentto sound economicpolicies and management.8 The internationaltrading environment has been that havecreated by a numberof developments affected and have mademultiand opportunities new challenges importance. OBJECTIVES 2.comprehensiveand sucassessed. in the light of country-specific allows for full participation of all parties concerned. Economic integration processes have intensified in recent years and should impart dynamism to global trade and enhance the trade and developmentpossibilities for developing countries.Moreover. especiallyin developingcountries.industry and other sectors.althoughits objectiveswill have relating to to be fulfilled. policy directionsand objectives 2J The commodity sectordominatesthe economiesof many developing countries in terms of production. as to contributeto sustainable 2. balanced. development so economicsectors on a global basisacross be pursued development. An important feature of the world commodityeconomyin the 1980swas the of very low and declining real pricesfor most prevalence commodities in international markets and a resulting contractionin commodity export earningsfor substantial manyproducingcountries.in order to avoid inflicting large losses on the more efficient Thus.The ability of thosecountries trade. In recent years.the developingcountries. essential.the integrationof environmental progress towardsdemocraticgovemdecision-makingaurd conditions. including tariff to export markets.a growing number of thesecountrieshave policy reforms involving ambitious adoptedcourageous autonomous trade liberalization. cessful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiationswould bring about further liberalizathe tradeand tion and expansionof world trade.as well as of industry and other sectors. domestic and 20 . of achievhavebeencapable countries ber of developing ing appreciablegrowth in their exports.developmentand leads to with the goals of sustainable the optimal distribution of global production in accordance with comparative advantageis of benefit to all for trading partners. and at policiesto initiativesaimedat tradeliberalization make production more responsiveto environment and Tradeliberalizationshouldtherefore needs. compatible and consistentcommodity policies at national and internationallevels with a view to optimizing the contribution of the commodity sector to sustainabledevelopment. affecting particularly the export interests of developing countries.However.9 In the years ahead. Increased and enterprises role of being devoted to enhancingthe promoting competitive markets through adoption of competitive policies.to andimprovethe standimprovetheireconomicstructures ecoard of living of their populationsthrough sustained nomic development.The limiting their access escalation. (d) To promote and support policies. (b) To improve access to markets for exports of developingcountries. improved market access in conjunctionwith sound countries'exports developing policieswould have and environmental macroeconomic a positive environmentalimpact and thereforemake an important contribution towards sustainabledevelopment. employmentand export earnings.enhance and countries developmentpossibilities of developing internathe provide greatersecurityand predictabilityto tional trading system.The GSPhas proved to be a useful tradepolicy instrument. . Protectionist pressuresand unilateral policy actions continue to endanger the functioning of an open multilateral trading system.taking into account environmentalconsiderations . placein Central and EasternEuropean and world economy the way for their integrationinto the is attention the international trading system. reducand progressive requiresthat there be substantial tion in the supportand protectionof agriculture-coverand exportsubsidies marketaccess ing intemalregimes.in particular. while far-reaching are taking reforms and profound restructuringprocesses paving countries.Governmentsshould continue to strive to meet the following objectives: (a) To promote an open.an effective and predictable public adconcemsinto ministration. and taking into account the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. in producers.The interactionsbetweenenvironment policies are manifold and have not yet beenfully and tradeissues An early. thereis scopefor agriculture. which ment. of evengreater cooperation lateraleconomic World trade has continuedto grow faster than world of world outputin recentyears.non-discriminatoryand equitable multilateral trading system that will enable all countries. trade is removal of existing distortionsin international of this objective the achievement In particular. through international requiredfor sustainable neededto finance investments and may be impairedby this development development by tariff and non-tariff impediments. These attributes are essentialfor the fulfilment of the listedbelow.

2. comprehensive anclsuccessful outcomeof the UruguayRoundof multilateraltrade negotiations.'ant institutions should continue to collect appropriatetrade data and information. 2J2 Therefore.n o n . resource endowments and marketopportunities. di stri buti on and i mpr ove marketing practices and the competitiveness of the commodity sector. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is requestedto strengthenthe Trade Control Measures InforrnationSystemmanaged by UNCTAD. socialand resources costs. otabl y thr ough t he pr o g re s s i v ere mo v a l o l . suchasproduction andexportsubsidies.pol i cy reforms and structuraladjustmentthey have unclertak en. in particular the developing countries. Substantive negotiationsbetweenproclucers and consumers shouldbepursued with a view to achieving viable andmoreefficientinternational agreements thattakeinto 21 .as appropriate: (a) Create a domesticenvironmentsupportiveof an optimalbalance between production for thedomestic and export marketsand remove biasesagainstexportsand discourage inefficientimport-substitution . c) DATA AND /NFORMATTON > Encouroging doto collection ond reseorch 2. and better management of naturalresources that takesinto accountthe necessities of sustainable development. the integrationof all countriesinto the world economyand the intemational tradingsystem. interalia.that make economic growth and environmentalprotectionmutually supportive. (b) Diversify in order to reduceclependence on commodity exports.14 The fol l ow i ng pol i ci es shoul d be adopredby developingcountrieswith respectto commoditiesconsistentwith marketefficiency: (a) E xpand processi ng.directly or throughappropriate international organizations.greater diversificationof the cornmodity sectorin developing economieswithin a macroeconomic framework that takesinto consideration a country'seconomicstructure.balanced.in a timely way. T h i s i mp ro v e ment of market accesswill be facilitated by appropriate s t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n ti n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . (d) Ensure that environment and trade policies are mutuallysupportive. (b) Promotethe policy frameworkand the infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of export and irnport trade as well as the functioning of domestic markets.cooperation ond thediversificotion of the sector 2. (c) Facilitate. with a view to achieving sustainable development: (e) Strengthen the international trade policies system throughan early. ( b ) P r o v i d e f o r a n e q u i t a b l e . (c) Reflect efficient and sustainable use of factorsof production in theformationof commodityprices. to thebenefitof all countries.of c om m o d i ty p ro d u c ts i n p ri m a ry and processed forms.10 Accordingly.as well as the substantial and progressivereduction of typesof supportthatinduceuncompetitiveproduction.I t is t hus u rg e n tto a c h i e v ea n i m p ro v e ment in m ar k et ac c es sc o n d i ti o n sfo r c o mn to d i ti e sn .b a rri e rs that r e s t r i c t i m p o r t s . 2. > lmprovinginternationol in commoditytrade . 2. Governments should.the international comnrunityshould: (a) Halt and reverseprotectionismin order to bring aboutfurtherliberalization andexpansion of world trade. they shouldimplement the following policies. including the reflectionof environmental. particularlyin areas o f int er estto dev e l o p i n g c o u n tri e s . throughimprovedmarkettransparency involving exchanges of views and information on investment plans.all countriesshould implementprevi ous c om m it m e n ts to h a l t a n d re v e rs e p ro te c tioni sm and furtherexpandmarketaccess. Dev eloping c oun tri e s h o u l d c o n ti n u e th e tra d e .13 For devel opi ng countri esto benefi t from t he liberalization of tradingsystems.11 Theinternational community should aimatfinding ways and meansof achievinga betterfunctioningand enhanced transparency of commodity markets. p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 ' r o md e v e l o p i n g co unt r ies . whereappropriate: (a) Seek optimal functioningof commodity markets.15 GATT.prospects andmarkets for inciividual commodities. B) MANAGEMENT-RE LAT EDACTTV tTt ES >-Devglopingdomestic policiesthotmoximize the benefits of trodeliberolization for sustainable development ACTIVITIES A) /NTERNAT/ONAL AND REG/ONA/COO7ERATION AND COORD/NAIION > Promoting on internotionol troding system that fokesoccounfof the needs of developingcountries 2.international.s e c u r e .16 With regard to commodity trade.d i s criminatoryandpredictable internati onaltradin g system . UNCTAD and other reler.

to the agreements international commodity of importance timber. A sound environment. fectiveness of environmentalregulationsfor the protecshouldaddress Suchregulations tion of theenvironment.as well as environmental shouldbe takeninto account. provides the ecological and other resourcesneededto of sustaingrowth and underpina continuingexpansion trade. the specific strategiesand programmes decideupon for implementation.regionaland intemational MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FINANCING has estimatedthe 2. mechanisms for (b) Continueto apply compensation earnings of developing in export commodity shortfalls diversificationefforts. countriesin order to encourage (c) Provide assistance to developingcountriesupon requestin the designand implementationof commodity policies and the gatheringand utilization of information on commodity markets.on the other hand.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments.as well as study accountmarket trends.21 Govemmentsshould strive to meet the following throughrelevantmultilateralforums. stances. and alrangements agreements al health and safety matters.An open. and other internationalorganizations: UNCTAD GATT.useand designandimplementation and the gatheringand management of nationalresources utilizationof informationon commoditymarkets.accountshouldbe taken of the development. demands incomesand to lessening needed for economic resources additional It thusprovides growth and development and improved environmental protection.22 Governments FOR ACTION BASIS be mutually andtradepoliciesshould 2.multilateraltrading system. countriesat the national. fact that environmental standardsvalid for developed countriesmay have unwarrantedsocial and economic countries. so asnot to degradation of environmental the root causes on trade.or affangements. sugar and tropical coffee.The challenge resultin unjustifiedrestrictions is to ensure that trade and environmentpolicies are consistentand reinforce the processof sustainable However. conciliationprocedure (c) To encourage productivity and cominternational role on thepart petitiveness a constructive andencourage anddevelopment of industryin dealingwith environment issues. on cocoa. UNCTAD and other international organizationsin dealing with trade and issues.including objectives. where relevant.marketingand servicesassociated promotion of commodities. considerations.17 The Conferencesecretariat averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing areato be about$8. (d) Support the efforts of developing countries to promote the policy framework and infrastructure required to improve the efticiency of export and import trade: (e) Support initiativesof thedeveloping thediversification levels. UNCTAD shouldencourage 2. B) frrAKrNG TRADEAND ENVIRONTYIENT fiIUTUAILY SUPPORTIVE ACTIVITIES > Developingon environment/trode ord deuJlophentogendo GATT.anci have played a in multilateralenvironmentagreements Trade challenges. 2.supported policies. inter alia.18 The above-mentionedtechnical cooperation activities aim at strengtheningnational capabilitiesfor of commoditypolicy. ing any that are non-concessional. technology transfer and with the production. supportive.8bilthe activitiesin this progralrune lion from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.Actual costsand financialterms. (a) To make international trade and environment policies mutually supportivein favour of sustainable development.including.19 Environment 22 .includwill depend upon. The Occupationis underlined. environment-related and disputesettlement. (b) To clarify the role of GATT. costsin devdloping OBJECTIVES 2. In this regard. An open.multilateraltradingsystemmakes possiblea more efficient allocation and useof resources and therebycontributesto an increasein production and on the environment. role in tackling global environmental have thus been used in certain specific inmeasures to enhance the efwhereconsidered necessary.would by the adoptionof soundenvironmental havea positiveimpacton theenvironmentandcontribute to sustainable development.20 Internationalcooperationin the environmental tradeprovisions in anumberofcases field is growing. Governments B) CAPACTTY-BUtLDING 2. shouldbe paid particular attention groups.

It is worthnoting that standardsthat are valid in the most advanced countries mav be inappropriate andof unwarranted social costlbr the developing countries.all without deteriorating or depletingthe resource basethat underpinsdevelopment. Environrnental measures addressing transborder or glohalcnvirclnmental problems should. including those relatedto health and safety standards. for which domestic and external financial resources areneeded. the principieof non-discrirnination.negotiation and implementationof trade policies as a means of fosteringincreased transparency in the light of countryspecificconditions.Foreignprivateinvestment andthe returnof flight capital. (h ) Encourage participation of developing countries in nrultrlateral agreements through such mechanisms as sp ec ial t r ans it io n a l les: ru (i) Avorcluniiateral actions to dealwith environmental ci r allengc s out s i d eth e . C onti nuedvi gorousi mpl ementati on of t he 23 . are an important sourceof financial resources. where necessary.for manydeveloping countries. Should policymeasures trade befoundnecessary for thr-enforccrnent of environmental policies. E xternal i ndebtedness has emergedas a ma in factor i n the economi c stal emate i n the devel oping countri es.and other relevantinternational and regionaleconomic institutions to exarnine. bebased on aninternationalconsensus.T h e s e c o u l di n c l ude. during which their financial receipts were exceeded by payments theyhadto make. 2.external debt burdensare a significant problem. development and environnrent comrnunities: (c) In thosecases when trademeasures relatedto environment are used. and C) Develop more precision. Domestic nreasures tar_qeted to achievecertainenvironmental ob. an obligationto ensuretransparency in the use of trade rllcdsulcsrclatc'c-l to the environment and to provide lucleiluaic notification of nationalregulations: and the n e edt o gir c ' t ' or r s i d e ra tro ton th e s p e c i ac l o n d i ti o ns and developmental requirements of developingcountriesas they movetowardsinternationally agreed environmental objectives. i nvestmentand consum pti on. (d) Deal with the root causesof environmentand problems development in a manner thatavoids theadoption of enr. the principle thei tlte trademeasure chosenshouldbe the least trade-rcstrictivc necessary to achieve the objectives.in particular for debt-servicing. in accordance with theirrespective mandates and competences. takinginto account the fact that. Sustainable developmentrequiresincreasedinvestment. c) PROVTD|NG ADEQUATE F|NANC|ATRESOURCES TO DEVETOPING COUNTRIES BASIS FOR ACTION 2. thereactivation of development will not take place without an early and durable solution to the problemsof externalindebtedness. the following propositionsandpr inc ip l e s : (a) Elaborateadequatestudiesfor the better understandingof the relationship betweentradeand environment for the promotionof sustainable development.which depend on a healthyinvestment climate. ensure transparency and compatibilitywith international obligations. do not constitutea meansof arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade: (g) Ensurethat specialfactorsaffectingenvironment and tradepoliciesin the developing countries areborne in mind in theapplication of environmental standards.23 Investmentis critical to the ability of developing countries to achieve needed economic growthto improve the welfare of their populations and to meet their basic needsin a sustainable manner. iritr uiitr. domesticallymobilized resources had to be transferred abroadinsteadof being investedlocally in order to promote sustainable economic development. (k) Ensurepublic input in the formation.jcctives may needtracle ntcasures io renderthem efl'ectrr e'. As a result. as well asin theuseof anytrade measures.certain p rir r c iplcanc -s l r ul e ss h o u l d a p p l y . sincetheirapplication couldleadto tradedistortions and increase protectionist tendencies: (f) Ensure that environment-related regulationsor stanclards. (l) Ensurethat environmental policiesprovidethe appropriate legaland institutional frameworkto respond to new needs for the protectionof the environmentthat may resultfrom changes in productionand trade specialization.j u ri s d i c ti o n o f th e i mporti ng countr\'. clarify the relationship between GATT provisions and someof themultilateral measures adopted in theenvironment area.as far as possiblc.24 For manydeveloping countries. Many developing countries haveexperienced a decade-long situation of negative nettransferoffinancial resources.'ironmental measures resulting in unjustified restrictions on trade : (e) Seekto avoidthc useof traderestrictions or distortionsasa means to offsetdifferences in costarising from differenccs in environmental standards and regulations.The burdenof debt-service payments on those countries hasimposedsevere constraints on their ability to accelerate growth and eradicate poverty and hasled to a contracti on i n i mports. (b) Promote a dialogue betweentrade.

includwith serious countries debt-servicing ing thosewhosedebt is mainly to official creditorsor to in thecase Particularly financial institutions.at gr eat cost . creditorcountries to takesimilaraction.it is urgedthat with multilateral 2. requirements (c) Multilateral institutionsactively engagedin the to continueto debt strategy international strengthened packages related to commersupport debt-reduction that the magview ensuring with a to cial bank debt with the evolving is consonant nitudeof suchfinancins debt strategy.28 With regard to debt owed to otficial bilateral taken by the Paris Club creditors.27 In regardto the externaldebt incurredwith commercial banks.c o n c e s s i o n la ID A refl ow s . 33 snd mechonisms}.Ongoingefforts in a manto implementthese"Trinidadterms"measures capacityof those with the payments ner cofiunensurate countriesand in a way that gives additionalsupportto their economicrefbrm efforts are welcomed.are not ed r vit h appreci ati on. debt.31 The unfavourahle external environment facing developing countries makesdomesticresourcemobilization and efficient allocation and utilization of domesti*See chop.29 Theactions stanti aldebt burdensw hi ch conti nue. the progressbeing made under the and a morerapid is recognized debt strategy strengthened Some is encouraged. new and additional resourcesshould be provided to support Agenda 21 programmes.25 The specificrequirements programmesincluded and cross-sectoral sectoral of the in Agenda27 aredealt with in the relevantprogramn're ar eas a n d i n c h a p te r 3 3 (F i n a n c i a l resourcesand mechanisms). 2. ACTIVITIES OF OFFICIAL A) MEETING /NIERNAI/ONAI TARGETS LA PMENI ASS'SIANCE FUNDING DEVE 2.the recentmeasures generous of relief to thepoorest terms with regard to more most indebtedcountriesare welcomed.evolving international debt strategy is aimed at restoring debtorcountries'externalfinancial viability. the supportof the mul ti l ateralfinancial ins t he sti tuti onsi n the form of new di sbursem entand The use fundsi s w el comed. Mea sur es mul ti l ateral fi nanci al i nsti tuti onssuch as t he r ef iol a n sw i t h n a n c i n go f i n t e r e s to n n o n .The substantial bilateral debt reduction undertakenby some andotherswhich are is alsowelconted.disw hi ch are m akinggr eat countri es tressed devel opi ng efforts to conti nue to servi ce thei r debt and m eet due thei r externalfi nanci al obl i eati onsal so deser ve attenti on. The international reduction orequivalent munity encourages: (a) Other countries with heavy debts to banks to negotiatesimilar commercial bank debt reductionwith their creditors: (b) The partiesto sucha negotiationto takedueaccount of both the medium-termdebt reductionand new money of the debtor country.26 As discussedin chapter 33. Other debt . their cr edit wor to servi cethei r debt and safeguard thi nessare commended. a d d i t i onal fi nanci al resourcesin favour of developing countriesand the efficient utilization of such resourcesare essential. of thei r concessi onal ruse of supportgroupsshoul d be conti nuedin pr oviding resourcesto cl ear arrearso1'countri e s em bar king supupon vi gorous economi c reform progrant m es by t he portedby IMF and the W orl d B ank." fi fth di mensi on". { F i n o n c i orl e s o u r c e o 24 . OBJECTIVES for the implementation 2.30 In connection attention be given to continuingto rvork towards serious grow'. levels of debt and foster the return avoid unsustainable of flight capital.P arti cul aratte nt ionshould be pai d to thei r resourceneeds. position to do so are encouraged in a with subcountries of low-income 2. and the resumptionof their growth and development grow th and would a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g s u s ta i n abl e dev elo p m e n t. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION AND COSI EVALUATIONF/NANC/NG POLICIES ECONOMIC D) ENCOURAGTNG DEVELOPMENT TO SUSTAINABLE CONDUCIVE FORACTION BASIS 2. 'SSUE THEDEBT B) ADDRESSING 2. implementation of this strategy combination from the countrieshave already benefited policiesand commercialbank debt of soundadjustment commeasures. ( d) Cr e d i to r b a n k s to p a rti c i p a te i n debt and debtservicereduction: (e) Strengthened policies to attractdirect investment.In th i s c o n te x t. multilateral of l ow -i ncome countri esi n the processo f econom ic reform.h-oriented solutionsto the problemof developing problems.

In d e v e l oped countries. and remove sources areaof tradeand investment. All countriesshould increase of public and their efforts to eradicatemismanagement private affairs. real ratesof interestand fluctuations in key exchange rates. tunitiesis an essential baseddevelopmentand soundeconomicperformanceat all developmentlevels.large budget deficits and other macropoliciesanddistortions restrictive economicimbalances.insavingsrates. in somecases they have balance-of-payments resultedin adverse socialandenvironmental effects.While suchprogrammes for improving the balancein fiscal budgetsand necessary accounts. (t) Promotethe operationof effective tax systems and financial sectors.costly and time-consuming to set up and operate in many developingcountries. particularly with regard to monetary stability.continuing policy reform and adjustment.whereverappropriate.35 The industrialized a position to do so should strengthen their efforts: (a) To encourage a stableand predictableintemational economic environment. (c) To ensurethat the processes of policy coordination take into account the interests and concerns of the developing countries. 2. administrativestrains. all countries should develop policies that improve efficiency in the allocation of resourcesand take full advantageof the opportunities offered by the changingglobal economicenvironment. The essentialobjective would be to simplify otrremovethe restrictions. and taking into account national strategiesand objectives. It is important to ensurethat structuraladjustmentprogrammesdo not have negative impacts on the environmentand social developmentso that such programnles can be more in line with the objectives of sustainable development. 2. (b) P romote transparencyi n admi ni strati onand decision-making. countries. efficient.unnecessary controlsand the neglectof marketconditions.including market mechanisms.in the light of the country-specificconditions. narrowing their major extemal imbalances and i ncreasi ng the adj ustment capaci ty of the ir economies. (b) To stimulatesavings and reducefiscal deficits.equitableand accountable public administrationwith individual rights and opporbroadly elementfor sustainable. including corruption. (e) Provide scope for appropriate economic instruments.37 More specifically. rates.would help generate cluding appropriate developto sustainable transition resources to supportthe and in developingcountries.34 It is necessary to establish. and the incorporation of social and environmentalcosts in of distortion in the resourcepricing. in hannony with the objectivesof sustainable development andfulfilment of basicneeds.policies are necessaryto correct misdirected public spending.33 Many indebted ing structural adjustmentprogrammesrelating to debt are rescheduling or new loans.36 Developingcountriesshould considerstrengthening their effortsto implementsoundeconomicpolicies: (a) That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline requiredto promoteprice stability and externalbalance. this the factorsresponsible phenomenon. developing countries areundergo2. as improve returnsto investment. (b) That resultin realisticexchange rates. (c) Thatraisedomestic savings aswell andinvestment.taking into account for. In particular. and finance.investment in the areasof exchange a n d obs t ac lest o e n tre p re n e u rs h i p .all the more important for the cally mobilized resources In a numberof promotionof sustainable development. (g) Provide opportunities for small-scale enterprises. honest. regulationsand formalities that make it more complicated. enterprises (d) Promote the investment andsupport and infrastructure requiredfor sustainable economicgrowth anddiversificationon an environmentally soundand sustainable basis. (c) Encourage the private sector and foster entrepreneurship by inrprovinginstitutional facilitiesfor enterprisecreationand market entry. and agentsinvolved in. education and environmentalprotection. OBJECTIVES 2. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMFNI-RETATED ACTIVITIES D Promotingsoundeconomic policies countriesand othercountriesin 2. ment both domestically of that fostersthe association 232 Good management effective. (d) To undertakeappropriatenationalmacroeconomic and structuralpoliciesaimedat promotingnon-inflationary growth.economic policy reforms that promote the efficient planning and utilization of resourcesfor sustainabledevelopment through sound fosterentrepreneurship economic andsocialpolicies. 25 . countries should: ( a ) R e m o v e t h e b a r r i e r s t o p r o g r e s sc a u s e d b y bureaucraticinefficiencies. including the need to promote positive action to support the efforts of the least developedcountriesto halt their marginalizationin the world economy.such as cuts in allocations for health care.

will dependupon.41 The Conference secretariathas estimated the of implementing averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) prograrnme area to be about $50 in this the activities on grant or community international million from the order-ofindicative and are concessionalterms.both farm and non-farm.39 International should further review their policies and programmesin development. problemsof theleastdeveloped developmental 26 . the specific for implementation.A' T. in capacity-building the areas central banking.42 Theabove-mentioned nati ona l ef f or t s f or substanti al countri es i nvol ve public of administration. financial and Actual costs Governments.43 Particularefforts in the implementationof the four progrirmme areasidentified in this chapterare warranted in view of the especially acute environmental and countries. the light of the objectiveof sustainable amongdeveloping economiccooperation 2.upon request. within the framework of national. upon ments decide COOPERAflON . economicand developmental (i) Promote the creation of a domestic economic environment supportive of an optimal balance between productionfor the domesticand export markets. social. programmes Governand strategies alia.NANCTNG 2. and financial sectors. These by not been reviewed have only and magnitudeestimates includterms.40 Stronger countrieshas long been acceptedas an important componentof efforts to promoteeconomicgrowth and techin development and to accelerate nologicalcapabilities B) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG policy changes in developing 2.savingsinstitutions and financial markets. and for the indigenouspopulation and local communities to contribute fully to the development.ANDREG/ONAL 8/ 'NTERNAilONAL AND COORDINAI'ON 2. countingsystems (c) Promotionofentrepreneurship.enhance efforts to provide developing countries with increased for the following: technicalassistance (a) Capacity-building in the nation's design and implementation of economicpolicies. 2. institutions financialanddevelopment 2. goals. MEANS OF IMPI-EMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON . ac(b) Design and operationof efficient tax systems. attainmentof sustainable (h) Remove biases against exports and in favour of inefficient import substitutionand establishpolicies that allow them to benefit fully from the flows of foreign investment.directly or through appropriateinternationaland regional otganizatheir tions and internationallending institutions. tax administration. Therefore. the efforts of the developing countriesto promote economic cooperation among themselvesshould be enhancedand continue to be supportedby the internationalcommunity. the developing world.38 Governmentsof developedcountries and those of other countriesin a position to do so should.inter ing any that arenon-concessional.

the urban poor. production and people and should cover demographicissues. BASIS FOR AC-TION 3.aswell astheparallel processofcreatinga supportive international environment. Otherwise it could have an adverseimpact both on poverty and on chancesfor long-terrnsuccess in resource and environmental conservation. development increased local control of resources. development andenvironment simultaneously shouldbegin by focusingon resources.No uniform solution can be found for global application. (d) To create a focusin nationaldevelopmentplans and budgetson investmentin human capital. An effective strategyfor tackling the problems of poverty.Comboting poverty P R O G R A M MA ER E A ENABUNG THE POOR TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABTE TIVETIHOODS munities and a democraticparticipationprocessin association with improved govemance. enhanced healthcareand education.greater equityin incomedisribution andhumanresource development remain major challenges everywhere. employment and incomegeneration. (b) To implementpoliciesand strategies that promote adequate levelsof fundingandfocuson integrated human policies. sustainableresource managementand poverty eradicationsimultaneously. 3.2 While managing resources sustainably. with special policiesandprogranunes directedat rural areas. an environmental policy that focusesmainly on the conservation and protectionof resources must take due accountof thosewho dependon the resources for their livelihoods.The objectivesof this progratnmeareaare: (a) To provide all persons urgentlywith the opportunity to eam a sustainable livelihood.the promotion of economicgrowth in developing countriesthat is both sustained and sustainable and direct action in eradicating poverty by strengthening employmentand income-generating programrnes.a development policy that focuses mainly on increasing the productionof goodswithclut addressing thesustainability of theresources on which productionis basedwill sooneror later run into decliningproductivity. The eradicationof poverty and hunger. arecrucialfor a solutionto this problem. country-specificprogrammesto tacklepoverty and intemationalefforts supportingnational effofts.4 The long-termobjectiveof enablingall peopleto achieve sustainable livelihoods should provide an integratingfactor that allows policiesto address issues of development. (c) To developfor all poverty-sfficken areasintegrated strategiesand programmesof sound and sustainable management of the environment. 3.women and children. poverty eradicationand alleviation.Equally. ACTIVITIES 3.5 Activities that will contribute to the integrated pro- 27 .local institutionstrengthening andcapacity-buildingandgreaterinvolvementof non-governmental organizations andlocallevels of government as deliverymechanisms. the rightsof women.which could also have an adverse impacton poverty"Aspeciticanti-poverty strategy is therefore one of the basic conditionsfor ensuringsustainable development. resource mobilization. The struggle povertyis the shared against responsibility of all countries.1 Poverty is a complex multidimensionalproblem with origins in both the national and international domains.including incomegeneration. togetherwith intemational support. Rather. the role of youth and of indigenous peopleand local comOBJECTIVES 3.3 Integralto suchactionis.

COMMUNTTTES A) EMPOWFRING developmentmust be achievedat every 3. (b) Respectingthe cultural integrity and the rights of indigenouspeopleand their communities. (d) Giving communitiesa large measureof participaand protectionof the management tion in the sustainable in order to enhancetheir produclocal naturalresources tive capacity. and are essential the communityandlocal levels. credit systemsand the like and the technology systems. as a legal systems. in the areas of basic education. migrantsand people.should establish measures that will directly or indirectly: (a) Generate employmentandproductive remunerative occupational opportunitiescompatible with countryon a scalesufficient to take specific factor endowments. healthcaresystemaccessible legal (f) Consider strengthening/developing resourland access to for land management. educationand means. accordance 0) Implement. level to the mostappropriate accountabilityandresources and to ensurethat the programmewill be geographically ecologicallyspecific.from local to global. ACTIVITtES ATED B) MANAGEMFNT-REL of andin cooperawith theassistance 3. and needs. The groups will include poor fishing communities. promote development. artisans. (c) Provide substantial in economicallyeffiincreases productivity measures to ensurethat and cient resource from measure population in adequate benefits the local resource use: (d) Empower community organrzations and people to livelihoods. (c) Promoting or establishinggrass-roots mechanisms to allow for the sharing of experienceand knowledge betweencommunities.in particular. (b) With international support. taking into account held dignity and should Governments ethicaland cultural considerations.and refugees. and the advancementof women.in cooperationwith appropriateinternationaland non-governmentalorganrzations. High priority shouldbe given to basiceducation and professionaltraining. in the labour force and to care of prospectiveincreases cover backlogs. landless the urban informal sector. 28 .especially Enabling actions will be necessaryat the national and internationallevels.women's groups es areimportantsourc organizations and non-governmental of innovation and action at the local level and have a stronginterestand proven ability to promote sustainable livelihoods. with freedom.7 Sustainable level of society. particularly especially by groups. and local community organizations. sustainable to community in matter of urgency. to the extentpracdegraded policy measures to promote susintroduce ticable. should support a community-driven approachto which would include.children and youth within those groups . develop adequateinfrastructure. smallholders. the programmesshould: (a) Focuson the empowerment of local andcommunity groups through the principle of delegating authority.women. where necessary. Governments.marketing systems. (c) Contain a long-term strategyaimed at establishing local. non-govemmental tion with appropriate international. In general design. measures 3.in particular. to overcometheir (i) Implementmechanisms for popularparticipationwomen. human for basic tainableuseof resources (h) Establishnew community-based mechanisms and communities mechanisms to enable strengthen existing neededby the poor access to resources to gain sustained poverty. (g) Rehabilitate resources. and with country-specific conditions men have the same women and measures to ensurethat number and on the freely and responsibly right to decide informathe have access to spacingof their children and to enablethem tion.prolivelihoods andenvironmental motion of sustainable involving tectioncover a variety of sectoralinterventions a rangeof actors. primary/matemal health care. needed humanresources to supporttheaboveactionsand widening of options for resource-poor to achieve a people. their right in keeping to exercise this personally values. at everylevel. pastoralists.in particular. (a) Empowering women through full participation in decision-making.regional the bestpossibleconditionsfor sustainable and national developmentthat would eliminate poverty and reducethe inequalitiesbetweenvarious population groups groups. inter alia: sustainability. learn(e) Establishinga network of community-based ing centres for capacity-building and sustainable development.Peoples'organizations.6 The focus hereis on specificcross-cutting . taking full account of regional and subregionalconditions to support a locally driven and country-specific approach. (b) Containimmediatemeasures to enablethosegroups to alleviatepoverty and to develop sustainability.8 Governments.for women and for the protectionof tenants.indigenous communities. enablethem to achievesustainable (e) Setup an effectiveprimary healthcareand maternal to all. frameworks ces and land ownership. It shouldassistthe most disadvantaged .in local poorpeople.asappropriate.

whenrequested. with special attention to the need for providing equaland improvedhealthcarefor all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness.10 The United Nations system. Evaluation of such programmesshould be genderspecific. including about$15 billion from the international com- 29 .should make poverty alleviation a major priority and should: (a) AssistGovernments.projectsand programmes supplemented where relevantby food aid.Strict feasibility appraisalsare needed for borrowers to avoid debt c r is es : (p) Provide the poor with accessto fiesh water and sanitation. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 3. including financial institutions. where appropriate.in keepingwith freedom.women-managed. and support and special emphasison employment and income generation.sincewomen ere a particularlydisadvantaged group. suchas poverty eradication. (b) Prornotetechnical cooperationamong developing countriesfor poverty eradication activities.safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable. and strengthen which include women-centred. in the formulation andimplementation of nationalactionprogrammes on poverty alleviationand sustainable development. Programmesshould fully supportwomen'sproductiveand reproductiveroles and well-being.to ensurethat social and environnrental concerns are addressed. D/ TNTERNAT/ONAI AND REG/ONA L COO?ERAilON AND COORD/NAT'ON 3. if development finance is inadequate. ma n y i n s ta n c e s s p e c i alconsiderations for women are required. taking into account ethical Programmes andcultural considerations. /NFORMAI/ON C) DATA.as appropriate. (d) In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21. (0 Promote international cooperation to addressthe root causes of poverty.for the responsible planningof family size. education and information on health and responsibleparenthoodand should provide the opporfully.9 Governments shouldimprove the collectionof information on target groups and target areas in order to facilitatethe designof focused programmes and activities. (e) Examine the international economic framework. if barriersrestrictaccess to marketsand if commodity pricesand the terms of tradein developing countriesremaindepressed.l I The secretariat of the Conference hasestimated the average total annualcost (19%-2m0) of implementing the activitiesof this programme to be about$30 billion. (n) Actively seekto recognizeand integrateinformalsector activities into the economy by removing regulations and hindrances that discriminate asainstactivities in thosesectors. conduct a review of the policies of international organizations. (m) Supportresearchon and integrationof traditional methodsof productionthat have been shown to be environmentally sustainable.food self-sufficiency within the contextof sustainable agriculture. with the target-group consistent needsand aspirations.should be given particular attention in this regard. (l) Undertakeactivitiesaimed at the promotion of food security and. including resourceflows and structural adjustment programmes. AND EVALUATION 3. at least during tunity for all women to breast-feed the first four months post-partum. and in this connection.Action-orientedactivities of relevanceto the above objectives. including prenatal care. bodiesand agencies.dignity and personallyheld values. (q) Provide the poor with accessto primary educati o n. shouldfocuson providing comprehensive health care.The development process will not gathermomentumif developingcountriesare weighted down by externalindebtedness. organizationsand bodies. (o) Cons iderm a k i n g a v a i l a b l el i n e s o f c re d i t and other facilities for the informal sectorand improved p o o r s o th a t th e y can a c c es s t o land f or th e l a n d l e s s a c quir et he m ean so f p ro d u c ti o na n d re l i a b l ea ccess to nat ur alr es ourc e sIn . in cooperationwith Member Statesand with appropriateintemational and non-governmentalorganizations. accessibleservices. to ensurethe continuedprovision of basic servicesto the poor and needy.take active stepsto implement programmesto establish preventiveand curative health facilities. gle high priority to the review of the progress made in eradicatingpoverty. (c) Strengthen existingstructures in the UnitedNations system for coordination of action relating to poverty eradication. including the establishment of a focal point for information exchangeand the formulation and implementation of replicablepilot projectsto combatpovert!. (k) Adopt integrated policies aiming at sustainability in the management of urban centres.through its relevant organs.

12 National capacity-building of the aboveactivitiesis crucial and should be eiven 30 . the specificstrategies programmes decideupon for implementaGovernments tion. Remunity groupsat nationalandinternational quirementsfor suchactivities are considerable and are relatedto the various relevantsectorsof Agenda 2l financial and techcalling for requisiteinternational.includingany that arenon-concessional. important to focuscapachighpriority. B) CAPACITY-BUILDING for implementation 3.terms. inter alia. Actual costsand estimates financialterms.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only andhavenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude This estimate overlaps beenreviewedby Ciovernments. in otherpartsof Agenda2l . It is particularly ity-building at the local community level in order to to sustainability support a community-driven approach mechanisms to allow and to establishand strengthen sharingof experience and knowledgebetweencomlevels. nologicalsupport. and will dependupon.

8 In principle. (b) To develop a better understanding of the role of consumptionand how to bring about more sustainable pattems.7 Action is neededto meet the followins broad objectives: (a) To promotepatterns of consumption andproduction that reduceenvironmental stress and will meetthe basic needsof humanity.Changing consumptionpattems will require a multiprongedstrategyfocusing on demand.meeting the basicneedsof the poor.5 Specialattentionshouldbe paid to the demandfor generated by unsustainable consumpnaturalresources tion and to the efficientuseof thoseresources consistent with the goal of minimizing depletion and reducing patterns pollution.are unable to meet food.1. meanwhile. aggravating level 4. (b) Developing national policies and strategies to enpattems. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S PATTERNS A) FOCUSTNG ON UNSUSTATNABIE AND CONSU}TPTION OF PRODUCTION BASIS FOR ACTION .3 Povertyandenvironmental areclosedegradation ly intenelated.4 Measures at ttre international to be undertaken of tlteenvironment must for theprotection andenhancernent in the global the currentimbalances takefully into account patterns of consumption andproduction. The poorer segments. While poverty resultsin certainkinds of the major causeof the continued environmental stress. ablepattern of consumption which is a matterof graveconcern. consumption ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI.consumption potterns Chonging / l ' r' areas: 4. the basicconsumer a largesection of humanityarenot beingmet. This results in excessive lifestyles among demands andunsustainable on the the richer segments. povertyand imbalances.Someeconomists traditionalconcepts of economicgrowttrandunderliningthe importance of pursuing economic objectives thattakeaccount of the full valueof naturalresource capital. 4. andnational OBJECTIVES 4. on economicinstruments and in the chapters The presentchaptershould the transferof technology. with chapter 5 (Demographic alsobe readin conjunction dynamicsand sustainability). countries should be guided by the 31 .R ELATED ACTIVITIES > Adopt.2 Sincethe issueof changingconsumption in severalpartsof Agenda is very broad. health care. and wastes. in unsustainable consumption courage changes patterns 4. 4.1 This chapter contains thefolkrwing programme (a) Focusingon unsustainable patternsof production and consumption.ing on international approach to ochieving nobleconsumption susfoi pattern s 4.More needs to be known abouttherole of consumption in relationto economic growth and populationdynamics in order to formulate coherent intemational policies. which placeimmensestress environment.6 Crowing recognitionof the imporlanceof addressing consumptionhas also not yet been matchedby an understanding arequestioning of irsimplications. shelterand educational needs.Although consumption are very high needs of in certainpartsof the world. is the unsustaindeterioration of the global environment particularlyin andproduction. notablythosedealingwith energy. industrialized countries.it is addressed transportation and 21.and reducingwastage and the use of finite resources in the productionprocess.

development and demographic factors. 4.Governments.10 In order to support this broad strategy. ( e ) I d e n t i f y b a l a n c e dp a t t e r n so f c o n s u m p t i o n worldwide which the Earlhcan supportin the long term.Governments. this will require reorientation patof existingproductionand consumption ternsthat have developed in industrialsocieties and are in turn emulatedin much of the world. guaranteeing for the the provisionof basicneeds patterns. innovation. B) DEVETOPTNG NATTONAT POUC|ES AND STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE CHANGESIN UNSUSTAINABTE CONSUMPTION PATTERNS FOR BASIS ACTION a.Gove r nm ent s.14 The Conference secretariat has estimated that implementation of this programmeis not likely to require significantnew financialresources.in their development from inenhancedtechnologicaland other assistance zed countries.and demographicfactors.13 In the follow-up of the inrplementation of Agenda 21. (c) Examine the impact of ongoing changesin the structure of modern industrial economies away from material-intensive economic growth. consumption dependenton the Earth's finite resourcesand more in harmonywith theEarth'scarryingcapacity.11 ln the years ahead. (d) Consider how economiescan grow and prosper while reducing the use of energy and materialsand the production of harmful materials. technological adaptation and consumption. more attentionneedsto be paid to issues relatedto consumptionand production patternsand sustainable lifestylesand environment.ll Consideration should also be given to the present growth and the need for new of economic concepts conceptsof wealth and prosperitywhich allow higher of living throughchanged lif-estyles standards andareless OBJECTIVES 4. This requires wasteful. (c) Developingcountriesshould seekto achievesustainable consumption patterns in their development process.9 In the follow-up of the implementation madein achievingsustainable 2I thereview of progress patterns shouldbe given high priority.following basic objectives in their efforts to address andlifestylesin the contextof environment consumption and development: (a) All countriesshouldstrive to promote sustainable patterns.l5 Achieving the goals of environmental quality and sustainabledevelopment will require efficiency in production patterns and changes in consumption in order to emphasize optimization useandminimizaof resource tion of waste. households and individuals. > Developing newconcepts economic growth of sustoinoble ond prosperity 4.and/orprivate research and policy institutes. In many instances. reviewing the role and impact of unsustainable productionand consumption patternsand lifestylesand theirrelationto sustainable shouldbe given development high priority. as part of a processaimed at achieving significantchangesin the consumpti onpatternsof i ndustri es. economic growth and development. parpoor. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON > lJndertokingreseorch on consumption 4. c/ /NTERNAT/ONAI COOqERATION AND COORD/NAI/ON 4. This shouldbe reflectedin the evolutionof new systems of nationalaccountsand otherindicators of sustainable development.16 Progresscan be made by strengthening positive trends and directions that are emerging. dustriali of Agenda 4. while avoiding those unsustainable ly recognized ticul arly i n industrializedcountries. 4.inefficient and processes.12 While international review processes exist for examining economic. (b) Assessthe relationshipbetween production and environment. > Finoncing and costevaluotion 4. working with 32 .general as unduly hazardous to the environment. a concerted effort to: (a) Expand or promote databases on production and for analysing consumptionand developmethodologies them. consumption (b) Developed shouldtakethe leadin achievcountries ing sustainable consumptionpatterns.with of regional international the assistance and economicand should make environmental organizations.

20 The recentemergence public. g e th e r the public. competitiveness.l8 Reducingthe amountof energyandmaterials can goods and services production of per unit in the stress environmental of both to the alleviation contribute and to greatereconomicand industrialproductivityand with inin cooperation Governments. They should thereforereview the purchasing policiesof their agencies anddepartments so possible.DS C/ A55/SI'NG/NDIYIDUALS ENY/RONMENTALLY SOUND TO MAKE PURCHASING DECISIONS in many countriesof a more 4. energy to use intensify efforts dustry. grammes. TOWARDS ENy/RONMENTALI. taking into accountthe development developingcountries. at the consumer (b) Reducingwastefulpackaging of products. plays in and can have a large role the economy tor a decisions and influenceon both corporate considerable public perceptions.is a significant development that should be encouraged. tainableuseof renewable TH D ) E X E R C /S /N LE G ADERSH IPR OU GH PURCHASING GOVERNMENI themselves also play a role in con4. should make a concertedeffort to reduce of wastesand wasteproductsby: the generation and (a) Encouraging recycling in industrialprocesses level.23 Governments wherethe public secparticularly in countries sumption. Governmentsand intemational organizations. where the environmental that they content of governmentprocurementpolicies. renewable sources and (e) Encouragingthe environmentallysound and susnaturalresources. suchasrecyclingand deposiVrefund ACTIVITIES EFFICIENCY GREATER A) ENCOURAG'NG AND RFSOURCES IN IHE USEOF ENERGY used 4. to inform consumers 4. to intemational THEGENERAT/ON OF WASTES B) M|N|MIZING effecto d e v e l o p 4.y E) MOVTNG SOUNDPR/CING 4. should encourage reenvironmentallabelling and other environmentally to assist designed lated productinformation prografitmes to make informedchoices. s o c i e tyn e e d s tive ways of dealingwith the problenrof disposingof m ount ing lev e l s o f w a s te p ro d u c ts a n d m a teri al s. in environ(b) Promotingresearch and development mentallysoundtechnologies. without prejudice tradeprinciples. 19 A t t he s ameti me . lowing broadobjectives: and (a) To promoteefficiencyin productionprocesses of economic in the process reducewastefulconsumption needsof growth. sumerlegislationand environmental pr o(c) E ncouragi ngspeci fi c consumer-ori ented systems.21 Governments. into clearindicatorsin order mentsshouldbe transformed and decisionmakers. may improve. should develop criteria and imof environmental for the assessment methodologies throughoutthe full life pacts and resourcerequirements Results of thoseassesscycle of productsand processes. (b) To developa domesticpolicy frameworkthat will patternsof produca shift to more sustainable encourage tion and consumption: sustainable (c) To reinforceboth valuesthat encourage production and consumption patternsand policies that encouragethe transfer of environmentally sound technologiesto developingcountries.should strive to meet the folappropriateorganizations.24 Without the stimulusof pricesand market signals 33 . (c) Assistingdevelopingcountriesto use thesetechsuited nologiesefficiently and to developtechnologies particular circumstances. (b) Making consumers awareof thehealthandenvironmentalimpact of products. to their (d) Encouraging sounduseof new the environmentally of energy. should therefore and environefficient in an economically and resources mentally soundmannerby: (a) Encouraging of existingenvironthe dissemination mentallysoundtechnologies. combined conscious consumer environmentally with increasedintereston the part of someindustriesin providing environmentallysoundconsumerproducts. throughsuchmeansas conlabelling. consumers of an in4. AND HOUSEHOI.together with the private sector. (c) Encouraging of moreenvironmenthe introduction tally soundproducts.72 T\ey should also encourage the emergence formed consumer public and assist individuals and informedchoicesby: households to makeenvironmentally (U Providinginforrnation of conon the consequences sumption choices and behaviour so as to encourage soundproductsand use of demandfor environmentally products. o u s e h ol ds to G ov er nm ent s . and w i th i n d u s trv h .in cooperationwith industry and expansionof other relevantgroups.

significant changes in consumptionand productionpatterns seemunlikely to occur in the near future.It requiresthe comb i n e d e f f o r t s o f G o v e r n m e n t s . This processshould be encouraged in the light of country-specific conditions. deposit/refundsystems. 4. an assessment o1' the progress achieved in developingthesenationalpolicies and strategies shouldbe given due consideration.c o n s u m e r sa n d producers.materialsand natural resourcesand the generationof wastes. such as positive advertising of products and services that utilize environmentally sound technologies or encourage sustainable production and consumptionpatterns. 34 . F) RETNFORC'NG VALUES THAT SUPPORT SUSIA'NA8 [F CONS ION UMPT 4.In the review of the implementation of Agenda21. These instrumentsinclude environmental chargesand taxes. ness programmesand other means.25 Someprogress hasbegunin the useof appropriate economicinstruments to influenceconsumer behaviour.etc.27 This programme is concerned primarily with changesin unsustainable patternsof consumptionand productionand valuesthat encourage sustainable consumptionpatternsand lifestyies.26 Governmentsand private-sectororganizations should promote more positive attitudestowards sustainableconsumption public awarethrougheducation.Particular attention should be paid to the significant role played by women and householdsas consumers and the potentialimpactsof their combined purchasing power on the economy.that makeclear to producersand consumers the environmentalcostsof the consumptionof energy. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION 4.

regional and national in- 35 .5 million are located along the world coasts. The world's populationis expected to exceed8 billion by the year 2020.resource use. . Populationpolicy should also recognizethe role played by human beings in environmental and developmentconcerns.appropriate technology dissemina- ACTIVITIES > Reseorch demogrophictrends on the inferoctionbefween ond foctorsond sustoinoble development 5.Rapidly growing crties. Sixty per cent of the world'spopulation while alreadylive in coastal areas.'elopment relationship. Such policics shor"rld address ttrelinkages clfdemographic trends andfactors.4 to mitigateboth the adverseimpact on the environmentof human activities and the adverse impactof environmental changeon human populations. The increase in boththe numberandsizeof cities calis fbr greater attention to issues of local govemment and mr"rnicipal management. 65 per cent of cities with populations above2.3 The growthof world population andproduction complacesinpatterns bined with unsustainable consumption creasingly severe stress on thelife-supporting capacities of processes our planet. These interactive affecttheuseof land. unless well-managed.5 The following objectives should be achievedas soonas practicable: (a) To incorporate demographic trendsand factorsin the global analysis of environment issues.'eloprnent at the local level. FOR BASIS ACTION -5. and development.The human dimensions are key element-s to consider in thisintricatesetof relationships and ther shouldbe adequately takeninto consideration in compoliciesfor sustainable prehensive development.s.air. \\'ater.6 Relevant international. sustainable (b) Fornrulatingintegratednational policies for env ir onm ent and d e v e l o p me n t.ta k i n g i n to a ccount demographic trendsand factors. (c) To assess humanvulnerabilityin ecologicallysensitive areasand centresof populationto determinethe priorities for action at all levels.technology. PROGRAMM A E REAS AND DtSSErYilNAIlNG Al DEVETOPTNG THETINKSBETWEEN KNOIA/IEDGE CONCERNING DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND FACTORS AND NABLE DEVETOPMENT SUSTAI [ion. 1 This chapter contains thefollowing prograrnme areas: (a) Developing knowledge anddisseminating concerning thelinks between demographic trendsandfactorsand development.naturalresources and life supportsystems.face major environmental prohlems.There is a need to increaseawareness of this issueamongdecisionmakers at all levels and to provide both better information on which to base national and internationalpolicies and a tramework againstwhich to interpretthis information.e n v i r o n m e n t a n d prograrrunes der.severalof thern are alreadyat or below the presentsealevel. OBJECTIVES 5. energyand other resources.taking full accountof community-defined needs. anddevelopment (b) To developa betterunderstanding of the relationships among demographicdynamics. 'Ihere is a needto developstrategies 5.1 Demographictrends and factors and sustainable have a synergistic der.cultural behaviour.Demogrophic dynomics ond sustoinobility -5. taking into accountdemographic trendsand factors. ( c ) I m p l e m e n t i n g i n t e g r a t e d .

These are indicative nitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Actualcostsandfinancialterms. for action and developing (c) Identifying priority areas impact to mitigatetheadverse andprogrammes strategies andvice on humanpopulations' change of environmental versa. will dependupon.15 Efforts should be intensified to enhancethe t he capaci ti esof nati onal and l ocal governm ent s. AND /NFORMATION c) DEVELOP'NG AWARFNESS PUBLIC information should be 5 . ing any that are non-concessional. dimensionsof environmentalchange and. anddeveloping from both the industrialized appropriate. scientificjoumals. learningfrom local communities' shouidbe developed. as well as global behaviouralindicators. 5. processes.regional and national researchnetfirst. access andtheir effective. in organizations private sectorand non-governmental developingcountriesto meet the growing needsfor of rapidly growingurbanareas.per capitaresource demographic and wealth distribution.d e m o g r a p h i c with physiformatfor interfacing in a suitable developed spaCompatible data. the specific implementation.7 The Conference secretariathas estirnatedthe of implementing total annualcost (1993-2000) average to be about programme $10 million the activitiesof this or concesgrant on from the internationalcomrnunity order-of-magand sional terms. second. cal. 1 0S o c i o . ongoingstudyof environmental tise of international.particularly through women's healthcare primary andreproductive to education. perceptions at all ievelsconcernbe increased should 5. and attitudes. s. 5.local communities. of communityexperience full account gainedin multithe experience and shoulddisseminate and in linking theoryto action.stitutionsshould considerundertakingthe following activities: (a) Identifying the interactionsbetweendemographic natural resourcesand life support systems.economicindependence programme in all levelsof decision-making. for decideupon Governments AND/ORENHANCING D) DEVELOPING AND COLLABORAI'ON .16 Existing plans for sustainable generallyrecognizeddemographictrendsand factors as 36 . participation equitable 5.nonand scientific institutions) governmentalorganizations as countries. NATIONAL INTEGRATED B) FORfrTULATING AND DEVETOPMENT' FOR ENVIRONMENT POTICIES TR. and programmes strategies inter alia. bearing in mind regional and subregionalvariations deriving from.ENDS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DEMOGRAPHIC AND FACTORS ACTION BASIS FOR developmenthave 5. the media. count the development needs of the populations of countries. workshops.v shouldbe developed. forums or other meansso that the information can be used awareness.regionalandnational (including the private sector. approaches disciplinar.to identify vulnerableareas . inter alia.8 In order to integrate and on environment perspective broadersocialscience shouldbe inresearch interdisciplinary development. creased.t2 Awareness linkagesbetweenimproving the statusof women and demographicdynamics. developing of the fundamental shouldbe increased 5. atall levelstoincreasepublic makers by decision OF IMPLEMENTATION MEANS AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F'NANC'NG 5.NSI/IUIIONAICAPAC'IY of informationshould and exchange 5.biologicalandsocio-economic andtime-series andcross-country scales tial andternporal infbrmation.to studythehuman worksandof localcommunities. POPU INTEGRAIE THAT AND DEVELOPMENT analysisinto a demographic 5.taking expertsshouldenhance andknowledge. Internationalinstitutionsand networks of their scientiflccapacity.13 Results of researchconcernedwith sustainable throughtechissuesshouldbe disseminated development nical reports.9 Bettermodellingcapabilities identifying the range of possibleoutcomesof current human activities.as well as the major migration flows that may be expectedwith increasingclimatic that may change eventsandcumulativeenvironmental destroypeople'slocal livelihoods. into the trendsand t-actors (b) Integratingdemographic usingthe experchange. improvedmanagement PROGRAMMES RESEARCH B/ SIRENGIHEN'NG ENYIRONMENI LAT'ON.11 Awareness useof resources ing the needto optimizethe sustainable taking into acthrough efficient resourcemanagement.includGovernments.especiallythe interrelatedimpact of use trendsand factors.different I eveIs of deveIopment.14 Collaboration be increasedbetweenresearchinstitutions and internaandall othersectors agencies tional.

and on householdincome generation.policy and decision-making processes should policiesand programmes shouldbe continue. 5. IRENDS AND FACIORS DEMOGRAPH'C 5.migrants. 5. But in future. such as water and land. tal factorsinteractwith socio-economic factorsasa cause of migration.threatened by the environmental effectsof demographictrendsandfactors. sexand agein order to takeinto accountthe implicationsof the genderdivision of labour for the useand management of naturalresources.incorporatingboth currentand projected demographicdata linked to natural environmentalprocesses. refugees.while at the sametime incorporating transition.goodhealth.2t1 Population data shouldbe disaggregated by.ranging from educationalexpensesfor the young to health care and supportfor the elderly.esF. ethnic minorities. women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts on sustainable development shouldbe identified.22 An assessment shouldbe madeof the implications of the agestructure of the populationon resource demand and dependency burdens. in particular municipalmanagement and local govenrment.elementsthat have a critical influenceon consumption production. of women'srights. and environmentalfactors such as ecosystemhealthand biodiversity.NIO POLICIES AND PIANS policies. Population with full recognition considered.19 The relationships between demographic trendsand factorsand environmental changeand between environmentaldegradation and the components of demographic changeshouldbe analysed. shouldbedesigned the consequences of populationgrowth built into population momentum. and report on their status of implementation to the International Conference on Populationand Developmentto be held in 1994. will haveto be given bility. 5.25 Nationaldatabases on demographic trendsand factors andenvironmentshouldbe built and/orstrengthened. They will alsoneedto formulate and implement policies and action prograrnmes Policies to address whereappropriate.for improved needs. 5. viduals and communities. particularlyin areassubjectto environmental stress and in deteriorating urbancentres.29 In formulatinghumansettlements 37 . 5.27 Case-studies of local level responses by different groupsto demographic dynamicsshouldbe developed. OBJECTIVE of populationconcemsinto national 5. ACTIVITIES andotherrelevantactorscould.and population/environment profilesshouldbe established by region.26Methodologies and instruments should be developedto identify areaswhere sustainability is.lifestylesand long-term sustainapatterns.inter 5.17 Full integration planning. or may be. They measures to bring about demographic concerns and population shouldcombineenvironmental issueswithin a holistic view of developmentwhose primary goalsinclude the alleviationof povertli secure livelihoods. A/ ASSESS/NG THEtMPt-tCArlONS OF NAI/ONAI. B) BUILDING AND SIRENGIHENING A NAI/ONAT/NFORMATION SASE 5.21 Vulnerablepopulationgroups(such as rural landless workers.24 The impact of national demographictrends and factors on the traditional livelihoods of indigenous groups and local communities.with appropriate assistance from aid agencies.quality of life.including changesin traditional land usebecause of internal populationpressures. shouldbe conducted 5. disaggregating databy ecological region(ecosystem approach).aswell asfulfilment and empowerment of indiof their personal aspirations. undertake the following activities. Recognizingthat large increases in the size and number of cities will occur in underany likely populationscenadeveloping countries rio. inter alia.rrore attention to these issuesin generalpolicy formulation and the plans.20 Research on how environmen- CJ /NCORPORAI/NG DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES .account 5. improvement of the status and income of women and their accessto schooling andprofessional training. 5.ecially to its committeeon populationand environment. will To do this"all countries designof development to assess the envihave to improve their own capacities ronment and developmentimplicationsof their demographictrendsand f-actors. andspecial attentionshouldbe given to critical resources. shouldbe studied.23 An assessment should also be made of national populationcarryingcapacityin thecontextof satisfaction of humanneeds andsustainable development. greater attention shouldbe givento preparing for the of womenandchildren. 5.I 8 Governments alia.displaced people.

amongGovemments. dignity and personally held and imvalues of individuals should be established plemented.40 Inter-agencysupport for nati onal sust ainable developmentpolicies and programmesshould be improved through better coordination of population and environment activities.38 The capacityof national.regionaland local structrends turesto deal with issuesrelatingto demographic and factorsand sustainable development shouldbe enhanced. mentalmigrantsanddisplaced 5.41 The international andregionalscientificinstitutions should assist Governments. attention population literacy programmes.37 Understanding of the interactions graphictrendsand factorsand sustainable development shouldbe increased in all sectors of society. notably for women. or induceenvironmental groups.32 Appropriatesocio-economic and the elderly. shouldbe takenof resource h e a l th .30 The direct and induced effects of demographic programmes changes on environmentand development be integrated. Specialemphasisshould be placed on the linkage between these programmes. on demographic 5 .33 Policiesand programmes that resultfrom handlingthe varioustypesof migrations with specialattendisruptions. local communities should. int e r a l i a . 3 1N a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n p o l i c y g o a l s a n d p r o with nationalenvironment grammes that areconsistent plansfor sustainability and in keepand development ing with the freedom.to include concerns regarding interacthe population/environment tions at the global. upon. inwill depend cluding any that are non-concessional. as appropriate. ecosystem and micro-levelsin the training of demographers and populationand environment specialists.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments.39 The capacityof therelevantUnited Nationsor€ans. environment Particular shouldbe given to education sectors.wasteproduction and needs. INSI'IUI/ONS C/ SIRENGIHEN'NG 5. th e s p e c i fi c s tra te gi esand programmesGovernments decide upon for implementat ion. D) PROMOI'NG HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 5. B/ RA/S/NG AWARENESS OF DEMOGRAPHTC A ND S USIA /N A 8 T D /NIIE RA C I/ON S FE VE L O P M EN betweendemo5. and regionalinterorganizations and bodies. Training should include researchon linkagesand ways to designintegrated strategies. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai F/NANC/NG h a s e sti matedthe 5. features assessed. as appropriate. to environpeople. in termsof both family and statesupport systems.international govemmental non-governmental organizations and bodies.upon request.should be in the programmes for sustainable developincorporated and regionalinstitutions. nationalresearch governmentalorganizations and local communitiesin problemsand evaluatingpoliciesshould also assessing be enhanced.Stress should tln local andnationalaction. and the impact should. policiesfor the young 5.34 Demographic vironmentalmigrants and displacedpeople.whereappropriate. ec os y s t e m 5. TAKING INTO ACCOUNTDEMOGRAPHIC TRENDSAND FACTORS BASIS FORACTION 5. for shouldbe developed 5.-15National reviews shouldbe conducted policiesin nationaldevelopment and grationof population strategies shouldbe monitorednationally. Cooperation noninstitutions.primary environmental care and the provision of primary health care and services.42 Population programmes are more effective when 38 . ment o1' relevantinternational and the inte5.This would involve strengthening the relevant bodiesresponsible for populationissuesto enablethem to el aboratepol i ci es consi stentw i th th e nat ional prospects for sustainabledevelopment. shouldbe developed. Demographic be placed and sustainable developmenteducation should be coordinatedand integrated in both the formal and non-formal cl rrvlPtEMENTtNG TNTEGRATED ENVIRONTVIENT AND DEVETOPMENT PROGRAM'VIES AT THE LOCAT LEVEL. Actual costs and financial terms. 5.be enhancedto policieson helpcountries developsustainable development provideassistance requestand. 5. 36 T he C o n fe re n c es e c re ta ri a t cost(1993-2000) ol implementing average total annual of thisprogramme to be about$90 million the activities from the international community on grant or concessionalterms. tion to women and vulnerable for enincludingconcerns concerns.

as appropriate.To attainsustainability demographictrends framework is neededthat integrates health.in keeping held values. should.Integrated environmental ment programmes should closely correlate action on demographictrends and factors with resourcemanagement activities and developmentgoals that meet the needsof the peopleconcemed. strategies tional plans. family welfare.economic of opportunities takeadvantage gains for women and their families. in specific rooted are solutions process. national and workshops regional views womenand of that process ensure should ate. thatachieve mitigating adverseimpactsof economicdevelopment.-50 with country-spein accordance as a matterof urgency. PROMOTE THAT PROGRAMMES B) SUPPORIING AND IRENDS CHANGES IN DEMOGRAPHIC IAINABILITY SUS TOWARDS FACIORS 5. process drawing consultative as appropriseminars. shouldtakeactivesteps Governments 5.dignity and person- 39 . including and national women's organizations community-based non-governmentalorganizations.especiallyits committeeon populationand environment. to ensure measures cific conditionsand legal systems. potential suringtheinvolvementof groupswith a special development.famtion.Population proand with socio-economic grammesshouldbe consistent developsustainable planning. labour-saving Populatunities and participationin decision-rnaking.consistentwith naand priorities. techand factors with suchfactors as ecosystem and with socio-economic nology andhumansettlements.46 Nationally determined to special attention programmes.49 Reproductivehealth programmesand services to be developedand enhanced should.women'sreproductive primary programmes. and avoiding long-term demographictrendsand f'actors to secure Food security. as appropriate. and environmental Empowermentof women is essentialand should be trainingandpoliciesto accord througheducation. and improvewomen'sright and access job oppormeasures. and civil rights. appropriate. as careandwomen'semployment environmental be includedamongotherfactors. with multifaceted and in critical areas people poorest living to the women. right in keepingwith their freedom. ACTIVITIES 5. structures and access to resources. 5. undertake assistanceand cooperation of international otganizations.48 Specialattentionshouldbe givento the criticalrole and programmes of women in population/environment should development. sustainable of life of the people and enhanceenvironmentalquality.45 An effectiveconsultative groups of society with concerned implemented lishedand of all comwherethe formulationand decision-making are basedon a nationwide ponentsof the programmes on community meetings. groups in this priority be should underprivileged and policies for integrated 5. the activitiessetout below with the inter alia.implemented together with appropriate cross-sectoral at the iocal level.43 Population programmesshould be implemented along with natural resourcemanagementand development programmes at the local level that will ensure improvethe quality useof naturalresources. and reducematernal and infant mortalityfrom all causes aspirations womenandmento fulfil theirpersonal enable with theirfreedomand in termsof family size. 5. health. socio-economic and male female to closethe gapbetween be undertaken illiteracyrates. for changeand sustainable to act asagents shouldbe placedon thoseprogrammes Specialemphasis g sustainabl e encouragin multipleobjectives. ento other vulnerablegroupsshouldbe implemented. assured human to assets. that women and rnenhave the sameright to decidefreely and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their education to the information. men on and that well reflectedin the design of programmes. This are equally constraints perspectives and needs. childrenandto haveaccess this themto exercise to enable asappropriate. dignity and personally to implement. reforestation ily credit schemes. to be held in 1994.Projects in achievingsustainable to link social. poor and The experience.basicshelter.could. programmesmust enable women to tion/environment to alleviatetheir burden and immobilize themselves prove their capacityto participatein and benefit from should Specificmeasures development.objectives.access damage. FOR ACIION A FRAMEWORK A] DEVELOP'NG process shouldbe estab5. a new policies. OBJECTIVE 5.Governments could share their of Agenda 2l at the in the implementation experience International Conference on Population and Development. and essential tenure.44 Governmentsand local communities.41 An analyticalframework should be developedto develof sustainable elements identify complementary to opment policiesas well as the nationalmechanisms monitor and evaluatetheir etfbcts on population dynamics. andmeans. environmental educainfrastructure.

itwill benecessary to establish prioritiesbetween proposed areas of research. as appropriate.58 Research shouldbe undenaken with a view to developingspecificactionprograrnmes.culturallybased information and education programmes that transmit reproductivehealthmessages to men and women that are easilyunderstood shouldbe developed.Actual costsand financial terms.ally held values. 5. at leastduring the first four monthspost-partum. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 5.55 Coordination shouldbe improvedat local andinternationallevels.53 Constituencies andinstitutional conditions to facilitatetheimplementation of demographic activities should. In developing theseappropriate institutional conditions.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.religious and traditional authorities. will dependupon. inter alia.the private sectorand the national scientific community.60 Understanding of socioculturaland political factors that can positively influence acceptance of appropriate populationpolicy instruments shouldbe improved. 5.64 Educational materials. national and international population/environment programmes in line with specific needsfor achieving sr"rstainability. education and information on health and responsible parenthood. Where appropriate. C ) H U MA N R E S OU R C E D E V E LOP ME N T AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 5.54 Populationassistance should be coordinated with bilateralandmultilateraldonorsto ensure that population needsand requirementsof all developing countriesare addressed. Programmes shouldfully support women'sproductiveand reproductive roles and wellbeing.institutional changesmust be implemented so that old-age security does not entirely dependon input from family members. Working practicesshouldbe enhanced in order to make optimum use of resources. safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable.for the responsible planning of family size. 5. 5. accessibleservices. 5. This requires support and commitment from political. should be undertaken. includingguides/workbooks for planners and decision makers and other actors of 40 .includingany that are non-concessional. with particular attention to theeducation and training of women. countries shouldcloselyinvolve established nationalmachineryfor women.with specialattentionto the needfor providing equaland improvedhealthcarefor all childrenandthe needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortalitv and sickness.62 The areas of humanresource development and capacity-building.59 Socio-demographic research should be conducted on how populations respond to a changingenvironment. 5.52 Consistent with nationalpriorities.taking into accountethicaland cultural considerations. 8/ RESEARCH 5. including pre-natalcare. indigenous.reflecting variations among different socio-economicgroups and variations in diff-erentgeographicalregions.56 Proposalsshould be developedfor local.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. 5. UNFPAandotherrelevant agencies should strengthen the coordinationof internationalcooperation activitieswith recipientand donor countriesin order to ensurethat adequatefunding is available to respondto growing needs. coND/r.63 Workshops to help programme and project managersto link populationprogrammes to other development and environmental goalsshouldbe conducted. the specific strategies and programmesGo'rernments decideupon for implementation.Programmesshould focus on providing comprehensive health care. in keeping with freedom.61 Surveys of changes in needs for appropriate services relatingto responsible planningof family size.oNs 5. 5. and shouldprovide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully.dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking into accountethicaland culturalconsiderations. 5.51 Governments should take active stepsto implement programmesto establishand strengthen preventive and curative health facilities that include womencentred. including about $3. are areasof critical importance and are a very high priority in the implementation of populationprogrammes.as appropriate. C) CREATING APP ROPRIATE'NSI/IUI'ONAI.women-managed.be fostered.draw on collectiveexperience andimprovethe irnplementation of programmes. 5.fully respecting the overall coordinating responsibility and the choice and strategiesof the recipientcountries.57 The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementingthe activitiesof this prograrnme to be about $7 billion.

City.8 . l .66 The recofiImendationscontained in this chapter at the Internashould in no way prejudicediscussions tional Conferenceon Population and Development in 1994. 8 4 . Developmentand Peace. held in Nairobi in 1985.r ference on Population.h o p .programmes.6-14 August 1984 lUnitedNotionspublicotion.Developmentond Peoce. 'Report 4l . l5-26 July 1985 (United N o t i o n sp u b l i c o t i o n S . and similar institutions outside the region. E . population/environment/development should be developed.2adoptedby the World Conferenceto Review and Appraise the Achievementsof the United Nations Decadefor Women: Equality.65 Cooperationshould be developedbetweenGovernments. clh E. 2 of the World Conference to Reviewond Approise the Report Achievements of the United Nofions Decode for Women: Equolity. on Populotion.84. Cooperationwith local or:ganizations engageln should be fosteredin order to raise awareness. demonstration projects and report on the experience gained.A. for the Advancementof the Forward-looking Strategies Women. o l e sN o . scientific institutions and non-govemmentalorganizationswithin the region. 5.l .Xlll. which will be the appropriateforum for dealing with population and development issues. sect. o p . | V . Noirobi. 1 0 ) c. 5. taking into of the InternationalConaccountthe recommendations and held in Mexico City in 1984.Mexico of the lnternationol Conference SolesNo.

tual . rural areas: (b) Control of communicable diseases.3 Healthultimatelydepends betweenthe physical. It is alsodependent ly contributingto suchdevelopment. it is dependent basicneedsandobjectives while directdevelopment.including housing.with respect gardingresponsible in keepingwith for cultural.which in tum causesor it is the Conversely. 6.which can be alleviatedonly The health sector cannot meet through development. economic andspiritual social. intersectoral public works andcommunitygroups.1 Health and development leadingto povnected.dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking also into account ethical and cultural considerations. many healthproblems. are aimed at enablingpeople and cultural c>rganizations.Both insufficientdevelopment resultingin overcondevelopment erty andinappropriate world population. and religious. A! 'YTEEnNG IN RURATAREAS PARNCUTARIY FOR ACTION BASIS on the ability to manage 6. on on its own. PRITVIARY HEALTHCARENEEDS.Particular should be directed towards food safety.heolth humon ond promoting Protecting INTRODUCTION P R O G R A M MA ER E A S are intimatelyintercon6. to ensure in their communities Particularlyrelevantis the inclusionof preventionproand grarrrmes ratherthan relying solely on remediation ought to developplansfor priority treatment.civic schoolsand universities businesses. i mmuni zati on and pro vision of reservices essential drugs.yet most developmental environmentto some degree. with priority complacedon the eliminationof food contamination. vulnerable (d) Meetingthe urbanhealthchallenge.and promotion of heal th educati on.including the provisionof a safewater supply and sanitationand the promotion of a attention safefood supplyandpropernutrition. coupledwith an expanding sumption. should coordinatethese activities. on a healthyenvironment. sustainable development. pollution (e) Reducing healthrisksfrom environmental and hazards. prehensive waterpoliciesto ensuresafe andsustainable to precludeboth microdrinking water and sanitation bial and chemical contamination. (c) Protecting groups. health problemsin can result in severeenvironmental both developingand developednations. Action items the primary healthneeds underAgenda2l must address of the world's population.such as WHO. The linkageof health. bi ol ogi cal and economi ci soci al Sound developmentis not possiblewithout a healthy activitiesaffect the population.enprimary environmental requires improvements vironmental and socio-economic efforts.Educationand appropriate planningof family size. exacerbates affects thehealth adversely very lack of developmentthat conditionof many people. Suchefforts.sincethey are integralto the and development of thegoaisof sustainable achievement care. activities.2 The fbllowing programme areasare contained in this chapter: particularlyin (a) Meeting primary healthcare needs.Countries in this chapteq areas actions.involving education. and local communities. freedom.spirisuccessfully the interaction envir onm ent .religiousand socialaspects. An appropriateintemational organization. contributeto theseintersectoral 42 . drawingon the programme planningby the various which are basedon cooperative organizations non-governmental levels of government.

peri-urban and urbanpopulations. provision increase of socialservices suppon.5 National Governments and local authorities. scientifi cally sound. (xi) Promote and strengthencommunity-based rehabilitation activities for the rural handicapped. (iii) Conduct researchinto traditional knowledge of preventiveand curativehealthpractices.includingany that are non-concessional. C ) H U MA N R E S OU R C DE E V E LOP MFN I 6. (ii) Conductenvironmental healthresearch.6 The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedthe average total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this programmeto be about $40 billion. relevant non-health sectors social. including reliablehealth indicators. including behaviour researchand researchon ways to increase coverage and ensure greater utilization of servicesby peripheral. B) SUPPORT RESEARCH ANDMFIHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT (i) Establish mechanisms for sustained communityinvolvementin environmental healthactivities. (vii) Promotehealtheducationin schools. including about $5 billion fiom the international community on grantor concessional terms. with specialattention to rural needs. Actual costsandfinancial terms. includingthe maintenance and repair of equipment usedin healthcare. sociall-v" acceptableand appropriateto their needs and that meet basic health needsfor clean water.7 New approaches to planningand managinghealth caresystems and facilitiesshouldbe tested. where appropnate. to monitortheprogress andevaluate theeffectivenessof healthprogrammes. A) BU|LD MONTTORTNG BASTC HEALTH TNFRASTRUCTURES.should strengthen their healthsectorprogramrnes.including optimization of the appropriate useof community financial and humanresources.particularlyin rural areas. specific conditionsand needs.4 Within the overall strategyto achievehealth for all by the year 2000. Effortsto 43 . community-based. will dependupon. and in communities and relevantorganizations.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. includingcommunication methods and educational materials. safe food and sanitation. (vit Explorewaysto financethe healthsystem based on the assessment of the resources neededand identify the variouslinancingalternatives. as appropriateto good preventionservicesand healthcare. Supportinitiativesfor self-management of servgroups. (ii) Supportthe useand strengthening of mechanisms that irnprove coordinationbetweenhealth and related sectorsat all appropriate levels of government. coverage shouldbe As a matterof priority. AND PLANNING SYSTEMS: (i) Developandstrengthen primaryhealthcaresystems thatarepractical. icesby vulnerable (ix) Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into nationalhealthsystems.the healthsector. (v) Develop strategies. to provide the necessaryspecialized environmental health services. to: MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 6. inter alia.information exchange. ACTIVITIES 6.OBJECTIVES 6.Programmes to facilitate the transferand sharingof infonnation and expertise shouldbe developed.healthservice need.8 Intersectoralapproachesto the reform of health personnel development shouldbe strengthened to ensure its relevance to the "Health for All" stratesies. The developmentof scientificallysound health technologyshould enhance adaptabilityto local needsand maintainabilityby community resources. underserved and vulnerablepopulations.educational in solutions andreligiousinstitutions) to healthproblems. (x) Promotethe provisionsfor necessary logisticsfor outreach activities. with the supportof relevantnon-governmental organizations and international in the light of countries' organizations. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideuponfbr implementation. the objectivesare to meet the basic healthneedsof rural. B/ sC/ENTIFIC AND TECHNOLAGICAL MEANS 6.and to coordinatethe involvementof citizens. (iii) Developand implementrationaland affordable approaches to theestablishment andmaintenance of health fac ilit ies : (iv) Ensureand. as appropriate. technicalsupportand training. and research on ways of integratingappropriatetechnologiesinto health infrastructures supported. the health-related sectors and (business.particuachieved for populationgroupsin greatest larly thoseliving in rural areas. (viii.

values and taking held personally and freedom. eitheras an integralpart of primary measures.g Govetnmentsshould consider adopting enabling of to promotethe participation and facilitatingstrategies to in addition needs. community phasison skills in effectivecommunication. UNESCO. are the only component. includecholera. changeshould and facilitationof behaviour organization be developedin order to preparethe local personnelof for carrying all sectorsinvolved in social development with the eduroles. polio. one at least by years five under fectionsin children particularlyin countrieswith high infant mortality.the delivery of health proand grammesat the district level. supportclf referral DISEASES OF CO. standards.practicaltrainingprograrnmes Intensive. religious and social aspects. the health-care dwarfed by the indirect costsof the pandemic. of in terms country situationof each with respectfor priorities and availability of resources.to eliminateguineaworm disease (dracunculiasis).diarrhoeal envithe such instances. healthcareor undertaken disease control overall of component an indispensable togetherwith health and hygieneeducation. By the year 2000.the incidence least 25 to 50 percent. D) CA P AC IT Y-B U IL D IN G 6. and the development services. In all laria and schistosomiasis. is production fectedwhere OBJECTIVES 6. non-governmental number of cluding but not limited to thoselistedbelow) are recommendedfor implementationby all countrieswhere they to the specific adaptation with appropriate areapplicable.mainly with the loss of income and decreased costsassociated productivity of the worktorce. In cooperation out their respective cation sector. virtually attendedby UNI CEF (i ncl udi ng W H O .The pandemicwill inhibit growth of the service and industrial sectorsand signifiand thecostsof humancapacity-building cantlyincrease afparticularly is sector retraining.to providehealthandhygiene to safedrinkingeducationand to ensureuniversalaccess of excreta measures sanitary to access wateranduniversal waterborne diseases reducing markedly thereby disposal. strategies. at by countries rhoeain developing pro(f) By the year 2000.11 With socio-economic the year 2000. A major focus should be the preparationof workers to health and health-related community-based education' health in community role an active assume andthe mobilization work.10 Advances communicable many brought have agents motherapeutic under control. and women for increasingly and all countries. and supply water the field of maleishmaniasis. in keeping with cultural.\IIVIUNICABLE B) CONTROT FOR ACTION BASIS andcheof vaccines in the development 6. in somecases. However. and blindness) ciasis deathsby 95 per cent (d) By 1995. (b) By the year 2000. and. to to increase levelsestimated infection HIV 6. ronmental form outsidethe healthsector. phasing. (a) By the year2000.to eradicate control onchocer(c) By the year 2000.dignity goalsthat Additional considerations.skills at the distnct level shouldbe managerial enhance develthe systematic with the aim of ensuring supported. diseases. social team on with emphasis proNational workers. there remain many diseases for which environimportant communicablediseases in especially indispensable.Protection plans should action national-level Such in the 1990s). by the 30-40 million for to be devastating is expected impactof the pandemic children.t public the within from monitored be coordinated and goals are: major Some healthsector. are measures mentalcontrol diseases Such sanitation. costs While directhealth . reducing: and suchas choleraand schistosomiasis from child(i) By the year2000. The agricultural labour-intensive.the numberof deaths to 70 per by 50 countries in developing hood diarrhoea cent: of childhooddiar(ii. systems health district cover grammesshould peri-urbanand rural areas. N ati ons organi zati ons a and Bank) World the and UNDP UNFPA.to redttcemeasles with per 90 cent compared by cases and reducemeasles level s pre-immunization : (e) By continued effbrts. ethical into account situation specific a country's to relevant particularly are plan action of national in the country's shouldbe added the World Declaration (Planof Action for Implementing of Children andDevelopment on the Survival. own their in meeting cclmmunities health-care provision of the to support providing direct services. to eff-ectively (river leprosy. development support of other in urban. opmentandefficient operationof the basichealthsystem' with emshort. (inGoals organizations.12 A numberof goalshavebeenformulatedthrough forums in variousinternational extensiveconsultations United relevant all Governments. to initiate comprehensive inrespiratory acute from mortality grammesto reduce third. theywill be will be substantial. special health education progratrunes should be developedfbcusingon the role of women in system.

from a 1984baseline.respectively. suchasplanning.13 Each national Government. with appropriateinternationalassistance including.at a minimum.integratedvectorcontrol. assessment areasof professional development of control technology. a nationalhealthactionplan developing shouldconsider and support. (ii) Developguidelines in the foreffectivecoordination of risks and training.waterpollution control. THE INFLUENCE FACTORSTHAT ENVTRONMENTAL D) CONTROLOF ICABLE DISEASES: OFCOM/\AUN SPREAD Apply methodsfor the preventionand control of commuincluding water supply and sanitation nicable diseases. control. particular emphasison multiple antibiotic resistant forms. including about $900 million from the international 45 . of knowledge andknow-how.housingand agriculture. of communicable (iit Promote studiesto determinehow optimally to resultsfrom research: disseminate (iii) Ensuretechnical includingthe sharing assistance. sistent (iv) Vaccines disfor the preventionof communicable CASCS: ANDDISSEMINATION OFTECHNOLOGY G} DEVELOPMENT (a) Developnew technologies for the effectivecontrol diseases.14 The Conference secretariat age total annualcost ( 1993-2W0)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $4 billion. (l) To accelerateresearchon improved vaccines and implementto the fullest extentpossiblethe use of vacof disease.as well as a markedreductionin incidence. (ii) Carry out interventionstudiesto provide a solid for controlpolicies andto evaluate epidemiological basis the efficiencyof alternative approaches: (iii) Undertakestuclies in the populationand among health r. aggravation of communicable (iii) Interventionprogrammes. cinesin the prevention NATION : RATION ANDCOORDI C@PE C) INTERSECTORAL (i) Secondexperienced to relevant health professionals sectors. 0) To mobilize and unify national and international efforts againstAIDS to prevent infection and to reduce and socialimpact of HIV infection. including focusedefforts on the mitigation and environmentalcontrol of tropicaldiseases. including measures conwith the principlesof the globalAIDS strategy. behavioural and socialfactors on controlpolicies. irrigation sound environmentally E) PRIMARY HEALTH SYSTEM: CARE (i) Strengthen programmes. ACTIVITIES with 6.prioritiesandobjectives. to provide 95 per cent of the care to appropriate world's child populationwith access infectionswithin the communityand for acuterespiratory at first referral level. the following components: HEALTH SYSTEMS: PUBLIC A) NATIONAL (i) Programmesto identify environmentalhazardsin diseases. (h) By the year 2000.prevalenceand intensity of filarial infections. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION EDUCATION: TNFORMATION ANDHEALTH B) PUBLTC information on the Provide educationand disseminate and build risks of endemic communicablediseases of commethods forcontrol awareness on environmental play a role to to enablecommunities municablediseases diseases: in the control of communicable A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION hasestimated theaver6.(g) By the year 2000. spreador sure adequate diseases. prove capacities for early preventive/treatment (iii) Reduce the vulnerability to HIV infectionof women and their offspring.l'orkers to determinethe influence of cultural.garbage collectionand disposaland practices. to institute anti-malaria prowheremalariapresents a signigrammes in all countries ficant healthproblem andmaintainthe transmission-free statusof areasfreed from endemicmalaria.in accordance nationalplansfor public health.to implementcontrol programmes in countrieswhere major human parasiticinfections are endemic and achieve an overall reduction in the and of other trematode prevalenceof schistosomiasis infectionsby 40 per cent and25 per cent. on adequate and balanced emphasis (ii) Strengthenearly diagnosticprogrammesand imaction. (i) By theyear 2000. with particular prevention nutrition.food quality control. the personal with (k) To contain the resurgence of tuberculosis. of communicable the causation (ii) Monitoring systems data to enof epidemiological forecastingof the introduction. FOR RESEARCH ANDMETHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT F) SUPPORT (i) Intensifyand expandmultidisciplinary research.

and decision-makand societal ing levels should be gained. Thereforeit is not is important to ensurethat historicalexperience replicated. be paid to the health needsof the elderly and disabled population. colnmunicable and diarrhoea. indigenous VULNERABTE GROUPS c) PROTECTTNG FOR ACTION BASIS specific 6.19 INFANTS the world's populationare childrenunder 15 yearsold.and many children risk exploitationascheaplabouror in prostitution. IndigeANDTHEIR COMMUNITIES PEOPTE 6.youth.which often weakenstraditional forms of social supportessenof young people. birth asphyxia.relif-eandimprovsponsibly controllingtheir reproductive status. and four of every five live in developingcountries. ensure that young people can develop. countries. The advocacyat policy. malnutrition and generalill-health in women were even rising. These are only andhave estimates indicativeandorder-of-magnin"rde Actual costsand finot beenreviewedby Governments. Currentlymore than half of all peoplealive are underthe ageof 25.1 8 In additionto meetingbasichealthneeds. tal control should be adaptedto local developmental conditions. andcommunity in epidemiology of and the application biology immunology.20 YOUTH countries. andcontrolof communicable prevention andcontrol.The outcomesof havetended to be very similarin that the theirexperience with traditionallandshasbeen basisof their relationship fundamentallychanged. othersectors hazardsthrough environmental communicabledisease protection. banizationand changesin social moreshave increased transpregnancy andsexually substance unwanted abuse. At least l5 million of thesechildren die annuallyfrom such preventablecausesas birth trauma. malnutrition.They tend to featuredisproporpovertyand lack of housing. Most women in developingcountries opportunities basiceducational still do not haveadequate and they lack the meansof promoting their health.mentaland spiritualdevelopment). for peopleandthe very poor asa prerequisite indigenous sustainable development. D EV EL OP M EN T R E SOU R C E C) HUM AN should 6. Approximatelyone third of AND CHIIDREN 6.17 The healthsectorshoulddevelopadequate aswell asthe diseases. will non-concessional. tionatelyin unemployment.youth are particularly vulnerableto the problems associatedwith economic development. emphasishas to be given to protectingand educating vulnerablegroups. and during the 1980s poverty. and communitiesorganizedin developingself-reliance. the healthstatus 6.In many countries the numberof indigenous people is growing faster than the generalpopulation.molecular materials should be vaccines.22 INDIGENOUS makeup a significant nouspeopleandtheir communities percentage of the global population.particularlyinfants. women. diseases in the diarrhoeal D) CA PAC T T Y-B U IL D IN G dataon 6.16 Nationaland regionaltraininginstitutions prevention to approaches intersectoral Dromote broad includingtraining diseases. establishand maintainhealthylives. mitted diseases. Urtial for the healthydevelopment.23 The general objectives of protecting vulnerable groupsare to ensurethat all suchindividualsshouldbe allowed to develop to their full potential (including to healthyphysical. that are nancialterms.Particularattention ing their socio-economic careto ensure shouldbe givento theprovisionof prenatal healthybabies. to allow women to performtheir 45 .OG\C should in6. inter alia. acute respiratory infections. including AIDS.The health of children is affected diseases more severely thanotherpopulationgoups by malnutrition and adverseenvironmentalfactors.professional supportmobilized.21 woMEN In developing of women remainsrelativelylow.15 Efforts to preventand control diseases social and of the epidemiological. education new Health developedfor use by community workers and for the of and treatment for the prevention of mothers education home. clude investigations economic basesfor the developmentof more effective for the integratedcontrol of communational strategies of environmenmethods Cost-effective nicablediseases. of all As hasbeenthe historicalexperience 6.Specialattentionshouldalso OBJECTIVES 6.cofilmunity on grant or concessionalterms. the distributionof communicable institutionalcapacity to respondand collaboratewith of mitigationandcorrection for prevention. decideuponfor implementation. Thereforeit is importantto targethealth initiativesfor people.includingany proand strategies the specific depend upon. poor health. gmmmesGovemments ME ALA N S B / 5C/ F N IF tCA N D T EC H N O I.

Actual costs and financial terms. education. in cooperation with local and non-governmental organizations. as a matterof urgency.taking into accountethicaland cultural considerations.28 The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost ( 1993-2ffi0)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $3. Programmes shouldfocuson providing comprehensivehealth care. B} YOUIH: Strengthenservicesfor youth in health. immunization andnutrition progriimmes: (ii) Undertakewidespread adult educationon the use of oral rehydration therapy for diarrhoea. inter alia. basic educationand children in difficult circumstances. including pren atal care. at leastduring the first four rnonthspost-partum. educationand information on health and responsible parenthoodand should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully. includinghealtheducation and training in primary.24 Specific major goals for child survival.26 Governments should take active stepsto implementprogrammes to establish preventive and strengthen and curativehealthfacilitieswhich includewomen-centred. Supportingand sectoralgoals cover women's health and education. including about $400 million from the international communityon grant or concessional terms.21 NationalGovernments. to enablethem to exercisethis right in keepingwith their freedom. education and social sectors in order to provide better information. (ii) Integrate traditionalknowledgeand experience into healthsvstems. as appropriate. including pre-natal care. in keeping with freedom. home and maternalhealth care. 6. including any that are non-concessional. accessible services. in accordance with country-specific conditionsand legal systems. preventive and curativehealthservices. (iii) Carry out baseline surveys andknowledge.breast-feeding.water and sanitation. for the responsible planning of family size.key role in society. development and protection were agreed upon at the World Summit for Children and remain valid also for Agenda 21. piratory infections and prevention of communicabledisEASCS.and to support indigenouspeople through educational. 6. A) INFANTS AND CHILDREN: (i) Strengthen basichealth-care services for childrenin the context of primary health-care delivery. should initiate or programmes enhance in the following areas: A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 6. including drug abuse. counsellingand treatment for specifichealth problems. nutrition. c) WoMEN: (i) Involve women'sgroupsin decision-making at the national and community levels to identify health risks and incorporate health issues in national action programmeson women and development. measures to ensure that women and men have the sameright to decidefreely and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their children.amendmentand enforcement of a legal framework protectingchildren from sexualand workplace exploitation. dignity and personally held values and taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.will depend upon.25 Governments shouldtakeactivesteps to implement.as appropriate. child health. (ii) Provideconcrete incentives to encourage and maintain attendance of women of all agesat school and adult education courses. with specialattentionto the need for providing equal and improvedhealthcare for all children and the needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortality and sickness. the specific strategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. safe and effective reproductive healthcareandaffordable.dignity and personally held values.attitude andpracticestudies on thehealthandnutritionof women throughouttheir life cycle.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitlrde estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. (iv) Protect children from the effects of environmental and occupational toxic compounds. (iii) Promotethe creation. education and means.economic and technical opportunities. women-managed. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION ACTN''TES 6. especiallyas relatedto the impact of environmentaldegradationand adequate resources: D) INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COI4MUNITIES: (i) Strengthen.to haveaccess to theinformation. 6.through resourcesand self-management.Programmes shouldfully support women's productive and reproductiveroles and wellbeing.treatnent of res- 47 .7 billion.

29 Educational.populationetc. healthandresearch be strengthened to provide supportto improve the health of vulnerablegroups.Urban growth hasoutstripped society's capacityto meethumanneeds. (iii) Ensurethat public healttreducation in schools. workplace. housing and services. intercountry and interregional symposia and other meetings for the exchange of informationamongagencies and groupsconcerned with the health of children. housingand healthservice indicators. of education. women and non-governmental organizations and indigenouspeople in the health sector. many factorsthat affect humanhealthareoutside Improvements thehealthsector. with the appropriate supportof national Governments and intemation al organizations. DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCES 6.massmediaetc. business. Technical on preventive institutions supportshouldbe providedto Govemments.youth and women shouldincludereinforcepromotionof interactive mentof educational institutions. tuberculosis. wherenecessary: the organization of national.30 The development of humanresources for the health of children. Urban growth exposespopulationsto seriousenvironmental hazards and has outstripped the capacityof municipaland local A) DEVELOP ANDTMPLEMENT MUNtCtpAL ANDLOCAL HEALTH PLANS: (i) Establishor strengthen intersectoral committees at both the politicai and technicallevel. OBJECTIVES 6.health.33 Thehealthandwell-being of all urbandwellers must be improvedso that they cancontribute to economicand socialdevelopment.31 Governments shouldpromote. nurses. maternal mortality. religiousgroups.AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 8' SCIENIIFIC institutions should 6. The same rate of improvementshould be achievedfor environmental.midwives. diarrhoeaidiseases asindicators of inadequate water ratesof industrialand transportation and sanitation. healthcareproviders.urbandevelopmentis associated with destructive effects on thephysical environment andtheresource needed for sustainable base pollution in urbanareasis development. percentage of low-birth-weight newbomsand specificindicators(e. shouldbe encouraged to take effectivemeasures to initiate or strengthen the tollowing activities: D) ftTEETTNG THE URBAN HEATTH CHATTENGE BASIS FOR ACTION 632 For hundreds of millions of people. physicians.and socialandmoral values.socialand educational institutions and citizens.diets.is providedor strengthened. vouth. violenceand crime that indicateunderlyingsocialdisorders).usingnetworkingalrangements. includingactive collaborationon linkageswith scientific. ACTIVITIES 6. and social problems such as drug abuse. (ii) Adopt or strengthenrnunicipal or local "enabling "doing with" ratherthan"doing sffategies" that emphasize for" and createsupportive environments for health. Social research on the specific problemsof thesegroupsshouldbe expandedand methods for implementingflexible pragmaticsolutionsexplored. businesses. for youth. rnedical. thepoorliving conditions in urban and peri-urbanareasare destroying lives. 48 . youth. the education families of mothers.and (ii) women's organizations.social scientists and educators. In urban environments. acpossible cidents thatindicate opportunities for prevention of injury. women and indisenous peoples. D) CAPACTTY-BU\LD\NG (i) 6. methods of education for healthandincreased useof mass mediain disseminating informationto the targetgroups. in urban health thereforewill depend on coordinated actionby all levelsof government. women and indigenous people. All too often. leavinghundredsof millions of peoplewith inadequate incomes. meningitisand other diseases.cultural.with emphasis measures. youth groups people's andindigenous organizations to facilitatehealth and consult them on the creation. Environmental associated with excessmorbidity and mortality. Overcrowding and inadequate housing contributeto respiratory diseases.g.amendment and enforcement of legal frameworksto ensure a healthyenvironment for children. governments to provide the environmental health services that the peopleneed.tuberculosis asan indicatorof crowdedhousing. socialand other city institutions. The globalobjectiveis to achievea 10to 40 per centirnprovement in healthindicators by the year 2000. This requiresthe training of more community health workers. Theseincludethedevelopment of quantitative objectives f-or infant mortality.34 Local authorities. and communitiesand the strengthening of ministries health.religious.

requires and management betternationaland municipal on practical. El R. 8/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOG|CAL A4EANS 6. SOCTAL B) SURVEY IN CITIES.36 Decision-making models should be further developedandmore widely usedto assess the costsand the health and environment impactsof alternative technolin urbandevelopment Improvement ogiesand strategies.with little or no regardfor environmental There have been notableimprovements in some countries. includingabout$22 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms.(iv) Encourage communitiesto developpersonalskills of primary health care. the private sectorand universities. This is.in industry. Furthermore. training of municipal staff requiredfor healthy city proBasic and in-servicetraining of environmental cesses.39 In many locations around the world the general environment(air.37 Programmes and basic OBJECTIVES 6.or to standards which will have to be determinednationally. and for the application of and environmental this informationin planningand management.but deterioration of theenvironment continues.workplaces and even individual drvellingsare so badly polluted that the health of hundreds of millions of peopleis adversely affected.2Withort prejudiceto suchcriteria as may be agreedupon by the internationalcommunity. therecent analysisof WHO hasclearly established the interdependencearnongthe factorsof health.40 The overall objective is to minimize hazardsand 49 .includingany that are non-concessional.Theseareindicaonly andhavenot tive and order-of-magnitude estimates Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments.environment and developmentand has revealedthat most countriesare lacking such integration as would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism. RF S O U R C ES c ) HUM A N D EV EL OP M EN T must supplythe orientation 6.BUILDING WHERE NECESSARY THE EXTSTTNG HEALTH. will cial terms. healthpersonnel will alsobe needed. ttre specifrc strategies and pro.EDUCTNG HEATTH R|SKSFROM FOR POLLUTIONAND HAZARDS AND MAINTAIN NFIWORKS COTIABOR. it will beessential in all cases to considerthe systems of values prevailingin eachcounty andtheextent of theapplicability of standards that are valid for the most advanced countries but may be inappropriate andof unwarranted socialcostfor the developing countries. HEALTH SERVICES: C) STRENGTHEN ENVIRONMENTAL (i) Adopt healthimpact and environmental impact asprocedures. Capacitydevelopment shouldbe focusedon obtaining sufficient information. and awareness (v) Promoteand strengthen rehabilicommunity-based tation activitiesfor the urbanandperi-urbandisabledand the elderly. Govemments 6. standardized indicators. etc. D) CAPACITY. Considerable development-related environmental healthhazards existin thenewly industrializing countries.38 The programmeis aimed towards improved planning and management capabilities in the municipaland local governmentand its partners in centralGovernment. inter alia. Destatistics based velopmentof methodsis a priority for the measurement variations in healthstatus of intra-urban andintra-district conditions. making of and betteruse availableinstruments and resources for implementation. Pollutioncontrol andhealthprotectionmeasures haveoften not kept pace with economicdevelopment.in transportation protection.ATION ENVIRONMENTAL D} ESTABUSH CITY PRACNCE. ANDEXCHANGE OFMODELS OFGOOD BASIS FOR ACTION MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION Al F/NANCTNG AND COSTEVALUATTON hasestimatedthe aver6.. depend upon. INCLUDING ANDENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS DIFFERENCES. The ability of countriesto tackle pollution and health problems is greatly restrainedbecause of lack of resources. water and land). sessment (ii) Providebasic and in-servicetraining for new and existingpersonnel. grammes decideupon for implementation. energyproductionand use.35 The Conferencesecretariat age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $222 million. improvingcoordination mechanisms linking alt the key actors. DOCUMENTATION OFINTRA-URBAN 6. inter alia. due to pastand present developments in consumption pattems in andproduction and lifestyles.

adequate national infrastructureand programmesfor preventingenvironmental i nj ury. the necessary statisticalinformation on health ef'fectsto support cost/benefit analysi s.as appropriate. as appropriate.Specificprogrammeobjectives are: (a) By the year 2000.includingthe provisionof economicincentives for the installation of appropriate technology. ACTIVITIES 6. in this areashouldinclude: G) NOTSE: Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposurelevelsand promotenoiseassessment and control as part of environmentalhealth programmes. to reduce the healthimpactof domestic useof biomass and coal: c) WATER POLLUTTON: (i) Develop appropnatewater pollution control technologies on the basisof healthrisk assessment.41 Nationallydetermined actionprogrammes. D) PESTTCTDES: Develop mechanisms to control the distributionand use of pesticidesin order to minimize the risks to human healthby transportation.researchon the effects on human health of the increasingultraviolet radiationreachingthe earth'ssurfaceas a consequence of depletionof the stratospheric ozonelayer: (ii) On thebasisof the outcome of thisresearch. preventionand abatement measures. (ii) Develop and implement health educationcampaigns.to establish. supportand coordination.including environmental healthimpact assessment for pollution control. (c) By the year 2000. E) SOLID WASTE: (i) Develop appropriate solid wastedisposaltechnologieson the basisof healthrisk assessment: (ii) Developappropriate solid wastedisposal capacities in largecities.as a rnatter of urgency. (b) By the year 2000.with particular emphasis on toxic compounds such as lead: (iii) Establish industrial hygieneprogrammes in all major 50 .emphasizing enforcement programmes and using monitoringnetworks. (ii) Develop air pollution control capacitiesin large cities. t) EFFECTS OFULTRAVTOLET RAD|ATION: (i) Undertake. integrated programmesfbr tackling pollution at the source andat thedisposal site. to incorporateappropriateenvironmental and health safeguards as part of national developmentprogrammes in all countries.to establish. consicler taking appropriateremedial measuresto mitigate the above-mentioned effectson humanbeings: B) TNDOOR AtR POLLUTTON: (i) Supportresearch and developprogrammes for applying prevention andcontrolmethods to reducing indoor air pollution. on the basisof health risk assessment.rvitha focuson abatement actions in all countriesl (d) To identify and compile. A) URBAN AtR POLLUTTON: (i) Develop appropriate pollution control technologyon the basisof risk assessment and epidemiological research for the introductionof environmentally soundproduction processes and suitable safemasstransport. application andresidual effectsof pesticides usedin agriculture and preservation of wood. where necessary.hazardsurvei I Ianceandthe basisfor abatement in all countries.maintain the environmentto a degreethat human health and safetyis not impairedor endangered and yet encouragedevelopment to proceed. in particularwithin slumsand nontenuredsettlements. F) HUMAN SETTLEMENTS: Developprogrammes for irnprovinghealthconditions in human settlements. (ii. as appropriate. H) roNtztNc ANDNON-|ON|Z|NG RAD|AT|ON: Developand implementappropriate nationallegislation. particuliulyin developing countries. with internationalassistance. Develop water pollution control capacities in large c it ies : J) INDUSTRY ANDENERGY PRODUCTION: (i) Establishenvironmental health impact assessment procedures for the planning and developmentof new industries and energyfacilities.as appropriate. standardsand enforcement procedureson the basis of existinginternational guidelines. (ii) Incorporateappropriatehealth risk analysisin all nationalprogrammes for pollution control and management. storage.

which is a major impedimentto progress in dealing with environmentalhealth hazards. citizensand specialists. adverseeffects and practical skills to foreseeand identify environmental susceptibility to environmental agents. andthecapacity to reduce therisks. in a c c o rd a n c ew i th n a ti o n a l pl ans. age total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing the delegationof authorityand distributionof resources to activities of this programme to be about $3 billion. healthhazards. 6. Moreemphasis needs (i) Supportthe development of new methodsfor the to be placedon including the subjectof environmental quantitative assessment of healthbenefitsand costsashealthin the curriculaof secondary schoolsand universociated with differentpollution control strategies.from the repositories of suchknowledgeandtechnologies. ^ . in conformitywith chapter34.41 (a) to (m) above.44 In the activitieslisted ln paragraph 6. (iii) Emphasize preventivestrategies to reduceoccupationallyderiveddiseases anddiseases caused by environmentalandoccupational toxinsto enhance workersafety.43 Although technologyto preventor abatepollution is readily availablefor a largenumberof problems. sitiesand on educating the public. includingepidemiological inD) CAPACITY-BUILDING vestigations of long-term exposures to low levels of pollutantsand the use of biological markerscapable 6. L}INJURY MONITORING ANDREDUCTION: (i) Support. to reduce the frequencyand severity of injury.42 The Conference secretariat hasestimated the averand community interests in dealing with social issues.traffic and others)consistentwith the WHO safecities and safecommunities programmes. K) MONTTORTNG AND ASSESSMENT: Establish.Cost/effect analysis and environmental impact assessment methodsshould be developedthrough cooperativeinternationalprograffLmes and appliedto the settingof prioritiesandstrategies in relationto healthand development. strategies in all sectors(industry. know-how and information. asappropriate. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 6. adequate environmental monitoring capacities for the surveillance of environmental quality and the healthstatus of populations. intermediate and local levels government of provide to including about million from theinternational com$115 front-line capabilitiesto meet environmentalhealth munity on grantor concessional terms. 1 '2 a/u/025. R e p o r t o f t h e W H O C o m m i s s i o no n H e o l t h o n d E n v i r o n m e n t (Genevo. r . 8/ SC/ENI/F'C AND IECHNOI. tive andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.industries for the surveillanceof workers' exposureto healthhazards.Training and healthofficials at all M) RESEARCH PROMOTION ANDMETHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT: shouldinclude environmental levelsfrom managers to inspectors. forthcoming).Basic capacity requirements must include knowledge about environmental healthproblems andawareness on thepart MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION of leaders. for programmeand policy developmelttcountriesshould undertakeresearchwithin an intersectoralframework.includingany that are non-concessional. l onnex. 5t . inter alia. combating arrangements involving for private 6.developingcountryeffortsshouldbe facilitatedby access to and ffansferof technology. operational mechanisms fbr intersectoral A/ FiNANC/NG and intergovernmental AND COSTEVALUATTON cooperation in development planning and management and in pollution. asappropriate.Theseareindicaneeds. (v) Promote the introduction of environmentally sound technologies within the industryand energysectors. (ii) Develop and carry out interdisciplinary research on the combinedhealth eff'ects of exposureto multiple environmental hazards. will dependupon. thedevelopment of systems to monitor the incidenceand causeof injury to allow weII -targe ted intervention/pre vention strateg ies.46 Each country shoulddevelopthe knowledgeand of estimatinghuman exposures. Sucheffortsshouldincludecollaboration with the businesssector. the specificstrategies and programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.45 Comprehensive national strategies should be designed to overcome the lack of qualified human resources. (i i) Dev elop.OGICAL MEANS 6. Actual costsand financial terms.

For example.5 The prograrrune areasincluded in this chapterare: (a) Providing adequate shelterfor all.5 and 5.indigenous shouldform the core and the disabled. cooperon technical shouldbe based Suchimprovement among the public. is equally support andflnanceorganizations international only I per centof the UnitedNations low.respectively. Furthermore. sanitation. with high priority being given to the needsof the urban and rural poor. private ation activities. in the sector as a result of the low levels of investment in these to the overall resourceconstraints attributable for which recent countries. (b) Improving human settlement management. among the eight programme areas in this chapter in takwith their nationalplansand objectives.every dollar of UNDP on humansettlements expenditure technical cooperation of $122.In the low-incomecountries data are available. by socialsecurityand welfare.r Expenditure amenities. theelderly estgroupssuchaswomen.drainageand solidwastemanagement: (e) Promotingsustainable systems energyandtransport in humansettlements: 52 . on provision to monitor the impact of their strategies sedgroups. particuconditions settlement mainly are deteriorating larly the developingcountries.energy.4 The overall human settlement prove the social. accordance ing fully into account their social and cultural capacountriesshouldmake appropriate bilities.3 This is the foundationof the "enablingapproach" advocatedfor the human settlementsector.with particular marginalizedand di senfranchi referenceto the needsof women. the unemployedand the growing number of peoplewithout anv source of income. HUMAN OBJECTIVE SETTLEMENT objectiveis to im7. For example.Theseapproaches In developing principles strategies. (d) Promotingthe integratedprovision of environmental infrastructure: water.development humon setilement sustoinoble Promoting INTRODUCTION patthe consumption countrics.4 per cent.includingthe . amounted sewerage of their total lending. in 1988went expenditures total grant-financed system's while in 1991.ed theglobalecosystem.6 per cent of c ent r al go v e rn m e n te x p e n d i tu rew e n t to housi ng.loansfrom the to human settlements. External will help to generatethe internal resources assistance needed to improvethe living and working environments of all peopleby the year 2000 andbeyond.the no-income group. Human in manypartsof theworld. of nationalsettlement countries will need to set priorities these strategies. 1.' AssociDevelopment World Bank and the International and water supplyand ation (IDA) for urbandevelopment to 5. (c) Promotingsustainable planningand manland-use agement.2 On the otherhand. growingnumberof unemployed implicationsof urban At the sametime the environmental in an developmentshould be recognizedand addressed integrated fashion by all countries.an averageof clnly 5. 7.availableinformationindicates activitiesin the humansettlethat technicalcooperation public and private rnent sector generateconsiderable sectorinvestment." highestof all UNDP sectors 7.and econornicdevelopment overcomebasiceconomicand socialproblems.in particularthe urbanandrural poor.the a follow-up investment in 1988generated of assistance.1 In industrializ.economicand environmentalquality of and the living and working environhuman settlements mentsof all people. stressing ternsof citiesareseverely world needmoreraw in the developing while settlements simply to material.' 7.partnerships in thedecisionand participation andcommunitysectors making processby community groupsand specialinterpeople.

state/provincialand municipal levels through parnrerships amongthe private.8 The objective is to achieve adequateshelterfor rapidly growing populationsand for the cuffently deprivedurbanandruralpoorthroughanenabling approach to shelter development and improvement thatis environmentallysound. it is estimatedthat at the presenttime.iO The Conference secretiuiat hasestimated the average total annualcost ( 1993-2(nU of implementingthe 53 .asappropriate. people should be protectedby law againstunfair eviction from their homesor land. MEANS OF IMPIEMENTATION .where appropriate. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) PROV|DTNG ADEQUATE SHETTER FORALr BASIS FOR ACTION 7. formulate and implementprogrammes to reducethe impact of the phenomenonof rural to urban drift by improving rural living conditions. 7. (g) All countries.psychological. should develop andimplement resettlement programmes thataddress the specific problems of displacedpopularionsin rheir respective countries. all countriesshouldtake immediate measures to provideshelter to their homeless poor. as appropriate. adoptedby the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43ll8l. document and monitor the implementationof their national shelter strategies by using. facilitate accessof urban and rural poor to shelterby adoptingand utilizing housingand financeschemes and new innovative mechanisms adapted to their circumstances. (d) All countriesshould.on the principlesand recofiunendations containedin the Global Strategyfor Shelterto the Year 2000.7 A major globalprogramme to address this problem is the Global Strategy for Shelter ro rhe Year 2000. Despiteits widespread endorsement. (b) All countriesshould adopt and/or strengthen na- tional shelterstrategies.while the internationalcommunity and financial institutions should undertakeactions to supportthe ef'fortsof the developingcountries to provide shelter to the poor.inter alia. this nurnber will increasedramatically by the end of the centuryand beyond. (h) All countries should.especiallydevelopingones.financeand low-costbuilding materials. as appropriate. OBJECTIVE 7. the Strategyneedsa much greaterlevel of politicalandfinancialsupport to enable it to reachits goal of facilitatingadequate shelterfor all by rhe end of the centuryand beyond.as appropriate.as appropriate. with targetsbased. annex).9 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) As a first step towardsthe goal of providing adequateshelter for all. Despite this. the monitoringguidelines adoptedby the Comrnission on Human Settlements and theshelterperformance indicators beingproducedjointly by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)and the World Bank. ACTIVITIES 7. (f. to facilitatetheir access to land.) All countries. (i) Bilateral and multilateral cooperationshould be strengthened in order to supportthe implementation of the nationalshelterstrategies of developing countries.should. at least I billion people do not have accessto saf-e and healthy shelterand that if appropriate action is not taken.Socialand Cultural Rights.public andcommunitysectors and with the supportof community-based organizations. (h) Promotinghumanresource development and capacity-buildingfor human settlement development. (g) Promotingsustainable construction industryactivities.6 Accessto safeand healthyshelter is essential to a person's physical.A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALaJATTON 7. The right to adequate housing as a basic human right is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of HumanRightsandthe lntemational Covenant on Economic.(f) Promoting human settlementplanning and management in disaster-prone areas. support the shelterefforts of the urbanandrural poor.theunemployed and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting existingcodesand regulations. socialand economic well-beingand shouldbe a fundamental part of national and intemationalaction. reports coveringnational actionand 0) Globalprogress the supportactivitiesof international organizations and bilateraldonorsshouldbe produced anddisseminated on a biennial basis. and by actively promoting the regularizationand upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums as an expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit.as requested in the Global Strategyfor Shelterto the Year 2000. (e) All counties should supportand develop environmentally compatible shelter strategiesat national. (c) All countriesshould.

and service (ii) Improving the level of infrastructure provisionin poorerurbanareas.16 Oneexistingframeworkfor strengthening D evel opm entPr oment i s i n the U ni ted N ati ons Human for Centre Bank/United Nations grammeNVorld Programme Settlements(Habitat) Urban Management (UMP). national with andin accordance appropriate of non-govtives and prioritiesand with the assistance of local representatives and ernmenfal organizations the naat activities following authorities. showing many of the symptomsof the global environgenerate crisis. state/provincial agencies: support and programmes anceof relevant guide(a) Adopting and applying urban management environurban management. organization munity entitiesthat tions and other forms of non-governmental poverty and imreduce to the efforts can contributeto families. through the provision. and homelesshunger to reduce in order infrastructure services.15 The objectiveis to ensuresustainable counpafticularlyin developing of all urbansettlements. lines in the areasof land infrastructuremanagementand mental management. AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE C) HUMAN CAPACITY.particularly women.13 By the turn of the century. local castrengthening by and ernmental organrzations technologies. as repairs.roads' providedto higher incomeneightelecommunications) bourhoods. water supply. appropriate of pacity for the development B) IMPROVING HUrtiAN sErrlrMENT T ANAGEMEM ACTION FOR BASIS 7. of nationaleconomicdevelopment ACTIVITIES MANAGFMENI URBAN A) IMPROV/NG lnanage7. small and services recycling. Its urban management countriesin addressing countries interested all to coverageshouldbe extended as should' countries All during the period 1993-2000. environmental (e.the majority of the w i l l b e l i v i n g i n c i ti e s. community adequate provision of ness. inter alia.12 Developedcountriesand funding agencies in countries to developing provide specific assistance shelter provision of to the approach an enabling arJopting for all. sanitation.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. the specific strategies decideupon for implementation' grammesGovernments their ability to improvethe living tries. a concertedglobal effort to assistdeveloping issues.1I The requirements in each of the other programme areas included in the presentchapter.professionals.14 Some metropolitanareas extend over the bounentities dariesof severalpolitical and/oradministrative eventhoughthey conform (counties and municipalities) thispolitical urbansystem. therebycontributingto the achievement disenfranchised.they nevertheless mentanddevelopment 60 per cent of gross national product and' if properly can developthe capacityto sustaintheir promanaged. inter urban poor through. of theirresidents ductivity. proand dependupon. 54 .W hi l e urban wor ld' sp o p u l a ti o n particularlyin developingcountries'are settlements. comincluding about$10 billion from the international indicaare terms. administration. management hensiveenvironmental OBJECTIVE management 7. objecplans. for improvingthequality local strategies (d) Developing MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL 8] SCIENTFrc underthis headingare addressed 7. (i) Generating employmentfor the urbanpoor. low-income for life quality of prove the to ad(c) Adopting innovativecity planningstrategies by: issues social and dressenvironmental the full costs on.waste collection.improvementand and the and services of urbaninfrastructure maintenance such sector. and covering institutionsand training activitiesfor governresearch andnon-govcommunities ment officials. goals.includingany that arenon-concessional. andrecovering (i) Reducing subsidies standard high of services other and of. municipalfi nanceand (b) Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty including: througha numberof actions.BUILDING should 7. including the no-income group. local and tional.andthe comindigenous of the establishment (iii) Encouraging -based ganrzaor v luntary o private s. to the poorestof the (ii) Providing specificassistance creation of social the alia.g.activities of this programme to be about $75 billion.In manycases to a continuous hinders the implementationof compreheterogeneity programmes.in orderto enhance and the marginalized especially conditionsof residents.These munity on grant or concessional only and have not estimates tive and order-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments.undertakethe assistwith the levels. informal in the activities of economic support cofitmerce.improvetheliving conditions way' in a sustainable and managenaturalresources 7.

(f) Establishmechanisms. to support local income generation andthe productionof intermediate goodsand sen. 7. based on a continuous dialogue betweenthe actors involved in urban developrnent(the public sector. theyshouldalsoconcentrate on activities aimed at facilitating the transitionfrom rural to urban lifestylesand settlement patternsand at promoting the development of small-scale economicactivities.of life andtheenvironment. investingin the public and private sectorsand mobilizing human and materialresources. could provide technical adviceand model datamanagement systems. (b) Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental awareness through the participation of local communitiesin the identification of public servicesneeds. therebypromotingemploymentgeneration that is environmentally soundandprotective of humanhealth.althoughsound urban management is essential to ensure thaturbansprawldoes not expandresource degradation over an everwider land area and increasepressures to convert open spaceand agriculturaUbuffer landsfor development.non-governmental organizationsand individuals to assumethe authority and responsibility for rnanaging andenhancing theirimmediate environmentthrough participatorytools. "greenworks" programmes shouldbe activated to create self-sustaining human development activitiesand both formal and informal employmentopportunitiesfor lowincomeurbanresidents. UNEP and UNDP. (d) Participatein international"sustainable city networks" to exchangeexperiences and mobilize national and international technicaland financialsupport.In addition.should. with the active participationof the business sectoras appropriate.I 8 In orderto relievepressure on largeurbanagglomerations of developingcountries.the provision of urban infrastructure. undertheaegisof non-governmental organizations active in this field.5 United Nations organizations. pilot projectsin selected cities for the collection. state/provincial.ith nationallaws. with the assistance of relevant internationalagencies. techniques and approaches embodied in theconcept of environmental care. 55 .17 During the period 1993-2000 all countriesshould undertake.resourcecapabilitiesand characteri sticsof their growingintermediate-si zedcities. develop and strengthen programmes aimed at addressing such problems andguidingtheir development alonga sustainable path. conduct reviews of urbanization processes and policies in orderto assess the environmental impactsof growth and apply urbanplanningand management approaches specifically suited to the needs. (c) Strengthen the capacities of their local governing bodies to deal more effectively with the broad range of developmental andenvironmental challenges associated with rapid and soundurbangrowth throughcomprehensiveapprdaches to planningthatrecognize the individual needs of citiesandarebased on ecologically soundurban designpractices. the regional developmentbanks and bilateral agencies.policies and strategies shouldbe implemented towardsthe development of intermediate cities that createemploymentopportunities for unemployedlabour in the rural areasand support rural-based economicactivities. national and international levels and the establishment of city data management capabilities.ices for rural hinterlands. Additionalinitiatives involving the World Bank. privatesector andcommunities). as well as other interested stakeholders.asappropriate. especially women and indigenous people. the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives(ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities. rules and regulations. shouldbe intensified.includingenvironmental impact analysis. 7. historicprecincts andotherculturalartifacts. particularly internationaland nationalrepresentatives of local authorities. integrating decisions on land use and land management.l9 Thereforeall countries should. 8/ STRENGTHENING UREAN DATA SySIEMS 7. C) ENCOURAGING /NIERMEDIATE CITYDEVELOPMENT 7. at the local. (g) Empowercommunitygroups.analysis and subsequent dissemination of urbandata. As appropriate.particularly thosecharacterized by severe sustainable development problems.to mobilize resources for local initiativesto improveenvironmental quality. such as Habitat.as in the Sustainable Cities prosrammeof Habitat and the Healthy Cities programme of WHO. the enhancement of public amenities and the protectionand/or rehabilitarionof older buildings.as appropriate: (a) Institutionalize aparticipatoryapproachto sustainableurbandevelopment.20 All cities. 7.21 Citiesof all countries shouldreinforcecooperation amongthemselves and citiesof the developed countries.should be strengthened and coordinated. particularly the productionof food.in accordance u.Individual citiesshould. (e) Promotethe formulationof environmentally sound andculturallysensitive tourismprogrammes asa strategy for sustainabledevelopmentof urban and rural settlementsand as a way of decentralizingurban development and reducingdiscrepancies amongregions. such as the InternationalUnion of Local Authorities(IULA). Some internationalinitiatives in supportof suchefforts.

safe productionof chemicals and lesspollutingtranspoftation.national legislation to guidethe implementation of public policiesfor environmentally sound urban development.24 Developingcountriesshouldalso encourage throughjoint efforts by nological training and research donors. to land is rendered access In rapidly growing urbanareas. AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE B) HUMAN CAPACITY-BUILDING in1. commerce.28 Theobjectiveis to providefor theland requirements of human settlementdevelopmentthrough environmentally soundphysicalplanningandlandusesoasto ensure and. tions. ACTIVITIES underasappropriate. increasingly difficult by the conflicting demandsof industry.assisted training of individualsand functionalgroupsto include routines.includingany thatarenon-concess ional. 56 .unsustainable practices. inter alia. i n te rn a ti o n a le ffo rts . activitiescarriedout by all coun7. shouldconsider.particularlywomenand tal organizations the disadvantaged.water and the opportunity for all human activity.water business quality. 3 0S u b s e q u e n t l ya . non-governmentalorganizationsand private in such areasas the reductionof waste.where appropriate. training methods__ from formal educationto the useof the mass rnedia . institutional proinformationflows andconsultative linkages. interadministrative arrangements.with appropriate considerfocusingon trainingand assistance. structures rising costsof urban land preventthe poor from gaining accessto suitable land. housing. energy. 7 .shouldgo beyondthe as suggested tries. the speci fi c decideupon Governments and programmes strategies for implementation.as appropriate. 7.resultin environmental diminishing returnsfor impoverishedrural settlers. land tenure the Furthermore. s uch as the with in cooperation Programme. as well as the "learningby doing" option. housing and for the improved managementof urban expansion. IAND-USE SUSTAINABLE c) PROMOTTNG PTANNING AND }TANAGEMENT FOR ACTION BASIS component is an essential to land resources 7. and the needfor openspaces. streamlining 7. OBJECTIVE 7. 26 I n ad d i ti o n . agriculture. wil l d e p e n d u p o n . ll countriesshould consider plansto management developingnationalland-resource and utilizationand.Theseare inmunity on grant or concessional estimatesonly and dicative and order-of-magnitude Actual costs have not beenreviewedby Governments.6 Particularattentionshould owned and rnanaged peoplefor womenandindigenous paid needs of to the be economicand culturalreasons. (b) Create.27 Access are low-impactlifestyles. ternational adtechnicians. assistthe developingcountriesin their efforts to dev elop a pa rti c i p a to ry s tru c tu re b y mo bi l i zi ng the non-governmenof theprivatesector. improving land registry systemsand procedures in land transactions. efficient and accessible land markets that meet coffImunity developmentneeds by. where appropriate.25 Capacity-building above. andfinancialterms. humanresources andthe poor. saving of energy. developinga cadreof urbanmanagers. In rural areas. should: (a) Establish. i n te r a l i a . Urban Management shouldcontinueto multilateraland bilateralagencies.OFIMPLEMENTATION MEANS AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F'NANC/NG has estimatedthe aver1. who can ministratorsand other relevant stakeholders manageenvironmentallysound urban desuccessfully velopmentand growth and are equippedwith the skills to analyseand adapt the innovative experinecessary the full rangeof encesof other cities.For this purpose. to land to all households access the encouragementof communally and collectively land. tech7. suchas the exploitationof marginallandsand the encroachmenton forests and ecologically fragile areasby commercialinterestsand landlessrural populaas well as in degradation. agency CCSSCS. comincludingabout$ 15billion from theinternational terms.to guide land-resource development that end.land utilization.23 Developingcountriesshould.should be utilized.29 Allcountries nationalinventoryof their land taking a comprehensive resources in order to establisha land information system will be classifiedaccordingto in which land resources their most appropriateusesand environmentallyfragile areas will be identified for special or disaster-prone protectionmeasures.22 The Conferencesecretariat age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $100 billion.Land resources of sustainable the basis for (human) living systemsand provide soil.

women.provide such agencieswith modern equipment. such as computer hardware and softwareand surveyequipment.33 All countries. suchas workshops and seminars. photography/imagery satellite and otherremote-sensins technologies. tion (f) Establishappropriate forms of land tenurcthat provide securityof tenurefor all land-users. 7. suchas UNDP. air quality and the provisionof environmental infrastructure for sanitation and wastemanagement. offers uniqueopportunities for the supply of \7 . preserves and othervital needs. Theseareindicativeandorder-of-rnagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. (h) Develop and support the implementationof improved land-management practicesthat deal comprehensively with potentially competing land requirementsfor agriculture. global coordinationof land-resource management activitiesshouldbe strengthened by the variousbilateral and multilateralagencies and programmes.32 T he Conf ere n c es e c re ta ri a h t a s e s ti ma tedthe ) f i mp l e menta v er age t ot al ann u a lc o s t (1 9 9 3 -2 0 0 0o ing the activities of this programmeto be about $3 b i llion.greenspaces. inter alia. the World Bank. industry. agement and actionshouldbe takento promotethetransfer of applicable experience on sustainable land-management practicesto and among developing countries.(c) Develop fiscal incentivesand land-usecontrol measures. Actual costsandfinancialterms. (g) Accelerate efforts to promoteaccess to land by the poor. suchasgeographical informationsystems.local digenous thelow-incommunities. (i) Promoteunderstanding amongpolicy makersof the adverse consequences of unplanned settlements in envirorunentallyvulnerableareasand of the appropriatenapolicies retional and local land-useand settlements quiredfor this purpose. B/ SC'ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 7.with developing countriesbeing given assistance through international supportand funding agencies in orderto: (a) Strengthen the capacity of national. SANITATION. urban and rural including credit schemesfor the purchase of land and for building/acquiring or improving safeand healthyshelterand infiastructure services. (d) Encourage partnerships amongthe public. (d) Strengthen existing programmes and promote an intemationaland interregional exchange of information and experience in land management throughthe establishmentof professional associations in land-management sciences and related activities. will depend upon. the sp ec if ic s t r at eg i e sa n d p ro g ra m m e sG o v e rn m ents d e c ideupon f or im p l e me n ta ti o n .DRAINAGEAND SOTID-WASTE MANAGEMENT BASIS FOR ACTION 7. state/provincial and local educational research and training institutions to provide formal training of land-management techniciansand professionals. especiallyinpeople.inc ludinga b o u t$ 3 0 0m i l l i o n fro m th e i n ternati o nal c om m uni ty o n g ra n t o r c o n c e s s i o n ate l rms.other interested organizations andthe UNDPAVoTId Bank/Habitat UrbanManProgramme. FAO. technolo (c) Where appropriate.includingany that are non-concessional. aloneor in regionalor subregional groupings. urbandevelopment.31 At the internationallevel.transport. pROVtStONOF D) PROMOTTNG THETNTEGRATED ENVIRONI ENTAI INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER. urbanization. come urbandwellersand the rural poor. in order to devise more etficient mechanisrns of landresource management. including land-useplanning solutionsfor a more rationaland environmentally sounduseof limited land resources. and carry out periodicin-service refreshercoursesfor the managersand staff of such ministries and agencies in orderto familiarizethem with up-to-date land-resource-management gies.35 The sustainability of urbandevelopment is defined by many parameters relatingto the availabilityof water supplies.34 Environmentally focused trainingactivities in sustai nabl e l and-resources pl anni ng and managem elt t should be undertaken in all countries. the regionaldevelopment banks. if properly managed. (e) Strengthencommunity-based protecland-resource practices in existingurbanand rural settlements. (b) Facilitatethe organizational review of government ministries and agencies responsible for land questions. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 7 . private and community sectorsin managingland resources for humansettlements development. C) HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 7. As a resultof the densityof users.particularly developing countries. shouldbe given accessto modern techniquesof land-resource management.

to theprovisionof watersupply. The achievementof this objective would requirethat all developingcountriesincorporate to build thenecesprogrammes in theirnationalstrategies capacity resource human sary technical.37 Most of the activitieswhosemanagement in are covered improved by an integrated approach. where possible. and sewage-related of solid wastes management OBJECTIVE the provisionof adequate 7. appliedresearch. (Protecting proand Agenda 2l as follows: chapters6 moting human health conditions).improvehealthand reduce of life.the inadequacy ill-healthand for widespread is responsible frastructure deathseachyear. age and solid-waste agencies shouldensurethat this approachis appliedin improvement infiastructure particularto environmental basedon regulationsand standin informal settlements ards that take into account the living conditions and to be served.36 An integrated in mentally soundintiastructurein human settlements. educationalprogrammesand that are economicallyand mechanisms equitableaccess environmentallysound.In those a large numberof preventable are set to worsen due to growing countriescclnditions needs that exceed the capacity of Governmentsto respondadequateiy.Actual costs and financial terms. development.Settlement human designedtcl promotean integrated programmes approachto the planning. These are estimatesonly and indicative and order-of-magnitude have not beenreviewedby Govemments.flnancial and and infrastructure integration of aimed at ensuringbetter year 2000. increase the burden of investmentsin curative medicine and povertyalleviation. 58 . nationalandnationalrepresentatives the privatesectorand communitygroupsshouldalsobe MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING has estimatedmost of secretariat 7. and externalfunding management. structure with theassistance shouldbe strengthened management) of bilateral and multilateral agencies.reflect an ecosystemor metropolitan area apand should include monitoring. settlements of environmentalinfraand management maintenance (watersupply. ate technology and technical cooperation among the rangeof programmeactivities.40 Developingcountriesshouldbe assisted approach tional and local levelsin adoptingan integrated drainsanitation.and management nationalgoalsfor sustainable to ensure soundtechnology implementenvironmentally humanhealthandqualityof life are thattheenvironment. (d) Promote theactualcost policiesaimedat recovering while at the sametime recognizof infrastructureservices. would be 7. is an investment that can improvethe quality development in sustainable productivity. to the provisionof environapproach 1. at the na7. ability of infrastructure of waste. (including subing the need to find suitableapproaches to all households.18 (Protectingthe qualitv and supply of and 21 (Environmentallysound freshwaterresources) issues).environmentalinfrastructurethrough adesustainable quate pricing policies. 7. environmental by en(b) Ensurethat relevantdecisions are preceded and also take into acvironmentalimpact assessments count the costsof any ecologicalconsequences. energy.will depend and programmes Governmentsdecide upon fbr implementation.38 The objectiveis to ensure facilitiesin all settlements infrastructure environmental by the year 2025. infrastructure and environmental protected. solid-waste drainage. providing environmental infrastructure should.the specificstrategies sional.including any that are non-concesupon.as appropriate. The secretariat assistof technical cost(1993-2000) total annual average ancefrom the internationalcomrnunity on grant or concessionalterms to be about $50 million. lowing principles for the provision of environmental infrastructure: avoid (a) Adopt policiesthatminimizeif not altogether wheneverpossible.42 The disseminationof information from existing among prograrnmes shouldbe facilitatedandencouraged countries and local institutions. proach to settlements of appropritransfer capacity-building. sidies)to extendbasicservices probiems that (e) Seekjointsolutions to environmental affectseverallocalities. resources of the communities adoptthe fol7. inand lack of environmental however.In most developingcountries. interested ACTIVITIES suitthe environmental 7.43 The Conference the costs of implementing the activities of this proestimatesthe gramme in other chapters. (c) Promote developmentin accordancewith indigenous practices and adopt technologies appropriate to local conditions.9 (Protectingthe atmosphere).41 All countriesshould.39 All countriesshouldassess develop in human settlements.inter olia. damage.sanitation.Coordination from interand with collaboration amongtheseagencies of local authorities. particularfor the urbanand rural poor. planning by the environmental engagedin The activitiesof all agencies strengthened.

and evaluatingthe life-cycle costs current systemsand practicesas a result of which many metropolitan areas are suffering from pervasive air quality problemsrelatedto ozone.while at the sametime reducingenergyproducpollution.48 Transport accountsfor about 30 per cent of commercial energyconsumptionand for about60 per cent of In developof liquid petroleum.women.as appropriate. subprogramme I (Energy and subprodevelopment. aimed at: popularparticipationprogrammes and (a) Raising awareness of the means. traffic management ments in urban-transport and infrastructure are creating increasing problems in and injury.47 Developed countries. and a rapid expansionin the number trial concentrations of motor vehicles. (b) Promotemethodsof assessing data as criteria development and environment utilizing for selectingtechnology. totalglobalconsumption rapid motorization andinsufficientinvesting countries. of of energy.15With the assistance undertaketraining and all countriesshould.includingcross-subsidy the benefits clf adequateand affordable environmental populationgroups. Increasingthe tion costs and energy-related efficiency of energy use to reduceits polluting effects and to promote the use of renewableenergiesmust be a lN PARTICULAR.The causes fuel consumption andwith anincreasing cal inadequacies andindusgenerated high demographic by inefficiencies.. ergyproduced percentage of it is usedby thehousehold anda substantial facedwith the areat present Developingcountries sector.noise. efficiency and consumption) (Transportation).51 A comprehensive shouldincludethepromotionof sustainable development in all countries. ments.congestion terms of accidents and loss of productivity similar to those occurring in AII of theseproblemshavea many developed countries. soundand socially acceptable (c) Strengtheningthe institutional capacity of local in the integratedprovision authoritiesand administrators of adequateinfrastructure servicesin partnershipwith local communitiesand the private sector. priority in any action taken to protectthe urban environment. SHOULD: A) DEVELOPING COUNTRTES. ACTIVITIES 7. "effective demand". gramme 2 approachto human settlements 7. (i) Formulatenationalactionprograrnmes to prolnoteand with supportreaftbrestation andnationalforestregeneration provision of the biornass a view to achievingsustained and energyneeds of the low-incomegroupsin urbanareas women and children. OBJECNVES are to extendthe provisionof more 7. systems. 7.in particular (ii) Formulatenational action programlnesto promote 59 . 7.46 N{ost of the commercialand non-commercial todayis usedin andforhumansettlements. particularly the populations.approaches benefitsof the provision of environmentalinfrastructure people.ANS AND IECHNOI. need to increasetheir energy production to accelerate of their popuandraisethe living standards development lations. severe impact on urban low-incomeand no-incomegroups. AND DEVELOPMFNT C) HUMANRESOURCE CAPACITY-BUILDING and supportof funding agencies. programme area B.especially low-income groupsand the poor.44 Scientificandtechnological wherever be coordinated should programmes ing possibleand should: (a) Accelerate in the areaofintegratedpolicies research s andprojects infrastruc ture programme ntal of environme environmental and overall analysis cost/benefit on based impact. (d) Adopting appropriatelegal and regulatory instruto extend anangements.are faced with the need for energyplanning and sources promotingrenewable andalternate management.ME. 7.50 The principal activitiesrelevantto this programme area are included in chapter9 (Protectionof the atmosphere).as the largest consumersof energy. the rural poor.particulatemattersandcarbon havemuch to do with technologimonoxide. with adequate ft) Developinga cadreof professionals skills in integratedinfrastructuralservice planning and environmentally maintenanceof resource-efficient.OGICAL 8' SC'ENIIFIC within theexistmeans 7. health.especially to unserved infrastructure the poor.49 The objectives energy-efficienttechnology and alternative/renewable and to reduce negative energy for human settlements impactsof energyproductionand use on human health and on the environment. as tollows: energydevelopment ENERGYAND El PROIIOTING SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTSYSTEMSIN HUftIAN SETITE'VIENTS FOR ACTION BASIS en7. planning. amongindigenous facilities.

tenanceof transportinfrastructure .and environmental damage. ACTIVITIES under 7.namely.planners. biomass (ii) Provide access and developmentresults to research efficiencylevelsin humansettleenergy-use to increase ments. as appropriate: (a) Provide on-the-joband other training of governand managers traffic engineers ment officials.rction. wind and biomasssources. larly ttreuseof solar. (c) Encouragenon-motonzed modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and footways in urban and suburbancentresin countries.there is an urgentneedto address preventionand reductionof man-made disasters and/or unsafenuclear caused by.58 The objectiveis to enable to mitigate the negative those that are disaster-prone. (b) Adopt urban-transport programmesfavouring highoccupancypublic transportin countries.such as loss of fertile agriculturalland and can lead to of water resources. shared driving and improved traffic safetymeasures. settlements. all countriesshould: management.54 ln orderto enhance the skills of energyserviceand OBJECTIVE in particular all countries. disruptionof economicactivitiesand urbanproductivity.state/provincial.asappropriate.Global economic losseshave been estimated by the Office of the United NationsDisasterRelief Coordinatorto be in the rangeof $30 billion to $50 billion per year. PIANNING F) PROMOTINGHUMAN SETTTEMENT AREAS IN DISASTER. Decadefor Natural claimedthe I 990sasthe International Redr.and renewable integrateddevelopmentof energy-saving energy technologies. inter a/ia. chapter9 AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE B) HUMAN CAPACITY-BUILDING 7. all countries should. renewableenergy technologies inter alia. (d) Devoteparticularattentionto effectivetraffic manandmainefficientoperationof public transport agement.56 The GeneralAssembly.53 The Conference secretariat programme in of this of implementing the activities (Protection of the atmosphere). energy-saving andhydro sources. hydro. pro7. and contamination of populations. disasters power generationand toxic wastes(see chapter 6 of Agenda 2l).national.52 Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in all countries should be a planningand to urban-transport approach comprehensive To this end. techniques andenergy-efficient DONORS AND BILATERAL ORGANTZATIONS B) TNTERNATTONAL SHOULD: (i) Supportdeveloping national counfies in implementing use of in order to achievewidespread energyprogrammes particuand renewableenergytechnologies.particularly for the use of solar.wind. they are estimated lion deaths and affected800 million people. of (iii) Promotewide dissemination andcommercialization through suitablemeasures. on human impact of natural and man-madedisasters nationaleconomies and the environment.as appropriate. and private sector institutionsthat provide educationand planning training on energyserviceand urbantransport and management. Over the past two major resettlement to have caused some3 mildecades.in resolutton441236.59 Three distinct areasof activity are fbreseen of a "culthis programme area. anceto the objectives 01'the the 7. 7. directed (iv ) Cany out information andtrainingprogftImmes andusersin orderto promoteenergy-saving at manufacturers appliances. (c) Strengthen regional. fiscal andtechnologytransfermechanisms.55 Natural disasters causeloss of life. industries. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC/NG.PRONE AND 'TAANAGEIAENT FOR ACTION BASIS 7. section: and transport involved in the energy-service (b) Raise public awareness imof the environmental pacts of transport and travel behaviour through mass and media campaignsand supportfor non-governmental community initiatives promoting the use of non-motorized transport. the development 60 . transport professionalsand institutions.57 ln addition. The goalsof the DecadeT bearrelevDisaster programme present area. and representatives (0 Re-evaluate the presentconsumptionand production patternsin order to reduce the use of energy and national resources. (a) Integrate land-use and transportationplanning to encouragedevelopment pattems that reduce transport demand. 7.ANDCOSTEVALUATION hasestimated the costs 7. (e) Promotetheexchange of informationamongcounfies of local and metropolitanareas.particularly for highly susceptible low-incomegroups.

or incorporate meansof alternative compensation. the effectsof inadequate areas. (e) Developingtools (legal.62 The international community. (c) Strengthening and/ordevelopingglobal. (c) Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements to areasnot prone to hazards. and pre-disaster planning . A CULTURE OF SAFETY A) DEVELOP'NG 7. the reconstruction of community especially lifelines. the fclllowing especially those that are disaster-prone.emergency comtnunications. (i) Developing procedures local andpractices to enable communities to receive information about hazardous installationsor situationsin these areas. and the and land usein hazard-prone construction pre-disaster of adequate socialandeconomicadvantages planning.The folof human settlement included: lowing shouldbe (a) Undertakingcompletemulti-hazardresearch into of human settlements and settlerisk and vulnerability includingwaterand sewerage. networks.ANNING B) DEVELOPING planning shouldform an integralpart 7. (d) Preparing guidelines on location. (ii) Promotingclose collaborationbetweengovernmental and local authorities. (b) Developing methodologies for determining risk and and vulnerabilitywithin specifichumansettlements incorporatingrisk and vulnerability reductioninto the process. design and operation of potentially hazardous industries and activities.as a major partnerin post-reconstruction andrehabi litation. to alert popunationaland local early warning systems lationsto impendingdisasters. early warning techniques. comment infrastructure.61 Pre-disaster planningin all countries.economicetc.their impact on peopleandeconomicactivities. activitiesshouldbe carriedout: (a) Completingnationaland local studies on thenature and occurrenceof natural disasters. vulnerabilityto another risk reduction may increase house madeof wood will be more an earthquake-resistant vulnerableto wind storms). and builderson disaster-resistant construction Some programmes should be directed particularly to smallenterprises. (d) Identifyingindustriallybased environmental disaster areas at the national and internationallevels and implementingstrategies aimed at the rehabilitationof through. (iii) Developing conandenforcingstrictenvironmental trol standards. which build their own aswell asto the rural populations.shoul d ensurethat involvedderivethe greatest benefits from the the countries funds allocated the following activities: by undertaking (a) Carrying out research on the on past experiences of post-disaster reconstrucsocialand economicaspects tion and adoptingeffectivestrategies and guidelines for post-disaster reconstruction. planningand management humansettlement POSI-DTSASTER c) TN|T|ATTNG RECONSTRUCT/ON AND REHA PTANN'NG BILITATION 1.. pre-disaster reconstruction. sustainable settlement (b) Preparingand disserninating internationalguidelines for adaptation to nationaland local needs.as one type of municationand transportation (e. which build thegreatmajority of housing andothersmallbuildingsin thedeveloping countries.and facilitate their participationin early warning and disasterabateprocedures ment and response and plans.planning and post-disaster ture of safety".non-governmental organizations and community groups which cover all aspects of disaster mitigation. with particular on emphasis development-focused strategies in the allocation of scarcereconstruction resources.) to encourincluding meansof age disaster-sensitive development. translatingthe above knowledge into information easily comprehensible to the generalpublic and to the populationsdirectly exposed to hazards. 6l . that limitationson development optionsarenot ensuring punitive to owners.g. plans Preparing action fbr the reconstructionof 0) settlements. (b) Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaignsthrough all availablemedia. houses: (h) Developing training programmes for emergency site managers. andon the opportunities provides to introduce reconstruction that post-disaster patterns. including urban searchand rescue.inter alia: theseareas (i) Restructuring of the economic activitiesand proin environmentally sound moting new job opportunities sectors. PRE-DTSASTER PT. regional.60 To promote a "culture of safety" in all countries. (0 Further developing and disseminatinginfbrmation on disaster-resistant building materials and construction technologies for buildingsand public works in general. (g) Developing training programmesfor contractors methods.local communitiesand organi zationsand privatebusiness non-governmental .

as appropriate and in accordancewith nationalplans.69 All countriesshould.iorsourceof environmental darnage throughdepietionof'the natural resource base. as much as possible.67 The activities of the construction sector are vital tcr 62 . 1.64 Scientists specializing andengineers in thisfield rn both developingand developed countriesshould collaboratewith urban and regional plannersin order to providethebasicknowledge andmeans to mitigatelosses owing to disasters as well as environmentally inappropriatedevelopment. 66 T r ain i n g p ro g ra mme ss h o u l d b e extendedto governmentofficials and plannersand contmunityand non-govemmental organizations to cover all aspects of disaster rnitigation.infrastructureand employment. for post-dr MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION AI FINANC/NG hasestimated the aver7. (c) Adopt standardsand other regulatory measures which promote the increaseduse of energy-efficient designsand technologies and sustainable utilization of natural resources in an economicallvand environmentally appropriate way.while avoiding harmful sideeffects on human health and on the biosphere.objectives and priorities: (a) Establishand strengthen the indigenousbuilding materials industry. second.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed by Governments. such as early warning techniques. degradation of fragileec-o-zones. the achievement of the nationalsocio-econornic development goals of providing shelter.68 The objectives are.(c) Supporting to initiate effclrts of nationalGovernments planning.However.based. ACTIVITIES 7. they can be a ma.dis as tep r l a n n i n ga n c lc o n s tru c ti o n. Actual costsand financial terms. on inputs of locallyavailable natural resources.inler uliu.Governments shouldwork in close collaborationwith the private sectorin achievins theseobjectives. 8/ 5C/ E N IF tC AN D T EC H N O T . the non-concessional.OG\C ME AL ANS 7.through. specificstrategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implenrentation.with pafiicipationof affectedcomcontingency rehabilitation. (e) Promotethe use of labour-intensive construction and maintenance technologies which generate employment in the constructionsectorfor the underemployed labourforce found in mostlargecities.first.including any that are will depend upon. ing in the developing countries. credit schemes and bulk procurement of buildins DE E VE L O P M EN A ND I C) HUM A NR E SOU R C CA P A CI TY-B U IL D IN G 7.65 Developing countries shouldconducttrainingprogrammes on disaster-rcsistant construction methods for who buildthe majorityof houscontractors andbuilders. to adoptpoliciesandtechnologiesand to exchange informationon them in order to enablethe construction sectorto meet human settlement development goals. to enhance theemployment-generation capacity of the construction sector.and. G) PROMOTTNG SUSTATNABTE CONSTRUCTTON ACTIVITIES INDUSTRY FORACTION BASIS 7. This should focuson the sn-rall business which build the majority of enterprises housingin the developingcountries.63 The Conf'erence secretariat ( age total annualcost 1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about$50 rnillion from the internationalcotnmunity on grant or concessional terms. pr e. OBJECTIVES 7. (d) Formulate policiesandintroduce appropriate land-use planning regulationsspeciallyaimed at the protectionof eco-sensitive zones against physical disruption by construction and cons0uction-related activities.while at the same time promotingthedeveloplnent of skills in theconstruction sector: (f) Developpoliciesandpractices to reachtheintormal sector and sel f-hel p housi ng bui l ders by adopt ing measures to increase theaffordabilityol-buildingmaterials on the part of the urbanandrural poor. chemical pollution and the use of building materialsharmful to humanhealth. inter alia. saster reconstmction eurd munities. post-di saster constnrctron and rehabi litation. (b) Formulateprogrammes to enhancethe utilization of localmaterials by theconstruction sectorbyexpanding technicalsuppoftand incentiveschernes for increasing thecapabilities andeconomic viability of small-scale and informal operatives which make use of thesematerials and traditionalconstruction techniques.

particularly for non-renewable resources: (e) Promote researchin constructionindustriesand institurelatedactivities.g.and establishand strengthen tions in this sector.for resource ment in construction. as appropriate. 72 Der elopin gc o u n tri e s the in upgrading nationalsupport andfundingagencies capacities of the smallentretechnicaland managerial preneur and the vocational skills of operativesand in the building materialsindustry. and pre-disasenergy.16 objective is to irnprove hurnan resourcedevelopment and capacity-building in all countriesby enhancing the personal and institutional capacity of all actors. in additionto shortcomings of housavailability of specialize in the areas d expertise infraing.transport. comincluding about $4 billion from the international terms.. should v a r i e t yo f t r a i n i n gm e t h o d sT . structure.BUILDING d i nters h o u l db e a s s i s te b. 7. More gencrally.by pursui ng technol ogi es. the specificstrategies grarnmes decideuponfor implementation. as appropriate. First is the absence of an enablingpolicy and environmentcapableof integratingthe resources activitiesof the public sector. all countries. 7 1 S p e c i f i c h u m a n r e s o u r c ed e v e l o p r n e n a t nd havebeenbuilt into eachof capacity-building activities the programmeareasof this chapter. facethreecross-sectoral human resolrrcedevelopmentand capacity-building shortfalls. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai F/NANC/NG the averhasestimated secretariat 7. will cial terms.7| The Conference age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this prograrnmeto be about $40 billion.includingany thatarenon-concessional. action: shouldtakethe follor. an i nnovati ve ment pol i cy. construction. and third specialized trainingand research is the insufficientcapacityfor technicaltraining a:rd for low-income both urbanand assistance cclmmunities. builderawareness of available sustainable 1. land management. h e s ec o u n t r i e s so e n i n d e v e l o p i n gp r o g r a m r n e t also be assisted a n dc l e a nt ec h n o l c l g i e s c o L l r a gte h e u s eo f n o n .. Governments OBJECTIVE 'fhe I . ter planningandreconstruction.BUILDING FOR HUMAN NTs DEVELOPMENT SETTTEME FOR ACTION BASIS in the 7. 7 3 G e n e r a l e d t r c a t i o np r o g r a m n r e ss h o u l d b e to increase in all countries. account should be taken of traditional cultural practicesof indigenous people and their relationshipto the environment. In order to do so. and prodependupon. the use of construction to discourage materialsand productsthat createpollution during their life cycle. through appropri ate 7 . inter alia.v 7. In this regard. however. AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI B) HUMAN CAPACITY. involved in human settlement development. institutions.w a s t c transferof technol ogl .Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only and havenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude Actual costsandfinanbeenreviewedby Governments.including the development on the adverse environmental effects of of databases effortsof the throughthecollaborative buildingmaterials privateand public sectors.using a supervisors ACTIVITIES 7 .75 Most countries. (d) Promote information exchangeand appropriate with particular technologytransferamongall countries. (c) Promotethe use of economicinstruments. such as product charges.70 All countriesshould: (a) Promotethe free exchangeof information on the of conandhealthaspects entirerangeof environmental and dissemination struction. HUrylAN RESOURCE H) PROMOTTNG DEVETOPMENT AND CAPACITY.additional stepsshouldbe takento reinforce those activities. rural.ving 63 . (b) Promotethe development and dissemination of and health efdatabases c-rn the adverseenvironmental and introducelegislationand fectsof building materials financial incentivesto promote recycling of energyindustryand conin the construction intensive materials producof wasteenergyin building-materials servation tion methods. parlicularly indigenous people and women. developed technologies. the privatesectorand the or socialsector: second is the weakness of community. settlement management. manageattentionto developingcountries.materialsfor sale to small-scalebuilders and comrnunities.14 Local authoritiesare called upon to play a piouse of envineeringrole in promoting the increased ronmental l y sound andconstruct ion bui l di ngmateri al s procur ec.

of the Internotionol Decodefor Noturol Disoster Assembiy resolution Reduction. ond disseminotion Settlements oimedot theproduction opplicotion softwore to porticipoting citiesof microcomputer notionol process citydotofor locol. Annu al Report. InOECD indushiolized countries. I 99. tobleI . ond welfore percentin thecoseof SriLonko. "sectorol distribution c o m m i t m e in nt I 9 8 8 . and appointed. 5 'A (CDP). I 99 I (Woshington. for 16 doto ovoiioblein the World Development of centrol showthotthepercentoge low-income developing countries omenities ond sociolsecurity government expenditure on housing. inter alia. on housing. disosters. ond disosier-resisiont structures (b)To devise for opplying guidelines oppropriote ond strotegies tokinginto occount scientific ond technicol knowledge. aUNOp.. ond educotion progrommes. which monogement forintegroted lond+esource colls in chopterl0 of Agendo 2 1 (lntegroted ore olso oddressed of londresources). the efficiencyof governmental (b) Creatingan enablingpolicy environmentsupportive of the partnershipbetween the public. elected professionals and administrators. whichhosemborked on o vigorous during thesome housing progromme. "Reported reloted to UNDPasinvestment commitments proiects. programmes s. (c) Providing enhanced training and technicalassistance to institutionsproviding training for technicians.l99l)1. and building activitie ME A NS A N D TE C H N OT. community groupsand non-govemmental development. setout in ihe onnexto Generol 44/236.. designed to store.4. in knowledge in orderto reduce criticolgops (d)Todisseminote informotion reloted ond new technicol existing prediction ondmitigotion of noturol to meosures forthe ossessment. theeffectiveness ond io evoluote I MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG the averhasestimated 7. mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Actual costsand financial terms. private and communitysectors. 1991.l9 8 9 " . Development Indicotors. (d) Providing direct assistance for human settlement at the communitylevel.1 witho highof for l9B9 overoged 5. World Development D.OG| C AL B J sC /E N i l FtC 7. ore os follows: (o)Toimprove to mitigote theeffects of thecopocity of eochcountry poyingspeciol noturol ottendisosters expeditiously ond effectively.theCiiy DotoProgromme Centre is olreodyin operoiion in the UnitedNotions on Humon (Hobitot). meosures progrommes through of techniond mitigotion of noturol disosiers proiects. updated and capacityhuman resource of successful ing the results projects. to identifyingbottlenecks (e) Promotingthe inclusionof integrated environmengovernment general activities. tronsfer.and use should be made of usereurd up-to-date trainingmaterials oriented trainingmethods. inter alia. in the ossessment of disoster tion to ossisting developing countries worning systems potentiol of eorly domoge ond in theestoblishment whenond whereneeded. and professionalmembers of local govemmentsand priority training their capacityto address strengthening needs.l).C. economic and developenvironmentalaspectsof human settlements ment. of investment sisted 1988". pilotprogromme of thlstype. existing theculturol ond economic diversity omongnotions. 3world D.Theseare indicativeand order-of--magnitude by Governments. tobleI 1 iWoshington.80 Both formal trainingand non-formaltypesof human prograrnmes and capacity-building resource development should be combined. Report.and evaluatingprogress and needed assistance. 2See for Development ond the report of the Director-Generol preliminory stocontoining Internotionol Economic Cooperotion Notions system tisticol of theUnited dotoon operotionol octivities for I 988 lA/ 44/324-E/ 1989/ 106/ Add. inter alia. zationsin humansettlements (iii) Promotingresearch and on women's programmes madewith a view other groups. systems.79 The Conference secretariat age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe to be about$65 million from of this programme activities the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms.onnex). 64 . stengtheningsubregional providing anddisseminatraining materials tions. the non-concessional.including any that are will depend upon. modernaudio-visual communication 'No or expenditure on internol oggregote figures ore ovoiloble However. decide Governments andprogranunes specificstrategies upon for implementation. organiyouth. of those locotions.3 per centto o moximum of 49.the percentoge of centrol ronged fromo minimum of omenities ond sociol security ond welfore withon overoge of 29.(a) Strengthening of human resources the development and of capacitiesof public sector institutionsthrough so as cooperation and international technicalassistance in improvement to achieveby the year 2000 substantial activities. ond retrieve oxl c h o n g o o n d i n t e r n o t i o ne en dd i s s e m i n o t i o n . demonstrotion col ossistonce ond technology ond toiloredto specific disosters ond troining. Bonk. to plonning opprooch ond monogement ZTh" gool.6 percent.1991. World 39 per cent {World Bonk. Report. 6This policies.particularly in regard to social. . government expenditure yeor. andyouth in humansettlements (ii) Facilitatingcoordination of the activitiesof women.C.|5.by: development (i) for social and promoting prograrnmes Strengthening of women of thepotential mobilizationandraisingawareness activities.4 per cent.78 Both internationalorgamzations mentalorganizations shouldsupportthe aboveactivities training instituby. officioldevelopment ossistonce on humonsettlements. (c) Tofoster endeovours oimed ot closing scientific ond engineering loss of lifeondproperty. prevention forthecssessment. into local tal management and non-govern7. (e)Todevelop prediction.

and including Governments.someGovemments have alsobegunto make sig- of governin the institutional structures nificantchanges of consideration mentin orderto enable more systematic made on when decisions are economic.With theunderstanding thatcountries priorities with their own in accordance their prevailing plans. may posesevere economicand socialcosts tal standards if they are uniformly appliedin developing countries. and economic P R O G R A M MA ER E A S ENVIRONI ENTAND A) TNTEGRATING AT THE POLICY. policy.aswell asthe implications in theseareasfor the environment. public groups in the the science.transpoftation. (d) Establishing for integrated environmental systems accountine. n effect ec onom ic and p o l i ti c a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g i achieving a full integrationof thesefactors. overallframeworkin which suchintegration it mustbe bornein mind thatenvironmenIn this context.ond development environment Integroting in decision-moking INTRODUCTION areas: thefollowing programme 8. needs.may be necessary country-specific is to be put at the centreof ronment and development . proposed: are the following objectives (a) To conducta nationalreview of economic. planningand management of all groupsin society. New torms of diafor achieving betterintelogue arealsobeingdeveloped industry. and the specific tives. and collabothe ration with national.national and programmes. grationamongnationaland local government. law. UNDP and the World Bank. planningand management ( b) P r ov iding a n e ffe c ti v e l e g a l a n d re g ul atory framework.In recent years.environmental and processof developingeffectiveapproaches to environfor bringing ment and development. Exchange between countries of experience goals plans.sectoral policies. fiscal.3 The overall objectiveis to improve or restructure the decision-makingprocessso that considerationof issuesis fully intesocio-economic and environmental grated and a broaderrange of public participationaswill develop sured.The responsibility partnership with in aboutchanges lies with Governments private in sectorand local authorities. National can also rules. theactions levels. in the light of damentalreshaping of decision-making.2 Prevailing systemsfor decision-making economic. andenvironmental strategies andplansto ensure the progressi vei ntegrati on of envi ronmentaland developmental issues.PTANNING AND DEVETOPfrIENT ftTANAGEMENT LEVETS BASIS FOR ACTION in many 8.regionaland internationalorganizations. energy. and objecbe significant. (c) Making eftectiveuseof economicinstruments and marketand otherincentives. the environment trade social. of policies and otherpolicies. policies conditions. if enviconditions. for the efficiencyandsustainhasimportantimplications An adjustmentor even a funability of development. 65 .agricultural.This influences industry and individuals.national regulations and situationsin which difl-erent countriesare placedare the takesplace.socialand environcountries tend to separate mental factorsat the policy. OBJECIMES 8. including in particular UNEP.1 This chapter contains (a) lntegrating environmentand developmentat the levels.

and simultaneous useof social.at all levelsof decision-making. theseproeconomic. economic and social of human resources and trendsand the stateof the environment and conditions naturalresources: this could be complemented by annual environmentand developmentreviews. (0 Ensuringaccess by the public to relevantinfbrmaof public viewsandallowtion.the datasystems processes may needto be supportsuchdecision-making whereapproin collaboration. (e) Adopting integrated to sustainable deapproaches velopmentat theregionallevel.plans and policy insocial and environmental struments.social and environmental process. ing incorporation inof efficiencycriteriain decisions: struments shouldbe regularlyreviewedand adapted to ensurethat they continueto be effective.improve the processes making so as to achieve the progressiveintegration of issues in the pursuit andenvironmental economic. ecologicaland environmental data.economic.To do this. izationsin decision-making (d) To establish to domesticallydeterminedprocedures int egr at e e n v i ro n m e n t a n d d e v e l o p m e nti ssues i n decision-making. policies and programmes for the following activities: (a) Improving the use of data and information at all making systematic stages of planningand management. (b) Adopting comprehensive analyticalprocedures for prior and simultaneous of the impacts of assessment including the impactswithin and among the decisions.subjectto the requirements of particularcircunrstances and necds.ANN'NG B) IMPROVING AND MANAGEMENI to decisionapproach 8. meansto ensurethe coherence policies. and accountabilityfor. levelsand all (b) Adopting a domesticallyformulated policy framework that reflectsa long-termperspective and cross-sectaking account toral approach as the basisfor decisions. shouldreview the statusof their planningand managemodif .4 The primary needis to integrateenvironrnental processes. (e) Ensuringtransparency of.socialand environmental projectlevelto policies cedures shouldextendbeyondthe analysisshould also include assessand programmes. policies and programmesfor the following activities: (a) Ensuring the integration of economic.includingtransbclundarv areas. larly for the management of naturalresources: traditional methodsshouldbe studied or indigenous and considered wherever they have proved effective: \ /omen's traditionalrolesshouldnot be marginalized as a resultof the introductionof new management systems.integrative level can areaapproaches at the ecosystem or watershed assist in this approach: (d) Adoptingintegrated parlicumanagement systenrs. of the linkagesbetween and within the variouspolitical. with a view to by the sustainable developmentachievements assessing varioussectors and departments of govemment. spheres. strengthenproceduresso as to facilitate the integrated considerationof social. w here necessary. ment of costs. (c) To developor improve mechanisms to facilitate the groupsandorganindividuals.(b) To strengtheninstitutional structuresto allow the full integrationof environmentaland developmentalissues.a broad range of analytical methods shouldbe encouraged soasto provide variouspointsof view. with national and international orgamzations.5 To supporta more integrated usedto and analyticalmethods making. Governments. t "and ment systems and. economic and environmental issues. issuesinvolved in economic. (D Using policy instruments(legal/r"egulatorl' and seekeconomic) asa tool for planning andmanagement. priate. of decisionwhere appropriate.scrcial that is economicallyefficient. the development (c) Establishingdomestically determinedways and of sectoral.developniental. 66 .economic. decision-making developmental Governmentsshould conduct a national review and. will developtheir own prioritiesin accordance Countries with their national plans.Countrieswill develop their own priorities in accordancewith their national plans. social and in decision-making at all environmental considerations in ministries. socially of development equitable and responsibleand environmentally sound. theenvironmental implications of economicandsectoral policies.including fiscal measuresand the budget: these mechanisms should apply at various levels and bring together those interested in the development process. SYSIEMS PI. facilitatingthe reception ing for effective participation. ACTIVITIES -MAKING PROCESSES DECISiON A) IMPROYING and 8.analysisshoulcl stressinteractionsand synergisms. (c) Adopting flexible and integrativeplanning approaches that allow the consideration of rnultiplegcials and enable adjustmentof changing needs. involvement of concerned at all levels.benefitsand risks. (d) Monitoring and evaluatingthe development process regularreviewsof the state systematically and conducting development. improved.

It shouldbe developed on a thorough participation. economic and environmental considerwith the explicit shouldbe undertaken ations. They should also undertakesystematictraining of governmentpersonnel.9 Governments. socialandenvironmental across economic. To do this. asappropriate. AND IRA'N/NG EDUCATION C' ENHANC'NG FOR A NAnONAL STRATEGY D) ADOFTING BLE DEVELOPMENT SUSIA/NA where appropriate. decide Governments and programmes specificstrategies for implementation. Priority and should be given to highlighting the responsibilities socialgroups. The experience suchas nationalreportsfor eristing planningexercises strategies andennationalconservation the Conf-crence. or are dehurnanresources ensurethat essential veloped. are suitedto country-specific AWARENESS PUBLIC D) PROMOIING with nationalinstitutions in cooperation 8.to undertakethe integrationof environmentand developmentat various stagesof the decision-making and implementation process. E/ SIRENGIHEN'NG ITY INSI'IUi/ONAL C APAC where appropriate.ration changes that measure by adoptingindicators development dimensions. thevarioussectoral build uponandharmonize social and environmentalpolicies and plans that are gainedthrough opcratingin thecountry. curricula. 67 . in cooperation.vocational.6 Countries of progresstowards achieving sustainable evalr. in cooperation. international scientific community and in cooperation as appropriate.E Thc Conference (199:l-2000) the implementing of age total annualcost from million to be about$50 actir iiit's of thisprogramme conrmunityon grant or concessional thc-irrternational estiternls. on improving management reconunendations AND /NFORMAT/ON c) DATA for monitoringand could developsystems 8.12 Governments. vininnrentaction plans shouldbe fully usedand incordevelopment poratedinto a country-drivensustainable strategy.1I Countries. clf informationon local hazards. particularly for approaches.plannersand managerson a regular basis.giving priority to the requisiteintegrative that techniques approaches and planningand management conditions. of dift-erent potentialcontributions OFIMPLEMENTATION MEANS AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG the averhasestimated secretariat l{. as well should promote awareness of considering of the importance asin specializedcircles. inter alia. based development for sustainable strategy takenat theConf'erence. exist. NAI'ONAI. the non-concessional.educationand technical training.Its goals shouldbe to ensuresociallyresponsible economic developmentwhile protectingthe rebaseand the environmentfor the benefit of future sourcrc throughthe widest gcnerations. nastrengthen should with intemationalorganizations. upon AND ENY'RONMENI B] RESEARCH'NG CI'ONS DEV ELOP MENI INTERA in collaborationwith thenationaland 8.the media and the internationalcommunity. assessme with whereappropriate. and in anintegratedmanner. 8. environmentanddevelopment for facilitating a direct exshould establishmechanisms changeof informationand views with the public. they should improve. of decisions the irnplenrcntation should of Agenda2 I . in cooperation.should with internationalorganizations. on. 8.inter alia. Research objective of assistingpolicy decisionsand providing practices.7 Governments" shouldadopta national with international orgamzations. 8. regional or internationalorganizations.responsi(g) Delegating planning and management bilities to the lowestlevel of public authorityconsistent of with el'fectiveaction. womenandgirls. Actual costsand financial terms.10 Countries.It shouldbe based possible nt of the currentsituationand initiatives. intensify efforts to clarify the interactionsbetweenand within social.by includinginterdisciplinary andother university in trchnical. irt peuticularthe advantages by for participation opportunities andequitable cff'ective wornenshouldbe discussed.including any that are will depend upon. should national. and groups. procedures for involving local com(h) Estatrlishing and planningfor environmental in contingency rnunities and maintainingan open exchange industrialaccidents. This strategy in respect particularly economic.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude matesonlv andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. in the public at large.

where appropriate. 8.provincial and local levels. umeof legaltextsin thisfield is steadily much of the law-makingin many countriesseems to be ad hoc and piecemeal.provincial and local programmesthat assess and promote compliance and respond appropriately to non-compliance. 8.provincial and local levels. having due regardfor local social valuesand infrastructures. preparationand di stri buti on of gui dancemateri al . economic and scientific is equally critical to develop workable programmes to reviewandenforcecompliance with thelaws.the following objectivesare proposed: (a) To disseminateinformation on effective legal and regulatory innovations in the field of environment and development.It social. as illustratedby the frequent treaty obligation to report on legislative measures.developmental and environmental issuesat all levels of developmentdecision-making and implementation. should regularly assess the laws and regulations enactedand the relatedinstitutional/administrative machineryestablished at the national/state and local/municipal levels in the field of environmentand sustainable development. To effectivelyintegrate environment anddevelopment in the policiesand practices of eachcountry. including workshops. where appropriate. i mpl ement. including appropriate instruments and compliance incentives.education programmes and conferences. enforceable and effectivelaws and regulations that arebased upon sound principles.state. althoughthe volincreasing.Programmes for this purposecould include the promotion of public awareness. Attention should be given to moving away from narrow sectoral approachesand progressingtowards full cross-sectoral coordination and cooperation.regulations and standards that are adopted.countries shouldtakeaccount o1'their international obligations. moni tor and enforce l aws and regul ati ons.state.With theunderstanding thatcountries will develop their own priorities in accordance with their needsand nationaland.policies and prograrunes.with the support. with a view to encouraging their wider use and adoptionat the national.tional institutional capability and capacity to integrate social. instruments and enforcement mechanisms at the national. economic. and the needfor improvednationalimplementation and. advisory services and specialized trainingand institutional capacity-building. The surveyof existingagreements undertaken preparations in the contextof conference has indicated problemsof compliancein this respect. not only through "command and control" methods. seminars.the integrationof environment and development policiesthroughappropriate legal and regulatory policies. (b) To supportcountriesthat requestit in their national efforts to modernize and strengthen the policy and legal framework of governancefor sustainable development.in the light of country-specific conditions. national.16 The overall objectiveis to promote. but also as a normative framework for economic planningand marketinstruments.14 While there is continuousneed for law improvement in all countries. ACTIVITIES A) MAKTNG LAWSAND REGUTAT/ONS MORE EFFECTTVE 8. (c) To encourage the developmentand implementation of national. In developing their nationalpriorities. B) ESTABL/SH/NG AND JUD\C\AL A DM/NIsTRAT IVE PROC EDU RE S 8.K BASIS FOR ACTION 8. Technicalcooperation requirements in this field include legal information. Technical support may for many countries be needed to accomplish thesegoals.18 Governments and legislators. related technical assistance.15 The enactment and enforcement of laws and regulations (at the regional.it is essential to develop and implement integrated. Bl PROVIDING AN EFFECTTVE rEGAL AND REGUTATORY FRAMSWOR. regionalplans. with a view to renderingthem effective in practice. state/provincialor local/municipal level) are also essentialfor the implementationof most internationalagreements in the field of environment and development. ecological. state.13 Laws and regulationssuited to country-specific conditionsareamongthe most importantinstruments for policiesinto transforming environment anddevelopment action. of competentinternational organizations. with the support. or hasnot beenendowedwith the necessary institutional machinery and authonty for enforcement and timely adjustment.of competent international organijudicial and administrative zations. for public officials who desi gn.whereappropriate.many developingcountrieshave been affectedby shortcomings of laws and regulations.17 Governments. shouldestablish pro- 68 . and spe cialized training. Yet.whereappropriate. OBJECTIVES 8.

within agreed postfrom developingcountries.undertakingeffectiveentablishingenforcemen forcement. COMPLIANCE ENFORC/NG I. r ev iewsof s ele c te d to maximize compliancewith its laws and regulations from with assistance development. ernmentsand development and environment of grated programme carefully law) services. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. fectiveness (d) Mechanismsfor appropriateinvolvementof individof laws andenforcement ualsandgroupsin thedevelopment and regulationson environmentand development.A. relatingto sustainable and other countriesas approintemationalorganizations could include: priate.and the training of negotiating. development law (sustainable recipient the of requirements specific to the adapted could systems systems. the related skills of drafting and mediation. (c) Institutional capacityfor collecting compliancedata. could.effective laws. Governrnents to interested MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION Ai F/NANC/NG the averhasestimated secretariat 8. orand non-governmental trainers. Such administrative legal and compreparation of in the assistance include usefully inventoriesand reviews of national legal prehensive the usefulhasdemonstrated systems. and should provide with a to individuals. AND DEVELOPMENT ENYIRONMFNI strategies developintegrated 8. regulationsand standards that are basedon soundeconomic. (b) Mechanisms for promotingcompliance. 69 . NATIONAI EFFECTIVE E) DEVELaP'NG AND FORREVIEWING PROGRAMMES WITHNAI/ONAI. T h e s e a g e n c i e s ex am ine t he po s s i b i l i ty a n d me ri t o f p e rformi ng n a ti o n a l e g a l s v s te m s . Intergovernmental alreadyactive in this field could cooperate ganizations to harmonizecurwith relateduniversity programmes riculum planningandto ol r an optimalrangeof options and potentialsponsors. Contractingparties legal andregulatorymeasures samplesurcould undertake agreements to international veys of domesticfollow-up action subjectto agreement concerned.E NEIWORK institutions and academic international 8.detectingviolations.Within the United Naarnongall agencies tions system. . intemationalconventions practicesand proceduresfor coliecting information on taken. incorporatingsanctionsdesignedto punish violations. The strategies (a) Enforceable. Suchtrainingshould anddevelopment environment andtheprogressive boththeeffectiveapplication address improvementof applicablelaws. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude timatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governcostsand financial terms.closer cooperation and would avoid duplicationof databases concerried coul d f ac ilit at e div is i o n o f l a b o u r. that are non-concessional.and conductingperiodic evaluationsof the efof complianceand enforcementprogrammes.including any ments. regularlyreviewing compliance.20 Competent to provide.and remedyof actionsaffecting for legal reclress cedures that may be unlawful or environmentand development infringe on rights unclerthe law. States by the sovereign IRA/N/NG A COOPERATIVE D) ESTABL'SH/NG LAW DEVELOPMENT FORSUSIAINAEI. TO TOLLOW'UP OF LEGAL F/ NAnONAL MONTTOR/NG ENIS I.21 Each country shoLrld MEANS AND IECHNOI.ctual will dependupon.22 Contractingpartiesto international of relevant consultationwith the appropriatesecretariats shouldimprove asappropriate.Pastexperience nessof combining specializedlegalinformation services with legal expert advice. /NSIRUM .NTERNAIIONA in agreements.AWS ON AND LOCAL PROY/NCIAT STATE. obtain redressand deterfuture violations.23 The Conference age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 million from the international community on grant or concessional esterms. inter alia.OGICAL B/ SCIENI/F/C on a continuation reliesessentially 8.social and environmental principles and appropriaterisk assessment. upon legislators. 8.19 Competentintergovernmentai to provide Govcooperate could mentalorganizations with an interequest. especiallyfor trainees trainingfacilitiesin andin-service programmes graduate law.est priori ties.24 The prograrnme and translation of ongoingwork for legaldatacollection. cooperate fratneworks.groupsand organizations access iegal interest" recognized AND REFERENCE LEGAT C) PROVIDING SERY/CES SUPPORT and non-govern8.

. 8.30 What is neededis an appropriate effort to explore and make more effective and widespreaduse of economic and market-oriented approaches within a broad framework of development policies. the useof market principlesin the framing of economicinstruments and pol i ci esto pursuesustai nabldevel e opm ent . Demandfor this type of postgraduate andin-service trainingis knor. regulations and standards on sustainable development. 70 . keeping in mind national plans.whereverappropriate. The senrinars. have been making increasing use of economic approaches. so that priceswill appropriately reflectthe relativescarcityand total value of resourcesand contribute towards ttre prevention of environmental degradation. appl yi ngi ntegrated pol l uti onpreventi on co nt r ol. in geographical coverage of nationallegislative gazettes and other rel'erence sources)and to irnproved standardization andcompatibilityof data. Prices. D/ S T RE N GT H F N /N G IE G A rAN D /NSI/IUIlONALCAPACITY 8.policies and prograffrfiles.29 Within a supportive international and national ACTIVITIES A) tMPROylNG OR REOR/ENI/NG GOVERNMENIAT POLICIES 8.25 Participation in trainingis expected to benefit practitioners from developing countries andto enhance training opportunities for women. priorities and objectives. many Governments.assessment. markets and r r r n l e n t a lf l s c a l a n d e c o n o r n i c p o l t c i c s a l s ( )p l a v a e(rVe conrplr-nrelttarv role in shaping attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. as well as providing financial resources to meetsustainable development objective s. including those that are market-oriented. Regional centres o1't-'xcellence couldbe designatcd and supported to build up specialized databases and rrainingtacilities for linguistic/cultural groupsof legalsystems. C) HUM A NR ES O U R C DE EV EL OP M F N I 8. workshops andconferences on reviewand enforcement that havebeenheld to datehavebeenvery successful and well attended. Govemments should consider gradually building on experience with economic instruments and market mechanisms by undertaking to reorient their policies.9. in order to: (a) Establish effbctive combinations of economic. regulatory and voluntary (self'-regulatory) approaches. txarnples include lhe polluter-pays principle and the ntore recent natural-resource-u ser-pays concept. the c-hallenge is to achievesignificantprogress in the yearsaheadin meetingthreefundamental objectives: (a) To incorporate environmental costsin thedecisions of producers and consumers and to reverse the tendency to treattheenvironment asa "freegood" andto pass these costson to otherpafisof society. economic context and given the necessary legal and regulatory framework.28 During the past several years.The purposeof theseef(both human and instituforts is to developresources tional)to design andimplement programmes effective to continuously revierv arrd enforce national andloc:al laws. 8. 8.vn to be high.26 A mitjor part of the programmeshouldhe oriented tow'ards intprovingthe legal-institutional capacities of conntries to copewith national problems of governance and effectivelaw-makingand law-applying in the field of environment and sustainable development.asappropriate. Closercooperation between existingdatabases may be expected to leadto betterdivisionof labour (e. This wouldbeachievedbyprovi di ngcost-eftective solutions.uAKrNG EFFECTTVE USEOF ECONOMTC INSTRUMENTS AND IYIARKET AND OTHERINCENTIVES BASIS FOR ACTION i1.law and regulation suitedto country-specific conditionsas part of a general transition to economic and environmental policiesthat are supportiveand mutually reinforcing. economic and market-oriented approaches can in many cases enhance capacityto deal with the issues of environment and development. othercountries orfuture generations: (b) To move more fully towardsintegrationof social andenvironmental costsintoeconomic activities. primarily in industrialized ccluntries but also in Central and Eastern Europe and in developing cctirntries.31 While it is understood that counrries will develop their own prioritiesin accordance with their needsand nationalplans. OBJECTIVES 8. (c) To include.32 ln the near term. c) .pr ornoting technological innovationand influencingenvironmentalbehaviour. (b) Remove or reduce those subsidiesthat tJo not cronform with sustainable development objectives.27 Environmental law and regulation are important but cannot alone be expected to deal with the problenrs of environnrent and development.

for dn' el opi ng of suchpri ci ngpol i ci es 'Ihe valuing environmental in (c) used methodologies costs.E F/ FN H A N C /N G D E V E LOP ME FC N I ON OMIC S includinstrtrments.possibly. development should explore. and coordination cooperation .and and international for competitiveness centives potential needs for appropriatefuture international serv'ices. (b) Global and transboundarv of irnplications (c) The possible social and distributive (c) Thedevelopmentandintroductionofenvironmentally vari ous instruments" using diftusionand transfer and its adaptation.in co8.Governments how asappropriate' andindustry. as organizations nomic andenvironmental by: institutes. to examine: levels.rhelp achievesustainable ronmentalcostsappropriate objectivcs: development of pricingin the case (b) The implications tor resource i rnpl i cations g I n the rie s.35 Given the recognitionthat the use of economic is relatively i n s t r u m e n t sa n d m a r k e t m e c h a n i s m s r e c e n t . and transnational dustry. development of sustainable to improve understanding by: ecclnomics (a) Encouraging of higher learningto reinstitutions sttrdies in sustainable andstrengthen view thcir cun'icuia cconotni cs: derel oprtrent (b) Encouragingregionaland international economic 71 . in cooperation be initiated. tn this regard. in economic interest 8. Governments the use of existing meansof inforshould encourage to lclokat eflbctive usesof economic mation exchange ins t r um ent s . issues.E UNDERSIAND/NG D/ /NCREAS/NG AND /N S IR U ME N IS OF E C ON OMIC MECHANIS/I4S MARKET 8. need to where appropriate. tions.wastes. I nc u<li nf cou resource-exporting countri es. therefore ctlrporations. resource mentally sclunder with sustainable (e) Move towardspricing consistent objectives. the (cl) Establisha policy lramework that encourages in pollutioncontrolandenvironof new markets creation management.36 Governmentsshoul d encourageresearchand and analysison effectiveusesof economicinstruments of regionaland andsupport with the assistance incentives international econornic and environmental organrzaresearchinstitutes. as well as non-governmental as: with a focuson suchkey issues (a) The role of environmentaltaxation suited to national conditions: and in(b) The implicationsof econornicinstruments trade. and forestry.non-governmental (a) Providing technicalsupportto thosecountrieson instruments of economic relatingto the application issues mechanisms.water. e x c h a n g eo f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d i f f e r e n t be shoul d s i th s u c ha p p ro a c h es c ount r iesex ' pe ri e n c ew actively encouraged. (a) Issues relatedto energy.tourism and tertiary OF THEROI.of economic (c) Reform or recastexisting structures and developto meet environment and fiscal incentives ment objectives. with business operation and effectiveusecan be madeof economicinstruments in the following areas: marketmechanisms agriculture transportation. with economies countries countries and ecointernational and regional of with the assistance appropriand. research ate.38 lncreased effort alsorequiresa concerted ing marketmechanisms.-14 tions of the use of economic instrumentsand market of developing geared to theparticularneeds mechanisms in transition. and market the (b) Encouraging atld. nationaland international (a) The practical implications of moving towards greater relianceon pricing policiesthat intemalizeenviti. regionalseminars expertise' of centres regional of developrnent OF EFFECTIVE AN /NyENTORY c) :REATING AND /N SIR U ME N IS O F E CO N O MIC US E S M A RK EM T E CH AN /SM5 8. soundtechnology in conformitywith chaptet34.as appropriate.large enterprises at both the as well asother socialgroups.health.37 Thetheoretical and be better understood. BJ IAKINGACCOUNIOF THEPARTICULAR COUNIR/FS OF DEVELOPING CIRCUMSTANCFS WITH ECONOM/ES AND COUNIR/ES /N IRANS/I'ON eflbrt shouldbe madeto developapplicaA special 8. means what it of greatcr understanding by accompanied should Processes in thisdirection. countries to developing FOR A PROCESS E) ESTABLISH'NG P R /C IN G ON FOC U S /N G of usingpricingpoliciesadvantages 8. OF U N D E R S IA N D /N G S U S IA /NA8I . steps to takesignificant inwith business.33 In particular.

in all member States. ACTIVITIES A/ STRENGTHEN'NG /NTERNAI/ONAI. rather than a substitute for. (c) Coordinate. will depend upon.44 The Departmentof Economic and Social Development of the U ni ted N ati ons S ecretari at . COO?ERALON 8. environmental statisticians and nationaltechnical staffin smallgroupsfor theestablishment.It also involves internationaland regional economic and environmental organizations and agencies with expertise in this area.39 This programme involvesadjustments or reorientation of policieson the part of Governments.I.to organizetraining programmesfor the private sectorand other groups. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewedby Governments.42 The main objectiveis to expandexistingsystems of nationaleconomicaccounts in orderto integrateenvironment andsocialdimensions in theaccounting framework. refine and then standardizethe provisionalconceptsand methodssuchas those proposedby the SNAHandbook. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTAIION 8.are included. adaptation and development of nationalIEEAs. includingat leastsatellite systems for natural of accounts resources in all memberStates. The definition of economically active could be expandedto include people performing productivebut unpaidtasksin all countries. int e r a l i a . in close collaborationwith other relevantUnited Nations organizations. the trainingof nationalaccountants.YTrc ACCOUNTING FOR BASIS ACTION 8. with a view to ensuringthat IEEAs are usefully integratedin economicdeveloprnent planningat the nationallevel.IEEAs would be designed to play an integral part in the national development process.keeping member States informed of the statusof the work throughoutthis process. (c) Encouraging includinglarge business and industry. industrial enterprise s and transnational corporation s with expertisein environmentalmatters.test. traditionalnationalaccountingpracticesfor the foreseeable future. This would enabletheir contribution to be adequatelymeasured and takeninto accountin decision-making. A common frameworkneedsto be developed wherebythe contributions made by all sectorsand activitiesof society. in satelliteaccounts.economicand environmentaldimensions. environmental andeconomic accountins in all countries is proposed. th e s p e c i fi c s tra te g iesand programmesGovernments decide upon for implementat ion. OBJECTIVES 8. As sustainable development encompasses social. D) ESTABLTSHTNG FOR TNTEGRATED SySTEryrS ENVIRON. The resultingsysterns of integrated environmental and economic accounting (IEEA) to be establishedin all member States at the earliest date should be seenas a complementto. including any that are non-concessional. in close cooperation with other internationalorganizations. t hat ar e no t i n c l u d e d i n th e c o n v e n ti o nalnati onal accounts.IENTAI AND ECONO.43 The Statistical Office of the United Nations Secretariat should: (a) Make available to all member States the methodologiescontainedin the SNAHandbookon Integrated Environmentaland Economic Accountingl (b) In collaboration with other relevantUnited Nations organizations.41 A first step towards the integrationof sustainability into economicmanagement is theestablishment of bettermeasurement of the crucial role of the environmentas a sourceof naturalcapitaland as a sink for by-productsgenerated during the production of manmade capital and other human activities. A/ F/NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATION 8.including transnational corporations. 8.should: (a) Support.to the extent consistent with soundtheory and practicability. Actual costs and financial terms. decision-making National accounting agencies shouldwork in closecollaborationwith nationalenvironmental statisticsas well as the geographicand natural resourcedeparlrnents.the utilization of sustainable development indicators in national economic and socialplanningand decision-making practices.it is also important that national accountingprocedures are not restrictedto measuringthe productionof goods and servicesthat are conventionallyremunerated. further develop.40 The Conference secretariathas estimated the average total annualcost (1993-20CI0) of implementing the activitiesof this programme to be about$5 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.researchinstitutes organizationsand non-governmental with expertisein this area to provide training sessions and seminarsfor governmentoffrcials. Aprogrammeto developnational systems of integrated 72 .

the capacityto collect effortsshouldbe madeto augment data and informationand to environmental and analyse' it with economicdata. physical environmental 73 . the programme could be dealing with national adoptedmainly by the agencies staenvironmental with cooperation in close accounts. technical cooperationamong countries.52 To ensurethe application (a) Nationalinstitutions could countries in developing be strengthenedto ensure the effective integration of environment and developmentat the planning and levels decision-making .Efforts should also be made to develop Intemationaldonor accounts. in collaboration agenci es. Actual costsand financialterms. development planningfor sustainable to national is suited information and reliableandeffective conditions. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude timates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. the S tati sti cal Of f ice should provide appropriatesupport for establishing with relevantUnited Nations' IEEAs.includinggender-disagintegrate gregateddata. reporting to shareholders. that are non-concessional. PROCESS AN ASSESSMENI C) ESTABL/SH/NG MEANS OF IMPLEMENIATION 8. /NSI'IUI'ONS 8/ SIRENGIHEN'NG of IEEAs: 8. in the process agenciesshould considerfinancing the developmentof intersectoral data banks to help ensure that national is based on precise. of the system depositary work productive Unpaid use.energyand ronmentalprogrammes other naturalresources. shouldseekto identify and consider 8. public : (b) To developand implenrentmethodsand rules for development.51 The Conferencesecretariat of implementingthe age total annualcost (1993-2000) activitiesof this programmeto be about$2 million from the international community on grant or concessional esterms. the StatisticalCommission should assembleand review experienceand advisememberStateson technicaland methodological andimplemenrelatedto the furtherdevelopment issues tation of IEEAs in memberStates. shouldalsobe sousht. corporations: shouldencourage 8. govemmental employees.49 NationalCiovernments in datacollectionto set enhancemenl ing the necessary in place national IEEAs with a view to contributing Major pragmaticallyto sound economicmanagement. by process to be established tion with the assessment the S tati sti cal C ommi ssi on.46 At the internationallevel.ECIION /NFORMAIION could considerimplement8.water. economic of developingthesesatelliteaccounts. economic national of in charge as the role not only play crucial a should stitutions estabbut alsoin its adaptation. inter alia. (b) The Statistical Office shouldprovidethe necessary in closecollaboratechnicalsupportto memberStates.45 At thc national level. the specific strategiesand prograrnmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.(b) Promote improved environmentaland economic and socialdatacollection.48 Governments (a) To provide relevant environmental information creditors.in satellite national accountsand couldbea first step Time-use surveys statistics.This should also include exchangeof experiencein ttre establishmentof IEEAs. suchasdomestic where appropriate. continuous and lishment work andchild careshouldbe included. with a view to departments.including any will dependupon. inand transnationalcorcluding large industrial enterprises porationswith experiencein valuation of such resources. through transparent andthe consumers authorities.50 The Statistical riat.47 Governments to correctprice distortionsarisingfrom envimeasures affectingland. The cooperationof businessand industry. tisticsand naturalresource makers anddecision analysts economic national assisting inNational planning. in close collaboration with relevant United Nations for existing mechanisms should strengthen organizations. COOPERAilON IECHNICAL E/ STRENGTHEN'NG Office of the United NationsSecreta8. for sustaining accounting AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FTNANC/NG hasestimatedthe aver8. SVSIEMS NAflONAI"ACCOUNTING B/ STRENGTHFN'NG 8. particularly in connection with the valuation of in data andstandardization naturalresources non-marketed collection. AND DATA D/ SIRENGIHENING COII.

should strengthen national institutional 74 .State-of-theart datamanagenenttechnologies shouldbe adoptedfor the most efficient and widespreaduse of IEEAs. D/ STRFNGTHEN'NG NAr/ONAL CApACtTy 8.andat all levels. Training in all areas related to the establishment of IEEAs.54 Governments. This shouldinclude technical training of those involved in economic and environmental analysis.as well as training decisionmakersto usesuch information in a pragmaticand appropriateway.organize. datacollectionand nationalaccounting.c/ ENHANCTNG THEUSEOF IN FORMAIION TECHN OLOGY 8. assess and usedatain decision-making.will berequired. capacityto collect. especiallyin developingcountries. store. with the supportof the international community.53 Guidelines andmechanisms couldbedeveloped and agreedupon for the adaptationand diffusion of information technologies to developingcountries.

Section2 Conservotion ond Monogement of Resources for Development .

.

sustainable 9.6 Concern about climate change and climate varinew ability. containedin this chapterdo not the recommendations which exceed to takemeasures obligeany Government the provisionsof these legal instruments.2 It is recognized in suchinternational in this chapterare also addressed as the 1985 Vienna Convention for the agreements Protectionof the Ozone Layer.economicand socialinformation in these fields.asappropriate. including regional.Protection of theotmosphere INTRODUCTION A) ADDRESSING THE IMPROVING UNCERTAINTIES: THE BASIS FOR DECISION-Iv1AK|NG. discussed that many of the issues 9. the 1992United NationsFrameworkConvention on Climate Change and other international.taking into full account adverse for the legitimatepriority needsof developingcountries of sustained economic growth and the achievement of poverty. to reduce the remaining uncertainties Better understanding and prediction of the various properties and of the affectedecosysof the atmosphere with andtheirinteractions tems. other bodiesin their efforts to protectthe atmosphere. Transportation. socio-economic OBJECTIVES 9.instruments.are needed.3 It is also recognizedthat activities that may be in pursuit of the objectivesof this chapter undertaken with socialand economicdevelshouldbe coordinated mannerwith a view to avoiding opmentin an integrated the impactson the latter.air pollutionandozonedepletion hascreated demands for scientific. STRATOSPHERIC D) TRANSBOUNDARY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION.4 In this contextparticularreference programme areaAof chapter 2 of Agenda2l (Promoting development throughtrade). However. eradication is also madeto 9.5 The presentchapterincludes the following fbur programmeareas: (i) (ii) Energy development. The options and measures for consideration in thepresent chapterarerecommended and implementationby Governments and.1 Protection dimensional endeavour involving various sectors of described economic activity. SCIENTIFIC B) PROMOTTNG SUSTATNABLE DEVELOPMENT is a broad and multiof the atmosphere 9. the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer as amended. (iii) Industrial development. efficiency and consumption.7 The basic objective of this programmearea is to 77 .aswell ashealthimpacts factors. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) ADDRESSTNG THEUNCERTATNTIES: IfrIPROVING THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR DECISION. 9.In the caseof activthat it is understood ities coveredby suchagreements. C) PREVENTING OZONEDEPLETION.Governments free to caffy out additional measureswhich are consistentwith thoselegal instruments. are within the framework of this chapter.'VIAKING BASIS FOR ACTION 9. (iv) Tenestrial and marine resource development and land use.

transmission. biological. and the associated ratesof changethat would not allow ecosystems to adaptnaturally. processing andexport. distribution and use. inter alia. physical. oceanic. (e) Promote. economicand socialprocesses.' All energysources will needto be usedin ways that respect the atmosphere.10 The existingconstraints to increasing the environmentallysoundenergysupplies required for pursuingthe path towards sustainable development.12 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. di stributionand consumption. humanhealthand the environmentas a whole. data assembly. and the private sector. hydrological. as well asthecritical linkages between sustainable development and atmospheric changes.and cooperate in the building of scientific capacities for. and the facilitation of the participation and trainingof experts and technicalstaff. OBJECTIVES 9.is currentlyproduced andconsumed in ways that could not be sustained if technologywere to remainconstant andif overallquantities wereto increase substantially. in the fields of research.and should takeinto consideration the situations o{'countries thatare highly dependent on incomegenerated from the production. Much of theworld's energy.including. utilizationandaccessibility of thesedatabases. particularly in developingcountries.as well as atmospheric levelsof greenhouse gas concentrations. ACTIVITIES 9.and.i ntergo vernmentalandnon-governme ntal organizations. and systematic observation relatedto the atmosphere. needto be removed. (d) Cooperate in research to developmethodologies and identify threshold levels of atmosphericpollutants. including impactson human health. as appropriate. and on growing relianceon environmentally soundenergy systems. should: (a) Promote researchrelated to the natural processes affectingand being affectedby the atmosphere. however. that would cause dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate systemand the environment as a whole. and the situations clf countries highly vulnerable to adverse effectsof climate change. including the Global AtmosphereWatch. EFFtCtENCY ANDCONSUMPTTON BASIS FOR ACTION 9.particularly of developingcountries. ACTIVITIES 9. (ii) The establishment and improvement of capabilities to predictsuchchanges andfluctuations and to assess the resultingenvironmental and socio-economic impacts. asappropri ate. as appropriate.inter alia. to build capacityand enhance international cooperation. (b) Ensurea more balanced geographical coverage of the Global Climate ObservingSystemand its components. with the cooperation of the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand.throughlesspolluting and more efficientenergyproduction. collection and assessment. economicsectors and society.improve the understanding of processes that influence and are influenced by the Earth's atmosphereon a global. The needto controlatmospheric emissions of greenhouse and other gasesand substances will increasingly need to be based on efficiency in energy production. and the privatesector. 9. particularlynew and renewable sources of energy. theestablishment of additionalsystematic observation stations. by facilitating andoperation ./or consumption of fcrssil fuelsandassociated energy-intensive products and/orthe useof fbssilfuels fbr which countries haveserious difficultiesin switchingto alternatives.11 The basicand ultimateobjectiveof thisprogramme areais to reduceadverseeffectson the atmosphere from the energy sectorby promoting policies or prograffrmes.This objectiveshouldreflecf the need for equity. with the cooperation of the relevantUnited Nationsbodies_and. to increase the contributionof environmentally soundand cost-effective energysystems. regionaland local scale.adequate energysuppliesand increasing energy consumptionin developingcountries. chemical. the exchange of scientificdataand information. geological.9 Energy is essential to economicand social developmentandimprovedqualityof life. (c) Promotecooperation in: (i) The development of early detectionsystems concerningchanges and fluctuationsin the atmosphere. particularly new andrenewable ones. andto improve understanding of the economic and social consequences of atmospheric changes and of mitigation and response measures addressing suchchanges. transmiss i on.8 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. intergovernmental andnon-governmental organizations. and by contributingto thedevelopment.ecosystems.should: (a) Cooperate in identifying and developingeconom- 78 . B) PROMOTING SUSTA|NABTE DEVETOPfrIENT I ) ENERGY DEVELOPMENT.

soundenergyfrom cient distributionof environmentally energysources. to andtransfer andnationallevelsaccess includingresource-efticient. of a transport emissions and the development (d) In accordance develwith nationalsocio-econornic 79 . analysingand exchangingrelevantinformationon the relation betweenenvironmentand transport. sound and practicesfor environmentally of technologies energysysincludingnew and renewable energysystems.evaluate opmentand environment pr opr iat e. 2) TRANSPORTATION BASIS FOR ACTION and positive 9. where applicable. (b) Facilitateat the international. environmentally to energysupplies promotethe availabilityof increased efforts. less polluting and safer transport systems.and promotion of new and devekrprnent. regional. development. and the privatesector. or enhance. to limit. tion to developing transferand use (d) Promotethe research. as as appropriate.taking into accountrespectivecountries' unique social.13 The transportsectorhas an essential and role to play in economicand social development. with particularattenof power systems. of energy. to develop. to overcomeany barriersto their measures appropriate.labelling programmesfor products to provide decision makers and consumerswith information on opportunitiesfor energyefficiency. technologies.economicand political where characteristics.subregional efficiency andenvironmentally concerning energy levels s v s te m s : ener gY s c lund (l) Establish in cooperation asappropriate. particularly in developingcountries. particularly new and renewable in an economically could be increased energvsystems. pactassessments.14 The basic objective of this programmearea is to develop and promote cost-effectivepolicies or programmes. srarnmes. their effortsat collectas appropriate.intergovernmentaland non-governmental should: organizations.as appropriate.in particularin development supportsustainable r eloping c ou n tri e s : r le (b) Promotethe development at the nationallevel of energy. pr o mo te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o l i c i e s or prosocialandeconomic includingadministrative. will needs undoubtedly transportation sectoris alsoa sourceof atmosever.particularly integratedrural and urban mass soundroad networks. transit. countries. management of traffic and transport OBJECTIVES 9. methodologies for making integrated appropriate for sustainand economicpolicy decisions environment iminter alia. taking into account and safety the specificlocal and nationalcircumstances aspects.15 Govemments at the appropriate operationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. taking into account the needs for sustainable economic and developmentpriorities.sincethe transport pheric emissions. (f) Review currentenergysupply mixes to determine soundenergy how the contributionof environmentally systernsas a whole. with the private sector. throughenvironmental abledevelopment. cost-effec(a) Develop and promote. (i) Build capacityfor energyplanningand progralnme nranagement in energy efficiency. (c) Promote the research.subregional of safe. in order to improveenergyefficiency. efficient. reduceor control. including the implementationof appropriatetraining programmes. development (g) Coordinate energyplansregionallyand subregionand study the feasibility of effially. physical. (e) Promcrte of institutional. and use.as well asenvironmentally social. modernization countries.to soundenergysources icalty viablc. national. efficient manner.includingendogenous and giving specialattentionto the rehabilitation sectors. new and renewable (h) ln accordance develwith nationalsocio-economic and. and appropriate.with observation'of particularemphasison the systematic database.with the co9.harmful emissionsinto the atmosphere other adverseenvironmentaleffectsof the transportsecprioritiesaswell as development tor. thedevelopment particularlyin decapacities. and practechnologies useof improvedenergy-efficient in all relevant technologies tices. there is need for a review of existing transport systems and for more effective design and systems. planningand management velopingcountries. as appriorities. ing. andexaminingand implementing. rcnewahle sources (-i) Promote appropriate energyefficiencyandemission at the national level. as well as for the introduction.produceand useincreasingiy efficientand lesspolluting forms of energy. attention to developing tems.with particular scientific. tive. Howincrease. nrcilsLlres. and lesspolluting transport particularlyto the developingcountries. ACTIVITIES level.2 or recommendations stanciiirds that and use of technologies at the development airnecl impacts on the environmentl mininrize adverse (k) Encourage proeducationand awareness-raising and regional granrrnes at the local. (c) Strengthen. more efficient. as appropriate. transferand development.

environmentally OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIES at the appropriatelevel. on transport regionalconferences DEVELOPMENT 3) TNDUSTRTAL FOR ACTION BASIS of goodsand for theproduction 9.18 Governments United Nationsbodiesand. capacity that are safe. new. (e) Developor enhance. suchasagriculture. p ro m o te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o l i ci cs or prosocialandeconomic grammes. impacts modesthatminimizeadverse to mechanisms as appropriate.A tmospher ic biodiveron forests. regional settlement of transport.16 Industryis essential servicesand is a major sourceof employmentand infor as suchis essential come. u. Protectionof the atmosphere and resource inter ctlia. and materials. rncteasinrpactson the atmosphereby.evaluate opmentand environment p o l i ci es or propr opr iat e. to fostersustainable assessments (e) Promoteefficient use of materialsand resources. and the environment. canhaveimportantimpacts changes as well as sity. gases: house (iii) The conservation use of natural and sustainable resources: and environntental 80 .hcre hancement. on economicactivitie will need and diverge may often sectors in diffbrent tives manner. atmospheric to climatic may reduce the resilienceof ecosystems vari ati ons and ai r pol l uti on damage.are lesspolluting and make more efficient includingenergy.20 The objectives utiliza(a) To promoteterrestrial and marineresource to: contribute practices that liind-use tion andappropriate (i) The reductionof atmospheric pollution and/orthe limitation of anthrcpogenicemissionsof greenhouse gases: (ii) The conservation. includingadministrative. impacts reducingthe environmental (0 Study. organizations.by increasing can be enhanced. includingadministrative.within the frameworkof the United Nations thefeasibilityof convening andits regionalcommissiotts. of the relevant cooperation andnon-governmental ate. sources ergy. Policy objecs. p ro m o te c o s t-e ffe c ti v e economic and social grammes.19 Land-use in atmosphere. use of transportation in order to encourage measures. adverse ing efficiency in the production and consumptionby and materials. substances and by-products.installingor improving p o l l u t i o n a b a t e m e n tt e c h n o l o g i e sa n d r e p l a c i n g (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons as well as by with appropriatesubstitutes. industryis a major industrial and materialsuser and consequently resource andthe into the atmosphere activitiesresultin emissions environmentas a whole. and processes efficienttechnologies potentialsfor enaccessible into accountarea-specific of energy.as appriorities.particularlysafeand renewable with a view to limiting industrialpollution and adverse impactson the atmosphere. intesrated in an handled to be OBJECTIVES 9.by improving industry of all resources and by developing technologies pollution-abatement soundtechnologies. as appriorities. countries. useof all resources and transferof such (c) Cooperate in the development of capacand in the development industrialtechncllogies particularly ities to manageand use suchtechnologies. At the sametime. with the 9. and urban and planning strategies integratetransporl with a view to planning strategies.andindustrialdevelopment economicgrowth. devel(a) In accordance with national socio-economic and. impactson the atntosphere. DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ANDMARINE 4) TERRESTRIAL IAND USE AND ACTION FOR BASIS policieswill both affectand and resoutce 9. and treshwaterand marine ecosystems.17 The basic objective of this programmearea is to in waysthatminimize industrialdevelopment encourage inter alia.improveandapply environmental industrial development. reducingwastes its (b) Encourageindustry to increaseand strengthen andprocesses products to developtechnologies. with respectto developing impact (d) f)evelop.intergovernmental asappropri should: and the privatesector. (0 Supportthe promotion of less polluting and more taking in industries. taking into accountthe life cyclesof products.and. andenmanagement surstainable greenfor sinks all of appropriate. adverse areaare: of this programme 9. on theatmosphere. evaluate opmentand enl'ironment pr opr iat e. in order to minirnizeindustrialpollution and measures.Certainpracthe by changes be affected and land and marineresources ticesrelatedto terrestrial qas increase sinks and greenhouse decrease use can diversity biological The loss of emissions. materialsefficiency in industry.in order benefitsof to realize the economicand environmental more efficiently and producing fewer using resources wastes.

t o w a r d s o n g o i n g e f f o r t s u n d e r t h e Montreal Protocoland its implementingmechanisms. cooperation andnon-governmental intergovefflmental asappropriate. (b) Support further expansionof the Global Ozone by facilitating. biomass. ACTIVITIES 9. While the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protectionof the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal that Depletethe OzoneLayer (as Protocolon Substances amendedin London in 1990) were important stepsin internationalaction.including as well as other terrestrial.should: orgamzations. with the of the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. of the stratospheric ACTIVITIES 9. coastaland marineecosystems. and enhancement.Technologies to substances and naturalproductsthat reducedemandfor thesesubshouldbe encouraged.c o n s i s t e n tw i t h t h e M o n t r e a l P r o t o c o l .agriculture ronment. t h a t a r e p l a c e m e n t ' s u i t a b i l i t ys h o u l d recognizing on it s hol i sti cal l yand not si mpl y base d be eval uated or en vir oncontri buti onto sol vi ng one atmospheri c mental probl em. ( a) I n ac c o rd a n c ew i th n a ti o n a l s o c i o -e conomi c and environmentpriorities.This canbe changed identifiedwithin the Protocol.i n c l u d i n g a d mi n i s tra ti v e .s oci al and environmenin order to encourage economicmeasures. accept or approve the Montreal Protocol topay their contributions and its 1990 amendments. the total chlorine loading of the hascontinsubstances with ozone-depleting atmosphere with throughcompliance uedto rise. OZONE DEPEnON cl PRTENT|NG STRATOSPHERIC FOR ACTION BASIS 9. observation of additionalsystematic hemisphere. stances (b) To develop strategies aimed at mitigating the adthe Earth's verseeffectsof ultravioletradiationreaching of depletionand modification surfaceas a consequence ozone layer.evaluateand. (d) Basedon the results on the effectsof the of research additionalultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth'ssurin remedialmeasures face. in the conservation sinks and reservoirs of greenhousegases.throughbilateraland System Observing and operation multilateralfunding . and cooperation management (d) Promotesustainable of as appropriate. practices: tally soundland-use that will dis(b) Implementpoliciesand programmes and polluting land-usepractices courageinappropriate and promote sustainableutilization of terrestrial and marineresources. should: and the privatesector. sub(e) R epl aceC FC s and other ozone-depl eting s t a n c e s . wards the Vienna/Montrealtrust funds and the interim multilateralozone fund promptly. cooperation andnon-governmental i ntergovernmental asappropriate. and the private sector. development as appr opr ia te . (c) Considerpromoting the developmentand use of terrestrial and marine resourcesand land-usepractices and changes that will be more resilientto atmospheric fluctuations. forestsand oceans. of the developneeds andconditions mentsof the special and the availabilityto them of alternatives ing countries that depletethe ozonelayer.(b) To ensurethat actual and potential atmospheric and ecologicalimand their socio-economic changes pacts are fully taken into account in planning and implementing policies and programmes concerning terrestrial and marine resourcesutilization and landuse practices.21 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. the control measures (a) To realize the objectivesdefined in the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol and its 1990 in thoseinstruincludingthe consideration amendments. considertaking appropriate and marineenvithe fields of humanhealth.22 Analysisof recentscientific datahasconfirmed the growing concernabout the continuingdepletionof the chlorineand ozonelayerby reactive Earth'sstratospheric CFCs.as a p p r o p r i a t e .halonsand relatedsubbrominefrom man-made stances. OBJECTIVES areaare: of this progralrune 9. and contribute. in the tropicalbelt in the southern of assessment (c) Participate activelyin thecontinttous scientificinformationand the healthand environmental implieffects.p ro mo te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o li ci es or pr ogr am m es . (a) Ratify. for CFCs and including making availablesubstitutes and facilitating the substances other ozone-depleting to developtechnologies transferof the corresponding ing countriesin order to enablethem to comply with the obligationsof the Protocol. with the of the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand.the establishment especially stations.as well as of the technological/economic ozone depletion.24 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.23 The objectives 8l . organizations.and consider cations of stratospheric further actionsthat prove warrantedand feasibleon the basisof theseassessments.

OBJECTIVES 9. (c) Facilitatetraining opportunitiesand exchangeof data.28 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. organizations.socialand othereffects. In this context. and their experience needsto be shared with other resionsof the world. suchas treeandforestlossand the acidification of waterbodies.29 Existing legalinstruments havecreated institutional structures which relate to the purposes of theseinstruments. the private sectorand financialinstituti ons. information and national and/or regional experiences: (d) Cooperateon regional. to measure.and relevantwork shouldprimarily continuein those contexts.causes.30 Countries. acidification of the environmentandphoto-oxidantdamage to forests andother vegetation.planning and administrativecapacitiesto promotesustainable development and the protectionof the atmosphere. healthand socio-economic impactsof ultraviolet radiation.In this contextreference is madeto the recommendations in chapter38 of Agenda21 (Internationalinstitutional arrangements).based on a review process and cooperativeprogrammesfor systematic observation of air pollution. 82 . MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION 9. modelandassess thefate andimpacts of transboundary airpollution. (d) To develop capabilitiesto assess and mitigate transboundary air pollutionresultingfrom industrialand nuclear accidents.26 The 1979Conventionon Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. economic. haveestablished a regionalregimein Europeand North America. The geographical distribution of atmosphericpollutionmonitoring networks is uneven. asappropri ate. of systematicobservation and assessment.greater emphasis shouldbe put on addressing the extent. natural disasters and the deliberate and/oraccidental destruction of naturalresources. multilateral and bilateral bases to assess transboundary air pollution.andelaborate and implementprogrammes identifyingspecificactions to reduce atmosphericemissionsand to addresstheir environmental. The lackof reliable emissions dataoutside Europe andNorth Americais a majorconstraint to measuring transboundary air pollution. (0 To develop strategies aiming at the reduction of emissions causingtransboundary air pollution and their effects.assessment and inforrnationexchange. modellingand the development andexchange of emission controltechnologiesfor mobileand stationary sources of air pollution. (e) To encouragethe establishment of new and the i mplenientati on of existingregionalagreements for limir ing transboundary air pollution.and its protocols.25 Transboundary air pollutionhasadverse healthimpactson humansand other detrimental environmental impacts. managerial.D) TRANSBOUNDARY ATMOSPHERTC POUUnON BASIS FOR ACTION 9. Theseprogrammes need to be continuedanclenhanced. particularlyof developingcountries.through . 9. particularlywith developing in the areas countries.Thereis also insufficient information on the environmental and healtheffectsof air pollution in otherregions. in cooperation with the relevantUnited Nations bodies. with the cooperation of the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. in all relevantsectors. exchange of information and training of experts.shoul d: (a) Establish and/orstrengthen regionalagreements for transboundary air pollution control and cooperate. internationaldonors and non-governmental organizations. ACTIVITIES 9. Governmentsshould continue to cooperate andenhance theircooperation at theregionaland global levels. including cooperationwithin the United Nationssystem. with the developingcountriesseverelyunderrepresented.27 The objectives of this programme areaare: (a) To developand apply pollution control and measurementtechnologies for stationary and mobile sources of air pollution and to developalternative environmentally soundtechnologies.inter alia.i ntergovernmental andnon-govemmental 9. (b) Establish or strengthen early warningsystems and responsemechanisms for transboundary air pollution resultingfrom industrialaccidents and naturaldisasters andthedeliberate and/oraccidental destruction of natural resources. (b) To observeand assess systematically the sources and extentof transboundary air pollution resultingfrom naturalprocesses and anthropogenic activities: (c) To strengthen the capabilities. should mobilize technicaland financial resourcesand facilitate technical cooperation with developingcountriesto reinforce their technical.

32 The Conference the of implementing age total annualcost (1993-2000) activities under programmearea A to be about $640 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude by Governments. nationaland intemational and strengthened sectors.35 The Conference and pilot programmesunder paratechnical assistance graphs 9. mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Actual costsand financial terms. solor ore solorthermol. 2Thi.onimol photovoltoic.including any that are will depend upon. energysources ond renewoble geothermol. including any that are nonwill dependupon. the specific strategiesand prograffrnes Governmentsdecideupon for implementation. inter any that are non-concessional. the specific concessional. secretariat hasincludedcostingfor 9. wind. will dependupon. alia.34 The Conferencesecretariat of implementingthe age total annualcost (1993-2000) activitiesunderprogrammeareaC to be in the rangeof $160 million to $590 million on grant or concessional estiterms.. Actualcosts andfinancial Governments.| 51/PC/ 1 I 9 ond A/ AC.3i Educationand awareness-raising development and cerning the promotion of sustainable need to be introduced the protection of the atmosphere at the local. decideuponfor Governments strategies andprogrammes implementation. promotedby or recommendotions includesstondords integrotion orgonizotions.33. the non-concessional.biomoss. inter alia. of the Committee to in the reports ond humonpower. oceon.218/1992/ 5l. only andhavenot been costs and financial terms.These are indicative and order-ofonly andhavenotbeenreviewedby estimates magnitude including terms. 9. inter alia.os referred of New ond Renewoble ond Utilizotion on the Development (see for the Conference preporedspecificolly of Energy. has estimatedthe aver9.33 The Conference secretariathas estimated the of implementing averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) the acti vi ti es of the four-part programme u nder prograrnme area B to be about $20 billion from the terms.32 and9. Sources A/CONF. decide Governments and programmes specific strategies uponfor implementation. regionol economic 'New 83 .DEVELOPMENT HUMAN RESOURCE programmes con9. levelsin all relevant AND COSI EVALUATION FINANC/At hasestimated the aversecretariat 9. international communityon grantor concessional These are indicative and order-of-magnitudeestimates Actual reviewed by Governments. hydro.

to be met in a sustainable conflictsand move towardsmore effective resolvethese Inteand efficientuseof landand its naturalresources. levels.l Land is normallydefinedas a physicalentity in terms of its topographyand spatial nature. Integrated source choices and trade-offs. biota.the integrated which dealswith the reorganof landresources.therewhich interactandmay compete fore.to makethemostefficient and to link socialand economicdevelopment trade-offs thus protectionand enhancement. aspects prosectoral with the relevant under dealt appropriately with important an programme deals grammes. it is desirableto plan and manageall usesin an manner. structure.e.humanrequirements land resources. on the andsocialsectors of the variouseconomic impacts and.. issue directly. to it is now essential manner. thus maximizing sustainable to aliocateland to productivity and use. programmes that deal with that P R O G R A M MA ER E A TO THE PLANNING APPROACH A) TNTEGRATED AND MANAGEMENTOF LAND RESOURCES FOR ACTION BASIS are usedfor a variety of purposes 10.This in turn provides to supporttraditionalpatternsof sustainopportunities 84 . social and economic factors (including. pressures useof both landand conflictsandresultingin suboptimal are If.10 to theplonning opprooch Integroted of londresources ond monogement INTRODUCTION l0. Expanding ment conditions everincreasing areplacing activities ments andeconomic creatingcompetitionand on land resources. supportscan vary over time and accordingto managehuman requireand uses. water.By examway to achieve practical is an eminently it makesit manner.Sincethe for sustainable of decision-making aspect cross-sectoral number of other to a it is closelyrelated development.2 The presentchapterconsistsof one programme approachto the planningand manarea. ways that take advantage it while the naturalresources Land is a finite resource. includingexistingpolicies. agement of the somestrengthening izationand.considering. aspects 10.all and naturalresources) environment (i. in the future.on the other. The essenceof the integratedapproachfinds in the coordinationof the sectoralplanning expression with the various activitiesconcerned and management of land useand land resources. a broader thesoils. resources: natural view alsoincludes integrative These waterandbiotathatthe landcomprises. minerals.3 Land resources with oneanother. planning and tnanagement gratedphysical and land-use this. wherenecessary. for example.all environmental.Integrationshouldtake placeat two integrated on the one hand. which provide in ecosystems areorganized components of the to the maintenance essential a varietyof services systemsand the productive integrity of lif-e-support areusedin Landresources of the environntent. with environmental developof sustainable helpingto achievethe objectives ment. decision-making procedures and methodsthat planningand management to place approach integrated an can assistin putting in operational with the deal It does not land resources. land and geological and natural refacil itatesappropriate consideration s). ining all usesof land in an integrated possible to minimizeconflicts. together components and resource environmental air. capacity of all thesecharacteristics. which are nlore of planning and management. Opportunities or differentusesarisein the courseof major settlement fashionas lands projects or in a sequential development becomeavailableon the market.

(c) Establisha general fiamework for land-useand physical planning within which specialized and more plans(e. they should: (a) Adopt planning and managementsystemsthat facilitate the integrationof environmental components using suchasair. rural development) can be developed. and peopleat the local level.g. exampl esof these framew orksi ncl ude sustainable l i vel i hood systems. > Sfrengfhening sysfems planning ond monogemenl 10.or to assignprotectedstatusfor able land management diversityor criticalecological of biological conservation services. water.includinglaws. in order to regulationsand enforcementprocedures. They arethe indispensable process. for example.7 Governmentsat the appropnatelevel.Particularattentionshould be given to the role of agricultural land. management integrated social and economicissuesshould be environmental. amongotherissues. to streamline (d) Strengthenmanagementsystemsfor land and naturalresources traditional and by includingappropriate ACTIVITIES IVITIE S E L AT EAC D T A ) M A NA G E M EN I-R > Developing policies ond policy instruments supportive level. Aeenda OBJECTIVES 10. anisms (d) To createmechanisms to facilitatethe active inpartivolvement and participationof all concerned. by and evaluationsystems not later than 2000.5 The broadobjectiveis to facilitateallocationof land to the uses that provide the greatestsustainable to a sustainable and andto promotethe transition benefits of land resources. shouldensure supthat policiesand policy instruments port the bestpossibleland use and sustainable management of land resources. landscape ecologicalplanning (LANDEP) or other approaches that focus on.rural devel opment. To do this. if appropriate. with the at the appropriate 10. identify improvementsneededto support sustainable land useand management and restrict of land resources the transferof productivearableland to other uses.the objectives (a) To review and developpoliciesto supportthe best management of' possibleuseof land and the sustainable by not laterthan 19961 landresources. apcan be combinedto facilitatean integrated cesses supportfor the planproach. (b) To improveand strengthen planning. that will coordinate not includedherebut functionsaretherefore operational are dealt with in the relevantsectoralprogrammesof 21. (b) Develop policies that encourage land sustainable useand management of land resources and takethe land resourcebase. management for land and land resources.4 A number of techniques. pri vate peopleand their property rights. 85 . (b) Adopt strategic frameworksthat allow the integration of both developmental and environmentalgoals. primary environmental care (PEC) and others. franteworksand pro10. with the support of regional and internationalorganizations.for protected areas.the Wor ld ConservationStrategy/Caringfor the Earth.regionaland local levelsthattakes into account environmental. establish intersectoral consultative bodigs projectplanningand implementation.landandothernaturalresources.P ro te c te da re a s .social. are as follows: In more specificterms. levelsandecosystem plansof action. This programme further developedand strengthened. and local at the national ning and management andfor the developor arealevels.In doing so. by notlaterthan forlandandlandresources.demographic issuesand the interestsof into account: the localpopulation (c) Review the regulatoryframework. (c) To strengthen n'rechinstitutionsand soordinating 1998.6 Governments support of regional and internationalorganizations. decision-making later than 1996. To do this. (e) Encourage policy-makthe principleof delegating ing to the lowestlevel of public authorityconsistent with effectiveactionand a locally driven approach.. in cularly communities by not on land use and management. revise planningand should review and.an ecosystem or a watershed. (d) Apply economicinstruments and developinstituthe best to encourage tional mechanisms and incentives possibleland use and sustainable management of land resources. primarily with providinga fratnework areais concerned the contentand decision-making.the rightsof indigenous and the ecoand otherlocal communities communities nomic role of women in agricultureand rural develclpshoulcl be takeninto account. t ak en int o c on s i d e ra ti o n . they should: (a) Develop integrated goal-setting and policy formulation at the national.forests. detailedsectoral agriculture. Many of itselements are mentof specific already in place but need to be more widely applied. management systems to facilitateanintegrated approach. ment. humansettlements. demographicand economic issues.

of planningandmanagement application andwidespread aptools that facilitate an integratedand sustainable To do this.9 Governments tion with national institutionsand interestgroups and organizawith the supportof regionaland international campaignsto tions.in collaboraat the appropriate 10. (a) Adopt improvedsystems for the interpretation and of dataon landuseandlandresources. This by provision of the meansto should be accompanied adopt improved practicesfor land use and sustainable management.they should: be takeninto account. (d) Exchange.12Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. should launch awareness-raising alert and educatepeopleconcerningthe importanceof management and the land and land resources integrated role that individualsandsocialgroupscanplay in it. projectsand service s ve procedure s. AND REG/ONAT C) /NIERNAI/ONAI. reserves) and terraced (e) Examineand.forestcover. Bl DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON > StrengfA ening informotionsystems level. to programme flexible approaches (f) Compile detailed land capability inventoriesto management landresources allocation. with the support of national and international organizations. indigenous andotherlocalcommunities. youth.through networks and other appropriate means.The To do this. (a) Strengthen observation and information. nationalcapacityto gatherand assess (c) Provide the appropriatetechnical information on land useand necessary for informeddecision-making form to all sectorsof the management in an accessible population.wildlife. I I Governments attheappropriate and the privatesectorand tion with nationalinstitutions organizations. climateand otherelements. examples indigenous pastoralism. and women.costsand benefitsof specificactions. systematic systemsfor environmental.Hema reserves(traditional Islamic land agriculture. analysis integrated (b) Systematically for andprocedures applytechniques the environmental. and exchange of shouldstrengthen regionalcooperation informationon land resources. (b) Promotethe development of land-use andphysical plansin the countries of the region.social and economicimassessing pacts.8 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.if necessary. (c) Designinformationsystems and promotetraining. especially of groupsthat havehithertooften been peopleand excluded.10Governments and with the supportof tion with national organizations should establish regionaland intemationalorganizations. especially to local communities (d) Support low-cost. > Roising oworeness level. To do this. they should: (a) Study and design regional policies to support prograrnmes for land-use and physicalplanning. community-managed systems information on the status for the collection of comparable including and processes of change of land resources.economic and assessment social data related to land resourcesat the global.nationaland local levelsandfor land capability patterns. programmes.in collabora10. with the support of regional and internationalorganizations.such as women.practices include of these methods. innovativeand establish funding. soils. further development should promotethe improvement. with thesupport of regionalandinternational fclr should strengthen the information systemsnecessauy futurechanges on landuse andevaluating makingdecisions should needsof bothmenandwomen andmanagement.13 The Conference secretariathas estimated the aver- 86 . theircommunities MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ FIN.in collaboraat theappropriate 10.informationon experiences with the processand resultsof integrated and participatoryplanningand management at the nationaland local levels. regional. of land resources > Promoting public porticipotion level. (c) Analyse and test methods to include land and values in national functions andlandresources ecosystem accounts. innovati of those andencourage theactiveparticipation thatfacilitate affected in the decision-makingand implementation process.risks. guidesustainable and useat the nationaland local levels. they should: proachto land and resources.ANC/NGAND COST EVALUATTON 10. AND COOPERAIION COORD/NATION > Estoblishing regionol mochinery 10. and land-use and management (b) Strengthen coordinationbetweenexistingsectorai and strengthen data systems on land and land resources data. > Promotingopplicotionof oppropriote toolsfor plonning ond monogement 10.

revisethemandates of institutionsthat deal with land and naturalresources to include explicitly the interdisciplinary integrationof environmental. l4 Governments at theappropriate with and international scientificcomtion thc'national nationaland munity and with the supportof appropriate international organizations. culturaland political factors. l 5 Governments at theappropriate scientificcomtion with the nationaland international munity and with the supportof the relevantintemational should researchand test. vocaof tionaland university training.in collabora10.whereappropriate. (b) Trainingall relevantsectors to dealwith concerned in an integrated land resources mannerl and sustainable (c) Trainingcommunities.17Governments at the appropriate level.of implementing the age total annualcost ( 1993-2000) to beabout$50million fiom of thisprogramme activities the international communityon grant or concessional estiterms. resources. socialand economicissues. > StrengtA eni ng technologicol copacity 10. (c) Strengthen local decision-making capacityand improve coordination with higherlevels. MFANS AND TECHNOIOGICAT B) SC'ENI/F/C promotethe development of the humanresources that are required to plan and manage land and land resources sustainably.includingany that are will depend upon.particularly of women. in cooperation with other Governments and with the supportof relevant internationalorganizations.as appropriate.in collabora10.demographic. > Testing throughpilot proixts resqrch findings level. on the land system and the implicationsfor sustainable resources practices. through: (a) Emphasizing and integrative interdisciplinary approaches in the curricula schools and technical. services. should: (a) Reviewand.tailored to local environments. to: (a) Assessment of landpotential capability andecosysfunctions. inter alia.18Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. (c) Developingindicatorsof sustainability for land economic. the non-concessional. (b) Strengthen coordinatingmechanisms betweeninstitutions that deal with land-use andresources management to facilitate integrationof sectoralconcemsand strategies. decide and Governments specificstrategies programmes upon for implementation.16Govemments at the appropriate level. taking into accountenvironmental. tem (b) Ecosystemic interactions between and interactions land resources and social. social. This shouldbe done by providingincentives fbr local initiatives local management and by enhancing capacity. > Strength eni ng in stituti ons 10. and local levels. with the support of appropriate international organizations. mates only andhavenot been Actual costsand financialterms. socialand institutional factors.in collaboralocalauthorities. > Enhoncing scientific understonding of the lond resources syslem D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG level.should 8'7 . tion with theappropriate non-govemmental orsanizations and internationalinstitutions.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude reviewed by Governments. D E EV EL OP M EN T C) HUM A NRE S O U R C > Enhoncing education ond troining 10. economic and environmental systems. the applicabilityof improvedapproaches to the planningand management integrated of land resources. projects. through pilot organizations. relevant extension groups organcommunity-based and non-govemmental izationson land management and approaches techniques appliedsuccessfully elsewhere. includingtechnical. andmanagement Priority should development be given. should promote focusedand concerted effortsfor education and training and the transfer of techniquesand technologiesthat planning supportthe various aspects of the sustainable and management process state/provincial at the national. shouldpromoteand support research.

on management.subregional institutional enhance izations. with the organand international supportof regional. economic.REI ATED I 1. forest-related of activitiesrelated enhance the scopeand effectiveness develand sustainable to the management. More on their pollution fire damage and air are often required and approaches effectivemeasures harmonizepolicy improve attd level to the national at formulation. organizations skills and quality of human nical and multidisciplinary forestry extensionand public education.administrative capability search intersectcral coordination. importantto eitsure a rational tions. UNEP the andrecommendations decisions World Bank.reresources: structures and support. as well as expertise to effectively formulateand implementpolicies. research andprojects developmentof all types of servationand sustainable resources.The needfor securtally sounddevelopment ing the multiple roles of forestsand l'orestlandsthrough has adequate and appropriateinstitutional strengthening been repeatedlyemphasizedin rrrany of the reports. with of the effects confronted countries are developed forests.ITTO. ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI. This is especially environmensustainable and to the holistic approach and of forests. conprogrammes. multiple developthe Many forest lands. measures women and general public. (b) To strengthen and improve human.plans. rolesof the indigenous non-governmental private sector. l T he re a re ma j o r w e a k n e s s e s to support and mechanisms adopted methods and socialand ecological. planning and programming.ll ng deforestotion Comboti P R O G R A M MA ER E A S OBJECTIVES of this programmeareaare as fol11. technicaland professional and capabilities skills. and forests cultural roles of trees.and to effectivelyensurethe sustainable utilization and production of forests' goods and servicesin both the developedand the developing the capacities countries. and and incentivesysand responsibility decentralization and publicrelaof information and dissemination tems.3 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. conservation opmentof forests.as well as to expandtheir scope of enhancethe effectiveness and. especially of the ticipation people.to strengthen to enablethemto of nationalinstitutions and capabilities knowledge for the protectionand acquirethe necessary conservation of forests.local organizations. AND THEMUITIPIE ROTES A) SUSTAINING OF FORESTS. 1l. including mechanisms.2 The objectives l ow s: (a) To strengthen to nationalinstitutions.involvementof youth. programmes to themanagement and related andactivities development of forests.IUCN andotherorsanizations.where necessary. 88 . FUNCTIONSOF AtL TYPES LANDS AND WOODLANDS FOREST FOR ACTION BASIS i n the pol i ci es. by the year 2000. of techdevelopment and cooperatives.as well as otherareas canbe derived.whereverpossible tion in all sectors.legislative patterns: pardevelopment and instruments.should. and forest lands inforestsand forest-based from which forestbenefits clusive. correspondingly. capabilityto promotethe multiple rolesandfunctionsof all types of forests and vegetationinclusive of other resources in supporting relatedlands and forest-based and environmentalconseryasustainable development This should be done. of FAO.

intersectoral coordination and an effective system of comm unic at ion. and relating them to other land usesand development policies and legislation.labour local communities. the specific sftategies and programmes Govemments decideupon for implementation. Someof the major activitiesin this regardare asfollows: (a) Rationalizing and strengtheningadministrative str uc t ur es and m e c h a n i s ms i.and macrolevels. AND REG'ONAI.while further developingor informareinforcing existingsystems suchasgeographic tion systems.for example.5 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and institutions should cooperatein the provision of expertiseand other supportand the promotion of international research efforts. programmesand criteria for their implementation and subsequentimprovement. Actual costsand finanwill cial terms. areas suitable for afforestation. (e) Establishing. of infrastructuralfacilities and equipment. decentralization of decision-making. ecological values. inclusive of other related lands and forest-based resources.Theseare indicestimates only andhavenot ative andorder-of-magnitude been reviewed by Governments.usevalues.rural cooperatives.AilON. depend upon. (0 Establishing and/or strengtheninginstitutions for forest educationand training. to developan adequate staff at the professional. by strengtheningand/or modifying the and by improving and arrangements.if necessary. as appropriate. (b) Establishinglinkages with other data systemsand sourcesrelevantto supportingforest management. and acmental organizationsin forest-related within the cessto information and training prograrnmes national context. cJ tNrERN. regional. (b) Promotingparticipationof the privatesector.usergroupsand non-governactivities.and necessary. subregional and bilateral agencies. including data on forest cover. correlatingdemographic. ous people.biomassandproand ductivity. including about$860 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. (g) Establishingand strengthening capabilitiesfor reof forestsandforest search relatedto the different aspects products.developing and sustainingan effective system of forest extensionand public educationto appreciationand management ensurebetter awareness. AND 'NFORMAI'ON B) DATA ll. on traditional uses of forest resources populationsand indigenouspeople. There is need for strengthening coordinationand improving the performlatedi nternational organizations anceof exi sting forest-re in providing technicalcooperationand supportto interested countries for the management. regional and subregionalgoals. inter alia. endangeredspecies. MEANS OF IMPTEMENTATION A' F'NANC|ALAND COSI EVALUATTON I L6 The Conferencesecretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementingthe activities of this programme to be about $2.including definition of national and. traditional/indigenous land.on biodiversity. (c) Creatingmechanisms to this to ensurepublic access information. technicaland vocational levels.socio-economic forest resources information at the micro.forestsand forest lands.5 billion. indigenunions. 89 . in particularwith a view to enhancingtransferof technologyand specializedtraining and ensuringaccess to experiencesand researchresults. with emphasis on youth and women. and promoting adequate legislation and other measuresas a basis against uncontrolledconversionto other types of land uses. with the assistanceand cooperation of international. of forestswith regardto the multiple roles and valuesof trees. Some of the more specific activities include the following: (a) Collecting. existing structures cooperationand coordination of their respectiveroles.n c l u d i n g p ro v i s i on of levels of staff and allocationof responsibiladequate provision ities. conservationand development. (d) Developing and implementing plans and programmes. including any that are non-concessional. and on improving market returns and other non-market values from the management of forests. revising measures and programmesrelevant to all types of forestsand vegetation. (c) Reviewing and. should develop adequatedatabases and baselineinformation necessaryfor planning and programme evaluation.youth.conservationand sustainable developmentof forests. as well as forestry induscadreof trained and skilled tries. where relevant.on the sustainable management of forests.women. compiling and regularly updating and distributing information on land classificationand land use. and undertaking periodic analyses of forest prograrnmes.At AND COORD'NAI'ON COOPERAI'ON I1. if necessary.on the effectsof airbornepolluby local tants.4 Governments at the appropriate level.

(b) To prepareand implement. degradation of watershed of life and reductionof the optionsfor development. at the technical tensionservicetraining programmes a n d v o c a t i o n a ll e v e l s .l I The present callsfor urgentandconsistent action for conserving and sustaining forest resources. opmentand training. It shouldincludetheconsideration and tenurepatternsand local needsand should spell out and clarify the specific objectivesof the different types of greeningactivities. These programmesand/or plans should be i ntegrated w i th other l and uses. country-drivennational forestry action programmes and/or plans under the Tropical Forestry Action Programmearecurrentlybeing implementedin more D) CAPACTTY-BUlLD'NG ll. harmful effects of airborne pollutaken by tants.afforestation.l2 The objectives of this programme lows: (a) To maintainexistingforeststhroughconservation and sustainand expandareasunder and management.10 Forestsworldwide havebeenand arebeing threatto other andconversion enedby uncontrolleddegradation humanneeds. The greening of suitable areas. forest and tree cover. national forestryactionprogrammes and/orplansfor the management.protection.THROUGH FOR. conservation and sustainabledevelopment of forests. damage to wildlife habitats and deteriorationof the quality areas. regeneration. (c) Assessing skill develneedsfor humanresources. OI}IER REHABIUTATIVETEANS ACNON FOR BASIS I I . in all its component activities. In thi s cent ext . lack of ademismanagement. for example. in appropriate areas of both dethroughtheconseryavelopedanddeveloping countries. and research specialization (b) Strengthening in-serviceand exof pre-service. agricultural expansion. commerciallogging. In activitiesspecified full advantage capacities. with a view to maintaining balance and expanding the contribution of forests to human needsand welfare. shouldbe takenof the existingsystems 90 .methodologyand know-how generated Some of the efficiency.EST AND REFORESTATION AFFORESTATION.reforestationand tree plantor restoring theecological ing.is an effective way of increasingpublic awarenessand participationin protectingand managingforest of landuse resources. The by the systems. (b) Analysing researchproblems and researchneeds. AREAS.research ified will form the scientific and technologicalmeansfor implementingthe programme. increasing influencedby typesoflanduses. c) DEVELOPMENT HUMANRESOURCE of foresteducationand I1. tion of natural forests.as appropriate.7 The planning.loss degradation of biological diversity.and environmentallyharmful including. n d d e v e l o p i n g c u rr i cul um and teachingmaterials/methods.MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL 8' SC'FNilF'C andtrainingactivitiesspecll. Bl ENHANCING rHE PROTECnON.as well as its output. programmes.SUSTAINABLE AND CONSERVATIONOF AtL . and periodicalevaluations.Theseinclude: (a) Launching of graduateand post-graduate degree. researchplanning and implementation of specific researchprojects. i n c l u d i n g t r a i n i n g o f t r ainer s / te a c h e rsa .The impacts of loss and of forestsare in the form of soil erosion. forest rehabilitation. will help improve programme include: involved should specificsteps (a) Analysingachievements. (d) Developing. quate forest-fire control and anti-poaching measures. testing and applying appropriate in implementing forest methodologies/approaches programmesand plans. REHABITITATION. (c) Specialtraining for staff of national forest-related organizations in aspectssuch as project formulation. overgrazingand ununsustainable regulated browsing. situation I I . buildingnew andstrengthened and experience.economicincentivesand other measures other sectorsof the economy.9 This prograffrmearea is specifically concerned with capacity-buildingin the forest sector and all progranrme contributeto thatend.UIANAGEMENT AND THEGREENINGOF DEGRADED FORESTIS. evaluation OBJECTIVES areaare as folI l.8 The specificcomponents training will effectively contribute to human resource development. and socialisconstraints programme formulation and imsues for supporting plementation.

scopeand species. asappropriate. with theparticipation of the private sector.than 80 countries. wood-based energy. (h) Stimulatingdevelopmenr of urbanforestryfor the greeningof urban. peri-urbanand rural human settle: ments for amenity. the location. social forestry. local government unitsandthe public at large. through technicalcooperationand other forms of support. conservation and sustainable development of all typesof forests. (d) To maintainandincrease the ecological. expandingand managing.socially and economicallyfeasible. non-timber forest productsand services. socialand spiritualfunctionsandvalues. (c) To ensuresustainable management and. taking into account theeconomic aspect for futureplanted forest development.through improved proper planning. and specifyingareasof existing plantedforestsrequiring rehabilitation.adoptedby the United Nations Conferenceon Environmentand Development. ACTIVITIES A) M A NA G E M EN I-R E IAT E D A C T IV IT IES 11.Major activitiesto be considered include: (a) Ensuringthe sustainable management of all forest ecosystems and woodlands. socio-cultural and economiccontributionsof forestresources. as well as rehabilitationof degradednatural foreststo restoreproductivity and environmental congiving particularattention tributions. 9l . (g) Increasing the protection of forests from pollutants. conservation of genetic resources.non-governrnental organizations.within the frameworkof long-term forest conservation and management policies.degraded farm lands. and forestgeneticresources.including community forestry.through interplanting and underplanting valuablecrops. (e) Developing industrial and non-industrialplanted forestsin orderto supportand promotenationalecologically soundafforestaticln and reforestation/regeneration programmesin suitable sites. includingafforestation. (0 Developing/strengthening a nationaland/ormaster planfor plantedforests asa priority.arid and semi-arid lands and coastal areasfor combating desertification and preventing erosionproblemsand for other protective functions and national programmesfor rehabilitationof degradedlands. primary old-growth forests. conservation and sustainable development of all typesof fbrests. conservation andmanagement of wildlife.involvrngin sint andex situmeasures. fire. which include systemsof conservation units for their environmental. andundertaking supportivemeasures to ensuresustainable utilization of biologicalresources and conservation of biologicaldiversity andthetraditionalforesthabitats of indigenous people. reforestation and rehabi Iitation. mining. local community groups. conservationof existing and future forest resources. forestdwellersand local communities. watershed and soil protection.and strengthening and/or establishingappropnate measures to assess and/orcheckinterbordermovementof plantsand relatedmaterials. (d) Carryingout revegetation in appropnate mountain areas.indicatin g. agroforestry. management and timely implementationof silviculturaloperations. climatic. inter alia. agroforestry and silvipasture.bare lands. whereappropriate. (c) Undertaking and promoting buffer and transition zone management. with the supportof the intemational community.highlands.Measures shouldbetakento promote and provideintermediate yields and to improve the rate of returns on investmentsin planted forests. (e) To facilitate and supportthe effective implementation of the non-legally binding authoritative statement of principlesfor a globalconsensus on the management. wildlife management. pestsand diseases and other human-made interferencessuchasforestpoaching. nominationof World HeritageSitesunderthe World Heritage Convention. and on the basisof the implementation of theseprinciplesto considerthe need for andthefeasibilityof all kindsof appropriate intemationally agreedarrangements to promoteinternational cooperation on forestmanagement.into different forest types and setting up sustainable units in every region/watershed with a view to securing the conservation of forests. including upgrading of existingplantedforests of both industrialandnon-industrial and commercialpurposeto increase their contribution to human needsand to offset pressure on primary old-growthforests. (b) Establishing. unmitigated shifting cultivation and the uncontrolledintroductionof exotic plant and animal species. giving emphasis to nativespecies. biological. including conservation of forestsin representative ecological systems and landscapes.protectedareasystems.women.shouldact to maintain and expand the existing vegetativecover whereverecologically. includinginventoryandrelevant research.Governments. while also taking into account the role of forests as nationalcarbonreservoirs and sinks.indigenouspeople.recreation and productionpurposes and for protectingtreesand groves.as appropriate to eachnationalcontext. to humanneeds for economicand ecologicalservices.13 Governments shouldrecognize the importance of categorizing torests. as well as developing and accelerating research for a betterunderstanding of problemsrelating to fhe management and regeneration of all types of forests.

(e) Compiling andanalysingresearch dataon species/site usedin plantedforestsand assessing of species interaction the potentialimpact on forestsof climatic change. ITTO. and improving the (d) Strengthening the coordination organizations capacity and ability of intergovernmental such as FAO. C/ /NIERNAI/ONAI. and resources (c) Consolidating informationon genetic as including surveysand studies.Theseare indicmunity on grantor concessional only and have estimates ative and order-of-magnitude Actual costs and not been reviewed by Governments. The international and regional community should provide technical cooperationand other meansfor this progratnmearea. on local/indige(d) Carrying out surveysand research nous knowledge of trees and forests and their uses to of sustainable improvethe planningandimplementation forest management. necessary. AND INFORMAIION B) DATA shouldinvolvecolactivities I l. financialterms. AND COORD'NAI'ON ERAIION COOP is ataskof global areas of appropriate I L l5 The greening 92 . inter alia. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSI EVALUATION A) FINANCIAT the averhasestimated secretariat I 1. comincludingabout$3. I l.taking due accountof the local needsand cultural values.as well as effects of forests on climate. ogy relevantto the variousactivities and (c) Increase actionrelatedto geneticimprovement AND REG'ONAI.for participa(i) Launchingor improving opportunities tion of all people. mentalissues.includingany thatarenon-concessional. UNEP and UNESCO to provide and conservation technicalsupportfor the management. information/experi(c) Documentingand exchanging ence for the benefit of countries with similar problems and prospects. and will dependupon. (b) Developandapplyenvironmentally hnoltee sound listed. means scientific and technological should: Nationalinstitutions (a) Develop feasibility studiesand operationalplanning relatedto major forestactivities. form an activities opment of technologyand/or training providing the activities. and initiating in-depth studieson the carboncycle relatingto different foresttypes to provide scientific advice and technicalsupport.in supportof national efforts. relatedbiotechnology. MEANS AND TECHNOT. shouldincludethe following: (a) Increasing actionsto reducepollutants cooperative impacts affecting the health of trees and transboundary ecosysof representative and forestsand conservation tems. for includingsupport of forests. indigenous peopleand local communities.l7 Data analysis. immissions site-influencing importance and impact.research. (b) Consolidatingand updating land-useand forest information for management inventory and management planningof wood andnon-woodresources. integralpart of the programme of implementation. development sustainable the negotiation of the InternationalTropical Timber Agreementof 1983. and (h) Consolidating informationon forestconditions and emissions. on (b) Coordinatingregional and subregionalresearch air pollution and other environcarbon sequestration.16The Conference age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $10 billion. relation with forests. (0 Establishinglinkages with other data/information and useof management that relateto sustainable sources to data and information.l4 Management-related lection. Specific activities of an intemationalnature.due in 1992193. forestsand improving access to improve (g) Developingand intensifyingresearch knowledge and understandingof problems and natural and rehabilitamechanismsrelated to the management on faunaand its interincludingresearch tion of forests. women.in the formulation.OGtCAL 8/ SC/ENilFtC transfer/develplanning. the specificstrategies prograrnmes decideupon for implementaGovernments tion.7 billion from the international terms.Someof the specificactivities includethe following: (a) Carrying out surveys and developing and implementing land-useplans for appropriategreening/plantrehabilitation ing/afforestation/reforestation/forest . andland-use of includingdataon shiftingcultivationandotheragents forest destruction. compilation and analysisof data/information. including baselinesurveys.development and implementation of forest-relatedprograrnmesand other activities. 0) Limiting and aiming to halt destructive shifting cultivation by addressingthe underlying social and ecologicalcauses.including youth.

increasedcontribution to foreign exchange earnings. properly coordinatedat the national level. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT I l. labour unions and non-governmental organizations shoulddevelopcapacities. whereappropriate. beingrenewable.for example.local organizations/communities. The improved management of forestscan increasethe productionof goodsand services and.economicand ecologicalvaluesof trees. (b) Establishing demonstration areas to serve asmodels and trainingfacilities.seedprocurement networks. farmers and indigenous people/shifting cultivators.environmental conservation. The survival of forests and their continued contribution to humanwelfaredepend to a greatextenton succeeding in this endeavour. scientific institutions.management. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING ll. Capacitybuilding activities include policy and legal f r am ewor k s .economicand ecologicalvaluesof trees. (b) To promote efficient. with 93 .. youth. rational and sustainable utilization of all types of forests and vegetationinclusiveof otherrelatedlandsand forest-based resources. (c) To promote more efficient and sustainableuse of forestsand treesfor fuelwood and energysupplies. and to ensure their sustainable management in a way that is consistent with land use.21The objectives of this prograrnme areaare as follows: (a) To improverecognition of the social. additional value through processingand trade of forest ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELAT EDACTIV ITI ES 11. shouldundertake the following activities.l8 Essential meansfor effectivelyimplementingthe activitiesincludetrainingand development of appropriate skills.in vitro techniques. FOR BASIS ACTION 11.throughthe development of efficientforest-based processingindustries. public motivation and awareness. biotechnology etc. c) PROMOnNG EFFTqENT UTITZATTON AND ASSESSMENT TO RECOVER THE FUtt VATUATIONOF I}IE GOODS AND SERVICES PROVIDED BY FORESTS.to promotemethodologies with a view to incorporating social. duly supporled by relevant international organrzatrons.in particular women. environmental considerations and development needs. indigenouspeople. Specificactivitiesinclude: (a) Providing specialized training in planning. tree breeding. The implications of theharvesting of forest resources for the othervaluesof theforestshouldbe taken fully into considerationin the developmentof forest policies.indigenouspeople. non-gove{nmental organizations.and increasedreturn on investment. (c) Supporting local organizations. to implement the prograrune activities.It is alsopossible to increase the valueof forests throughnon-damaging usessuchas eco-tourism and the managedsupply of geneticmaterials. basedon sustainably managedforest resources and in accordance with plans that integrateall wood and non-woodvaluesof forests.seedtechnology.Forest resources. Concerted action is needed in order to increase people'sperception of the value of forests and of the benefits they provide. Suchcapacities shouldbe developed andstrengthened in harmony with the programmeactivities. (d) To promote more comprehensiveuse and economic contributions of forest areas by incorporating eco-tourisminto forestmanagement and planning. thus helping to generate additionalemployment and income.working facilitiesand conditions. FOREST TANDSAND WOODLANDS OBJECTIVES 11.including the consequences of the damagecausedby the lack of forests. human resourcedevelopment. n a ti o n a l i n s ti tu ti o n b u i l d i n g . products. can be sustainably managed in a manner that is comphtible with environmental conservation. enhancement of public awareness etc.germ-plasmbanks. in particular. cooperatives and entrepreneurs. the private sector. value-adding secondaryprocessingand tradein forestproducts.developmentof infrastructure. the yield of wood and non-wood forest products. nongovernmental organizations and privateland owners. through extension and provisionof inputsand training. developmentof researchand technology.forestsand forest lands into the nationaleconomic accounting systems.forestsand forest lands.l9 National Governments. corrmunities. with the support of theprivatesector.applicationof biotechnologyfor improving productivity and tolerance to environmental stress and including.20 The vastpotentialof forestsand forestlandsas a major resource for development is not yet fully realized. and in situ and ex situ conservation.22Governments.

(b) Carrying out investment analysisand feasibility for impacIassessment.income and retained value. includingenvironmental proce ses ssingenterpri establi shingfbrest-based .ITC/UNCTAD/GATT. AND REG/ONAI c) /NTERNAT/ONAL AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAIION of international organ11.involving such andimproved technology conversion aspects asefficient residues: andprocess utilization of harvesting sustainable pr om ot in g u n d e ru ti l i z e ds p e c i e si n n a tural forests alization. using. dyes. necessary. andcommerci demonstration through research. wherever utilization. and promoting/improvingrnarketsfor. (e.g.feasibility informarketsurveys studies. and promotebetterltlanageluent. (i) Promoting appropriatesmall-scaleforest-based and ltlcal lor suppo(ing rural developttrcnt enterprises entrepreneurship. Management of TropicalForests. lor a cotnrtrethodtlltlgies andprottroting 0l Itttproving the l'ull valueo1' prehensive assessment thatwill capture thatval uei n th et nar kelw i th a vi ew to i ncl udi ng forests. and review of technological include: mation. of forests (k) Harmonizingsustainable development and tradepoliciesthat developnrent needs with national sounduseof forest with theecologically arecompatible for the ITTO Guidelines resources. s ound storage and useof equipment. of all typesof forests: developrnent sound methodsand (c) Improving envit'onntentally which are ecologically practices of fbrest harvesting. bamboo) culturalproducts. wildlif e. wasteand improvethe valueof both wood and non-woodfbrestproducts: of natu(d) Promoting the betteruseanddevelopment ral forestsand woodlands. (h) Promoting and supportingthe management of i n c l u di ng farmi ng. both wood and non-woodbased.from itttetrtational cooperatioll financialand techtrical organizittions: supplystudies. (e) Facilitating technological the provisionof adequate informationas a measure to promotebetterutilizationof forestresources. and culthe husbandry and supporting and encouraging for improvedrural incomeand tivation of wild species. if possible. process(e) Promoting thedownstream andsupporting valueandother products to increase retained ing of forest benefits: (0 Promoting/popularizing non-wood forest products apartfrom fuelwood and other forms of forestresources. transportation useof. (d) Supportingmarket surveysof forest productsfor tradepromotionand intelligence. non-economic AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA activities and management-related l 1. a s w e l l a s e c o -to u ri s m. forest pol i ci es and pr oduc t sth ro u g h re l e v a n ti n s ti tu ti o n s . Someof therelevant activities (a) Undertakinganalysisof supply and demandfor efficiencyin their to ensure forestproducts and services. and regulatory schemes itrvesttnent clirnate to providea favourable rangements.. 94 .medicinal plants. UNEP. for impromoting value-addingsecondaryprocessing proved employment. wherever throughappropriate viableactivities. andimproved management maximizethe to reduce. UNIDO. in particular FAO. forestactivities. andguidesound criteria (b) Fonrrulating scientitically and sustainable conservation linesfor the tnanagenlent. will help marketmechanisms and incentives appropriate global environmental concerns.including planted fbrests. (c) Conductingresearch of currently on the properties for their promotion and commerunderutilizedspecies cialization. studies. andenvironmenpossible. fodder.resins. programmes and through rattan. on their processing search (g) Developing. Strengthin addressing of existing inening the coordinationand performance ternationalorganizations.fbr example. pl anni ng and rn c l u d i n g and e c o n o m i c a l lv yi a b l e . UNESCO. including andeconomically tally sound practices of otherplantand andmanagement silvicultural animalspecies. employment.without resortingto unilateralrestrictions bans on forest products contrary to GATT and other and the application of multilateral trade agreements. facilities.24Cooperation andassistance communityin technology izationsand the international and promotion of fair terms of transfer.23The objectives presuppose data and informationanalysis.includingresocialforestry/participatory and uses. of wood and non-woodbased basedpricing structure products. and. ITTO andILO. expanding and/orimprovingtheeffecprocessing industandefficiencyof forest-based tiveness ries. (a) Canying out detailedinvestruc-nt in and ettvit'onntenta l rpact d e r n a n dh a r n r o n i z a t i o n trees attdtilrestutiliand intprove to rationalize analysis incentive appropriate andestablish zationandto develop arincludingtenurial nleasures. and trade in.specialization and/or trade.adoptingand strengthening and the economic programmes for assessing accounting valueof forests.fibres. Sustainable national (l) Developing.ensuringeconomic and social benefits without harmful ecologicalimpacts.gums.

humanresources. to updat e s ki l l sa n d t e c h n o l o g i c ka nlo w . research and sci e nt if ic capabilities. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING I l. These areindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed by Govemments. 8/ sC/ENIIFIC AND IECHNOI. (d) Scientific investigations on the development and utilizationof non-timberforestproducts. Actualcosts andfinancial terms. 26 T he pr og ra m m e p re s u p p o sm e a j or rea c ti v i ti e s searchefforts and studies. is one of the oftenneglected aspects of forestresources.nat ional i nsti tuti ons. courses.including any that arenon-concessional.including establishing special trainingfacilitiesat all levels. planning. INCLUDINGCOMMERCIAT TRADE AND PROCESSES BASIS FOR ACTION l l . PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES.in te r a l i a . including about $880million from theinternationalcommunityon grantor concessional terms.f br pr ov idingt e c h n i c aa l s s i s ta n c e a ndguidance i n thi s programme areais anclther specific activity. Human resourcedevelopment for prografflme implementation.OGICAL MEANS 11. quantitatively andqualitatively.technologydevelopment. ( b ) I n t r o d u c i n g / s t r e n g t h e n i nrg e f r e s h e rt r a i n i n g OBJECTIVES I L30 The objectives of this programme areaare as foll ow s: (a) To strengthen or establishsystemsfor the assessment and systematic observations of forestsand forest 95 . 25 T he Confe re n c e s e c re ta ri ah t a s e s ti mated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about$ l8 billion. and sustai nabl e de velopment. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/AI.in quantitativeand qualitativeterms. conservation and development. management. exi sti ngpotenti al andvol umeof harvest i s l acki ng. Thereis an urgent need to rectify this situation for a better understanding of therole andimportance of forests and to realisticallyplan for their effective conservation.for evaluating effects. New emphasisshould be given to the incorporation of women. will depend upon. i ncl udi ng fel l ow sh i psandstudy tours. I n many developing countries. (c) Models and techniquesof outlook analysis and development planning. Someof the specificcomponents include: (a) Researchon propertiesof wood and non-wood products andtheir uses. c o l l a b o ra ti o n in w i th a n d s u p p o rted by r elev antint er na ti o n ao l rg a n i z a ti o n a s n d i n s ti tuti ons. (b) Development and application of environmentally soundandless-poll uting technology for forestutilization. C ) HUM A N RE S O U R C DE E VE L O P M EN I 11. regenerati on. however. as well as improvementof t ec hnology T . economicanalysis. (d) Promoting efficiency and capability of privateand cooperative sectors throughprovisionof facilitiesand i ncenti ves. hi s s h o u l d b e c o o rd i n a te d b y n ati onal G ov er nm ent s . c l u d i n gs t r e n g t h e n i no in gf existing capacity. shouldinclude: (a) Developingrequiredspecialized skills to implement the programme.27The success and effectiveness of the programme area depend on the availability of skilled personnel. Specialized trainingis an importantfactorin this regard. eventhe basicinformationrelatedto the areaand type of forests. (e) Appropriatemethodologies to assess the value of forestsin a comprehensive manner.2tlCapacity-building . In manycases. (c) Strengthening capability for research. pol i cy and pl ans. management. thereis a lack of structures and mechanisms to carry out thesefunctions.periodicalevaluations and evaluation. ASSESSMENT AND SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF FORESTS AND RETATED PROGRAA/IftIES. to promoteimprovedutilization. th e s p e c i fi c s tra te gi es and p r o g r a m m e sG o v e r n m e n t sd e c i d e u p o n f o r i m plementation. AND COSTEVALUATION 11. Dl ESTABUSHTNG AND/OR STRENGTHENTNG CAPACITIES FORTHEPIANNING. This mechanism.h o w produca n di m p r o v e tivity. andfor rectifying inadequacies. is implicitin theprogramme activities. Improvi ngadmi ni strati on.29 Assessment andsystematic observations areessential components of long-termplanning.relevant to improved utilization of forest resources. and penodical evaluations andevaluation areimportant components of capacity-building.

FAO. observations (a) Assessing andcarryingout systematic and qualitativesituationand changes of the quantitative includendowments. universitiesand non-govemmental and organizations. dataanalysis. rethe to assess gionaland globallevels. range of wood and non-wood forest productsand services. dataand informationcontinuouslyand to ensureits exareasfollows: change.environmental biological diversity and their impacts at the local. AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 11. of rural peoplein theseprocesses.34 The Conference secretariathas estimated the aver- 96 . as appropriate. with appropriateinternationalagencies wherenecessary. to the participation planners. of forestcoverandforestresources of its status. and financialneeds changingtechnological (d) Developingnationalsystems asof forestresource research and includingnecessary andvaluation. and UNESCO and UNIDO.in order to supporta holistic approachto planningand programming. and assessment observations (b) Establishing and strengtheningnational institufor forest assessment tional coordinationmechanisms activities.and to integrate while ensuring andin-depthanalysis. decisionmakers (b) To provide economists. sessment the full which accountfor. process of research for planning and improvements modifications necessary shouldbe given Specificemphasis anddecision-making. and sysshould undertakeassessments organizations. processes.wherefeasible. updated with soundandadequate and local communities informationon forestsand forestland resources. National Governments. of forestsand relatedprogrammes tematic observations improvement. be built uponexisting and. (d) Strengthening the capacityand ability and improving the performanceof existing international organizations. ( e ) E s t a b l i s h i n gn e c e s s a r yi n t e r s e c t o r a la n d programme linkages. of research to and exchange ACTIVITIES tES ACT|V|T ELATED A) MANAGEMFNT-R I l. includingestablishment norrnsand intercalibrationmethods. ITTO.should.whereappropriate. at the appropriate with planning as a basisfor policy and as appropriate.Major activitiesto be considered existing (a) Collecting.consolidating and exchanging information and establishing baseline information on relevantto this programmearea. with a view to theircontinuous andprocesses and This shouldbe linked to relatedactivitiesof research possible. where necessary.33The international necessary technicaland financoncerned Governments includarea. AND REG/ONAI c/ TNIERNAT/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION communityshouldextendto the 11.wherever management are: Major activitiesto be considered systems.3l Governmentsand institutions. terms of key variables such as developmental of foreststo other secbenefitsand costs. nationallevel. aspects (b) Harmonizing the methodologiesfor programmes accuinvolving dataandinformationactivitiesto ensure racy and consistency. capabilityand suitabilityfor afforestation (d) Enhancingresearch supportand improvingaccess results.32Reliable data and information are vital to this programme area.and linking this activity. in a continuing the systems land tenure.the impacts of prolands with a view to assessing projects andactivitieson thequalityandextent grarunes.and the capability for initiating correctiveactionsaswell asimproving theformuand projects. lation and implementationof programmes (c) Making estimates of impactsof activitiesaffecting and conservationproposals. wherepossible. community welfare. observation and systematic (c) Strengtheningexisting regional and global networks for the exchange of relevantinformation.in collaboration. undertaketo improve izations. including improved accessto information. and land availablefor afforestation. and incorporatingresultsin plans and strategies and of accounts in nationalsystems and. planning. (c) Undertakingspecialsurveyson.in forestry developments goals. to providetechnicalsupport guidancein this programmearea. norrns and definitions for systematic acceptable of forestresources. land useand updates ing land classification. programmeformulation. (b) Establishing oband systematic nationalassessment servation systems and evaluation of programmesand standards. of countries. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ FINAN CIAL AND COSI EVALUATION I 1. of forestresources. for example. thisprogramme for implementing cial support of the following activities: ing consideration (a) Establishing frameworkandformulating a conceptual criteria. of defrnitions.land action. such as the ConsultativeGroup on International Agricultural Research(CGIAR). UNEP.in collaborawith relevantinternationalorgantion.contributions conditionsand tors.

includingabout$530million from theinternational community on grant or concessional terms. termsof specialization mappingand statistical modelling). dataprocessing and statisticalmodelling. (b) Developingdata systems. technology development.38The programmeactivities foreseethe need and include provision for human resourcedevelopment in (e. the specific strategies and progfturrmes Governments decideuponfor implementation.35 Accelerating development consists of implementing the management-related and data/information activities cited above.g. ecological and economic methodsand modelsrelatedto periodicalevaluations and evaluation.technology transfer. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 11. Some of the specificscientificand technological components included undertheseactivitiesare: (a) Developing technical.age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $750 million. E/ FUND/NG OF /NTERNAnONAI AND REG/ONA L COOPERAIION I I .includingany that are non-concessional.37 These with similar areto be linkedandharmonized activitiesandcomponents in the otherprogramme areas. Activitiesrelatedto global environmental issuesare those that will contributeto global information for assessing/evaluating/addressing environmentalissueson a world-wide basis.36Assessment and systematic observation activities involve major research efforts.fellowships and field demonstrations. (d) Developinggeographic informationsystems. (e) Assessing and improving technology.. the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation.This should be harmonized with capacity-building for other programme areas.Strengthening the capacityof international institutions consistsof enhancingthe technicalstaffand the executingcapacityof severalinternationalorganizationsin order to meet the requirements of countries. research capability. inter alia.40 The secretariat of theConference hasestimated the averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this programme to be about$750million. 97 .statistical modellingand innovation. Actual costsand financial terms.programme evaluation. I1.39National Governments.information systems. in collaboration with appropriate international organizationsand institutions.training. including about$230million from the international community on grantor concessional terms.The activities tum will improve the technological and scientificcontent of assessment and periodical evaluations. will dependupon. (c) Remotesensing and groundsurveys.Thesehave been internalized technological into the management-related in activities.Theseare indicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. I 1.public admi ni strati on.includingany that are non-concessional. intersectoralcoordination and international cooperation.OG\CAL MEANS 11.the useof remote-sensing. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 11. depend upon.nati onal -l evel i nsti tuti ons. 8/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOT.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. inter alia. shoulddevelopthe necessary capacityfor implementing this prograrune area. Capacitybuilding should cover such aspects as policies. hum an resource andskill development.Theseareindicaonly andhavenot tive andorder-of-magnitude estimates beenreviewedby Govemments.

populationdensityand agricultural shouldbe 12. is essential.as well as arid.the severely and drought. of the total areaof of 3.6 billion hectares.includingthe economicand of theseecosystems. l2. small islandsand certain coastalareas. small islandsand coastalareas addressed in chapter17. control and management PROG RAMM E AREAS BASE THEKNOWTEDGE Al STRENGTHENING AND DEVELOPING INFORMATIONAND FOR REGIONSPRONE MONITORING SYSTEMS AND DROUGH' INCTUDING TO DESERTIFICATION ASPECTS OF THEECONOMIC AND SOCIAT THESE ECOSYSTETAS FOR ACTION BASIS of the statusand rate of 12. Desertificationaffectsabout one sixth of the world's population. socialaspects (b) Combating land degradation through. are not yet degraded.rural organizations.l Fragile ecosystems Fragileecosystems and resources. (c) Developingand sfrengttrening integrated development of povertyandpromotionof programmes for theeradication proneto desertification.Sustainable in chapterl3.semi-aridlands. ment plansand nationalenvironmental (e) Developingcomprehensive drought preparedness affangeincludingself-help and droughrrelief schemes. in areas livelihoodsystems altemative (d) Developing comprehensive anti-desertification programmes and integratingthem into nationaldevelopplanning.2 Desertification arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors. ments.as they transcend ecosystems land resource tional boundaries. (0 Encouragingand promoting popular participation focusingon desertification education. with uniquefeatures include desefts. andenvironmental of the effectsof drought.70 per centof all drylands. mountains.5 The global assessments by theUnitedNationsEnvirondesertification conducted 98 .This chapteraddresses issuesin deserts. semi-arid and dry is mountaindevelopment sub-humidareas. constituting a low potentialfor humanand animalcarryingcapacity. i ntensi fied soil conservation.3 billion hectares degradation with 73 per centof the rangeland rangeland.wetlands.4 The following programlne areasare included in this chapter: (a) Strengthening the knowledgebaseand developing for regionsproneto information and monitoring systems desertification and drought.amountand one quarterof the total ing to 3. for drought-prone areas and designing programmesto cope with environmentalrefugees. In combatingdesertification naticipation of local communities.the parlected. Most of these naare regionalin scope. including climatic variations and human activities. are discussed in arid. andregionalorganizations intemational 12. and organizations non-governmental tional Governments. semiis land degradation 12. inter alia.3 The priority in combatingdesertification for landsthat of preventivemeasures the implementation or which are only slightly degraded. The most obvious impact of poverty. afforestationand reforestation activities. on about47 per declinein soil fertility and soil structure cent of the dryland areasconstituting marginal rainfed cropland.is the in additionto widespread desertification. areasshouldnot be negdegraded However. and the degradationof inigated cropland.'lt) I z- frogile ecosystems: Monoging ond drought desertificotion Comboting INTRODUCTION are important ecosystems. with a high to 30 per centof the drylandareas amounting potential. land area of the world.

desertification to dealwith desertifimeasures adequate for developing concation and droughtand improving socio-economic ditions. systemsare helpful for the developmentand implemenThe tation of effective anti-desertificationprograrnmes. (b) Supportnational. regionaland interregional work at subregional. assessment land degradation (b) Review and study the interactions between the impactsof climate. AND TNFORMAnON B) DATA 12. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organshould: izations.landdegradation component that incorporatesboth physical and socioThis shouldbe basedon existing economicparameters. informa(a) Establishand/orstrengthenenvironmental level.8 Governments at the appropriate level. at the national tion systems and local as(b) Strengthen national.R 12. deserti(b) Establishand/or develop a comprehensive andhumanconditiondatabase fication.regional and national institutions. national environmentalinformation systemson desertification and drought are linked together through a netlevels.6 The objectivesof this programmeareaare: and/or strengthening (a) To promotethe establishment of national environmental information coordination that will act as focal points within Governments centres standfor sectoralministriesand provide the necessary and also to ensurethat ardizationand back-upservices.regional and global programmes networkscarfor integrateddatacollection and research land degradation.should: (a) Strengthen regional programmesand international Inter-StateCommitcooperation. such as Earthwatch and the Saharaand Sahel Observatory. An integrated and coordinated information and systematic observationsystem basedon appropriatetechnational andlocal global. datasothat ecologicalchangecan analyseenvironmental be monitored and environmentalinformation obtained on a continuingbasisat the nationallevel. regional and international centres.andto identify priority areas (c) To establisha permanentsystemat both national and international levels for monitoring desertification with the aim of improving living and land degradation conditionsin the affectedareas.as well as such organizations as the Saharaand SahelObservatory. AND RFG/ONAI C) /NIERNATIONAL AND COORD/NAT/ON COOPERAIION 12.regional. obser(b) To strengthen regionalandglobal systematic vation networks linked to the developmentof national systemsfor the observationof land degradationand causedboth by climate fluctuationsand desertification for action.suchas the Permanent tee on Drought Control in the Sahel(CILSS). by humanimpact. droughtand desertisocio-economic fication and utilize the resultsof thesestudiesto secure action.state/provincial between and ensurecooperation/networking sessment informationand monitoringsysexistingenvironmental tems.should: (a) Supportthe integrateddatacollection and research work of programmes related to desertification and drought problems. concrete l2.g Governments at the appropriate level. tification and land degradationand introducethe results of these studies internationally into desertificationand practices. ACTIVITIES ITIES ACTIV ELATED A) MANAGFMENI.should: (a) Review and study the means for measuring the of desereconomicand socialconsequences ecological.1 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.theArab MaghrebUnion and tionConference other regional organizations.1984 and 1991have mentProgramme revealedinsufficient basic knowledge of desertification observation world-widesystematic Adequate processes.(UNEP) rn 1977. to generateand exchangerelevant information is limited. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. capacity of existing international. particularly in developing countries. (c) Strengthen the capacityof nationalinstitutionsto 99 . with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. of soil and assessment out rying (c) Strengthennational and regional meteorological and hydrologicalnetworks and monitoring systemsto collectionof basicinfbrmation andcomensureadequate munication among national. OBJECTIVES 12. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. the Southern African Development (SADCC). nologyandembracing the dynamics of levels is essentialfor understanding It is alsoimportant anddroughtprocesses.the IntergovernmentalAuthority for Drought and Development Coordina(IGADD).

(b) Develop integrated information systems for environmental monitoring.6 billion hectares.14 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. Actual costsandfinancial terms.INTENSIFIED SOII CONSERVANON. skills of peopleengaged in monitoringand assessing the issueof desertification and drousht. includingabout$175million fromthe international community on grantor concessional terms. in the collection and utilizationof environmental informationthroueheducation and awareness-buildine. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. panicularly women and youth. (b) Promotethe involvementof the local population.16An increasingvegetationcover would promote andstabilizethehydrological balance in thedrylandareas and maintainland quality and land productivity. applicationof corrective measures and rehabilitationof moderateand severely degraded drylands. accountingand impact assessment. suchas housing. water.17The objectives of this programme areaare: (a) As regardsareasnot yet affected or only slightly affected by desertification.includingany that are non-concessional. additionalfacilities. as well as other resources. B) COTVIBAT|NG LAND DEGRADATTON THROUGH.In combatingdesertification on rangeland. (c) Cooperate with internationalbodiesto facilitatethe acquisitionand developmentof appropriatetechnology for monitoring and combating drought and desertification. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 12.Protection of not yet degraded land. regionaland nationalinstitutionsstrengthened for this purpose. correctivemeasures should be implementedto sustain the productivity of moderately desertifiedland.11The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing theactivities of thisprogramme to be about$350million. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations working on the issue of desertificationand drought.and.soil. soci al l y acceptabl e.15Desertification affects about 3. and rehabilitative measuresshould be taken to recover severely or very severely desertified drylands. throughthe introduction of environmentally sound.12Governments at the appropriatelevel.13Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. fai r and econom ically feasibleland-use systems will enhance the land-carrying capacityand maintenance of biotic resources in fragile ecosystems. health. will depend upon. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A' F'NANCTNG AND COSTEVALUATTON 12.employment.shoulddevelopthe technicaland professional OBJECTIVES 12. AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION ACTIVITIES BASIS FOR ACTION 12. preventive measures should be launchedin areas which arenot yet affectedor are only slightly affectedby desertification. inter alia. rainfed cropland and irrigated land. 12.NTER ALTA. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations working on the issue of desertificationand drought.should: (a) Strengthennational and local institutions by providing adequate staffequipment andfinanceforassessins desertification.including areas affectedby sanddune movements. to ensure appropriate management of existing natural formations(including r 00 . B/ SC'ENilFtC AND TECHNOLOG\CAL MEANS 12. where necessary.which is about70 per cent of the total areaof the world's drylandsor nearly one quarter of the global land area.should: (a) Undertake and update existing inventories of naturalresources. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations working on the issue of desertificationand drought.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. minerals and plant and animal access to food. such as those of Earthwatchand other information systems of international. .educationanddemographic distributionin time and space. suchas energy. c ) HUM A N R ES O U R C E D E VE L O P M EN T 12. Particular attention should be paid to indicatorsof local participation. (c) Determine benchmarks and define indicators of progressthat facilitate the work of local and regional organizationsin tracking progressin the fight for antidesertification.

including legislativemeasures. combined with community-based In this regard. munity forestryand vegetation (d) To improve management inof forest resources. IGADD. resources. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. fast-growingand productiveplant species appropriate to the environment of the resionsconcerned.bearingin mind the multiple benefitsof such measures.should: (a) Implement urgent direct preventivemeasuresin drylandsthat are vulnerablebut not yet affected. B) DATA AND TNFORMAT/ON 12. of indigenous (b) To rehabilitatemoderately to severely desertified drylands for productive utilization and sustain their development productivity for agropastoraVagroforestry through. ACTIVITIES IES ELATED ACT IVIT A) MANAGEMENI-R level. (b) Develop. (c) Implementurgently direct correctivemeasures in drylands. with due regard to environmental security considerations. energy.inter alia.and to reducewoodfuelconsumption and enthroughmore efficient utilization.non-governmental organizations and bilateralagencies should: (a) Coordinatetheir roles in combating land degradation and promoting reforestation. of their production andagriculsustainability tural development. comstation. (g) Promote and encourageinvestment in forestry developmentin drylandsthrough variousincentives. SADCC and the Arab MaehrebUnion.18Governments supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.andwith the at the appropriate 12.basedon innovativeor adapted indigenous technologies. cluding woodfuel. using drought-resistant. (c) To increase cover and supportmanthe vegetation in regionsaffectedor prone agement of biotic resources to desertificationand drought. (b) Carry out accelerated afforestationand reforestafast-growing tion programmes. test and introduce. existingirrigatedcroplands.includinglegumes species.should: (a) Develop land-use modelsbasedon local practices for the improvementof such practices.21The national Governmentsconcerned. trainingandprogrammeimplementationto arrestdryland degradation. (0 Promotein situ protectionand conservation of special ecologicalareas throughlegislationand othermeans while ensurfor the purposeof combatingdesertification ing the protectionof biodiversity. (d) Promote improved land/water/crop-management in making it possibleto combat salinization systems. l0l . including rangeland.and stabilizerainfed croplands and introduce improved soiVcrop-management practice: into land-use systems (e) Promote participatory managementof natural ci /NIERNAT/ONAL AND REG/ONAI COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAIION 12. by introducing slightlydesertified policiesandpractices for moresustainable land land-use productivity. Models shouldincorporatethe interactionof both new and traditionalpracticesto preventland degradation and reflect the resilience of the whole ecological and socialsystem.forests) for the conservationof biodiversity. The models should give a better understanding of the variety of natural and humaninduced factors that may contribute to desertification. agroother species. developmentand use of other sourcesof includingalternative sources of energy.and other purposes. agroforestryand landmanagement systems in affectedcountries.with a to the measures view to restoring and sustaining their productivity. sound and environmentally economicallyfeasibleagriculturaland pastoraltechnoof soil and water logies. including alternative sourcesof energy and improved stoves. to meetboth the needsof rural populations and conservationpurposes.shouldbe conthroughthe establishment sidered.20The appropriate UnitedNationsagencies.or only (i) improved drylands.creation of large-scale forestry schemes.suchas CILSS.the appropriate United Nations agenciesand bilateral agencies shouldstrengthen the coordinating role in dryland degradationof subregional intergovemmental organizations setup to cover theseactivities. drought-resistant. and in particularnativeones.and (iii) improvedmanagement resources.with a focus on preventing land degradation.agrofore tivities as afforestation/refore retentionschemes. intemational and regional organizations. 12.conseryation hancement.particularly of greenbelts.19Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. reforestationand afforestation schemes. (h) Promote the development and use of sourcesof pressure energywhich will lessen on ligneous resources.with the full participation people. (b) Supportregionaland subregional activitiesin technologydevelopment anddissemination.in addition moderately to severelydesertified listed in paragraphl8 (a) above. watershed protection. soil and waterconservation. notably through suchacstry.(ii) appropriate.

particularly for training farmers and pastoralists in the improved management of land and water resources in drvlands. should: (a) Establishmechanisms to ensurethat land users. OBJECTIVES 12. Actual costsand financial terms.26In areasprone to desertificationand drought. (b) Promote integratedresearchprogrammeson the protection. forest lands. (b) Supportcommunity-based people'sorganizations. should: (a) Integrateindigenous knowledgerelatedto forests. particularlywomen.25Governments at the appropriatelevel and local communities. particularly in view of the effects of drought and increasingdemographicpressure. Action is thereforeneededto rehabilitateand improve the agropastoral systems for sustainable managementof rangelands.24Governments at the appropriatelevel and local communities. rangelandand natural vegetationinto reactivitieson desertification search and drought.with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorgamzations.22The Conference secretariathas estimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 billion. c) DEVETOPTNG AND STRENGTHENTNG INTEGRATED DEVEIOPMENT PROGRAMMESFOR THE ERADICATION OF POVERW AND PROMOTION OF ATTERNATIVE LIVETIHOOD SYSTEMS IN AREAS PRONETO DESERTIFICATION BASIS FOR ACTION 12. approaches. with the suppoftof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.thereby improving their standard of livins. (b) Promote efficient extension-service facilities in areasprone to desertification and drought.should: (a) Adopt policies at the national level regarding a decentralized approachto land-resource management. including about $3 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 12. (c) To provideopportunities for alternative livelihoods as a basisfor reducingpressure on land resources while at the sametime providingadditionalsources of income. B/ SC/ENI|FtC AND TECHNOTOG\CAL MEANS 12. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideuponfor implementation.current livelihood and resource-use systems are not able to maintainliving standards. 102 .28Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.23Governments at the appropriatelevel and local communities. inter alia. restoration andconservation of waterandland resources and land-use management based on traditional wherefeasible. will dependupon.27The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) To createthe capacityof village communitiesand pastoralgroupsto take chargeof their developmentand the management of their land resources on a socially equitableand ecologicallysoundbasis.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.arethe main actorsin implementing improved land use.the traditionallivelihood systems basedon agropastoral systems areoften inadequate andunsustainable. through appropriatenational legislation. especially farmersand pastoralists. should: (a) Develop and adopt.with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations. (b) To i mprove producti on systems i n o r der t o achieve greater productivity within approved programmes for conservation of nationalresources and in the framework of an integrated approachto rural development.including any that are non-concessional. new and envir onm ent all y s o u n d d e v e l o p me n t-o ri e n ted l and-use polic ies : A) MANAGEMENI-R ELAT EDACT IVITI ES 12. F C) HUM A NR E SOU R C D EV EL OP M EN T 12. including agroforestrysystems. delegating responsibility to rural organizations. In most of the arid and semiarid areas. ACTIVITIES D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 12. Poverty is a major factor in accelerating the rate of degradationand desertification. and introduceinstitutionally. particularly for rural populations.as well as alternative livelihood systems. in combatingland degradation.

(d) Createor strengthen focusedon village associations (market interest economicactivitiesof commonpastoral gardening.traditional land-management production systems. livelihoodsystems and alleviate to promotealternative poverty. of ticesand characteristics (soil. nationaland intersecto handleenvironmentaland developtoral mechanisms in terms of land tenure expressed mental consequences of land useandland ownership. should: (a) Train membersof rural orgamzations in management skills and train agropastoralists in such special waterharvesttechniques assoil andwaterconservation. (e) Promote rural credit and mobilization of rural of rural bankino savings through the establishment systems.34Governments at the appropriatelevel. to integrated AND REG/ONAI. (b) Conduct inventoriesof natural resources water and vegetation)and their state of degradation. (c) Disseminateinformation on technical packages conditions economic andecological adapted to thesocial.herdingetc. C/ /NIFRNATIONAL AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAIION at the appropriate level. and small-scale (b) Trainextension agents andofficersin the participatory approach land management. (l) Develop infrastructure. resource and pracland tenure issues. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.livestock.(b) Createor strengthenrural organizatrons in charge of village and pastoralland management.as well as local production by involving the local people and marketingcapacity. (c) Establish and developlocal. (c) Supportand encourage the introductionand useof of technologies for the generation sources of alternative incomes.9. as well as viable production systems. other agro-ecological DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRFSOURCE 12. Particularattentionshould be given to protecting the property righs of women and pastoraland nomadicgroupsliving in rural arezn.transformationof agriculturalproducts. AND INFORMAT/ON B) DATA 12. MEANS 8/ SC/ENIFtC AND TECHNOI O G|CAL 12..33Governmentsat the appropnatelevel. supportof local research (b) Facilitate regularnational.rapid rural appraisal). (g) Establish a revolvingfund for credit to rural entrepreneurs and local groupsto facilitatethe establishment venturesand credit for of cottage industries/business input to agropastoral activities. (b) Coordinateand harmonizethe implementation of programmes and projects funded by the international organorganization andnon-governmental corrununities izations that are directedtowards the alleviation of poverty and promotion of an alternativelivelihood system. (d) Promoteexchangeand sharingof information conlivelihoodswith of alternative cerningthe development regions.31The Conference secretariat hasestimated the costs for this programmeareain chapter3 (Combatingpoverty) agricultureand and chapter 14 (Promotingsustainable rural development). agroforestry irrigation.andwith the 12. particularly.32 Governments level.). (a) Promotecooperationand exchangeof information among the arid and semi-arid land researchinstitutions techniques to improveland concerning andtechnologies and labour productivity. ing.should: (a) Undertakeapplied researchin land use with the institutions. of each. with the r03 .29 Governmentsat the appropriate level. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.30Governments supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. and with the at the appropriate supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.regionaland interregional communication on andexchange of information andexperiencebetween extension officersandresearchers. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 12. should: D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 12. primarilyon theknowledgeof thelocalpopulation based (e.should: (a) Conductsocio-economic baselinestudiesin order of the situation in the to have a good understanding programme area regarding.

40TheGeneral Assembly.inter alia. shouldbe requested to establish. (d) Ensurecoordinationamong ministries and instituprogrammes tions working on anti-desertification at national and local levels. should: 104 .make them integral parts plansand nationalenvironmenof nationaldevelopment tal actionplans.38Governments at the appropriate level.and environmental action plans in countries most proneto desertification. tlvough networking. atits forty-seventh session. an intergovernmental negotiating committeeforthe elaborationof an internationalconvention to combatdesertification in thosecountries experiencing seriousdroughtand/ordesertification. in drylandareas sources and integrate theminto national plans. particularly in Africa. C/ /NIERNAI'ONAI.the adoptionof legal and otherinstruments. or strengthen.36The objectives of this programme areaare: (a) To strengthen nationalinstitutionalcapabilities to develop appropriate anti-desertificationprogrammes and to integratethem into nationaldevelopmentplanning. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 12.37Governments at the appropriate level.inter alin. (b) To develop strategicplanning frameworks for the protectionand management of naturalredevelopment. (a) Establish. as appropriate. multiI ateralfinancial i n stitutions. with the establishment of nati onal coordi nati ng and systemati cobs er vat ion mechanisms andwith theregionalandglobalnetworking of theseplansand mechanisms. thus conforming with the applans and proach of integratingnational development nationalenvironmental actionplans. ing incentivesto smallfarmersandpastoralists. as well as local committees/associations of land users. OBJECTIVES 12. (d) To strengthenregional and internationalcooperation for combating desertification through. (c) To initiate a long-term processfor implementing and monitoring strategiesrelated to natural resources management. D) DEVETOPTNG COMPREHENSTVE ANN-DESERTIFICATION PROGRA'YTMES AND INTEGRATING THEM INTO NATIONAT DEVETOPftTENT P1ANS AND NATIONAT NTAI PIANNING ENVIRON'VIE BASIS FOR ACTION 12. (b) Develop national plans of action to combat desertification and. the natural resource base is the main process mustrely. (c) Implement policies directed towards improving providland use. from the grass-roots and pastoralists) to the higher levels of government.governmental organizationsand bilateralagencies shouldstrengthen their cooperation in assisting with the preparation of desertification control programmesand their integration into nationalplanning strategies.including nationalplans to combat development desertification.in all rural communities affected.andwith the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations. AND REG/ONAI. with a view to organizingworking cooperationbetween level (farmers all actorsconcerned.requiringan integrated approachto the planning and management of land resources. involving women and encouraging private investment in the development of drylands. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIVITIES 12. under the aegisof the General Assembly.andwith the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.35In a numberof developingcountriesaffectedby desertification.39The relevantinternational organizations. with a view to finalizing sucha convention by June 1994.managingcommonlandsappropriately.Action plans to combat desertificationand droughtshouldincludemanagement aspects of environment and development.supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizaandmaintainmechanisms to ensure tions.national and local antidesertificationauthoritieswithin governmentand local executive bodies.shouldestablish into sectoral andnational developmentplans theintegration of strategies forpoverty alleviationamong andprogrammes the inhabitantsof landsproneto desertification. 12. non. resource uponwhich the development with land resources The socialsystems interacting make the problemmuch more complex. should promote information exchange and cooperation with respect to national planning and programming among affected countries. COOPERATION AND COORD/NAI/ON 12.

shouldundertake nationwidemajor anti-deserwithin countries tificationawareness/training campaigns affectedthroughexistingnationalmassmediafacilities. r05 .HEIP ARRANGETIENTS. port facilities. the specific strategiesand progftunmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation.transportand distribution. in differing degreesof frequency and severity. including about $90 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. especiallyAfrica. 12. contingencyarrangements for relief are neededfor periodsof acutescarcity. imports. ACTIVITIES D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 12. suchasalternativecropping strategies. At the sametime. A) MANAGFMENI-R ELATED ACT IVITI ES 12. 12.41The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activities of thisprograrnme to be about$ 180million. with the relevant internationaland regional organsupportof the izations. (b) To strengthenthe flow of early-waming information to decision makersand land usersto enablenations to implement strategies for drought intervention. depend upon. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. including any that are non-concessional. should: (a) Design strategiesto deal with national food deficiencies in periods of production shortfall. could enhance the capacityof landto copewith droughtand provide basic necessities. (b) Undertakeapplied study on the integrationof environmental and developmentalactivities into national plans. FOR DROUGHT-PRONE AREASAND DESIGNING PROGRAM'YIES TO COPEWIIH ENVIRONMENTAT REFUGEES BASIS FOR ACTION 12. (c) To develop drought-relief schemesand means of coping with environmentalrefugeesand integratethem into national and regional developmentplanning. inter alia. misused inputs and diversion of developmentresources. This shouldensure access to knowledgeof deserlificationand droughtand to national plansof actionto combatdesertification. INCLUDINGSELF. development OBJECTIVES C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 12.47The objectivesof this prograrnmeareaare: (a) To developnationalstrategies fordroughtpreparednessin both the short and long term. aimed at reducing the vulnerability of production systemsto drought. will cial terms. therebyminimizing the number of environmental refugees and the need for emergency droughtrelief. Apart from the human toll . food storage. These strategies should deal with issuesof storageand stocks. educationalnetworksand newly createdor strengthened people's extension services.42Governments at the appropriatelevel.should establishand maintainmechanisms to ensure coordination of sectoral ministries and institutions.46 Early-warningsystems to forecast droughtwill make possible the implementation of drought-preparedness schemes.45Drought.MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG 12. including local-levelinstitutionsand appropriate non-governmentalorganizations. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.48In drought-prone areas. Governments at the appropriate level.Theseare indicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot Actual costsand finanbeenreviewed by Governments.44 Governmentsat the appropriate level.is a recurringphenomenon throughoutmuch of the developingworld. El DEVETOPTNG COTVIPREHENSIVE DROUGHT PREPAREDNESS AND DROUGHT-REUEF SCHE'YTES. B/ sC/ENTIFIC AND IECHNOTOGICAL MEANS 12.43Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.Integratedpackagesat the farm and watershed level.an estimated3 million people died in the mid-1980sbecause of droughtin sub-Saharan Africa the economiccostsof drought-related disasters are also high in terms of lost production.in integrating antidesertifrcationprograrrunesinto national development plansand nationalenvironmental actionplans. soil and water conservation andpromotionof waterharvesting techniques.should: (a) Develop and introduce appropriate improved sustainable agricultural andpastoral technologies thatare socially and environmentally acceptable and economically feasible.

logisticalsupport. and prodependupon. particular emphasis l o d e l l i n g .personneland finance to drought-related response for a speedyinternational emergencies.g o v e r n m e n t ao and emergencies. in terms capacities (a) Establish of stand-by a system of foodstock. for providing. puteri zed food supply/demand MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FINANC/NG theaverhasestimated secretariat 12.with the support should: and regionalorganizations. Governments MEANS AND TECHNOLOG\CAL 8/ SC/ENr/F/C level anddroughtatthe appropriate 12. with the at the appropriate 12.2 billion. Agromeand contingency meteorology teorology links the frequency. and food securityassistance (d) S trengthenand expand the scope of exist ing and the activitiesof appropriate regionalprogrammes suchas the United Nationsorgansand organizations. wherenecesarrangements. should: 106 . (b) Strengthen regionalandlocal anddevelopnational. strate droughrprevention AND REG/ONAI. (a) Use traditionalmechanisms to copewith hungeras assista meansof channellingrelief and development ance. measures allow preventive varieties andfarmins of appropriate suchasthe selection practices.for food and fodderdistributionand water supply. shortnotice.content and regional of with the requirements of weatherforecasts coverage extension.52Governments prone communities. mitigatingthe effectsof drought AND INFORMAI/ON B) DATA of affectedcountries. the specificstrategies gruunmes decideuponfor implementation. to drought-affected employment to food is a common sourceof income and entitlement Rural workshelp to generate in timesof drought. imed at l rganizationsa a s o f n o n . as well as the effortsof the Permanent Sahel in the Control State Committee on Drought A utho r it y f or (C ILS S ) and the Intergovernmental (IGADD). crop planningand agricultural rural for providingshort-term (c) Prepare ruralprojects The lossof households.51The Conference of implementingthe age total annualcost (1993-2000) activities of this programmeto be about $1. in timesof drought.50Governments and regionalorgansupportof the relevantintemational should: izations. the Programmeof the Regional Training Hydrology andOperational Centrefor Agrometeorology DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 12. with the andregionalorgansupportof the relevantinternational izations. I billion from the international terms. i ntegrated s ens ing.at (e) Establishbudgetarymechanisms for droughtrelief. distress the incomerequiredto buy food for poor households.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only andhavenot estimates tive and order-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments. inter clia. a n d t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n s( A G R H Y M E T ) .with remoteon the areaof risk-mapping.resources (f) Establish safety nets for the most vulnerable households.includingany that are non-concessional.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. (b) Supportprogrammes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) on agrohydrology and agrometeorology.on ways of increasing techof soils and on water harvesting tion capacities areas: niquesin drought-prone (c) Strengthennational early-warningsystems.with the support of the relevant should: intemational and regionalorganizations. (d) Establish contingency sary. Office of the the World Food Programme (UNDRO ) D i saster R el i efC oordi nator U ni tedN ati ons well Office as andthe UnitedNationsSudano-Sahelian .(b) Improve nationaland regionalcapacityfor agrocrop planning.ag ro me te o ro l o g i c am and comtechniques multidisciplinarycrop-forecasting analysis. Drought and Development (c) SupportFAO programmes and other programmes of nationalearly-warningsystems for the development schemes. comincludingabout$ l. (WFP). (b) Support on waysof reducingwater appliedresearch the water absorplossfrom soils.49 Governments international of therelevant priatelevel.53Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. forecaststo im(a) Implement research on seasonal prove contingencyplanning and relief operationsand to be takenat the farm level.at the appro12. c/ /NTERNAT/ONAL AND COORD/NAI'ON ERAI/ON COOP level. interdisciplinaryresearchand training capabilitiesfor gies. d r o u g h t monitoring centresand the African Centre of M e t e o r o l o g i c a lA p p l i c a t i o n s f o r D e v e l o p m e n t Inter(ACMAD).

In this context. But it is necessary and idealof popularparticipation beyondthe theoretical to focuson obtainingactualactivepopularinvolvement. a responsible B) DATA AND 'NFORMAI/ON 12. (e) Establishand/or expand favourableconditions for the provision of services.58Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.and design local plansto includesuchmeasures management of progress. with the and regionalorgansupportof the relevantinternational izations. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.nato take preventivemeasures tionaland local levels. (d) To supportlocal communities in their own effortsin combatingdesertification. from development (c) To ensure thatthepartners understand oneanother's needs. impact assessment management of drought-relief schemes.This implies the of sharing of responsibilities andthe mutualinvolvement all parties.inknowledgeconcerningdesertification education in the cludingthe integration of environmental schools. particularly women and indigenousgroups. (g) Createrural bankingsystems to to facilitateaccess particularlywomen and incredit for rural populations.such as credit facilities and marketing outlets for rural populations. digenous (h) Adopt appropriate policiesto stimulate privateand public investment. other executing agencies. at both the national and local levels. full participation of womenand indigenous ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-R ELAT EDACT tvtTt ES 12. curriculumof primary and secondary (b) To establishand promotetrue partnershipbetween governmentauthorities. inter alia. and to draw on the knowledge and experience of ttrepopulations concemed.public awareness and opendialogue. (0 Develop training programmesto increasethe level of education and participation of people. changingmanagement as appropriate. processes planningandexecution in orderto benefitfully projects.and to promoterural savings.this programmeareashould supporting componentof all be considered an essential activities. should: (a) Adopt policies and establish strucadministrative and imtures for more decentralized decision-making plementation.(a) Promotethe training of decisionmakersand land users in the effective utilization of information from systems early-warning . ON DESERTIFICATION CONTROLAND MANAGE}IENT OF THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT BASIS FOR ACTION and 12. (d) Introduce legislative. equipmentand financesfor monitoring drought parameters at regional. rooted in the conceptof partnership.objectivesand points of view by providing a varietyof meanssuchas training. ( b ) E s t a b l i s h a n d u t i l i z e m e c h a n i s m sf o r t h e consul tati onand i nvol vementof l and usersand f or level to identify enhancing capabilityat the grass-roots and/or contri buteto the i denti fi cati onand pl ann ing of acti on. through. (b) Establishinterministerial linkages andcoordinating and units for drought monitoring.-56 The objectives of this programmeareaare: (a) To develop and increasepublic awareness and and drought. with the and regionalorgansupportof the relevantinternational izations. D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG 12. (c) Define specific programme/projectobjectives in cooperationwith local communities.55The experienceto date on the successes failures of programmesand projects points to the need related to desertifor popularsupport to sustain activities to go fication and drought control.57Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. bteracyand the development of technicalskills.should: 107 .non-governmental orgamzatrons and land users stricken by drought and giving landusers role in the desertification.54Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. ensuringthe populations. ( b ) S t r e n g t h e nr e s e a r c ha n d n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g theimpactof droughtandto develop capabilities to assess methodologies to forecastdrought. should: (a) Improve and maintain mechanisms with adequate staff. POPU1AR AND PROTVTOTING F) ENCOURAGTNG AND ENVIRON'YIENTAI PARTICIPATION FOCUSING EDUCATION. and droueht-related desertification-control OBJECTIVES 12. therebyproviding a meansof alteringprojectdesignor practices. groups. institutionaVorganizational and financial measures to secureuser involvementand access to land resources.

agriculturaltechniques and technological activities of this prograrnme to be about $1 billion.at the appropriatelevel. assistance (c) Promote collaborationamong different actors in programmes.shouldpromote the developmentof indigenous know-how and technologytransfer. (b) Accelerate thedevelopment of technological knowhow.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govemments.60The Conference hasestimated secretariat the average total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the 108 . will dependupon. should: (a) Supportand/or strengthen institutionsinvolved in public education. to strengthen outreachprogrammesand increasethe participation of non-governmentalorganizationstogether with rural populations. IGADD. including about$500million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. (b) Increase the level of public education. (b) Developmechanisms forfacilitatingcooperation in technology and promotesuchcooperation asan element related to technical of all external assistance andactivities projectsin the public or privatesector. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 12. the specificstrategies and prograrnmes Governments decideupon for implementation.includingany thatarenon-concessional.61Governments level.59Governments at the appropriate level. D) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG 12. should promote membersof local rural organizations and train and appoint more extension officers working at the local level. Actual costs and financialferms. and with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations.63 Governments level.andwith the and regionalorgansupportof the relevantinternational izations.schools and communitygoups. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AI FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 12.appropriatespecies.(a) Review.skills and know-how at all levelson ways of organizingand promotingpopularparticipation. (c) Disseminate knowledge about applied research results on soil and water issues. and with the at the appropriate supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. SADCC and the Arab Maghreb Union and other intergovernmentalorganizationsin Africa andotherpartsof the world.developand disseminate gender-disaggregatedinformation.should: (a) Developprogrammes of supportto regionalorganizationssuchas CILSS. environment and development (d) Encourage the emergence of representative organizational structures to foster and sustaininterorganrzational cooperation. focusing on appropriateand intermediatetechnolo8y. 8/ SC'ENilFtC AND TECHNOTOG\CAL MEANS 12. inter alia.62 Governments. includingthe local media. AND REG'ONAT C/ INIERNAI/ONAI. know-how.andwith the atthe appropriate supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 12.

water use.mountainenvironments are essential to the survival of the global ecoare. They are susceptibleto accelerated landslides andrapidlossof habitatandgenetic erosion. of forest.rapidly system. however.they are a source of such key resourcesas minerals. Mountain and hillside areas hold a rich variety of ecologicalsystems.1? I vt frogile Monoging ecosystems: mountoin development Sustoinoble INT RO DU CTION P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) GENERATING AND STRENGTHENING KNOWTEDGEABOUT THE ECOTOGY AND DEVETOPftTENT SUSTAINABLE OF }TOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS 13.a lack of knowledgeof mountain e c o s y s t e m s . there is widespread poverty among mountain inhabitants and loss of indigenous k no w l e d g e . of biologiespeciallywater.2 About 10 per cent of the world's population A much larger dependsdirectly on mountain resources. As a re s u l t. including and percentage drawson mountainresources. 13. cal diversityand endangered 13.Mountain ecosystems soil changing. alternative FOR BASIS ACTION 13.5 The objectives of this programmeareaare: (a) To undertake a surveyof the differentforms of soils. energyand biological diversity.4 Mountains are highly vulnerable to human and natural ecological imbalance. A given mountainslope . Furthermore. Becauseof their vertical dimensions. OBJECTIVES 13. subtropical.Mountains are a storehouse species.Hence. to all climatic changes Specific information on ecology. r09 . On the human side. however. Theseare: (a) Generating knowledgeaboutthe and strengthening ecology and sustainabledevelopmentof mountain ecosystems. crop. There is.1 Mountains are an important source of water. plant and animal resources mountain ecosystems. diversity. taking into accountthe work of existinginternational and regionalorganizations. Mountains are the areas most sensitive in the atmosphere. natural resource potential and socio-economic activities is essential. m o s t gl obal mountain areasare experiencingenvironmentaldegof mountain radation. As a major ecosystemrepresentingthe complex and interrelated ecology of our planet.3 Two programme areas are includedin this chapter to further elaborate the problem of fragile ecosystemswith regard to all mountainsof the world.temperate and alpine eachof which representsa microcosm of a larger habitat diversity. mountains create gradients of temperature.T h e c r e a t i o n o f a g l o b a l m o u n t a i n is thereforevital for launching programmes database that contribute to the sustainabledevelopment of mountainecosystems.suchas tropimay includeseveral climatic systems cal. (b) To maintain and generate database and information management andenvisystems to facilitatetheintegrated taking ronmentalassessment of mountain ecosystems. precipitationand insolation. (b) Promoting integratedwatersheddevelopmentand livelihoodopportunities. forest products and agricultural products and of recreation. the proper management resourcesand socio-economicdevelopment of the peopledeserves immediateaction.

landslides. (d) Identify mountainareasthreatened by air pollution from neighbouring industrialand urbanareas. Geneticresources protected areas andimprovmaintaining andestablishing ing traditional farming and animal husbandryactivities programmes forevaluating the potential andestablishing valueof the resources. research ernmentalorganizationsworking on mountaindevelopment. world. floods. (0 To generateinformation to establishdatabases and information systems to facilitate an evaluationof environin mountainecosystems. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. (b) Encourage netregional.by creating and/or strengtheningtourism. forests. the International Centerfor IntegratedMountain Development(ICIMOD).9 The Conference hasestimated secretariat theaverage total annualcost (1993-2000) of implemeniing the activities of thisprogramme to be about$50million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional i10 .such as the United NationsUniversity(UNU).should: (a) Strengthen existing institutionsor establishnew a onesat local. suchaway thatspecificmountain (g) Establish appropriatenatural reservesin representative species-rich sitesand areas. the World Bank.8 National Governmentsand intersovernmental organizations should: (a) Coordinateregional and internationalcooperation and facilitate an exchange of information andexperience among the specializedagencies. plant and animal genetic giving priority to thoseunderthreatof extincresources. shouldbe protectedin situ by tion. AND REGIONAI COOPERAnON c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL 13. in accordancewith integrated management of mountainareas. mentalrisksandnaturaldisasters (a) Maintain and establish hydrologrmeteorological. nationaland regionallevels to generate multidisciplinary land/water ecologicalknowledgebase on mountainecosystems.rangeland and wildlife activitiesin ecosystems aremaintained. IFAD naand other international and regional orgamzations. (c) Identify hazardous areas that aremost vulnerableto snow avaerosion. (b) Build an inventory of different forms of soils. inter alia. (c) To improveandbuild theexistingland/water ecologiandagricultural technologies cal knowledgebaseregarding and conservationpracticesin the mountainregionsof the of local communities. (b) Promote policiesthatwould provideincennational tives to local peoplefor the useand transferof environment-friendlytechnologies and farming and conservation practices. izationsconcerned (e) To improve coordination of regional efforts to protect fragile mountain ecosystemsthrough the conmechanisms. the WoodlandMountain Institutes(WMI).nationaland international working of people's initiativesandthe activitiesof international. institutionsand non-govtional Governments. .water use. (d) Encourage policies that would provide incentives to farmers and local people to undertakeconservation measures. cal andphysicalmonitoringanalysis andcapabilities that would encompass the climatic diversityas well as water distributionof variousmountainregionsof the world. lanches and othernaturalhazards. should: 13. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION B) DATA AND /NFORMATTON 13.7 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.earthquakes. and regenerative (e) Diversifymountaineconomies. and crop. (0 Integrate all forest. ACTIVITIES ELATED ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R 13.6 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. besidessupportingthose organrzatrons in the exchange of information and experience. (c) Protect fragile mountain ecosystems through the considerationof appropriatemechanismsincluding regionallegal and otherinstruments. (c) Build up the knowledgebaseand understanding by creating mechanismsfor cooperation and information workamongnationalandregionalinstitutions exchange ing on fragile ecosystems. the International Mountain Society (IMS). includingregional of appropriate sideration legal and other instruments. with the participation (d) To createand strengthen the communicationsnetfor existing organwork and information clearing-house with mountainissues.regional and local non-governmental organizations working on mountain development.into account the work of existing international and regionalorganizations . the African Mountain Associationand the Andean Mountain Association.

will depend upon. (c) Undertakeenvironmentaleducationfor farmers.1 1 Governments level. D ) CA P A CI T Y .14Soil erosioncan havea devastating impacton the vast numbers of rural people who depend on rainfed agriculture in the mountain and hillside areas. promoting alternativelivelihood opportunities. poor health and bad sanitation are widespread. In many areasthis is accompanied by excessive livestock grazing.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. the specificstrategies and prograffrmes Governments decide upon for implementation. soil sciences andplant sciences. meteorology. (b) Supporthigher education throughfellowshipsand researchgrants for environmentalstudiesin mountains and hill areas. 13.risk zoning.will havea significantrole in improvingthe standard of living amongthe largerural populationliving in mountainecosystems.For example. inter alia.fisheries andenvironmentally sound mining. animal and human resources. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.in the hillside areasof the Andeancountriesof South America a largeportion of the farming population is now faced with a rapid deteriorationof land resources. earlywaming systems. the mountainand uplandareas of the Himalayas.such as sustainable tourism. unemployment.About 10 per cent of the Earth's populationlives in mountainareaswith higher slopes.BU tL D tN G 13.should build up nationaland regionalinstitutional basesthat could carry out research. B) PROwIOTTNG TNTEGRATED WATERSHED DEVETOPMENT AND ATTERNATIVE TIVETIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-RELATED ACTIVITIES BASIS FORACTION I 3. while about40 per cent occupiesthe adjacent mediumand lower-watershed areas.terms. w i t h t h e lil . plansandemergency evacuation supplies.increase biomassproductionand maintainthe ecologicalbalance. which make vital contributionsto agriculturalproduction. hydrology. plant.Promoting integrated watersheddevelopmentprogranilnes througheffectiveparticipationof local people is a key to preventingfurther ecological imbalance.l3 Nearly half of the world's population is affected in 1 3 .Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estrmatesonly andhavenot beenreviewed by Governments. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 13.andto improveinfrastructure andsocialservices. various ways by mountain ecology and the degradation of watershedareas. (c) To developtechnical andinstitutional arrangements for affectedcounries to mitigatethe effectsof nanral disasters through hazard-prevention measures. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.andwith the at the appropriate supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations.15The objectives of this programmeareaare: (a) By theyear2000. to help the rural populationbetter understandthe ecological issuesregarding the sustainable development of mountainecosystems. (b) To promote income-generating activities.particularly for candidatesfrom indigenous mountainpopulations.to developappropriate planland-use ning and management for both arableand non-arable land in mountain-fedwatenhedareas to preventsoil erosion.particularly throughdevelopment of employmentschemes that increase the productivebase.There are seriousproblems of ecologicaldeteriorationin thesewatershed areas. particularlyin throughnationalandregionalinstitutions. 8/ SC/ENIIF/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 13.should: (a) Launchtrainingandextension prograffunes in environmentally appropriatetechnologiesand practicesthat would be suitableto mountainecosystems.in particularfor women. Similarly. water. Actual costsand financialterms. training and dissemination of informationon the sustainable development of the economies of frasile ecosvstems. upgrading and using the natural resourcebase of land. South-East Asia and Eastand CentralAfrica. 1 6G o v e r n m e n t s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l . in particular to protect the livelihoods of local communitiesand indigenous people. An integratedapproachis neededfor conserving.forestry.shouldstrengthen scientificresearch and techincludingdiffusion nologicaldevel opmentprogrammes.arethreatened by cultivation of marginal landsdue to expandingpopulation. OBJECTIVES 13. In addition.12Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. Poverty.deforestation and lossof biomasscover.including any that are non-concessional.

COOPERAIION 13. MEANS 13. should: (a) Maintain and establishsystematic observationand state or provinciallevel evaluation capacities at thenational.poultry. (b) Generate technologies for specificwatershed and farm conditionsthrougha participatoryapproachinvolving local men and women. (c) Maintain and establish partnerships with non-governmentalorganizations and other private groupsworking in watershed development. theenvironmental (b) Generate livelihoodsand diverdataon alternative at the village level on annual sified productionsystems fisheries. c/ /NTERNATTONAL AND REG/ONAI. development at all administrative (c) Enhance popularparticipation in the management legislation. (e) Provide mechanismsto preservethreatenedareas biologicaldiversity that could protectwildlife. and the IntemationalCenter for IntegratedMountain relevant Development. in development. conserve or serveas nationalparks.beekeeping.particularlythoseaffected by mountaindisasters and floods.20Fi nanci ng for the promoti on of al t er nat ive livelihoodsin mountainecosystems shouldbe viewedas part of a country'santi-poverty livelihoods or alternative programme. dependupon.to to supportlocal initiatives coordinateintegratedservices in animal husbandry.livestock.includingindigenous peopleandlocal communities.supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorganizations. 13. should: (a) Strengthen the role of appropriateinternationalre- 112 .markets. should: (a) Considerundertakingpilot projectsthat combine environmentalprotection and developmentfunctions with particular emphasis on someof the traditionalenvipractices ronmentalmanagement or systems that have a good impacton the environment.18Governments at the appropriate level. needfor full participation of women. vil lageindustrie s.21Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.such as the cultivation and agro-processing and processing of medicinaland aromaticplants. researchers and extension agentswho will carry out experimentsand trials on farm conditions. horticulture and rural levels. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideuponfor implementation. (h) Undertake takinginto account the theabove activities.9billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. transport andincome-earning opportunities. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC|AL AND COSI EVALUATTON 13. should: (a) Undertake measuresto prevent soil erosion and promoteerosion-control activitiesin all sectors. as well as regional reMountainInstitutes search suchastheWoodland centres.17Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. throughappropriate of local resources (d) Supportnon-governmental organizations andother private groups assistinglocal organizations and communitiesin thepreparation of projectsthat would enhance participatory development of local people. will cial terms. BJ DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 13. forestry.19The Conference secretariat hasestimated theaverage total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $13 billion. (g) Undertakeincome-generating activitiesin cottage industries. to generateinformation for daily operationsand to assess impacts andsocio-economic of projects.complementingexisting institutions. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude only andhavenot estimates Actual costsandfinanbeenreviewedby Governments. searchand training institutes such as the Consultative Group on International Agricultural ResearchCenters (CGIAR) and the International Board for Soil Research and Management(IBSRAM). (b) Establish task forces or watersheddevelopment committees. includingabout$ 1. B/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNICAI. taking fully into accountthe role of women and integrating them into the planningand implementation process.includingany that are non-concessional. (0 Develop nationalpoliciesthat would provide incenconservation tives to farmersand local peopleto undertake measures andto useenvironment-friendly technologies. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. inter alia. and treecrops. (b) Promoteregionalcooperation and exchange of data sharing thesame mounandinformationamongcountries tain rangesand river basins. in undertaking appliedresearch to watershed development. which is also discussed in chapter3 (Combating poverty) and chapter 14 (Promotingsustainable agriculture and rural development) of Agenda21.

shouldpromote local infrastructure development.field staff and farmersfor watershed development. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations.(c) Promote technologiesof vegetative conservation measuresfor erosion prevention. treatmentof drainagelines and rechargingof groundwater.simpleand easily adoptedby local people.health. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional orgwizations. fisheries. legislative. improved cropping technology. (b) Develop human resourcesby providing accessto education.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. socio-economic. in cooperationwith nationalGovernments. financialand administrative aspects and provide support to policy makers. D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE 13. conservation and utilizationof arable and non-arableland. fodder productionand agroforestry that arelow-cost. combinedwith the latest availabletechnologyfor early waming and forecasting. mini.administrators. 13.22 Governmentsat the appropriate level.energyand infrastructure. technologi cal. includingcommunication networks.or micro-hydro development to supportcottageindustries.24The private sector and local communities. il3 . 13. (c) Promotelocal awareness and preparedness for disasterprevention and mitigation.should: (a) Promotea multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral approach in training and the disseminationof knowledge to local peopleon a wide rangeof issues.livestock management.and access to markets. in . suchas household productionsystems.agroforestryand horticulture.ritu moisture management. should develop and strengthennational centresfor watershed management to encourage a comprehensive approachto ttreenvironmental.

and natural resourcemanagement protection. at both naenvironmental and macroeconomic levels. 14. Agriculture has to producti on m eet t his c h a l l e n g ema . (0 Water for sustainable food productionand sustainable rural development. participation. c ons er v in g a n d re h a b i l i ta ti n g th e n a tu ra lr esources on lower pot e n ti a l a n d si n o rd e rto m a i n ta i nsustai nabl e m an/ landra ti o si s a l s o n e c e s s a ry T . plant nutritionto increase food produc0) Sustainable tion. 114 .4 The following programmeareasare included in this chapter: (a) Agriculturalpolicy review. (l) Evaluationof the effectsof ultravioletradiationon plantsand animalscaused by the depletionof the stratosphericozonelayer.and production to thosesupplies by vulnerable for markets. (i) Integrated pestmanagement and control in agriculture.T h e s u c c e ss of S A R D will dependlargely on the supportand participationof rural people.3 The priority mustbe on maintaining and improving the capacity of the higher potential agricultural lands to supportan expandingpopulation.However.l By the year 2025.l a n d c o n s e rv a t i on and i mpr ov edm a n a g e m e no t f i n p u ts . (d) Land-resource planninginformationandeducation for agriculture. (c) Improving farm production and farming systems through diversification of farm and non-farm employment and infrastructure development. access groups.14 Promoti ng sustoinoble ogriculture ond ruroldevelopment INTRODUCTION l4. national Governments.the private sector and internationalcooperation.to c re a te th e c o n di ti ons for s u s t a i n a b l ea g r i c u l t u r e a n d r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t (SARD).in developed tional and international as well as dev elopin g c o u n tri e s . thusensuring s t ables up p l i e s o f n u tri ti o n a l l ya d e q u a te f ood.Yet the capacity of available resources and technologies to satisfythe demandsof this growing population for food andotheragricultural commoditiesremains uncertain. and environmental 1-1. 14.particularly with regardto food securityand sustainable development. 5 b i l l i o n w i l l b e l i v i n g i n developing countries. inc om e div e rs i fi c a ti o n . i n l y b y i n c re a s i ng on land already in use and by avoiding further on land that is onlv mareinallvsuitable encroachment for cultivation. policy. T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e e d u c a t i o ni n i t i a t i v e s . h e m ai n tool s of SARD are policy and agrarianreform.planningandintegrated programming in the light of the multifunctionalaspect of agriculture. ( g ) C o n s e r v a t i o na n d s u s t a i n a b l eu t i l i z a t i o n o f pl ant geneti c resourcesfor food and sust ainable agri cul ture. employment and income generationto alleviate poverty.2 Major adjustrnents are neededin agricultural. (b) Ensuring people's participationand promoting human resource development for sustainable agriculture. (k) Rural energytransitionto enhance productivity. (h) Conservation and sustainable utilizationof animal geneticresources for sustainable agriculture. 83 per cent of the expected g l o b a l p o p u l a t i o no f 8 . including technicaland scientific cooperation. utilization of economic incentivesand the developmentof appropriate andnew technologies. The major objectiveof SARD is to increase food production in a sustainable way andenhance food s e c u r i t y . (e) Land conservation and rehabilitation.

ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELAT EDACTIVITI ES 14. price policy. The major thrust of food securityin this caseis to bring abouta significant production increase in agricultural in a sustainable way and to achievea substantial improvementin people's food andculturallyappropriate entitlement to adequate food supplies. including. as appropriate.In particularthe economies in transition from plannedto market-oriented systemsneed such a framework to incorporateenvironmentalconsiderations into economic activities.E BASIS FOR ACTION 14. (h) Formulate and implement integratedagricultural projects that include other natural resourceactivities. particularlyin fragileecosystems and denselypopulated areas. storage. (c) To maintainand enhance the ability of developing particularly countries. programmes and policy measures. Supportto and monitoring of implementation shouldfollow. including programmes and measures to enhance sustainable food production and food security within the framework of sustainable development. the leastdeveloped ones. (b) Reviewnationalandregionalagricultural policy in relation. ll5 . All countriesneedto assess comprehensively the impacts o f s u c h p o l i c i e s o n f o o d a n d a g r i c u l t u r es e c t o r performance. OBJECTIVES 14.6 The absence of a coherent nationalpolicy framework for sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD) is widespread and is not limited to the developing countries. 14. sustainable agricultural (0 Supportnational and regional early waming systems through food-securityassistance schemesthat monitor food supply and demand and factors af-fbctins household access to food. nationaland regionallevels. PARTICUTARTY WITH R. where appropriate.to review and. (g) Reviewpolicieswith respect to improvingharvesting.programming selves manage and planningactivities.' (b) To maintain and develop.to thempolicy. distributionand marketingof productsat the local.P R O G R A M MA ER E A S POUCYREVTEW A) AGRTCULTURAT PTANNTNG AND INTEGRAIED PROGRATYIMES IN IHE UGHTOF IHE MUTTIFUNCTIONAT ASPECT OF AGRICULruRE.laws and regulations andincentives leadingto sustainable agricultural and rural development and irnproved food security and to the development and transferof appropriate farm technologies.1 Soundpolicy decisions to international trade and capital flows also necessitate action to overcome: (a) a lack of awareness of the environmental costs incurred by sectoraland macroeconomic policies and (b) insufficientskills hencetheir threatto sustainability. inter alia.8 The objectives of this Programme areaare: (a) By 1995. introduce andmonitorpolicies. not later than 1998. analysis. to foreign trade.operational multisectoral plans. establish a programme to integrate environmental andsustainwith policy analysisfor the food and able development policy agriculturesectorand relevant macroeconomic formulationand implementation.EGARD TO FOOD SECURITY DEVETOPMENT AND SUSTAINABI.5 There is a needto integratesustainable developpolicy analysis with agricultural mentconsiderations and planning in all countries.rural welfare and international trading relations as a means for identifying appropriate offsettingmeasures.should: (a) Carry out national policy reviews relatedto food security. with the supportof the relevantinternational andregionalorganizations.not later than 2005. where appropriate. low-input (LISA) systems. (e) Formulate. and thus to concrete actions. (d) Consider demographic trends and population movementsand identify critical areasfor asricultural production.food security. and experience in incorporating issuesof sustainability into policies and programmes.agriculturalsubsidies and taxes. exchangerate policies. suchasmanagement of rangelands. processing. forests. as appropriate. particularly in developing Recommendations shouldcontributedirectly countries. (i) Promotesocialand economicresearch and policies that encourage sustainableagriculture development.as well as organization for regional integration: economic (c) Implement policies to influence land tenure and property rights positively with due recognitionof the minimum size of land-holdingrequired to maintain production and check further fragmentation. including agriculture. pertaining 11. and (c) inadequacyof tools of analysis and monitoring. including adequate levels and stabilityof food supplyand access to food by all households.9 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. and wildlife.to long-termplans and programmes. to development of realisticand operational medium.

and otherbodiesshould.11 UnitedNationsagencies. (c) Strengthen national.including storage. theWorld 14. accounting. and regional organizations.where necessary.13Governments at the appropriatelevel and with the relevant internationaland regional organsupportof the izations should assist farming householdsand communities to apply technologies relatedto improved food productionand security. including about$450 million from the internationalcomterms. integration. monitoring of production and distribution.Theseare indicamunity on grant or concessional only and have not estimates tive and order-of-magnitude and financial reviewed Actual costs by Governments. and developframeworksfor sustainable (b) Establish legal measuresto promote accessof women to land and remove biasesin their involvement in rural development. AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAI'ON suchasFAO. MEANS AND TECHNOLOGTCAL 8/ SC'ENnF'C 14.C) Identify storageand distributionproblemsaffecting to food availability. should strengthen ministries for agriculture.regionaland inand establish ternationalsystemsand networks to increasethe understandingof the interactionbetween agriculture and the state of the environment. (b) Examine and undertake surveys and researchto establishbaseline information on the status of natural resources relatingto food andagriculturalproductionand on planningin orderto assess the impactsof varioususes and tools of and developmethodologies theseresources.NTERNAT/ONAr. c) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 14. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATION 14. natural resources and planning. supportresearch. including terms.15Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.should: (a) Cooperateactively to expand and improve the inon food and agriculformation on early waming systems ture at both regionaland nationallevels. in the context of achieving sustainable agricultural development and consistent with principleson tradeand agreed relevantinternationally environment. assume a role in working in their respective with nationalGovernments in the following activities: (a) Inrplementintegratedand sustainable agricultural development and food security strategiesat the subregional level that use regional production and trade potentials. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14.should: (a) Involve and train local economists.withbilateraldonoragencies mandates. overcometheseproblemsand cooperatewith producers and distributors to implement improved practicesand systems.to (b) Encourage. and techniques and tools of on data sources.S PART|C|PAnON Bl ENSURTNG AND PROMOTING HU'YIAN RESOURCE DEVETOPIIENT FOR SUSTAINABTE AGRICUTruRE BASIS FOR ACTION 14. planners and analysts to initiate nationalandintemationalpolicy reviews agriculture.16This component bridges policy and integrated I16 . with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. PEOPIE'. suchas environmental analysis.14Governments at the appropriate level. including organizations for regionaleconomic promote food security. Bank. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 14.12The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)on implementing the activities of this prograrrme to be about $3 billion. any that are progfttrnmes and specific stategies ulnn. IFAD and GATT. AND REG'ONAL c/ .identify ecologically sound technologiesand facilitate the exchangeof information policies. the Governmentsdecideupon for implementation. inter alin.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. a more open and non-discriminatory trade and the avoidance of unjustifiable tradingsystem w i t h p o l i c i e s will o t h e r barriers which together facilitate the further integration of agricultural and policies so as to make them mutually environmental supportive. been will depend non-concessional. analysis.

indigenous communitiesand small farmers. OBJECTIVES 14. practices. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON 14.waterand fbrests.20Appropriate internationaland regional agencies should: (a) Reinforce their work with non-governmental organizations in collecting and disseminatinginformaparticipation tion on people's organizations. shouldbe on management Emphasis building agreements for changes in resourceutilization.should: (a) Developandimproveintegrated agricultural extension servicesand facilities and rural organizatrons and undertake natural resource managementand food security activities. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-R ELATED ACT tVtTtES 14. input distribution. the optimal use of on-farm inputs and the minimal use of external inputs.' land and for individuals or conununities to encourage investment in land resources.financing. (b) Review and refocusexisting measures to achieve wider accessto land. (e) Develop policies in extension. ing information andsupporting user-based organizations.shouldcollect.youth.processing and distribution. takinginto account the differentneeds of subsistence agriculture as well as market-oriented crops.local cially women's groups. landlessand indigenous people. and the accessto information.the greaterwill be the incentivefor economicand human resources development. small farmers. local communities and non-govemmen tal or ganizati ons in socialinnovationandstrategies for rural development. espepeople. indigenous (c) Assign clear titles.The greater the degreeof community control over the resources on which it relies. the functioning of markets.prices.in sustainable agriculture and rural development.marketing. (d) Developguidelines policiesfor fordecentralization rural developmentthrough reorganizationand strengthening of rural institutions. optimal use of local natural resources and management of renewableenergy sources. water and forest resources and to technologies. andtheestablishment of networksthatdealwith the exchange of information on alternative forms of agriculture.17The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) To promote greaterpublic awareness of the role of people'sparticipation and people'sorganizations. the role of Governments. water and forest resourcesand ensureequal rights of women and other disadvantaged groups.with particularemphasison rural populations. (b) Help developinformation availablethrough nongovernmental organizations and promote an international ecological agricultural network to acceleratethe development and implementation of ecologicalagriculture practices. rights and responsibilities for MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION AI FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 14. capital and inputs. andpeople's testingparticipatorydevelopmentmethods.particularly women. (0 Providesupportservices and training.recognizing the variationin agricultural and practices circumstances by location. pricing. the rights and dutiesassociated with useof land. creditandtaxationto ensure necessary incentives and equitable accessby the poor to production-support services.to land. inforand disseminate mation on human resources. with the relevant international supportof the and regional organizations. C/ /NIERNATIONAL AND REG/ONAI COOPERAIION AND COORD'NAIION 14.training.19Governments at the appropriate level.andwith the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.analyse. (b) To ensure equitableaccess of rural people.21The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing 117 .18Governmentsat the apprclpriate level. policy instrumentsto reconcilelong-runand short-runrequirements must be set by nationalGovernments. The approaches providfocus on fosteringself-relianceand cooperation.resourcemanagement.At the sametime.This would requiretraining and capacity-building to assumegreaterresponsibilities in sustainable development efforts. (c) To strengthen and developthe management and the internal capacitiesof rural people'sorganizations and extensionservices and to decentralize decision-makine to the lowestcommunitylevel.training and e d u c a t i o n f o r h u m a n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n ta n d strengthening the management structures of rural organizations. peopleand local communities.

Theseare indicamunity on grant or concessional only and have not estimates tive and order-of-magnitude Actual costsand financial beenreviewedby Govemments. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 14. aquaculture.FAR'YIEMPTOY'VIENT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ITI ELATED ACTIV ES 14.such as crop rotation. such as and cottageindustries. sustainablewildlife conservationand management.particularlyamongthe poor and thoseliving in marginal areas. with the 14. bersof resource-user in rural developand benefitsof people'sparticipation ment.organicmanuringand othertechniques involving reduceduseof agriculnrral multiple techniques chemicals. suchaslight village-based manufacturing.otheron-farm andoff-farm employmentopportunities should be identified and developed. cl rfripRovrNc FARr/lpRoDUcfloN AND FARftIINGSYSTEMS THROUGH DIVERSIFICATION AND OF FARM AND NON. such as accountingand audit services and institutionsfor human rural people'sorganizations administrative and resource and delegate development. logical and ecological includingagroforestry. and tourism.including any that are non-concessional. takingparticular noteof the role of women.aswell asto increase diversification. for sources of nutrients and the efficient utilization of extemalinputs.23Governments support of the relevant international and regional and techshould provide management organizations. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.24 Governmentsat the appropriate level.agrirecreation business. therefore. for commoditiesandto avoid further expansion demands on fragile ecoon to marginal lands and encroachment systems.etc. Govemments MEANS 8/ SCTENTFtC AND TECHNOT. risks. ( b ) L a u n c h a p p l i e d r e s e a r c ho n p a r t i c i p a t o r y strategies management and local organmethodologies. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organstrategies and izations. There is. inland fisheriesand animal husbandry.and to facilitate for sound technologies the transferof environmentally integratedproduction and farming systems. will depend terms. FOR BASIS ACTION 14.food security and rural incomes.25 Agriculture needs to be intensified to meet future il8 . (c) To create farm and non-farm employment opportunities. aquaculture fisheries.incorporatingindigenous ecologicalknowledgeand practices.22 Governmentsat the appropriate level. izations. OBJEC-TVES 14. should introducemanagement for mechanisms.while enhancing for wasteand techniques by-productutilization and preventionof pre.26The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) To improve farm productivity in a sustainable manner. the specific strategiesand progftlrnmes decideuponfor implementation. farm commodity processing. revenue-raising and expenditure.including indigenous technologies and the sustainable use of bioprocesses.to be about $4. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. administrators and memnical trainingto government practice groupsin the principles. upon.should: (a) Develop and disseminate to farming households integrated farm managementtechnologies.a needto intensify agriculture by diversifying the production systems for maximum efficiency in the utilization of local rewhile minimizing environmentaland economic sources.taking into account the alternative livelihood proposalinter alia in drylandareas.OG|CAL 14.wildlife utilization. inter alia. should: (a) Encourage people'sparticipation on farm technology developmentand transfer. Increased useof externalinputs and developproductionandfarming systems tend ment of specialized and to increasevulnerability to environmentalstresses market fluctuations.27 Governmentsat the appropriate level. Where intensification of farming systemsis not possible.4 billion. non-farmactivities. (b) To enhance the self-reliance of farmersin developing and improving rural infrastructure. financial responsibilities to local levels for decisionmaking. DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE at the appropriate level.and postharvestlosses. the activities of this prograrnme comincluding about$650million from the international terms.while ensuringthat risks to the ecosystem are minimized.efficiency.

with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI B) DATA AND /NFORMAnON 14.on-farm testing of appropriate and dialoguewith rural comtechnologies munitiesto identify constraints and bottlenecks and find solutions.Presentland use often disregards the actual potentials. (b) Expandcredit facilities and rural infrastructurerelated to processing. and reducefood losses. as well as to national and local markets. 14. (e) Initiate and maintain farm surveys.It is esti- il9 .5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.should: (a) Promote educational and vocational training for farmers and rural communitiesthrough formal and nonformal education. including about$1. andregional centres shoulddiagnose theworld's major agro-ecosystems. includingcomparative analysis of the intensification. (d) Providethe essential rural infrastructurefor access to agriculturalinputsand services.as well as water and fisheries.32 Governmentsat the appropriate level. their susceptibilityto deterioration and their productivepotential.carrying capacitiesand limitations of land resources.includingany that are non-concessional. beenreviewedby Governments. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. ecologicaland socio-economiccharacteristics. rural servicecentre s andrelatedi nfrastructural i mprovements .29Intemationalinstitutions. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.bankers and traders in rural servicingand small-scale agro-processing techniques. ptANNtNc.should: (a) Analyse the effects of technical innovationsand incentives on farm-household incomeand well-being.33Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.( b) Cr eat e no n -fa rm e m p l o y m e n t o p p o rtuni ti es throughprivate small-scale agro-processing units. c/ /NTFRNATIONAL AND REG'ONAI. transportation and marketing. This could form the basisfor technologydevelopment andexchange and for regionalresearch collaboration.should strengthen research on agriculturalproduction systemsin areaswith different endowmentsand agro-ecological zones.31Governments at the appropriatelevel.30The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2W0)of implementing the activitiesof this programme to be about$10 billion. AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 14. their extension. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. 8/ SCTENilFtC AND TECHNOIOG\CAL MEANS 14. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 14. (0 Analyseandidentifypossibilities foreconomicintegrationof agriculturaland forestryactivities. (c) Promoteand improve rural financial networks that utilize investment capitalresources raisedlocally.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot 14. and to take effective measuresto encourageforest managementand growing of trees by farmers(farm forestry)asanoption forresourcedevelopment.28Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. inter alia. managers.such as CGIAR. will depend upon. as well as their diversity in space.diversificationand different levels of extemal and internal inputs. ( b) I nit iat e an d ma i n ta i n o n -fa rm a n d o ff-farm programmes to collectandrecordindigenous knowledge. should: (a) Improve their organizational capacityto deal with issuesrelated to off-farm activities and rural industry development.suchas FAO and IFAD. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. Actual costsand financial terms. (b) Launch awarenessand training programmes for entrepreneurs. |NFORftIAT|ON Dl IAND-RESOURCE AND EDUCATION FORAGRICUTTURE MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON BASIS FOR ACTION 14.34Inappropriate and uncontrolled land uses are a major causeof degradation and depletion of land resources. international agricultural researchcentres.

39The appropriate United Nations agenciesand regional organizationsshould: (a) Strengthenor establishinternational.matedthat the world's population.channelresources and irnplementprogrammes.climate.including any that are non-concessional. C/ INIERNAI'ONAI. promote discussion and encourage the formation of groups.and project imof technicaland management plementation. resources.4 billion.distribution of vegetautilization of wild plants. wheneverpossible.should: (a) Develop databases and geographicalinformation systemsto store and display physical.7billion.38Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.Actual costsand finanwill cial terms.water of naturalresources and soil factors. (b) Selectcombinationsof land usesand production AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14. will be 6. 14. the specific strategies grammesGovernments decideupon for implementation. MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL BJ SC/ENI/F'C 14. AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAI'ON 14.36The objectives involve farmers (a) To harmonizeplanningprocedures.3 nisms necessary nate information. OBJECTIVES of this programmeareaare: 14. and the definition of ecological zonesand developmentareas. costs and prices. inter alia. The need to food productionto meet the expandingneedsof increase on all natural the populationwill put enormouspressure including land.should: (a) Collect.37 Governmentsat the appropriate level. the activitiesof this programme including about$250 million from the internationalcomterms.should: (a) Establishand strengthenagricultural land-useand planning. (b) Initiateandmaintaindistrictandvillageagricultural land-resourceplanning. and production systems and that affect agricultural social and cultural considerations and adjacentland use. data collection land resources and diffusion of simulation models of production and information di ssemination : methodologies (b) Develop internationallyacceptable description of land for the establishmentof databases.35Poverty and malnutrition are already endemic in many regions. tion cover and animal species.25 billion by the tum of the century. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG ACTIVITIES ACT IVIT IE 5 ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R 14. managementand conservation groupsto assistin problem identification.and on land use. and prodependupon. management AND REGION. yields.now at5.planning. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.Theseare indicmunity on grant or concessional only andhavenot estimates ative andorder-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Governments.management.on the utilization and living conditions. define land areas of similar and establishdatabases.updateanddissemi- 120 .development solutions.AI.A systematicapproach widely or systematically is neededfor identifying land usesand production sysin each land and climate zone. tems that are sustainable including the economic. (b) Establish programmes to provide information. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. 14.continuously monitor. data.identify resourceproblemsand values that to mechanisms needto be takeninto accountto establish encourageefficient and environtnentally sound use of resources: planningbodiesat national (b) To establish agricultural and local levels to decide priorities. usesand multiple goal optimization. design collectland-resource in theplanningprocess. capability.41Governments at the appropriate level.regional and technicalworking groupswith specificterms subregional and budgetsto promotethe integrateduseof of reference for agriculture. agriculturalandenvironmental productionandconservingsoil for increasing Techniques and water resourcesare already available but are not applied. The destruction and degradation of resource s i s a major i ssue.40The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing to be about$ 1.social and institutional mechafor their implementation. educationand inland-resource formation at national and local levels. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.social and economic information pertaining to agriculture.

with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.development and environmentalissuesrelated to agricultural land use and management. (b) Generate discussion at all levelson policy. B) DATA AND /NFORMATTON 14.managelnent and utilization of land resourcesand preserve soil fertility for sustainable agricultural development.arenow needed. conferences and seminars. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. and strengthen delivery systems and local communityparticipation. (b) Establishor strengthen Govemmentsand international institutions with responsibilityfor agricultural resource survey. fibre and fuel. extentand severityof land degradation.42Governments at the appropriatelevel. district and village levels throughformal and informal instructional courses. The problemof soil erosion is particularly acute in developing countries. (c) Develop and implement programmesfor the rehabilitationof landdegradedby water-logging and salinity. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 14. Land degradation is serious the productivityof because just when populations hugeareas of land is declining are increasing rapidlyandthedemand on the landis growing to produce more food. (b) Provide incentivesand. districtandvillagelevelsto actasfocal points and links betweeninstitutionsand disciplines. soil pollution andlossof soil fertility areincreasing in all countries.NAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTtVtTt ES 14. travel and interaction. OBJECTIVES 14.should: (a) Conductperiodic surveysto assess the extentand stateof its land resources: 121 .implementationand maintenance of their own conservation and reclamationprogrammes. where appropriateand possible. E) rAND CONSERVATTON AND REHABIL|TAT|ON BASIS FOR ACTION 14. through media programmes.nationalland-resource surveys.should: (a) Developandimplementprogrammestoremoveand resolvethe physical. which lead to inappropriateland-usemanagement. should: (a) Establish land-resource mappingandplanning units at national. resourcesfor the participationof local communities in the planning. (b) To prepare and implementcomprehensive policies and prograrrunes leading to the reclamationof degraded lands and the conservation of areasat risk. it is urgentto arrest land degradationand launch conservationand rehabilitation programmesin the most critically affected and vulnerableareas. (d) Develop and implement programmes for the progressive useof non-cultivated land with agricultural potentialin a sustainable way. and provide equipmentand technicalassistance.43Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.47 Governments.to review and initiate. particularlyin developingcountries.management and development.44Land degradationis the most important environmentalproblemaffectingextensive areas of land in both developed anddeveloping countries. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 14. as well as improve the generalplanning. waterlogging. while problemsof salinization. shouldprovide long-termsolutions. such as land tenure.and between Govemments and people.at the appropriatelevel.socialand economiccauses of land degradation. long-term national and regional land conservationand rehabilitation programmes.While land-use planning andlandzoning. ACTIVITIES A) MA. rationalize and strengthenlegal frameworks. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. havehadlimited success to date.46 Governmentsat the appropriate level.combined with betterland management.45The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (a) By the year 2000.systems appropriate to land units throughmultiple goal optimization procedures. (c) Encourage integrated planningat the watershed and landscape levelto reducesoil lossandprotectsurface and groundwater resources from chemicalpollution.should: (a) Trainprofessionals andplanninggroupsat national. detailingthelocation. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorganizations. with strongpolitical supportand adequatefunding.Well planned.as appropriate. Efforts to control land degradation. appropriate trading systems and agriculturalpricing structures.

Many existing gene securityand.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. prograrnmes.| INIERN.prograffuneareaF. inter alia. developand usegeneticdiversity andefforts to conserve. includingconagriculturalproduction.48The appropriate organizations organizations and non-governmental should: (a) Develop priority conservation and rehabilitation and with advisory servicesto Governments programmes regionalorganizations . c) coNsERvATloN AND SUSTAINABII t TltlZATloN FORFOOD AND OF PIANT C#NETrcRESOI. (b) Establish regional and subregional networks for scientistsand techniciansto exchangeexperiences.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only andhavenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments.AIIONAI.shouldhelp farming household and technologies investigateand promote site-specific farming systems that conserve and rehabilitate land.(b) Strengthenand establish national land-resource databanks. FOR ACTION BASIS for agriculture(PGRFA) 14. ping. while increasing terracingand mixed cropservationtillage agroforestry. should train field staff and land users in inand of conservation digenous and moderntechniques trai ni ngf acilit ies and shoul destabl i sh rehabi l i tati on for extensionstaff and land users. including about$800million from the internationalcomterms.includingany that are non-concessional. the world's 14. Threats to the security of theseresourcesare growing. AND COORD'NAIION COOPERAI'ON regional United Nationsagencies.51Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.49The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe of implementing total annualcost (1993-2000) average the activitiesof this programmeto be about $5 billion.strategies andprogralnmes actionplans.in someinstances.rcUtruRE SUSTANABTE MEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL 8/ SC/ENI. suchas nationalenvironment the Tropical ForestryAction Plan and national development prograrnmes.50Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.BUILDING 14. 14. tems as a basisfor research DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE 14.55The primary objectiveis to safeguard them to use sustainwhile preserving geneticresources ably.extent aswell asareas and severityof existingland degradation. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. AND REG/ONAI.FtC 14. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG 14. rehabilitationprogralrunes (c) Collect and record information on indigenousconservation and rehabilitation practicesand farming sysand extensionprogrammes. (b) Coordinate andrehabilitation all land conservation with relatedongoing policies.|RCES AGR. banksprovideinadequate diversityin genebanksis asgreat the lossof plantgenetic as it is in the field.54Plant geneticresources are an essentialresourceto meet future needsfor food. depend upon. and at risk. and ogieson land conservation D] CAPACITY.should: (a) Develop and strengthennational researchinstitutional capacity to identify and implement effective conthat areappropriate servationandrehabilitationpractices physicalconditions of the to theexistingsocio-economic land users. the specific strategiesand decideupon for implementaprogrammes Governments tion.including identificationof the location. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. FOOD PRODUCTION F) WATERFOR SUSTAINABLE RURATDEVELOP}IENT AND SUSTAINABTE 14. technolsuccessful andspread developjoint programmes rehabilitation.53This programmearea is included in chapter 18 (Protectionof thequality andsupplyof freshwaterresources). C.52 Governmentsat the appropriate level. This includes the developmentof measuresto facilitate the conservationand use of plant genetic re- 122 . with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organto communities izations. and evaluatethe progressof the conservation launchedin this regard. are underfundedand understaffed.

should: (a) Develop and strengtheninstitutional capacity.58Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. food production. within the frameworkof networksof collaboratins institutions. particularly for the minor or non-utilizedspecies crops and other underutilized of food and agriculture. (f) Promoteutilization as well as research on poorly known.r silr. based. institutions and farmingcommunities. but potentiallyuseful. (g) Strengthen national capabilitiesfor utilization of PGRFA. plants and crops.developing in particularto of environmentally soundtechnologies. and germ plasma of tools suchas ex situ collecticlns emphasis could be placedon the building banks. on country studies (e) Promote systems in agricultural cropdiversification where appropriate.59Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. (c) Review periodicallyand reporton the situationon and procedures. is uablecrop species. (b) Establish ex situ basecollectionnetworks. (c) Develop multiplication/propagation. plant breedingand seedproductioncapabilities. to adoptpoliciesand strengthenor establishprogrammesfor in situ on-farm use of plant and sustainable and e. and use of for conservation and progranunes structures PGRFA: (b) Strengthenand establishresearchin the public domain on PGRFA evaluationand utilization.areasand use networksof in situ conservation sources.monitor and useplant geneticresources Existinginstitutional capacity. (d) Prepareplans or programmesof priority action on use of PGRFA. (c) Not later than the year 2000. exist in the capacity 14. developingcountries. increase and are generallyinadequate structures and programmes There is geneticerosionof invallargely underfunded. study. both by specialized AND /NFORMATION B) DATA OBJECTIVES areaare: of this programme 14.p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e v e l o p i n g plantintrocountries andmonitor. 14. and taking further stepsto realize farmers' ri ghts: (b) Developsubregional. resources for sustainable agriculture. strategies and programrnes (d) To take appropriatemeasures for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits and results of researchand and in plant breedingbetweenthe sources development usersof plant geneticresources. AND COCRDINAI/ON COOPERAI/ON 14. Subsequent of networks consolidationand efficient management areasand use of tools such as of in situ conservation ex situ collectionsand germ plasmabanks. regionalandglobalnetworks of PGRFAin situ in protected areas: ACTIVITIES IT ACTIV IE S ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R 14.including tree speciesfor action could be aimed at agro-forestry. including new plantswith potential value as food crops. appropriate. where appropriate.as conservation and sustainable of PGRFA. with the and regionalorgansupportof the relevantinternational izations.57The objectives (a) To complete and safeduplicathe first regeneration on a world-widebasis tion of existingex situ collections as soonas possible. Special evaluation capacityfor characterization.with the 123 . PGRFA.60The appropriateUnited Nations agenciesand regionalorganizations should: (a) Strengthen the Global Systemon the ConservaUse of PGRFA by. with the and regionalorgansupportof the relevantinternational should: izations. tion and Sustainable acceleratingthe developmentof the Global Information and Early WarningSystem to facilitatetheexchange ways to promotethe transfer of information.disseminate PGRFA collectionsand assess eeneticvariationin collections.56Major gaps and weaknesses of existing national and internationalmechanismsto to assess. usingexistingsystems (d) Characterrzeand evaluate PGRFA material colinformation to tacilitate the use of lected. (b) To collect and study plants useful for increasing joint activities.Existingdiversity in crop species food producfor increased not usedto theextentpossible wav"* tion in a sustainable objectivesof sustainable agricultureand rural development in view. (a) Develop strategies for networksof in situ conservation areasand use of tools such as on-f'armex situ germplasm banksand relatedtechnologies. collections. exchange facilities for PGRFAs (seedsand and dissemination p l a n t i n g m a t e r i a l s ) . inter alia. includingtrainfood productionthrough ing. of endogenous and utilization of PGRFA.controlandevaluate ducti ons.rconservation integrated into genetic for food andagriculture. AND REGIONAI c/ /NTFRNAT/ONAI.

D) CAPACITY-BUILDING MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F'NANC'NG 14.Theseare indicmunity on grant or concessional only andhavenot estimates ativeand order-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments. avoiding the risk of their being replacedby prograrnmes. port of therelevantinternational for nationalpoliciesto providelegalstatus shouldestablish of PGRFA.64Governments andregional organizations.63Governments 124 . particularly for the enhancementof poorly crops.These breeds and exotic of tion as a result of the introduction systems.utilizing recent such as computer sciences. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. (c) Developtraining materialsto promoteconservation and utilizationof PGRFAat the local level. production in livestock of changes OBJECTIVES areaare: of this programme 14. or cross-breeding breedsubstitution DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE at the appropriatelevel and with the 14.(c) Prepare periodic state of the world reports on PGRFA. 14.in additionto their value. (d) Preparea rolling global cooperativeplan of action on PGRFA: (e) Promote. ttre specific sfategies and programmes decideuponfor implementation. Some local animal breeds. nology. (c) To establish and implement development protheir in orderto guarantee grammes breeds for indigenous survival. including about$300million from the internationalcomterms. have unique attributesfor adaptasocio-cultural resistance and specificusesand shouldbe tion.with the supat the appropriate 14. upofl.a.61The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$600 million.at the appropriatelevel. (b) Raisethe awareness of agriculturalextensionservices in order to link PGRFA activitieswith user communities.Actual costsand financial will depend terms.62 Governments. programme and begin a 1O-year to (b) To establish and implementaction programmes identify breedsat risk.including any that are non-concessional.the Fourth InternationalTechniUse and Sustainable on the Conservation cal Conference of PGRFA. AND zuSTAINABU UnUZATION H) CONSERVATION FOR RESOURCES OF ANIMAT GENETIC AGRICUTTURE SUSTAINABLE FOR ACTION BASIS MEANS ANDTECHNOI.molecular developments. in relationto sciences (d) Developfurtherconservation and technicalmeansto link it with in situ conservation ex situ conservationefforts. togetherwith the natureof the risk measures and appropriatepreservation . geneticsand in vitro cryopreservation.OGICAL 8' SC'ENTIFIC 14.66The objectives (a) To enumerate and describeall breedsof livestock in as broada way as possible usedin animalagriculture of action.includinglong-term legalaspects andstrengthen and imcollections fbr germplasm financialcommitments plementation of activitiesin PGRFA. disease by extincare threatened local breeds preserved. inter ali. tion and sustainable and (0 Adjust the Global Systemfor the Conservation Use of PGRFA in line with the outcome of Sustainable the negotiationsof a conventionon biological diversity' supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizationsshould: (a) Promote training programmesat both undergradfor sciences levelsin conservation uateandpost-graduate running PGRFA facilities and for the design and implementationof national programmesin PGRFA.should: (a) Develop basic science researchin such areas as plant taxonomy and phytogeography.for l994. known or neglected (c) Promote cost-effective technologies for keeping duplicatesetsof ex situ collections(which can also be usedby local communities).65The need for increasedquantity and quality of andfor draughtanimalscallsfor conseranimalproducts to meet vation of the existingdiversityof animalbreeds in biotechfor use those including future requirements. which is to adopt the first stateof the world report and the first global plan of action on the conservause of PGRFA. Govemments level. (b) Develop major collaborativeprojects betweenres ear c h pro g ra m m e si n d e v e l o p e d a n d devel opi ng countries.

(b) Plan and initiate breeddevelopmentstrategies. should: (a) Draw up breed preservationplans. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION 14. (c) Prepareand publish a comprehensive database of animal genetic resources. Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govemments. and relatedtechnicaland financial assistance.should: (a) Sponsortraining coursesfor nationalsto obtain the necessary expertisefor data collection and handling and for the sampling of geneticmaterial. C) 'NIERN. (b) Enable scientistsand managersto establishan information base for indigenous livestock breeds and promote programmesto develop and conserveessential livestockgeneticmaterial.Cryogenic and storage could be given priority over characterization evaluation. d e v e l o p ment of (including internamethodologies. followed by selection of an additionalcohort of indigenousbreedsfor development.preserve risk andothermaterialfrom which senes breedsat serious can be reconstructed. including the establishment watch list and an early warning systemfor endangered breeds. 125 .73Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.67 Governmentsat the appropriate level.farm-based conservation in situ preservation. upon. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 14.effective population size and a concise set of biological and production characteristics .69The appropriate United Nations and other international and regional agenciesshould: (a) Promotethe establishment of regional gene banks justified. Actual costs and financial will depend terms. inter alia.store and analyseanimal genetic data at of a world the global level. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. basedon principles to the extent that they are of technicalcooperationamong developingcountries. (c) Select indigenous populations on the basis of for a 1O-year regional importanceand geneticuniqueness. including semen/embryo collection and of indigenousstock or storage.70The Conference secretariathas estimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing to be about$200million. (b) Process. AND 'NFORMATTON B) DATA 14.global assessment of scientific and intergovernmental guidance of the programme and review of r egional and n a ti o n a l a c ti v i ti e s .ACTMTES ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED 14. where necessary. programme. the activitiesof this prograrnme including about $100 million from the internationalcommunity on grantor concessional terms. should prepare and complete national inventories of availableanimal geneticresources. should: (a) Establishin-country facilities for artificial insemination centresand in situbreedingfarms. its relationship with other breeds.68Governments at the appropriate level. its derivation.includingany thatarenon-concessional.AI/ON. (d) Prepareand publish a world watch list on farm to animal species at risk to enablenationalGovernments DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRFSOURCE 14. for endangered populations. the specific sftategiesand programmes Govemmentsdecideupon for implementation. tional agreements).describing each breed. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. AND REG/ONAI.72 Governmentsat the appropriate level. COOP ERAI'ONAND COORD'NAIION 14. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. (b) Using cryogenic storageof germplasm.should: (a) Use computer-based databanksand questionnaires to preparea global inventory/world watch list. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.AI. norms and standards monitoring of their implementation. Training of nationals in conservationand would be given specialattention. take action to preserveendangered breedsand to seek technical assistance. assessment techniques B/ SC/ENilFrC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 14J1 Governments at the appropriate level.

as it guaranteesyields. OBJECTIVES of this programmeareaare: 14.78AppropriateUnitedNationsagencies should: organizations (a) Establisha system for collecting. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. t hat ar e t oxi c a n d p e rs i s te n t. informadocumentand disseminate and organicpesticides. policies and action plans. AND TNFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14J7 Governmentsat the appropriate level. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. tion on biologicalcontrol agents as well as on traditionaland other relevantknowledge and skills regardingalternativenon-chemicalways of controllingpests. AND REG/ONAL c/ .for example.75The objectives (a) Not later than the year 2000. ACTIVITIES IVITI ES ACT ELATED A) MANAGFMENI-R 14.and also undertakeappropriateeducation. reducescosts. breed are when breeds preventive action to take capacities endangered.14World food demand projections indicate an increaseof 50 per cent by the year 2000 which will more put estimates thandoubleagainby 2050.pesticidepricing. and appropriatefarming control.76Governments at the appropriate level. to establish and and interactivenetworksamongfarmers. AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION andregional 14. trade. (d) Ensure that pesticide labels provide farmers with information about safe handling. Intewhich combinesbiological gratedpest management. restricted bannedor severely (b) Consolidate. (q) Encourage research and development into pesticides that are target-specificand readily degradeinto harmlessconstituentparts after use. to improve and andanimalhealthservices. analysingand data on the quantity and quality of pestdisseminating icides usedevery year and their impact on humairhealth and the environment. is environmentallyfriendly and conof agriculture. (b) Strengthenregional interdisciplinary projects and 126 .researchers pest integrated to promoteanddevelop services extension management. Code of C o n d u c t o n th e D i s tri b u ti o n and U se of P es t ic ide s : (b) To improve and implement programmes to put practiceswithin the reach integratedpest-management of farmers through farmer networks. integratedpest-management (b) Develop and adopt efficient managementsystems to control and monitor the incidenceof pestsand disease in agriculture and the distribution and use of pesticides at the country level. implementplantprotection to control the distributionand including mechanisms and to implementthe International use of pesticides. host plant resistance is the practicesand minimizes the use of pesticides. (c) Undertakenational surveys to establishbaseline information on the useof pesticidesin eachcountry and the side-effectson human health and environment.but its overusehas adverseeffects on farm budgets. ftTANAGEfrlENT PEST rl TNTEGRATED AND CONTROLIN AGRICUTTURE ACTION BASIS FOR 14. and research operational (c) Not laterthantheyear 1998.extensionservices institutions.(b) Promotein-country programmes and relatedphystlivestock conservationand for animal infrastructure cal national for strengthening well as as development.Integrated tributesto the sustainability pest management shouldgo hand in hand with appropriate pesticide managementto allow for pesticide regulation and control. New pest problemscontinueto develop.should: (a) Consolidateand harmonize existing information that havebeen on the useof pesticides and programmes in differentcountries. pest use of pesticides price-structure of inputsandoutputsand controlbrigades.human as well as on international healthand the environment. appliunderstandable cation and disposal.includingtrade.Conservative lossescausedby pests pre-harvestand post-harvest between 25 and 50 per cent. Pests affecting animal health also cause heavy losses and in many areas preventlivestockdevelopment. Chemical control of agricultural pests has dominated the scene.andfor the safe particularlythose handlingand disposalof pesticides. best option for the future.should: (a) Review and reform national policies and the mechanisms that would ensurethe safe and appropriate .NTERNAilONAT.

82Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. (c) To develop andmakeavailable national andintemational know-how to farmers. ratesexceed3 per cent a year. rese archers. BASIS FOR ACTION 14. ln these countries the goal should be to increaseagricultural production 4 percenta year.adapted plant nutrientsand soil enrichtools and technologies. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations. ment will all be essential. nutrient output from al l sources i nputs by currentl yexceeds a factor of three or four.BUILDING 14. To mai ntai nsoi l productivit y. more margi nall andsand fragi l e naturalecosyst em s are put under agri cul turaluse. non-govemmentalorganization s and farmers . with the supportof the relevantintemational and regionalorganizations.physicaland culturalcontrols. the net loss being estimated a t s o m e l 0 m i l l i o n m e t r i ct o n sp e r y e a r . (b) N ot l ater than the year 2000.81Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. l and degradati on and otherenvi ronmental The i ntegratedpl ant nutri ti on approachai ms at ensuri ng a sustai nabl esuppl y of pl ant nutri ents t o i ncrease future yi el ds w i thout harmi ng the envir onment and soi l producti vi ty. the specific strategies and programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. thus creati ngfurt her probl em s. tions and regulatorybodiesin the control of pesticides and the transferof technologyfor integrated pestmanagement. dependupon. particularlyin devel opi ngcountri es. economic and environmental benefitsof IPM for food and cashcrops in agriculture.85The objectives of this programmeareaare: (a) Not later than the year 2000. with the supportof the relevantintemational and regionalorganizations.and nationalagricultural production has fallen behind food demand. inter alia.withoutdestroying by at least the soil fertility. This will requireincreasing agricultural productionin high-potential areasthroughefficiencyin the useof inputs.to developand maintain in all countriesthe integratedplant nutrition approach. OBJECTIVES 14. D) CAPACITY.energysupply.83 P l ant nutri ent depl eti oni s a seri ousproblem resulting in loss of soil fertility. as well as chemicalcontrols. and policy makerscln envirclnmentally sound new and existing technologiesand soil-fertility management strategi es for appl i cati oni n promoti ng sustai nable agriculture.shouldlaunch on-farm research in the development of non-chemicalalternativepestmanagement technologies.extension planners agents.includingany that are non-concessional. the FAO sustainable plant nutrition programmes coul d be hel pful . In sub-S aharan A fri ca. (b) Train extensionagentsand involve farmers and women's groups in crop health and altemative nonchemicalways of controllingpestsin agriculture. Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms. PrANT NUTRTTTON TO J) SUSTATNABTE INCREASE FOOD PRODUCTION MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 14. includingabout$285million from theinternational qommunity on grantor concessional terms. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 14.should strengthen nationalpublic administra- 127 . 8/ SC'ENilFrC AND TECHNOTOG\CAL MEANS 14. to inform policy makers.A s a r e s u l t .(IPM) networksto establishintegratedpestmanagement demonstratethe social. comprisingthe selectionof the variety of biological. 14.9billion.taking into accountspecific regionalconditions.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not beenreviewedby Governments. Trainedlabour. (c) Develop proper IPM.80Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. andto optimizeavailabilityof fertilizerandother plant nutrientsources.79The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programme to be about$ 1. should: (a) Prepare and conduct training programmes on approachesand techniquesfor integratedpest management and control of pesticideuse.84In many developing populationgrowth countries. to establ i shand mai ntai n i nsti tuti onaland human i nfrastructur e to enhanceeffecti ve deci si on-maki ng on soi l prod uctivity.

89The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing 128 .inter alia. the activitiesof this programme to be about$3.topsoil produced from discardedorganicmatterand biological nitrogen fixation. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.90Governments at the appropriate level. such as FAO. the internationalagriculturalresearch institutes.recycling. improvedin sirabiomass production techniques.in(inputs)andlosses (outputs) cludingsupplies andprepare balancesheetsand projectionsby cropping systems. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. Actual costsand financialterms. (b) Integrate organic and inorganic sourcesof plant nutrientsin a systemto sustainsoil fertility anddetermine mineral fertilizer needs.exteninteractiveprocessinvolving farmers. sion services and other sectors of society. C/ /NTERNAI'ONAT AND REGIONAI. (b) Where appropriate.92 Governmentsat the appropriate level.87Governments at the appropriate level. and in economicevaluationof plant nutrientimpact. c) HUTAAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 14. including about$475 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.includingany thatarenon-concessional. with the supportof the relevantinternational and regionalorganizations.88The appropriate United Nations agencies.should: (a) Develop suitable institutional mechanismsfor policy formulationto monitor andguidethe implementation of integrated plant nutritionprogrammes throughan .and non-governmental organizations shouldcollaboratein carout information publicity and campaignsabout the rying integrated plant nutrients approach. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations.plant growth and humanhealth. croppingsystems andfarmingsystems. including nationaldeposits.ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-R ELATED ACTIVIT IE S 14. (b) Review technicaland economicpotentialsof plant nutrient sources.AND COORD/NAI/ON 14.without harming the environment.Theseare indicativeandorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhave not been reviewedby Gclvernments.2 billion. (b) Reinforce interdisciplinary international research and transferof technologyin cropping and farming systemsresearch.91Governments at the appropriate level. will depend upon. wastes. B) DATAAND /NFORMAI/ON 14.develop andtestnewtechnologies MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A) F'NANCING AND COSI EVALUATTON 14. (b) Trainfarmers andwomen'sgroupsin plantnutrition management.research.86Governments at the appropriate level. B/ SC/EN|FIC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 14.as appropriate. (c) Determine plant nutrient requirementsand supply strategiesand optimize the use of both organic and inorganic sources.efficiency of soil productivity and their relationshipto the environment.should: (a) Formulate and apply strategiesthat will enhance soil fertility maintenance to meetsustainable agricultural production and adjust the relevant agricultural policy instrumentsaccordingly. strengthenexisting advisory services andtrainstaff. improved organic supplies.should: (a) Assess"national accounts"for plant nutrients. organic residue managementand agroforestry technologies.should: (a) Train extensionofficers and researchers in plant nutrientmanagement. COOPERAI/ON.the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 14.should: (a) Develop site-specifictechnologies at benchmark sites and farmers' fields that fit prevailing socio-economic and ecological conditions through researchthat involvesthe full collaboration of local populations.to increasefarming effi ciency and production. with special emphasis on topsoilconservation and production. (d) Develop andencourage processes for the recyclingof organicand inorganicwasteinto the soil structure.

94The objectives (a) Not later than the year 2000.the specificsfrategies grafflmesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation. drawingon theexperience regionalorganizations and available information of non-governmentalorganizations in this field.) supply energy demandand AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA 14. for efficient useand environmentally ACTION FOR BASIS 14. agriculture (b) Analyse sectoral energy and production data in order to identify rural energyrequirements.99Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. of elec(a) Promote pilot plansandprojects consisting biomass. agricultural ensures sustainable areasprovide energy suppliesin the form of wood.wind-pumpsand combustionsystems) are appropriateand likely to be adequatelymaintained. is far energy. improved energy MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING 14. maintain full productivity TO TRANSTTTON K) RURArENERGY PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCE (b) Initiate and promoterural energyprogrammes supported by technical training. To thisend.95Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. will cial terms. and appropriatetechnology favouring (c) To implementself-reliantruralprogrammes sources and renewable energy of development sustainable efficiency. banking and relatedinfrastructure. The attainment of from being realized.the chief sources with animal and human manure. with the supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorganshould: izations. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. (c) Intensify researchand the development. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. MEANs AND TECHNOLOGTCAL 8/ SC/ENr/F'C 14.8billion.mechanical that solar driers. The full potential of agricultureand agroforestry. and prodepend upon. ACTIVITIES IVIT IE S ACT ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R 14.93 Energy suppliesin many countries are not commensuratewith their developmentneedsand are highly priced and unstable. exchangecountry and regional experienceon rural energy planning methodologiesin order to promoteefficient planningand selectcost-effective technologies. productivity of human labour and for incomeincreased generation.Theseareindicaonly and havenot tive and order-of-magnitude estimates Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments.includingany that are non-concessional. andthermalpower(gasifiers. the activitiesof this programme comincludingabout$265million from theinternational munity on grantor concessional terms. trical. from unsustainable communities.ruralenergypoliciesandtechnolfossil and ogies shouldpromotea mix of cost-effective and itself sustainable is that sources renewableenergy Rural development. together residuesand inputs are required for energy More intensive energy. making available by energy sources tured and diversified of energy. crop countries. AND REG'ONAL c/ /NTERNAT/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 14. should: 129 .96Governments at the appropriate level. inter alict.to upgrade and of practices and facilitatethe adoption of theland. alternativenew and renewablesources (b) To increasethe energy inputs available for rural needsthrough planning householdand agro-industrial transfer and development. OBJECTIVES areaare: of this programme 14.as well as as sourcesof renewable common property resources. households.diversificaneed of energy.97The appropriate United Nations agenciesand should. In rural areasof the developing of energyarefuelwood. linked with is intimately rural development sustainable patterns.to initiate andencourage soundenergytransitionin rural of environmentally a process to strucenergysources. takinginto accountthe tion andconservation sound technology.98The Conference secretariathas estimated the of implementing averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) to be about$ 1.should: (a) Collect and disseminate dataon rural energysupply and demand patterns related to energy needs for and agro-industry.

(a) Intensify public and private sector researchin developingand industrializedcountrieson renewable sourcesof energyfor agriculture.Consequently. in in this progromme oreo ore presented of the issues poverty). the village and household (b) Strengthenextension services and local organfornew and andprogrammes to implementplans izations renewablesourcesof energy at the village level.Govemmentsat the appropriate level. (b) Undertakeresearch and transferof energytechnologiesin biomassand solarenergyto agriculturalproducactivities.102The increaseof ultraviolet radiation as a conseozone layer quenceof the depletionof the stratospheric is a phenomenonthat has been recorded in different regions of the world. with the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organpublic awareness of rural energy izations. OF UITRAVIOLET tl EvAruATloN oF rHE EFFECTS RADIATIONON PtANNi AND ANIMATS CAUSED OF ITIE STRATOSPHERIC BY THE DEPTETION OZONE IAYER FOR ACTION BASIS 14. 14. and considertaking appropriateremedialmeasures.l0l Governments supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organizations. with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations. as well as on sustainable agriculturaldevelopment. copocity$uilding in chopter lO (lntegroted ore presented of the issues of londresources). and to develop. and evaluationregarding the implementationof research ultraviolet radiationon plant and the effectsof enhanced animal life.103The objective take research to determine the effects of increased ozone ultraviolet radiation resulting from stratospheric layer depletion on the Earth's surface. tion and post-harvest animal life in affectedregions. to lhe plonning ond monogement opprooch 4The oreo ore relotedto someof the octivities of thisprogromme diversity).should take the necessary through institutionalcooperation.shouldenhance the economicand environmentaladproblems. with the at the appropriate l4. chopter3 (Comboting in chopter 8 in thisprogromme oreoore discussed of theissues in decision-moking) ond in (lntegroting ond development environmeni for cooperotion mechonisms ond internoiionol chopter32 (Notionol in developing countries).as well as its impact on agriculture.to facilitate measures.and on plant and r30 . in chopter9 (Protection ociivities 3sor" 2sor" 1 'Some OBJECTIVE areais to underof this programme 14. as well as on agricultural activities. fects on plant and animal life. particularly in the southernhemiit is important to evaluateits efsphere. ACTIVITIES IES IVIT MAN AGEM ENI-RET ATED ACT DEVELOPMENT c) HUMANRESOURCE 14. D) CAPACITY-BUtLD\NG level. strategies aimed at mitigating its adverseeffects. of biologicol in chopter15 (Conservotion octivities 5The oreo ore reloiedto someof the octivities of thisprogromme of the otmosphere).stressing vantagesof renewableenergy sources. as appropriate.should: (a) Establish national institutional mechanismsfor that would imrural energy planning and management prove efficiency in agricultural productivity and reach level.100Governmentsat the appropriatelevel.104In affectedregions.

botanicalgardens. clothe us and provide housing.with the widestpossible pation. lakes and seascontain most of the Earth's biodiversity.the private sector and financial institutions.4 Governments at the appropriate level.1 The objectivesand activities in this chapter of Agenda 2l are intendedto improve the conservationof useof biological biologicaldiversityand the sustainable resources. with the cooperationof the relevant United Nations bodies and regional. P R C G R A M MA ER E A OBJECTIVES CONSERVATION OF BIOTOGICALD]VERSITY 15.medicinesand spiritual The naturalecosystems of forests.as well as the responsibilityto conservetheir biodiversityand use their biological resources sustainably. to the sustainablemanagementand use of biological resources. Recent advancesin biotechnology have pointed up the likely potential for agriculture. and taking into considerationindigenouspeople and their communities. tundras. Biological resourcesfeed and tions and ecosystems.and to ensurethat activitieswithin their jurisdiction or control do not causedamageto the biological diversity of other Statesor of areasbeyond the limits of national jurisdiction.3 Despitemounting efforts over the past 20 years. The currentdeclinein biodiversity is largely the result of human activity and represents a seriousthreatto human development. species andecosystems. deserts.animalsandmicro-organisms.Urgentanddecisiveactionis needed with a view andmaintaingenes.should: (a) Press forthe early entry into force of the Convention particion BiologicalDiversity. the lossof the world's biologicaldiversity. and other germplasmrepositoriesmake a small but significant contribution. in plants.mainly from pollution and the habitat destruction. forthe assessment. intergovernmentaland non-governmental organizations. studyandsysteCapacities matic observationand evaluationof biodiversity needto be reinforced at national and internationallevels. as well as social and economic factors. over-harvesting. it is particularly important in this context to stressthat States have the sovereign right to exploit their own biological resources pursuant to their environmental policies. as well as to supportthe Conventionon Biological Diversity.The particifor the enhancement of ecosystem pation and support of local communities are elements essential to the successof such an approach.savannourishment. to conserve benefits.health and welfare and for the environmentalpurposes of the geneticmaterialcontained At the sametime. Biologicalresources asset with great potential for yielding sustainable r3r . Farmers'fields and gardensare also of greatimportance while genebanks. goodsand services 15. for the ex and situ conservation of biological and geneticresources functions. nahs.Effective national action and internationalcooperationis required for the in situ protectionof ecosystems.t5 diversity Conservotion of biologicol INTRODUCTION 15.rivers.species.pastures and rangelands.2 Our planet'sessential depend populaon the variety and variability of genes. constitute a capital hascontinued. BASIS FOR ACTION 15. introduction inappropriate of foreignplantsand animals. zoos asrepositories.

with the cooperation of therelevantUnitedNationsbodiesand. The work should be undertakenwith the 132 . taking account of education and trainingneeds. suchas traditionalmethodsof agriculture. agroforestry. with a view to the fair and equitablesharing of the benefitsarising.particularlyto developing countries.and socialbehaviourand nutrition habits dependenton natural ecosystems. sources. (c) Integrate strategies for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources into national development strategiesand/or plans. identify processes andactivitieswith significant impactsupon biological diversity. and suggest priority action. and ensure the opportunity for the participation of those groups in the economicand commercial benefitsderived from the useof suchtraditionalmethodsand knowledgell (h) Implement mechanismsfor the improvement.2'3 ACTIVITIES A) MANAGFMENT-R ELATED ACTtVtTtE S 15. intergovernmental organizations and. includinganalyses of relevant costs and benefits. emphasizingthe particular role of women. take action to respect. taking account the potential contribution of biotechnology to theconservation of biologicaldiversity and the sustainable useof biologicalresources.cultivated andculturedspecies. including biotechnology.with the supportof indigenouspeople and their communities. (d) Takeappropriate measures for the fair andequitable sharing of benefits derived from researchand development anduseof biologicalandgenetic resources. (g) Recognizeand foster the traditional methods and the knowledge of indigenouspeople and their communities. as definedin the Conventionon Biological Diversity. new observationand inventory techniques.non-governmental organizations and other groups.s (e) Subject to national legislation. relevantto the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources. () Develop measures and arrangements to implement the rights of countriesof origin of geneticresources or countriesproviding geneticresources.protectandpromotethe widerapplication of the knowledge. particularly developing countries. including women.between the sourcesof those resources and thosewho usethem. and promotemechanisms to involve thosecommunities. (d) Takeeffectiveeconomic.forestry.2 (i) Promotebroaderinternationaland regionalcooperation in furtheringscientificandeconomicunderstanding of the importanceof biodiversity and its functions in ecosystems.in the conservation and management of ' ecosystems.(b) Develop national strategies for the conservationof biologicaldiversityand the sustainable useof biological resources. including the promotion of sustainable production systems.which use.with particularreference to the special importanceof terrestrialand aquatic biological and geneticresources for food and agriculture.consistent with nationalpoliciesandpractices.resources. ecological conditionsnecessary for biodiversityconservation and continuedevolution.innovationsand practicesof indigenous and local communitiesembodyingtraditional lifestylesfor the conservation of biologicaldiversityandthe sustainable useof biologicalresources.maintainor increase biodiversity. includingnative. ( 0 P r odu c e re g u l a rl y u p d a te d w o rl d reports on biodiversitybasedupon nationalassessments. with particular reference to the biology and reproductive capacities of key terrestrial and aquatic species. as appropriate: (a) Developnewor strengthen existingstrategies. range and wildlife management. development and sustainable useof biotechnology and its safe transfer.as appropriate.socialandotherappropriate incentive measures to encourage the conservationof biologicaldiversityand the sustainable useof biological resources.5 Governments at the appropriate levels.asappropriate. plans or programmesof action for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources.evaluatethe potential economicimplicationsof the conservation of biological diversityandthe sustainable useof biologicalandgenetic resources. to benefitfrom the biotechnological developmentand the commercial utilization of productsderivedfrom suchresources. andconsistent with the requirementsclf internationallaw. including the business and scientificcommunities. (e) Carry out country studies.programmes andpolicies. environmental services andothervaluessuppoftingsustainable development. where women play key roles.s (c) Undertakecountry studiesor use other methodsto identify components of biological diversity importantfor its conservation and for the sustainable useof biological ascribevalues to biological and geneticre. record. on the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable useof biologicalresources. (0 Undertakelong-term researchinto the importance of biodiversityfor the functioningof ecosystems and the role of ecosystems in producing goods. should.a (b) Integratestrategies for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainableuse of biological and geneticresources into relevantsectoralor cross-sectoral plans. generation.with particularreferenceto socioeconomicaspects.

as manifestedboth in its componentparts and provided. including the mental organrzatrons with andscientificcommunities.and. local and indigenous (d) Identify and evaluatethe potential economic and social implications and benefitsof the conservation and sustainable use of terrestrialand aquaticspeciesin each country. 0) Promote environmentally sound attd sustainable developmentin areasadjacentto protectedareaswith a view to furtheringprotectionof theseareas. with the cooperationof the relevant United Nations bodies and. ( k ) I nt r oduc e a p p ro p ri a tee n v i ro n me n ta li mpact procedures fbr proposedprojectslikely to assessment have significant impacts upon biological diversity. regulation or management and control systemsrelatedto biological level. (0 Collect. endangered (i) Develop policiesto encourage the conservation of use of biological and biodiversity and the sustainable geneticresources on privatelands.widest possibleparticipation. of the impactsof relevant the assessment and encourage policiesand programmes on biologicaldiversity. coral reefsand mangroves. consistent 15. andconsistent business law.coastaland marine ecosystems. non-governmentalorganizationsand other groups. vulnerable and embrace.l (g) Take action where necessary for the conservation of of biological diversity through the in silu conservation and natural habitats. in terrestrial.In situ measures should include the reinforcement of terrestrial. and other groups. preferablyin the sourcecountry.as appropriate: (a) Considerthe establishment or strengthening of national or internationalcapabilitiesand networks for the exchange of data and information of relevanceto the conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological and geneticresources. as well as inventoriesundertakenwith the participationof peopleand their communities. should. availableandfor publi c participation. COOPERAI'ONA ND COORDINAIION 15. and implementex situ measures. the transfer of technology and/or development of research and managementfacilities.and the maintenance and recovery of viable populationsof speciesin their naturalsurroundings. intergovernmental organizations.asappropriate. assess and make available relevant and reliable information in a timely manner and in a form suitable for decision-makingat all levels. with the suppofi of indigenous people and their communities.aquatic.the establishment and strengtheningof national inventory.as approof international the requirements priate:7 (a) Regularly'collate. andwith the support of non-governindigenouspeopleand their cclmmunities. should.7 Governments at the appropriate level. evaluate and exchange informaof bioiogical diversity and the tion on the conserl'ation useof bioloeical resources: sustainable r33 .7 (b) Produceregularlyupdatedworld reportson biodiversity based uponnationalassessments in all counties.building upon the resultsof country studies.6 Governments at the appropriate with nationalpoliciesandpractices. and laboratories. (c) Promotetechnicaland scientific cooperationin the field of conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources. (e) Undertakethe updating. such as herbaria.related to the conservation of biodiversitv:8 B) DATA AND INFORMAI/ON level. areasystems andcoastal ecosystems. providing fbr suitableinformation to be made widely whereappropriate.gene banks. (l) Promote. sampling and evaluationactivities describedabove.analysisand interpretation of data derived from the identification.o (h) Promote the rehabilitation and restoration of and and the recoveryof threatened damagedecosystems species. museums. resources.especiallyof indigenous peopleand their communities. (c) Initiate or further developmethodologies andbegin or continue work on surveysat the appropriatelevel on the statusof ecosystems and establishbaselineinformaincluding those tion on biological and geneticresources. intergovemmental organizations. including the businessand scientific communities. with the cooperation of therelevant UnitedNationsbodiesand. Specialattentionshouldbe given to the development and strengthening of nationalcapabilitiesby meansof human resource including development andinstitution-building. at the appropnate (m) Take measuresto encourage a greater understanding and appreciationof the value of biological diversity. CI /NIERNAIIONAI. as appropriate.marineand aquatic protected inter alia. includingwomen. such freshwater andotherwetlands as estuaries.and consistent with the requirements of internationallaw. with the full suppoftand participationof local and indigenouspeople and their communities.as well as primitive ecosystems cultivars and their wild relatives.where appropriate. in the ecosystem services (b) Develop methodologies with a view to undertaking systematicsampling and evaluationon a national basis of the componentsof biological diversity identified by meansof country studies. AND REG'ONAI.

and recogenvironment. datacollection.10Thereis a need. especially in developing countries. at the appropriatelevel. as well as for the systematic samplingand of biological resources.8 The Conference hasestimated secretariat theaverage total annualcost ( 1993-2000) of implementingthe activitiesof this chapterto be about$3. business ente{prises and lending institutions. sampling and evaluation. 8 includesbiotechnology. (g) Promote irnproved internationalcoordinationof measures fclrthe effectiveconservation andmanagement of endangered/non-pest migratory species. development (d) Enhancethe capacity of governmentaland private institutions. for integrating biodiversityconpotential cerns.11Thereis a need. thesetopicsin educational MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 15.whereappropriate. (b) Continueto build capacityfor the conservation of biologicaldiversityand the sustainable useof biological resources in all relevantsectors. to: (a) Strengthenexisting institutions and/or establish new onesresponsible for the conservation of biological diversityandto considerthe development of mechanisms suchas nationalbiodiversityinstitutes or centres. Theseareindicativeand on grantor concessional order-of-rnagnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewedby Governments.9 Specificaspects to be addressed to develop: (a) Efficient methodologies for baselinesurveysand inventories.5 billion. business enterprisesand bilateral and multilateral development agencies. to: (a) Increase the numberand/ormakemore efficient use of trainedpersonnel in scientificand technologicalfields relevant to the conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable useof biologicalresources. implementationand evaluation processesr aswell asfor evaluating theimpacton biological diversityof proposed projects. on measures of biologicaldi versity for theidentification.conservation and the sustainable useof biologicalresources. responsiblefor protected area planning and managementto undertake intersectoralcoordination and planning with other governmental institutions. the inclusionof and promoteandencourage programmes. benefits andopportunity costcalculations into project design. peopleand indigenous their communities.OG\C MFA AL N S includethe need l-5. DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE 15. (c) Build capacity. inter alia. non-governmentalorganizationsand. 8/ S C' F N IF tC A N D T EC H N O T .including levels of supportfor the establishment and appropriate managementof protectedareasin transboundarylocat ions : (h) Promotenational efforts with respectto surveys. Actual costsand financial will terms. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideuponfor implementation. (c) Promote and encourageunderstandingof the importanceof the measures required for the conservation of biologicaldiversityandthe sustainable useof biological resources at all policy-making and decision-making levelsin Governments. and the maintenance of genebanks.75billion from the international community terms. especially within Governments. where appropriate. including any that are non-concessional. evaluation (b) Methodsand technologies for the conservation of diversity andthe sustainable biological useof biological resources: 134 . (b) Maintain or establish programmes for scientificand technicaleducationand training of managers andprofessionals. dependupon.whereappropriate.2' nizing that technology (e) Promotecooperation betweenthepartiesto relevant internationalconventionsand action plans rn'iththe aim of strengtheningand coordinating efforts to conserve useof biological biologicaldiversityand the sustainable resources: (0 Strengthensupport for international and regional instruments. facilitate for this relevantto the conchapterthe transferof technologies use servation of biologicaldiversityand the sustainable that makeuseof of biologicalresources or technologies geneticresources no significant to the andcause damage in conformity with chapter34. (c) Improved and diversified methodsfor ex situ conservationwith a view to the long-term conservationof genetic resources of importance for research and development.programmesand action plans concerned with the conservationof biological diversity and'the sustainable useof biologicalresources. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 15. including aboutS1.(d) Without prejudiceto the relevantprovisionsof the Conventionon Biological Diversity.

choprer 34 (Tronsfer ond copocity-building). troining). 2See monogement of biotechsound choptrr16 {Environmentolly nology).the role of ond strengthening chopter26 (Recognizing 24 (Globol people ondchopter indigenous ondtheir communities) ond equilobledevelop oction for women towords sustoinoble ment). or tokenfrom of bothwild ond domesticoted which moy or moy not hove originotedin thot ex situsources. ogriculture ond rurol chopter14 (Promoting sustoinoble development) ond chopter1 I (Comboting deforestotion). populotions species. 6See chopter17 {Protection of the oceons. oreos including ond semi-enclosed seos.ond coostol enclosed rotionol useond development of theirliving ond the protection.l" rsee 4See chopter36 {Promoting publicoworeness ond educotion. Diversity on Biologicol 2 (Use of terms) of theConvention includes thefollowing definitions: "Country which meons thecountry of originof geneticresources" in in situ conditions. 3Arti. oll kindsof seos. possesses those geneticresources "Countryproviding meons thecountrysupplygenetic resources" including ing geneiic resources collectedfrom in sifu sources. cooperotion 5See i35 . resources). chopter 40 (lnformotion SSee of environmentolly soundtechnology. ZSee for decision-moking). country.

in plants. FEED AND RENEWABTE RAW }IATERIALIi BASIS FOR ACTION 16. or genetic material. Nevertheless. especially in the developingworld. in modern biotechnologyhas been in the industrialized and human resource world. nologies. mechanisms (e) Establishingenablingmechanisms for the development and the environmentally sound application of biotechnology. (d) Enhancing safety and developing international for cooperation. especiallywithin developingcountries.By itself. improved supplies of potable water. r36 . the challengeis not only to increase food supply.1A I \.l of sustainable so thatthey servethe needs of those Biotechnologycan assistin the conservation techniques. enhancedfood security through sustainableagricultural practices. (c) Enhancingprotectionof the environment. for bringing about field.ex sitr.but also to improve food distribution significantly while simultaneously developingmore sustainaproducble agriculturalsystems.Biotechnology.e s p e c i a l l y b e t w e e n t h e (which include countriesrich in biological resources andinvestgeneticresources) but lackingthe expertise throughbiotechmentsneededto apply suchresources nology and the countriesthat have developedthe technological expertiseto transformbiological resources development. Much of this increased tivity will need to take place in developingcountries.2 To meet the growing consumption needs of the global population.through the following activities: (a) Increasingthe availability of food. feed and renewable raw materials: (b) Improving human health. better health care.to ronmentally sound management engenderpublic trust and confidence. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S Al TNGREASTNG THEAVAttABtUW OF FOOD.r resources programmeareassetout below seekto fosterinternationally agreedprinciplesto be appliedto ensurethe enviof biotechnology. contribution in enabling the development of.to promote the of sustainable applications of biotechnoldevelopment ogy and to establishappropriateenabling mechanisms.supportfor sustainable and detoxification of hazardous tion and reforestation.. more efficient industrial d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e sf o r t r a n s f o r m i n g r a w methodsof afforestamaterials. wastes.so expectationsneed to be temperedby it promises to makea significant realism. Significantnew investments development will be required in biotechnology.Biotechnology also offers new opportunities f o r g l o b a l p a r t n e r s h i p s .l Biotechnology niquesemergingfrom modern biotechnologywith the of traditional biotechnolwell-established approaches knowledge-intensive an emerging ogy. for example.in the environmentandinhumanhealth Mostof theinvestment care.The through. biotechnologycannot resolveall the fundamental problems of environment and development.for example. monogement sound Environmentolly of biotechnology INTRODUCTION is the integration of the new techl6.It will require the successful and environmentally safe applicationof biotechnologyin agriculture. is a set of enablingtechniques specific man-madechangesin deoxyribonucleicacid (DNA). animals and leadingto useful productsand techmicrobial systems.

with due regardto the prior identification of desiredcharacteristics before modification.and aquaculture of modernbiotechnology using the combinedresources imand conventional plant/animal/micro-organism provement. impactsof modificationsandtheneedtopromotesustainpayingparticular able socialandeconomicdevelopment. (e) Increasethe efficiency of symbiotic processes that agriculturalproduction. (g) To improve capabilitiesin basic and applied sciof complex interdiscipliencesand in the management projects. outputto achievefood agricultural to enhance sustainable securiry. animal and microbial germ plasmby applying risk procedures. to ensure product yields should similarly be increased. outputby sfengthening sustainable agricultural 0 ) Promote the capacityand scopeof existingresearch and broadening throughencourthenecessary criticalmass centres to achieve into the developmentof andmonitoringof research agement biologicalproducts andprocesses of productiveandenvironwhile mentalvaluettratareeconomically andsociallyfeasible. feed and raw materials by improving the nutritional of the sourcecrops.especiallyfor fuel wood. (0 To increasethe efficiency of nitrogen fixation and with of higherplants by the symbiosis mineralabsorption micro-organisms.3 The following objectives mind the need to promote the use of appropriatesafety measures basedon programmeareaD: (a) To increase extenttheyield to the optimumpossible by species.disease and (c) To increase the use of integrated crop managementtechniquesto eliminate overdepenenvirontherebyencouraging denceon agrochemicals.nutritional quality and shelflife of food and animal feed products. of major crops.with effortsincludlosses. including imassessment and management proved diagnostictechniquesfor detectionof pestsand diseases by better methodsof rapid propagation. where appropriate. and developrapid propagation methodsto aid their wider dissemination and use.particularly in developingcountries.6 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Considerationof comparative assessments of the potential of the different technologiesfor food produc- 137 .rearinghealthy animalsand protectingforest geneticresources.OBJECTIVES keepingin areproposed. pest. 16. into account. taking safetyconsiderations (k) Promote the integration of appropriateand traditional biotechnologiesfor the purposesof cultivating geneticallymodified plants.4 Governments atthe appropriate and with and regionalorganizations tanceof international organizations. (i) Evaluate the use of various biotechnology techniques to improve the yields of fish. to diseases (c) Develop plant cultivars tolerant and/or resistantto and from stressfrom factors such as pestsand diseases abioticcauses. (g) Develop improved diagnostictechniquesand vacand for cines for the prevention and spreadof diseases rapid assessment of toxins or infectious organismsin productsfor human use or livestock feed.with theassis16.including the more diverseuse of genetic both hybrid and original. feed and renewableraw materialsproduction. attentionto how the useof biotechnologywill impact on of environmentalintegrity. (l) Develop processesto increasethe availability of materials derived from biotechnology for use in food.Efforts shouldbe contion and reforestation centratedon speciesand productsthat are grown in and are of value particularly for developingcountries.animalsand value (composition) lossesof and to reducepost-harvest micro-organisms.systems allowing for productivityincreases. algal and other aquaticspecies. assistsustainable (0 Facilitate the conservationand safe exchange of plant. (d) Promotethe use of underutilizedcrops of possible future importance for human nutrition and industrial supply of raw materials. mentaily sustainable (d) To evaluatethe agricultural potential of marginal lands in comparison with other potential uses and to develop. taking into account the needs of culturalandenvironmental farmers. ing work on pre.and post-harvest (b) Furtherdevelopresistance and pests. the maintenance theseentitiesshould: 16. sectorand academic proveboth plant and animalbreedingand micro-organisms throughthe useof traditionalandmodernbiotechnologies.5 More specifically.' the sustainable (b) To reducethe need for volume increases of food. (h) Identify more productive strains of fast-growing trees. nary research ACNVMES ACT IVIT IES ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R level. the socio-economic.' Forest material resources. plant and animalproducts. (a) Improve productivity. the private the supportof non-govemmental shouldimand scientificinstitutions. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 16. livestock. both for increasing yields and more efficient utilization of forestproductsandfor improving afforestatechniques. useof forests. agricultural practices. sustainable (e) To expand the applicationsof biotechnologyin forestry.

rights associated with intellectual property and informal innovations. (b) Promotion of collaborative researchprogrammes.Emphasisshould be given to encouraging collaboration between andtrainingof scientists. Creatingawareness of the benefitsand risks of biotechnology is essential. continuing programmes of formal training for scientists should include managerial training. 7 . especiallyin developingcountries. (d) Acceleration of technology acquisition. (b) Examination of the implicationsof the withdrawal of subsidiesand the possible use of other economic to reflectthe environmental costsassociated instruments with the unsustainable use of agrochemicals. planningandadministrative capacities atthenational level to supportthe activitiesin this programmearea. adaptation by developingcountriesto supportnational activities that promote food security. benefitsof biotechnology. scientific. workers)is one technicalstaff and extension of the most essentialcomponentsof any programmeof this kind.10Insti tuti onal upgradi ng or other appr opr iat e measures will be needed manageto build up technical.transfer and adaptationby developing countries to support national activities fhat promote food security. will dependupon. 138 .7 Governments at the appropriate level.with particularreference peopleandtheir with local andindigenous to cooperation of biological diversity communitiesin the conservation useof biologicalresources.the possible tion. aswell asthe and sustainable fostering of traditional methodsand knowledge of such groupsin connection with theseactivities. taking accountof ethical considerations.technicaland t'inancial adequate assistance to facilitate technicalcooperation and raise the capacities of the developingcountries. within the contextof specific projects.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERATION 16. * S e ep o r o g r o p h1 s6 . inter alia. 6 o n d 1 6 . c/ TNTERNAT/ONAr. with the support of relevant international and regional organizations. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 16. through the for substantial and sustainable development of systems productivity increases that do not damageor endanger a localccosystems: (d) Development of appropriate safety procedures basedon programmearea D.ProgrammeareaE contains further details. the specific strategies and programmesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation. Training programmes shouldalsobe developed. AND REGTONAT. Such measures should be backed up by intemational. Additionally"specialconsideration shouldbe given to the execution of programmesfor training and exchangeof knowledgeon traditionalbiotechnologies and for training on safetyprocedures. rial. to supportactivities outlinedin this programmearea. (c) Acceleration transfer and of technology acquisition. accessto the and bio-safety.including farmers' and breeders'rights. including about $50 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 16. cial terms. togetherwith a systemfor assessing effects of biotechnologies on international trade in agriculturalproducts . should promote the following activities in conformity with international agreementsor illrangementson biologicaldiversity.to meetregionalor nationalneedsfor comprehensivelytrainedpersonnel capableof using advanced technologyto reducethe "brain drain" trom developing to developedcountries.includingany that are non-concessional.9 Training of competentprofessionals and applied sciencesat all levels (including scientific personnel.as appropriate: (a) Cooperationon issuesrelatedto conservation of. access to and exchange of germ plasm.8 The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $5 billion. Given the importance of good managementof research resourcesfor the successful completion of large multidisciplinary projects. MEANS' B/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE in the basic 16.extensionworkersand usersto produceintegrated systems. (c) Maintenance and development of data banks of information on environmental and health impacts of organisms to facilitaterisk assessment.

such as mosquitoes and disease-transmitting resistant variants.This degradationof the environmentresulting from inadequateor inappropriate development has a direct negative effect on human health. protection (b) Develop criteria for evaluatingthe effectiveness activities. ing humanhealth. reducethe costsof immunization. (d) Develop and strengthenappropriatesafety procedures basedon programmearea D. systematically sample and evaluate drinking-water quality by introducing appropriate including diagnosisof water-borne specific measures. tical industry. radiation and other sources. of relevantinternational (a) Develop and strengthenappropriatesafety proce- r39 . (e) Develop and make widely availablenew and improved vaccines against major communicablediseases that are efficient and safe and offer protection with a including intensifyingefforts minimum numberof doses.12The main objective of this programmearea is to contribute. inter alia. taking into accountappropriate safetyand ethicalconsiderations: programmes for (a) Developnationalandinternational of the world identifying and targetingthosepopulations most in need of improvement in general health and from diseases. with a view to baning the use of those that are unsafe for the purposesof experimentation.should.to:) (a) Reinforce or inaugurate (as a matter of urgency) diseases. improved treatments (i) Develop the improvement and more effective utilizationof medicinalplantsand otherrelatedsources.B) tfrIPROVrNGHUMAN HEALTH ACTION FOR BASIS 16. ACTIVITIES IES ELATED ACTIVIT A) MANAGEMENI-R 16. (b) Promote goodgeneralhealthamongpeople (c) Develop and improve programmesto assist in of andprotectionfrom major non-comi fic treatment spec municablediseases. attheappropriate 16. taking into account ethicalconsiderations .As a consequence.14The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Research social. notably air. (d) Improve. procedures for drugsand medicaltechnoland evaluation AND REGTONAI cl . eases (0 Develop biodegradabledelivery systemsfor vaccines that eliminate the need for presentmultiple-dose of thepopulationand facilitatebettercoverage schedules. and delivery systems. ration of environmentalquality. (h) Usingthetoolsprovidedby modembiotechnology. directedat the vaccinesneededto combat common disof children.is a matter of growing concern. lack of good-quality poverty. for carryingout basic (e) Createenhanced capabilities and appliedresearchand for managinginterdisciplinary research.13Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. taking account of environmental protectionconsiderations . to increasethe availability of 0) Develop processes for usein improvmaterialsderivedfrom biotechnology. programmes to helpcombatmajorcommunicable of all ages. new drugsand develop. pathogens and pollutants.NTERNAT/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION with thesupport levels. (b) Development of public education programmes directed at decision makers and the general public to of the relative and understanding encourageawareness to according andrisksof modernbiotechnology. B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 16.improveddiagnostics. to increasing of peopleare exposed OBJECTIVES 16.l 5 Governments should: andregionalorganizations. benefits ethicaland culturalconsiderations. with the of intemationaland regional organizations.environthe comparative to assess of differenttechmentaland financialcostsand benefits healthcarewithin a nologiesfor basicand reproductive frameworkof universalsafetyandethicalconsiderations. ogies. water and washazardous soil pollution owing to toxic chemicals. assistance and the pharmaceuacademic and scientificinstitutions. and the benefitsand risks of the proposed sampling (c) Establish systematic andenforcescreening. tes. sanitationfacilities add to potable water and inadequate the problemsof communicableand non-communicable the healthand well-being diseases.ensure that drugs and technologiesrelating to reproductivehealth are safe and effective and take account of ethical considerations. pressures. (g) Develop effective biological control agentsagainst vectors. Malnutrition.through the environmentallysoundapplic_ation of biotechnologyto an overall healthprogramme.poor human settlements.ll The improvementof human health is one of the The deteriomost important objectivesof development.

animal and microbial germ plasm for sustainable development is well established.the amountof environmental damage caused by overconsumption. The spread of some diseases to all regions of the world calls for global measures. This may be done throughthe development of new techniques for reforestat ion and affores t ation. taking into account ethicalconsiderations .20Environmental protection is anintegralcomponent of sustai nabl edevel opment.c o o r d i n a t e dm u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t s involving cooperation betweenscientists. particularlyin developingcountries.energy and noffenewable resources global populaby an expanding tion.ll The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe total annual average cost(1993-2000) of implementing the activities of thisprogramme to be about$ 14 billion. With the continued increasein the use of chemicals. and participationin exchange of.germplasmconservation.the activitiesneedto be implementedwith urgency if progresstowards the controlof majorcommunicablediseases is to be achieved by the beginningof thenext century. i n te r a l i a . D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG'. information and expertise.soil and air.Despite increasingefforts to prevent waste accumulationand to promoterecycling.particularlyindigenousor traditionalknowledgeand relatedbiotechnology.ogy can *Seeprogromme oreo E B/ SC/ENilFtC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 16.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. financialinstitutions and industries will be required. (c) That of tertiary-leveltechnical workersrequired for delivery in the field.includingany thatarenon-concess ional. (c) Scientificand financialinput at globalandnational levels. For more localizeddiseases. microbes and ecosystems comprising biological diversity.16To achievethe abovegoals. andcultivationof new plantvarieties. common diseases of children and -tran disease smittins factors. which form the physicalcomponents of habitats andecosystems. the speci fi c strategies and programmesGovernmentsdecide upon for implementation. cl ENHANCTNG PROTECnON OF rHE ENURONMEM A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON l6.18 W e l l . of goalscalls for: (a) Continuous international commitment. and all the interactions betweenthe components of biodiversity and their sustaining habitatsand ecosystems.dures basedon programmearea D. plants. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 16. including about $130 million from the international communityon grant or concessional terms. The envi r onm entis threatenedin all its biotic and abiotic components: animals.water.19Training and technologytransferis needed at the globallevel. (b) That of health personnel(to be trained in the safe use of new products)and of sciencemanagers required for complexintermultidisciplinary research. the quantities waste generated of andthedegree of unsustainable land useappearlikely to continuegrowing. wi l l d e p e n d u p o n .21The needfor a diverse genetic pool of plant.with funding at the intergovernmental level.possiblysupported by similar c ollabor a ti o n a t th e n a ti o n a l l e v e l . 16. Biotechnology is one of many tools that can play an importantrole in supportingthe rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems andlandscapes. support togetherwith the mechanisms for providing the transfer of relevanttechnology. associated environmentalproblems will also increase. 140 . OF IMPLEMENTATION MEANS 16. BASIS FOR ACTION 16. (b) Nationalprioritieswith a definedtime-frame. At the global level.for improvements protection in general health. regionalor naThe achievement tionalpolicieswill bemoreappropriate. Actual costs and financialterms. R esearchand development will alsoneedto be strengthened. (b) Supportthe development of nationalprogrammes.with regionsandcountries havingaccess to. Biotechnol.especially from major communicablediseases. this may mean collaborationbetweenresearch institutionsin differentcountries. It is essential to createor enhance endogenouscapabilitiesin developing countries to enable them to participate actively in the processes of biotechnology production. The training of personnel could be undertaken at threelevels: (a) That of scientistsrequired for basic and productorientedresearch.

(b) Developapplications for to minimizetherequirement unsustainable syntheticchemicalinput andto maximize ttre use of environmentally appropriate products. ACTIVITIES ACT IVIT IES ELATED A) MANAGEMENT. (g) Developapplications to increase the availabilityof planting material for land rehabilitation stress-tolerant and soil conservation. with the support of relevant internationaland regional organizations. (h) Promote the use of integrated pest management basedon thejudicious useof bio-controlagents. especiallyin the shortterm. ventionaltechniques are not availableor are expensive. particularlyindigenous and reforestation and to improve use in affcrrestation yieldsfrom forests. non-governmentalorganshould: izationsandacademic and scientificinstitutions. including naturalproducts(seeprografirmeareaA). treat to reduce waste before disposal and make use of biodegradable materials. (d) Develop processes to recoverenergyand provide animal feedandraw materials renewableenergysources. nology. taking accountof ethical considerations.reforestation.while supportingsafetyprocedures gral componentof the programme. should: (a) Strengthenresearch.6 (b) To promote the use of biotechnologies.22The aim of this programme throughthe approprireverseenvironmentaldegradation in conjunctionwith othertechate useof biotechnology as an intenologies. may have limited even though those biotechnologies commercialpotential. the private sector.training and development capabilities.26The Conferencesecretariat of implementing averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) the activitiesof this programmeto be about $ I billion. (d) Develop appropriate safety proceduresbased on programme area D. (i) Promotethe appropriate useof bio-fertilizerswithin national feftrlizer programmes.7' (c) To apply biotechnologiesand their products to protectenvironmental integritywith a view to long-term ecologicalsecurity. inefficientor inadequate. energyand minimizingwastegeneration.R 16.also contributeto the study of the effects exertedon the remaining organismsand on other organismsby organinto ecosvstems. (b) Develop mechanisms for scalingup and dissemiof high nating environmentallysound biotechnologies environmental importance. relevantto the 0) Promotethe use of biotechnologies and scientificstudyof biologicaldiversity conservation and the sustainable useof biologicalresources.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. (a) Develop environmentallysound alternativesand g production for environmentallydamagin i mprovements processes. (c) Enhance includingtransferofbiotechcooperation. isms introduced OBJECTIVES is to prevent.halt and 16. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATION has estimatedthe 16. of sewage (l) Develop new technologies for rapid screeningof for usefulbiologicalproperties. from recyclingorganicwasteand biomass. resources in an environmentallv sustainable B) DATA AND INFORMAI/ON access both to 16.to suppoftthe activitiesoutlinedin this programme area.recovering of natural resources. (0 Develop processes to increasethe availability of varieties. soil conservation.wastetreatment.afforestationand 8 land rehabilitation.rvhereconincluding accidental environment.particularly in developingcountries. (k) Develop easily applicable technologiesfor the treatment and organicwaste.25Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. sustainable AND REG/ONAI c/ /NIERNAilONAT AND COORD/NAIION COOPERAIION 16.24Stepsshould be taken to increase andto facilities existinginformationaboutbiotechnology basedon global databases. (e) Develop processes to remove pollutantsfrom the oil spills. 141 . for plantingmaterjals. with emphasison bio-remediationof land and water.Specific objectives as soon as possibleof specific include the inauguration programmeswith specific targets: (a) To adoptproductionprocesses making optimal use by recycling biomass. between participatingcountries for capacitybuilding. with the support of relevant international and regional organizations. organisms (m) Promotenew biotechnologies for tappingrnineral manner. (c) Developprocesses wastegeneration.

alsoneedto be developed. 2 3o n d 1 6 . They should build uponplanned or existingactivitiesto accelerate the environmentally sound application of biotechnology. ficationinto contained to theenvironment. the above-mentioned to new biotechactivitiesand to be dynamicin response (seeprogramme areaE). OBJECTIVES 16. 55.151 thefindings of theod /PC/67. and be in a much betterpositionto. New and additional training programmes for for example. * S e ep o r o g r o p h1 s6 . technical of biologicalprincito improvethe level of understanding ples and their policy implicationsamongdecisionmakers in Governmenls.*" D) CAPACITY-BUILDING will needto havetherespon16. includingthe widestpossible ticipationand taking accountof ethicalconsiderations.at the universityand technicalinstitutelevel.basedon the experiences of the first period. non-governmentalorganizationsand academic should: and scientificinstitutions. the specific grarnmes decideupon for implementation.includingany that are non-concessional. with the support of relevant internationaland regional organizations. existingtrainingprogrammes example. Dl ENHANCTNG SAFETY AND DEVELOPTNG FORCOOPERATION INTERNATIONAT'VIECHANISMS BASIS FOR ACTION 16. Only when adequate saf-ety andborder-control andtransparent procedures are in place will the community at large be able to derive maximumbenefitfrom. heldin London in Junel99l .29There is a need for further developmentof interprinciples nationallyagreed on risk assessment andmanwhich should of biotechnology.application. acceptthe potentialbenefltsand risks principlescould of biotechnology. and recogniztaking into accountnationalrequirements is to startwith a step-bying that the logicalprogression stepandcase-by-case approach. (a) Make the existingsafetyprocedures widely available by collectingthe existinginformationand adapting it to the specificneeds andregions. ACTIVITIES 16. munity on or concessional only and havenot estimates tive and order-of-magnitude Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments.as necessary.comincludingabout$10 million from the international grant These are indicaterms. prepored ond monogement of risk"(Februory by the UnitedNotionsConference ond Development on Environment secretoriot to tokeoccount modeot thethirdsession of comments of the Preporotory Committee for the UnitedNotionsConference on Environmen otn d D e v e l o o m e n o tn o o r t l l o f d o c u m e n t A/CONF. inter alia. Thereis alsoanurgentneed andsupportpersonnel.31The proposedactivitiesfor this programmearea call for close internationalcooperation. appliedin a flexible framework. whichincorporoted hocworkshop of Senior-level Experts on Assessing ond Monoging Biotechnology Risks. as well as the exchangeof trained personnelbetween countries and regions. with particular reference to health and environmental public parconsiderations.finansibility for undertaking. agementof all aspects build upon thosedevelopedat the nationallevel.21The activities for this programme area will increasethe demand for trained personnel. andfinancialandotherinstin:tions. "Environmentolly poper No. will cial terms. but alsorecognizing that a more experiencehas shown that in many instances comprehensive approachshould be used.exchange and transfer through intemational agreementon principles to be appliedon risk assessment and management. of differentcountries (b) Furtherdevelop. andclassiationof risk assessment andrisk management. Governments 8/ S C/ E N IIF IC A N D T EC H N O L OGICME AL A N S ' primary considerationof the organism. andthecapacity cial and workforce)to undertake. useor release DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 16. entitled See reseorch sound monogement of biotechnology: sofetyin biotechnology---cssessment 19921. to complementary considerstreamlining andcategorizing. the private sector. 2 5o b o v e t42 . inter alia. the existingsafety procedures to promote sci enti fi c devel o pm entand categori zati on i n the areasof ri sk assessm ent and r i s k m a n a g e m e n t( i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . Support for for needsto be increased.Severalfundamental including underlie many of these safety procedures. prostrategies and dependupon. nologicaldevelopments A) MANAGEMENT-R tVtTl ELAT EDACT ES 16.building on the principle of familiarity. leading.28Relevant institutions (political.32Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. especially in developing countries.30The aim of this programme areais to ensure safety in biotechnologydevelopment.

33Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. databases and information procedures.establ i shmentofsafetycondi t ion s. (d) Considering the needfor and feasibilityof internationally agreedguidelineson safety in biotechnology releases.32): (a) Organizing oneor moreregionalmeetings between countries to identify further practical stepsto facilitate international cooperation in bio-safety.enabling factors such as training capacity.shouldraise awareness of the relativebenefits and risks of biotechnology. 16. know-how. inter alia. and consideringstudying the feasibility of guidelines whichcouldfacilitate national lesislation on liabilitvand c om pens at ion. 16. (c) Compile. (d) Undertaketraining prograrnmes at the nationaland regionallevelson the applicationof the proposed technical guidelines. will depend upon.regionaland global contactpoints.34Furtheractivitiesshouldincludethefollowing (see alsopara. using information networks. El ESTABLTSHTNG ENABUNG MECHAN|STVIS FOR THE DEVETOP'VIENT AND THE ENVIRON}IENTALIY SOUND APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY BASIS FOR ACTION 16. and expertisein areas including marketing research. 3 2o n d I 6 .37The accelerated development and applicationof biotechnologies.36Adequateinternationaltechnicaland financial assistance should be provided and technicalcooperation to developingcountriesfacilitated in order to build up technical. update and develop compatible safety proceduresinto a framework of internationally agreed principlesasa basisfor guidelines to be appliedon safety in biotechnology. technologyassessment. with the slrpportof the relevantintemationaland regional organizations. includingconsideration of the needfor and feasibility of an international agreement. planningand administrative capacitiesat the national level to support the activitiesin this programme area(seealsoprogramme areaE). regional and international initiatives and avoiding duplicationwhereverpossible). 8/ SCtENn Frc AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS C) HUMAN RESOURC E DEVELOPMFNI D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG B) DATA AND /NFORMAilON' 16. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANCING AND COSTEVALUATTON 16.procedures databases. and cooperatein providing immediate assistance in casesof emergencies that may arise in conjunctionwith the useof biotechnology products. (e) Assist in exchanging informationaboutthe procedures required for saf'ehandling and risk management and about the conditionsof releaseof the productsof biotechnology.moni tori ng and inspections.taking account of ongoing national.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot beenreviewed by Governments. industrial building capacity. particularly in developing countries.drawing on the work already undertaken by international or otherexpertbodies. the specificstrategies and programmes Govemmentsdecide uponfor implementation.capital (including venturecapital)protection of intellectual propertyrights. Efforts will S e ep o r o g r o p h 1s6 .32. 143 . socio-economic assessment and safetyassessment arefrequentlyinadequate. researchand development facilities and funds.and promote information exchange as a basis for further development. includingrisk assessment andrisk management.including any that are non-concessional. 3 3 . will require a major effort to build up institutionalcapacitiesat the nationalandregionallevels. (b) Establishingan internationalnetwork incorporating national. S e ep o r o g r o p h 16. for assessing ri sksandconditions ofrele ase. Actual costsand financial terms. c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL AND REG/ONAI COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAI/ON 16. (c) Providing direct assistance upon requestthrough the internationalnetwork. managerial.35The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activitiesof this prograrnmes to be about$2 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.In developing countries.

There is thereforea need to strengthen the endogenous capacitiesof developing countriesby means of new internationalinitiatives to support reseerchin order to speedup the developrnent and application of both new andconventional biotechnologies to servethe needsof sustainable development at t he loc a l .regionaland international levels. N ati onal mechanisms to allow forinformedcommentby thepublic with regard to biotechnology researchand application shouldbe part of the process. n a ti o n a l a n d re g i o n a l l e v el s. particularlyby and amongdevelopingcountries. regionalandglobal levelsalreadyaddress the issues outlinedin programme areas A. ACTIVITIES Al MANAGEA4ENT-R ELATED ACTtVtTt ES 16. waysto improve existing mechanisms.therefore needto be madeto build up capacities in these andotherareas andto matchsucheffortswith appropriate levels of financial support.should: (a) Developpoliciesand mobilizeadditionalresources to facilitate greateraccess to the new biotechnologies. researchin biotechnologyand the application of its findingscould havesignificant positive andnegativesocio-economic aswell asculturalimpacts. as a subsequent step. funding sources andresource constraints. Thereis a needfor a muchmore cohesiveand coordinated approach to harness available resources in the most effective manner. particularly in respectof developing countries. non-governmentalorganizations and academicand scientific institutions. (ii) Providingthe necessary supportfor biotechnology.particularly regional. (v) Encouraging the exchange of scientists among all countriesand discouraging the "brain drain". (vi) Recognizing and fosteringthe traditionalmethods and know'leclge of indigenouspeoplesand their communitiesand ensuringthe opportunityfor their partici- B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 16. (d) U ndertake an urgent fol l ow -up and cr it ical review to identify ways and means of strengthening endogenous capacities within and among developing countriesfor the environmentallysoundapplicationof biotechnology. (b) Implementprogrammes to creategreaterawareness of the potential and relative benefits and risks of the environmentally sound application of biotechnology amongthe public and key decisionmakers.b u i l d i n ga n d d i s t r i b u tion/marketing. (iii) Raising public awareness regardingthe relative beneficialaspects of and risks relatedto biotechnology.38Someactivitiesat the national.including. as well asthe provisionof adviceto individuai countries on the developmentof national guidelinesand systems for the implementation of those guidelines.n (b) To identify ways and meansof enhancingcurrent efforts. howev er. (c) To establishor adapt appropriatemechanismsfor safetyappraisal andrisk assessment at the local.as appropriate.41The following activities should be undertaken: facilitation of access to existine information dissemina- 144 .the consideration of possible new international mechanisms. and to develop appropriate response strategies. (0 Establish additional quality-assurance standardsfor biotechnology applications andproducts. OBJECTIVES 16. priorities.the private sector. (e) Develop strategic plans for overcoming targeted constraintsby means of appropriateresearch.regional and international levels. (c) Undertakean urgent review of existing enabling mechanisms.product development and marketing. with specialemphasison developing countries.regional and globallevels. weaknessesand gaps. regional and global levels to identify strengths. to contributeto sustainable development. (iv) Helping to createa favourable climate for investm e n t s . programmes and activitiesat the national. Theseactivitiesaregenerallyuncoordinated. wherenecessary. to determine the precise nature of the needs for additional initiatives. particularlyat the regional level and. constituencies. at the national. 16.building whereverpossibleon existingenabling mechanisms. i n v o l v i n g ma n y d i ffe re n t organi zati ons. and to assessthe priority needs of developingcountries. B. time-scales. i n d u s t r i a l c a p a c i t y .including proposalsfor any new internationalmechanisms. suchasregionalbiotechnology centres.39The objectives are as follows: (a) To promote the development and application of biotechnologies.40Governments at the appropriate level. with the support of internationaland regional organizations. C and D.asafirst step. by: (i) Enhancingexistingefforts at the national. particularly researchand product development. pation in the economic and commercialbenefitsarisine from developments in biotechnology. As with most new technologies. Theseimpactsshouldbe carefullyidentifiedin the earliestphases of the development of biotechnology in order to enableappropriate management of the consequences of transferring biotechnology.

15 (Conservotion Seechopter of biologicol 2See ond rurol sustoinoble ogriculture chopter14 (Promoting development). order takings within those capacitiesand to support the building of endogenous research and institutionalcapacityin thosecountries. to the generaand supportstaff. sSee humonheolth condichopter 6 (Protecting ond promoting tions). D) CAPACITY-BUtLDtNG MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FTNANC'NG the averhasestimated secretariat 16. with the of intemationaland regional organizations.45Personneldevelopmentneeds will need to be developed trainingprograrnmes identifiedandadditional at the national. Such and it should institutions alreadyexist in somecountries and be possible to makeuseof themfor trainingpurposes joint researchprojects.and considerationof the development of a directory of information. mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Actual costsand financial terms.These should be supportedby postgraduate increasedtraining at all levels.regionaland global levels. aswell asby the trainingof technicians andpost-doctoral. AND REGIONAI. inter alia. Society should be informed of the social and and applicationof cultural impact of the development biotechnology. and systemsgiving appropriaterewards. of environmentolly chopter34 (Tronsfer cooperotion ond copocity-building). including any that are will depend upon.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude by Governments. the non-concessional. C/ /NIERNATIONAL AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERAI'ON 16.tion systems. facilitateaccess to relevant underamong countries. Efforts will be needed to ensure that the necessaryinfrastructure extensionand technologyactifacilities for research. and amongdeveloping in to strengthen countries. institutionsfor the technicalschoolsand local research and extensionservices development of biotechnologies will needto be developed. assistance should develop appropriatenew initiatives to identify based on specificproblemsand priority areas for research particularlyby new biotechnologies. graduate.44). Strengthening of universities. 16. decide Governments andprogrammes specificstrategies upon for implementation. I diversity). tion of trainedmanpowerin consultant engineering and marketing research.46Biotechnology research and development is undertakenboth under highly sophisticatedconditions and at the practicallevel in many countries. AL AN S A N D T EC H N O L OGICME B ' S C/ F NI I F I C 16. Training programmesfor lecturerstraining scientistsand technologists in advanced researchinstitutions in different countries throughout the world will also need to be developed.especiallyin developing countries.42 Governmentsat the appropriate level. chopterI i (Comboting D EV EL OP M EN T RE S OU R C E C) HUM A N 16. andtechnologists incentives to scientists andrecognition will needto be instituted(seepara. Global and vities areavailableon a decentralized and regionalcollaborationfor basicandappliedresearch and will also needto be further enhanced development every effort should be made to ensurethat existing national and regional facilities are fully utilized. in eachcountryfor bringing manpower andtechnological aboutsuchexchanges. makingfull useof the existingscientific to be organized. 16. seminarsand other examongthe scientificcommunityat the regional changes will need and global levels.especiallyamong developingcountries. basis.44Workshops. wostes ond sewoge+eloted 145 . Conditions of servicewill also need to be improved at the national and nurture level in developingcountriesto encourage trainedmanpowerwith a view to retainingthatmanpower locally.on specificpriority themes.43The Conference of implementingthe age total annualcost (1993-2000) to be about$5 million from activitiesof this programme the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms. improvement of such accesswhere appropriate. with particularreference services. 3See deforestotion). 4See soundtechnology. design.symposia. especially for theirapplication in developingcountries. 6See of solid chopter21 {Environmentolly soundmonogement issues!.

9See chopter26 (Recognizing ond strengthening the role of indigenous people ond theircommunities). 146 . SSee chopterI B (Protection of thequolity ond supply of freshwoter resources: opplicotion of integroted opprooches to the develop ment.'See chopler l0 (lntegroted opproochto the plonningond monogement of londresources).monogement ond useof woter resources) .

regionaland global efforts. as reflected in the following programme areas:' (a) Integrated managementand sustainabledevelopment of coastal areas.2 The implementation by developingcountriesof with the activitiessetforth below shallbe commensurate their individual technologicaland financial capacities for development and priorities in allocatingresources 17.EAS.including regional. including enclosed ond semi-enclosed seos.subregional.For small island Statesor countries. OF COASTAT rNcruDrNG ExctustvE EcoNolilczoNEs BASIS FOR ACI-ION (b) Marine environmental protection.forms an integratedwhole that is an essentialcomponent of the global life-supportsystemand a positiveassetthat preInternasentsopportunitiesfor sustainable development.including the oceans and all seas and adjacent coastal areas . cooperation (g) Sustainable development of small islands. (d) Sustainable of marineliving use and conservation jurisdiction.3 The coastal areacontainsdiverse and productive habitatsimportant for human settlements. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A} INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABTE DEVETOPftIENT AND MARINE AR. development and local subsistence. approachesthat are integratedin content and are precautionary and anticipatory in ^ambit.including exclusive economic ZONCS. 17. as reflected in the provisions of the United NationsConventionon the Law of the Seal'2referredto in this chapterof Agenda 21. (c) Sustainable use and conservation of marine livins resources of the high seas.Coastal resourcesare vital for many local communities and inpeople. setsforth rights and obligations of States and provides the international basis upon which to pursue the protection and sustainable developmentof the marine and coastalenvironmentand This requires newapproaches its resources. and coastal resourcesand the coastal environment are being rapidly degradedand erodedin many parts of the world.regional and global levels.17 Protection of theoceons. and coordination. 17. to marineand coastal area managementand development. OBJECNVES 17.4 Despitenational. resources undernational (e) Addressingcritical uncertainties for the management of the marineenvironment and climatechange. 17. and this could rise to three quarters by the year 2020.1The marine environment. oll kinds of seos. subregional. useond development of theirlivingresources INTRODUCTION needsand ultimately depends on the technologytransfer and financial resourcesrequired and made available to them. tional law.theseare the areasmost availablefor development activities. More than half the world's population lives within 60 km of the shoreline.at the national. (f) Strengthening international. rotionol ond coostol oreosond theprotection. Many of the world's poor are crowded in coastal areas.currentapproaches to the management of marine and coastalresources havenot alwaysproved capableof achieving sustainabledevelopment.5 Coastal Statescommit themselves to integrated 1 47 .The exclusiveeconomiczone(EEZ) is digenous also an important marine area where the Statesmanage the developmentand conservationof natural resources for the benefit of their people.

these measuresmight include: surveys of species marine biodiversity. (k) Human resource and training. development (l ) P ubl i c educati on. (i) Integration of sectoralprogrammeson sustainable tourism. l7. Information for managementpurposes shouldreceivepriority supportin view of the intensity and magnitude of the changesoccurring in the coastal to.groupsand organizations mation and opportunitiesfor consultationand participaat appropriate tion in planning and decision-making levels. and (a) Developandmaintaindatabases for assessment managementof coastal areasand all seasand their resources.non-governmental resource usergroups. ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R or establishing. to maintain biological diversity and productivity of marine speciesand habitatsunder nationaljurisdiction. Inter alia. should the local and nationallevels. 0) Infrastructure adaptationand alternative employment.it is necessary to. includingenvironuseof resources. stateof the environtnent 148 .6 Eachcoastal g. solid wastes (g) Periodicassessment of the impactsof externalfactors and phenomenato ensure that the objectives of developmentof and sustainable integratedmanagement coastalareasand the marine environmentare met. systematic (d) Prior environmental impact assessment. dev elop m e n tp a tte rn s .in c l u d i n g e ro d e d z o n e s . posalof sewage. (0 Provide access. including spills of oil and othermaterials. anduseinformaassess their capacityto collect.including pollution. for: (a) Preparationand implementationof land and water useand sitingpolicies. Such mechanisms with the academic as appropriate. and (m) Promotingenvironmentally soundtechnology practices sustainable . of the impactsof observation and systematic assessment major projects. and private sectors.u s e r c o n fl i c ts and speci fi c priorities for management.inter alia. as far as possible. as well as contingency changeand sea-level for degradationand pollution of antllopogenic origin. (c) Concentrateon well-defined issues concernins coastalmanagement. development ing. Stateshouldconsider l7 . of (n) Development implementation and simultaneous environmentalquality criteria. tion for sustainable mental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas. compatibilityand a balance (b) Identify existingand projectedusesof coastalareas and their interactions. programmes at appropriate (c) Preparation of coastalprofiles identifying critical ar eas .establishment and supportof scienof protectedareas. for settlements.fishagriculture. plans rise. (h) Conservationand restoration of altered critical habitats. shouldimprove 17.analyse. (e) Promote the development and application of methods.inventoriesof endangered and critical coastaland marine habitats.7 CoastalStates. of results incorporation systematic (e) Contingencyplansfor humaninducedand natural including likely effects of potential climate disasters. andhabitatdestruction.inter alia: To thisend. tific research and dissemination AND /NFORMAI/ON B) DATA where necessary. usesof coastaland marine areas. andfollow-up of majorprojec8. such as national resourceand environmental in value resultingfrom that reflect changes accounting. ing process. (b) Implementation of integratedcoastaland marine developmentplans and managementand sustainable levels. appropriate coordinating wherenece ssarystrengthenin (suchas a high-levelpolicy planningbody) mechanisms development and sustainable management for integrated at both of coastaland marine areasand their resources. in (d) Apply preventiveand precautionaryapproaches prior including project planning and implementation. espe(0 Improvement of coastal human settlements.drinking water and treatmentand disand industrialeffluents. ports and industriesaffecting the coastalarea. of uses.fbr concerned to relevantinforindividuals.aw areness and inf or m at ion programmes. and management of its results. organizations.To this end.andindigenous local communities. cially in housing.management and sustainabledevelopment of coastal areasand the marine environment under their national jurisdiction. (c) Conductregularenvironmental of the assessment of coastaland marineareas. organizations. Such nationalcoordinatingmechanisms provide. include consultation.8 CoastalStates.with the supportof international measures shouldundertake upon request.includingthe observation in decision-making. (b) Develop socio-economic indiand environmental cators.it is necessary andmarineareas.p h y s i cal processes. inter alia: (a) Providefor an integratedpolicy and decision-makto promote including all involved sectors. lossof resources marineerosion. could people.

regionalor global. 17. whereapplicable. l7. (0 Promotingand facilitating human resourcedeveiopment and education.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govemments.as appropriate. 17. inter alia: (a) Ensuringcapacity-building at the local level. activities. asappropriate. managers community-based managers)and users. women and youth. in theseefforts. uses. (e) Exchangeinformation and data. C' 'NTERNATIONAL ERATION COOP AND COORD/NAI/ON 17. amongothers. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17. the specific strategies and programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.N RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 17. whethersubregional. devotingspecialattentionto developingcountries. facilities and needs for human resourcesdevelopment and scientific and technologicalinfrastructure. They should alsodeveloptechnologies andendogenous scientificand technologic al capacities.(d) Prepareand maintain profiles of coastal area resources. to exchange experience in the field could be held before 1994.18 Degradation of the marine environment can result 149 . including any that are non-concessional. asappropriate.devoting specialattentionto developingcountries.the academic sector. (d) Identifying existing and potential capabilities. shouldsupportcoastal States. resource usergroupsand the generalpublic. inter alia.i n t e r r e g i o n a l . (b) Consultingon coastaland marineissues with local administrations.13States should cooperatein the developmentof necessary coastalsystematic observation.ll States should cooperate. (c) Coordinatingsectoralprogrammes while buildins capacity. should be strengthenedto improve their capacities to achievethe above. will dependupon. asindicatedabove. fisherfolk.within a s u b r e g i o n a l . subregional andregionalmechanisms. B/ SC/ENIIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANs 17.12The Conference secretariat hasestimated theaverage total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementingthe activities of thisprogramme to be about$6 billion including about $50 million from the internationalcommunity on grantor concessional terms. shouldsupportcoastal B) r anrnE ENV|RoNMENTAT PROTECTTON BASIS FORACTION 17. r e g i o n a l o r g l o b a l framework.Actual costs and financial terms.indigenous peoples. organizations.BUILDING 17. habitats and protected areas basedon the criteriaof sustainable development. shouldbe incorporatedin educationalcurricula and public awarenesscampaigns. (g) Supporting"centresof excellence"in integrated coastaland marine resourcemanagement.in the preparationof national guidelinesfor integratedcoastal zonemanagement anddevelopment. They shouldprovide access to and transferenvironmentallysafetechnologies andmethodologies for sustainable development of coastal and marineareas to developingcountries. regionalor global.9 Cooperation with developing countries.upon request. with dueregardto traditionalecological knowledgeand socio-cultural values. drawing on existing Aglobal conference experience.is to supportand supplement nationalefforts of coastalStatesto promote integratedmanagement and sustainable developmentof coastaland marine areas. (e) Developingscientificandtechnological means and research.14International organizations.10The role of international cooperation and coordination on a bilateral basisand. C) HUMA. technologists. uponrequest. Management and development. States.leaders. 17. research and informationmanagement systems.15CoastalStatesshould promote and facilitate the organization of education and training in integrated coastaland marine management and sustainable devel(including opmentfor scientists. whereappropriate.in the areasindicatedabove. capacity-building shouldbe included in bilateral and multilateral developmentcooperation. and. aswell asenvironmental protectionconcerns and local planningissues. CoastalStates may consider. AND REG'ONAI. the business community.16International whethersubregional. (h) Supportingpilot demonstration programmesand projectsin integratedcoastaland marine management. where applicable.17Full cooperation should be extended. upon request. D) CAPACITY. to coastal Statesin their capacity-building efforts and.

so as to contribute to reducing the degradationof the coastal and marine environment. development (d) Develop economicincentives. environmental adoptionof precautionary pact assessments. contaminants in variableorderof marine are. strengthening andextending the Montreal Guidelines.syntheticorganic regionalsituations. agriculture. (b) Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverseimpactsupon the marine environment.22States. threatto the environment importance apd depending on differing national or sewage.25To this end.23 Statesagreethat provision of additional financial resources.such as the polluter pays principle. oil/hydrocarbons andpolycyclicaromatic radionuclides. it is necessary to: (a) Apply preventive. impacts from air. Human land use. in accordance commit themselves. 11.reduceand control marine degradationcaused by land-based activities. 17. so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment: (e) Improve the living standards of coastalpopulations.forestry.the of the marineenvironment. to apply clean technologiesand other meansconsistent with the internalizationof environmentalcosts. with their policies. at theregionalandsubregional levels.technicaland financialorganizations.24 ln carryingout their commitrnentto dealwith degradationof the marineenvironment from land-based activities. to: (a) Consider updating. development degradation of the marine environmentso as to maintain and improve its life-supportand productivecapacities. where appropriate.andshouldtake accountof the Monffeal Guidelines for the Protection of the Marine Environmentfrom l. clean production techniques.reduceand control r50 . 17.20Marine pollution is also causedby shipping and sea-based activities. accidents gas activities. where necessary. Coastal erosionand siltationare of particularconcern. tourism ture. The nature and extent of environmentalimpactsfrom offshoreoil explorationand productionactivitiesgenerallyaccountfor a very small proportionof marinepollution.as well as tc reducethe risk of long-term or irreversibleadverseeffectsupon it. particularly in developingcountries.urban development. where appropriate.metal s.in conceft with actionto implementprogamme areaA. c om pound s .States. to supportaction by developingcountries to implementthis commitment.000tons of oil eachyear as a resultof normal shipping enterthe oceans With respect andillegaldischarges. and industry can affect the marineenvironment. improvementof sewagetreatmentfacilities. with the supportof the relevant international environmental.and-Based Sources. 17.persistence There is no global scheme currently food in the chain. polluting substances Many of the hydrocarbons from land-based sources are of particular originating sincethey exhibit at concernto the marineenvironment andbioaccumulation the sametime toxicity.Land-basedsourcescontribute 70 per cent of marine pollution. operations.21A precautionaryand anticipatory rather than a reactiveapproach is necessary to preventthedegradation inter alia.through appropriate international mechanisms.with a view to identifying means of strengtheningaction. quality management criteriafor the properhandlingof hazardous and a comprehensive approach to damaging substances. Any management framework must include the improvementof coastal and the integrated management and human settlements of coastal areas.as appropriate.wasteauditsandminimization. pollution from marine land-based sources. precautionaryand anticipatory approachesso as to avoid degradationof the marine environment. immeasures. To this end. inter alia.currently machinery to offshore oil and space dischargesare regulated internationally and six have regionalconventions to controlplatformdischarges been under consideration. Statesshould take action at the national level and. l i tte r a n d p l a s ti cs. reductionand control of degrodotionof the morine envi ro nment from I ond-bosedoctiviti es 17. priorities and resources.This requires. shouldcooperate. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIVITI ES D Prevention. where appropriate. United Nations Conventionon the Law of the Sea on protectionand preservation of the marineenvironment.from a wide range of sources. social and economic policies. (c) Initiate and promote the developmentof new regional agreements. where appropriate. s e d i me n ts . (PAHs).Approximately600. (b) Assess the effectiveness of existingregionalagreements and action plans. scientific.recyconstruction and/or cling. to address 17.19Degradation of the marine environmentcan also result from a wide rangeof activitieson land. (c) Integrateprotectionof the marineenvironmentinto relevant general environmental.construction of coastalinfrastrucsettlements. to prevent. while maritime a c ti v i ti es contri bute t r ans por t a n d d u mp i n g -a t-s e a per The thatposethe greatest l0 centeach. OBJECTIVES with the provisionsof the in accordance 17. to prevent. nutrients. as well as accessto cleaner technologiesand would be necessary relevantresearch. land and water.

(e) Promotingprimary treatment of municipalsewage discharged to rivers. regulatory and monitoring programmesto control effluent discharge. regional. with respectto the pollutants input of point source from new installations. where appropriate.29As concernsphysical destructionof coastaland marineareas causing degradation of the marineenvironment. and considering the prohibitionof thosefound to be environmentally unsound. as necessary. (d) Promoting environmentally soundco-treatments of domesticand compatibleindustrialeffluents. (c) Locating coastaloutfalls so as to maintain an acceptablelevel of environmentalquality and to avoid exposingshellfisheries. providing support to individualStates upon request to help them overcome the obstacles identifiedbv them: t5t . (i) Promotingthe useof environmentally lessharmful pesticides andfertilizersandalternative methods for pest control.asnecessary. shouldassess the needfor additionalmeasures to address desradation of the marineenvironment: A) FROMSHIPPING.through financialandtechnological support. agriculturalpractices.acting individually.26The UNEP GoverningCouncil is invited to conan intergovernmental vene. waterintakesand bathingareas to pathogens. (0 Establishingand improving local. regionalor global. (d) Eliminating the emissionor discharge of organohalogen compounds that threaten to accumulateto levelsin the marineenvironment.30States. source whichrequirebroadchanges in sewage and wastemanagement. to maximizethebest practicablecontrol and reductionof substances and wastesthat aretoxic.27As concernssewage. 17. (e) Developpolicy guidance for relevantglobal funding mechanisms. constructionand transportati on. 17. (g) Cooperatingwith developingcountries. dangerous (e) Reducingthe emissionor discharge of other syntheticorganiccompounds that threaten to accumulate to dangerous levelsin the marineenvironment. accordins to the bestscientificevidence. (h) Cooperating in the development and implementation of environmentally soundland-usetechniques and practices to reduce run-offto water-courses andestuaries which wouldcause pollutionordegradation of themarine environment. using minimum sewageeffluent guidelinesand water quality criteria and giving due consideration to the characteristics of receivins bodiesand the volume and type of pollutants. (0 Promoting controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogenand phosphorus waterswhere that entercoastal such problems as eutrophicationthreatenthe marine environment or its resources. 17.estuaries and the sea. regulatory and monitoring programmesto control effluent dischargesand emissions. 0) Adopting new initiatives at national. BY: (i) Supporting widerratification andimplementation of relevantshippingconventions and protocols.as soonas practicable. subregional and regional.or othersolutions appropriate to specificsites. (f) Identify additional steps requiring international cooperation. inter alia. meeting on protectionof the marine environmentfrom landbasedactivities. (b) Promotingrisk and environmental impact assessmentsto helpensure levelof environmental anacceptable quality: (c) Promoting assessment and cooperationat the regional level. > Prevention.control and reducedegradation of the marineenvironment. of controlson the entry of effluentsthat are not compatiblewith the system. priority actionsto be considered may include: by States (a) Establishing or improving. persistent or liable to bio-acculnulate and to establish environmentally soundland-based wastedisposal alternatives to seadumping. including the development and application of control and recyclingtechnologies.asappropriate.(d) Developmeansof providing guidance on technologies to deal with the major types of pollution of the from land-based marineenvironment sources.28As concernsother sourcesof pollution. humansettlement ( b ) B u i l d i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n gs e w a g et r e a t m e n t with nationalpoliciesandcapacfacilitiesin accordance ities and international cooperation available.regionally or multilaterallyand within the frameworkof IMO and other relevantinternational whethersuborganizations. 17. including plans.Watershed pracmanagement tices should be promotedso as to prevent. (ii) Facilitatingthe processes in (i).priority actionsshouldincludecontrolandprevention of coastal erosionand siltationdueto anthropogenic factorsrelatedto.bilaterally. mining. reductionond controlof degradotionof the marine envi ronment from seo-bosedactivit-t es 17.priority actionsto be consideredby States may include: (a) Incorporatingsewageconcernswhen formulating or reviewing coastal developmentplans.land-use and construction techniques and practices. subregional and regionallevelsfor controllingthe input of non-point pollutants. national. wherepracticable.with the introduction.

AND 'NFORMAilON and in accordance 17. concerned. within such areas to ensure compliance with regulations. when requestedby the States the stateof where appropriate. andenforcing more rigorously. on ratifyingtheConvention 17. the development gency plans on the national and internationallevel. other competentUnited 17. within their exclusive States. shouldassess. for additionalmeasures: 152 . Oil PollutionPreparedness. (ix) EncouragingIMO and IAEA to work togetherto of a code on the carriage of complete consideration ships. as a basisfor management. generallyaccepted international (v) Takingactionto ensure respect of areas designated economiczones. organizations and.implementation and participation in relevantConventions on dumpingat sea.34Statesshould intensify international regional to strengthenor establish. and ship-routittg.as appropriate. (vi) Consideringthe adoptionof appropriate rules on to preventthe spreadof nonballastwater discharge organisms. building on existing facilities with specialattention to developingcountries. cooperation 17. BY. shipping.. indigenous (vii) Promoting by adequate charting navigational safety as appropriate. par(ii) Encouraging the LondonDumpingConvention steps to stopoceandumpingand ties to take appropriate of hazardous substances incineration : BY: PI.where necessary. as appropriate. B) FROM (i) Supportingwider ratification. inadiatednuclearfuel in flaskson boarcl (x) Revisingand updatingthe IMO Codeof Safetyfor Nuclear Merchant Ships and consideringhow best to implementa revisedcode. consider: (a) Establishingsystematicobservationsystemsto quality.especiallyin MARPOLspecial areas. Statesshould.31IMO and as appropriate. Nations organizations.including provision of oil-spill response includingits possible rnaterial and trainingof personnel. and promoting the establishmentof smaller scale facilitiesin marinasand fishing harbours.33States shouldconsider Response and Cooperation.especially provisions MARPOL di scharge veillance). DUMPING. industry-based B) DATA. by coastal law. with the meansat their disposaland with due regardfor their technical and scientific capacity and resources. BY: D) FROM (i) Facilitating facilities ofportreception establishment for the collection of oily and chemical residuesand garbage from ships. including early conclusionof a future strategyfor the London Dumping Convention. OIL ANDGAS C) FROM OFFSHORE (i) Assessing to address existing regulatorymeasures the need emissions and safetyand assessing discharges. control and reduce such degradation. action to implen-rent sary.as appropriate.includingcauses measure marineenvironmental and effectsof marinedegradation. pollutiondamage by substances caused PORTS.ATFORMS. in order to protectand with international consistent such as coral reefs preserverare or fragile ecosystems.To this end. compliance with generally acceptedinternationalregulations. inter alia.such as marine pollution in areasof congested with a view to ensuring heavilyusedinternational straits.in accordance on the Law of the Sea. (c) Supporting and expanding international programmes suchas the mussel for systematic observations watch prograrnme. response and/or. (xi) Supporting theongoingactivitywithin IMO regardmeasures for reducins of appropriate ing development air pollution from ships. regionalor global intergovernmental organizations. make systematic observations on the stateof the marine environment.g. whereappropriate.(iii) Cooperatingin monitoring marine pollution from (e. of continwhich addresses. as appropriate.aerialsurfrom illegal discharges ships. of coasts regula(viii) Assessing the needfor stricterinternational andpollution tionsto furtherreducethe risk of accidents from cargoships(includingbulk caniers).32Statesshouldtake measures lution causedby organotincompoundsused in antifouling paints. (b) Regularly exchanginginformation on marine degradationcausedby land-based and sea-based activities and on actions to prevent.35Statesshould. and mangroves. ( x ii) S u p p o rti n gth e o n g o i n g a c ti v i ty w i thi n IMO regarding the development of an international regime governingthe transponation of hazardous and noxious substances carriedby shipsandfurtherconsideringwhether under established fundssimilarto theones thecompensation in respectof the Fund Conventionwould be appropriate otherttranoil. particularly those related to illegal discharges with the provisionsof Part III from ships. extension to chemicalspill response. (iv) Assessing by shipsin the stateof pollution caused particularlysensitive identihedby IMO andtaking areas wherenecesapplicablemeasures. of the United NationsConvention to reducewater pol17. oiVchemical-spill centres mechanisms in cooperationwith relevant subregional.

basedactivitiesin coastalareas (f) Allocating adequate funding for capacity-building and training programmesto ensurethe full participation in particular.(d) Establishing on marinepollution a clearing-house control information. MFANS AND TECHNOT. (e) Strengthen and provide securefinancing for new international and existing specialized centresof professionalmaritimeeducation.36The Conferencesecretariat average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing the activitiesof this programrleto be about$200million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. amounts and effects of pollutantsreachingthe marineenvironmentfrom landand sea-based sources. will dependupon. (d) Identification oil.in conformity with chapter 31.38Statesindividually or in cooperationwith each other and with the supportof internationalorganizations. port and supplement the nationalefforts of developing countries as regardshuman resourcedevelopmentin relationto prevention andreduction of degradation of the marineenvironment.regional or global. (e) Establishing providing a globalprofileanddatabase information on the sources. the specific strategies mentsdecideupon for implementation. whereappropriate. (0 Establishmentof a clearing-house for information on rnarine pollution control. (a) Assistance in identifyingand adopting to industries pollutioncontroltechcleanproduction or cost-eff'ective nologies. ci esin dev elopin c (e) Study of the use of persistent organohalogens that are liable to accumulatein the marine environmentto D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 17.40Researchfacilities should be strengthened or. (b) Planningdevelopment and application of low-cost sewage installationand treatment and low-maintenance for developing technologies countries. (d) Conduct workshopson environmentalaspects of port operations and development. should: (a) Provide training for critical personnelrequiredfor protectionof the marine environmentas the adequate identified by training needs' surveys at the national. as appropriate. spill response in cooperation. whether subregional. including: concerned. 17. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 17. (b) Promotethe introduction of marine environmental protectiontopics into the curriculum of marine studies programmes. including processes and technologiesto addressmarine pollution control.and chemicalpersonnel. suitable g o u n tri e s .37 N a t i o n a l . and programrnes Governalia.environmental impact assessment and development of control recommendationsand should be managed and staffed by local experts. (0 Throughbilateral supandmultilateral cooperation. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG has estimatedthe 17.including low-cost locally available for pollutionemergenmaterials andtechniques. developed in developingcountriesfor systematic observation of marinepollution. analysis anduseof data and information. identify those that cannot be adequatelycontrolled and to provide a basisfor a decisionon a time schedule for phasingthem out as soonas practicable. 17. inter any that are non-concessional.andchemical-spill of appropriate control materials.types.39Nationalplanningandcoordinating bodiesshould be given the capacityand authorityto review all landbased activities and sources of pollutionfor their impacts on the marine environment and to proposeappropriate control measures. requiretechnology transfer. whereappropriate. and financial parlicularly where developingcountriesare resources. (c) Establishtraining coursesfor oil.41Specialarrangements will be neededto provide adequatefinancial and technical resourcesto assist r53 .Theseare indicative and order-of--magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Actualcosts andfinancial terms. in anyintemational countries.with the oil and chemicalindustries. regionalor subregional levels. and support for their transfer to developing and other countrieswith demonstrated needs. whereappropriate.OG\CAL 8/ SCTENT/F/C 17. including Governments. (c) Equipmentof laboratories to observesystematically humanand otherimpactson the marineenvironment. s u b r e g i o n a la n d r e g i o n a l a c t i o n programmes will. including processes and technologiesto address marinepollution control and to support andothercountries their transferto developing countries with demonstrated needs. of developing schemeunderthe organsand organizations of the United Nationssystem for thecollection.

economicand development (b) Maintain or restorepopulations of marine species yield at levelsthatcanproducethe maximumsustainable as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors.48The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities.47Nothing in paragraph 17. ACTIVITIES lTt ES ELAT EDACTIV A) MANAGEMENT-R 17. (a) Give f'ull effect to theseprovisionswith regardto fisheriespopulationswhoserangeslie both within and stocks).management cluding the adoption.and solvingproblems in preventing countries developing the marineenviwith activitiesthat threaten associated ronment.In particular. OBJECTIVES and to the conservation commit themselves 17.Action by lack of sufficientcooperation Stateswhose nationalsand vesselsfish on the high s eas .to ensure regionaland at the subregional. 17.as well as goals. unreliabledatabases between States. 17. taking into considerationrelationshipsamong species. shouldbe providedto support cooperation technological actionby them to implementtheseobjectives. with in that high seasfisheriesare managed accordance on the provisionsof the United NationsConvention the they should: Law of the Sea.46 above restricts the right of a State or the competenceof an international to prohibit. There are exfishing. marineliving resources 17.49States should take effective action. organization. cessivefleet size. is essential ticularly for highly migratory speciesand straddling stocks. but also in depletedspecies. beyondexclusiveeconomiczones(straddling 154 . nationalorganizations ment and study. (e) Protectand restoreendangered (f) Preserve habitatsand other ecologicallysensitive areas.fisherieson the high seas have considerablyexpandedand currently represent 5 per cent of total world landings. global levels. scientific and technological and Adequate financial.including grantsor concessional international agenciesand appropriateregional funds. shall cooperatewith a view to the conservationof shall marine mammalsand.expertise because capacities. in the caseof cetaceans. including where appropriate bilateral and multilateral cooperation. subparregional. (d) Ensureeffective monitoring and enforcementwith respect to fishing activities. limit or tegulate asappropriate. especiallyin addressing or unutilized identifyingthe potentialof underutilized populations. monitoring and enforcement of in many is inadequate measures. at leastin part on a revolvingbasisby user replenished fees. marinespecies.Emphasis systems that multi-speciesmanagementand other approaches take into account the relationshipsamong species.as w e l l a s c o o p e ra ti o na t th e bi l ateral .particular attention needs to be given to the problems of developingcountriesthat would bear an unequalburden or technical of their lack of facilities. 17. overcapitalization. inadequacies of fisheriesstatistics and improvement cal knowledge. fish(c) Promotethe development and useof selective that minimize wastein the catch ing gearand practices of target speciesand minimrze by-catch of non-target species. inof high seasfisheries.42An intemationalfunding mechanismshould be treatcreatedfor the applicationof appropriatesewage ment technologiesand buildittg sewage treatment loansfrom facilities.scientific means at theirdisposal.it is necessary (a) Developand increase the potentialof marineliving resources to meet human nutritional needs. The approximately provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon the Law of the Sea on the marine living resourcesof the with high seassetsforth rights and obligationsof States respect to conservationand utilization of those resources. effectiveconservation areas and some resourcesare overutilized. 17.44Over the last decade. i n parti cul ar w ork through the appropr iat eint er managefor their conservation. OF c) SusrArNABrE usE AND CONSERVATION OF THE I{IGH SEAS fiTAHNE LIVING RESOURCES FOR ACTION BASIS 11. problemsof unregulated controls. social. shouldalsobe on for handlingdata. including the tinancial.To this end. (g) Promote scientific researchwith respectto the in the high seas. vesselreflaggingto escape and insufficiently selectivegear.regional and global levels. Such action and cooperationshould address aswell as in biologiin fishing practices.46States on the high use of marine living resources sustainable to: seas.43ln carrying out theseprogrammeactivities.45However. the exploitation of marine mammals on the high seas States more strictly thanprovidedfor in that paragraph.

shouldcooperate to: (a) Promoteenhanced collectionof datanecessary for Aj F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17 . management and studyof cetaceans and othermarinemammals. as appropriate. regionaland global levels. 17.as appropriate. suchas the InterAmericanTropicalTunaCommission andtheAgreement on Small Cetaceans in theBaltic andNorth Seaunderthe Bonn Convention. taking into accountrelevantactivities at the subregional. poisoning and othercomparable destructive fishing practices. and improving tech niques of processi ng. 17. and with the supportof other intemationalintergovernmental agencies.55States shouldfully implement General Assembly resof ution 461215 on large-scale pelagrc drift-netfishing.52States shouldtake effectiveactionconsistent with international law to monitorandcontrolfishingactivities by vessels flying their flags on the high seasto ensure compliancewith applicableconservation and management rules. 17. 17. A ND / NF O R M AT ION B ) DA T A MEANS OF I. regionalor global. Where suchorganizations do not exist.58States.51States should ensure thatfishingactivities by vessels flying their flags on the high seastake place in a mannerso as to minimizeincidental catches.60 Effectivecooperation within existingsubregional.53States shouldtakeeffectiveaction. (c) Developand shareanalyticaland predictivetools.64 The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementingthe r55 . 17. 17. cooperate to establish suchorganizations. (d) Define and identify appropriate management units.inter alia.consistent with international law. (d) Establishor expand appropriatenronitoring and programmes. 17. should identify and assess existing problems related to the conservationand management of suchfish stocks.with a view to promotingeffectiveimplementation of the provisions of the United NationsConventionon the Law of the Seaon straddlingfish stocksand highly rnigratorylish stocks. (c) The work of otherorganizations. where and as appropriate. post-harvest lossesand discards. management and studyof cetaceans. The conference. 17.62States recognize: (a) The responsibility of theInternational WhalingCommission fbr the conservation and marlagement of whale stocksand the regulationof whaling pursuant to the 1946 International Convention tbr the Regulation of Whaling. I 7. 17.63States should cooperatefor the conservation. through bilateraland multilateralcooperation and within the frarnewclrkof subregionaland regional fisheriesbodies. as well as of othercetaceans. on scientific and technical studiesby FAO.(b) Give full effect to theseprovisionswith regardto highly migratoryspecies. whether subregional. (c) Negotiate.an intergovernmentalconference under United Nations auspices. The work and the resultsof the conference should be fully consistent with the provisions of the United NationsConvention on theLaw of theSea. whereappropriate. with the supporlof international organizations.59Statesshould. in the conservation. ensure adequate coordinationand cooperation in enclosed and semi-enclosed seasand betweensubregional. 17 . the conservation and sustainable useof the marinelivine resources of the high seas. assessment c/ /NIERNAI/ONAL AND REGIONAI COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 17. (b) Exchangeon a regular basisup-to-datedata and informationadequate for fisheries assessment.where appropriate. distribu tion and transportation. should assess high seasresourcepotentialsand develop profiles of all stocks(targetand non-target). drau.as soon as possible.54States shouldprohibitdynamiting. 17. in particularthe rightsandobligations of coastalStates and States fishing on the high seas. suchas stockassessment and bioeconomic models.and formulate appropriaterecofilrnendations.57States.50Statesshould convene.-56 Statesshouldtake measures to increase the availability of marineliving resources ashumanfood by reducing wastage.and considermeansof improving cooperation on fisheriesamong States.61 States with aninterest in ahigh seas fisheryregulated by an existing subregionaland/or regional high seas fisheries organization of whichtheyarenot members should be encouraged to join thatorganization. detailed.accurate and timely reportingof catches and effort.\\PLEMENTATION 17. regional and global intergovemmental fisheries bodies.including full. to deterreflaggingof vessels by their nationals asa means of avoidingcompliance with applicable conservationand managementrules for fishing activitieson the high seas.internationalagreementsfor the effective management and conservation of fishery stocks.as appropriate. (b) The work of theIntemational WhalingCommission Scientific Cornmitteein carrying out studiesof large whalesin particular.States should. regionalor globalfisheries bodiesshouldbe encouraged.ing.

andexcessive degradation.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude reviewed by Governments. suchasmangroves othermarineandcoastal integrated are amongthe most highly diverse. DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE at the nationallevel development 17. if sustainably creasedpotentialto meet nutritional and social needs. underutilized new technol ogi es.including any that are will depend upon.includingthe with high seas marineliving resources broughtaboutby impactsof regionaland globalchanges and by humanactivities. D) CA P A C IT Y -BU IL D IN G 17. naturalcauses programmesto (c) Cooperatein coordinatingresearch to managehigh seas provide the knowledge necessary resources. Such resources utilized. and between tween artisanal and large-scale fishing and othertypesof activities.73Problems extendbeyondfisheries.70Marine fisheriesyield 80 to 90 million tons of 95 percentof which is taken fish and shellfishper/year.shouldcooperate for monistructures and institutional systems or upgrade as well as the research toring.69Special support.To realize this potential requiresimproved knowledgeand identification of marine living resourcestocks. rative technical and researchprograffImesto improve of species of the life cyclesandmigrations understanding including identifying critical areas found on the high seas. will be needed to enhancethe capacitiesof countries in theareas of dataandinformation. fishing. with the supportof relevantinternational 17.regionalor global. organizations. and training observers to be placedon fishing vessels. ecosystem fleet sizes.regional or global. and life stages. the non-concessional. estuaries. Emphasis ment and other approachesthat take into account the amongspecies. shoulddevelopcollabowherenecessary. including cooperationamong States. provide an important 17. Yields have nearly fivefold over the past four decades.with the support. Governmentsdecide and programmes specific strategies upon for implementation.68States. AL AN S A N D T EC H N O L OG| CME 8/ S C/ E NIF tC with the supportof relevantinternational 17. OF Dl susrArNABtE usE AND CoNSERVATION UNDER MARINE TIVING RESOURCES NATIONATJURISDICTION BASIS FOR ACTION 17. and 17. to develop regional. underevaluation and increasingcompetition beunreliable databases.71Marine living resources and their useis often of proteinin many countries source andindigenous to localcommunities of majorimportance providefood and livelihoodsto people. particularly in developingcountries. particularly of useof and unutilizedstocksand species. from waters under nationaljurisdiction.67Humanresource at both developmentand management strouldbe targeted including training in high seas of high seasresources.offer inmillions of peopleand. control and surveillance. popuof marineliving resource capacityfor assessment lations. training of skilled personnelto manageand conserve of the exclusive effectivelythe marine living resources economiczone and other areasunder nationaljurisdicmanageshouldalsobe on multi-species tion. overcapitalization of catch. 156 .of w hether subr elev ant in te rn a ti o n a lo rg a n i z a ti o n s . resource assessment.66States. where appropriate. insufficiently selectivegear. organizations. and humanresource scientificand technological developmentin order to participateeffectively in the utilization of high seas conservationand sustainable marineliving resources. including local overfishing. (a) Develop databases on the high seasmarine living and fisheries: resources (b) Collect and correlatemarine environmentaldata data.better handl i ng and pr ocessing and improvedquality and facilities to avoid wastage. increased The provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon of the the Law of the Sea on marine living resources exclusive economic zone and other areasunder national jurisdiction set forth rights and obligationsof and utilization of Stateswith respectto conservation thoseresources. should: as appropriate. unauthorizedincursionsby foreign fleets. whether subregional.to be about$12 million from activitiesof this programme the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms. inter alia. 17. relationships jurisdiction in many areas undernational 17.72Fisheries face mounting problems. and in high seas fishing techniques to deal with high seas cadresof personnel strengthening andrelated enviandconservation management resource and inspectors ronmentalissues.65States. only andhavenot been mates Actual costsand financial terms.Coralreef's and habitats. developing means.

17. such marine and coastal systemsare under from a varietv of sources. includingunderutilized or unutilizedstocksand species. and are critical resourcesfor food. access to the surplus of aliowablecatches. including those fbr providing alternative sources of income. mechanismsto develop rnariculture.particularlydevelopingcountries and Stateswhose economiesare overwhelminglydependent on theexploitation of themarineliving resources shouldobtainthe full of their exclusive economiczones. as well as habitats and otherecologicallysensitive areas. scientific and technological meansat their disposal. (0 Develop and promote the use of environrnentally sound technology under criteria compatible with the sustainable use of marine living resources. post-harvest lossesand discards. whethersubregional. taking into accountthe special needs andinterests of small-scale fisheries. local artisanal communitiesand indigenous peopleto meethuman nutritional and other development needs.as appropriate of international organizations. They often serve important ecological functions. (g) Enhancethe productivity and utilization of their marineliving resources for food and income. 17. 17.75States commit themselves to the conservation and sustainable useof marineliving resources undernational jurisdiction.15 aboverestrictsthe right of a coastalStateor the competence of an internationalorganization. whereappropriate.80CoastalStates.and improving techniquesof processing.74CoastalStates.79States.71The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities.in particularin developingcountries. from sustainable utilization socialandeconomic benefits within their exclusiveecoof marine living resources nomic zonesand other areasunder nationaljurisdiction. small-scale artisanal flsheries peoplein development and indigenous andmanagernent programmes. Statesshall cooperatewith a view to the conservationof marine mammalsand in the caseof cetaceans shallin particular work throughthe appropriate international organizations for their conservation.should addressthe issues of straddling stocks and highly migratory species. by developinginventories. for their conservation and sustainable use' (b) Implement strategiesfor the sustainable use of marineliving resources. 17. including the financial.Lroth stressor are threatened human and natural. related to regulate activities to the abovestrategies: (e) Takemeasures to increase theavailabilityof marine living resources as human food by reducing wastage.shouldinter alia: (a) Assessthe potential of marine living resources.regionalor global.in implementingthe provisionsof the UnitedNationsConvention on theLaw of the Sea. (d) Strengthen their legal and regulatoryframeworks. to prohibit.individually or through bilateral and/ormultilateralcooperation and with the support. (0 Preserverare or fragile ecosystems. OBJECTIVES 17.aquacultureand small-scale.and.81C oastal S tates shoul d expl ore the scope f or expandingrecreational and tourist activities basedon marine living resources. taking fully into account the objectivesetout in paragraph 17. management and study. (c) Implement.78States shouldensure that marineliving resources of the exclusiveecononriczone and other areasunder nationaljurisdiction are conserved and managedin acof the UnitedNationsConcordance with the provisions ventionon the Law of the Sea. (d) Promotethe development fishand useof selective ing gear and practices that minimize wastein the catch of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target species. deep-sea and oceanicfisherieswithin areas jurisdictionwhereassessments undernational show that marineliving resources are potentiallyavailable.where necessary. distributionand transportation. Adequatefinancial. scientific and technologicalcooperationshould be provided to supportactionby them to implementtheseobjectives. 17.Such activitiesshouldbe compatiblewith conservation developand sustainable ment policiesand plans.as well as goals. tourism and economic development.and productive of the Earth's ecosystems. energy.enforcement andsurveillance capabilities.economicand development (b) Takeinto accounttraditionalknowledgeand interestsof local communities. (e) Protectand restoreendangered marinespecies. In many parts of the world. provide coastal protection.76Nothing in paragraphI1. 17. (c) Maintain or restorepopulations of marinespecies at yield as levelsthat can producethe maximum sustainable qualifiedby relevant andeconomicfactors. To this end. 157 . ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACT IVITI ES 17. including assessment of the environmentalirnpactof major new fishery practices. including manage ment. or regulate the exploitation of marine marrunalsmore strictly than providedfor in that paragraph. it is necessary to: (a) Developandincrease the potentialof marineliving resources to meet human nutritional needs.74. environmental taking into consideration relationships amongspecies.limit as appropriate. social.

and indigenous women.86States ing high levelsof biodiversityandproductivityandother limiand shouldprovidenecessary critical habitatareas through. Priority shouldbe accorded.of shouldsupportthe sustainability 17. (b) The work of the International WhalingCommission Scientific Committee in carrying out studies of large whalesin particular. people. suchas stockassessment and bioeconomic (d) Establishor expand appropriatemonitoring and programmes assessment . s m a l l -s c a l efi sherw orkers.should cooperate to: (a) Developfinancialand technicalcooperation to enhance the capacities of developingcountriesin smallaquaculfisheries. (c) Develop and shareanalyticaland predictivetools. (c) The work of other organizations. such as the InterAmericanTropicalTunaCommissionandtheAgreement on Small Cetaceans in the Baltic andNorth Seaunderthe management and Bonn Convention.AI c/ /NTERNAilONAT. (d) Promote seafoodquality.inter alia. (a) Coral reef ecosystems.88States. to: as appropriate. including through nafor seafood.90States recognize: (a) The responsibility of the InternationalWhaling and management of Commissionfor the conservation whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuantto the 1946International Conventionfor the Resulationof Whaling.82Coastal States artisanal fisheries. whereappropriate. regional or global. and with the support. as well as of othercetaceans. of suchknowledgeinto management 17. where and as appropriate. fisheriesbodies. nous people are taken into account. of with the support.inter post-harvest lossesand managingstocksfor guaranteed yields: sustainable (c) Develop agreedcriteria for the use of selective fishing gearand practices to minimize wastein the catch of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target species.87States. destructive othercomparable exhibitshouldidentifymarineecosystems 17.89Statesshould.To this end. taking account of changesin the environment and humanactivities. and with the support of relevant United Nations and other internationalorganizations.should: (a) Promoteenhanced of data collectionand exchange for the conservation useof the and sustainable necessary jurisdiction. broughtaboutby naturalcauses AND REG'ON. andtropicalwetlands. of should conduct analyses internationalorganizations itr marineand coastalareas the potentialfor aquaculture under nati o n a l j u ri s d i c ti o n a n d a p p l y appropri ate safeguards as to the introductionof new species. asappropriate. (b) Promotethecontributionof marineliving resources to eliminate malnutrition and to achievefood self-suffialia. (e) Complete or update marine biodiversity. nation of protectedareas. in enclosed and coordinationand cooperation adequate regional semi-enclosed seasand between subregional. 17.in particulartheir right to subsistence. they should.85States fishing practices. (c) Temperate includingmangroves. small-scale as appropriate: (a) Integrate small-scaleartisanaltisheries developplanning. models. 17. ensure 17. in theconservation. aswell asin coastal scaleandoceanic ture and mariculture.by minimizing ciencyin developing countries.83CoastalStatesshouldensurethat. study of cetaceans and other marine mammals. (b) Estuaries.taking into account ment in marineandcoastal repreencouraging and. of internationalorganizations. undernational marineliving resources (b) Exchangeon a regular basis up-to-datedata and for fisheriesassessment.includingtheir rights to utilizationand protecbasis. the interests s ent at iono f fi s h e rme n . AIION AND COORD'NAI'ON COOPER 17. informationnecessary r58 . poisoning and shouldprohibitdynamiting. throughbilateraland multilateralcooperation. AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA individuallyor throughbilateralandmulti17.as appropriate. and global intergovernmental 17. (d) Seagrass beds: (e) Other spawningand nurseryareas. marine living resourceand critical habitat profiles of exclusive economiczonesand otherareasundernationaljurisdiction.local communities (b) Recognize fishworkers and therightsof small-scale peopleandlocal comthe special situationof indigenous munities. in the negotiaon of international agreements tion and implementation of marine living rethe developmentor conservation the interests of local communitiesand indigesources. desigtationson use in theseareas. on a sustainable tion of their habitats (c) Developsystems for the acquisitionand recording of traditionalknowledgeconcerningmarine living reand promotethe incorporation and environment sources systems.84CoastalStates. lateralcooperation whether subregional. improve consumer confidenceand maximizeeconomicreturns. in order to systems tional quality assurance promote accessto markets.

regional or global.endemismand productivity and migratorystopover points.17. maintain. small-scale fish workers.should: (a) Develop researchcapacitiesfor assessment of marineliving resource populations and monitoring.93States. (c) Introduce topics relating to the importanceof marine living resources in educational curricula at all levels. Actualcosts will depend upon. to:. including about$60 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. the specific strategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.92The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 billion.as appropriate. shouldencourage and provide supportfor developingcountrtes. Systematic t59 . (d) Developand strengthen. aquacultureand particularlyto developingcountries. the FAOACES Codeof Practicefor Consideration of Transferand Introduction of Marine and Freshwater Organisms. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 17. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17.and upgradeknowledgeon marineecosystems.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed by Governments.will be neededto enhancetl-recapacitiesof devel opi ng countri es i n the areas of dataand i nfb r m ati on. D) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG 17. particularlyin the socialand economicsciences.should: (a) Provide for the transferof environmentally sound technologiesto develop fisheries.96S peci alsupport.95CoastalStates.91States should cooperatefor the conservation.scientific assessment and useof appropriatetraditional management systems. wherethe needmay arise.regionaland global agencies. (b) Create training opportunities at national and re(includingsubsistence) gional levelsto supportartisanal fisheries. as appropriate. requiresthe ability to determinethe presentstate of thesesystemsand to predict future conditions. Rationaluse and developmentof coastalareas. (c) Promotethe study. where appropriate.The high degree of uncertainty in present infbrmationinhibits effective managementand limits the ability to make predictions andassess environmental change. the technicaland financialassistance to organize.97The marineenvironment is vulnerableand sensitive to climate and atmosphenc changes. sci enti fi cand technol ogi cal meansand hum an resourcedevel opmenti n cl rderto enabl e theln t o participate effectivelyin the conservation and sustainable use of marine livinc resourcesunder national jurisdiction. resourcesand to encourageequitableparticipationoflocal communities. inter alia.in particularthosethat rely on tishing for subsistence. (c) Establish sustainable aquaculturedevelopment strategies. 8/ SCrENrrFtC AND TECHNOIOG\CAL MEANS 17. as appropriate. (d) Considerobserving. exchangeand improve traditional knowledge of marine living resourcesand fishing techniques.with the supportof relevantsubregional. (b) Accord specialattentionto mechanisms for transferring resourceinformation and improved fishing and aquaculture technologies to fishing communitiesat the local level.womenand indigenous people. 17. (e) Promotescientificresearch on marineareas of particular importancefor marine living resources. including.training and research on marine living resources. institutionscapableof implementingthe objective s and activitiesrelatedto the conseruation and manasement of marineliving resources. management and studyof cetaceans.with the supportof relevantintergovernmental organizations.all seasand marine resources.i ncl udi ngcooperati on atn ong States. indigenouspeopleand women. whethersubregional. mariculture. includingenvironmental management in support of rural fish-farmingcommunities. as appropriate. (a) Expand multidisciplinaryeducation.or throughbilateraland multilateral cooperation and with the supportof relevantinternational organizations. inter alia.to develop small-scaleuse of marine living E) ADDRESSTNG CR|T|CAT UNCERTATNTTES FOR THE'VIANAGEMENT OF THEMARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIIAATE CHANGE BASIS FOR ACTION 17. as well asconservation of the marineenvironment.94States individually. such as areasof high diversity. (b) Provide support to local fishing communities.

precautionarymeasuresshould be undertaken to diminish the risks and effects. and of atmospheric and the marine environment. including as appropriate. Education and Mutual Assistance(TEMA) programme. oceans as a carbon of the role of atic observation OBJECIIVES with provisions of the States. sink.l0l States (a) Coordinating national and regional observation programmesfor coastal and near-shorephenomenarelated to climate change and for researchparameters essential for marine and coastal managementin all regions.through the Global Ocean Observing System. Meanwhile. shouldcarry out analysis. r60 .such as ozonedepletion.103 States (a) Increasing internationalcooperationparticulariy with a view to strengthening nationalscientificandtechand nol ogi cal capabi l i ti esfor anal ysi ng. capabilitiesfor scientific data storageand management researchon and systematicobservation of the marine environment. (d) Identifying ongoing and planned programmesof with systematic observation of the marineenvironment. l7. suchasozonedepletion. it is necessary its role on global processes. the and to evaluate 17. (c) Cooperating with a view to adopting special measuresto cope with and adapt to potential climate of rise. to address critical uncertainties (e) Initiating a programmeof research to determinethe levels of ultraviolet increased marinebiological effectsof ozonelayer stratospheric rays due to the depletionof the possible effects. (b) Providing improved forecasts of marineconditions for the safety of inhabitantsof coastalareasand for the efficiency of maritime operations.collection of data on marine environmentalparameters will be needed to apply integrated managementapproachesand to predict effects of global climate change phenomena.A long-termcooperative researchcommitment is neededto provide the data required for global climate models and to reduce uncertainty.IOC all seas with competent UnitedNationsbodies. on living marine resources In order to determinethe role of the oceansand all seas in driving global systems and to predict natural and human-inducedchangesin marine and coastalenvironand disments.98T'here aremanyuncertainties in and particularlyabout sealevelrise. aboutclimatechange 17. interactionswith atmosphericphenomena.the mechanisms to collect.in accordance 17. (b) Promoteexchange of dataandinformationresulting from scientific researchand systematicobservationand from traditional ecological knowledge and ensure its andthepublic at thenational availabilityto policy makers level. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAIION shouldconsider.analysisand distributionof data and information from the oceans and all seas. UNEP and other internationalorganizations the collection. synthesize seminateinformation from researchand systematicobandreinforced servationactivitiesneedto be restructured considerably.lO2Recognizingthe importantrole that oceansand play in attenuating potential climatechange. (b) Supporting with the role of the IOC in cooperation in WMO. giving special attentionto the need for IOC to develop fully the strategy for providing training and for developing countries throughits technicalassistance Training.100 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on to imcommit themselves marine scientific research.particularly on small islands and on low-lying and coastal areasof the world. priorities establishing activitiesand a view to integrating for oceansand all seas. particularly for priority areas. inter alia: 17. of its effects in the marine environment An assessment is neededto reduceuncertaintyand to provide a basisfor action. andotherrelevant resources and experhaving the the supportof countries and systemassessments tise. ACTIVITIES IVITI ES EDACT A) MANAGEMENT-R ELAT inter alia: shouldconsider. prove the understanding of the marine environmentand To this end. to: (a) Promote scientific research on and systematic observation of the marine environment within the including limits of nationaljurisdiction and high seas.asse ssing predictingglobal climateand environmental change. (c) Cooperate of standwith a view to the development ard inter-calibratedprocedures.measuring techniques. Small increases damage significant havethepotentialof causing sealevel strategies Response andlow-lying coasts. to smallislands shouldbe basedon sounddata.such as small islandsand low-lying and critical coastalareas. including the development changeand sealevel globally accepted methodologies for coastal vulneramodelling and responsestrategies bility assessment.99Increased depletionhas been reportedin some areasof the world. ultravioletradiationderivedfrom ozone 17.

(b) Enhance of the international scientificcomaccess agencies of the United Nations munity and specialized to such data and information. and systematic observacovering the resultsof research tion prograrnmes. predictionmechanisms in orderto prepare andexchange analyses andforecasts regionalandglobaloceanographic and and to provide facilities for internationalresearch training at national. 17. l7.(c) Creating national multisectoralinformation bases. where appropriate: (a) Providingtechnicalcooperation in developingthe for marineresearch capacityof coastaland islandStates observation and for using its results. Actual costsandfinancial terms. as approsubregional.in particular reto understanding theglobal environment. whether subregional. into the RegionalSeasProgrammes in a coordinated fashionto implement. and systematic (b) Strengthening existing national institutionsand internationalanalysis and creating.agricultureand marine environment.includingany that are non-concessional. subregionaland regional levels.lM Statesshould considerbilaterally and multilaterally and in cooperation with international orgamzations.through rel e vant organi zati ons w i thi n the U ni ted N ati ons syst em . (e) Cooperating with a view to the exchangeof data and archivingthroughthe and informationand its storage world and regional data centres.whereappropriate. develop options for corrective measures. AND REG'ONAICi 'NIERNAIIONAT AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAI'ON 17. 17.This would include: systematic (a) Review of existingregionaland global databases.108Basedon the resultsof research on the effectsof the additionalultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth's surface. (c) Systematicobservationof coastal habitatsand sealevel inventories changes.and review mechanisms to developand integrate observation networks.OGICAL MEANS l7. organrze regular scientific reviews. shouldstrengthen regionaland global coordination. of marinepollutionsources and reviewsof fisheries statistics. priate.regional. 17. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideuponfor implementation.analysisand use of data and information.including the encouragement of periodicseminars and symposia. whereapplicable. where necessary.in particular. as provided for in Article III of the Antarctic Treaty. coastal procedures States shouldcooperate in thedevelopmentof thatallow forcomparable analysis andsoundness of data. will dependupon. interregionalor global.continueto: (a) Ensure that data and information resulting from such researchare freely available to the international community.in the fields of human health.agreeon formats for presentation and storage. inter alia. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 11.l l0 Developed countries shouldprovidethe financing for the further development and implementation of the GlobalOceanObservins Svstem. includingabout$480million from theinternational community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. when applicable. (0 Cooperating full participation of developto ensure ing countries.107 Internati onalcooperati on. 106 States high-levelinter-agency.regional and global observing systems basedon the principle of exchangeof data.109 The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcost ( 1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to Lre aboutS750million. search essential States carryingout suchresearch activitiesin Antarctica should. (b) Mechanisms and compatible to developcomparable validatemethodologies techniques. (d) Linking these databases to existing data and information services and mechanisms.105In recognition ofthe valueof Antarcticaas anarea for the conduct of scientific research. and measurements. 8/ SC/ENIIFIC AND IECHNOI. They shouldalsocooperate on a subregional andregional r6t .Statesand international organizati ons shoul d consi der taki ng appropri ateremedial measures. One aim shouldbe the predictingof the effectsof climate-related emergencies on existing coastalphysical and socioeconomicinfrastructure. subregional. should support countries to develop and integrate regi onal systematic long-termobservat ion programmes.l1l To address critical uncertainties throughsystematiccoastal andmarineobservations andresearch. 17.such as World WeatherWatch and Earthwatch. and communicatethe information gathered to potentialusers.in any internationalscheme of the United Nations underthe organsand organizations systemfor the collection. (d) Orgamzation of oceanand of periodic assessments all seas and coastalareastatus and trends.

116 It is recognizedthat the role of international national efforts.at the consideration.as approtional. and thereis a needto improve coordinationand strengthenlinks among them. marine environment. trade agencies dealingwith development.i n d i v i d u a l l y o r th ro u g h b i l ateral and multilateral cooperation and with the support.particularly implement comprehensive in developing countries.COOPERATION FOR ACTION BASIS 17. both within and outside including regional. to promoteinstitutheirpolicies. INCIUDING |NTERNATIONAL.114 States shouldstrengthen oceanographic comand technological nationalscientific support and to develop. (b) Strengthencoordination between those organizai nstitutions tions and otherUnited Nationsorganizations. facilities and of scientists. share infrastructureand expensive and sophisticated procedures and equipment. 162 . institutional linkages between bilateral and multilateral national.regular intergovernmental review and consideration of environment and developmentissueswith respectto marine and coastalareas: (d) Promote the effective operation of coordinating mechanismsfor the componentsof the United Nations and deveiopsystemdealingwith issues of environment ment in marine and coastalareas. should develop and subregional.l12 International requested.to: (a) Integrate relevant sectoral activities addressing environment and development in marine and coastal regionaland global levels.through existing programmeswhere applicable. where appropriate. exchange ledgeof the and organizesystematicobservationsand assessments.coastal countries in implementing research projectson the effectsof additionalultraviolet radiation. for a broad and coherent approachto meeting their core human resourceneeds in the marine sciences.with competencein marine issues. priate. as appropriate. of endogenousresearchcapabilities in developing countries. information.117 Statescommit themselves. areasat national. or equivalent bodies missions work closely and marine science activities coordinate organizations. OBJECTIVES with in accordance 17. development DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE l7. as appropriate. when shouldsupport.l15 States knowwhere applicable.regional. tation of theprograrnme areas it is necessary. subregional. including their subregional and regionalcomponents. It is also important to ensurethat an integratedand multisectoralapproachto marineissues is pursuedat all levels.of international organizationswhether regional or global. ll3 S t a te s . is to support andsupplement cooperation Implementationof strategiesand activities under the and programmeareasrelativeto marineand coastalareas at naseasrequireseffective institutional arrangements regionaland global levels. programmes. and development (c) Promotewithin the United Nations system. and otherrelatedeconomicissues. intergovernmentallevel of general marine and coastal matters. F) STRENGTHENTNG AND COORDINATION REGIONAL. as appropriate.To this end. with international and reshould use existing subregional l7. the United Nations system.subregional.1 l8 The General Assemblyshouldprovideforregular within the United Nationssystem.basis. issues.institutions. includingenvironment anddevelopment and executive and should requestthe Secretary-General and organizations to: headsof United Nationsagencies (a) Strengthencoordination and develop improved arrangements amongthe relevantUnited Nationsorganizationswith major marine and coastalresponsibilities. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG asnecessary. make the most effective use promotion in the They should also cooperate equipment.develop quality assurance jointly. tional arrangements necessary to supportthe implemenin this chapter. andspecialized as appropriate. to develop gional mechanisms. particularly and knowledge of endogenous in the development countries. subregional and interregionalinstitutions dealing with environment in marineand coastalareas. (b) Promote effective information exchange and. Special attention develop human resources of scientificandtechnological shouldbe given to transf-er means to support States. developing capabilities. There are numerous national and international. orestablish 17. AC-IIVITIES IVITI ES A) MANAGEA/ENI-R ELAT ED ACT GLOBAL 17.as well as links with relevantinternational bodies. prioritiesandresources. organizations l7.

(e) Develop a centralized system to provide for informationon legislation andadviceon implementation of legal agreementson marine environmentaland development issues. Shouldtradepolicy measures be found necessary for the enforcementof environmental policies. (c) Arrangefor periodicintraregional consultations.whereappropriate: (a) Promote exchangeof information on marine and coastalissues.regionaland subregional fisheries organizations and regionalcommissions. Gl st sTAtNABtE DEVETOPMENT OF SrvrAUFIANDS SUBREGIONAL ANDREGIONAL 17.thus preventing environmental measures from resultingin unnecessary restrictionsto trade.where necessary. (b) Introduce. (d) Facilitateaccess to and use of expertiseand technology throughrelevantnationalbodiesto subregional and regionalcentres and networks. Environmental measures addressing internationalenvironmental problemsshould. 17. Thesecould include. BASIS FOR ACTION 17. whereappropriate. placethem at a disadvantage economically and r63 . humanresource development and capacity-building are entirelyrelevantfor this programme areaas well. limited resources.Trade policy measures for environmental purposes shouldnot constitute a meansof arbitraryor unjustifiable discrimination or a disguisedrestrictionon international trade.124Small islanddevelopingStates. certain principlesand rules shouldapply. B/ SCIENI/F/C AND TFCHNO/OGtCALMEANS. through internationalcooperation. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI AND CAPACITY.including any that are non-concessional. an obligation to ensure transparencyin the use of trade measures related to the environment and to provide adequatenotificationof nationalregulations. will depend upon. developa comprehensive programmefor meetingthe core humanresource needs in marinesciences at all levels. the principle that the trademeasure chosenshouldbe the least trade-restrictive necessary to achievethe objectives. be based on an international consensus.geographi cdi spersi onand i sol ati on fr om markets. This couldalsoinclude networks linking countrieswith comparableenvironmentalproblems. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation.asfar aspossible. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17. inter alia.120States shouldconsider. underthe sections on scientificandtechnological means.(c) Improverepresentation of UnitedNationsagencies dealing with the marine environmentin United Nations systemwide coordinationefforts.subregionaland regional data and information systems. and islandssupporting small communitiesare a specialcase both for environmentand development. Their small size. and the needto give consideration to the specialconditionsand development requirements of developingcountriesas they move towardsintemationally agreed environmental objectives.l23 The means of implementationoutlined in the other programmeareason marine and coastalissues. These are indicative and order-of'-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Statesshould. (b) Strengthenthe capacity of internationalorganizations to handleinformation and supportthe development of national. including consideration of co-locationof their staff. (c) Furtherdevelopexistinginternational mechanisms such as Earthwatchand GESAMP. Additionally. the RegionalSeas Programmes of UNEP. the principleof non-discrimination.122The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcosr (1993-2000) of implementing the activitiesof this prograinme to be about$50 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. intergovernmental regionalcooperation. coordinationamong relevantUnited Nationsand othermultilateralorganizations at the subregional and regional levels. (d) Promote. BUILDING ll.119 States recognize that environmentalpolicies should deal with the root causesof environmental degradation. B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON l7.Domestic measures targetedto achievecertain environmentalobjectives may need trade measures to render them effective.l2l States should. as appropriate: (a) Strengthening.greater collaboration betweenthe United Nations agenciesand subregional and regional coastaland marine programmes.inter alia. Unilateralactionsto dealwith environmental challenges outsidethejurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. and extendingwherenecessary. They are ecologically fragile and vulnerable. where necessary. Actualcosts andflnancialterms.suchas the Regional Centres for Marine Technology.

and prepare appropriate plans. (e) Review the existinginstitutional arrangements and identify and undertakeappropriateinstitutional reforms essentialto the effective implementationof sustainable plans. critical marinehabitatsand biodiversity.social and economic impactsof climate changeand sealevel rise.whether 164 .For small islanddeveloping States the oceanand coastalenvironment is of strategic importance and constitutesa valuable development resource. OBJECTIVES 17J28 States commit themselvesto addressingthe problems of sustainable developrnent of small island developing States.producingan environmental profile and inventory of their natural resources. 17.define measures sectoral for maintaining cultural and biologicaldiversity and conserve endangered species andcritical marinehabitats. (b) Develop techniques for determiningand monitoring the carryingcapacityof smallislands underdifferent development assumptions and resource constraints.giving them a very high share of global biodiversity.They also have rich and diverse cultureswith specialadaptations to islandenvironments and knowledge of the sound managementof island resources. maintaining biodiversityand improving the quality of life for islandpeople.stormsand hurricanes associated change. contingency (h) Promote environmentally sound technology for sustainable development within small islanddeveloping States and identify technologies that shouldbe excluded because of their threatsto essential islandecosvstems. (d) Adapt coastalarea management techniques. (b) To adopt measures which will enablesmall island developing Statesto cope effectively. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGFMFNI-R ELATED ACT IVIT IE S 17. environmental.131 Small islanddeveloping with the support. taking into accountthe traditionaland culturalvaluesof indigenous peopleof islanCcountries.it is necessary: (a) To adoptand implementplansand programmes to supportthe sustainable development and utilization of their marine and coastalresources.125 Their geographic isolationhasresultedin their habitationby a comparativelylarge number of unique species of flora and fauna. as appropriate.includdevelopment ing thereview andmodificationof existingunsustainable policiesand practices. Thesearecausing major set-backs to their socioeconomicdevelopment.130Additional informationon the geographic.Existingislanddatabases shouldbe expandedandgeographic infbrmationsystems developed and adapted to suit the specialcharacteristics of islands. thereare specialchallenges to planningfor and implementing sustainabledevelopment. (f) Implementsustainable plans. such as planning. ments.using Geographical InformationSystems suitableto the specialcharacteristics of small islands.includingintersectoral development coordination and communityparticipation in the planningprocess. should: c/ /NTERNATIONAL AND REG/ONAI. (g) Based on precautionaryand anticipatory approaches.cultural and socio-economic characteristics of islandsshouldbe compiledand assessed to assist in the planningprocess.preventeconomies of scale. States. siting and environmentalimpact assess(GIS).Small island developingStateswill be constrained in meetingthese without challenges the cooperation and assistance of the international communitv.of international organizations. COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 17.design and implement rational response strategies to addressthe environmental.129 Small islanddeveloping with the assistStates. (c) Prepare medium.Most tropical islandsare also now experiencing the more immediateimpactsof increasing frequencyof with climate cyclones. (a) Studythe specialenvironmental anddevelopmental characteristics of small islands. anceas appropriate of the international communityand on thebasisof existingwork of nationalandinternational organizations.and long-termplansfor sustainable developmentttrat emphasizemultiple use of resources. creatively and with environmental sustainably changeand to mitigate impacts and reduce the threats posed to marine and coastalresources.They areconsidered concentrated extremely vulnerableto global warming and sealevel rise. To this end.127Becausesmall island developmentoptions are limited. 17. integrateenvironmentalconsiderations with economicand planningand policies. llJ26 Small islanddevelopingStates have all the environmentalproblemsand challenges of the coastalzone in a limited land area. including meeting essential humanneeds. with certain small low-lying islandsfacing the increasingthreatof the loss of their entire nationalterritories. B) DATA AND /NFORMATTAN 17.

zone marine and zone. theConvention. D) CAPACTTY-BU|LDING 17. will cial terms. D EV EL OP M EN T E C) HUM A NRE S O U R C i7. inter aliu. Local planning should be integrated in educational curriculaof all levelsandpublic awareness of non-governcampaignsdevelopedwith the assistance mentalorganizations andindigenous coastalpopulations. to be held in 1993.".137 New technologies should rangeof capabilityof the limited humanresources be employed to increase the capacity of very small populationsto meet their needs.subregional.should be establishedor strengthened. on a regionalbasis. island developing whethersubregional. ttre specific strategiesand progfturrmes decideupon for implementation. on the Low of the to the UnitedNolionsConvention the position of Seoin thischopter of Agendo2l do not preiudice chorocler. Govemments ME AN S 8/ S C/ E NI I F I A CN D IE C H N IC AT 17. should develop and strengtheninter-island. At the same time. depend upon. must recognrze States and of smallislanddeveloping mentrequirements give adequatepriority in the provision of assistance.133The Conlerence secretariathas estimatedthe of implementing averagetotal annualcost ( 1993-2000) programme to be about$ 130million.theexclusive economic thecoastal as resources. particularly with respectto the developmentand implans. plementation of sustainable development be modified to meet these needs and special training programmes islandmanagement developedin integrated and development. 17 . 2R"f"r"n. appropriate. and protectionfunctions to executeboth management and to apply the polluter paysprinciple and supportthe should Educationalsystems training of their personnel. Stotes whichview the Convention os hovingo unified 3Norhing in the progromme oreos of this choptershouldbe involvedin o the rightsof the Stotes interpreted os preiudicing oreos or in the delimitotion of the moritime dispute of sovereignty concerned. thatcanincrease theoutputand 17 .engineers in integrated manv factors that need to be considered Resource usersshouldbe prepared coastalmanagement. r65 .regional or global. Statescannot maintain all necessary management anddevelopcoastal trainingfor integrated or scienof managers rnentshouldaim to producecadres the ableto integrate and coastalplanners tists. 'References to the UnitedNotionsConvenlion on the Low of the theposition of Seoin thischopter of Agendo2l do notpreiudice to with respect rotificotion of or occession ony Stote to signoture. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING 17.134 Centres for the developmentand diffusion of means and scientificinformationand adviceon technical island developing technologiesappropriateto small of to the management especiallywith reference States. organizations. The developmentand application of traditional knowledge to improve the developcapacity of countriesto implement sustainable ment shouldbe fostered. development on sustainable regionalandglobalmeetings of small island developingStateswith the first global developmentof small conferenceon the sustainable States.132 International the specialdevelopregionalor global.regional and interregionalcoincludingperiodic operationand informationexchange.135 Since populationsof srnall island developing specializations.136The total capacity of small island developing Stateswill always be limited. theactivitieso1'this comincluding about$50 million from the international terms. Existing capacity must to meetefficiently the immedithereforebe restructured ate needs for sustainabledevelopment and integrated management.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional estimates only andhavenot tive and order-of-magnitude Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. including any that are non-concessional. adequateand appropriate assistance from the internationalcommunity must be directed at strengtheningthe full range of human resourcesneeded on a continuous basis to implement sustainable developmentplans.

as well as the multiinterestutilizationof waterresources for water supplyand san itation. Suchintegration mustcoveralltypes freshwaterbodies. (d) Drinking-watersupplyand sanitation.The multisectoralnature of water resources development in the contextof socio-economic development must be recognized. recreation. through sea-levelrise. and duly considerwater quantity and quality aspects. (g) Impactsof climatechangeon water resources. 18.includingfloods and droughts.water quality and aquaticecosystems. as well as sedimentation control. must be accordedto flood prevention and control measures.3 The widespread gradualdestruction scarcity. technologies. Rational water utilization schemes for the development of surface and undergroundwater-supply sourcesand other potential sourceshave to be supportedby concurrent water conservation and wastage minimization measures.IB Protection of thequolity ond supply of freshwoter resources: Applicotion of integroted opprooches to thedevelopment. 18.4 Transboundary water resources and their useare of great importance to riparian States. hydropower generation. which in someregionshavebecomemore extreme and dramatic in their consequences. however. (b) Water resources assessment. (0 Water for sustainablefood production and rural development. where required. (c) Protection of water resources. including the improvement of indigenous technologies. The freshwater environmentis characterized by thehydrological cycle. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) TNTEGRATED WAIER RESOT RCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGE'YIENT BASIS FOR ACTION 18. Priority.l Freshwater resources arean essential component of part of all the Earth'shydrosphere and an indispensable terrestrial ccosystems. taking into accountthe interests of all riparian Statesconcerned. adapting humanactivitieswithin the capacitylimits of nature andcombating vectors of water-related Innovative diseases. biologicaland chemicalfunctionsof ecosystems.are needed to fully utilize limited water resource sandto safeguard resource those sagai nstpollution. inland fisheries.5 The following programmeareasare proposedfor the freshwatersector: (a) Integratedw ater resourcesdevel opm entand management.while preserving the hydrological. cooperation among those States may be desirable in conformity with existing agreementsand/or other relevant arrangements. threatenlowlying coastal areasand small islandecosystems. (e) Water and sustainable urban development.6 The extentto which water resources development contributesto economic productivity and social well- 166 . demandintegrated waterresources planningandmanagement.transportation. 18. monogement ond useof woter resources INTRODUCTION l8.In this connection.including both surface of interrelated water and groundwater. Global climate change and atmosphericpollution could also have an impact on freshwater resourcesand their availability and. The general objective is to make certain that adequatesuppliesof waterof goodqualityaremaintained for the entirepopulation of this planet. 18.lorvandflat landsmanasement andotheractivities. industryurbandevelopment.agriculture. and aggravated pollution of freshwater resources in many world regions.2 Water is neededin all aspects of life. alongwith theprogressive encroachment of incompatibleactivities.

that integrates technological. safeguarding however.rstainable resourceutilization patterns. however. and the integrationof sectoralwater plans and prograffnnes within the framework of national importance economicand socialpolicy. (b) To plan for the sustainable and rationalutilization. could setthe following targets: OBJECTIVES 18. has to be given to the satisfactionof basicneedsand the of ecosystems. to be an even greaterimpediment to promoting integratedwater managementthan had been anticipated.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation.water usersshould be chargedappropriately. to satisfy and reconcileneedsfor water in human activpriority ities.the harmonizationof those strategies and action prograrnmes. indigenous peopleand local policy-makingand communitiesin water management decision-making.including the United Nations and other relevantorganizations as appropriate.protectionof mountainslopes and riverbanksand otherrelevantdevelopmentand conservation activities.conservation of water reand management sources based on communityneedsandprioritieswithin policy. 18. of transboundary there is a needfor riparian Statesto formulate water resources prepare water resourcesaction programmes strategies. 18.where appropriate. althoughall social and rely heavilyon thesupplyandquality economic activities of freshwater.Effective implementationandcoordinationmechanisms arerequired.as required. socio-economic. theframeworkof national economic development (c) To design. \67 . including the United Nations and other relevant organizations asappropriate. sub-basin. of waterresources.including theinventorying with land-use planning. iterative and multisectoralapproachto water resources management. forest resourceutilization. areof paramount for action in the 1990sand beyond.1 I All States. andthroughbilateralor multilateralcooperation. In developingand using water resources. (b) Integration of measures for theprotection andconservation of potentialsources of freshwater supply. ACTIVITIES 18. youth. and consider.9 Integrated water resources management.and to have put in place appropriatein stitutionalstructure s andlegal instruments . management 18.12All States. in particular in developingcountries. with 70-80 per cent required for irrigation. The holistic managementof freshwater as a finite and vulnerableresource.As populations and economic activities grow. many countriesare rapidly reachingconditions of waterscarcity orfacing limits to economic development.10In the case waterresources.the appropriate institutional. could implement the following activities to improve integrated water resources management: (a) Formulation of costedand targetednational action plansand investment programmes. interactive. whose quantity and quality determinethe nature have to be of its utilization. accordingto their capacityand available resources. 18. environmentaland human health considerations. based on an approach of full public participation. B) BY THE YEAR 2025: (i) To have achieved subsectoraltargets of all freshwater programmeareas. and a socialand economic good.and water-related aspects. The fragmentation of responsibilitiesfor water resourcesdevelopment among sectoralagenciesis proving. A) BYTHEYEAR 2000: (i) To have designedand initiated costedand targeted national action programmes.7 The overall objectiveis to satisfythe freshwater needs of all countries for their sustainable development. including the identificationand protectionof potential sources of freshwater supply.To this end.being is not usually appreciated. including that of women. (d) To identify and strengthen or develop. Water demandsare increasingrapidly. implement and evaluateprojects and programmes that are both economically efficient and socially appropriatewithin clearly defined strategies.legal and financial mechanisms to ensure that water policy and its implementationare a catalyst for sustainable socialprogress and economicgrowth.water resources protected. including the integrationof land. less than 20 per cent for industryand a mere6 per centfor domesticconsumption. protection.8 Integrated water resources is based on the perception of water as an integral part of the a naturalresource ecosystem.taking into accountthe functioning of aquatic in order ecosystems and the perennialityof the resource. (ii) To haveestablished programmes efficientwater-use to attain sl. should be carried out at the level of the catchment basin or Four principal objectivesshouldbe pursued. accordingto their capacityand available resources. It is understoodthat the fulfilment of the targetsquantified in (A) (i) and (ii) abovewill dependupon new and additional financialresources thatwill be madeavailable to developingcountriesin accordance with the relevant provisionsof GeneralAssemblyresolution 44/228. as follows: (a) To promote a dynamic. Beyondthese requirements.

Actualcostsandfinancialterms. (e) Implementation of allocation decisions through d e m a n d m a n a g e m e n t . as appropriate. forecasting models. including facilitating discussionsand sharing of experiencesin areasrelatedto water resources management. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. the various availableoptions for charging water users(including domestic. analyse and display multisectoral information and to optimize decision-making. Field studies on thewillingness to pay shouldbe conducted in rural and urban situations.and promotion of educationfor water users.p r i c i n g m e c h a n i s m sa n d regulatorymeasures. (0 Flood and drought management. economic planning models and methods for watermanagement andplanning. (m) Support to water-usergroups to optimize local water resources management: (n) Development of public participatory techniques and their implementationin decision-making. (k) Integrationof water (includingsurfaceand underground water resources) quantity and quality management: (l) Promotionof waterconservation throughimproved water-use efficiencyand wastage minimizationschemes for all users. resources (o) Development and strengthening. particulzuly the enhancementof the role of women in water planningand management. use of marginal-quality water.includingenvironmental impact assessment methods. at all levelsconcerned. where appropriate. In addition. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 18. (ii) At the national level. 0) Developmentof new and alternativesourcesof water-supplysuch as seawaterdesalination. including operational guidelines. B/ SC/ENIIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL MFANS 18.delegation of water resources management. establishment of independent regulationand monitoring of freshwater.15Pursuant to the recognitionof water as a socialand economicgood. inter alia.including any that are non-concessional. (p) Disseminationof information.the development of new and altemativesources of water-supply and low-cost watertechnologies will requireinnovativeappliedresearch. includingthe development of water-saving devices.including risk anaiysisand environmental and socialimpactassessment.industrialand agricultural water-user groups)haveto be further evaluated and field-tested.14 T h e d e v e l o p m e n to f i n t e r a c t i v e d a t a b a s e s . 18. (g) Promotion of schemesfor rational water use through public awareness-raising. integratedwater resources planning and management in the framework of the national planning processand. where appropriate.urban. economic. 168 . namely: (i) At the lowestappropriate level. will depend upon. for thepurpose of beingableto dealwith theadded dimensionof integrating engineering. adaptation and diffusion of new techniquesand technoiogy among developing countries. assimilate. basedon nationalleeislationand economic measures: (iii) At the regionallevel.artificial groundwater recharge. improved delineationof responsibilities. includingdecentralization of government services to local authorities. This will involve the transfer. as well as the developmentof endogenous capacity. forecasting methods and economic planning models appropriate to the taskof managingwaterresources in an efficient and sustainable manner will require the application of new techniquessuchas geographical information systems and expert systemsto gather. educationalprogrammes andlevyingof watertariffsandothereconomic instruments: (h) Mobilizationof waterresources.13The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$ I l5 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. particularlyin arid and semi-aridareas: (i) Promotion of international scientific research cooperation on freshwater resources. division of labour and coordinationof intemational organizationsand prograrnrnes. to thatlevel. (d) Optimizationof water resources allocation under physicaland socio-economic constraints. of including mechanisms cooperation.(c) Developmentof interactive databases. the specitlc strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. of the harmonization of national strategies and actionprogrammes: (iv) At the global level. waste-water reuseand waterrecycling. private enterprises and communities.environmental and social aspects of water resources management and predictrngthe effectsin temrsof human impact.Furtherdevelopment is requiredfor economic instrumentsthat take into account opportunity costs and environmental externalities. consideration.in accordancewith nationallegislation. generally. includingthe consideration by the UnitedNations of a World Water Day. where appropriate.

however.taking into accountlong-termplanningneedsas well as thosewith horizons. The meanswill vary from caseto case.16Water resourcesdevelopmentand rnanagement should be planned in an integratedmanner. e h a b i l i t a t i o na n d o p t i m a l through maintenancer and cleantechnologies. Planning cclnsiderations proenvironmental should reflect benefitsinvestment. tection and operationcosts.donor supportto local levels in indeveloping countries. corporanon-governmental organizations.resourceassessment instruments. economicgoodandthe ability of the communities 18.including enhancement peopleand localcommunities. includesmobilizationof financialandhumanresources. themostvaluable alternative costsreflecting burdenall benefiActual chargingneednot necessarily of thoseconsiderations. legislation.22In creatingthe enablingenvironmentfor lowestthe role of government appropriate-levelmanagement. RE S OU R C D ES EV EL OP M EN I C) HUM A N management to of waterresources l8. whetherintemational. (b) Training of water managers at all levelsso that they have an appropriateunderstandingof all the elements necessary for their decision-making. niques. as appropriate.Although water is managed at variouslevelsin the socio-political system.monitoringand assessment of the useof waterand land resources and creatingof opportunities for public participation. polluting technologiesand the knowledge neededto extract the best performancefrom the existing investment system. International agencies and donorshavean importantrole to play in providingsupport to developing countriesin creatingthe required enablingenvironment This should for integratedwater resources management. .as well as in the private sector. need communities 18. agement principles.18The setting afreshof priorities for private and public investmentstrategies shouldtake into account (a) maximum utilization of existing projects.they shouldincorporate nuurower economic and social considerations environmental.20To implementthese Those who establishthe to have adequatecapacities. councils of river catchmentareas. include. includingextension (e) Improvementof careerstructures.18. both for the collection of data and for the implementation includingnonof planneddevelopment. (c) Strengthening of training capacitiesin developing countries. 18. (f) Sharing of appropriateknowledge and technology.as well as the opportunity useof water.economicand lifegood shouldbe reflectedin demandmanagesustaining throughwaterconand implemented ment mechanisms and financial servationand reuse.reflect as far as Chargingmechanisms possibleboth the true cost of water when used as an to pay. taking into account the need for intesration with land-use management.Particular emphasishas to be placedon the introductionof public participatory techof the role of women. 18. Skills youth.including community-based stitutions. basedon the quirements of all usersas well as thoserelating to the hazardsand prevention and mitigation of water-related develpart the socio-economic integral of constitutean A prerequisite for the sustainopmentplanningprocess. include the reprinciple of sustainability. operation. framework for water developmentand managementat any level. Education of thepublic tionsandotherwater-user regardingthe importanceof water and its proper manis alsoneeded. vulnerableresource of waterasa scarce ablemanagement is the obligation to acknowledgein all planning and developmentits full costs.19 The delegation educatingand level necessitates the lowest appropriate staffatall levelsandensuring trainingwatermanagement that women participateequally in the educationand training programmes.They usually include: (a) Awareness-creation programmes. 169 .standard-setting and other regulatoryfunctions.17The role of wateras a social. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG integrated I 8. ciaries with the consequences should. (b) new or alternative (c) environmentally and sociailybenignhydropower. but the needmay arisefor forexample.non-govemmental andwomen's organizations groups. thatis to say. (d) Appropriatetrainingof the necessary professionals. workers.indigenous functionshave to relatedto variouswater management be developedby municipal governmentand water authorities. groups.local/national cooperative s. new institutions based upontheperspective.including mobilizingcommitment and supportat all levelsand initiatins global and local action to promote suchprograrnmes. need to ensurethat the meansexist to build thosecapacities. district development and local community committees. nationalor local. demand-drivenmanagementrequires the development of water-related institutionsat appropriate levels.Existing administrative will often be quite capableof achievinglocal structures water resources management.21 Institutionalcapacityfor implementing water management should be reviewedand developed when there is a clear demand.

prisesthe continuing determination of sources. including the United Nations and other relevant organizations asappropriate. fication of potential sourcesof fieshwater supply.comextent.24Basedupon the Mar del Plata Action Plan.25Five specificobjectives havebeensetaccordingly. vital to water resources and to mitigation of the assessment and pollueffectsof floods.including methodsfor the impactassessment of climatechange on freshwater: (b) To have all r. ( i i ) E s t a b l i s h a n d s t r e n g t h e nt h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l capabilities of countries. hydrologic servicesand relatedbodiesare lessablethanbeforeto providethis information. as follows: (a) To make availableto all countrieswater resources assessment technology that is appropriate to their needs. the fragmentednature of hydrologicservices and the insufficientnumbersof qualified staff. andquality of waterresources and of the dependability Such ashuman activitiesthat affect thoseresources.allocateto waterresources financial assessment resources in line with the economicand socialneeds for water resources data. and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation.:ountries.23Waterresources assessment. could setthe organizations. this programmeareahas been extendedinto the 1990sand the assessbeyondwith the overallobjectiveof ensuring ment andforecasting of the quantityand qualityof water in order to estimatethe total quantity of water resources.especially informationon groundwaterand water quality.Estably difficult to access lishment of national databases is. Major impediments are the lack of financialresources for water resources assessment. including legislative and regulatory arrangements. (e) To have sufficient numbers of appropriately qualified andcapable by water staffrecruitedandretained resources assessment agenciesand provided with the training and retraining they will need to carry out their responsibilities successfully. to have studied in detail the feasibility of installing water resourcesassessment services. 18. subject to the prior agreement of eachriparian Stateconcemed: B) DATA SYSTEMS: (i) Reviewexistingdata-collection networks andassess their adequacy.26All States. following targets: (a) By the year 2000.desertiflcation t ion. inespective of their level of development. storage andanalysis of hydrologicdata. (c) To ensurethat the assessment informationis fully utilized in the development of water management policies. andavailable according to theircapacity resources. A) INSTITUTIONAL FRAIvIEWORK: (:t Establishappropriatepolicy fiameworks and national priorities. that are required to ensurethe adequateassessment of their water resources and the provisionof flood and droughtforecasting services.includingcooperation with theUnited Nationsand otherrelevant asappropriate. determine to predictpossible conflicts betweensupply and demandand to provide a scientificdatabase fbr rational water resources utilization. 18. however. retrievaland dissemination to users storage.27 All States. resources availableand their future supplypotential. of the possibilitiesfor their development. droughts. however. and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation.to their currentquality status. could undertake the following activities: OBJECTIVES 18. (d) To have all countriesestablishthe institutional arrangementsneeded to ensure the efficient collection.ASSESST. (iv) Cooperate in the assessment of transboundary water resources. to have fully operational services hydrometric availablebasedupon high-density networks. At the sametime.IENT B) WATERRESOURCES BASIS FOR ACTION includingthe identi18. including those that provide real-time datafor flood and droughtforecasting. according andavailable to theircapacity resources. (ii) Improve networksto meet accepted guidelines for 170 . constitutes the practicalbasisfor their sussessment for evaluation and a prerequisite tainablernanagement There is. the advancingtechis increasingnology for datacapture and management for developingcountries. processing. of information aboutthe quality and quantityof available w ater resources at the l evel of catchrnent sand groundwateraquifersin an integratedmanner. (b) As a long-term target. ACTIVITIES I 8. (iii) Establishand maintaineffectivecooperation at the nationallevel betweenthe variousagencies responsible forthe collection. accordingto their financial means. growing concern that at a time when more preciseand reliableinformationis needed aboutwater resources.

including all levels of employment.national. be applied at the catchmentlevel.OGICAL 18. subregional.regional and assesslevelsin supportof waterresources international mentactivities. will cial terms.28The Conferencesecretariat (1993-2W0) of implementing total annual cost average programme about of this to be $355million. Planshave to be established to meet thoseneedsthrough education and training opportunities and international programmesof coursesand conferences. others. necessi tates t he 18. and (c) studyof genesis. establishment of national archivesof water resources. DISSEMINATION: C} DATA (i) Identify the needfor water resources datafor various planningpurposes.consultants. (iii) Apply standardsand other means to ensure data comparibility. (ii) Monitor research activitiesto enand development sure that they make full useof local expertiseand other forthe needs and that they areappropriate local resources of the countrv or countriesconcerned. hydrology and ecology at different scales. the provision of attractiveterms of employment and career paths for professionaland technical staff should Human resource needsshouldbe monibe encouraged. DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 18. design and operationof specific water-related (iii) Provideforecasts and wamingsof flood anddrought to the generalpublic and civil defence.the private sector. ANDDEVELOPMENT: D} RESEARCH (i) Establish or strengthenresearchand development programmesat the national. processand analysehydrologic data and make suchdata and the forecasts derivedfrom them availableto potential USCTS. and prodependupon.Prior to inaugurating the above activities. the specific strategies grammesGovernments decideupon for implementation.including the processes critical water-related behindlossof vegetation and land degradation and its restoration. in rvater-quality closing the the key processes gap between hydrologic flows and biogeochemical processes.includingany that are non-concessional. tored periodically.the provision of data on water quantity and quality for surface and groundwater. it is necessaryto prepare cataloguesof the water resourcesinformation held by governmentservices. inter alia. adaptationand diffusion. munity on only and have not estimates tive and order-of-masnitude 171 . the activities comincludingabout$145million from the international grant These are indicaor concessional terms. personnel matters should receive special attention in this area.of geographicalinformation systems. Actual costsand finanbeenreviewed by Governments.30W ater resourcesassessment strengthening of existingsystems for technologytransfer.as well as relevant land-use data.31Water resourcesassessment requiresthe establishmentand maintenance of a body of well-trainedand motivated staff sufficient in number to undertake the above activities.where appropriate.32Becausewell-trainedpeople are particularlyimportant to water resourcesassessment and hydrologic forecasting. (v) Establishdatabases on the availabilityof all types of hydrologicdataat the nationallevel.subregional or regionallevel.educationalinand local water-use organizations stitutes. and the developmentof new as well as the technologyfor useunderfield conditions.29 Importantresearch needsinclude (a) development of global hydrologic models in supportof analysisof waterresources impactandof macroscale climatechange (b) closing of the gap between terrestrial assessment.In addition. developmentof endogenous capacity. (ii) Analyse and presentdata and information on water in the forms requiredforplanning andmanageresources development and for ment of countries'socio-economic use in environmental protection strategiesand in the projects. Education and training programmes designedto ensurean adequatesupply of thesetrained personnelshould be establishedor strengthened at the local.The aim should be to attract and MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION Ai F/NANC'NG has estimatedthe 18. (vii) Implement appropriatewell-tried techniquesfor the processing of hydrologicdata.This approachshould also. (viii) Derivearea-related from pointhydrologic estimates data: (ix) Assimilateremotelysensed dataand the use. for example. MEANS B' SCIENI/F/C AND IECHNOI. modelsshouldbuild uponhydroTheresearch logic balancestudiesand also include the consumptive useof water. 18. (iv) Upgrade facilities and proceduresused to store. when appropriate. (vi) Implement"data rescue"operations.

water installations and irrigation schemes.' 18.retain personnelto work on water resources assessment who are sufficient in number and adequate in their level of educationto ensurethe effective implementationof the activitiesthat are planned. (c) Implementationof water management policies based upon realisticappraisals of waterresources conditions and trends. This givesrise to the leachingof nutrients and pesticides.and involving both men and women. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLD\NG 18. Undercertain circumstances.37The extent and severityof contamination of unsaturated zonesand aquifershave long been underestimatedowing to therelativeinaccessibility of aquifers and the lack of reliableinformationon aquifersystems. to supportmeasures aimed at controlling water-related diseases. whereappropriate. where appropriate. BASIS FOR ACTION 18.includingwomen. WATER QUALITYAND AQUATIC ECOSYSIE'YIS Major problemsaffecting the water quality of rivers and lakes arise. The over all environmental healthobjectivewas set as follows: "to evaluatethe consequences which the varioususers of water have on the environment. for all categories of staffinvolvedin waterresources assessment activities.to improve water-use efficiencyat the local level.33 Recommended actionsinclude: (a) Identifying educationand training needsgearedto the specificrequirements of countries. personnel and pay policiestor staff of nationaland local wateragencies. management. Many of these problems have arisen from a development model that is environmentally destructive and from a lack of public awareness and educationabout surf'ace and groundwater resource protection.from inadequatelytreateddomestic sewage.ill-consideredsiting of industrialplants. b i o l o g i c a l . cl PRoTECTTON OF WATERRESOURCES.with adequate terms of employmentbeing a national responsibility.degraded water qualityandpollutionof surface andgroundwater sources. 172 .sedimentation.36The complex interconnectedness of freshwater systems demands thatfreshwater management beholistic (taking a catchmentmanagement approach)and based on a bal ancedconsi derati on of the needsof people a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .T h e M a r d e l P l a t a A c t i o n P l a n h a s a l r e a d yr e c o g n i z e dt h e i n t r i n s i c l i n k a g e b e t w e e nw a t e r r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t sa n d t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n tp h y s i c a l .deforestation. treatand developnew water supplies. OBJECTIVES 18. usingadvanced educational technology. There are f'ew regions of the world that are still exemptfrom problemsof loss of potentialsources of freshwatersupply. aquatic ecosystems arealso affectedby agriculturalwaterresource development projects such as dams. I 8.use and treatment of water resources and aquatic ecosystems. deforestationand desertification have led to increased land degradation. Thereis a widespread lack of perceptionof the linkagesbetweenthe development.Ecologicaland humanhealtheff'ects arethe measurable consequences. A preventiveapproach. inadequate controlson the discharges of industrial waste waters.is crucial to the avoiding of costlysubsequent measures to rehabilitate. uncontrolled shifting cultivation and poor agriculturalpractices. c h e m i c a l . and to protectecosystems". indigenous people and local communities.The following national supportaction is necessary for enhanced nationalcapacities: (a) Review of the legislativeand regulatorybasisof water resources assessment: (b) Facilitation of close collaborationamong water s ec t or age n c i e s . heal th and soci o-economi c repercussi ons.in some cases.within an environmentaland developmental context. (b) Establishing andstrengthening education andtraining programmes on water-related topics. 35 F r es h w a te ri s a u n i ta ry re s o u rc e . (d) Strengtheningof the managerialcapabilitiesof water-user groups. (c) Developingsoundrecruitment.Educationmay be called for at both the nationaland the internationallevels. and the creationof reservoirs has.Long-term developmentof global freshwater requires holistic managementof resourcesand a recognition of the interconnectedness of the elementsrelated to freshwater and freshwater quality. Erosion.p a rti c u l a rl y b e tw e e n i nformati on producers and users. loss and destruction of catchment areas.34The conductof waterresources assessment on the basisof operationalnationalhydrometricnetworksrequiresan enablingenvironment at all levels. resulted in adverse effectson ecosystems.river diversions. The protectionof groundwater is thereforean essential element of water resource management.youth.Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed and living freshwater resourcesare threatened.in variable order of importanceaccordingto different situations. althoughthe meansto monitor them are inadequate or non-existent in many countries.

n c l u d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of fisheries. (iii) Establishment of standards for the dischargeof effluentsand fcrrthe receivingwaters. including the protection of aquatic ecosystemsand freshwater livine resources: (h) To put in place strategiesfor the environmentally sound managementof fieshwater and related coastal e c o s y s t e m s i. (d) To panicipate.health. whereappropriate.the UNEP Environmentally Sound Managementof Inland Waters (EMINWA). (b) Public healthprotection. accordingto their capacityand available resources. ACTIVITIES 18. combined with the delineationof appropriateremedial measures and a strengthened control of new industrial installations. a key to capacitybuilding and a prerequisitefor implementing waterquality management. to initiateprogrammes for theprotection. conservation and rational use of these resources on a sustainable basis. (e) To reducethe prevalence of water-associated diseases.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. particularlyon small islands. (v) Strengthening of administrative and legislative measures to prevent encroachment on existingandpotentially usablecatchment areasl B)WATER POLLUTTON PREVENTION AND CONTROL: (i) Applicationof the "polluter pays" principle. (v) Mandatoryenvironmental impactassessment of all major water resourcedevelopment projectspotentially impairing water quality and aquaticecosystems. (0 To establish. (iv) Rehabilitationof important.could implement the following activities: A) WATER RESOURCES PROTECilON ANDCONSERVATION: (i) Establishment and strengthening of technicaland institutionalcapacities to identify and protectpotential sources of water-supply within all sectors of society. including on-site and off-si te sani tati onl (ii) Promotionof the construction of treatment facilities for domestic sewageand indr"lstrial effluents and the developmentof appropriatetechnologies. environmental impact assessments and enforceable standards for major point-source discharges andhigh-risknon-pointsources. to allkindsof sources. commensurate with their socio-economic development. 18. reduction at source and effluent reuse. (iv) Introduction of theprecautionary approach in waterquality management.according to capacitiesand needs.agricultural activities and biodiversity.where appropriate.starting with the eradicationof dracunculiasis (guineaworm disease) (river blindand onchocerciasis ness)by the year 2000. throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation.39All States. with a view to an ongoingimprovementof waterquality: (g) To adoptanintegrated approach to environmentally sustainable management of water resources. taking into accourltsoundtraditionaland indigenous practices. biological.but degraded.18. catchment areas. 173 .recycling and recovery.sis.animal grazing. asfar asappropriate.40All States. aquaculture. (ii) Identificationof potentialsources of water-supply and preparationof national profiles. according to a managementprinciple of preservingaquatic er-osystems. includingUnitedNationsandotherrelevant clrganizations as appropriate. with a focuson pollution minimization and preventionthrough use of new technologies. based on an appropriate mixture of pollution reduction-at-source strategies.physicaland chemicalquality criteria for all water bodies (surfaceand groundwater).conservation and rationaluse. (iii) Preparationof national plans for water resources protectionand conseruation. accordingto their capacityand available resources.solid waste landfills and infrastructure development projects. productandprocess pollution change. the FAO regional inland fishery bodies. of disease (c) Human resources development. andof effectivelyprotecting them from any fonn of degradation on a drainage basinba. including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate. (b) To identifyall potential sources of water-supply and prepareoutlines for their protection.could set the following targets: (a) To identify the surfaceand groundwaterresources thatcouldbe developed for useon a sustainable basisand othermajor developable water-dependent resources and.38Three objectiveswill have to be pursued concurrently to integrate water-qualityelementsinto water resource management: (a) Maintenanceof ecosystemintegrity. includingliving resources. (c) To initiateeffectivewaterpollution prevention and controlprogrammes.and the Conventionon Wetlands of International Importance Especially as WaterfowlHabitat(RamsarConvention).treatment and environmentally safedisposal. in international water-quality monitoringand management programmes suchastheGlobalWaterQualityMonitoring Programme (GEMSAV'ATER). simultaneously.a task requiringnot only the provision of safe drinking-waterbut also the control vectorsin the aquaticenvironment.

(vi) Use of risk assessment and risk management rn reachingdecisions in this areaand ensuringcompliance with thosedecisions. through a limited. G) MONITORTNG ANDSURVETLLANCE OFWATER RESOURCES ANDWATERS RECEIVING WASTES: (i) Establishment of networksfor the monitoring and continuoussurveillance of watersreceivingwastesand of point and diffusesources of pollution. rational and planned use of (pestnitrogenousfertilizers and other agrochemicals icides. of surface and groundwaterpotentially affectedby sites storing toxic and hazardous materials: H} DEVELOPMENT OFNATIONAL ANDINTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS THAT MAY BE REQUIRED TOPROTECT THE AUALIW RESOURCES.41The Conference secretariat hasestimated the averagetotal cost( 1993-2000) of irrplementingthe activities 174 . including low-wasteproductiontechnologies and water recirculation.herbicides) in agriculturalpractices. OFWATER ASAPPROPRIATE. industry and other sectors. C} DEVELOPMENT ANDAPPLICATION TECHNOLOGY: OFCLEAN (i) Control of industrial waste discharges. (vi. (ii) Controlof long-range atmospheric transport of poll utants: (iii) Control of accidentaland/or deliberatespills in nationaland/ortransboundary water bodies: (il') Environmental impact assessment. erosionand siltationof lakesand other waterbodies: D) GROUNDWATER PROTEOTON: (i) Developmentof agriculturalpracticesthat do not degradegroundwaters. (ii) Protection of ecosystems from pollutionand degradation for the development of freshwater aquaculture projects. and otheractivities. (iii) Development of biotechnology. (iii) Surveillance of pollution sources to improve compliancewith standards andregulations andto regulate the issue permits: of discharge (iv) Monitoring of the utilization of chemicalsin agriculture that may have an adverseenvironmentaleffect. takinginto account socialandeconomic factors.protection of wetlands(owing to their ecological and habitat importance for many species).asneeded. in an integrated mannerand throughapplication of precautionary measures derivedfrom a broad-based lifecycle analysis. (iv) Control of noxiousaquaticspecies that may destroy someother water species. (i) Rehabilitationof polluted and degradedwater bodiesto restoreaquatichabitatsand ecosystems.taking into accountsoundtraditionaland practices. (v) Promotionof measures to improve the safetyand integrityof wells and well-head areas to reduceintrusion of biological pathogens and hazardous chemicalsinto aquifersat well sites. for waste productionof biofertilizers treatment. aquaculture. PARTICULARLY FOR: (i) Monitoring and control of pollution and its effects in nationaland transboundary waters. inter alia. indigenous F} PROTECNON OFFRESHWATER LIVING RESOURCES: (i) Controlandmonitoringof waterquality to allow for the sustainable development of inland fisheries. (vii) Identificationand applicationof bestenvironmental practices at reasonable costto avoiddiffusepollution. (iii) Prevention of aquiferpollution throughthe regulation of toxic substances thatpermeate the groundandthe es t ablis hm e n t o f p ro te c ti o n z o n e s i n g r oundw ater rechargeand abstractionareas. Water-quality monitoring. (iv) Designandmanagement of landfillsbased uponsound hydrogeologicinformation and impact assessment. namely. (ii) Application of the necessary measures to mitigate salineintrusioninto aquifersof smallislandsand coastal plainsas a consequence of sealevel rise or overexploitation of coastal aquifers. (viii) Encouragement and promotion of the use of adequately treatedand purified waste watersin agriculture. takinginto account equivalent action for the protection and use of groundwaterresources important for agricultural productivity and for the biodiversityof the tropics: (iii) Conservation and. (ii) Rehabilitation programmes for agricultural lands and for otherusers. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION E) PROTECTON OFAQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS. (ii) Promotionandextension of the application of environmentalimpact assessments informaof geographical tion systems. using the bestpracticable andbestavailable technology. (ii) Treatmentof municipal wastewater for safereuse in agriculture and aquaculture. (v) Rational land use to prevent land degradation. 18. (iv) Developmentof appropriatemethodsfor water pollution control..

whatevertheir stage of development and their socialand economicconditions.42States shouldundertake cooperative jects to developsolutionsto tecltnicalproblemsthat are appropriatefor the conditions in each watershedor country. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. andtheestablishment of nationaland regionaltechnicaland engineeringcourses on the subjects of water-qualityprotectionand control at on water existingschools andeducation/training courses resources protectionand conservation for laboratoryand groups.One of the key problemstoday and for the future is the sustained operation and maintenanceof thesefacilities. poverty.2 The target of the Decadewas to provide safedrinking-water and sanitationto underserved urban and rural areasby 1990.45Suitable approaches includethe strengthening and improvement of the humanresource capabilities of local in managingwater protection.problemsolvingworkshops and refresher trainingcourses. alia. but even the unprecedented progressachievedduring the Decadewas not enough. and innovaof adoptedfor specificaspects tive teachingtechniques water-qualitymonitoring and control. Actualcosts andfinancialterms. anduse.particularlyin urbanareas.An estimated80 per cent of all diseasesand over one third of deaths in developingcountriesare caused of by the consumption contaminated water.44Innovative approaches professional stafftrainingin orderto cope andmanagerial with changing needs and challenges. 18.The most outin 1981of the standing of these effortswasthe launching InternationalDrinking WaterSupplyandSanitationDecade.Theseare indicative andorder-ofmagnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby including Governments.andon average asmuch asone-tenth of eachperson'sproductivetime is sacrificedto waterrelated diseases. Water-quality management programmesrequire a certain minimum infrastructureand staff to identify and implement technical solutionsand to enforceregulatoryaction. States should consider strengtheningand developingnationalresearch centreslinked throughnetworks and supportedby regional water researchincentres stitutes.Safewateris alsocrucialto many andalleviating traditionaland cultural activities. inter any that are non-concessional.which resultedfrom the Mar del PlataAction Plan adopted by theUnitedNationsWaterConference in1977.treatment Governments 175 .Flexibility and adaptabilityregardingemergingwater pollution issues Trainingactivitiesshould be undershouldbe developed.It is importantthat a minimum percentageof funds for water resource development projects is allocated to researchand particularlyin externallyfundedprojects. should be oriented towards the waterquality of developingcountries. these It is alsorecognized that humanexcretaand sewage are importantcauses of the deterioration of water quality in DEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE should be adopted for 18. analysis be developed of monitoring data and for the preparationof management strategies.User-friendlysoftware (GIS)andGlobal InformationSystems andGeographical (GRID) methods Resource InformationDatabase should andinterpretation for thehandling. will dependupon. including development of training skills. taken periodicallyat all levels within the organizations responsible for water-quality management. development.have the right to have access to drinking waterin quantities andof a qualityequalto their basic needs". severalinstitutions and scientists Int er nat ional wa te r-q u a l i ty p ro g ra m m e s .The North-Southtwinning of research instituwater research and field studies by international tions shouldbe actively promoted. Concerted efforts during the 1980s brought water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of the world's poorestpeople. field technicians. immediate action is required in a numberof areas. One in threepeoplein the developingworld still lacks two mostbasicrequirements for healthanddignity. women and otherwater-user D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG AND TFCHNOLOGICAL MEANS B/ SC/ENr/F/C proresearch 18. in-servicetraining. 18. In order gainedfrom previousinvestments not to allow resources to deterioratefurther.43Monitoring and assessment of complex aquatic involving systems oftenrequiremultidisciplinary studies in a joint programme. 18. The commonly agreedpremisewas that "all peoples. Dl DRTNKTNG-WATER Suppry AND SANTTATTON BASIS FOR ACTION 18.47Safewater-supplies sanitation and environmental improvinghealth arevital for protecting theenvironment.46The effective protectionof water resources and ecosystems from pollution requiresconsiderable upgrading of most countries'presentcapacities.s u ch as GEMSflVATER.to be about$1 billion. includingabout of this programme $340 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.

49Past experiencehas shown that specific targets shouldbe set by each individual country. (iii) Expansion of urban and rural water-supplyand development andexpansion of rainwatercatchment systems.where appropriate.in addition to the reticulated water-supply system.therefore.50 All States. (iv) Building and expansion.whi c h w a s h e l d a t N e w D e l h i from l 0 to 14 September 1990)formalizedthe needto provide. (v) Promotionof primary healthandenvironmental care at thelocallevel.One realisticstrategy to meetpresent and future needs. (v) Broad-based education programmes. Even for the more realistic target of achievingfull coveragein water-supply by 2025.developingcountries. including the United Nations and other relevant organizations as appropriate. (iii) Applicationof the principlethat decisions areto be takenat the lowestappropriate level. (iii) Linkages betweennational water plans and community management of local waters. andthe construction of sewagetreatmentfacilities could brinB significantimprovement.local management and risk reducti on. Four guiding principles provide for the programme objectives: (a) Protection of the environment and safeguarding of health through the integrated managementof water resources and liquid and solid wastes. could implementthe following activities: A) ENVIRONMENT.and the introductionof available technologies. (vii) Providing of more attentionto underserved rural and low-incomeperiurbanareas.including specialprogramlnes for women. (iv) Humanresource developmentat all levels. (ii) Encouragement of the local population. (b) Institutionalreforms promoting an integratedapproach and including changesin procedures. in watermanagement.especially w omen.heads of State or Governmentcalled for both universalaccess to watersupplyandsanitation andtheeradication of guineaworm diseaseby 1995. 18. particularly on small islands.of sewage treatment facilitiesand drainage systems.is to develop lower-cost but adequate services thatcanbe implemented and sustained at the communitylevel.AND HEALTH: (i) Establishmentof protected areas for sourcesof drinking-watersupply. using appropriatesystemsto treat waste waters in urban and rural areas. (vi) International support mechanismsfor programme funding. (ii) Sanitary disposal of excreta and sewage. with particular emphasis on hygiene. youth. (d) Soundfinancialpractices. includingappropri atetechnologies. C} NATIONAL ANDCOMMUNITY MANAGEMENT: (i) Supportand assistance to communities in managing their own systems on a sustainable basis. reductionof wastage and sa{'e reuseof water and wastewater. giving of f ull recognitionto the role of local authorities. planners and policy makersat all levels. 176 . achieved throughbetter management of existing assets. (vi) Assistance to serviceagencies in becomingmore cost-eff-ective and responsive to consumer needs. at the same time. and throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation. (c) Cornmunity management of services.in September 1990. (viii) Rehabilitation of defectivesystems. involving users.48The New Delhi Statement (adopted at the Global Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation for the 1990s . it is estimated that annualinvestments mustreachdoublethe currentlevels.includingtrainingfbrlocal communities in appropriatewater management techniquesand primary health care.At the World Summit for Children. ACTIVITIES I 8. according to theircapacity andavailable resources. OBJECTIVES 18.backed by measures to strengthen localinstitutions in implementing and sustaining waterand sanitation programmes.implementation and follow-up. emphasizing the "some for all ratherthan more for some" approach. (v) Treatmentand saf-e reuseof domesticand industrial wastewaters in urban and rural areas.with public consultation and involvement of users in the planning and implementation of waterprojects.and the full participationof women at all levelsin sector institutions. (vi) Control of water-associated diseases: B) PEOPLE AND|NST|TUT|ONS: (i) Strengthening of the functioningof Govemments in water resourcesmanagementand. i ndi genouspeopl e and l o cal com munities. (iv) Integration of community managementof water within the contextof overallplanning. accessto safe water in sufficient quantitiesand proper sanitationfor all.on a sustainable basis. (ii) Encouragement of waterdevelopment andmanagementbasedon a participatory approach. attitudes and behaviour. and widespread use of appropri atetechnologies.

Capacity- MFANS B/ 5C/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOT. 177 .This is particularlyimportantif full advantage to be taken of community-basedapproaches and selfrelianceastoolsfcrrsustainability. (xi) Substantial increase in urban treatment capacity with increasing loads. to maximize and sustain local involvement.community pafticipation. upon. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG D) CAPACITY-BUILDING has estimatedthe 18. degrees. o f i m p roved im plem ent at io n .should to collaborate at all developmechanisms and procedures is levels.OGICAL the feasibility.including any that arenon-concessional. has to be to its fundamental connection both developed according with any efforts to improve health and socio-economic development through water-supply and sanitation and with their impact on the humanenvironment.(ix) Programmesfor rational water use and ensured operationand maintenance. This will entaila high degree of communityparticipation. health and hygiene educationand literacy.involving institutional development.53To effectivelyplan and manage water-supply and sanitationat the national. commensurate (b) Utilization of traditional and indigenouspractices. sector'sabsorptive projects.analysis and publication of monitoringresultsat nationaland local levelsas a sector management and advocacy/awareness creationtool. D) AWARENESS CREATTON AND INFORMATION : PUBLIC /PARTICIPATION (i) Strengthening of sectormonitoring and information management at subnational and nationallevels.decision-making. Relevant international support programmes should addressthe inter alia: concerning. implementatheconception.52To ensure planned water-supply services. health. human resources.54The implementation and sanitaof water-supply To varying tion programmes is a nationalresponsibility.51The Conferencesecretariat total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing average the activities of this progranuneto be about $20 billion. adoptedtechability of nologies should be responsiveto the needsand constraints imposedby the conditions of the community Thus.andto utilizefundsmosteffectively. social.4 billion from the international terms. 18.waterresource s management and environmental sanitation. This also meansthat nationalauthorities. together with the agencies and bodies of the United Nations system and other external support agencies providing support to national programmes.Theseare indicmunity on grantor concessional estimates only andhavenot ative andorder-of-magnitude Actual costsand financial beenreviewedby Governments. It is also importantthat countries provide adequatetraining fbr women in the sustainable maintenance of equipment. To do this. (iv) Improvement planningand of sectorcoordination. economic. taking must establishmanpowerdevelopment into considerationpresentrequirementsand planned developments. institutional and factorsthat determine the characteristics. (ii) Annual processing. environmental magnitude and cost of the planned system. responsibi Ii ty for thei mplementation of projects to all and the operatingof systems shouldbe delegated administrative levels down to the community and individual served. for domestic tion andevaluation connected with projects water-supply and sanitation. 18. concerned. the development and performance of country-level training institutions should be enhanced so that they can play a pivotal role in capacity-building. (c) Assistance to country-level technical/scientific institutes to facilitate curricula development to support fields critical to the water and sanitationsector. district and community level. particularlyin communitycapacity. the specific strategiesand prografirmes Governments decideupon for implementation. designcriteria will involve technical.w i th th e a s s i s ta n c e the to increase monitoring and information management. coordination. trained professional within andtechnical staffmustbe developed eachcountryin sufficientnumbers.provincial.Subsequently.in planning. self-help based C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 18.55Overall nationalcapacity-building at all adrninistrativelevels. as far as practicable. acceptability andsustain18. (x) Research anddevelopment of appropriate technical solutions. provincial.as far as practicable. inter alia. will depend terms. involving women. comincludingabout$7. developingcountries (a) Pursuit of low-cost scientific and technological means. (iii) Use of limited sector indicators at regional and global levelsto promotethe sectorand raisefunds.countries plans.

(vi) Promotion of researchinto the contribution of waterresources development. according to theircapacity resources.Rapid urbanpopulation growth and industrializationare putting severe protecon the waterresources and environmental strains needs attention of many cities. (v) Protectionof watersheds with respectto depletion and degradationof their forest cover and from harmful upstream activities. drainage (iii) Promotion of wastewaterand of recyclingandreuse solidwastes. comprisingsome5 billion people. to have established and applied quantitative and qualitative discharge standardsfor municipaland industrialeffluents. (ii) Implementation of urban storm-waterrun-off and programmes. programme/project formuplanning or at the undertaken by a cleardetlnitionof objeclation stage. to their capacityand available 1S.56Early in the next century. to have ensuredthat all urban residentshave accessto at least 40 litres per capita per day of safe water and that 75 per cent of the urban population are provided with on-site or community facilitiesfor sanitation.58All States. to building should be considered have an importance comequalto that of the sectorsuppliesand equipment This be can ponentso that funds can be directedto both. lowing activities: DEPLETION. (c) By the year 2000. accompanied tives and targets.Special tion capabilities on water of urbanization to be givento thegrowingeff'ects andusage andto the criticalrole playedby locai demands and municipal authoritiesin managingthe supply. 178 . (iv) Control of industrial pollution sourcesto protect water resources. projects already. Such an arrangement combinedwith overmunicipalandindustrial discharges and threatens exploitationof availablewater resources the marine environmentand the supply of freshwater resources.agriculturaland human settlement and economicgrowth.57The development to supportlocal and central Govemments'efforts and and productt-rsustainnationaidevelopment capacities of tivity through environmentallysound management for urbanuse.59All States. thecontinuedsupplyof affordablewater actionsto ensure for presentand future needsand to reversecurrenttrends of resourcedegradation and depletion.In this regard.Supportingthis objective water resources and is the identiflcation andimplementation of strategies RESOURCES: B) EFF|C|ENT ANDEaU|TABLE ALLOCATTON OFWATER (i) Reconciliationof city development planning with of waterresources. of in an environmentally recycledor disposed ACTIVITIES andavailable 18. could setthe following targets: (a) By the year 2000. foreststo sustainable (vii) Encouragement practices of the bestmanagement with a view to minimizing for the useof agrochemicals their impact on waterresources. patterns. the availabilityand sustainability (ii) Satisfaction of the basicwater needsof the urban population. A high proportion of large urban agglomerations and in coastal arelocatedaroundestuaries leads to pollution from zones. canmakea substanconsumption unsustainable tial contributionto the alleviation of poverty and improvementof the healthand quality of life of the urban and rural poor. is Such the crucial.technicalcooperation among developing countries. including the United Nations and other relevantorganizations as appropriate. including the United Nations and other relevant could implementthe folorganizations as appropriate. year 2025.building should thereforebe one of the underlying keys Institutionalcapacityin implementationstrategies. according resources. OBJECTIVES objectiveof this programmeis 18.use and overall treatment of water.particularlyin developing countriesfor which specialsupportis needed. RESOURCES FROM A) PROTECnON OFWATER POLLUTION ANDDEGRADATION: (i) Introduction of sanitary waste disposal facilities basedon environmentallysoundlow-cost and upgradabletechnologies.Scarcity of freshwater resourcesand the escalating costs of impacton new resources havea considerable developing national industrial.that proportion will have risen to 60 per cent.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation.owing to their available andthe needto avoid wealthof infbrmation and experience "reinventing a course hasproved wheel".more than half of the By the world's populationwill be living in urban areas.to haveensured that 75 per cent in urban areasis collected and of solid waste generated safeway.Bettermanagement development including the elimination of of urban water resources. (b) By the year 2000. in many country cost-effective URBAN DEVETOPE) WATER AND SUSTAINABLE A/TENT FOR ACTION BASIS 18. andthroughbilateralor multilateralcooperation.

the private sectorand local people.that reflect the marginal and opportunity cost of water. with tech- c) H U MA N R E S OU R C DE E V E LOP ME N T 18. inter alia. recyclingand eliminationof wastes. 8/ SC'ENilFtC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MFANS 18. with particularemphasis on development of appropriate sanitation andwastedisposal technologies for low-income high-densityurban settlements. (iii) Basing of choiceof technologyand servicelevels on userpreferences and willingnessto pay. There should also be international information exchange.to ensurea widespreadrecognitionamong sectorprofessionals of the availability and benefitsof appropriatelow-cost technologies. C) INSTITUTIONAL/LEGAL/MANAGEMENT REFORMS: (i) Adoption of a city-wide approachto the management of water resources. The programmeenvisages continuationof this work. (iii) Pronrotion of public participation in the collection.indigenous peopleand local communitiesin water management teamsand for supporting the development of water associations and water committees. to theextentpossible. (iv) Creationand maintenance of a cadreof professionals and semi-professionals.Special provision should be madefor mobilizing andfacilitatingthe activeparticipation of women. and integratedplanning of urban water resourcesmanagement. the specific strategies and programmes Govemmentsdecideuponfor implementation.especially for productiveactivities. E) SUPPORT TOLOCAL CAPAC|TY-BU|LD|NG: (i) Developrnent of legislation and policiesto promote investmentsin urban water and waste management. (ii) Provisionof seedmoney and technicalsupportto the local handlingof materialssupplyand services.These areindicative and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments. nical back-upavailablewhen required. (ii) Sensitization of the public to the issueof protecting water quality within the urbanenvironment.60The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-20A0)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$20 billion. reflecting the major contribution of cities to national economicdevelopment. (vi) Consideration of the merits and practicality of rehabilitating existing malfunctioning systems and of correctingoperation and maintenance inadequacies. F) PROVISION OF ENHANCED ACCESS TO SANITARY SERVICES: (i) Implementationof water. (iii) Utilizationof the skillsandpotential of non-governmental organizatrons. Specificprogramme activitieswill involve the training and retentionof staff with skills in community involvement. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 18.youth. will depend upon. D) PROMOTION OFPUBLIC PARTICIPATION: (i) Initiationof public-awareness campaigns to encouragethe public'smove towardsrationalwaterutilization. (iii) Encouragement.62Implicit in virtuallyall elements of thisprogramme is the needfor progressive enhancement of the training andcareer development of personnel at all levelsin sector institutions. solid waste and sewerage utilities. the public's and strategic taking into account interests in water resources. (ii) Making available of low-cost water-supplyand sanitation technology choices. of autonomy and financial viability of city water. (iv) Mobilizationand facilitationof the activeinvolvement of women in water management teams. Actualcosts andfrnancial ternls.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. sanitationand waste programmes management focusedon the urbanpoor. for water. in eachcountry andwhereaffordable. waste-water and solid wastemanagement.61The 1980s saw consi derabl e progressi n t he development and applicationof low-cost water-supply and sanitation technologies. including about $4. low-cost technology. includingany thatarenon-concessional. The public-awarenesscampaigns will also includecomponents to overcome userresistance to second-class services by emphasizing the benefitsof reliability and sustainability.with appropriate training of such personnel as 179 . taking into accountthe circumstances.(iii) Introductionof water tariffs.financial management. (v) Encouragement andequipment of local waterassociations and water committeesto managecommunity water-supply systems and communallatrines. (ii) Promotion at the national and local level of the plansthat give dueconsideration elaboration of land-use to waterresources development.

Specialeducation secretaries and caretakers. productivityresponse of irrigationsysandsustainability by problemsof waterlogging temshavebeenconstrained and salinization.livestockwater-supply. provided appropriate policies and programmes are adoptedat all levels. any this rise.The rural populationmust alsohave better accessto a potablewater-supplyand to sanitation one. of suitable of water-supplies 18.including water managementwith inland respectto rain-fedareas.The of water for strengthening thecapability support includes and for developingtheir autonagencies and sewerage omy and financial viability.which is a vital part of urban water linkagesat requires institutional management.This requiresthe conservationof water quality and quantity. increase in environmental sffess couldjeopardizn r80 . Financial and market constraintsare also a commonproblem. basedon livestockpopulationgrowth estimates. nationaland international. as well as of the functional morphology of the aquaticenvironment.and improper disposal of result in animal wastes can in certain circumstances andanimals. is predictedto increaseby 0. 18. treasurers. to water for progressirt enhancingaccess A prerequisite of an instituservices is the establishment and sanitation tional framework that ensuresthat the real needs and populations potentialcontributionsof currentlyunserved planning.The challengeis to develop and apply water-savingtechnology and managementmethenablecommunities ods and. hencetheir development levels of production lines for impact limitation. litres per annum in the foreseeable fisheriesin lakes and streamsare an 18.4 billion daily requirement future. FOOD PRODUCTION Fl WATERFOR SUSTATNABLE AND RURATDEVETOPMENT FOR ACTION BASIS deof food productionincreasingly 18. irrigatedagriculture. high priority in many countries.from both fresh and brackish water. intersectoral proposals for establishing Proposalsfor greater pollution control and prevention dependfor their successon the right combinationof backed by adeeconomic and regulatory mechanisnts.65Sustainability pendson soundand efficientwateruseand conservation primarily of inigation development practices consisting and management.67Freshwater important sourceof food and protein. fishing and the aquaticecosysmay themselves damage aquaculture shouldconform to guidetem. for women shouldbe launched and training programmes and water with regardto the protectionof waterresources quality within urban areas. taskbut not an impossible It is an immense services.The multiarereflectedin urbandevelopment sectoralapproach. pollutionof water-supplies forboth humans The drinking-water requirementsof livestock vary acin which they are andthe environment cordingto species kept.Technicaland financial supportare neededto inadequacies and build up correctpresent help countries the capacity to operate and maintain rehabilitated and new systems. water for other uses.64Establishmentof appropriatedesign standards.mismanagement and acutecomand overexploitationof naturalresources petition for water have all influenced the extent of poverty. the neither is supported of irrigation schemes development identifyinghydroimpactassessments by environmental of interbasin within watersheds logic consequences of social impacts on transfersnor by the assessment peoples in river valleys. by enquatemonitoring and surveillanceand supported issues on the environmental hancedcapacityto address part of local Governments.Soil erosion. to introduceinstitutionsandincentivesfor therural popufor both rain-fed and lation to adopt new approaches. hungerand famine in the developingcountries. are about 7 million tons per year and could increaseto 16 million tons per year by the year 2000.Soil erosioncausedby overgrazingof livestock is also often responsiblefor the siltation of lakes. Fisheriesof inland watersshouldbe so managed asto maximizethe yield of aquatic food organismsin an environmentallysound manner. however.On the other hand.63In combination with human resourcedevelopandmanlegislative of institutional.and agriculturemust not but also save only provide food for rising populations.andthe programme planninggroups.66The non-availability quality is a significantlimiting factor to livestockproduction in many countries. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 18.throughcapacity-building. While significant expansionof the area under rain-fed the agriculturehasbeenachievedduring the pastdecade. Operationand maintenance of existing water and sanitationfacilities have been in many recognized as entailing a seriousshortcoming countries. resources includes the nationaland city levels. Present from inland fisheries. Most often.local. It is estimated that the current global livestock is about60 billion litresper day drinking-waterrequirement this and. is thereanddischarge consents water-quality objectives programme also fore amongthe proposedactivities.strengthening agementstructuresare key elementsof the programme. Achieving food securityis a fisheriesand agro-forestry. ment.

drainage and 18. Quantitativetargetsfor new inigation development. (iii) Introduce suitable cost-recoverymechanisms.taking into accountenvironmental considerations.2 million (b) l2 million of new irrigation development. (iii) disastermitigation plans. of the naturalresource (d) It is necessary to recognize and activelysupport the role of rural populations.OBJECTIVES principleslor holistic and inte18.increased sedimentation anda reduction Therefore.will have accessto safe water in sufficientquantitiesand adequate sanitationto meettheir health needsand maintain the essentialqualitiesof their local environments. 18.management (c) Water resource managementmust be developed set of policies for (i) human within a comprehensive and distribuhealth.76All States. (b) Local cornmunities mustparticipate in all phases of water management. Technologies for new irrigation schemes shouldbe thoroughly evaluated. ACTIVITIES 18. new irrigationschemes should in biodiversity. including their potential conflictswith otherland uses.74The objectiveswith regardto water management for inland fisheriesand aquaculture includeconservation of water-quality and water-quantity requirements for optimum productionand preventionof water pollution by aquaculturalactivities. agro-climatic for irrigation. including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate. be accompanied by anenvironmental in casesignifiupon the scaleof the scheme. The activeinvolvement of water-usergroupsis a supportingobjective. and an increasein the efflciency or productivity.preservation tion. r8t . Action Programmeis to assistdevelopingcountriesin planning.68The key strategic grated environmentallysound management of water resourcesin the rural context may be set forth as follows: (a) Watershouldbe regarded having asa finite resource an economicvaluewith significantsocialand economic implications reflecting the importance of meeting basic needs. 18. 18.No globaltargets canbe setowing to largeregional and intra-countryvariations. taking into accountefficiencyandequity throughdemand management mechani sms : (iv) Promotecommunity ownershipand rights to watersupply and sanitation facilities.The Action Programmeseeks to assistmember countriesin managingthe tlsheriesof inland watersthroughthe promotion of sustainable managementof capturefisheriesas well as the development of environmentally soundapproaches to intensification of aquaculture.developingand managingwater resources on an integratedbasisto meet presentand future needsfor agriculturalproduction. (ii) Promoteappropriatetechnologies. (ii) food production.75The objectiveswith regardto water management for livestock supply are twofold: provision of adequate amountsof drinking water and safeguarding of drinkingwater quality in accordancewith the specific needsof differentanimal species. in sofar asit impliesthedestruction concerns waterpollution. according to their capacities and available resources of internationalcooperand taking advantage ation as appropriate. impactassessment. ensuring the full involvement of women in view of their crucial role in the practical and useof water. depending When cantnegativeenvironmentalimpactsareexpected. 18. accordingto their capacityand available resources. regional and global levels.and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. improvement of existing irrigation schemesand reclamationof waterloggedand salinized lands through drainage for 130 developing on thebasisof food requirements. day-to-daysupply. of small-scale 18. of any existing schemes capableof serving the same localities.73It shouldbe ensured of all that rural communities countries. This entailsmaximum salinity tolerancelevels and the absence of pathogenicorganisms.with particularemphasison women. countries areestimated zonesand availabilityof water and land. consideration shouldalsobe given to a morerationalexploitation.and (d) l0 million hectares waterprogrammes and conservation. hectares of existing hectaresof improvement/modernization (c) 7 million hectares installedwith drainage schemes.could implement the following activities: A) WATER-SUPPLY ANDSANTTATTON FOR THE UNSERVED RURAL POOR: (i) Establish nationalpoliciesandbudgetprioritieswith regardto increasing servicecoverage.71FAO globalprojections waterprogrammes by the year 2000 for 130 small-scale developingcountriesare as follows: (a) 15.69An International Action Programme Agricultural Development(IAP-WASAD) Sustainable has been initiated by FAO in cooperation with other The main obiective of the internationalorganizations.72The developmentof new irrigation areasat the level may give rise to environmental above-mentioned of wetlands. on Waterand 18. and water control facilities. (iv) environmental protectionandconservation base. consideringproposalsfor new irrigation schemes.70The Action Programmehas developeda framework for sustainable water use in the agricultural sector and identified priority areas for action at national.

MANAGEMENT: D) WATER.in particularthose in extensivegrazing systhedistance needed to travel tems. (iii) Monitor andevaluate irrigationprojectperformance to ensure. (i) Introducesurface to in rain-fedagriculture drainage pr ev ent te mp o ra ry w a te rl o g g i n g a n d fl oodi ng of lowlands.inter alia. (iii) Encourage conjunctiveuseof surfaceand groundstudies.economicand strategic good in inigation planningand management. the economyand the environment. PROGMMMES: DEVELOPMENT E)WATER RESOURCES (i) Developsmall-scale for irrigationand water-supply humans andlivestockandfor waterandsoilconservation. for waterandpreventovergrazing (iii) Preventcontamination with anirnal of water sources in excrement in order to preventthe spreadof diseases. (ii) Recognize wateras a social. by intensive andof manure FOR LIVESTOCK: G} WATER-SUPPLY (i) Improve quality of water available to livestock. (iii) Establishbiological. safeguards. through optimal use of on-farm input andthe minimizationof the useof externalinput in agriculturalactivities. and environmental (iv) Promoteand enhance reusein agriculwaste-water ture. (iv) Provide adequate technicaladvice and supportand of institutionalcollaborationat the local enhancement communitylevel.(v) Establish monitoringand evaluationsystems. (iii) Promotelocal initiativesfor the integrated development and management of water resources. (iv) Minimize soil run-off and sedimentation.includingmonitoringand water-balance (iv) Practise drainagein irrigatedareasof arid and semiarid regions. food safetyand human health. (vii) Increase hygieneeducationand eliminatedisease foci: transmission (viii) Adopt appropriate technologiesfor water treatment. (i) Develop long-term strategies and practical implementation programmesfor agricultural water use under scarcityconditionswith competingdemandsfor water. management thattakesaccount the capacity to mobilize local communitiesand the ecosystemrequirements of arid and semi-aridregions. making sure that environmentalconcernsare duly takeninto account: EFFTCTENCY: Bl WATER-USE (i) Increaseof efficiency and productivity in agricultural water use for better utilization of limited water resources: (ii) Strengthenwater and soil managementresearch underirrigationand rain-fedconditions. the optimal utilization and proper of the project. cals by useof integrated (vii) Educatecommunitiesabout the pollution-related impacts of the use of fertilizers and chemicalson water quality. (v) Dispose properlyof sewage from humansettlements produced livestockbreeding. limits.inter alia.efficient managementand an appropriate framework for financingof services. taking into accounttheir tolerance (ii) Increase availableto the quantityof water sources livestock. F} SCARCE WATER RESOURCES AAANAGEMENT: ANDDRAINAGE: SALINITY CONTROL cl WATERLOGGING.OUALITY (i) Establishand operatecost-effectivewater-quality for agriculturalwateruses. (ii) Introduce in inigatedandrain-fed artificialdrainage agriculture. (vi) Strengthenthe rural water-supply and sanitation sectorwith emphasison institutional development. management (v) Supportthe appropriate use of relatively brackish water for irrigation. maintenance (iv) Support groupswith a view to improving water-user performanceat the local level. monitoringsystems (ii) Preventadverse effectsof agriculturalactivitieson and waterqualityfor othersocialandeconomicactivities on wetlands. water.in orderto both reduce aroundwatersources. (ix) Adopt wide-scaleenvironmentalmanagement vectors: to control disease measures (vi) Minimize adverseeffects from agriculturalchemipestmanagement.physicaland chemicalwaterandfor marine quality criteriafor agriculturalwater-users and riverineecosystems. (vi) Plan and develop multi-purposehydroelectric power schemes. agro-livestock-fishery (v) Encouragewater-spreading for increasschemes 182 . (v) Promote a farming approach for land and water of the levelof education. (iii) Formulate specializedprogrammesfocused on with emphasison food scarcity drought preparedness. (ii) Formulate large-scale and long-term irrigation developmentprogrammes. particularzoonosis. (iv) Encourage through multiple use of water-supplies promotionof integrated systems. taking into accounttheir effects on the local level.

inter alia. (b) Increase formal and informal trainingactivities. H} INLAND FISHERIES. including fisheries. (iii) Assess environmental impactsof aquaculture with specific reference to commercialized culture units and potentialwaterpollution from processing centres. (c) Enhancement of translationof water-related farming andfishingsystems research results into practical and accessibletechnologiesand provision of the support neededfor their rapid adoptionat the field level.appropriatepricing and jointly by countries transportation mustbedeveloped and extemal supportagencies. the specific strategies andprogrammes Governments decideupon for implementation. (iii) Prevent or mitigatemodificationof aquatic environments by other usersor rehabilitateenvironments subjected to suchmodificationon behalf of the sustainable use and conservation of biological diversity of living aquaticresources. waterandland useand crop production. will depend upon. (v) Establishand maintainadequate systems for the collection and interpretation of data on water quality and quantity and channel morphology relatedro the state and managementof living aquatic resources.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. evaluatethe potentialfor fisheriesand aquaculture development.taking into consideration the use of marginal-quality water and investment andoperational requi rements.79Transferof technology. and improvethe availabilityand dissemination of data to planners. financial terms.L A4FANS 18.77The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing theactivities of thisprogramme to be about$ 13. (ii) Study specificaspects of the hydrobiologyand environmentalrequirements of key inland fish species in relationto varying waterregimes.technicians. (iv) Develop and disseminate environmentallysound water resources development and management methodologiesfor the intensification of fish yield from inland waters. shouldbe expanded for multiple usesand shouldassist in developingthe rural economy.(b) establishment of a nationalpolicy for human resources development. (c) Develop practical training coursesfor improving the ability of extensionservicesto disseminate technologiesand strengthen farmers'capabilities.80 E ducati on and trai ni ng of human resour ces shouldbe activelypursued at the nationallevel through: (a) assessment of currentandlong-termhumanresources management and training needs.2billion. input supplies. Mechanismsto provide credit. 18.78There is an urgentneed for countriesto monitor waterresources andwater-quality. 8/ SC'ENIIFIC AND IECHNOIOGICA. I) AOUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT: (i) Develop environmentally sound aquaculture technologies that are compatible with local. regional and nationalwaterresources management plansandtakeinto consideration socialfactors: (ii) Introduceappropriate aquaculture techniques and relatedwaterdevelopment and management practices in countriesnot yet experienced in aquaculture. i ncluding facilitie s for water-related education and training and supportservices for agriculture. farmersand fishermen. (iv) Evaluateeconomicfeasibilityof aquaculture in relation to alternativeuse of water. C ) H U MA N R E S OU R C DE E V E LOP ME N I 18.Priority requirements for research are as follows: (a) Identification of critical areas for water-related adaptive research. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTAIION A/ F/NANC/NG AND CCSTEVALUATTON 18.compile inventories of type and extent of agricultural water developmentand of present and future contributionsto sustainable agricultural development. and (c) initiationandimplementation of trainingprogrammes for staffat all levelsaswell asfbr farmers.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. Actual costsand r83 . with special reference to small-scale producers. including any that are non-concessional. (i) Developthe sustainable management of fisheries as part of nationalwaterresources planning. The necessary actionsare as follows: (a) Assesstraining needsfor agriculturalwater management.markets. both horizontaland vertical. includingabout$4. needsto be strengthened.ing waterretention of extensive grasslands to stimulate forage production and preventrun-off. (b) Strengtheningof the adaptive researchcapacities of institutions in developingcountries. Integratedrural water-supply i nfrastructure.

(c) To study the potentialimpactsof climate changeon areasprone to droughtsand floods.theremight be a likelihoodof increased will often causethe intruflooding. institutional for incentives.sftengthening their capacities enhance in order to institutions of existing activities. D) CA P A C IT Y .BU IL D IN G 18. generallybeenfully recognizedat present. provisionof infrastructure. water-use. sionof salt this areas. severity increased frequencyand necesof the ferencethereforecalled for a strengthening sary researchand monitoring programmesand the extheseactionsto changeof relevantdataand information. betweensupply and demand guarantee no is there might increase. G) rrriPAcTsOF CUMATECHANGE ON WATERRESOURCES FOR ACTION BASIS to the prediction with respect 18. resources. if required.while recognizingthe need to in water-related level. management suedin the following areas: policiesrelatedto agri(a) Improvement of water-use culture.81The importanceof a functional and coherentinstitutionalframework at the national level to promote agriculturaldevelopmenthas water and sustainable ln addition. Higher precipitation would lead to and decreased temperatures water demands. through longinter strengthening.arid and semi-aridareas".consistentwith the United NationsFrameworkConventionon Climate Change: (a) To understand and quantify the threatof the impact resources.and through bilateral or multilateral cooper- r84 . through in incidence Increase systems. coastal low-lying flooding of aquifersand the great risk. whereprecipitation that it would occur at the time of year when it could be used. regional and national among exchange certaintiesincreasegreatly at the regional. equipment (e) Enhancement of involvementof the privatesector. on socio-economic these. and coordination mobility.including farmers.82Thereis uncertainty of climate changeat the global level. impact is seenas sufficiently confirmed to justify such action. staff programme budgeting. waterof the functioning programmes and water scale Legislationspecific associations. at the lowestappropriate waterresources manage of where necessary.83The Ministerial Declaration of the SecondWorld Climate Conferencestatesthat "the potential impact of suchclimate changecould posean environmentalthreat of an up to now unknown magnitude. stem and consistent Actions shouldbe purof water resources.. users'and fishermen's water sectorshould be the agricultural of the needs to forthe general legislation from. putting strains on the Even in many countries. it is at the national level that the most important decisions would need to be made. an adequatelegal framework of rules and regulations should be in place to facilitate actions on agricultural smalldrainage.This topic the following objectives. and development in humanresource whereappropriate. technologies (0 Transfer of existingandnew water-use information and for cooperation mechanisms by creating institutions.(d) Train staff at all levels. and could even threaten survival in some small island Statesand in The Conlow-lying coastal.fishermen and membersof local communities. and restructuring. organizational linkages arnong ministries and departmentswithin a given ministryl (d) Provisionof specificmeasures that requiresupport alia. at puts low-lying countries 18. The Conof disasters. term mechanisms. such as floods of extremes.regional l evel s. and relationships functional structure. water suppliesand increased decreased quality of freshwater in the deterioration they might cause fragile balance already bodies. of climate changeon freshwater (b) To facilitate the implementation of effective naas and when the threatening tional countermeasures. (b) Review.with particular to women.85 All States.in addition.. national and local levels.water-qualitymanagement.and water-management programmes. fisheries and rural developmentand of legal frameworksfor implementingsuchpolicies. training. with. reference (e) Increasethe opportunitiesfor career development andofficers of administrators the capabilities to enhance at all levels involved in land. (c) Review and strengthening. Although the un- ACTIVITIES andavailable to theircapacity according 18.3 imimportant most ferencerecognizedthat among the hydrologic on the its effects pactsof climate changewere cycle and on water managementsystemsand. would cause and droughts. international and be undertakenat the national. Any rise in sealevel smallislandsandcoastal water into estuaries.84 The verv natureof thistopiccallsfirst andforemost of for more information about and greaterunderstanding into may be translated the threatbeing taced. OBJECTIVES I 8.

(e) Developand initiate response strategies to counter theadverse effects thatareidentified. Mor del Ploto. but eachcountryneeds to establish and implementthe necessary policiesandto developits own expertise in the scientificand engineering challenges to be faced.89 The developmental work and innovationdepend for their success on good academictraining and staff motivation.economicand environmentalimpacts. Most critical is the requirement for a socio. the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and other relevantintemationalprogrammes. There is also a needfbr coordinated research networkssuchas theInternational Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis.1.review and implementresponse sfrategies. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 18. as discussed underother sections of Agenda 21. Researchand Training (IGBP/START) network. levees.includingsoil moisture. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 18.includingany that arenon-concessional.88The development and implementation of response strategies requires innovative useof technological means and engineering solutions. Suchspeciahzed personnel needto betrained.l. (0 Develop agriculturalactivitiesbasedon brackishwater use. 'Report of the United Notions WoterConference. includingabout$40 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. portone.A.. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.90Thereis a need.OGICAL MFANS 18.chopter l.ation. pori one. (g) Contribute to theresearch activitiesunderway within the framework of currentinternationalprograffunes. andthe hydrosphere.Intemationalprojectscan help by enumerating alternatives.86The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2(n0)of implementing the activities of thisprogramme to be about$ 100million. aqueducts.well fields.'. inter alia.on freshwater resources and the flood risk: (c) Initiate case-studies to establish whetherthereare linkagesbetween climatechanges andthe currentoccurrences of droughtsand floods in certainregions. the World Climate Programme. in particularthoseconcerned with the atmosphere.87Monitoring of climate changeand its impact on freshwaterbodies must be closely integratedwith national and international programmes for monitoringthe environment.banks and drainage channels.to build a capacityat the national level to develop. resolution ll. groundwaterbalance. and related climare factors.77. onnexlll.12). including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate. Actual costs and financialterms. 18. SolesNo. as discussed underprogramme area B above. porogroph 2. 2lbid. (b) Developandapplytechniques andmethodologies for assessing the potentialadverse effectsof climate change. The analysisof data for indication of 185 . precipitation and sealevel rise. 3a/$/Ogo/Add.chopter l.including the installationof flood and droughtwarningsystems and the construction of nerv water resourcedevelopmentprojects such as dams. (d) Assess the resultingsocial. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION Ai FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 18.and to mitigatesalineintrusioninto aquifers. 8/ SC/ENTIFrc ANDTECHNOI.penetrati on and transpiration of water quality. climate change as a basis for developing remedial measures is a complextask.desalination works. waste-watertreatment plants.economic mechanism thatcanreview predictions of the impact of climate change and possible response judgemenls sfrategies and makethenecessary anddecisions.could implement the following activities: (a) Monitorthehydrologicregime. hiredandretained in service. includingchanging groundwater levels. Consffuction of major engineeringworks and installationof forecastingsystemswill require significant sffengthening of the agenciesresponsible.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. whether in the public or the private sector.however. preomble. section C.Extensive research is necessary in this area and due accounthas to be taken of the work of the Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change (IPCC). porogroph 35. will dependupon. throughchanges in temperature. especially in the regionsandcountriesmost likely to sufferfrom the adverse effects of climatechange andwherethelocalities vulnerableto theseeffects shouldthereforebe defined.as well as a body of dedicated individualswho are able to interpretthe complex issuesconcemedfor thoserequired to makepolicy decisions. so that they may servetheir countries in thesetasks. l4-25 Morch 1977 lUnitedNotions publicotion. E.

the progralruneareas involve hazatd (basedon the intrinsic properties of chemiassessment (including assessment of expocals). soundmanagement Cooperationwith this programme.19 of toxic monogement sound Environmentolly of illegol prevention including chemicols.as well as on the identificationand applicationof technical. arein place. are for which data of chemicals sessment to with gravedamage 19. a of safety. (b) Harmonization of classification and labelling of chemicals. andphysicalpro tendingevento the fundamentalchemicerl and climate. toxic andimprovedquality of life forhumankind.are (a) lack of sufficient scientific information of risks entailedby the use of a great for the assessment for asand (b) lack of resources number of chemicals.4 Six programme internationalassess(a) Expanding and accelerating ment of chemicalrisks. a significant strengthening an environmento achieve effortsis needed international chemicals. of management sound tally areasare proposed: 19.7 Increasedcoordinationof United Nations bodies involved in chemiand other internationalorganizations shouldbe furtherproand management cals assessment r86 .scientific.2 Grosschemicalcontamination. degree of management sound the environmentally ensure to principles of sustainable within the chemicals. 19. the short final subsectionG deals with the enhancementof cooperation related to several programme areas. exof new techniques. sure).5 The six programmeareas their successfulimplementationon intensive international work and improved coordinationof current international activities. and development will requiremajor investment Restoration The long-rangeeffectsof pollution.Suchwork hasinternational Hownational boundaries. varying degrees.has in recent times been continuing within someof the world's most imporlant industrialareas.geneticstucturesandreproductive and the environment. in particularfor developing nancialmeans. be madeto strengthen other programmes. humanhealth. dangerous In addition. ities for management traffic in toxic and (0 Prevention of illegal international products. the InternationalLabour Organisation(ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the International Programme on ChemicalSafety (IPCS) should be the nuon environmentally cooperation cleus for international should All effor-ts of toxic chemicals.suchas thoseof the Organisationfor Economic Cooperationand Development (OECD) and the EuropeanCommunities(EC) and other regional and governmentalchemical programmes. risk assessment and risk management. (e) Strengtheningof national capabilities and capacof chemicals. work programmesfor the promotion of chemical safety as implications. is becomingrecognized bodiesare numberof international 19.6 Collaborationon chemical safety between the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme(UNEP).arebecomrng of the Eafth'satrnosphere cesses only recently and the importanceof thoseeffects understood only recentlyaswell. respect risks do not chemical of both national and ever. at hand.3 A considerable In many countries involved in work on chemicalsafety. (d) Establishment of risk reductionprogrammes.educationaland fiTo countries. for aretogetherdependent 19.should be promoted. development Two of the major problems. products trofficin toxicond dongerous internotionol INTRODUCTION to meet is essential useof chemicals 19.1 A substantial world community goals of the and economic the social that they can be and today's best practice demonstrates and with a high manner in a cost-effective widely used to be done great remains deal However. (c) Information exchange on toxic chemicals and chemicalrisks. particularly in developing countries. outcomes.risk acceptability 19.

industry.taking into accountthe precautionary approach. Among the approximately100.moted.75and 19. academiaand relevant non-governmental organizations involved in the various aspects of risk assessment of chemicals and relatedprocesses. OBJECTIVES 19. Several hundredpriority chemicalsor groupsof chemicals. 19. It couldbe made cost-effective by strengthening international cooperation and better coordination. (b) Promote mechanismsto increase collaboration among Governments. (Industry. However. a seriousproblem is that even for a great number of chemicalscharacterized by high-volume production. basedon peer review and scientificconsensus distinguishing between health-or environment-based exposure limits and thoserelatingto socio-economic factors. particularlydeveloping countries.19. crucial datafor risk assessment are often lacking.l I Assessing the risksto humanhealthandthe environment hazardsthat a chemical may causeis a prerequisite to planning for its saf'eand beneficial use.Industry shouldapplyadequate standards of operationin all countries in ordernotto damaee humanhealth and the environment.500 exposure to mostchemicals cover 187 .convened by the ExecutiveDirector of UNEP. 19. peer review and linkages to risk management activities. WHO) andtheFoodandAgricultureOrganizationof the United Nations(FAO).the GeneralAssemblyrequested eachregionalcommission. rogether with other organizations. based on an agreed approach to data-quality assurance.000 chemicalsubstances in commerceand the thousands of substances of natural origin with which humanbeingscomeinto contact.was held in London in December1991to further explorethis matter(seeparas. whereappropriate. However.with a view to maintainingefficient and coordinatedmonitoring and assessment of the illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous productsand wastes. in particularthe promoting and coordinatingof P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) EXPANDTNG AND ACCETERATTNG INTERNATIONAT ASSESS'IAEM OF CHETATAIRISKS l9. 19. including the Organisation for Economic Cooperationand Development(OECD).I 3 The objectives of this programmeareaare: (a) To strengthen international risk assessment.should: (a) Strengthen and expand programmes on chemical risk assessment within the United NationssystemIPCS (UNEP.76). 19. to thedetriment of the environmentand public health of all countries. Within the framework of IPCS. over 95 per cent of total world production) is rather limited.ILO.)The industrv initiative on responsible care and product stewardship shouldbe developed and promoted. throughthe cooperation of relevant international organizations andindustry.Fortunately. an intergovernmentalmeeting.which are two importantcomponents of risk assessment. shouldbe assessed by the year 2000.12Risk assessment is resource-intensive. to contribute to the prevention of the illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous productsand wastesby monitoring and making regionalassessments of that illegal traffic and its environmental and health implications.8 The broadest possible awareness of chemicalrisks is a prerequisite for achievingchemicalsafety. the right to know the identity of hazardous ingredients should be balancedwith industry'sright to protectconfidential businessinformation. application of assessment criteria. The Assemblyalsorequested the regional commissionsto interact among themselves and to cooperate with the United Nations Environment Progralnme. (some1. commercial productsand the variousenvironmental media. within existingresources.9Thereis international concernthat paft of the internationalmovementof toxic and dangerous productsis being carried out in contravention of existing national legislation andinternational instruments.14Governments. ACTIVIIIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIV ITI ES 19.10In resolution 441226 of 22 December1989.eachnationshouldhave a critical mass of technical staff with experiencein toxicity testing and exposureanalysis.shall be taken to include large industrialenterprisesand transnational corporations aswell asdomestic industries. Within the framework of the OECD chernicalsprogramme such data are now being generated for a number of chemicals. as most are usedin very small amounts. The principle of the right of the community and of workers to know those risks should be recognized. as referred to in this chapter. However. many appear as pollutantsand contaminants in food. thereby making the bestuseof available resources and avoidingunnecessary duplicationof effort. including major pollutants and contaminanrs of global significance.using currentselection and assessment criteria: (b) To produceguidelines for acceptable exposure for a greaternumber of toxic chemicals.

decide Governments and programmes specificstrategies uponfor i nrpl cnrentati on. the averhasestimated secretariat 19. ri sksposed 19. (b) Generate for assessment. A N D R F G ION A. 19 The Conf-erence the of implementing age total annualcost (1993-2000) to be about$30million from of this prograntme activities the intemationalcommunitv on grant or concessional estiterms. of globalconcern and (b) Revicu' strategies 1-orexposureassessment monitoring to allclrvfor the best use o1' environnrental of dataand s.16Industryshouldprovidedatatbr substances of cificallyfor the assessment ded spe ducedthat are nee potentialrisks to human health and the environment. legitimate takinginto account testing by industry and researchinstitutions. ot ttreirintrinsicpropefties basisfor risk assessment: building. the InternationalRegister of Potentially Toxic (IRPTC) and OECD. organi i nternational ate. to ensure compatibility resource available t o e n c o u r a g cc o h e r e n tn a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l ltt. organizations international ate.that costs. olten not possible areconsiderable are not included. involvedin hazard interested possibleextent to the public also.The cost thecapacities to strengthen projections the needs address of relevant United Nations bodies and are based on in IPCS.should: (a) Developcriterialor priority-setting for cherricals n'ith respcct to assessment. for that assessnte stratesies MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION Al F/NANC/AIAND COST EVALUATION 1 9 . of toxic of action anisms (c) Encourage for the of procedures the development reports on assessment of their exchangeby countries chemiin national for use with countries clther chemicals programmes. the non-concessional. cal assessrnent AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA of relevant thecooperation through 19.of themechto improveunderstanding activities research chemicals. otherregions pateactively.20Major research aswork of chemicals lor assessntent to improvemethods andto towardsa commonframeworkfor risk assessffIent and epidemifor r-rsing toxicological improveprocedures on human of chemicals theeffbcts datato predict ological so as to enabledecision health and the environntent. on programmes programmes FAO. (b) Promotionof research tin.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude mates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.15Governments. 19. They also includethe Chemicals work in non-UnitedNations bodies cost of accelerated suchas OECD and EC. policiesandmeasures to reduce makers to adoptadequatc bv cherrri cal s. iind validationof. datanecessary of IPCS(UNEP WHO. inter alia. pro19. A L A NS B i 5C /E N IFtCA N D TE C H N OLOG\CME in order effortsshouldbe launched 19. whereappropriandindustry. 1 8M o s t o f t h e d a t a a n d m e t h o d s f o r c h e m i c a l r i s k arc generatedin the developedcountries and assessment an expansion and acceleration of the assessmentwork in researchand safety u'ill call for a considerableincrease r88 . whereapproprizati onsandindttstry. methfor those using t est ods consti tuti nga rcpl accrnent (thus rcducingthe use ol' animalsfor testing animals purposes ): (c) Promotion with studies of relevant epidemiological relationship a canse-and-ef1-ect a vie$' to establishin-s of to chemicals and the occurrence betweenexposure certaindiseases: (d) P romoti onof ecotoxi col ogi cal studieswit h t he to t he envithe ri sks of chemi cal s ai m of assessi ng ronment. CJ / NI E R N AIION AI A N D C O OR D /N AI/ON CO O P E R AIION clfrelevant throughthecooperation I 7 Governments. national to relevant Suchdatashouldbe madeavailable bodiesand other and international authorities competent parties andrisk assessment.21 A c t i ri t i e si n c l u d e : (a) S trengtheni ng alt er nat ives research cl nsafe/saf' er andot her to toxrcchemi cal s thatposeanunrcasonab le or hum an w ' i se unmanageablri esk to thc cnvi ronntent persi ste nt toxi c. Actual costsanclfinancial terms.Thesecomprisecoststo industry and dataunderlying the the safety of generating Governments of providingbackassessments andcoststo Governments statements to ground documentsand draft assessment IPCS.should: of chemi(a) Give high priority to hazard assessment asthe appropriate cals. interulia. ILO). and to the greatest claimsof confidentiality. and bioheal thand to thosethat are a d e q u a tely conh e and that cannot accumulative trol l ed.thatis.It shouldbe notedthat there currentexperience to quantify.including any that are will depend upon. OECD anciEC and on established particiIndustryshould andGovernments.

and of toxic at ion and f ina n c i a l s u p p o rt o r o th e r c o n tr i buti ons aimed at expandingand should be given to ac-tivities assessment the nationaland international accelerating and controlof chemicalrisks to enablethe bestchoice of chemicals. The new to the greatest systemshoulddraw on curent systems extent possible. of relevant 19.27A globally harmonizedhazard classificationand compatible labelling system. end-user's (e) Elaborate labellingsystem. enablecountries. handleand usechemicals goods. inter alia. can be tnadefor difof chemicals honre. group.it should be developedin steps and shouldaddress the subjectof compatibility with labelsof variousapplications. studiesof undertake to andinformationsystems existinghazardclassification establishgeneralprinciplesfor a globally harmonized system. FAO.28Governments.who are at greatest and particularlydevelopingcountries. 19. ACTIVITIES IVITI ES ELAT EDACT A) MANAGEMENI-R D) CA P A CT TY-B U tL D IN G presbuildingon past. assessto make maximum nationaluse of international risks" mentsof chemical OBJECTIVES 19.risk in the manufacturing Technical cooperhazardclus chemicals. shouldsupport countries.whereappropriintemationalorganizations ate. 19.if feasible. a harmonized ACTION FOR BASIS and the dissemilabellingof chemicals 19. datasheets andeasilyunderstandable available. hazards to health on assessed based how to andmostefficientway of indicating the simplest saf-ely. ILO. if appropriate.by the year 2000. a n d a s fa r a s p ossi bl e and use control and prevent. and labe hazard classiflcation harmonized buildingon ongoingwork.includ19. organizations.Classification tool in purposes and is a particularlf itnportant l-erent labelling systems. shouldlauncha project with a view to establishing and elaboratinga harmonizedclassificationand compatible labelling system for chemicalsfor use in all United Nations official languagesincluding adequate pictograms.16Globally harmonizedhazard classil'ication thesafe to promote arenotyetavailable labelling systerns or in the inter aliu. in the coordinating of tasksto the participants (c) Elaboratea harmonizedhazard sysclassification tem: (d) Draft proposalsfor standardization of hazardcommunication terminologyandsymbolsin ordertoenhance risk management of chemicalsand facilitateboth international trade and translation of information into the language. ar the workplace use of chernicals. WHO).'elop establishrng lline systems. ChemicalSafetyCards)and sin-rilarly are andenvironment. r89 .29Internationalbodies including. Thereis a needto der. a comprehensive in the United Nations systemis in currentuse. This of the acutehazards scheme mainly takesinto account c hem ic als . in cooperationwith regional and national auand labellingand thoritieshaving existingclassification shouldestabsystems.25For the safetransporlof dangerous withscheme elaborated ing chemicals. IPCS (UNEP. in orderto womenand children. (b) Developand implementa work plan for the establishment of a globally harmonizedhazardclassification of thetasks system.23lnternational work. of Governmentsand non-governmental projectsinvolving shouldlaunchtrainingand education risk.in developingand capabilities at nationaland risk assessillent strengthening r egional lev el s tc l m i n i m i z e . throughthe cooperation andindustry. The plan shouldincludea description andassignment for completion deadline to be cornpleted. entandfutureassessment particularlydevelopingcountries. the United NationsCommitteeof Organization Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and OECD. Such a labelling systemshouldnot lead to the imposition of unjustified trade barriers. including material safety shouldbe symbols.24Adequate suchasICSCs(International nationof saletydatasheets written materials.22lnLemational organizations. B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON OF CLASSIFICATION B) HARMONTZATION OF CHEMICATS AND LABELLING 19. other information-dissemination groupto: lish a coordinating (a) Evaluateand.D E VE L O P M EN T E C) HUM A NRE S O U R C with the participation organizations. the InternationalMaritime (IMO). and 19.

newclassification plementation of.taking into accclunt wrthin the PIC procedure. for implementin-r account. this issue.if possible. should be takeninto tull suchs.economic ancllegal inforrtraticltt. and has authorized the Chairman to hold to conveningthis on timing with respect consultations meeti ng. between convention callsfor communication chemicals exporting and importing countries when hazardous of safetyand havebeenprohibitedfor reasons chemicals healthat work.32In strengthening and i mi n c l u d i n g d e v e l o p ment I nent o1'c h e m i c a l s . parties: (b) To achieve full parby the year 2000. the GATT Council has agreed. programmes of the United and ateorganizations infonnation camcourses and should launch training a new use of and paignsto lacilitatcthe understanding labelling syscompatible and classification harmonized t em f or c he mi c a l s .Theseare inclicative by Governments. Nations. of chemicals countries 19. i 9.31Governments of appropriwith the collaboration rnentalorganizations. to begin from the date of the group's next meeting. Further. of the PIC procedure.vsterns.33 The lollowing activitics.information EXCHANGE ON TOXIC c) TNFoRMATTON RISKS AND CHEMICAL CHEMICATS FORACTION BASIS 19. guidelinesadoptedby Governmentswith a view to increasingchemical safety through the exchangeof information on chemicals. Within the GeneralAgreementon Tariffs have been and Trade (GATT) framework. are ainted at enhancing the sound management of toxic chemicals through the exchange of scientific. They estimate matesprovidedin programme for strengthening total annualcost (1993-2000) average to be about $3 rnilliort from organizations international the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiand order-of-magnitude terms.Special provisions have been included in the guidelineswith regard to the exchangeof i nformati on on banned and sever ely restricted chemicals.as some itnsafeuse. andadaptation be should of tradebarriers thecreation systems. In addi ti on a j oi nt FAO / UNEP programmehas been launchedfor the operationof the of includingthe selection for chemicals.provisionsfor Prior 19.35The exportto developing that have beenbannedin producingcountriesor whose use has been severelyrestrictedin some industrialized countrieshas been the subjectof concern.including any that are will depend upon.storage. on allchemicals exchange dure. inter alia. labelling of a large andresources andthelimitedcapacities avoided particularly countries. to extend of the working groupfor a periodof three the mandate months. r90 . and to.distribution. technical. of thePIC procethe importance 19. developing numberof countries. negotiations on a bindinginstrument pursued with a view to creating in the domestic restricted productsbannedor severely market.MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A N DC OS I EV AL U AT T ON A / F / NA N C IAL has includedthe techsecretariat 19. D EV EL OP M EN I R E SOU R C E B ) HUM A N and institutionsand non-govern19. c ) c A P A C tT Y-B U tL D tN G for managenationalcapacities ic). decide Governments andprogrammes specificstrategies upon for irnplernentation.as statedin its decisioncontainedin Clll{l25l. the non-concessional.37Notwithstanding is necessary. chemicals.38The objectives (a) To promoteintensified of intormationon exchange amongall involved use and emissions chemicalsafety.36In order to address were introducedin Informed Consent(PIC) procedures (UNEP) and in the Inter1989in the London Guidelines nationalCodeof Conducton the Distnbutionand Useof P esti ci des(FA O).30The Conference in estito this programme costsrelated nical assistance the areaE. mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Actual costsand financialterms. related tci infbrrnation exchange on the benefits as well as the risks associated u'ith the use of chemicals.3-1The London Guidelines for the Exchange of Inforn'rationon Chemicals in International Trade are a set of OBJECTIVES areaare: of this programme 19. owing portingcountries lack theability to ensure for controlling the irnporinfrastructure to inadequate of tormulationand disposal tation. PIC procedures and prepto be includedin the PIC procedure chemicals The ILO arationof PIC decisionguidancedocuments. ticipation in and implementation i ncl udi ng possi bl emandatoryappl i cati onst hr ough in the Amended legally binding instruments contained Code London Guidelines and in the FAO International gained the experience of Conduct.

prevention procedures andprogramffles. Theclassic example of risk reduction is the substitution of harmless or lessharmfulsubstances for harmfulones. inter alict.invite relevant and. D) ESTABUSHi/IENT OF R|SK REDUCTTON PROGRATAMES BASIS FOR ACTION 19. suchasIRPTC.40Governments and relevantintemational organizations with the cooperation of industryshould: (a) Assistin the creation of nationalchemicalinformation systems in developing countries andimproveaccess to existinginternational systems. throughprovisionof trainingin theuseof those systems aswell assoftware. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALUATION 19.in their respective areaof competence to considerworking expeditiously towardsthe conclusion of legally binding instruments. WHO and others.especiallythose with shortages of technical expertise.risk reduction can sometimes be achieved by usingotherchemicals or evennon-chemical technologies.andhow to handle. constitute another example of risk reduction. the specificstrategies andprogrammes Govemrnents decide upon for implementation. hardware andotherfacilities.41UnitedNationsorganizations shouldprovide. and provide information to. s u c h a s e mi s s i o n i n v e n to ry prograntmes.44There are often alternativesto toxic chernicals currentlyin use. B) DATA AND /NFORMATTON 19. Health and Safety Guides and International Chemical SafetyCards (publishedby IPCS). Suchapproaches couldencompass bothregLrlatory and non-regulatory measures.as far as possible.all international informationnaterial on toxi c chemi cal s i n al l U ni tedN ati onsol fi ci al languages.Thus.Theseareindicativeandorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. other countries. aswell as thosesubmitted by industryand other sources.including any that are non-concessional. suchas UNEP. AND REG/ONAI. Establishment of pollutionprevention proceduresand settingstandards fbr chemicals in eachenvironmentalrnedium.risk reductioninvolves broad-based approaches to reducing the risks of toxic chemicals. (b) Improve databases and information systemson tox ic c hem ic al s . strengthening and expanding.39Governments and relevantintemational organrzations with the cooperation of industryshould: (a) Strengthen national institutionsresponsiblefor information exchange on toxic chemicalsand promotethe creation of national centreswhere these centresdo not exist: (b) Strengthen internationalinstitutionsand networks. emission inven- 191 .including food and water. thosechemicals andestablish joint responsibilities in tradeof chemicalsbetweenimporting and exportingcountries. in the light of experience internationalorganrzations. C/ /NIERNAIIONAI. suchas promotion products of theuseof cleaner pollution andtechnologies. (d) Implementthe PIC procedures as soonas possible gained.ACTIVITIES tVtT tES A. (c) Establishtechnical cooperationwith. responsible for information exchange on toxic chemicals. monographs on the Evaluationof CarcinogenicRisks of Chemicals to Humans(published by the International Agency for Researchon Cancer (IARC)). 19. In a wider context.and in consumer goods.43The Conference secretariat hasestimated theaverage total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of thisprogramme to be about$ l0 rnillion from the internationalcornmunity on grant or concessional terms. taking into account the entirelife cycle of the chemicals.42 Governments and relevantinternationalorganrzations with the cooperation of industryshouldcooperate in establishing. (d) Provide data necessary risks to human to assess health and the environmentof possiblealternatives to bannedor severelv restricted chemicals. (c) Provide knowledge and information on severely restricted or bannedchemicals to importingcountries to enablethem to judge and take decisionson whetherto import. Actual costsand financialterms.) MANAGEMENT-R ELATED ACT 19. will depend upon. includingtrainingin the interpretation of relevanttechnicaldata.the networkof designated nationalauthorities for exchangeof information on chemicalsand establisha technical exchangeprogrammeto produce a core of trainedpersonnel within eachparticipating country. COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAI/ON 19. as appropriate.suchasEnvironmental Health Criteria Documents. and decision guidancedocuments(provided throughtheFAOfuNEPjointprogrammeon PIC). GATI FAO.

(e) Develop nationalpoliciesand adoptthe necessary regulatory framework for prevention of accidents. recognizingin particularthe responsibilityfor making informationon potential risksandenvironmenavailable practices tally sounddisposal if thosechemicals become wastes. inter alia. including the use of biological control agentsas is one approach to risk to toxic pesticides.of national poisoncontrolcentres to ensure of poisonings.permit systems and reportingrequirements and work with the OECD/UNEPinternational accidents.economicinreguprocedures for safehandlingandexposure centives.uselimitations. of producersof such chemicals. preparedness and response. product labelling. industrialdisasters OBJECTIVES areaisto eliminate 19.45In the agriculturalarea.where applicable. throughthe cooperation whereappropriandindustry.48The objective of theprogramme risks and.integratedpest management.emergencyresponse procedures ofon-siteand andpreparation plans.trade. damaged thatOECD mem19. reduceand rninimize. and adequate diagnosis and treatment (g) Reduceoverdependence on the use of agricultural l armi ng pract ices. international organizations ate.41The OECD Councilhasdecided nationalrisk or strengthen shouldestablish ber countries reduction programmes. response otf-siteemergency (i) Identify. persistent controlled. (0 Promoteestablishment asapproandstrengthening. of toxicovigilance and the undertaking ing by chemicals of areas of clean-upand rehabilitation and coordination by toxic chemicals. turing.or eliminate as far as feasible by environmentallysound disposal practices. economicincentives. cannotbe adequately 19. covering manufac to chemical useand disposal.to reducerisks posed by toxic involvapproach by employingabroad-based chemicals. importersand othershanwith thecooperation dling toxic chemicals to develop. toxic chemicalsby replacingthem with lesstoxic substitutes and ultimately phasingout the chemicalsthat pose unrisk to human reasonable and otherwiseunmanageable health and the environmentand those that are toxic. risks fiom storage of outdated chemicals. and other appropriate (h) Requiremanufacturers.The InternationalCouncil of (ICCA) hasintroduced initiatives ChemicalAssociations regarding responsiblecare and product stewardship and of chemicalrisks. and whoseusecannotbe adequately (c) Adopt policies and regulatoryand non-regulatory measures to identify. and minintize exposureto. directory of regionalresponse centresand the APELL programme.tories.49Governments. int echemi cal s throughai ternati ve gratedpestmanagement means. managemen t. and life-cycleapproaches anticipatory as precautionary. throughland-use on planning. that lations. prompt priate.The Awareness aimedat reduction at Local Level (APELL) for Emergencies Preparedness programmeof UNEP is designedto assistdecision personnel in improvingcommunity makersandtechnical installationsand in preparing awareness of hazardous on plans. emissioninventories.and the phasingout or banningof chemicals risks to poseunreasonable and otherwiseunmanageable human health and the environmentand of thosethat are and whose use toxic. alternatives reduction. 19.whereappropriate. use limitations.50Industryshouldbe encouraged to: (a) Develop an internationallyagreedupon code of principles for the management of trade in chemicals. (b) Undertakeconcertedactivitiesto reducerisks for toxic chernicals. taking into accountthe entirelife cycle both of the chemicals. ing a wide rangeof risk reductionoptionsand by taking lifeprecautionary measures derivedfrom a broad-based cycle analysis. to the extent or unreasonable unacceptable economicallyfeasible.should: (a) Consider adopting policies based on accepted as well producerliability principles. 19. Theseactivitiescould encompass regulatory measures. persistentand bio-accumulative controlled.46Other areas of risk reduction encompassthe preventionof poisonprevention of chemicalaccidents. and the phasingout or banningof andotherwise toxic chemicals that posean unreasonable risk to the environment or humanhealth unmanageable and bio-accumulative and thosethat aretoxic. ACTIVITIES ACT IVITIES ELATED A) MANAGEMFNI-R of relevant 19. transport.ILO haspublished a Codeof Practice response and is prethe preventionof major industrialaccidents paring an internationalinstrument on the prevention of for eventualadoptionin 1993. persistent and whose use cannot and bio-accumulative be adequately controlled: (d) lncrease for standneeds etfortsto identify'national ard setting and implementation in the context of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius in order to minimize adverse effectsof chemicals in food. suchaspromoartdnon-regulatory tion of the use of cleanerproductsand technologies. productlabelling. assess.in cooperation with Governments and relevant agencies intemationalorganizations and appropriate of the United Nationssvstem: 192 .

54 Governments. management anduseof dangeroLls materials. includingsaf'e reuse. estinlateother requirements for training and strcngthening thc cinergcncy and poison control centres to be about $'l rnillion annually from the international community on grant or concessional terms. 5 5 M a n y c o u n t r i e sl a c k n a t i o n a ls v s l c m st o c o p e w i t h r93 . of operation equivalent thanthose to or not lessstringent existingin the countryof origin. (e) Encourage and supportthe development and adoption by small. particr-rlarlv in the case of pesticides that are toxic. throughthe cooperation of relevant where internationalorganizations industry.shoulcl: (a) Promote technology that would mininrize release of. tal and potentialreleases andreporting on annualroutineemissions of toxic chemiof host country cals to the environmentin the absence requirements.of previously acceptedpcsticidcswhose acceptance was based on criteria now recognizedas insufficie-nt or outdatedand of their possiblc rcplacement with othe'r pest control rnethods. ate. AND REGIONA/ c/ INTERNAT/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 19. to phase ont as appropriate. not approved for healthor environmental reasons.taking into accountthe total life cycle of suchproducts. and exposure to. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decide upon lbr inrplernentation. B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 19. (i) Formalize networks response centres. persistentand/or bio-accumulative. on a voluntarybasis. (c) Adopt. toxic chemicals in all countries.severelyrestricted.and medium-sized industriesof relevant procedures for risk reductionin their activities.ith relevant international organizaticlns and programrnes. These are indicative and order-of-nragnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. 5 3 T h e C o n t e r c r t c c s e c r e t a r i a th a s i n c l u d e d m o s t costs relatedto this prograr"nme in estimatesprovided for -fhey programme areasA and E. i l l c l e p e n dL r p o n .should: (a) Collaborateto developcommon criteria to deterfor conmine which chemicalsare suitablecandidates certedrisk reductionactivities.i n c l u d i n g a n y t h a t a r e n o n . A c t u a l c o s t s a n d f i n a n c i a l t e r r n s . o1'relevant throughthe cooperation whereappropriinternational organizations andindustry.c o n c e s s i o n a lw . MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/AL AND COSI EVALUATION 1 9 . whensuchexporthasreceived prior writtenconsent from the importingcountryor is otherwise with in accordance the PIC procedure. with reference to the environmentally sound management to adoptstandards of toxic chemicals.52Governments. (c) Develop guidelinesand policiesfor the disclosure importers and others using toxic by manufacturers. (b) Coordinate concerted risk reductionactivities. (g) Encourage national rvorktclharmonize andregional evaluationof pesticides : (h) Promote and develop mechanisrns for the saf-e production. where approved and appropriate. know programmes basedon international includingsharingof informationon causes of accidenand meansof preventing ihem. chemicalsof toxicity information declaring risks and emergency response arrangements: (d) Encouragelarge industrial enterprises including whertransnational corporations and other enterprises policiesdemonstrating everthey operate to introduce the commitment. (b) Carry out national reviews. irtter alia.51Governments. (b) Cooperatein the development of communication guidelines on chemical risks at the national level to promote informationexchangewith the public and the understanding of risks. formulating programmesto substitutefor thenr sal-er alternatives. and dispose any banned chemicals that are still in stockor in usein an environmentally soundmanner.with the help ol'rnultilateral 0t Encourage cooperation. of. in cooperatiorlri.(b) Develop applicationof a "responsiblecare" approach by producersand manufacturers towards chemical products. E) STRENGTHENTNG OF NAnONAT CAPABTUnES AND CAPACITIESFOR MANAGE'VIENT OF CHEMICATS BASIS FORACTION 1 9 . except B/ SCIENI/F/C AND IECHNOTOGICAL MEANS 19. communityright-toguidelines. as appropriate. appropriand ate. whereappropriate.should: (a) Promoteexchange of informationon nationaland regionalactivitiesto reducethe risksof toxic chemicals. (0 Develop regulatory and non-regulatorymeasures aimedat preventing the exportof chemiand procedures withdrawn or cals that are banned. of ernergency industry.

to monitorandcontroleff-ectively thc generation. health.(e) capacity for implementation andenforcement.shouldconsider other interested the possibility of developing a guidance document on theestablishntcnt 194 . wherc appropriate. a nationalcoordinating mechanism to provide a liaison tor all partiesinvolved in chemical (fbr example. of manyproblematic difficultiesinvolvedin thedetection chemicals and systematically trackingtheir flow. including sa{'ety information. national registers anddatabases. for soundmanagement 19. and poisoncontrolcentres). with thc cooperation of internationalorganizations. priate.57As management of chemicals takes numberof sectors relatedto variousnationalministries. whereappropriate. experiencesuggests that a coordinatingmechanismis es s ent ial . whenappropriate. safetyactivities agriculture.and provide accurate reportingof relevantdata. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES ELATED 19. nationalsystems for environmentally sound management of chemicals. OBJECTIVE 19.theEconomic forEurope Cornmission parties. (e) Develop nationaland local capabilities to prepare for and respondto accidents by taking into accountthe UNEP APELL programmeand similar programmes on preparedness accidentprevention. (b) Establish.networksof emergency response includcentres. labour. should: (a) Promoteand supportmultidisciplinary approaches to chemicalsafetyproblems. ing poisoncontrolcentres: c/ /N IE R N A TTONA AN L D R E G/ON A r AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAI/ON 19. to foster preventiveand precautionaly approaches and ensure compliance with safetymanagement rules. Significantnew uses areamongthepotential hazards to human ln health and the environmentin developingcountries.in cooperation with industry. education. civil defence. appropriate. aff'airs. particularlydevelopingcountries.in conjunctionwith IRPTC. in particularIJNEP (ECE)and OECD.transp(rr-tation aud disposal activities relatingto toxic chenricals. and responsc. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 19.(g) eff'ectiveeducationprogrammes and (h) capacityto respondto emergencies. i ndustry. includineeffectivemeans of enforcement.Appropriate internationalorganizations.56Basic elements of chemi(b) informationgathercalsare: (a) adequate legislation. response identifying meansand equiprnent to reduceinrpactsol' in industriesand plants necessary accidents.-59 whereappropriate Governments. placewithin a 19. and with the collaboration of relevantintergovemmental organizations.including legislationand provisionsfor implementation and enforcement. distribution. aspossible risk reduction tools. (0 Develop. shctuld: (a) Prepareguidelines. whereappropriate.vhere organizations.58By the year 2000. economic research institutions. N4ost of misuseand of judging the impact collectingevidence because of the of toxic chemicalson the environment.61Governments. environment. (b) Consider the need to establishand strengthen.countrieslack scientificmeansof chemicalrisks. (d) Establish whereapproand developor strengthen. manufacturing. where not alreadl'available. with systems in placethereis an urgent several countries needto make thosesystems more efficient. tbr chemicals: (c) Generate field monitoring datafor toxic chernicals of high environmental importance. policy. (f) capacityfor rehabilitation of contaminated sitesand poisonedpersons. (c) Developinstitutional nrechanisms fbr the ntanagementof chemicals. (c) capacity for risk assessment ing and dissemination. in developing and further strengthening national legislation and its implementation. with adviceandcheck-lists for enactins lesislation in the chemicalsaf'ety field: (b) Supportcountries. police. (d) Cooperate with international r.60Governments should: (a) Direct informationcampaigns suchasprogranlmes providinginformation aboutchemicalstockpiles. includingregularlytested andupdated crnergencyplans.er alternatives and emissioninventories that could alsobe a tool for risk reductionto the general public to increase the awareness of probletns of chenical safety. (c) Consider adoption of communityri-eht-to-know or other public information-dissemination programlt"les. (d) establishment of risk management andinterpretation. transportation. agencies and progranlmes of the United Nationssystem. should be in placein all countries to theextent possible. environmentallysaf. erlrergency procedures.

toolsfor management appropriate production in the primary educationcurricula' atalllevelsof courses (.thereisinternationalconcernthati l l egal i nternati onal traffi ci nthesepr oduct sis detrimentaltopublichealthandtheenvironment'parby ticularly in developingcountries'as acknowledged and441226.in centres. Governments' for useby interested of suchprogrammes into local languages saf'ety chemical on documents prepzfed 'rhe on existingworkon accidents shoulclbuild docun-rent activitiesrelatedto regional of levels various und .withclrawn and health public protect to in order saleby Governments MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A l F / N A N C / N GA N D C O S T E V A L U A T T O N lg.present should: organizations I 9. (d))will 19'39 paragraph under (for example.prepareclness products(toxic ECE and on traffic in toxic and dangerous ment OECD ILO.6r Itttctrlatiotral ( i l ) P r o t r l o t c t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n ta n d s t r e n g t h e n i n go f the availability of adet0 ensLlre natiolal lubot'ittories the imqLlatctrittionalcontrol in all countries regarding chemicals: and use of potlation.upport anc linc lr idenew g u i d a n c e c l n to x i c e mi s s i o ni nventori es ge' gy transferand information exchan technolo a ndr is k c om m u tri c a ti o n . theenvironment). (fl Cooperate with all reemergency inclr"rding of chemicals.rr. irncl to make maximum use in (h) Devclop mechanisms OF ltLEGAt INTER'NATIoNAL F) PREVENTION PR'oDucrs countriesofinternationallyavailableinformation. to support countries' for (a) Enhance technicaltraining developingcountries particularly developingcountries'in developingand of chemicals.S u c h g u i d a n c e s h o ul di ncl ude definitionsand dataeleof requirements.fheConlerencesecretariathasestimatedtheaverthe age total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing to countries developing in programme activities of this from the rnillion $150 inclu<ling million.training programmes developwith particularly countries. rirarrtc lN Toxlc ANDDANGERoUS accident for principles promote (i) Invite UNEP to lg.65Governmentsshouldorganize. upon for :tnttegies anrJprogramnles Govemments decide irrplettti:ntation. not carried are that products dary movementsof those adopted intemationally with applicable out in accordance guidelinesandprinciples. ttrltnttf'acture 195 .wherefeasible. costs and financral specific the alia' inter Llpon' clepend will cottcsssional. entchapter objectives' these to achieving alsocontribute CN D r E c H N o t o G l c A L M E A N S B / S C / F N T / F /A should: clrganizations I c)..However.6TFurtherstrengtheni ngofi ntemati onal andr egional to preventillegal transboundary is ncederJ cooperaticln products' Furtherof toxic and clangerous -ou. all levels.capaci ty-bui l di ngatthenati onal l evelisneededt o i mprove moni tori ng and enforcementcapa bilit ies penalol the fact that appropriate involving recognition tiesmayneedtobeimposeclunderaneffectiveenforcein the presOther activitiesenvisaged ment programme. assessment risk future and (d) Build on past.66Thereiscumentlynoglobalinternationalagreefor Governments' audresponse prerctttion.64 International work at an internationallevel.r. bc abour $600 terms. 421183 the GeneralAssemblyin resolutions Illegal traffic refers to traffic that is carried out in contraventionof a country'slaws or relevantinternational to transbounalsorelates The cclncern legalinstruments.*. Arrangc information issues: safety chemical on working aimedat stafluse-. on builcling andthepublic.In all countriesbasiceleat of targeted sponse. programmcancl.62.Activitiesunderthisprogrammeareaareintencledtoimprclvedetectionand preventionof the traffic concerned' l g. development the and level at the national mechanism mentsof chemicalsafetyprinciplesshouldbe included of chemicals. the management i n th e s e tti n g u p o f a n i n s ti tuti onal ing c ot t nt r ies . international cOmmunity cln grant or concessional estimates order-of-magnitude and indicative Thcse are Actual only and have not beenreviewed by Governments' a r e nont h a t a n y i n c l u d i n g t e r n l s . for use or approved not or erely restricted. lg.incollabcrration response directoryof emergency international in industryand trade unions.. in relationto risk management at nationaland capabilities risk orr.of intemationally fu) Promotetranslation. industry banned'sevare that those productsare and dangerous work in this area. harmonization allow sharingof data and mentsto promoteunitormity D E V E LOP ME N T E C / H U MA NR E S OU R C internationallY.nt more.ttnt strengthening activities supportfor research (b) Promoteandincrease and regionallevelsto rninimizerisk in themanufacturing for fellowships and grants at the local level by providing us eof t ox icc hern i c a l s : disin active institutions research studiesat recognized ( e) P r om ot e i m p l e me n ta ti o no f U N E P' s A P E I-L for chemicalsafetyprogrammes' importance of ciplines OECD/UNEP of an use pelrticular.

69 Gove-rnnlents. B ) D A T AA N D / N F O R M A T / O N 1 9 .75A meetingof government-designated experts.a s appropriate.r c h legislation. held in London in f)ecember 1991.according to their capacities and available lesolrrces and ivith the cooperation of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s a n d o t h e r r c l e v a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . and implernent legislation to prevent the illegal inrpofi and export of toxic and dangerousprr. economic and health implications. 19. c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL AND RFG/ONAL COOPERAI/ON AND COORDINAI/ON 19 .7 | Governrnentsshoulrl cociperate in thc exchangeof i n lirrnration on i I I egaI tmn sbounclaryrnovernents of tox i c lrnclclangerous pnrdLrcls ancl should make such infomration a'u'ailable to appropriateL.which could constitute the first meetingof the i ntergovernmental forum.made recommendations for increased coordination amongUnitedNationsbodies and otherinternational organizations involved in chemical risk assessment andmanagement. 19. ILO and UNEP are invited to convenean intergovernmental meetingwithin one year. 19. and o t h e r sc o u l d b e i n v o l v c c li n t h c o p e r a t i o n o f s u c ha s y s t c m . s appropriate. 7 0 G o v e r n m e n t ss h o u l d d e r .in cooperationwith and relying upon expertsupportand advicefrom UNEP and other relevantbodiesof the United Nations. expected to be completedin August 1992. such a s L l N l r P a n d t h e r e s i o n a lc o m m i s s i o n s . a rti c u l a r l ydevel opi ng countries. the ExecutiveHeadsof WHO. Thatmeeting called for the takingof appropriate measures to enhance therole of IPCS and establishan intergovernmental forum on chemicalrisk assessment and management.vant intemational legal instruments: ( b) ' I o a s s i s ta l l c o u n tri c :sp . 196 . ' e l o pa .74Governments and international organizations.68The ob-jectives of the programme are: (a) To reinlbrccnationalcapacities to detectand hait ani. as appropriate.in each region.72 Furtherstrengthening of internationalandregional cooperation is neededto preventillegal transboundary movementof toxic and dangerclus products. on the basis of data and information provided by Governments. and detcct and cleterviolations through appropriate penaltics.should: (a) Adopt. shouldcooperate with developing countries in strengthening their institutional and regulatory capacities in orderto preventillegal import andexportof toxic and dangerous products.asappropriate. illegal attempt to introclucetoxic and dan_{erous prodLrcts into the tcnitory of any State" in contravention cll'nationallegislation and rele.OBJECTIVES 19. where nr-cessary.76To further considerthe recommendations of the Londonmeetingandinitiateactionon them.73l'he regional commissions.lclrrct s: (b) [)evekrp appropriatc national enforcelnent prog r a m r n e st o m o n i t o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s r . ACTIVITIES I ELATED A) MANAGFA4FNR ACTIVITIES 19. drawing upon the resultsandexperience gainedin thejoint UNEP/ESCAP preliminaryassessment of illegal traffic.lnitcdNations bodies. in clbtaining irppropriate all information concerningillegaltrafllc in toxic and dangerous products. national alert systenl\ to assistin detecting illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous prodr.and on a continuous basis make regional assessments of the illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous products andits environmental.should monitor. 19. G) ENHANCE'YIENT OF INTERNATTONAL COOPERATION RETATING TO SEVERAT OF THE PROGRAMMEAREAS 19. local cornr-nunities.rcts.

sal of hazardouswastesis of paramountimportancefor protectionand naturalreproperhealth. of hazardpossible. the international Industry.storage. (c) Ratification and full implementationby the counof the BamakoConventionon the Ban tries concerned on the Import into Africa andthe Control of Transbound- 197 . suchas the on facilitate the imguidelines to sation. larly developing of 22 December 20. and sustainable sourcemanagement.thegeneration extent wastes in sucha to manage those wastes. and participationof will require the active cooperation and industry. experienced and technicaland people. with a view to maintaining efficient of the illegal monitoring and assessment and coordinated products wastes. and ensuring of those agement management options are waste hazardous tally sound pursued to the maximum extent possible within the country of origin (the self-sufficiencyprinciple). and have implicationsfor. and to interactamongthemselves regionalcommissions OVERALL OBJECTIVE 20.within existingresources.3 The activitiesoutiined in the presentchapterare very closelyrelatedto.6 Within the framework of integrated life-cycle the overall objective is to prevent to the management.7 The overall targetsare: (a) Preventingor minimizing the generation of hazerdpropart integrated cleaner of overall an ous wastesas to a minimum reducing eliminating or duction approach. wastes of hazardous of the generation 20.20 monogement of hozordous sound Environmentolly internotionol of illegol prevention including wostes. management 20.recyclingandreuse. recoveryanddispotransport.financial resources scientificcapacities. tions and domesticindustry. wastes. as referredto in this paper.so that an overall integratedapproachto hazardouswaste is necessary.environmental This development. the General Assembly requested to contributeto commission. betweenthe States agreements (b) Ratification onthe Control of theBaselConvention Wastesand Hazardous Movements of of Transboundary of related elaboration their Disposalandthe expeditious and compenprotocol liability protocols. The movementsthat take place should be on transboundary environmental and economic grounds and based upon concemed.consistmovementsof hazardous transboundary efficient mansound and environmentally ent with the environmenthat wastes. environment countries. as well as ous way that they do not cause harm to health and the environment. Governrnents community.2 Prevention and the rehabilitation of contaminatedsites are the key elements. and traffic in toxic and dangerous treat20J Effective control of the geueration. 20. mechanismsand plementation Basel of the Convention. the preventionof the illegal traffic in toxic anddangerous by monitoringand makingregional productsand wastes of that illegal traffic and its environmental assessments alsorequestedthe The Assembly andhealthimplications.5 In sectionI of resolution441226 each regional 1989. many of the progralnmeareasdescribedin other chapters. wostes trofficin hozordous INTRODUCTION cooperatewith the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). ment.shall include large corporaincluding transnational industrial enterprises.4 There is internationai concern that part of the internationalmovement of hazardouswastesis being of existingnationallegislacarriedout in contravention tion and internationalinstrumentsto the detrimentof the particuand public healthof all countries.facilities. TARGETS OVERALL 20. and minimize. and both require knowledge.

theresidues from productionprocesses. to stimulateindustrialinnovationtowardscleanerproduction methods.1I The objectives of this programmeareaare: (a) To reduce the generationof hazardouswastes. individually or through international prohibit the import of suchwastes. modificaticlnand development of new low-waste technoklgiesare thereforecurrently a central focus of hazardous wasteminirnization. (b) Promoting and strengthening institutionalcapacities in hazardous wastemanagement.9 Human healthand environmental quality are undergoing continuous degradationby the increasing amountof hazardous wastesbeing produced.12To achievethoseobjectives.as part of an integratedcleanerproduction approach. countries that canafford to adoptthe requisitetechnologies without detrimentto their development shouldestablish policies that include: (a) Integration of cleaner production approaches and hazardous wasteminimization in all planning. (c) Establishment goal for the sta. accordingto their possibilitiesand with the help of multilateralcooperation. (e) Achievement of a qualitative improvement of waste streams. 10A m on g th e mo s t i mp o rta n t fa c to rs i n these strategies is the recoveryof hazardous wastesand their tranformation into usefulmaterial.in ordertclensure that the necessary capital investmentis made availablein programmes development througheconomicincentives.shouldprovide economicorregulatoryincentives. PROGRAMM E A REAS A) PROI OTING THEPREVENTTON AND MINIMIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE BASIS FOR ACTION 20. the fourth Lom6 Conventionor other relevantconventions. wheresuchprohibitionis providedfor. where practicable andenvironmentally sound.and the adoptionof specific goals.ti The following programmeareasare included in this chapter: (a) Promotingthe prevention andminimizationof hazardouswaste. handling and disposal of such wastes. suchas. (b) Governments. (c) Promotingand strengthening international cooperation in the management of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes: (d) Preventing illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes. whereappropriate. taking into considerationthe stateof developmentof eachcountry. OBJECTIVES 20. 20. (0 Facilitationof the establishment of cost-effective policies and approaches to hazardouswaste prevention and management. (d) Elimination of the export of hazardous wastesto countries that.Technology application. (b) Promotion of the use of reguiatory and market mechanisms.to the extent teasible. aspartof a broader approach to changing industrialprocesses patterns and consumer throughpollution prevention and cleanerproductionstrategies. providedthat thosematerials are environmentally sound. There are increasingdirect and indirect costs to society and to individual citizens in connectionwith the generation. (b) To optimize the useof materialsby utilizing.and therebyreduce the impactand costof industrialdevelopment. mainly throughactivities aimedatreducing their hazardous characteri stics .It is therefore crucial to enhanceknowledge and information on the economics of prevention and management clf hazardous wastes.including the impact in relationto the employment and environmental benefits. agreements. (c) To enhance knowledgeand information on the economics of prevention and managementof hazardous wastes. Oneof thefirstprioritiesin hazardous wastemanagement is minimization. including recyclable wastes.ary Movement of HazardousWasteswithin Africa and the expeditious elaboration of a protocolon liability and compensation. 20. the contractingpartiesto the Bamako Conventicln.and to encouragewaste mi ni mi zat i on i nvestments: 198 . (d) E stabl i shment of l ong-term programm esand policiesincluding targetswhereappropriate for reducing the amount of hazardouswaste produced per unit of manufacture. of an intermediate bilizationof the quantityof hazardous wastegenerated. to encourage industryto investin preventive and/orrecyclingtechnologies so as to ensureenvironmentallysoundmanagentent of all hazardous wastes. 20. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGFMENI-R ELAT EDACTIVITI ES 20J3 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governmentsshouldestablishor modify standards or purchasing specificationsto avoid discrimination against recycledmaterials.

regionaland naeffectivecoordinationof international Another activity protional policies and instruments. reuse and disposeof wastesat the source of generation. in regionsother of similar conventions the development In additionthereis a needfor than Africa. andinformationon environmentally (i) Industry should establishenvironmentalmanagement systems.and devel(c) Governments shouldintensifyresearch for proalternatives opmentactivitieson cost-effective that currentlyresult in the generand substances cesses wastes that poseparticularproblems ation of hazardoLts for environmentallysound disposal or treatment. expertson an robi meeting of government-designated includand an actionprogramme. posed is cooperatingin monitoring the effects of the wastes. experiences and incentive adopting economic regulatory schemes and for waste management for hazardous mechanisms f rom waste such thatprevent theuseof cleantechnologies being generated.where appropriate. whereapproguidelines of conduct.the that of thosesubstances possibilityof ultimatephase-out risk unmanageable or otherrvise present an unreasonable and are toxic. CleanerProduction tend and strengthetl existilrg \vslettrs lirt'tolleeliolt r'. strategy international ing technicalguidelinesfor the environmentallysound wastes. (k) Governments that lay regulations shouldestablish for industries enviresponsibility of the ultimate down wastes their of hazardous sounddisposal the ronmentally generate.being developed underthe UNEP secretariat. mentcentres. of cleanerproductionntethods the installation (j) A relevant and competentUnited Nations organwith other ization should take the lead. assisted by internationalorganizathe fbr assessing mechanisms should establish tions. in cooperation for estimating the to developguidelines organizations. takinginto of contaminated includingrehabilitation the report of the l99l Naiaccount. activities B) DATA AND /NFORM. as appropriate. which will bring about changesto sustain with industry shouldcooperate Governments innovation. in orderto identify where production or distribution is needed.olpromotethe use and dissemination network: lectedthroughthe CleanerProduction (e) OECD should. to access organizations (C) Ittternationalorganizations.in particularin the management of hazardous context of the work of the Basel Convention. recycle. andcodes to develop priate" leading to cleaner production through sectoral tradeindustryassociations: (f) Governmentsshould encourageindustry to treat. cleanerproductioninformation: (d) All UnitedNations should organs andorganizations of informationc. to the adoption costsand benefitsof variousapproaches of cleanerproductionand wasteminimizationand enviof hazardouswastes. whenever and when it is unavoidable wastegeneration hazardous efficient for is both economicallyand environmentally industryto do so.or as close as possiblethereto. to thecommunities thatmightbe affected wastes.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizationsand industries. (e) Govemmentsof developedcountriesshould prosoundtechnologies of environmentally mote the transfer and know-how on clean technologiesand low-waste productionto developingcountriesin conformity with chapter34.14The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. if so required. assess(g) Governments technology shouldencourage assessfor examplethroughthe useof technology ments.including environmentalauditing of its sites. management of hazardous 199 . ronmentally sound management sites.should support the establishment of domestic facilities to handle hazardous wastesof domesticorigin. through the {JNEP shoulcl crprograntme altd ICPICI.AI/ON 20. (h) Governments should promote cleanerproduction of centresproviding training throughthe establishment soundtechnologies.1 cooperation 5 International/regional age the ratificationby Statesof the Basel and Bamako of those Conventionsand promote the implementation for will be necessary Regional cooperation Conventions.undertake in of membercountries nateinformationon.in cooperation with otherorganizasurveyof. (0 Governments to be transindustries shouldencourage providerelevantinformation parcntin their operations eurd by thegeneration. persistentand bio-accumulativeto be Emphasisshould be as soon as practicable. considered given to alternativesthat could be economically accountries. cessible to developing (d) Governments. information systems: value of existing (b) Governments nationwideand reshouldestablish cleargional information collection and dissemination for Government ing-houses and networksthat are etrsy institutions and industry and other non-governmental and use. anddissemia comprehensive tions. of hazardous management and disposal AND REG/ONAI cJ INTERNATONAT" AND COORD/NAI/ON CCOPERAIION shouldencour20.

takinginto account the "polluterpays"principle. incorporating hazardous wastepreventionand minimizationtechniques and launchingdemonstration projects at the local level to develop"success stories"in cleaner production. (c) All sectors prodshoulddevelop of society cleaner uction awareness and prornclte campaigns dialogueand partnership with industryand other actors.as well as their final disposal. including will dependupon.MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 20. takingintoaccount the cradle-to-grave approach to the management of hazardous wastes. includingtargets and adequate environmental control. as appropriate. insufficient education andti'aining programmes and lack of coordination between the difl-erent ministries andinstitutions involvecl in various aspects of 200 .16The Conference secretariat hasestimated theaverage total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activitiesof this programmeto be about $750 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. inter any that are non-concessional.19The following activities be undcrtaken: should (a) Governments in cooperaof developing countries.18 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. in collaboration u. 8/ S C/ E N IIF IC AN D T EC H N O IOG| C AL MFA N S 20J7 The following activitiesrelatedto technologydevelopmentand research shouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. national procedures for environmental i mpact assessnlent. in orderto identify their needswith respectto technologytransferand implementation of measures for the soundmanagement of hazardous wastes andtheir disposal: (b) Governments shouldincludein nationalplanning and legislation an integrated approach to environmental protection.2AMany countries lack the national capacity to handleand manage hazardous wastes. alia. (c) Governments shouldwork with industry/ on sectorby-sector production cleaner wasteminand hazardous imizationcampaigns. shouldencourage industryto promoteand undertake research into thephase-out of the processes thatposethe greatest environmentalrisk based wastes generated. should significantlyincrease financial support fcrr cleaner technologyresearchand prograrrunes. aswell ason the reduction of such wastes and otheremissions. (d) Governments should take the lead in establishing and strengthening.ith industryand appropriate intemationalorganizations. invenshould develop toriesof hazardous wasteproduction. tion with industry and with the cooperation of appropriateinternational organizations.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments. disposal and destruction: (e) Governments. D ) C A P A C TTY -B U tLD tN G 20. and adopt programmes for hazardous wastereduction. B) PRO'VIOTING AND STRENGTHENTNG INSTITUTIONAT CAPACITIES IN HAZARDOUS WASTEMANAGEMENT BASIS FOR ACTION 20. in orderto identilyoptionsfor minimizing the generation wastes. includingenvironmental audits. as appropriate. Actualcosts andfinancialterms.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations. deficiencies in regulatory frameworks. (b) Industryshouldintegratecleanerproductionprinciples and caseexamples into trainingprogrammes and esprojects/networks tablishdemonstration by sector/country . with the cooperation of international organizationswhereappropriate. shoulddevelop procedures for monitoringthe applicationof the cradleto-grave approach. storage. development includingthe useof biotechnologies. (0 Bilateraland multilateraldevelopment assistance agenci esshoul d substanti al l y i ncreasefu nding f or cleaner technologv transfer to developing countries.recycling and recovery of hazardous wastes.thror"rgh of hazardous saf'er handling.driven by preventionand sourcereduction criteria. internationalorganizations and industryshouldencourage industrial trainingprogrammes. and industries. This is prirnarily due to inadequate infiastructure. the specific strategiesand prograrrunesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. on hazardous ( c ) S t ate s s h o u l d e n c o u ra g ei n d u s tr y to devel op schemes to integrate production thecleaner approach into designof productsand management practices: (d) States shouldencourage industryto exercise environmentallyresponsible care through hazardous waste reduction and by ensuringthe environmentallysound reuse. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 20. (b) States. includingsmall-and medium-sized enterprises.

public on the eff-ects of hazardous to the general wastes. technicalguidelines wastes. assessment tems to hazardous of wastes. Stepsneedto be takenimmecharacteristics at high risk and to take diatelyto identify populations One of the main where necessary.takinginto accclunt of practical andassist in the preparation makingprocesses. informationavailable . wastes hazardous in srnallandmedium-sized (g) Governments should promote identificationand wastesin collaboration clean-upof sitesof hazardolrs Technolwith industryand international organizations.In addition. asfar aspossible andwhenappropriate of the "polluterpays"principle: application (h) Governments should ascertainthat their military conform to their nationallyapplicable establishments environmentalnorms in the treatmentand disposalof hazardous wastes. there is a neecito strengthen of for the management that are responsible institutions wastes. programmes (c) To establish research comprehensive wastes in countries: on hazardous (d) To strengthen to enablethem to serviceindustries wastes.23The fbllowing activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. for this beavailable shoulcl ogies. methodologies. thereis a lack of knowwastemanagement. hazardous (i) To makeinformationavailable and to Governments wastes. pro(b) To establish publicawareness andinformation waste issuesand to ensurethat grammeson hazardous are provided basic educationand training programmes for industryand govemmentworkersin all countries. wastes. ment of hazardous wastes coveringall levelsof cation and trainingprogrammes proresearch There is also a needto ttndertake society. especially of risks. grammesto understand the natureof hazardclus effectsand to to identify their potentialenvironmental to safely handle those wastes. Such groups should serve as models to developsimilarregionalprogrammes.as well as of wastesand their treatment/disposal and assess contaminated sitesthat requirerehabilitation.21The obiectives (a) To adopt appropriate legislativeand coordinating. of hazardous mentally soundmanagement andregional of international cludingtheimplementation conventions. on human health and the including inf'ectious environment. should encourageas far as possiblethe estabfacilities for lishment of combined treatment/disposal industries. (d) International shoulddevelopimproved organizations national decisionhealttr-based criteria.and the wastes. health risks.22The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments invenshould establish andntaintain inventories. remedialmeasures. OBJECTIVES areaare: in this programme 20. and accordingto their capacities available resourcesand rvith the cooperationof the asapproandotherrelevantorganizations UnitedNations priate. appropriate b1'establishing guidelines andstandards: criteriaand/oreflluent-related (h) To improve knowledge regarding the effbcts of wastes on humanhealthandthe environment. organizaindustryand international and in developingguidelines tions shouldcollaborate and for the characterization easy-to-implement methods wastes: classification of hazardous (c) Governments andhealth shouldcarryout exposure residingnear uncontrolled assessments of populations hazardous wastesitesand initiateremedialmeasures. in and agenwith international organizations cooperation related activities training andresearch cies. of hazardous safehandlingand disposal (e) Governments shouldencountries of developing courage interdisciplinaryand intersectoralgroups. minimizationand fbr the prevention. toringand in environmentally (f) To promote human exposLlre with reassessment wastesitesand identifythe rernedial spectto hazardous requircd: measures (g) To facilitate andrisksof of impacts the assessmcnt wastes on humanhealthandthe environment hazardous procedures. of hazardous including tories. exposure and risk to humanhealthand the environment: requiredto clean they shouldalso identify the measures Industryshouldmakethenecessary up thedisposal sites. andpollution contarnination ledgeaboutenvironmental health risk from the exposureof and the associated andecosyswomenandchildren. develop technologies of the capacities Finally. and regional organizainternational 201 . (e) To develop in all developing capacities endogenous and train statfat all levelsin envito educate countries wastehandling andmonihazardous ronmentally sound soundmanagement. (0 Governments. populations.to implement waste prevention andcontrolofhazardous to evaluation. measures at the nationallevel for the environregulatory inwastes. expertise andfinancing with the purpose. computerized sites. (b) Governments. and to build up international handlehazardous networking. hazardous ACTIVITIES ELATED ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R 20. B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 20. sound manageprioritiesin ensuringenvironmentally eduis to provideawareness.

according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations.storage. c/ /NTERNATTONAL AND REG/ONAL COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 20. accordingto their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant oreanizations and industryas appropriate. of institutional and interdisciplinary groupsthat collaborate.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the UnitedNations. in activities oriented towards strengthening risk assessment. with particular supportto be given to consolidating networks.25 The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost( 1993-2000) of implementingttreactivities of thisprogramme to beabout$ 18. at the regionaland local levelsas appropriate. c) H U MA NR E S OU R C DE E V E LOP ME N T 20. (b) Governments shouldestablish notificationsystems and registriesof exposedpopulationsand of adverse healtheffectsand databases on risk assessments of hazardouswastes: (c) Governments shouldendeavour to collectinformation on thosewho generate or dispose/recycle hazardous wastesand provide suchinformationto the individuals and institutions concerned. should: (a) Increase public awareness and informationon hazardouswasteissuesand promote the development and dissemination of hazardous wastesinformationthat the generalpublic can understand.The transboundary movements that take place shouldbe on environmental and economicgroundsand basedupon agreements between all States concerned.includingparticipation at grass-roots levels. (e) International organizations shouldidentify relevant and improvedtechnologies for handling.26The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Governments. 8/ SC/ENilF/C AND TECHNOLOGTCAL TIEANS 20. including about $500 million fiom the intemational community on grantorconcessional terms. will dependupon. 'Ihe 20. (c) Encourage self-sufficiency in hazardous wastedisposal in the country of origin to the extent that is environmentally sound and feasible. treatment and disposalof hazardous wastes.treatmentand disposaland on hazardous waste assessment. storage. in collaborationwith international organizations.5 billion related to developingcountries. the specificstrategies and programmes Governmentsdecideupon for implementation. and promoteits application.transport.conducting hazardousmaterials audits and establ i shing appropri ate regulatoryprogranilne s. management andremediation . (b) Governments.planning and implementrng hazardous waste minimization programmes. risk management andrisk reductionwith respect to hazardous wastes. (c) Develop training and educationprogrammesfor men and women in industry and Governmentaimed at specific real-lif'eproblems.tions and industry shouldfacilitateand expandthe dissemination of technicaland scientificinformationdealing with the varioushealthaspects of hazardous wastes.24Governments.for example. accordingto theircapabilities.5billion on a globalbasis with about $3. includingthe long-termeffectson childrenand women. particularly women.should increasesupportforhazardouswasteresearch management in developingcountries. otherorganizations andnon-governmental organizations.27Governments. (b) Support capacity-building andtechnological developmentand research in developingcountriesin connection with human resource development. should collaborate in developingand MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 20. should: (a) Promoteand supportthe integration and operation. inter alia. 202 .28 following activities shouldalsobeundertaken: (a) Governments. includingany thatarenon-concessional.industrialmanagement and govemment regulatory staff in developing countrieson technologies to minimize andmanagehazardouswastesin an environmentally soundmanner. (d) Promotethe training of labour.should conduct research on the health effects of hazardouswastes in developing countries. (d) Govemments and intemationalorganizations in cooperation with industry should expand technological research on environmentally sound hazardouswaste handling. (c) Governments shouldconductresearch aimedat the needsof small and medium-sized industries.according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations and industry as appropriate.as appropriate.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. (b) Increase participation in hazardous wastemanagement programmesby the general public. Actualcosts andfinancialterms.

disseminatingeducationalmaterialsconcerninghazaroous wastesand their effects on environmentand human by women'sgroupsandby the health,for usein schools, generalpublic; (b) Governments,according to their capacitiesand available resources and with the cooperation of the shouldestablish United Nationsand other organizations, programmes for the environmentallysound or strengthen with, as wastesin accordance management of hazardous appropriate,health and environmental standards,and extend surveillance systems for the purpose of identifying adverseeffects on populationsand the environwastes; tohazardous ment of exposure (c) International organizationsshould provide assistin assessing the healthand envianceto memberStates ronmental risks resulting from exposure to hazardous wastes,and in identifying their priorities fbr controlling of wastes; or classes the variouscategories (d) Governments,according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the should United Nationsand otherrelevantorganizations, promote centresof excellencefor training in hazardous nationalinwastemanagement, building on appropriate stitutions and encouraginginternational cooperation, developed links between inter alia, throughinstitutional countries. and developing

(b) Develop industry-based institutions for dealing forhandling industries wastes andservice with hazardous hazardous wastes; (c) Adopt technicalguidelinesfor the environmentally wastesand supportthe of hazardous soundmanagement implementation of regional and international conventions; (d) Develop and expand international networking among professionalsworking in the area of hazardous wastesand maintain an information flow among countries; (e) Assess and operating the feasibilityof establishing national, subregionaland regional hazardouswastes could be usedfor educatreatment centres. Suchcentres tion andtraining,aswell asfor facilitation andpromotion of the transfer of technologiesfor the environmentally wastes; soundmanagement of hazardous (0 Identify and strengthen relevantacademic/research to enablethem to institutionsor centresfor excellence carry out educationand training activitiesin the environwastes; of hazardous mentallysoundmanagement (g) Develop a programme for the establishmentof and train nationalcapacities and capabilitiesto educate wastesmanaqestaff at various levels in hazardous ment; (h) Conductenvironmental auditsof existingindustries of hazto improve in-plant regimesfor the management ardouswastes.

D) CAPACTTY-BUTLDING corporations transnational 20.29 Whereverthey operate, should be encouraged and other large-scaleenterprises to introduce policies and make commitments to adopt wasteto hazardous standards of operationwith reference no less to or generationand disposalthat are equivalent and country of origin, in the stringentthan standards efforts to establish Governments are invited to make regulationsrequiring environmentallysound managewastes. ment of hazardous shouldprovide assisorganizations 20.30 International in the healthand envitanceto memberStates assessing to hazardous from exposure ronmental risks resulting priorities for controlling wastesand in identifying their wastes. of or classes the variouscategories accordingto their capacitiesand 20.31 Governments, available resourcesand with the cooperationof the and United Nations and other relevant organizations should: industries, (a) Supportnational institutionsin dealing with hazardous wastesfrom the regulatory monitoring and enwith such support including forcement perspectives, to implementinternational enablingof thoseinstitutions conventions: AND STRENGTHENING c) PROMOTTNG IN THE INTER.NATIONAT COOPERATION MANAGEMENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTSOF HAZARDOUSWASTES

BASIS FOR ACTION 20.32 In order to promote and strengtheninternational including control and in the management, cooperation movementsof hazardous monitoring, of transboundary wastes,a precautionaryapproach should be applied. and criteria There is a needto harmonizethe procedures There andlegalinstruments. usedin variousintemational is also a need to developor harmonizeexisting criteria and for identifyingwastes dangerous to the environment to build monitoringcapacities.

OBJECTIVES 20.33The objectives of this programne areaare: (a) To facilitate and strengtheninternational cooperof hazsoundmanagement ation in the environmentally wastes, includingcontrolandmonitoringof transardous including wastes boundarymovements of such wastes,

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for recovery,by using internationallyadoptedcriteria to identify and classify hazardous wastesand to harmonize relevantinternationallegal instruments; (b) To adopt a ban on or prohibit, as appropriate,the export of hazardous wastesto countriesthat do not have the capacityto deal with thosewastesin an environmentally soundway or that have bannedthe import of such wastes; (c) To promote the developmentof control procedures for the transboundarymovement of hazardouswastes destinedfor recovery operationsunder the Basel Convention that encourageenvironmentally and economically soundrecyclingoptions.

gionally - agreedcriteria and preparea list of hazard profilesforthe hazardous wastes listedin nationallegislation; (i) Develop and use appropriatemethods for testing, characterizing and classifying hazardous wastes and adopt or adapt safety standards and principles for managing hazardous wastes in an environmentally sound way.

> lmplementing existingogrements 20.35 Governments areurgedto ratify the BaselConvention and the Bamako Convention, as applicable,and to pursuethe expeditiouselaborationof relatedprotocols, such as protocols on liability and compensation, and of mechanisms and guidelinesto facilitate the implementation of the Conventions.

ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIVITIES > Strengthening ond hormonizingcriferio and rqulotions 20.34 Governments,according to their capacities and available resourcesand with the cooperationof United Nations and other relevantorganizations, as appropriate, should: (a) Incorporatethe notification procedurecalled for in the BaselConventionand relevantregionalconventions, as well as in their annexes, into nationallegislation; (b) Formulate,whereappropriate, regionalagreements such as the Bamako Convention regulating the transboundarymovementof hazardouswastes; (c) Help promote the compatibility and complementarity of such regional agreementswith international conventions and protocols; (d) Strengthen national and regional capacities and capabilities to monitor and control the transboundary movementof hazardous wastes; (e) Promote the development of clear criteria and guidelines,within the framework of the Basel Convention and regional conventions,as appropriate,for environmentally and economically sound operation in resource recovery, recycling reclamation, direct use or alternativeusesand for determinationof acceptable recovery practices,including recovery levels where feasible and appropriate, with a view to preventingabuses and false presentation in the above operations; (0 Considersettingup, at nationaland regionallevels, as appropriate,systemsfor monitoring and surveillance of the transboundary movementsof hazardous wastes; (g) Developguidelines for the assessment of environmentally soundtreatmentof hazardous wastes; (h) Develop guidelinesforthe identification of hazardous wastes at the national level, taking into account existing internationally - and, where appropriate,re-

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A' F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON 20.36 Becausethis programmearea covers a relatively new field of operationand because of the lack so far of adequatestudieson costing of activities under this programme, no cost estimateis available at present.However,the costsfor someof the activities relatedto capacity-building that are presentedunder this programme could be consideredto have been covered under the costing of programmeareaB above. 20.37 The interim secretariatfor the Basel Convention shouldundertake studiesin orderto arrive at a reasonable costestimatefor activitiesto be undertaken initiallv until the year 2000.

B) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG 20.38 Governments,according to their capacities and available resourcesand with the cooperationof United Nations and other relevantorganizations, as appropriate, should: (a) Elaborateor adoptpoliciesfor the environmentally sound managementof hazardous wastes, taking into accountexistingintemationalinstruments; (b) Make recommendations to the appropriateforums or establishor adaptnorrns,including the equitableimplementationof the "polluter pays" principle, and regulatory measures to comply with obligations and principles of the Basel Convention, the Bamako Convention and other relevantexisting or future agreements, including protocols,asappropriate, for settingappropriate rules

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in the field of liability andcompensation andprocedures movement for damageresultinglrom the transboundary wastes; of hazardous and disposal of a ( c ) I m plem en tp o l i c i e sfo r th e i mp l e m e n ta t i on ban or pr ohib i ti o n , a s a p p ro p ri a te ,o f e x p o rts of was te sto c o u n tri e sth a t d o n o t h ave the haz ar dous i n a n e n v i ronmenc apac it yt o dea l w i th th o s ew a s te s t ally s ound way o r th a t h a v e b a n n e dth e i mport of s u c hw a s t e s ; (d) Study,in the contextof the BaselConventionand the feasibility of prorelevantregionalconventions, in the caseof an financialassistance viding temporary emergencysituation, in order to minimize damage movements arisingfrom transboundary from accidents wastesor during the disposalof those of hazardous was t es .

ACTIVITIES IVITI ES EDACT ELAT A) MANAGEMENI-R accordingto their capacitiesand 2A.42Governments, available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations,as should: appropriate, (a) Adopt, wherenecessary, andimplementlegislation to prevent the illegal irnport and export of hazardous wastes; (b) Develop appropriatenational enforcementprogrammesto monitor compliancewith such legislation, penalties detectand deterviolationsthroughappropriate attention to thosewho areknown to have andgive special wastes and to hazillegal traffic in hazardous conducted to illegal ardouswastesthat are particularlysusceptible traffic.

TRAFFIC lttEGAt INTERNATIONAL D) PREVENTING IN HAZARDOUS WASTES B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON ACTION FOR BASIS 20.39The prevention of illegal traffic in hazardous and public healthin will benefrtthe environment wastes all countries,particularlydevelopingcountries.It will also help to make the Basel Conventionand regional such as the BamakoConveninstruments, international more effectiveby tion and the fourth Lomd Convention, in promoting compliancewith the controlsestablished Article IX of the Basel Convention those agreements. the issueof illegal shipmentsof specificallyaddresses wastes may Illegaltraffic of hazardous wastes. hazardous causeseriousthreatsto human health and the environment and imposea specialand abnormalburdenon the suchshipments. thatreceive countries actionthrougheffecrequires Effectiveprevention 20..10 and impositionof tive monitoringand the enforcement penalties. appropriate an should develop as appropriate, 20.43Governments informationnetworkand alert systemto assistin detecting illegal traffic in hazardouswastes.Local combe involved in the orreration munitiesand otherscor"rld of sucha network and system. of in the exchange shouldcooperate 2A.44Governments of hazmovements informationon illegal transboundary ardouswastesand shouldmake suchinformationavailUnited NationsbodiessuchasUNEP ableto appropriate and the regionalcommissions.

AND REGIONAI COOPERATION c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL in cooperationwith 20.45The regional commissions, and relying upon expertsupportand advicefrom UNEP and otherrelevantbodiesof the United Nationssystem, taking full accountof the Basel Convention,shall conthe illegaltraffic in hazardous tinueto monitorandassess andhealth economic wastes, includingits environmental, implications, on a continuingbasis,drawing upon the gainedin thejoint UNEP/ESCAP resultsandexperience of illegal traffic. preliminary/ assessment as 20.46Countries and international organizations, the instituto strengthen shouldcooperate appropriate, in particularof develtional and regulatorycapacities, in orderto preventthe illegalimport and oping countries, wastes. export of hazardous

OBJECTIVES areaare:of this progranlffle 20.41The objectives to detectand halt (a) To reinforcenationalcapacities wastesinto any illegal attemptto introducehazardous the ten'itory of any State in contraventionof national legis lat ion and re l e v a n t i n te rn a ti c l n alle g a l i nstruments: (b) To assist all countries,particularlydeveloping informationconin obtainingall appropriate countries, wastes; cerningillegal traffic in hazardous (c) To cooperate, within the frarneworkof the Basel the consein assisting countriesthat suff'er Convention. quences of illegal traffic.

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21

Environmentolly monogement sound of solid wostes ond sewoge-reloted issues

INTRODUCTION

2l.l This chapter hasbeenincorporated in Agenda21 in response to General Assembly resolution441228, section I, paragraph 3, in which the Assemblyaffirmedthat the Conference shouldelaborate strategies andmeasures to halt and reverse the effectsof environmental degradation in the contextof increased nationalandintemational effortsto promotesustainable andenvironmentally sound dcveloprnent in all countries, and to sectionI, paragraph l2 (g), of the sameresolution, in which the Assembly affirrned that environmentallysound managementof wasteswas among the environmentalissuesof major concernin rnaintaining the quality of the Earth'senvironment and especiallyin achievingenvironmentally soundand sustainable development in all countries. 21.2 Programme areasincludedin the presentchapter of Agenda21 arecloselyrelatedto the following programmeareas of otherchapters of Agenda2l : (a) Rotection of the quality and supply of freshwaterresources: application of integrated approaches to thedevelopment,management (chapter anduseof waterresources l8); (b) Promotingsustainable humansettlement development(chapter 7); (c) Protecting and promotinghumanhealthconditions (chapter 6); (d) Changingconsumption (chapter patterns 4). 21.3 Solid wastes, as definedin this chapter, includeall dorlesticrefuseand non-hazardous wastes suchas comrnercialand institutional wastes,streetsweepings and construction debris.In somecountries, the solid wastes management systern alsohandles humanwastes suchas night-soil, ashes from incinerators, septic tanksludge and sludge fiom sewagetreatmentplants. If these wastes manif-est hazardous characteristics thevshouldbe treated as hazardous wastes.

21.4 Environmentally soundwastemanagement mustgo beyondthe meresafedisposal or recoveryof wastes that are generatedand seek to addressthe root causeof the problemby attempting to changeunsustainable patterns of productionand consumption. This implies the application of the integrated life cycle management concept, which presents a uniqueopportunityto reconciledevelopmentwith environmental protection. 21.5 Accordingly,theframeworkfor requisiteactionshould be foundedon a hierarchyofobjectives and focusedon the four major waste-related prograrnme areas, asfollows: (a) Minimizing wastes; (b) Maximizing environmentallysound waste reuse and recycling; (c) Promotingenvironmentallysound waste disposal and treatment; (d) Extendingwasteservicecoverage. 21.6 The four programme areas are interrelated and mutually supportive and must thereforebe integrated in order to provide a comprehensive and environmentally responsiveframework for managing municipal solid wastes. The mix and emphasis given to eachof the four programmeareas will vary accordingto the local socioeconomicand physicalconditions, ratesof wastegenerationandwaste composition. All sectors of society should panicipatein all the programmeareas.

P R O G R A M MA ER E A S
A) MtNtMtZtNG WASTES BASIS FOR ACTION 21.7 Unsustainable patterns of production andconsumption areincreasing the quantities and varietyof environ-

/Li0

rates.The wastesat unprecedented mentally persistent thequantities of wastes trendcouldsignificantlyincrease quantities produced by theendof thecenturyandincrease four to fivefold by the year 2025. A preventive waste in lifestyles focusedon changes management approach and in production and consumption pattems offers the best chancefor reversingcurrent trends.

OBJECTIVES in this areaare: 21.8 The objectives (a) To stabilize or reduce the production of wastes destinedfor final disposal,over an agreedtime-frame, on wasteweight,volumeand by formulatinggoalsbased to facilitatewaste compositionand to induceseparation recyclingand reuse; wastequan(b) To strengthen procedures for assessing purpose of formufor the changes tity and composition policies utilizing minimization waste lating operational modito induce beneficial instruments economic or other patterns. production and consumption ficationsof 21.9 Governments,according to their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof thc United Nations and other relevant orsanizations.as appropriate, should: (a) By the year 2000, ensure sufficient national. process and to access, capacity regionalandinternational monitor wastetrend information and implement waste minimizationpolicies ; (b) By theyear2000,havein placein all industrialized to stabilizeor reduce,if practiccountriesprogrammes wastes production of destinedfor final disposal, able, (where per wastes this conceptapplies capita including ), prevailing that date; developingcountries at at the level as well shouldwork towardsthat goal without jeopardizing their developmentprospects ; (c) Apply by the year 2000.in all countries, in pzu'ticular progralrlmes to reduce the proin industriaJizeA countries. packaging and wastes, containers ductionof agrochemical characteristics. which do not meethazardous materials,

(a) Develop and strengthen in renationalcapacities searchand design of environmentallysound technolto reducewastesto a ogies, as well as adopt measures mi ni mum: (b) Providefbr incentives patto reduceunsustainable ternsclf productionand consumption; (c) l)evelop, where necessary. nationalplans to minimize wastegeneration as part of overallnationaldevelopmentplans; (d) Emphasizewaste minimization considerations in procurement within the United Nationssystem.

AND /NFORMAI/ON B) DATA for keepingtrack 21.t I Monitoring is a key prerequisite in wastequantityand quality and their resuiof changes Govemments, on healthandtheenvironment. tantirnpact should: with the supportof international agencies, (a) Developandapplymethodologies forcountry-level wastemonitoring; (b) Unclertake data gatheringand analysis,establish nationalgoalsand monitor progress; (c) Utilizc clata soundness of to assess environmental nationalwastepoliciesas a basisfbr correctiveaction; (d) Input inf'ormation into global informationsystems.

C] /NIERNAI/ONAI. AND REG/ONAt COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 21.12The UnitedNations andintergovernmental organshould izations. r,vith the collaboration of Governments, help promotewasterlinimization by facilitatinggreater The know-how of inforrnation. andexperience. exchange fbllowing is a non-exhaustive list of specificactivities that couldbe undertaken: (a) Identifying, methoddeveloping and harmonizing suchmethmonitoringandtransferring ologiesfor rvaste odol ogi u'trl s countri es: (b) Iclentifying and furtherdeveloping the activitiesof networks and existingint-ormation on cleantechnologies w aste rni ni mi zati on: (c) Llndertaking periodic assessment, collating and in an analvsingcountrydata and reportingsystematically, concemed; appropriate Un itedNationsfomm,to thecountries (d) Reviewing minimizatheeffectiveness of all waste tion instrunrents and identifyingpotentialnew instruby which they mcnts that could be usedand techniques be rnac'le at the country level. Guidecor.rld operational of practice shouldbe developed; linesand codes (e) Undertakingresearch on the social and economic level. impactsof wasteminimizationat the consumer

ACTIVITIES ITIES ACTIV A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED to shouldinitiateprogrammes 2 1 . 1 0G o v e r n m e n t s minimization of waste generation. achieve sustained and consumergroups Non-governmental organizations in suchprogrammes. to participate shouldbe encouraged of interwhich could be drawn up with the cooperation These prowhere necessary. national organizations, build upon existing grammes should,whereverpossible, or plannedactivitiesand should:

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MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 21.13The Conferencesecretariat suggests that industrialized countriesshould considerinvesting in waste minimizationthe equivalentof about I per cent of the expenditures on solid wastesand sewagedisposal.At currentlevels,this would amounttcl about $6.5 billion annually, including about to minimiz$1.8billionrelated ing municipal solid wastes.Actual amountswould be determinedby relevant municipal, provincial and national budgetauthorities basedon local circumstances.

C) HUIAAN RFSOURCE DEVELOPMENT 21.15Human resource development for wasteminimizationnot only shouldbe targeted at professionals in the wastemanagement sectorbut also shouldseekto obtain the support of citizens and industry.Human resource developmentprogrammesmust thereforeaim to raise consciousness andeducate and inform concerned groups and the public in general.Countriesshouldincorporate within schoolcurricula, whereappropriate, theprinciples and practices of preventingand minimizing wastesand materialon the environmental impactsof waste.

B / S C/ F N IIF IC A N D IEC H N O I.OGIC ME AL A N S 21.14Wasteminimizationtechnologies and procedures will needto be identifiedand widely disseminated. This work shouldbe coordinated by nationalGovernments, with the cooperation and collaborationof non-governmentalorganizations, research institutions and appropriate organizations ol'the United Nations,and could include the folloi,ving: (a) Undertakinga continuous review of the effectivenessof all waste minimizationinstruments and identifying potentialnew instruments that could be usedand techniques by which instruments could be made operational at the country level. Guidelinesand codes of practiceshoLrld be developed; (b) Promotingwastepreventicln and minimization as the principal objective of national waste management programmes; (c) Promotingpublic education and a rangeof regulatory andnon-regulatory incentives to encourage industry to changeproductdesignand reduceindustrialprocess wastes throughcleaner produciion technologies andgood housekeeping practices and to encourage industries and consumers to use typesof packagingthat can be safely reused: (d) Executing,in accordance with nationalcapacities, demonstration and pilot programmes to optimize waste minimizationinstruments ; (e) Establishing proceduresfor adequatetransport. storage,conseryation and management of agricultural products,foodstuffs and other perishablegoods in order to reducethe lossof thoseproducts, which results in the production of solid waste; (0 Facilitating the transfer of waste-reduction technologies to industry,particularlyin developingcountries, andestablishing concrete nationalstandards fbr effluents and solid waste, taking into account, inter a.lia, raw materialuseand energyconsumption.

B) i AXrMtZtNc ENVTRONTUENTAIrY SOUND WASTEREUSE AND RECYCTING BASIS FOR ACTION 21.16Theexhaustion of traditional disposal sites, stricter environmentalcontrols governing waste disposaland increasing quantities of more persistent wastes, particularly in industrializecl countries. haveall contributed to a rapidincrease in thect-rst of waste disposal services. Costs could double or triple by the end of the decade.Some currentdisposalpractices pose a threatto the environment. As the econr-rmics of waste disposalservices change, waste recycling and resourcerecovery are becoming increasingly cost-effective.Future waste managernent prograntmes should take maximum advantage of resource-efficient approaches to the control of wastes.These activities should be carried out in conjunctionwith public educationprogrammes. It is important t.hat markets for products from reclaimed materials be identifiedin the development of reuseand recyclingprogrammes.

OBJECTIVES 21.17The ob.jectives in this areaare: (a) To strengthen andincrease nationalwastereuse and recycl i ng systems: (b) To create a modelinternalwastereuse andrecycling programmefor waste streams, including paper,within the UnitedNationssystem; (c) To make available informaticln,techniquesand appropriate policy instruments to encourage and make operational wastereuseand recyclingschemes. 2l .18 Govemments, accclrding to theircapacities andavailableresources andwith thecooperation of theUnitedNations and otherrelevantorganizations, asappropriate, should: (a) By the year 2000,promotesufficientfinancialand technologicalcapacitiesat the regional, national and locallevels, asappropriate, to implementwastereuse and recycling policiesand actions;

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Assessing the extent and practice o1'waste reuseand recvcling operations cllrentlv undertaken and identiff ing \\ avs by which these could be increasedand suppofiecl: (c) Incrcasing funding for researchpilot programmes to test various options tor reuse and recycling. (0 Identifying products. to the extent possible. will depend upon. including the use of' small-scale.build upon existing orplanned a c t i v i t i e sa n d s h o u l d : (a) Develop and strengthennational capacity to reuse and recycle an increasing proportion of wastes. targets for efficientwastcreuseand recycling. and have a by the year 2010.21 States. cottage-basedrccycling indus21. asapprclpri ate. waste reLrse and recycling. B / s C / E N I / F / CA N D I F C H N O T O G T C AM L EANS 21. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A / F I N A N C / N GA N D C O S T E V A L U A T T O N B) DATAAND /NFORMAIION 21.including.inch. (b) Review and rclorm national rvastepolicies to provide incentives for waste reuse and recycling.19 Governments and institutions and non-governmental organizations. irttcr olirt. compostproduction waste I treated and energyrecoveryfrom wastes. (d) Producingguidelinesand bcst practices for waste reuse andrecycling.whereverpossible.(b) By theyear2000. nationalprogramme. For example.analysingand disseminating. These are indicative and order-of-rnagnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govc-rnmcnts. Policies fbr leuse and recycling should be madc an integral component of national and local waste millliigenlent programme s: (b ) . Actual costs and financial terms.rding consumer. taking into account the saving in energy and raw materials: (e) Develop public education and awarenessprogrammes to promote the use of recycled products. tries. worldwide e-xpenditr-rres lor this purpose would amount to $8 billion. includingthroughthe United Nationsand otherrelevant i ntemati onal organ i zations. to key targetgroups. in collaboration with appropriate organizations of the United Nations system. (d) Modify existing standardsor purchase specifications to avoid discrimination against recycled materials.shclul d: (a) Undertake a penodicreviewof the extent to which countries reuse and recycletheir wastes. ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES ELATED 21. and give priority to. supporting actii'ities undeftaken by national and local govemments in collaboration with the United Nations and other international organizationscould include. through bilateral andntultjlateral cooperation. (e) Intensifyingefforts. The secretariatestintatesthe total annual c o s t ( 1 9 9 3 . (a) Undertaking an extensive review of options and techniquesfbr reuseand recycling all lbrms of municipal solid u.23 The transfer of t. relevantinformation on wasteissues. the specific programmes proposed by internationalinstitutions and approved by their g o v e r n i n gb o d i e s . should launch programmes to demonstrate and make operational enhanced waste reuse and recycling.'astes.in all industrialized countries. These programmes should.collecting. -waterirri gation. (c) Develop and implement national plans fbr waste management that take advantage of. grantscould be nrade Specialresearch available on a competitive basisfbr innovative research projects on recycling techniques.22 The Contercncc sccrctariat has estimated that if the equivalent of I per cent o1'waste-related municipal expenditures was clevotedto sale rvastereuse schemes.women's and youth groups.echncllogy should support waste recycling and rcuse hy the following means: 209 .20 Information and research is required to identify promising socially acceptableand cost-effective forms of u'astereuseand recycling relevantto each country. in all developing countries. at. (b) Review the effectiveness of techniques for and approaches to waste reuseand recycling and ways clf enhancing their application in countrie s: (c) Revierv guidelines and update international for the safereuse of wastes: (d) Establish appropriate prograntrnes to support small communities'wastereLlsc and recy'cling industricsin developing countries. potential markets for rccycled c/ /NIERNAI/ONAL AND RFG/ONA/ COOPERAI/ON AND COORD/NAI/ON 21. including any that are non-concessional.2 0 0 0 )o f i r n p l e r r e n t i n gt h e a c t i v i t i e so 1 ' t h i s programme areain developing countriesto be about $850 million on grant or concessionalterms.

(a) Including the transfer of recycling technologies, suchasmachineryfor reusingplastics, rubberandpaper, within bilateral and multilateral technicalcooperation and aid programmes; (b) Developingand improving existing technologies, especially indigenous technologies, andfacilitatingtheir transferunder ongoingregionaland interregional techprogrammes; nical assistance (c) Facilitating thetransferofwastereuse andrecycling technology. 21.24Incentives for waste reuse and recycling are numerous.Countriescould considerthe following options to encourage industry,institutions, commercialesinstead tablishments and individualsto recyclewastes of disposing of them: (a) Offeringincentives to local and municipalauthorities that recyclethe maximumproportionof their wastes; (b) Providing technical assistance to informal waste reuseand recyclingoperations: (c) Applying economicandregulatory instruments, including tax incentives, to supportthe principlethat generatorsof wastespay fbr their disposal; (d) Providing legal and economic conditionsconducive to investments in wastereuseand recycling; (e) Implementingspecific mechanisms such as deposit/refund systems for reuseand recycling; as incentives (f) Promoting the separatecollection of recyclable partsof household wastes; (g) Providing incentives to improve the marketability waste; of technically recyclable (h) Encouraging the use of recyclablematerials,particularly in packaging, wherefeasible; (i) Encouragingthe developmentof markets for reprogrammes. cycled goodsby establishing

(d) Encouraging non-governmentalorganizations, community-based or ganization s andwomen's,youth and public interestgroup programmes, in collaboration with local municipalauthorities, to mobilizecommunitysupport for wastereuseandrecyclingthroughfocused community-levelcampaigns.

D) CAPACITY.BUILDING 21.26Capacity-buildingto support increasedwaste reuseand recyclingshouldfocuson the following areas: (a) Making operational policiesandincentives national for wastemanagement; (b) Enablinglocal and municipal authorities to mobilize communitysupportfor wastereuse andrecyclingby involving and assisting informal sectorwastereuseand recyclingoperations wastemanagernent andundertaking planningthat incorporates resource recoverypractices.

c) PROMOTTNG ENVIRONMENTATTY SOUND WASTEDISPOSAI AND TREATMENT BASIS FOR ACTION 21.21Even when wastesare minimized, some wastes will still remain.Even after treatment, all discharges of wastes have someresidualimpacton the receivingenvironment. Consequently, there is scope for improving waste treatment and disposal practices such as, for example,avoiding the dischargeof sludgesat sea. In developing countries, theproblemis of a morefundamental nature: lessthan l0 per centof urbanwastes receive some form of treatmentand only a small proportion of treatmentis in compliancewith any acceptable quality standard. Faecalmattertreatmentand disposalshouldbe accordeddue priority given the potentialthreatof faeces to humanhealth.

C) HUM A NR E SOU R C DE EV EL OP M EN I 21.25Training will be required to reorient current waste management practicesto include waste reuse and recycling. Governments,in collaboration with United Nationsinternational andregionalorganizations, shouldundertake following indicativelist of actions: the (a) Including wastereuseand recycling in in-service trainingprogrammes asintegralcomponents of technical cooperationprogrammeson urban managementand infrastruc ture devel opment; (b) Expandingtraining programmes on water supply anclsanitation to incorporate techniques and policiesfor wastereuseand recycling; (c) Including the advantages and civic obligationsassociatedwith wastereuseand recycling in schoolcurricula and relevantgeneraleducational courses;

OBJECTIVES 21.28The objective in this area is to treat and safely disposeof a progressively increasing proportionof the generated wastes. 21.29Governments, accordingto their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the cooperationof the United Nations and other relevant orsanizations.as appropriate, should: (a) By the year 2000, establishwaste treatmentand disposalquality criteria,objectives and standards based on the natureand assimilative capacityof the receiving environment; (b) By the year 2000, establishsufficientcapacityto

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pollution impact monitoring and waste-related undertake includingepidemiological conductregularsurveillance, : lance.whereappropriate surveil and countries, (c) By the year 1995,in industrialized that at by the year 2005,in developingcountries,ensure wastewatersand solid least50 per cent of all sewage, wastes are treated or disposed of in conformity with national or international environmental and health quality guidelines; (d) By the year 2025, disposeof all sewage,waste watersand solid wastesin conformity with nationalor quality guidelines. international environmental

ACTIVITIES tVlT lES ACT ELATED A) MANAGEMENT-R and non-govemmental institutions 21.30Governments, in collaboration togetherwith industries, organizations, of the United Nations with appropriate organizatrons to improve the consystem,shouldlaunchprogrammes pollution. These of waste-related trol and management possible, wherever build uponexistprogrammes should, ing or plannedactivitiesand should: (a) Develop and strengthen nationalcapacityto treat of wastes; and safelydispose (b) Review and reform national waste management pollution; policiesto gain controlover waste-related (c) Encourage countriesto seek wastedisposalsolutions within their sovereignterritory and as close as with of origin thatarecompatible possible to the sources In a soundand efficient management. environmentally movementstake number of countries,transboundary in an environplaceto ensurethat wastesare managed obrnentallysoundand efficient way. Suchmovements includingthosethatapply therelevant conventions, sen/e that are not undernationaljurisdiction; to areas plans,giving (d) Develophumanwastesmanagement due attention to the developmentand application of andtheavailabilityof resources technologies appropriate for implementation.

(a) Assemblingand analysingthe scientificevidence and pollution impactsof wastesin the environmentin scienrecommended order to formulate and disseminate for theenvironmentallysound tific criteriaandguidelines of solid wastes; management (b) Recommending local nationaland,whererelevant, scientific criquality based on standards environmental guidelines; and teria (c) Incl udi ng w i thi n techni cal cooperati on pr ogrammesand agreements the provision for monitorinp equipment and for the requisitetrainingin its use; (d) Establishingan information clearing-house with extensivenetworks at the regional,national and local informationon all aslevels to collect and disseminate pectsof wastemanagement, including safedisposal.

AND REG/ONAT C/ 'NIERNAI/ONAT AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERAIION 21.32States, through bilateraland multilateralcooperation, including through the United Nations and other as appropriate, relevant internationalorganizations. should: (a) Identify,develop and methodologies andharmonize environmentalquality and health guidelines for safe wastedischarge and disposal; (b) Reviewand keepabreast and disof developments of techniques seminateinformation on the effectiveness and ways of supto safewastedisposal and approaches portingtheir application in countries.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai FINANCTNG are relevantto 21.33Safe waste disposalprogrammes In developed both developed and developingcountries. to meet facilities focus is improving on countriesthe while in quality developcriteria, higher environmental is required to build ing countries considerable investment facilities. new treatment the averhasestimated secretariat 21.34The Conference (1993-2000) of implementingthe age total annualcost in developingcountriesto activitiesof this programrne be about$15 billion, includingabout$3.4 billion fronr the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms.Theseareindicativeandorder-of-magnitude by Governments. matesonly andhavenotbeenreviewed Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are will depend upon, inter nlia, the non-concessional, decide Govemments specificstrategies andprogrartmes upon for implementation.

AND INFORMAI/ON B) DATA settingand monitoringare two key ele21.31 Standard for gaining control over waste-related ments essential areindicative pollution.The following specificactivities actionsthat could be taken by of the kind of supportive bodies such as the United Nations Centre international (Habitat), the United Nations for Human Settlements Environment Programmeand the World Health Organization:

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L t I

ME A N S AN D IE C H N OT OGIC AL 8/ S C/ F N I/F /C and research on variousas21.3-5 Scientiticguidelines pollutioncontrol rvill be crucial pectsof waste-related Governof thisprogramme. the obiectives for achieving with approand local authorities, ments,municipalities should: priateinternational cooperation, (a) Prepare reporls guidclines on subjects andtcchnical planningin human of land-use such as the integration quality environmental settlements with wastedisposal, u'astetrcl.ttl-nent disposal and saf-e criteriaanclstandards" options.industrialwaste treatmentand landflll operations; (b) Undertakerescarchon critical subjectssuch as waste-water sYstreatment low-cost,low-maintenarlcc waste treatclisposal options; industrial terns: safesludge di se.c o l o g i c a l l y s afew aste m ent ;and l o w -tc c h n o l o g y posaloptions; (c) Transl'er as tcchnclkrgies, in conlormitywith theterms of environwell as the provisions 34 (Transf-er of chapter mentally sound technology,cooperationand capacityprocesses through wastetreatnreltt building),on indusffial programmes cooperation tcchnical bilateral andmuitilateral u'ith bLrsincss and industry. including and in cooperation asirppropriate. largeand transnatiorlal corprlratiotts. (d) Focuson the rehabilitatic-rn. operation and mainteassi stance on nanc eof e x i s ti n gl a c i l i ti e s a n d te c h n i c al practice's and techniques folinrprovedmaintcnance of wastetreatlowed by the planningand constluction mentfacilitics; (e') Irstablish prograrnrxe s to traximizethc sollrce segol'thc hazardous conrponents regation and saf-e disposal l o l i dw a s te " ot 'niunic i p as (f ) Ensure the investrnent and prclvision of wastecolprovision of water with ther concomitant lcctionfacilities and sen,ices ancirl'ith an equaland parallclinvestmerlt provision nt facilities. of wastetreatme

D) CAPACITY-BUILDING will be 21.37Institutional reformsandcapacity-building indispensable if countriesare to be able to quantify and pollution. Activities to achieve mitigate waste-related this objectiveshouldinclude: (a) Creatingand strengthening independent environmental control bodies at the national and local levels. Internationalorganizations and donors should support neededupgradingof manpowerskills and provision of equipment; (b) Empoweringof pollutioncontrolagencies with the to carry requisitelegal mandateand financialcapacities out their dutieseffectively.

DI EXTENDING COVERAGE WASTE SERVICE BASIS FOR ACTION 21.38B y theendof thecentury, over2.0bi l lion people w i l l be w i thout accessto basi c sani tation, and an esti mated hal l ' ol ' the urbanpopul ati on i n developing w i l l be w i thoutadequate sol i dw ast e disposal countri es servi ces. A s many as 5.2 rni l l i on peopl e,i ncluding4 mi l l i on chi l drenunderfi ve yearsof age,di e eachyear from waste-related The health impacts are diseases. particularlyseverefor the urbanpoor. The healthand waste lnanageenvironmentalimpacts of inadequate ment, however,go beyond the unservedsettlements themsel ves and resul ti n w ater.l and and a ir cont am iE xt ending nati onand pol l uti onover a w i der area. and ser vices i mprovi ngw astecol l ecti on and safedi spo sal are crucial to gaining control over this form of polluti on.

OBJECTIVES R ES O U R C D E EV EL OP M EN T C) HUM A N 21.36Training would bc requiredto improve curuent practices to includesafecollection wastemanagement list of The following is an indicative and waste disposal. in collabthat shouldbe takenby Governments, actions organizations: orationwith international ( a) P r ov i d i n g b o th to rn -ra a l n d i n -s e rvi cetrai ni ng. and disfocusedon pollLrtior.l control,wastetreatment pt-rsr t le c h n o l o g i e sa , n d o p e r a t i n ga n d n r a i n t a i n i n g w aste- re latedi nfiastrLlcture. I ntercountry staffexchange programnles shouldalsobe established; (b) Undertaking thereqr-risite trainingfbr waste-related pollr.rtion monitoring andcontrolen{rlrcement. 21.39The overall objective of this programmeis to provide health-protecting, Iy safewaste environmental col l ecti on anddi sposal servi ces to al l people. G over nments,accordi ng r eto thei r capaci ti es and av ailable sources andw i th thecooperati on of theU ni tedNat ions a n d o t h e r r e l e v a n to r g a n i z a t i c l n s a,s a p p r o p r i a t e , shoul d: (a) By the year 2000, have the necessary technical, flnancial and humanresource capacityto providewaste serviccs with needs: collection commensurate (b) By the year 2025. provide all urban populations with adequiite wasteservices: (c) By the year 2025, ensure that full urban waste servicecoverageis maintainedand sanitation coverage achieved in all ruralarcas.

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ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT-RELATED ACTIVITIES 21.4AGovernments. accordingto their capacitiesand available resourcesand with the coopcrationof the United Nations and other relevant organizations. as should: appropriate, (a) Establish financingmechanisms lbr wastemanagement servicedevelopment in deprive-d areas.including appropriate modesof revenuegeneration: (b) Apply the "polluter pays" principle.where appropriate,by settingwastemanagement charges at ratesthat reflect the costsof providing the serviceand ensurethat paythefull costof disposal thosewho generate thewastes in an environmentally safeway; (c) Encourage institutionalization ofcomnrunities' parprocedures for ticipationin planningandimplernentation solid wastemanagement.

(a) Launcha settlement infrastructure andenvironment programmefollowing the United NationsConference on EnvironmentandDevelopment to coordinate the activities of all organizations of the UnitedNationssysteminvolved in this areaand include a clearing-house for infonnation dissemination on all wastemanagement issues; (b) Undertake reporlon progress and systematically in providingwasteservices to thosewithout suchservices; (c) Review the effectiveness of techniqueslor and approaches to increasingcoverageand identify innovative ways of accelerating the process.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 21.43The Conference secretariat hasestimated theaverage total annualcost (1993-2000)of irnplementing the activities of this programmeto be about $7.5 billion, includingabout$2.6 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsand financial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alio, the specifrcstratcgies and progranrmes Govemments decideuponfor implementation.

B) DATA AND /NFORMATION with the United 21.41Governments. in collaboration Nations and international organizations. should undertakethe following: (a) Developingand applyingmethodologies for waste monitoring; (b) Data gatheringand analysisto establish goalsand monitor progress; (c) Inputtinginformationinto a _elobal informationsystem buildinguponexistingsvstems, (d) Strengthening the activitiesof existingintbrmation networksin orderto disseminate focusedinformationon the applicationof innovativeand low-cost alternatives for wastedisposalto targeted audiences.

8/ SC/ENI/FIC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 21.44Governments and institutions. togetherwith nongovernmentalorganizations.should, in collaboration with appropriateorganizations of the United Nations system, launch programmesin different parts of the developingworld to extend waste servicesto the unpopulations. served programmes These should. rvherever possible,build upon and reorient existing or planned activities. 21.45Policy changesat the national and local levels could enhance the rateof wasteservicecoverage extension.Thesechanges shouldincludethe following: (a) Giving full recognitionto and using the full range of low-cost options for waste management. including, where appropriate, their institutionalization and incorporationwithin codesof practiceand regulation; (b) Assigninghigh priority to the extensionof waste nanagementservices, as necessary and appropriate, to all settlements irrespective of their legal status,giving due emphasis to meetingthe wastedisposal needs of the unserved, especially the unserved urbanpoor: (c) Integrating the provisionandmaintenance of waste management services with other basic services such as water-supply and storm-water drainage.

ci /NTERNAI/ONA/ AND REG/ONAt ERAI/ON AND COORD/NAI/ON COOP 71.42Many United Nations and bilateral programmes exist that seek to provide water supply and sanitation sen'icesto the unserved. The Waterand Sanitation Collaborative Council, a global forum. currently acts to coordinatedevelopmentand encourage cooperation. Even so, given the ever-increasing numbersof unserved in addiurbanpoor populations andthe needto address, tion. the problem of solid waste disposal,additional mechanisms areessential to ensure accelerated coverage of urbanwastedisposalservices. The international community in generaland selectedUnited Nations organizationsin particularshould:

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Countries. couldbe enhanced. 21.46Research activities in cooperation with appropriateinternational organtal or gani zat i ons,shouId, f or i zationsandnon-governmen instance: u'astes (a) Find solutions for managing andequiprnent islands. populations andon sn-rall in areas of concentrated refusestorage In particular,thereis a needfor appropriate and hygienic and coilectionsystemsand cost-effective humanwastedisposal options; (b) Prepareand disseminate guidclines,case-studies, policy reviews and technical reports on appropriate solutions and modes of service delivery to unserved low-incomeareas; (c) Launchcampaigns to encourage activecommunity participation involving women'sandyouth groupsin the waste; management of waste,parlicularlyhouseht-lld (d) Promoteintercountrytransferof relevanttechnologies, especiallytechnologies for high-densitysettlements.

21.48Improvementsin managementtechniquesare returnsin termsof improving likely to yield the greatest rvastemanagementservice efficiency. The United Naand financial institutions, internationalorganizations tions should, in collaborationwith national and local manageGovernments, developand renderoperational for municipalrecordkeeping ment informationsystems and accounting and for efficiency and effectiveness assessment.

D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 21.49Governments, institutionsand non-governmental organizatrons,with the collaboration of appropriate organizations of the United Nations system,should developcapacities to implementprogramrnes to provide waste collection and disposalservicesto the unserved populations.Some activities under the programmes shouldincludethe following: (a) Establishinga specialunit within current institutional arrangements to plan and deliver servicesto the poor communities, unserved with their involvementand participation; (b) Making revisions to existingcodesandregulations to perrnitthe useof the full rangeof low-costalternative technologies tor wastedisposal; (c) B ui l di ng i nsti tuti onalcapaci tyand d eveloping proceduresfor undertaki ng servi ce pl a nning and delivery.

DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 21.47Intemationalorganizations and national and locai in collaborationwith non-governnrental Governrnents, providefocused organizations, should trainingon low-cost particularly' wastecollectionand disposalopticlns, techIntercountr-.1 staff niquesfor their planning and deliverry. programmes exchange amongdeveloping countricscould fbrm part of such training. Particuiarattentionshoulci be givento upgrading thestatus andskillsof managcmcnt-lcvel personnel in wastemanagement agencies.

21A

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sound monogement Sofe ond environmentolly wostes of rodiooctive

P R O G R A M MA ER E A

havingonly nuclearapplications, suchsystems arestill needed.

PROA'IOTING THE SAFEAND ENVIRONA/IENTALLY WASTES SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE BASIS FOR ACTION wastes in thenuclear fuel 22.1 Radioactive aregenerated cycle as well as in nuclear applications(the use of radionuclides in medicine,research and industry).The risk from radioactive wastes radiological and safety variesfrom very low in short-lived, low-level wastes up to very large for high-level wastes.Annually about waste 200,000m3 of low-level and intermediate-level and 10,000m3 of high-levelwaste (as well as spent nuclear fuel destinedfor final disposal)is generated world wide from nuclearpower production.Thesevolpowerunitsaretaken umesareincreasing asmorenuclear into operation, facilitiesaredecommissioned and nuclear the useof radionuclides increases. The high-levelwaste containsabout99 per cent of the radionuclides and thus representsthe largest radiological risk. The waste volumesfrom nuclearapplications are generallymuch smaller.typically sometensof cubic metresor lessper year and country.However,the activity concentration, in sealed mightbehigh,thus especially radiation sources, j u s t i f y i n g v e r y s t r i n g e n tr a d i o l o g i c a lp r o t e c t i o n measures. The growthof wastevolumes should continue to be kept underclosereview. 21. 2 T he s af ean d e n v i ro n m e n ta l s ly o u n d m a n a gement w a s te s ,i n c l u d i n gth e i r mi n i mi zati on, o f r adioac t iv e g i v en thei r an d d i s p o s a l i.s i m p o rta n t, t r ans por t at ion In c har ac t er is t ic s . mo s t c o u n tri e sw i th a s u b stanti al nuclearpower programme,technicaland administrative measures have been taken to irnplementa wa-ste s y s te mIn . ma n yo th e rc o u n tri e s m anagem ent s ti l l onl y in preparationfor a national nuclear programmeor

OBJECTIVE 22.3 The objectiveof this programmeareais to ensure that radioactive wastesare safelymanaged, transpofted, protecting storedand disposed human of, with a view to health and the environment,within a wider framework of an interactive and integratedapproachto radioactive wastemanagement and safety.

ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENT. RELAT EDACT IVITI ES 22.4 States, in cooperation with relevantinternational organizations, whereappropriate, should: (a) Promotepolicies and practical measurcs to minimize and limit, where appropriate, the generationof radioactive wastes and providefor their safeprocessing, conditioning,transpofiation and disposal; (b) Supportefforts within IAEA to develop and promulgateradioactive wastesafetystandards or guidelines andcodes of practice asan internationally accepted basis for the safeandenvironmentally soundmanagement and disposal wastes: of radioactir,e (c) Promotesaf'estorage, and disposal transportation of radioactive wastes, as well as spentradiationsources and spentfuel from nuclearreactorsdestinedfor final disposal,in all countries,in particular in developing countries, by facilitatingthe transferof relevanttechnologiesto thosecountries and/orthe returnto the supplier of radiationsources with after their use, in accordance relevantinternational regulations or guidelines; (d) Promoteproperplanning,includingenvironmental impact assessment whereappropnate, of safeand envi-

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of radioactivewaste, ronmentally sound management procedures, storage. transportation includingemergency and disposal,prior to and after activitiesthat generate suchwaste.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANCTNG AND COSTEVALUATTON 22.6 The costs at the national level of managingand wastes areconsiderable andwill disposing of radioactive vary, depending on the technologyusedfor disposal. 22.1 The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe averorganto international agetotal annualcost( 1993-2000) to izationsto implementthe activitiesof this programme be about $8 million. Actual costs and financial terms, will depend including any that are non-concessional, and programmes upon, inter alia, the specificstrategies Governments decideupon for implementation.

AND REGIONAL B/ /NIERN,AI/ONAi. AND COORDINAI/ON COOPERAIION 22.5 States,in cooperationwith relevant intemational where appropriate,should: organizattons, (a) Strc'ngthen their efforts to implementthe Code of 1\{ovements o1'RadittPracticeon the Transboundary o1'IAEA.in cooperactiveWasteand,underthe auspices dealing ation with relevant intemationalorganizations keep the questionof with differentmodesof transport, such movementsunder active review, including the of concluding a legallybindinginstrument; desirability (b) Encouragethe London Dumping C'onventiott to on replacingthe curexpeditework to completestudies rent voluntary moratorium on disposal of low-level radioactivewastesat seaby a ban, taking into account with a view to taking a well approach, the precautionary informedand timely decisionon the issue: (c) Not promote or allow the storageor disposalof and low-level radioactive high-level,intermediate-level wastesnear the marine environmentunlessthey deterwith the applicconsistent mine that scientificevidence, able internationallyagreed principles and guidelines, poses no unacceptable thatsuchstorage or disposal shows or doesnot risk to people and the marine environtnent with otherlegitimateusesof the sea,making,in interf'ere appropriate useof the conof consideration, the process approach; cept of the precautionary (d) Not export radioactivewastesto countriesthat, proindividually or through internationalagreements, hibit the import of such wastes,suchas the contracting parties to the Bamako Conventionon the Ban of the lmport into Africa and the Control of Transboundary within Africa, thefourth Wastes N{ovement of Hazardous where or otherrelevant conventions. Lom6 Convention for; suchprohibitionis pror,'ided (e) Respect, law. the with international in accordance to them, takenby parties decisions, as far as applicable to other relevant regional environmentalconventions of safe and environmentally dealing with other aspects wastes. of radioactive soundmanagement

MEANS 8/ sC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL 22.8 States,in cooperationwith internationalorganizations,whereappropriate, should: (a) Promoteresearch and developmentof methodsfor processing thesafeandenvironmentally sound treatment, of highanddisposal, includingdeepgeological disposal, level radioactive waste ; (b) Conductresearch programmes conandassessment cerned with evaluating the health and environmental impact of radioactive wastedisposal.

/NCtUD/NG HUMAN c) .APAC\TY-BU|LD\NG, R E S OU R C D E E V E LOP MFN I 22.9 States,in cooperationwith relevant international assistance organizations, shouldprovide,asappropriate, to developingcountriesto establishand/or strengthen radioacti ve wastemanagement infrastructure s, including legislation, organizations,trained manpower and fastorage anddisposal cilities for the handling,processing, of wastesgenerated from nuclearapplications.

216

Section3

Strengthening the Roleof Moiot Groups

23

Preomble

23.1 Critical to the effective implementationof the objectives, policies and mechanisms agreedto by Governments in all programmeareasof Agenda 2l will be the commitment and genuine involvement of all social groups. 23.2 One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broadpublic participation in decision-making. Furthermore,in the more specific context of environmentand development, the need for new forms of participation has emerged. This includesthe needof individuals, groupsand organizations to participate in environmentalimpact assessment proceduresand to know about and participate in decisions,particularly thosewhich potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. Individuals,

groupsand organizations shouldhaveaccess to information relevant to environment and developmentheld by national authorities,including information on products and activitiesthat have or are likely to have a significant impact on the environment,and information on environmental protectionmeasures. 23.3 Any policies, definitions or rules affecting access to and participationby non-governmental organizations in the work of United Nations institutions or agencies associated with the implementationof Agenda 21 must apply equally to all major groups. 23.4 The prograrnmeareasset out below addressthe means for moving towards real social partnership in supportof common efforts for sustainable development.

219

t I i'he following objectives G ov er nnt e n ts : ( a ) 1 o r r n p l e m e n tt h e N a i r o b i F o r r v a r d . tional. credit. to both men with a view to promotingthe dissemination knowledgeand appreciand women of gender-relevant ation of women's roles throughformal and non-formal in as wcll as throughtraining institutions. revise and implement. right to decidefreely and women and men have the sarne of theirchildrenand andspacing responsibly thenumber have access to information. in to women'sfull participation and economicobstacles and in publiclife.strengthening and enforcing prohibitingviolenceagainstwomen and to legislation 220 . sustainable development (d) To establish at the by the year 1995 mechanisms the levels to assess national. legal. Also relevant are the 1990 World Dcclaration on the Sun'ival.nutritionand healthand their participation positions of the andin management key decision-making particularlyas it pertains to their access to environnrent" to all lbrms of resources.regionaland international andenvironandirnpactof development implementation on women and to ensure ment policiesand programlnes their contributions and beneflts: (e) To assess. Protection and Developnrent of Chilclren and the Plan ctfAction f or irnplementing the Declaration (. Effective implementation of thesc prograrnlnes r.olnen's includingthe promotion in training. measures to ensure that u'ith country-specific conclitions. in particular the N airobi Forward-looki n g Strategies for the Advancemc-nt clf Wonten.l which emphasize women's participation in national and intemational ecosystenr management and control of environment degradation. collaboration (0 To formulate and implcrnent clear govetnmental guidelines.24 towords sustoinoble for women Globoloction development ond equitoble A REA PROGRAMM E FORACTION BASIS 24. including the Convention of All Forms of Discrimination against on the E.r'illdepend on the active involvernent of rvomen in economic and political decision-making and ivill be critical to the successful i m p l e m e n t a t i o no f A g e n d a 2 1 . anncx) and conventions of tLO and UNESCO have also been discrimination and ensure adopted to end gender-based wornen accessto land and other resources.educationand means.eand equal employrnent.eclucationand saf. anddevelopment tensiol workersin enyironment (c) To consider andissuing by theyear2000 developing to eliminate constitua strategyof changesnecessary social cultural. for theAdvancement Strategics miurpar-ticipation in national ccosystetn regzud to wor-nen's degradation: andcontrolof environment agement ( b) T o inc re a s e l h c -p ro p o rti o no f w o m en deci si on and extechnical advisers.l o o k i n g with panicularly of Wotnen.particularly wonlen'saccess to propertyrights as towardsensuring well as agriculturai inputsand implements. of equality in all aspects the achievement literacy. andplansfor policiesand national strategies of society. by lacilitatingbetteraccess takingmeasures in theinforntalsector. where appropriate. held dignity andpersonally keepingwith theirfreedom. managers makers. education. equal and benr:flcialintcgration of women in alldeveloprnentactivi ti es.1 The internationalcontmunity has endorsed several plans clf action and ceinventionsfor the full.administrative. of \ . with non-governmental organizations. in accordance asa matterof urgency.behavioural. Several conl'entions. education.4/4*5/6?5.lirnination Wornen (General Assembiy resolution 34l180.curricula and other educationalmaterial. (gt To irnplemcnt. fields. val ues: (h) To consideradopting.annex).planners. OBJECTIVES ftrr national are proposed l. review.as Ltl enablethem to exercisethis right in appropriate.

(c) Measures to eliminateilliteracy amongfemalesand to expand the enrolment of women aurd girls in educational institutions.managers. an efficient fuel supply and adequate sanitationf4cilities.accessible. Those that have ratified conventions should enforce and establishlegal.in order to encourageinvestmentin environmentallysoundproductive activities and induce environmentally and socially friendly industrial development. emphasizing their crucial role in achievingchangesnecessary to reduceor eliminateunsustainable patterns of consumption andproduction. 24. 24. and equal accessto credit. (b) Measures to strengthen and empower women's bureaux.particularlyday-carefacilities and parentalleave.and formal and non-formal education. safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable. giving specialattentionto the issueof accessand entitlements to natural resources.to promotethe goal of universalaccess to primary and secondary educationfor girl children and for women.planners.required under particulararticlesof the Convention.employers and other relevant organizations and the sharingof householdtasksby men and women on an equal basis. local authorities. Progriunmes shouldfully supportwomen'sproductive and reproductiveroles and well-being and should pay special attention to the need to provide equal and improved health care for all children and to reducethe risk of maternaland child mortality and sickness.5 Statespartiesto the Conventionon the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination againstWomen should review and suggestamendments to it by the year 2000.developedand improved in consultationwith women.in keeping with freedom. which include womencentred. and shouldprovidethe opportunityfor all women to fully breastfeed at leastduring the first four monthspost-partum. (e) Programmes to establishand strengthen preventive and curative health facilities.as appropriate.including child care. (d) Programmes to promote the reduction of the heavy workload of women and girl children at home and outside through the establishmentof more and affordable nurseries andkindergartens by Governments. Programmes shouldfocus on providing comprehensivehealth care.4 Governmentsare urged to ratify all relevant conventions pertaining to women if they have not already done so. andthe controlof pollution and toxicity in the home and workplace. attitudes andprejudices againstwomen through changes in socialization patterns. education and information on health and responsibleparenthood. creative banking facilitiesandlow-costhousing. including p:e-natalcare. responsible planning of family size and services. G) Programmes to establish rural banking systems with a view to facilitating and increasingrural women's accessto credit and to agricultural inputs and implements: (h) Programmesto develop consumerawareness and the active participation of women. A) AREAS REQU/RING URGENT ACTTON 24.stereotypes. advertising. accessibleand clean water. the media. (i) Prograrnmesto eliminate persistent negative images.3 Governmentsshould take active stepsto implement the following: (a) Measuresto review policies and establishplans to increasethe proportion of women involved as decision makers. land and other naturalresources.and to promote the provision of environmentallysoundtechnologies which have been designed. scientistsand technicaladvisersin the design. ACTIVITIES 24.women-managed. particularly at the post-secondary level. social and educational measures violenceagainst to eliminate womenin all its forms.technology. constitutionaland administrative procedures to transformagreedrights into domestic legislation and should adopt measures to implement them in order to strengthen the legal capacityof women for full and equalparticipationin issuesand decisionson sustainable development. with a view to strengthening thoseelementsof the Convention relatedto environmentand development.6 Countriesshould take urgent measures to avert the ongoing rapid environmentaland economicdegradation 221 .take all necessaryadminisbative. 0) Measuresto review progressmade in these areas. including thepreparation of a review andappraisal report which includesrecommendations to be submittedto the 1995 world conferenceon women.development and implementationof policies and programmes for sustainable development.political and social support systemsand services.women's non-governmentalorganizations and women'sgroupsin enhancing capacity-building for sustainabledevelopment. and to increase educational and training opportunitiesfor women and girls in sciences and technology. particularly in industrializedcountries. Statesparties should also clarify the extent of the Convention'sscope with respectto the issuesof environmentand development and requestthe Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to develop guidelines regarding the nature of reporting such issues. dignity and personally held values. (f) Programmesto support and strengthenequal employment opportunitiesand equitable remunerationfor women in the formal and informal sectors with adequate economic.

toxic rvasteand the aftermath of the use of products.10 million from the intemational communityon grantor concessional terms.especially wornen. low-income in sustainabledevelopment and in decision-rnaking. 8 l R E S F A R C HD .t1 bases. 74J0 Each body of the United Nations systemshould review the numberof women in seniorpolicy-leveland decision-makingposts and.ationclf natural resources lor incorporation in thc databasesand intbrmation systems for sristainablcdeveloprnent. especially in lr-rnrsot'cut-hacks in sociai scrvices. ( c . with a view to promoting operationalprogrammes and projectson sustainable development that will strengthen the participationof women. where appropriate. A T AC O L L F C T T OA NN D D/S.l create rural and urban training.toxic chemiea l s i l r t da n r e c l h o s t i l i t i e s : (rj ) . the International Research andTrainingInstitutefor the Advancementof Women (INSTRAW) and the women's programmes Thereviewshould of regionalcommissions. Bodiesof the andinformationin these United Nations system. natudese rai disasters. urisuitablcagrc'-chcnrical 1.inter ulia.in dcveloping countriesthat generally atfects the lives of \'omen and children in rural areas sLrfferingdrouglrt. Actual costs and financial terms. UNDP shouldestablish a \. c r r v i n r n r t t c na t nd dcvclopment. I ND REG/ONAL c j / N T F R N A T / O N AA COOPERAI/ON AND COORD/NAI/ON l-{.7In order to reachthesegoals. i n c l u d rng u'ork that is currently designated "domestic". These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates onlv and havenot beenreviewed by Governments. includingthosewith a special focuson therole of women. research and rcsource centres in developing and developed countrie\ that wrll serveto disseminateenvironr n e r t t a l l ts ' o u n dt e c h n o l o g i e s to \\'omen. ln rt:su'rrrclt donc c-utstructural adjustment programnres.specialaitention should be given to the difl-erential inipact o1'thoseprograrnmcson women. will depend upon. programmcs andactivities. considerhow the environmentand developmentprogrammesof each body of the United Nations system could be strengthened Agenda2l and how to implernerlt to incorporatethe role of women in programmes and decisions relatedto sustainable developmenf.t) I'hc Sccretary-Generalofthe United Nations should rcr icu the adequacy of all United Nations institutions.Institutions in this area thatrequirespecial attention include the Division for the Advancement of Women (Centrefor Social f)evelopmentand Humanitarian Affairs.1.U A TION 21.education and health and in the remrlvai of subsidiescln tbcld and fuel: (c) The impact ()n women of environmental degradation. t T ' h ei n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f u n p a i dr v o r k . and make recommendations fbr strengthening their capacities.t o b e i s s u e di n 1 9 9 3 : (t) I\{eiisures to develop and inclLrde environmental.arnrcdhostilities.11UNIFEM should establish regularconsultations with donorsin collaboration with UNICEF.c i i i lo n s . deserrification. in meetingdevelopment andenvironment objectives.governmentsand non-govemmentalorganizations involvedin the follow-up to the Conference andtheimplementation of Agenda2l should ensure that genderconsiderations are fully integrated intcl all the policies.SEMINAI/ON OF INFORMAI/ON ('ountries should develop gender-sensitivedatal-tr.using reviseciguidelinesf or the United Nations S v s t e r nt r f N a t i o n a l A c c o u n t s . particularlv dror.social and genclcr irnpact analyses as an essential step in the anclmonitoring of prograrnmesand policies. 222 .rght. developrnc-n1 (g) Prograrnrnes 1<. 24. including any that are non-concessional. rtification and delorcstation.\. in resource accounting mechanisms in order better to reprcscnt thi: truc value of the contribution of rvomen to the cconon)v. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION F/N A N C /N G A N D C OS I E V A I.adopt progranlmes to increase in accordance with that nurnber. (b) The' irnpact of structural adjustment prograffunes on worncn. inforn-ration systems and participatory actionorientcd research and policy analyses with the coliaboration of acaclemic institLrtionsand local women rcsearchers on the following: (at Knowledge and experience on the part of women of' thc managenrcnt trndconsen.'omen's focal point on development and environmentin each of its residentrepresentative officesto provideinformationand promoteexchange of experience fields.the United Nations DevelopmentFund for Women (UNIFEM). the specific strategies and programmesGovernrnents decide upon for implernentation. Economicand SocialCouncil resolution1991l17on the improvementof the status of women in the Secretariat.\nalvsis of the structural linkages between gender r .12The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of intplementing the activitiesof this chapterto be about$. United NationsOffice at Vienna). women should be fully involvcd in decision-making and in the implen-rentation of sustainable d e v e l o o m e n ta c t i v i t i e s .

l V . s e c t . l 0 )c N o t i o n sp u b l i c o t i o nS . 15-26 July 1985 (United . I ltJ . Development ond Peoce. Noirobi. h o p t e r l. o l e sN o . 8 5 .Reporf of the World Conference to Review ond Approise fhe Achievementsof the United Nofions Decode for Women: Equality. E . . A .

ACTIVITIES 25.9 Governments. should ensurethat more than 50 per cent of its youth. 25.accordingto their strategies.are enrolled in or have access to appropriatesecondary education or equivalenteducational or vocationaltraining programmes by increasingparticipationand access rates on an annualbasis.in decision-making processes with regardto the environment.skills. issues needto be addressed in development communities. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S AND Al ADVANCTNG TF|E ROLE OF YOTTTH IN THEPROIECTION ACTIVETY INVOTVINGIHE'YT AND THEPRO}TONONOF OF THEENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAIDEVETOPfrIENT ECONO}Trc FOR ACNON BASIS 25. (b) Promotedialoguewith youth organizations regarding the drafting and evaluationof environmentplansand programmesor questionson development. In addition to their intellectual contributionandtheir ability to mobilize support.opportunities and thesupportnecessary for them to fulfil their personal.5 Each country. including an environmentof quality. involving youth at the local.6 Each country should undertakeinitiatives aimed at particureducingcurrentlevels of youth unemployment. and shouldconsiderprovidingall youth with legal protection.3 Numerousactionsand recommendations internationalcommunity have been proposedto ensure that youth are provided a secure and healthy future. OBJECTVES 25.INTRODUCTION 25"1 Youth comprise nearly 30 per cent of the world's population. 25.by the year 2000. larly where they are disproportionately high in comparison to the overall unemploymentrate. national and regionallevels. particulariy young women and girls.economic and social aspirations and potentials. should take measures to: (a) Establish proceduresallowing for consultation and participation possible of youth of both genders. 25.includingthe implementation of Agenda21.8 Each country shouldcombathuman rights abuses againstyoung people. 25.in consultationwith its youth 224 . within the 25. improved standards to educationand employment.4 Each country should.These of living and access planning.theybring uniqueperspectives thatneedto be takeninto account. establisha processto promote dialogue between the youth community and Government at all levels and to establish mechanismsthat permit youth access to information and provide them with the opportunity to presenttheir perspectives on governmentdecisions.2 lt is imperativethat youth from all partsof the world participate levelsof decision-making activelyin all relevant processes because it affectstheir lives today andhasimplications for their futures. genderbalanced. by 1993.7 Eachcountryandthe United Nationsshouldsupport the promotion and creation of mechanismsto involve youth representation in all United Nations processes in order to influencethoseprocesses.The involvementof today'syouth in environment and developmentdecision-makingand in the implementationof prograrnmes is critical to the long-term success of Agenda21.

countries childrenin both developingand industrialized are highly vulnerable to the effects of environmental degradation. coordination of relevantinformationto (b) Improve the dissemination govemments.improve the environmentfor children at the householdand comthe participationand emmunity level and encourage powerment of local populations. education. grant or concessional not been have and only order-of-magnitudeestimates financial and costs Actual reviewedby Governments.non-govemmental in thesetaskforces. OBJECTIVES to their policies. and1989. local media.14Governments (a) Implement programmesfor children designedto of in the areas goalsof the 1990s reachthe child-related health. national organizations and youth non-governmental to examinethe integrationof programmes organizations the encouraging in relationto their projectrequirements. of childrenaretakenfully (b) Ensurethat the interests for sustainable process into accountin the participatory improvement. (b) Ratify the Conventionon the Rights of the Child (GeneralAssembly resolution 44125of 20 November momentandimplementit by 1989. and environmental development MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALUATION 25. 1985 25. for decideupon grammesGovernments DEVETOPMENT B) CHIIDRENlN SUSTAINABTE ACTION FOR BASIS of 25. focusingparticuin the administration resentatives larly on the needsof youth from developingcountries. andresource socialandeconomicdevelopment (d) Ensure for allyouth to all typesof education.towardsthe obyouth.but in many developingcountries they comprisenearly half the population.at the earliest the basicneedsof youth and children.includingany that are non-concessional.11 The Conference secretariat has estimated the aver- ACTIVITIES shouldtake activestepsto: 25.nutriespecially environmentand developn-rent. onctrrent youthpositions mentalorganizations theapplicationof Agenda21.protection by the with the goalsendorsed children.(c) Consider for incorporation into relevant policies the of intemational.suchasenvironmental creasing (e) In cooperationwith relevant ministries and organof youth. of implementingthe age total annualcost (1993-2000) about programme to be $1.ensurethat educationreflects the economic the concepts and social needsof youth and incorporates of environmental awarenessand sustainabledevelopment throughout the curricula. implement strategiesfor creating alternative employment opportunities and provide required training to young men and women.including wolnen. according 25. addressing careactivitiesthat (c) Promoteprimaryenvironmental addressthe basic needsof communities.providing alternativelearning structures. practicalskills.10The United Nations and internationalorganizato: shouldtake measures tions with youth programmes (a) Review their youth programmesand considerhow betweenthem can be enhanced.12Childrennot only will inherit the responsibility looking after the Earth. children and indigenous 225 .youth organizationsand other non-governandactivities. l9ll .annex).The specificinterests environmental need to be taken fully into accountin the participatory processon environmentand developmentin order to of any actionstaken the future sustainability safeguard to improvethe environment.projects. to international GeneralAssemblyresolutionsadoptedin 1968.design.5 million on activitiesof this indicative and are These terms. tion. networks. shouldassist and otherorganizations (g) Give support to programmes. will determs. involvementof youth in project identification.13Nationalgovernments. implementation in their delegations (h) Include youth representatives with therelevant in accordance meetings. 1990World Summitfor Children(A1451625.They are also highly aware supportersof of children thinking.developand includingrepresentatives izations. Thesetaskforcesshoulduseformal andnon-formaleducaNationaland tional methodsto reacha maximum audience. people. proand strategies pend upon. businesses organizations.in accordance annex). to: shouldtake measures of anddevelopment (a) Ensure the survival. inter alia. (0 Establishtask forces that include youth and youth non-goverrlmentalorganizations to develop educational and awarenessprogramlnes specifically targeted to the youth population on critical issuespertainingto youth. literacyand povertyalleviation. and expand vocational innovativemethodsaimedat intraining. andmonitorandevaluate (c) Promote the United Nations Trust Fund for the InternationalYouth Yearand collaboratewith youth repof it. the specific implementation. access wherever appropriate.implementing scouting.Furthermore. and follow-up.regional and local youth rccommendations andotherforumsthat offer youth penpectiveson conferences mirnagement.

especiallyin developingcountries.or* healthcentresso that childrenand their parents of communitiesto effective focal points for sensitization : .lS Internationaland regional orgamzatrons should and coordinatein the proposedareas. lssues.16Financingrequirements for most of the activities are included in estimatesfor other programlnes' B) HUMA. : envlronmenttu (0 Establishprocedures to incorporatechildren's confor environcernsinto all relevantpolicies and strategies ment and developmentat the local. (e) Mobilize communitiesthrough schoolsand local u. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC'NGAND cosT EVALUATI?N 25. regionaland national levels.with overriding attentionto the educationof the girl child. Governmentsand non-governmental to developprogrammes organizations for children and programmesto mobilize children in the activities outlined above.17The activitiesshould facilitate capacity-building andtrainingactivitiesalreadycontainedinotherchapters of Agenda 21' 226 .jective of integrated community management of resources. (d) Expand educationalopportunitiesfor children and youth. UNICEF cooperate andcollaborationwith other shouldmaintaincooperation organizationsof the United Nations.N RESOURCE DEVELaPMENT AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 25. including educationfor environmentaland developmentalresponsibility.and control of pollution and toxicity in both rural and urbanareas. Z5..including thoseconcerningallocationof and entitlement to natural resources. housing and recreation needs.

) A Z-V the roleof nizingond strengthening Recog ond theircommunities indigenous people P R O G R A M MA ER E A a timely of 18 December1990. social. shouldrecognize.traditionalknowledge practiceswith a view to proand resourcemanagement developmoting environmentally soundand sustainable menU (iv) Recognition that traditionaland direct dependence including susresources and ecosystems.They significantpercentage a holistictradiover many generations havedeveloped tional scientificknowledgeof their lands.presents olution 451164 opportunity to mobilize further international technical and fi nancial cooperation.Governmentsand. economicand physical well-beingof indigenous people.l Some of the goals inherentin the objectivesand activitiesof this programmeareaare alreadycontained as the ILO Inin such internationaliegal instruments Convention(No. (vi) Support for alternative environmentally sound meansof productionto ensurea rangeof choiceson how to improvetheir quality of life so thatthey caneffectively participatein sustainable development. (v) Development and strengtheningof national dispute-resolution in relation to settlement of arrangements land and resource-management concerns.being prepared on indigenous tions working group on indigenouspopulations. peopleand their communities. basedon the adaptation 227 . In view of the and between the naturalenvironment interrelationship its sustainable developmentand the cultural. ACTION BASIS FOR havean peopleandtheir communities 26. where appropriate. economicand physical well-beingof indigenous peopleand their communities. continues to be essential tural. thcrole of indigenous 16. In the context of this chapterthe term "lands" of the areas to include the environment is understood traditionallyoccupy. (iii) Recognitionof their values.proclaimed Assemblyin its resby the General OBJECTIVES 26.3 ln full partnership with indigenouspeopleand their communities.Their ability to participate fully in practiceson their lands has development sustainable tendedto be limited as a result of factorsof an economic.The lntemational Year for the World's IndigenousPeople (1993). nationaland international efforts to implement development environmentallysound and sustainable promoteandstrengthen accommodate.Inwhich the peopleconcerned digenouspeople and their communitiesrepresenta of the global population.naturalrepeopleand their Indigenous sources and environment.intergovernmentalorganizationsshould aim at fulfillins the following objectives: (a) Establishment of a process to empowerindigenous people and their communities through measuresthat include: (i) Adoption or strengtheningof appropriatepolicies at the nationallevel. (vii) Enhancement for indigenous of capacity-building of and exchange communities. conrmunitiesshall enjoy the full measureof human without hindrance or freedoms rightsand fundamental discrinrination.1Indigenous historicalrelationshipwith their landsand are generof the original inhabitantsof such ally descendants lands. on renewable to the cultainableharvesting. social and historical nature. 169) and digenousand Tribal Peoples into the draft universaldeclaration arebeingincorporated by the United Narights. and/orlegal instruments peopleand (ii) Recognition thatthe landsof indigenous from activitiesthat their communitiesshouldbe protected are environmentally unsound or that the indigenous peopleconcerned considerto be socially and culturally inappropriate.

These are indicativeand order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been reviewedby Governments.6 Governments.and organizeannual interorganizational coordinationmeetingsin consultation with Governments and indigenous organizations. and their initiation of proposalsfor such policiesand programmes. Actual costs and financial 228 . 26. greatercontrol over their lands. (ii) Increasingthe efficiency of indigenouspeople's resourcemanagement systems. analyseand use data and other information in support of sustainable development projects.includingthe unique their values. (b) Cooperateat the regionallevel. participation in theestablishrnent or management of protected areas. (b) Establishment. in full partnership with indigenous peopleand their communitiesshould. inter alia. to incorporate views and knowledge. (c) Strengthen research and education programmes aimedat: (i) Achieving a better understandingof indigenous people'sknowledgeand management experience related to the environment.knowledge traditional experience. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 26. as appropriate.where appropriate.including programmesto collect.drawing on the activeparticipationof peopleandtheircommunities. to ensure their sustainable development. contributionof indigenous women. for example. where appropriate. of arrangements to strengthenthe active participation of indigenous peopleandtheircommunities in thenationalformulation of policies.including. indigenous asappropriate. to addresscomfiton indigenousissueswith a view to recognizing and strengthening their participation in sustainabledevelopment.in resource management and otherpoliciesand programmes that may affect them: (a) Appoint a specialfbcal point within each international organization. 26. whereappropriate.in particular regardingregional and internationalcooperativeefforts. The following are someof the specificmeasures which Governments could take: (a) Consider theratiflcationandapplication of existing international conventions relevantto indigenous people (wherenot yet done)and provide and their communities supportfor the adoptionby the GeneralAssemblyof a declaration on indigenous rights. in development decisions affecting them.4 Some indigenouspeople and their communities may require.whereappropriate: (a) Develop or strengthennational arrangementsto consult with indigenouspeople and their communities with a view to reflecting their needsand incorporating their values and traditional and other knowledge and practicesin nationalpoliciesand programmes in thefield of natural resourcemanagement and conservation and other development progranxne s affecting them. (b) Adopt or strengthenappropriatepolicies and/or legalinstruments thatwill protectindigenous intellectual andculturalpropertyandthe right to preserve customary and administrative systems and practices.7 The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $3 million on grant or concessional terms.and applying this to contemporary development challenges . these policies and prograrnmes should take fully into account strategies basedon local indigenous initiatives. in- digenouspeople and their communitiesshould be informed and consultedand allowed to participatein national decision-making. Under this procedure. ACTIVITIES 26.by promoting the adaptationand disseminationof suitabletechnological innovations. in accordance with national legislation. ft) Provide technicaland financial assistance for capacity-buildingprograrnmes to supportthe sustainable self-developmentof indigenouspeople and their communities.laws and prograrrrmes relating to resource management processes and otherdevelopment that may affect them. (d) Contributeto the endeavours of indigenouspeople andtheircommunities in resource management andcon(suchasthosethat may be developed servationstrategies under appropriateprojects funded through the Global Environment Facility and the Tropical Forestry Action Plan)andotherprogramme areas of Agenda21. andresource-management practices.self-management of their participation resources. anddevelopa procedure within and between operational agenciesfor assistingGovernmentsin ensuringthe coherentand coordinated incorporation of the views of indigenous peoplein the designand implementation of policies and programmes. tainable suchasthosesuggested in otherprogramme areas of Agenda21. (c) Involvementof indigenouspeopleand their communities at the national and local levels in resource management andconservation strategies andotherrelevant prografiunes established to supportand review susdevelopment strategies.-5 United Nations organizations and other international development and financeorganizations and Governments should. In addition. take the following measures.

the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.will determs. C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 26. Developingcountriesmay requiretechnical assistance to implement these activities.including any that are non-concessional. 229 .9 Internationaldevelopmentagenciesand Governments should commit financial and other resourcesto education and training for indigenouspeople and their communities to developtheir capacities to achievetheir sustainableself-development. pend upon.and to contribute to and participatein sustainable and equitabledevelopmentat the national level. the rights and responsibilities of indigenous people and their communities in the legislationof eachcountry.in collaboration with the indigenouspeople affected. Particular attention should be given to strengthening the role of indigenous women.g Governmentsshould incorporate. AND ADM/N/srRAr/y E TRAMEwoRKs B) LEGAL 26. inter alia.suitableto the country'sspecificsituation.

4 To ensure that the full potential contribution of non-governmental organizations is realized. Non-governmental organizations will also need to foster cooperationand communicationamongthemselves to reinforcetheir effectiveness asactorsin the implementation of sustainable devel opment.1Non-goveil)mental organizations. s o v e r n n r e n i ao l rganizations plava vitalrole in ! ltr: . 27. should b e r e c o g n i z e d a s p a r t n e r s i n t h e i m p l e r n c n t a t i c l no f Agenda 21. enabled and strengthcncd in support of efforfs to achieve these c ( ) n r m o ng o a l s .2 One of the major challengesfacing the world contntunitv as it seeksto replace unsustainable development patterns with environmentally sound and sustainable developnlent is the need to activate a sense of common pLrrposeon behalf of all sectors of society. and programmes designed to carry out Agelrda 21. Governments and international bodies shoulddevelopmechanisms to allow non-governmental organizations to play their partnership role responsibly and effectivelyin the process of environmentally sound and sustainable development.lr.prof it organizationsrepresentinggroups addressed i n t h c p r c s e n ts e c t i o no f A g e n d a 2 1 .a mutuallyproductivedialogueshouldbe established at thenationallevelbetween all Governments and non-governmental organi zati ons and t heir self organized networks to recognize and strengthentheir respective rolesin implementing environmentally sound and sustainable development. OBJECTIVES 27. establishment and evaluationof official mechanismsand formal proceduresdesigned to reviewthe implementation of Agenda2I atall levels.i . Formal and inlbrmal org:rni. nationaland local governments andnon-governmental organizations shouldbe promoted in institutionsmandated.6 With a view to strengthening the role of nongovernmentalorganizationsas social partners.8 Governments andinternational bodies shouldpromote and allow the participationof non-governmental organizations in the conception. p o s s e s s well-estabiishe-cl and divcrse experience. in consultation with non-goverrrmental organizations. The nature of the independentrole played by non-governmental organizations within a society calls fbr real participation: therelore.the fullest possible communication and cooperation betweeninternationalorganizations. ils well as grass-rootsnlovements. t h e r e f c l r e ..7 By 1995. o f f e r s a global network that should be tapped.. 17.the United Nationssystemand Govemments shouldinitiate a process. 27. I N n n .27 theroleof non-governmentol Strengthening Portners orgonizotions: for sustoinoble development PROGRAMM E A REA BASIS FORACTION l . 27..rpi rrg uriri rrr rplcrricntati on ol' participatory democ-['hei r:ac r credi bi I i tv I ies i n the responsible and constnlcv Ine rolc lhel pla] in srlcietv. The community of n(rn-g()\'el'nnrenta ol r g a n i z a t i o n s . The chances ril' lilrging such a sense of prirylosewill clependon the rvillingnessof all sectorsto participatein genuine social partnership and dialogue..expertise and capacity in fielcls u'hich will be of particular importance to the implcinc'ntation and review of environrnentally sound and socially responsiblesustainable development.as ellrisaged throughout Agenda 21. 27.to review formal procedures and mechanisms for the involvementof theseorganizations at all levels from policy-makinganddecision-making to implementati on. independence is a major attribute of non-govenrmental organizations and is the prcconclitionof real participation. while recognizing the independent roles. responsibilitiesand special capacities of each. 230 . 27. including those rron.5 Society.atrons.

tt thr-international and national levels in enhancing con:iultative procedures and mechanisnrs.'iew and evaluate the imp l e m e n t a t i o no f A g e n d a 2 1 a t a l l l e v e l s : (e) Promote and allow' non-govemmental organizations and their self-organizednetworks to contribute to the review and evalualion of policies and programtnes d e s i g n e dt o i m p l e m e n t A g e n d a 2 1 .process lbr Agcndii 2l: (g) Provide acrcess for non-governmentalorganizations to accurateand timely data and informaticln to promote the ef1'ectiveness of thcir prograntmes and l u c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e i r n r l e s i n s r ..and of all pertinent United Nations organizationsand othcr intergovernmentalrtrganizationsand forums concerning implenrentation of Agenda 21. l7 l0 Governments shor-rld take measuresto: (a ) Establishor enhancean existing dialogue with nonsovenlmcntal organizationsand their self-organizednetvarious sectors.antl pror icle 231 .ACTIVITIES 21. (f) Tlrke into account the findings of non-govemmental processes in relevant rel'iew s)'stems and evalr"ration reports of the Secretary-General to the Gencral Assembly'.g o v e r n m e n t a l c l r g a n i z u t i o n si r t r t a t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m s o r p r o c e d u r e se s t a b l i s h e dt o c a r r y out Agenda 21.'ing the participation of non-governnrentalclrganizationsin the processes established to rer. with a view to augmenting their role as social partners: (d) Design open and effective means of achier. mechanisrns in the design and evaltiation of policies concenlll'rgthe irlplementiiticlii of' Agenda 21 at all levels.as appropriate.i n i t e d Nations systenl and other intcrgovcrnnrcntalorganizations and forurrris. h a t c i i n t r i b u l et o t h c n r o n i t o r i r t g and evaluation ol' Agencla 2 | progranrnres. bilateral programmes anclthe private sectrlr.nrechanisms and procedureswithin each agency to draw on the expertise and views of non-governmental organizations in policy and programme design. in accordance u'ith the review.rrppclrt of their establishrnentof. where they do not exist.lrilntes" implementation and eviiluatiortcil- MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A ' F / N A N C / N GA N D C O S T E V A L U A T I O N 27. i n c l u d i n g s u p p o r tf o r developin g country non -governntcntalorganizationsand their sell-organizednetworks.r. p o v erty alleviation and cnvironnrentalprotection and rehabilitation: (d) Take into accountthe lindings r:f non-govcrnntental monitoring and revieu.11 Depending on thc outcome of rcvieu' processes and the evolution of r. (e) Review government education systems to identil'r' w a y s t o i n c l u d e a n d e x p a n d t h e i n v o l v e n t e n to 1 ' n o n governmental organizations in the f ielci of lbrrnal and informal education and of public awareness: (f) Make available and accessible to non-govrrnrnental lirr their' and infbrnration ncccssarr' organizationsthe cLata effective contribution tr) rescitrch itntl to lht ilesi. in consultation with non-sovernmental organizations. decisionanclevaluation at the individual rnaking. irnplernentation and evaluation: (c) Review levels of financial and administrative support fbr non-. relative: l"v* limited but unprcdictahlc. will need to provide' increasedfinancial anclatlnrinistrativesLlpport f or non-govcrnmcntalorganizltions iind their sell-organized nctw'orks.a n d a l l i n tergovernnrental r:rganizations and lbrurns should.'iews as to hclw bcst to builcl partnership iind dialogue hctu'een olllcial organizaticins and groups of non-govcrnmcntal organ i z ati on s. irnprol'enrerlto1'ot corr The'se costs tributions to Age nda 2l rnonitoring sy'stcnrs.e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f i e l d s o f e d u c a t i o n .ill bc involved.undingin .including internat i o n a l f i n a n c e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s . prosr'. take measures to: (a) Review and report on ways of enhancing existing procedures and mechanisms by rvhich non-governmental organizations contribute to policy design. irnplernentatiott and in United agency level" in inter-agency disc:ussions Nations conlerences: (b) On the basis of subparagraph(a) above.costs r. in particular thosc l-rased i n d e v e l o p i n gc o u n t r i e s t .:n.gover"nmental organizaticlnsand the extent and efl'ectivenessof their involvement in project and programnre impiementation.r lc vs t i n r a t c t l o n thc b a s i so f e x i s t i n g i n l o r n r a t i c r n " B) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 2 1 .r p p o no f s u s t a i n a b l e derelopment.. 1 2 T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n so l ' t h c l . w i l l b e s i g n i f i c : a nb tu l c a n n o tb e r e l i a l . enhance existing or.which could serveto: u orks representing ( i ) considerthe rights and responsibilitiesof'theseorganizations: (ii I efficiently channel integraled non-governnrental inputs to the governmental policy development process:and (iii ) facilititte non-governmentalcoordina- tion in implernenting national policies at the programnrc level: (b) Encourage and enable partnership and dialogue between local non-governmental clrganizationsand local authorities in activities ainred at sustainable development. Non-govgrnrnentiil organizations'uvilI iilso rccluircaclditionall. establish. ( c ) I n v o l v e n o n .9 The LlniteclNations systern. making the best use ol-their particular c a p a c i t i e s .

232 . any legislative measures necessary to enable theestablishment by non-governmentalorganizations of consultativegroups. subject to country-specific conditions. 27.13 Govemments will needto promulgate orsftengthen.training for non-governmental organizations(and assist them to develop their own training prograrnmes)at the internationalandregionallevelsto enhance their partnership role in programmedesign and implementation.and to ensurethe right of non-govemmental organizations to protect the public interestthrough legal action.

tain economic. developtnent. establish localenvironmenplanning oversee in implementing anclassist tal policiesand regulations.A n lU '. awareness of sustainable development policies. of the Unionof l.the participationand cooperationof local in fulfilling its authoritieswill be a determiningl"actor andmainconstruct. regional and international 28. in prarlicular needinternational support: (b) Periodic involvingbothinternational consultations panners anddeveloping countries couldrcviewstrategies how suchinternational support ccluldbest and consider wclulcl contbe mobilizcd. FOR ACTION BASIS so many of the problemsand solutions 28. the United organsand organizations (Habitat)and Nations Centre for Human Settlements the Intcrnational UNE. support ofAgendo P R O G R A M MA ER E A ACTIVITIES 28.3 Each local authorityshouldenter into a clialogue and privateenterwith its citizens. policies.ocalAuthorities.laws anclregulations to thority programmes. learn from citizensand from lclcal.civic.representatives of cities of associattions levels shouldhaveincreased and otherlocal authorities with thegoalof enhancof cooperation andcoordination among ing the cxchange of informationand experience localauthoriticsr (d) All localauthorities should beencourin each country which aim at agedto implementand monitorprograrnmes in decisionensuring thatwomenandyoutharerepresented processes.1 Because try Agenda2l havetheir rootsin local beingaddressed activities.2 The followingobjective grammearea: (a) By 1996.national. b a s e d o n l o c a l p r o g r a m m e sa d o p t c d . infrastructure.4 Partnerships should be fostereclamong relevant such as UNDP. local organizations -l'hrough prisesand adopt"A local Agenda21"" consullocal authorities would tation and consensus-building.most lclcalauthontiesin each country process with thcir haveundertaken a consultative should o n populat ionsan d a c h i e v e da c o n s e l l s u s " a l ocal A genda2I " f or th e c o mmu n i ty ' . operate Local authorities objectives. local. making. For thi s purposc: (a) Habitat andorganizations andotherrelevant organs a r e c a l l e d L l p o nt o of the United Nationss)'\tL'm s e r v i c e si n c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o no n strengthen for thosethat strategies of localauthorities. (b) By 1993. As the environmental national and subnational theyplay a vital levelof governance closest to thepeople. The process would increase household of consultation l-ocalauissues. conrmunity. Sucha sectoral consultation plementconcurrent such country-fircused consultatiotts.P. thc WorldAssociation MajorMetropolises. communityshouldhave the international process coaimedat increasing initiateda consultative local authoritiesl operation between (c) By 1994. the U ni ted Tow ns Organi zati on and other relevant partners. Summitof Great Citiesof theWorld. wor-rld be assessed and achieveAgenda 2l objectives m o d i f i e d .socialand envirclnmental processes. to promotesustainable OBJECTIVES f or this pros areproposcd 28. to thepublic mobilizing andresponding rolein educating.planning andimplementation lJ3 . w i th a vi ew to mobi l i zi ngi ncreased i nt er naAn ti onal support for l ocal authori ty progran" l m es. proposals for Strategies couldalsobe usedin supporting funding. the World Bank"regionalbanks. i mportantgoal w oul d be to support. and acquirethe business and industrialorganizations information neededfor formulatingthe best strategies. extendan d im proveexi sti ng i nsti tuti ons w orki ngi n thef i el d of local authori ty capaci ty-bui l di ng and l ocal envi ronm ent management.ocql initiotives outhorities' 21 l.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION Al F/NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON 28. experienceand mutual technical assistance among local authorities.7 This programme should facilitate the capacitybuilding and training activitiesalreadycontainedin other chapters of Agenda21.6 It is recommended that all partiesreassess funding needsin this area.5 Representatives of associations of local authorities are encouragedto establish processesto increasethe exchangeof information.as those taking place in consultativegroups and round tables. 234 . 28. The Conferencesecretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) for B) HUMANRFSOURCE DEVELOPMENI AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 28. strengthening internationalsecretariat services for implementing the activities in this chapterto be about $1 million on grant or concessional terms.Theseare indicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot been reviewed by Governments.

labour adjustmentprogramme s and technologytranst-ers. including employment policies. (c) To increase thenumberof environmental collective agreements aimedat achieving sustainable development.the extremelyhigh priority they give to protectionof the working environmentand the related natural environment. 29.employersand Governments should cooperate to ensure thatthe concept of sustainable developmentis equitablyimplemented. (b) To establishbipartite and tripanite mechanisms on safety. ACTIVITIES A) PROMOIING FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION 29.6 Tradeunions. The established principlesof tripartismprovide a basisfor strengthened collaboration between workersandtheirrepresentatives. tradeunionsarevital actorsin facilitatingthe achievement of sustainable development in view of their experiencein addressing industrialchange. (d) To reduceoccupational accidents. businessand industry should promote the active participationof workers and their trade unions in decisionson the design.particularlyin the areaof occupationalhealthand safetyand environment. Governments shouldconsider ratifying and implementing thoseconventions.4 For workersand their tradeunionsto play a full and informedrole in supportof sustainable development. Govemments and employers shouldpromotetherightsof individual workersto freedomof association andthe protection of the right to organizeas laid down in ILO conventions.1 Effortsto implementsustainable development will involve adjustments andopportunities at the nationaland enterpriselevels. (e) To increasethe provision of workers' education. injuriesand diseases according to recognized statistical reportingprocedures. As theirrepresentatives. training and retraining. with workers foremost among those concerned.2 The overall objective is poverty alleviationand full and sustainable ernployment. which contributeto .clean and healthyenvironments environment. if they havenot alreadvdoneso. industrial strategies.29 Strengthening theroleof workers ond theirtrodeunions P R O G R A M MA ER E A BASIS FOR ACTION 29. healthand sustainable development.implementation and evaluation of national and internationalpolicies and programmes on environmentand development. OBJECTIVES 29.5 Governments. Workersshouldbe full participants in the implementationand evaluationof activities related to Agenda 21.3 To that end the following objectivesare proposed for accomplishment by the year 2000: (a) To promoteratiflcationof relevantconventions of ILO and the enactment of legislation in supportof those conventions: 8/ SIRENGIHEN'NG PARTTCTPAIION AND CONSUIIAI/ON 29.and their promotion of socially responsibleand economic development. Governments and employersin the implementation of sustainable development. 29. the communityandthe physicalenvironment.the working safe. The existing network of collaboration among trade unions and their extensive membership provide important channels through which the conceptsand practicesof sustainable development can be supported. 235 .

236 . and set priorities to improve the working environment and the overall environmentalperformanceof enterprise. by employers programmes conducted OF IMPLEMENTATION MEANS AND COSTEVALUATION A) F/NANC/NG hasestimated the aversecretariat 29. activ(b) Participate and development in environment joint action itieswithin thelocal communityandpromote on potentialproblemsof commonconcern. Governments and international agenciesshould cooperatein assessing of activity.11Tradeunionsshould: (a) Seekto ensurethat workers are able to participate auditsat the workplaceand in environin environmental mentalimpact assessments . Actual costsand financial terms. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation. alia. Suchtraining should skills are availableto promote ensurethat the necessary sustainablelivelihoods and improve the working environment.coffImunity and national levels should be establishedto deal with safety.29. 29. includwill depen dupon. particularlywithin the United Nationssystem.and improve awareness. IRA/N/NG ADEQUAIE C) PROVIDE shouldhaveac29.12Workersand their representatives cess to adequatetraining to augment environmental ensuretheir safetyand health.9 Tradeunionsshouldcontinueto define. their economicand social welfare. 29.14Particular attention ing the capacity of each of the tripartite social partners (Governmentsand employers' and workers' organizations) to facilitate greatercollaborationtowardssustainabledevelopment.inter ing any that arenon-concessional.developand developof sustainable promotepolicieson all aspects ment. employers. including specialreferenceto the rights and status of women in the workplace. thesedecision-making 29.health and environment. the 29.8 Governments and employers should ensure that are provided with all workers and their representatives relevantinformation to enableeffective participationin processes.13 The Conference (1993-2000) of implementingthe age total annualcost activities of this programme to be about $300 million from the intemational community on grant or concessional terms. B ) C A P A C ITY -B U ILD IN G shouldbe given to strengthen29. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. 7 I or nt (e mp l o y e r/w o rk e r) o r tri p a rti te (employer/worker/Govemment)collaborative mechanisms at the workplace. (c) Play an activerole in the sustainable development activities of internationaland regional organizations. Trade unions.10Tradeunionsand employersshouldestablish framework for a joint environmental policy. spheres within their respective trainingneeds should be involved in Workers and their representatives the design and implementationof worker training andGovernments.

development.includingtransnational corporations.recycling anddisposalsubject to country-specific conditions. Similarly. Business opportunities availableto women are contributingtowardstheir professionaldevelopment. Business andindustry. A positive contributionof business and industry. 30.includingtransnational corporations. including transnational corporations. 237 .formalandinformal.providemajortrading. can play a major role in reducingimpactson resource use and the environment.Business enterprises. have all contributed to this.Increasing prosperity.is an importantpathwaytowards sustainability for business and industry. efficient and effective options. including transnational corporations. The regulatoryregimesintroducedin many countriesand the growing consciousness of consumersand the general public and enlightened leaders of business and industry. applications. preventive stategies. sffengthenrng their economicrole and transforming socialsystems.use.ices shouldincreasingly reflectthe environmental costsof their input. Technological innovations.Someenlightened leadersof enterprises are already implementing "responsible care" and productstewardship policiesand programmes.1 Business and industry. includingtransnational corporations. to sustainable developmentcan increasingly be achieved by using economic instruments suchas free marketmechanisms in which the pricesof goodsrurdsen.5 There is increasing recognition that production. lacilitating and encouraginginventiveness. primarilyby the activities is contributed of business and industry. Theseleadersin business and industry. includingftansnational corporations. includingtransnational corporations.4 The improvementof productionsystemsthrough technologies and processes that utilize resources more efficiently and at the sametime producelessyysstss achievingmore with less.3 Buslness and industry. To address thesemajor requirements and strengthen further the role of business andindustry.cleanerproductiontechnologies and procedures throughout the productlife cycle.including transnational corporations. a major goalof thedevelopmentprocess. competitivenessand voluntaryinitiativesarenecessary for stimulating more varied. ffansferand the more comprehensive aspects of partnershipand cooperationare to a very large extentwithin the provinceof business andindustry. fosteringopenness and dialoguewith employeesand the public and carrying out environmental auditsand assessments of compliance.2 Through more efficient production processes. the policiesand operations of busine ssandindustry. employment and livelihood opportunities. play a crucial role in the socialand economic development of a country. and their representative organizations shouldbe full participants in the implementation andevaluation of activitiesrelatedto Agenda21. henceminimizing or avoiding wastes. are increasingly taking voluntaryinitiatives. shouldrecognize environmental management as among the highestcorporateprioritiesand as a key determinant to sustainable development.promoting and implementing self-regulationsand greater responsibilities in ensuringtheir activitieshaveminimal impacts on human health and the environment. A stable policy regimeenables and encourages business and industryto operate responsibly and efficiently and to implement longer-term policies. 30. production. the following two programmes are proposed. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) PROMOTTNG CLEANER PRODUCTTON BASIS FORACTION 30.3 0 Shengthening theroleof business ondindustry INTRODUCTION 30. largeand small. 30.

businessand industry. and corincludingtransnational andindustry.9 Governments. trainingand awareness activitiesrelatingto cleaner production. shouldalsobe encouraged. 30.6 Governments.EPRENEURSHTP Bl PROTVTOnNG BASIS FOR ACTION is one of the most important 30. (a) To reportannuallyon their environmental resources.technology and managementthat use resourcesineffiwastes discharge thatarenotreused. ciently form residues that have adverse impacts on human health and the environment and manufactureproductsthat when used have further impacts and are difficult to recycle. they are the major means tor rural development. should strengthen cleanerproduction information dissuch as seminationby expandingexisting databases. 30. 30.12Industry should incorporatecleaner production policiesin its operations takingalsointo andinvestments. to challenges ciencies andresponding in particulaq Small and medium-sizedentrepreneurs.businessand industry. increasing market effiandopportunities. Responsible preneurship can play a major role in improving the efficiency of resourceuse. and should forge information networking of nationaland international systems. A of the overall competresultwould be the improvement itiveness of the enterprise. industry. promoting environmental the best of conduct Developsuch as the BusinessCharteron Sustainable ment of the InternationalChamberof Commerce(ICC) care initiative. for smalland meproduction.l0 Business porations. 238 . including transand with business consultation thatwill promotetheuseof cleaner national corporations. for the of concepts and methodologies implementation of environmentalcosts into accounting internalization pricing mechanisms. transnational increasing including resource utilization. researchand developing identification.14 Industryandbusiness age individual companiesto undertakeprogrammesfor improvedenvironmental awareness andresponsibility at dedicatedto the task all levels to make theseenterprises basedon interof improving environmentalperformance practices.needto good engineeringand be replacedwith technologies. legislationsand standards.15 International organizations tion.l3 Industryand business ate with workers and trade unions to continuously improvetheknowledge sustainandskillsfor implementing operations. including the shouldaim to increase corporations. with special consideration private initiatives Voluntary dium-sized enterprises. assessment. ACTIVITIES 30.8 Governmentsshould identify and implement an appropriatemix of economicinstrumentsand normative in measures such as laws. environmental minimizing wastes and safeguarding qualities. and consumers.businessand industry. the UNEP InternationalCleaner Production Clearing House(ICPIC).academia and in collaboration relevantnationaland local authorities. including academiaand international corporations.7 Governments. RESPONSTBLE ENTR.should strengthenpartnershipsto implementthe principlesandcriteriafor sustainable development. i ncl udi ng trade and sci enti fi c associat ions. of cleaner ment. abledevelopment shouldencourassociations 30. natural and as well as on their useof energy (b) To adoptandreporton the implementation of codes practice. nationallyaccepted management educashouldincrease 30.17 Entrepreneurship driving forces for innovations. accountits influenceon suppliers shouldcooperassociations 30. shouldbe encouraged: records. per unit of economicoutquantityof wastedischarge put . The production impliesstrivingfor optimal of cleaner concept efficienciesat every stageof the product life cycle. Often. Ecologically Sustainable in Octoberl99l. practicesand know-how that would mimanagement nimize waste throughout the product life cycle.theUNIDO IndustrialandTechnological Information Bank (INTIB) and the ICC International Environment Bureau (IEB). and the chemicalindustry'sresponsible 30. 30.increasingoff-farm employment and providing the transitionalmeansfor imentreproving the livelihoodsof women. with industry.11Governmentsshould promote technologicaland encompassknow-howcooperation between enterprises. 30. play a very important role in the social and economic developmentof a country. transnational and shouldwork towardsthedevelopment organizations.l at Copenhagen OBJECTIVES 30. of efficiency and to reducethe the reuseand recycling of residues.management marketingand application production.The need for a transition towardscleanerproductionpolicies was recognizedat Conferenceon the UNlDO-organizedministerial-level held IndustrialDevelopment. including transnational corporations.l6 International and non-governmentalorganizati ons. reducingrisks and hazards.

in cooperation with the private sector. 30. arrange for environmentally soundtechnologics to be available to affiliatesownedsubstantially by their parentcompany in developing countries without extraexternal charges. The cost of activities by Governmentsand international organizationsare already included in other programme areas. encourage overseas afilliates to modify procedures in order to reflect local ecological conditions and share experiences with localauthorities. Governments should supporttrainingin the environmental aspects of enterprise management Attention should also be dilected towardsapprenticeship schernes fbr youth. The inclusion of wornenentrepreneurs shouldbe facilitated. shouldincrease research and development of environmentally soundtechnologies and environmental management systems.27Multilateraland bilateralfinancialaid institutions should continue to encourage and support small.safetyandenvironmental aspects.where appropriate. includingtransnational corporations. and fosteringopenness and dialogue with employees and the public.19Governments should encourage theestablishment and operations of sustainably managed enterprises.infiastructural supportand stewardship responsibilities. 30. 239 . to ensurethat environmental aspects arestrengthened in foreign investment.28 United Nationsorganizations andagencies should improve mechanisms for business and industry inputs. shouldensure responsible andethicalmanagement of products and processes from the point of view of health.23Large business and industry.20Governmentsshould encourage. 30. 30. 30.21In collaboration r. development ACTIVITIES 30. l 5 1 /PC/125. 30. where appropriate. with the assistance of internationalorganizations.OBJECTIVES 30. 30.26Business andindustry. advice and assistance with infbrmation. national Govemments and intemational organizations. academia and internationalorganizations.25Business andindustry. shouldbe encouraged to establish world-wide corporatepolicieson sustainable development. in collaboration with academia and the scientific/engineering establishments.including transnationalcorporati ons. business and industry should increase self-regulation. Towardsthis end.in particular for small and mediumsizedenterprises in developingcountries.22Business andindustry.vith busincss.marketdevelopntent arrdtechnological knowhow.and medium-scale entrepreneursengaged in sustainable development activities.shoul d cons iderestabl i shing partnership schemes with small and medium-sized enterprises to help facilitatethe exchange of experience in managerial skills.rstry. indr.1 Business and industry should establish national councilsfor sustainable development and help promote entrepreneurship in the formal and inlitrnralsectors.the establishment of venture capitalfunds for sustainable projects development and programmes.30The activitiesincludedunderthis programme area aremostlychanges in theorientation of existingactivities and additional costs are not expectedto be significant. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALUATION 30.18The followingobjectives areproposed: (a) To encouragethe concept of stewardshipin the management and utilizationof naturalresources by entrepreneurs. including transnational corporations. (b) To increase the numberof entrepreneurs engaged in enterprises thatsubscribe to andintplement sustainable policies. guidedby appropriate codes. 30. The mix wouldinclude regulatory measures. I ' S e eA / C O N F . drawing upon indigenousknowledge. including transnational corporations. 30. policy and strategyformulation processes. economic incentives and streamlining of administrative procedures to ensure maximumefficiency in dealing with applications for approvalin order to facilitateinvestrnent decisions.2.charters and initiatives integratedinto all elementsof businessplanning and decision-making. 30.29Internationalorganizations should increasesupport for researchand development on improving the technologicaland managerialrequirementsfor sustainable development.

scientificandtechnological ers. in communicating their sentiments to the scientificand communityconcerning how science technologicerl and technologymight be bettermanaged to affecttheir lives way. enginc and policy rnaurban plannersand other professionals kers. recognizingthe continuingevolutionand uncertainty of scientific knorvledse.3 The following objectives areproposed: 240 .which includes. to make a more clpenand effectivecontributionto processes concerning the decision-making environment and development. amongothers. both by decisionmakerswho help public policy and by the generalpublic. At the sametime.architec ts.this dialoguewould assist thescientific andtechnological prioritiesfor comrnunity in developing research andproposing for constructive actions solutions. OBJECTIVES 31. This implies thatdecision makers shouldprovidethenecessary framework for rigorous researchand for full and open communicationof the tindings of the scientificand technological community.i ndustrial designers. and developwith it ways in which researchresults and the concernsstemmingfrom the fi ndi ngs can be communi cated to deci sion. The adoptionand irnplementation of ethicalprinciplesand codesof prac- tice for the scientif ic and technological communitythat professionalareinternationally accepted could enhance ism and may improveandhasten recognition of the value of its contributionsto environmentand development. Decisionmakersshouldcreate more favourableconditionsfor improving training and independent research Existin sustainable development.the independence in a beneficial a n dte c h n o l o g i c a of t he s c ie n ti fi c c lo m m u ni ty to i nvestigate and publish without restrictionand to exchange their findings freely must be assured.m aking bodiesso as to betterlink scientificand technical knowledge'with policy andprogramme strategic formulation.l The present chapter on horv to enable the community. ing multidisciplinary will have to be strengapproaches thenedand more interdisciplinary studies developed between the scientific and technologicalcommunity and policy makers and with the generalpublic to provide leadershipand practical know-how to the concept of The public shouldbe assisted sustainable development. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S A) TMPROVTNG COMMUNTCATION AND AMONG THESCIENTIFIC COOPERATION AND TECHNOTOGICAT COMMUNITY.It is importantthat the role of science and technologyin humanaffairsbe more widely known and betterunderstood.3t qnd technologicol Scientific community INTRODUCTION focuses 3l. By the sametoken.2 The scientificand technological communityand policy makersshould increase their interactionin order to irnplementstrategies for sustainable development on the basisof the bestavailable knowledge. The determine cooperative relationship existing betweenthe scientific and technologicalcommunity and the general public and deepened into a full partnership. shouldbe extended Improved communication and cooperation betweenthe scientific and technologicalcommunity and decision makerswill facilitategreateruse of scientificand technical information and knowledgein policies and programmeimplementation. DECISION MAKERSAND THEPUBTIC BASIS FOR ACTION 31.

Suchsupport shouldfbcuson the transf-er of skills and the transfer andadaptation of planning techniques.6 Intergovernmental panels on development andenvironmental issues shouldbe organized.4 Governments shouldundertake the lollowins act iv it ies : (a) Reviewhow nationalscientificand technological activities couldbe moreresponsive to sustainable development needsas part t. (h) Developand implenrent information technologies to enhance the dissemination of infclrmation f-orsustainable development. professionals in othertieldsand the general public.AIED TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOTOGY BASIS FOR ACTION 31.includingany that are non-concessional. Such regionalcooperative mechanisms could be facilitated throughpublic/private partnerships and providesupport to Governments.inter alio. technologists andteachers who are en_eaged in communicating and interpreting scientific and technological inforrnation to policy makers. with emphasis on their scientificand technical aspects. B) PROMOTTNG CODES OF PRACTTCE AND GUIDEUNES REI. organizations and committees to ensure that: (i) The full rangeof nationalneedstor scientiflcand technological programmes arecommllnicated to Governmentsand the public. will depend upon. (0 Improvelinks between the official andindependent research sectors and industry so that researchmay becomean importantelementof industrialstrategy. B ) C A P A C TTY -B U tLD tN G 31. in order to ensurethe inclusionof science and technology know-howin sustainable developmentpoliciesand strategies. (ii) The variousstrandsof public opinion are represented: (b) Promoteregionalcooperative mechanisms to address regional needs fbr sustainable development. industry. This requires recognition of and greater suppoft to the scientists. This requires full and open sharing of dataand information amongscien- tists and decision makers. (el Improveand strengthen programmes for disseminating research resultsof universities and research institutions. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 31. including throughstrengthening and widening the membership of nationalscientificand technological advisorycouncils. c o o p e ra ti v e a n d n e g o ti a ti n g p rocesses torvards international and regionalagreements.The publication of national scientificresearch reportsand technicalreportsthat are understandable and relevantto local sustainable developmentneeds would alsoimprovethe interface between science and decision-making.l1'an overall eftbrt to strengthen nationalresearch and development systems. and otherinternational institutions. the specific strategies and programmesGovernnrents decideuponfor implementation.7 S ci enti sts and technol ogi sts havea speci al set of responsibilities which belongto them both as inheritors of a traditionand asprof'essionals andmembers of disciplines devotedto the searchfor knowledgeand to the needto protect thebiosphere in thecontext of sustainable development.8 Increased ethicalawareness in environmental and developmental decision-making should help to place 241 . non-governmental educational institutions and other domestic and international organizations.(a) To extendandopenup the decision-making process and broadenthe range of developmental and environmentalissues wherecooperation at all levelsbetween the scientificand technological community and decision makerscan take place.5 The Conf'erencre secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of irnplementing rhe activitiesof thisprogramme to be abor. Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewedby Governments. understood and supported. and by strengthening globalprofessional networks: (c) Improveandexpand scientiflc andtechnical inputs throughappropriate mechanisms to intergovemmental c ons ult at iv e. and studies of responsiveness and adaptability includedin subsequent programmes ol ' acti on. 31. as well as the implementation of scientificresults. ACTIVITIES 31. (d) Strengthen scienceand technologyadviceto the highestlevelsof the United Nations. Actual costsand financialterms. (b) To improvetheexchange of knowledge andconcerns between thescientific andtechnological cornm uniqr andthe generalpublic in orderto enablepoliciesandprogrammes to be betterformulated.rt $ 15million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms. (g) Promoteand strengthen the role of women as full partners in the science andtechnology disciplines.

of codes process. ation.9 The objectiveshouldbe to develop. inter alia. for and by principles. OBJECTIVES 31.12Codes of practiceand guidelines. ACTIVITIES couldbe undertaken: 31. as a whole. such decision-making by the upon be agreed guidelines not only must tice and scientific and technologicalcommunity.in groups on environmental and developmental order to develop a common value framework betrveen community and society the scientificand technological dialogue.10The following activities (a) Strengthening national and internationalcooperto develop sector.including any will dependupon. and development pracprinciples. and promotecontinuous (c) Extending andtrainingin developmental education suchobjecto integrate ethicalissues and environmental priorities.and enhanceappropriatepriorities for the maintenance own sake. to sustainable andcontribute for the scientific and regard up the level of esteemand "accountthe facilitate and technological community technology.l I The Conference of implementingthe age total annualcost (1993-2000) activities of this programmeto be about $5 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional esterms.includingthenon-governmental environmenregarding codesof practiceand guidelines development. 242 . MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AJ FINANC'NG AND COSTEVALUATION the averhasestimated secretariat 3l. curriculaand research tives into education (d) Reviewingand amending relevantnationaland inlegal instruternationalenvironmentand development codesof practiceandguidementsto ensure appropriate lines are incorporatedinto suchregulatorymachinery. and ability" of science ethics. Therefore. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude timates only and have not been reviewed by Governments.a strengthening tice and guidelinesfor the scientificand technological community would increaseenvironmentalawareness It would build development. but also be recognized by the societyas a whole.shouldbe developed appropriate communityin the pursuit the scientificandtechnological of its researchactivities and implementationof programmesaimedat sustainable development. (b) Strengthening national advisory and establishing B ) C A P A C ITY . that are non-concessional.taking into tally sound and sustainable and existingcodesof pracaccountthe Rio Declaration tice and guidelines. the specific strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementaticln.improve and of codesof practiceand promoteinternationalacceptance guidelinesrelating to scienceand technologyin which is comprehensively the integrityof life-supportsystems role of science the important where for and accounted needs of environment the in reconciling and technology in the To be effective is accepted.and in for their systems life-support ment of viable natural of functioning that the ensure so doing sopresent future and properly valued by is processes pracof the codes of cieties. Actual costsand financial terms.B U ILD IN G including on 31.

4 The sustainable development of peoplein marginal and fragile ecosystems is also addressed in Agenda 21. 32. indigenouspeople and their communities. 32. face a high degreeof economic. The key to the successful implementationof theseprogrammes liesin themotivationandattitudes of individual farmers and government policies that would provide incentivesto farmers to managetheir natural resources efficiently andin a sustainable way. and meansof production.this increase has beenoutstripped by population growth or internationaldebt or falling commodity prices.3 2 Skengthening therole of theformers P R O G R A M MA ER E A BASIS FOR ACTION 32.legal and institutionaluncertainties when investingin their land and otherresources.3 A farmer-centred approach is the key to the attainmentof sustainability in both developed and developing countriesand many of the programmeareasin Agenda 2l address this objective. fishing ond forest horvesting. (b) To support andenhance thelegalcapacity of women and vulnerablegroups with regard to access.they are engaged in the overexploitation of natural resources. while at the sametime becoming vulnerableto overexploitation and improper management. includingindigenous practices.Rural activitiestake place in close contact with nature. Yet. technology. adding value to it by producing renewable resources. A significanrnumber of the rural population in developing countries depend primarily upon small-scale. As a result.Farmers* must conserve their phvsical environmentas they depend on it fbr their sustenance.the natural resources that sustain farming activity needpropercare. andthefamily farmer.2 The rural household. oll references to "formers" include ollrurolpeople who derive theirlivelihood fromoctivities suchos forming. This programmeareadealswith activitieswhich can contributeto this end. they have limited accessto resources. men and 243 . (d) To introduceor strengthen policiesthat would encourage self-sufficiencyin low-input and low-energy technologies. Over the past 20 years there has been an i mpressiveincrease i n aggregate agricultural production.use and tenureof lartd.Farmers. Further.alternativelivelihood * Inthischopter. However. a substantialnumber of whom are women. 32.1 Agriculture occupiesone third of the land surface of the Earth. OBJECTIVES 32. in someregions.5 The following objectivesare proposed: (a) To encourage a decentralized decision-making processthroughthe creationand strengthening of local and village organizations that would delegatepower and responsibility to primary usersof naturalresources. andpricing mechanisms that internalize environmental costs. including marginallands. and is the centralactivity for much of the world's population. (e) To developa policy frameworkthatprovidesincentives and motivation among farmersfor sustainable and efficient farming practices . (f) To enhancethe participation of farmers. have beenthe stewards of much of the Earth's resources. (c) To promote and encouragesustainable farming practices and technologies. particularly women.subsistence-oriented agriculture basedon family labour. The decentralization of decision-making towardslocal and community organizations is the key in changingpeople'sbehaviourand implementing sustainable farming strategies. Theterm"forming" olsoincludes fishing onJ foresi horvesting.and thereis a growing concernaboutthe sustainability of agricultural productionsystems.

10Representative and support programmes filr the development establish particularlyin developing of farmers' organizations. and integrated managementof natural res our c es .forestand fishing populations.6 National(iovernmentsshould: on of the programmes (a) Ensurethe implementation rural developand agriculture livelihoods.employmentand the environment: organiza(c) Involve farmersand their representative of PolicY. multilateraland bilateral organizaand non-governmental agencies development in with tamrers'organizations tions shouldcollaborate ific opmentprojects to spec fomrulating agricultural devel zones. pricingmechanisms. sustainable w . WFP. ment) are alsorelevantto this programme MEANS B/ sC/FNilFtC AND TECHNOLOGtCAL organinternational andappropriate 32. of experiences (b) Establish networksfor the exchange land. providingadequate could be ar32.12Governments research organizations. tionsin the tormulation (d) Protect. towards directed orsanizations. pests and weeds: (b) Conduct andlow-resource studies of high-resource productivity and sltstainagricultureto comparetheir preferably be conducted ability. reduceor reutilizefarm wastes.8 Governments and ( a) I nit ia tem e c h a n i s ms s ynthesi ze to d o c u m e n t.farm incomes. and l3 (Mancombatingdesertification mountain developsustainable agingfragileecosystems: area. The researchshould settings.11The financing neededfor this programmeareais agriculsustainable in chapterl4 (Promoting estimated particularly in the proture and rural development).recognizeand forrnalizewotnen'saccess anduseof Iand. sustainable of the impact of thesedecisionson householdfbod security.access to tenure inputsand training: to credit. water with regardto farming that help to conserve and of chemicals minimize the use and forestresources. proj ect l o c a l k n o w l e d g e . the regionaldeinorganizations velopmentbanksand other intemational and fanners involve should in rural development volved AS appropriate. in the design and implernentation representative their through these ends. 244 . and sociological environmental undervarious would opthat (c) Supportresearch on mechanization hand-held and power and timize humanlabourand animal equipmentthat can be easily operatedand animal-drawn should technologies of fanr-r maintained.m an a g i n g culture. fiscal tradepolicies. a tcr usei n agri fra g i l ee c o s y s te m s m ent . theirrepresentatives ol' farmers should organizations 32.technology. OFIMPLEMENTATION MEANS AND COSTEVALUATION A) FINANCING 32. agro-ecological TOOPERAI I O N AL N D R E G/ON AC C / /N IE R N A TION A 32. gramme area entitled "Ensuring people'sparticipation for sustaindevelopment andpromotinghumanresource able agriculture". in theirdeliberations.9 FAO. that (c) Developpilot projectsand extensionservices and knowledgebaseof would seekto build on the needs women farmers. the World Bank.The developrnent role and the resources farmers'available takeinto account the ecology. organizations and non-govemmental izations appropriate: (a) Developenvironmentally soundfarming technolyields.of policies women. ogies that enhancecrop water and energyand control conserve recyclenutrients. by organizations (e) Supportthe fcrrmation of f-armers' legaland socialconditions. IFAD. maintain land quality.7 Support for farmers' organizations rangedas follows: research centresshould (a) Nationaland international in developing cooperatewith farmers' organizations farming techenvironment-friendly location-specific niques : (b) National Governments. and of animalsin fanning households AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA should: and farmers'organizations 32. countries.The costs shown under chapters3 fragileecosystems: (Combating poverty). ACTIVITIES IE S IVIT ACT ELATED A) MANAGEMENI-R 32.l2 (Managing and drought). (b) Promote that positively and other policy instruments incentives aboutanefficientand r's decisions affectindividualt-arme andtakefull account useof naturalresources.p ra c ti c esand dis s er nin a te of so that they will makeuseof the lessons experiences policies and irnplementing the past when forrnulating affectingtarming.in collaborationwith national as should.aswell asrightsto land.

(b) Strengthenrural institutionsthat would enhance sustainabilitythrough locally managedcredit systems and technicalassistance. Interdisciplinaryprogrammesin agricultural ecologyareessential to the trainingof a new generation of agriculturalscienti stsandfield-levelextension agents. in thelight of eachcountry's specificsituation: (a) Create the institutionaland legal mechanisms to ensureeffectiveland tenureto farmers. appropriateequiprnentand small-scale processing units.shoulddevelopcurriculafor agricultural colleges andtraininginstitutions thatwould integrate ecoiogyinto agricultural science. in particular womenandfarmers from indigenous groups. The absence of legislationindicatingland rightshasbeenan obstacle in taking action againstland degradation in many farming communities in developingcountries. with the support of multilateral and bilateraldevelopment agencies and scientificorganizations.credit and useclf improvedtechnology for ensuringfood security.13Governments. local productionand distribution facilities for inputs.andmarketing anddistribution systems.C) HUM A NRE S O U R C DE EV EL OP M EN I 32. D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 32. to agricultural training.14Governments should. (c) Establish mechanisms to increase access of farmers. 245 .

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Section4 Meons of Irplementotion .

.

socialdevelopment and poverty eradicationare the first and overriding priorities in developingcountriesand are themselves essential to meetingnationaland global sustainability objectives. withoutwhichit will be difficult for them to fully implemenrtheir commitments. prioritiesand plans and to consider waysof effectivelymonitoringtheprovisionof suchnew andadditional financialresources. particularly to developing countries. including innovativeones." 33.of additionalresources.4 The cost of inaction could outweigh the financial costsof implementing Agenda2l .2 This chapterdeals with the financing of the implementation of Agenda21. In the light of the global benefits ro be realizedby rhe implementation of Agenda21 asa whole. includingvoluntary ones. owing. in particular developingcountries.in resolution 441228 of 22 December 1989. expertise or technical capacity.1 The GeneralAssembly. that encourage free tradeand access to markets will help make economic growth and environmental protection mutually supportive for all countries.6 Economic conditions. "Considervariousfundingmechanisms. to their lack of financialresources.inter alia. 33. decided thattheUnitedNations Conference on Environment and Development should: "Identify ways and meansof providing new and additional financial resources.parlicularly to developing countries. on a favourable basis.both domesticand international. with a view to ensuring.includingfuturegenerations.3 Economicgrowth.the provision to developing countries of effectivemeans. financial resources andtechnology. Inactionwill narrow the choices of futuregenerations.For eachof the other chapters. in particular. "Identify ways and meansof providingadditionalfinancialresources for measures directed towardssolving major environmental problemsof global concernand especiallyof supportingthosecountries.inter alia. both by countries themselves and by the international community. Globalandlocal environmental issues are interrelated.33 Finonciol resources ond mechonisms INTRODUCTION 33. "Quantify thefinancialrequirements for the successful implementation of Conference decisionsand recommendationsand identify possiblesources. Thesereflectthe needfor a substantially increased effort.will servethecommoninterests of developed ancl developingcountriesand of humankindin general. 33. 33.and exanrinethe possibilityof a special intemationalfund and other innovative approaches. BASIS FOR ACTION 33. 249 .5 For dealing with environmental issues. particularly for developingcountries and countries undergoing theprocess of transition to a marketeconomy(see chapter 2 for a fuller discussion of theseissr:es ).the secretariat of the Conferencehas provided indicativeestimates of the total costsof implementation for developingcountriesand the requirements for grant or otherconcessional financingneeded from theinternational community.for which the implementation of suchmeasures would entaila special orabnomral burden. special efforts will be required.so as to enablethe international community to take further appropriateaction on the basisof accurate and reliabledata. the most effectiveand expeditious transferof environmentally soundtechnologies to developingcountries. The United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change and the Conventionon Biological Diversityaddress two ol the most importantglobal issues. which reflectsa globalconsensus integrating environmental considerations into an accelerated development process. for environmentally sounddevelopment programmes andprojects in accordance with national developmentobjectives.

sustainable levelsof funding in support and predictable and enhanced are required.8 2I into national policies and programmesthrough a process that will integrateenvironmentand development National and local priorities shouldbe considerations. For developingcountries. larly the leastdeveloped Agenda how to translate assess should Allcountries 33. by substantialearly initial phase will be accelerated funding.7 International in order to supportand ment shouldalso be strengthened complementthe efforts of developingcountries.9 For anevolvingpartnership world. and optionsthat IDA deputies Among the variousissues will examine in connectionwith the forthcorning tenth madeby the Presireplenishment of IDA. It was Developdecidedthat the Commissionon Sustainable toment would regularly review and monitor progress shouldsystematiwardsthis target.amongothers: ACTIVITIES the activitiesof this chapterare 33. and for men tunity of the amongall countries 33. in particular. tained banks. nancing should be provided according to sound and equitablecriteria and indicators.whoseadditional 250 . Somecountries effectiveimplementation have agreedto reachthe targetby the year 2000.particularlythe private sectors.between developedand developmentstrategies developingcountries. and community women. of longer term objectives developingcountriesshould arliculatetheir own priority actions and needs for support and developedcounffies In priorities.14Fundingfor Agenda2l andotheroutcomes shouldbe providedin a way that maximizes Conference and uses the availabilityof new and additionalresources These all availablefunding sourcesand mechanisms. For that purpose. The development (ii) Regionaland subregional banksand funds development regionaiand subregional should play an increasedand more effective role in or otherfavourable providingresources on concessional termsneededto implementdgenda 21.developfor sustainable cooperation 33.ironment managedjointly Facililvn. UNDP andUNEP.may voluntarily augmentthe concountries. the statement dent of the World Bank at the United NationsConference shouldbe given speon Environmentand Development in order to help the poorestcountries cial consideration objectivesas condevelopment meet their sustainable in Agenda21. the importance of equitable burden-sharing countriesis recognized.The progressiveimplementation of Agenda 21 should be matchedby the The provision of such necessaryfinancial resources.10 of Agenda2l will requirethe prooprnentprogrammes new and vision to developingcountriesof substantial fiGrant or concessional additionaifinancial resources.agree theextentthatthey havenot yet achieved to augmenttheir aid prografiImesin order to reach that target as soon as possible and to ensureprompt and of Agenda21. including.Thosecountriesthat have alreadyreachedthe to continue targetare to be commendedand encouraged to contributeto the colrlmon effort to make availablethe that have to be mobiladditionalresources substantial in line with their support countries. Agenda OFIMPLEMENIATION MEANS of thefinancingfor the implernentation 33.This review process cally combine the monitoring of the implementationof Agenda 21 with a review of the financial resources available. ized. mechanisms nationallybased develthehugesustainable of implementation The 33. and substantial new and additional andimplementation development funding f or sustainable of Agenda 21 will be required.11The objectives (a) To establish measures concemingfinancialresources of Agenda21. In this their besteffortsto increase context. least developedcountries. these to addressing shouldcommit themselves other and groups round tables and respect. include. Agenda 2l will corle from a country'sown public and ANDFUNDS: BANKS DEVELOPMENT MULTILATERAL A) THE (i) The InternationalDevelopment Association(lDA).13 in general.Other counamongdeveloped of transition the process tries. of of all the otherchapters relatedto the implementation 2l. f or the implementation and mechanisms (b) To provide new and additionalfinancial resources and predictable.7 per cent of GNP for ODA and.includingthoseundergoing to a market economy.11 Fundamentally. of concessional commitments OUECTN/ES areas lollows: 33.agreeto make their level of ODA. consultative this canplay a facilitativerole.particucountries.Otherdeveloped for reform effbrts in developingcountries. Developed countries United reaffirm their commitmentsto reachthe accepted Nations target of 0.ODA is a main source of external funding. that include public participation means by established promoting equal opporinvolvement. tributionsof the developed of the 33. by the World Bank. (iii) TheGlobalEnt. that are both adequate (c) To seekfull useandcontinuingqualitative improveto be utilized for the immerlt of f.undingmechanisms plementation of Agenda21. to thattarget.

by guaranteeing a balancedand equitable representationof the interests of developing countriesand giving due weight to the funding efforts of donor countries. with global environmentalbenefits.should cover the agreed incremental costsof relevant activitiesunderAgenda2l . Mobilization of higher levels of foreign direct investment and technology transfers shouldbe encouraged through nationalpolicies that promote investment and through joint venturesand other modalities. 33. the specific strategies andprogrammes Governments decideuponfor implementation. 33. 3-1. Measuresto address thecontinuing debtproblems of low. (b) The use of economic and fiscal incentivesand mechanisms. includingin termsof decision-making and operations.as agreed. including non-governmentalorganizations.grant and concessional funding is designedto achieve global environmentalbenefits. D Ensure new and additional financial resourceson grantandconcessional terms. It will be important to review on a regularbasisthe adequacy of funding and mechanisms. Voluntary conrributionsthrough non-governmental channels. > Ensure a governancethat is transparentand democraticin nature. (d) New schemes for fund-raisingand voluntarycontributionsthroughprivatechannels. (c) The feasibilityof tradeable permits. (e) Debt relief. in orderto achievesustainability. making full useof the expertise of the specialized agenciesand other United Nations bodies within their respectiveareasof competence. (0 Private funding. which have designated roles to play in supportingnational Govemments in implementing Agenda2l: (c) Multilateral institutionsfor capacity-buildingond technical cooperatiorz. > Ensurepredictabilityin the flow of fundsby contributions from developedcountries.17A supportive intemational anddomestic economic climate conducive to sustained economic growth and development is important.16 Innovativefinancing.Therefore. inter alia: > Encourageuniversalparticipation. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only.and middle-income developingcountriesin order to provide them with the neededmeansfor sustainable development.includinggreateruseof debt swaps. 33. 251 . > Ensureaccess to anddisbursement of the fundsunder mutually agreed criteria without introducing new forms of conditionality.15Investmenr. it shouldbe restructured so as to. might be increased. Necessaryfinancial resources should be provided to UNDP to use its network of field offices and its broad mandateand experience in the field of technicalcooperation for facilitatingcapacity-building at the countrylevel. It is important to achievedurable solutionsto the debt problemsof low.20Developingcountries shouldalsobeginto draw up nationalplansfor sustainable development to give effect to the decisionsof the Conference. New ways of generating new public and private financial resourcesshould be explored. including effortsto reachagreedobjectives of thepresentchapter.All creditors in the Paris Club should promptly implement the agreement of December1991to provide debt relief for thepoorest heavilyindebted countries pursuingstructural adjustment. Actual costs will dependupon.21 Reviewandmonitoring of thefinancingof Agenda 2l is essential. in 1992.These programmeswill needto be strengthened in orderto promote sustainable development. 33.l8 The secretariat of theConference hasestimated the averageannual costs (1993-2000) of implementing in developingcountriesthe activitiesin Agenda 2l to be over $600 billion.in particularto developing countries.andmiddle-incomecountries shouldbe keptunderreview. (d) Bilateral assistance programmes. and have not been reviewed by Governments. other United Nations bodies and other international organizations. (e) The reallocationof resources at presentcommitted to military purposes. which havebeenrunningat about l0 per centof ODA.19 Developed countries and othersin a positionto do so should make initial financial commitments to give effect to the decisionsof the Conference.in particular: (a) Various forms of debt relief. related to the effectivefollowQuestions up of the Conferenceare discussed in chapter38 (International institutional arrangements).taking into account the importanceof equitableburden-sharing. > Have sufficient flexibility to expand its scope and coverageto relevantprogrammeareasof Agenda 21. includingabour$125 billion on granr or concessional termslrom the internationalcommunity. debt relief measures should be kept under reviewsoasto address thecontinuing difficultiesof those countries. (b) The rclevant specialized agencies. They should report on such plans and commitments to the United NationsGeneralAssemblyat its forty-seventh session. in particular for developing countries. 33. apart from official or ParisClub debt. including targets whereapplicable. inter alia. in particular UNEP and including the multilateral and regional development banks. 33. particularly for developing countries.

when appropriate. ing gender-relevant Environmentallysound technologiesshould be comculsocio-economic. Providing adequate conof presenttechnologies aspects the environmental sists of two interrelatedcomponents: upgrading inforintechnologies. the private sector. promote sustainable order to in technology. mation on presentand state-of-the-art access risks.protectthe environment. This implies that when discussingtransfer of andlocal development the humanresource technologies.? / \. 34. to inwill be essential New and efficient technologies counparticular of developing in the capabilities. of environmentally that through supporlivemeasures developingcountries.Inherentin these technology of is the need to addressthe improvement currently used and its replacement. in the context 34.6 This chapterof Agenda 2l is without prejudiceto specific commitmentsand affangementson transfer of instruin specificinternational to be adopted technology ffrents. + technology.7 The availabilityof scientificand technological of environmentally to and transl'er formationand access for sustainrequirements are essential soundtechnology information on able development.and improving cluding their environmental soundtechnologies.are lesspolluting. of technology suppliers entailsan iterativeprocessinvolving govcooperation ernment. andits recipients. developing of field in the partnerships and cooperativearrangements development. patiblewith nationallydetermined tural and environmentalpriorities. aspects. ment as well as organizationaland managerial procedures. 34. generate for treatThey alsocover "end of the pipe" technologies ment of pollution after it hasbeengenerated. to environmentally to technology 34.8 The primarygoal of improvedaccess 252 . sound and more environmentally with more accessible technology. of technology aspects capacity-building should also be addressed.5 The activitiesproposedin this chapteraim at imon information. sound of environmentolly Tronsfer ond copocity-building cooperotion INTRODUCTION protecttheensoundtechnologies 34.2 Envtonmentally soundtechnologies that of pollution are "processand producttechnologies" of pollution' forthe prevention low orno waste. know-how.useall resources sustainablemanner.access and processes proving conditions (including the state-of-theto and transferof technology in particularto know-how).and researchand develop- ment facilities to ensurethe best possible results from long-termpartnerships Successful transferof technology.and managerial pabilities for the efficient use and further development clf transferredtechnology. requirecontinuing necessarily in technologycooperation at all levels capacity-building training and systernatic over an extendedperiod of time. to achieve sustainable world's economy.technical. to and transfer 34.sustainthe tries. in34. andhandleresidual for which they were submannerthan the technologies stitutes. and that shouldenable promotetechnologycooperation know-how as well as technological of necessary transfer cabuilding up of economic. procedures.4 Thereis a needfor favourableaccess in particularLo soundtechnologies.3 Environmentallysound technologiesare not just which include but total systems individual technologies.Technology cooperation inboth andGovernments. art technologyand related and capacity-building well as on as countries.and alleviate activities povertyandhumansuffering. and equipgoods and services. FOR ACTION BASIS 34. volvesjoint effortsby enterprises such Therefore. recycle more of their wastes and wastes in amoreacceptable products.1 Environmentally itr a more vironment. crease development. includchoices.

the access to and the transf'er of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how. objectivesand priorities as foreseenin the implementation of Agenda 2l at thenati onal l evel . (ii) Strengthening of institutional capacities for research and development and programme implementation. including state-ot--the-art technologies. technicians and middle-levelmanagers.to make more rational technology choices. scientists.1-lA critical massof research and development capacitvis crucialto the effectivedissernination anduseof envi ronmental ly soundtechnologies andtheirgeneration lcrcally. farilitated and financedas appropriate.includinginformationon state-of-the-art technologies.1 ?Rec ipient c ou n tri e s re q u i re te c h n o l o e y a nd strengthened supportto help furtherdeveloptheir scientific.in particulardeveloping countries. Tappingthis pool of knowledgeand recombiningit with local innovations to generate alternative technologies shouldbe pursued.including on concessionaland preferential terms. At the sametime that conceptsand modalitiesfor assured access tu environmentally soundtechnologies. Achieving this critical massinvolves buildingthecapabilities of craftspersons. (e) To promote long-term technologicalpartnerships betweenholdersof environmentally soundtechnologies and potentialusers. AND /NIERNAT/ONAT SYSIEMS 34. as well as developingtheir corespondingsocialor managerialsupport systems. and international business is an important vehicle for technologytransfer. as well as to further exploring efficiently the conceptof assured for developing access countriesto environmentallysound technologvin its relation to proprietary rights with a vierv to developing effectiveresponses to the needs of developing countries in this area. technological.Thesecountriescould then better assess environmentally sound technologie s prior to their transfcrand properly apply and managethem. REG/ONAI. (b) To promote. as appropriate. payingparticularattention to their priority needs andtakinginto account tlrecomplementary roles of men and women. 34. 3 4 . Educationand training programmes should reflect the needsof specificgoal-oriented research activities and should work to producespecialists literate in environmentally soundtechnologyand with an interdisciplinary outlook. (d) To supportendogenous capacity-building. professional anclrelatedcapacities. There is a need for developing countriesto have access to suchtechnologies as are not coveredby patents or lie in the public domain. OBJECTIVES 34. in particular by developing countries. and finance. in particular in developing countries. This supportwould enablecountries.in particular to developing cor-lntries. taking into accounttheneedto protectintellectual propertyrightsaswell asthe special needs of developing countriesfor the implementation of Agenda2l. Transferringenvironmentally sound technologies also involves innovatively adapting andincorporating theminto thelocalor national culture. engineers and educators. 34. taking into account existingtechnologies andcapacities. so theycanassess. 34. This could be achieved throughinter alia: (i) Human resource developrnent.A[. ACTIVITIES A) DEVELOqMENT OF /NTERNAT/ONAI TNFORMAITON NEIWORKS WHICHIINK NAT/ON. as mutually agreed. as well as improve uponalready existingtechnologies andadaptthernto suit their specificdevelopment needsand priorities.in particular of developingcountries.14The following objectives are proposed: (a) To help to ensure the access. in particularin developing countries. (iii) Integrated sectorassessments of technologyneeds.9Alargebody of usefultechnological knowledgelies in the public domain.subregional. SUBREG/ONAI. to scientificand technological infbrmation.. on f'avourable terms.15Existing national.informationis to enableinformed choices.facilitate. in accordance with countries' plans.Developing countries would also need to have accessto the know-horv and expertiserequired for the effective utilizationof the aforesaidtechnologies.1I Proprietary technologyis availablethroughcommercialchannels. manageand apply environmentally soundtechnologies. regionaland internationalinformation systemsshouldbe developedand linked throughregionalclearing-houses coveringbroad- 253 .in particular to developingcountries. continuedto be explored" enhanced access to e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s o u n d t e c h n o i o g i e ss h o u l d b e promoted. adopt. while providing fair incentivesto innovatorsthat promoteresearchand development of new environmentally sound technologies.leadingto access to and ffansferof suchtechnologies and the strengthening of countries'own technological capabilities.10 Consideration must be given to the role of patent protectionand intellectualpropertyrights along with an examination of their impacton the access to and transfer of environmentallysound technology. (c) To facilitate the maintenanceand promotion of environmentally sound indigenous technologies thatmay have been neglecteCor displaced. -74.

(a) Formulationof policies and programmesfor the technologi es ly sclund effective transfer of environmental that are publicly ownedor in the public domain. identifiedgapsin this international TO OF ACCESS B) SUPPORT OF AND PROMOilON IRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY should d. The existingstructure Additional informationsysimprovedwhen necessary. include and regionalpatentoffices that are national. naorganizations. (d) Addressing. inter alia. In order to be effective. ticularto developing developmentin the processof negotiating an international code of conduct on transfer of technology.16.training. in particular andtransfer. non-governmental tradeassociations. technologies of joittt houseswould thus facilitate the establishment of variouskinds. including rules with respectto their acquisitionthrough and with theprovisionof equitable licensing.subregional technolequippedto producereportson state-of-the-art networks would disseminate ogy.19Frameworksat subregional.to stimulatethe transferof environmentallysoundtechnolcountries.indusof the economysuchasagriculture. The clearingand technologyassessment.and communication informationwould highlight The disseminated systems. environmentally (c) Examinationby Governments and. as integralto sustainable (ii) Enhancement of patent to and transfer of the access in parprotectedenvironmentallysound technologies. and the broad terms under which they may be acquired. network.11An inventory of existing and international systems gionalclearing-houses or informationexchange should be undertakenby the relel'ant United Nations and be strengthened should bodies. and encouragethe private sector to promote. basedsectors try and energy. in particularto developing ogy by companies. ate. transferof whetherthey encourage or impedethe access and introductionof environmentallysoundtechnologies. (e) In the case of privately owned technologies. organizations and internation 34. protect intellectualproperty rights. positiverolesandcontributions businessconununities.Colombia.by relevant subsidiesand tax policies.held at Cartagenade Indias.They would operateon an basisand focus on the information information-demand the They would takeinto account of the end-users. in order to fill if necessary.in particular for developingcountries: (i) Creationand enhancement by developedcountries. their environmental risks. TO DEVELOP OF THECAPACTTY c) TMPROVEMENT SOUND AND MANAGEENV'RONMENTALLY TECHNOLOGIES regionaland interna34. The clearing-house their sources. Sucha network might. privately owned environmentallysound technologies to reduce and adoption of appropriategeneralmeasures suchbarrierswhile creatingspecificincentives.but also referrals of advice. where necessary. which might be in a positionto aswell asothercountries do so. and subregionalorganizations.and rrgulations to determine to. sound and detail concretecaseswhereenvironmentally technologieswere successfullydeveloped and implemented. (b) Creationof favourable the to encourage conditions private and public sectorsto innovate.the adoption of the following measures. of appropriateincentives.including the use of existing news. (iv) In compliancewith and underthe specificcircumrecognizedby the relevantinternationalconvenstances tions adheredto by States. including sources to other services.the clearing-houses needto provide not only information. for the access effectivemodalities to developingcountries. The internationaland regional clearing-houses 34. development.market and use soundtechnologies.in a framework which fully integrates barriersto the transferof environmentand development.fiscal or otherwise.I 8 Governments promote. as decided by UNCTAD at its eighth session.in parwhile takinginto account countries. tems should be developed. or strengthand newly established tional Governments.for the transferof such technologies. compulsory adequate compensation . (v) Provisionof financialresources to acquireenvironin order to enablein parmentally soundtechnologies to ticular developingcountriesto implementmeasures promote sustainable developmentthat would entail a specialor abnormalburdento them.whereappropri- including organizations of existingpolicies. tional levels should be establishedand/or strengthened 254 .of environmentallysound techincludingthe following: nologiesby means of activities. enednationalnetworks. inforusersto identify their needsand in disseminating mation that meets those needs. ticular to developingcountries. in helping would take the initiative.fiscal or otherwise. information on available technologies. needs regional of international. in February 1992. (iii) Purchaseof patentsand licenceson commercial terms for their transferto developing countrieson nonfor cooperation commercialtermsaspart of development taking into accountthe needto sustainable developrnent. (0 Developmentof mechanisms for the accessto and transfer of environmentally sound technologies.the undertakingof measures to prevent the abuseof intellectual property rights. ventures and partnerships or re34. public infonnation.

and educationof the end-user of the technology. F/ TECHNOLOGY ASSFSSMENT tN SU??ORT OF THEMANAGEA4ENT OF ENY/RONMENIAI. These centrescould.for the development. often throughpartnerships within and amongcountries andbetween the scientificandtechnological community. in closecooperation wittr the privatesector. to enable themto makechoices based on environmentally soundtechnologies. regionaland internationalresearch centreson environmentally sound technology shouldbe established to enhance the access to and development. as well as funding for technical cooperationamong developing countries'programmes in this area.Y SOUNDTECHNOLOGY 34. coupledwith clearing-houses.24Thc developmentof global. 34.20Nationalcapacities to assess. including environmental impactand risk assessment.This shouldinclude developing links amongthese facilitiesto maximizetheir efficiency in understanding. on a voluntary basis. 34. primarilybased on existing subregionalor regional research. manage and apply new technologies shouldbe developed. asappropriatc. subregional. D) ESTABLISHMENI OF A COLLABORATTVE NFTWORK OF RESEARCH CENTRES 34.Plansand studiessupporting theseprogrammesshouldprovide the basisfor potentialfinancing by multilateraldevelopment banks.as repositoriesof scarcetechnicalskills neededfor the pro- 255 . the return of qualified experts from developing countriesin the field of environmentally soundtechnologies who are currentlyworking in developedcountry institutionsshouldbe facilitated. and funding of this activity throughpublic-privare parrnerships should alsobe explored. international organizations. in particular to developing countries.23Supportshouldalsobe providedfor national.training of personnel at all levels. and sustainable development planning. to tap the technology assessment sources mentioned above for the benefit of all nations. maintenance.in particular United Nationsagencies. (b) Strengthen the internationalnetwork of regional. develop.subregional. regional and subregional programmesshould include identification and evaluationof regional. privatesectorinterests and non-governmental organizations. technologicaland human resources capacity-buildingin the fields of training. nationaltechnology needs assessments. Multinational companies. development and transfer of environmentally soundtechnologies. management and transferof environmentally sound technologies.developmentand demonsfrationcentreswhich iue linked with the national institutions.subregional and national needbasedpriorities. multilateral andbilateralprogrammes of scientificresearch.irrternational organizations. by addingsuchfunctionsto alreadyexisting bodies. in particularin developingcountries. and other appropriate public and private organizations.21 A collaborativenetwork of national. This will require strengthening existing institutions. regional. and other appropriateand private organizations should help exchangeexperiences anddevelopcapacityfor technology needsassessment. environmental impactassessments. The possibilityof assigning thisactivity to already existing regional organizations should be fully explored beforecreatingentirelynew institutions. dissemination of informationand technologydevelopment among developingcountries. provide advice and training for specific national situations and promotethe building up of national capacity in environmentallysound technologyassessment.industryandGovernments.26The international community. in principle.I. They should: (a) Build up technologyassessment capacity for the rnanagement of environntentally sound technology. transt'er and applicationof environmentally soundtechnologies and corresponding technical know-how with a specialfocuson developing countries'needs. includingtransfer and cooperation amongdevelopingcountries and betrveen developed anddeveloping countries.bilateral organizations. with due regard to appropriatesafeguards on the transfer of technologies subjectto prohibitionon environmental or healthgrounds.Suchframeworkswould tacilitateinitiativesfrom both developingand developed countriesto stimulatethe research. G) COLLABORATIV E ARRANGEMENIS AND PARTNERSH/PS 34.22 Support should be provided for programmesof cooperation and assistance. in theareas of research and development. including through the involvementof both public and private enterprises and researchfacilities.25Visits should be sponsored and. subregional or nationalenvironmentally soundtechnology assessment centres. 34. 34. includingthoseprovidedby United Nations agencies.27Long-tenn collaborative arangementsshouldbe promotedbetweenenterprises of developedand developing countries for the development of environmentally sound technologies. E) SUPPORT FORPROGRAMMES OF COOP ERAI/ON AND ASS/SIANCE 34. disserninating and implementingtechnologies for sustainable development.

soundenvipracticescould be transferred ronmental management and maintained. will depend upon.tection and enhancementof the environment. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTANON F'NANC'NGAND COSI EVALUATION 34. as they are important channels for such transfer. the specific strategies and programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation.29 The Conference hasestimated secretariat the average total annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this chapterto be between$450 million and $600 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.Togetherwith direct foreign investment. These are indicative and orderof-magnitude estimates only andhavenotbeenreviewed by Governments. and for building a trained human resourcepool and infrastructure. these venturescould constituteimportant channelsof transThrough ferring environmentally sound technologies. includingany that arenon-concessional. inter alia. Actual costs and financial terms.taking into account developing countries' policy priorities and objectives. have a specialrole and interestin promoting cooperationin and related to technology transfer. suchjoint venturesand direct investment. 256 . 34.28Joint venturesshould be promotedbetweensuppliers and recipients of technologies.

such as remote-sensing devices. the sciences areincreasinglybeingunderstood asanessential componentin the searchfor feasiblepathwaystowards sustainable development. growth in rates of resource consumption. 35.improve long-term scientific assessments.3 Scientificknowledgeshouldbe appliedto articulate and support the goals of sustainabledevelopment. and environmental degradation.particularly in developingcountries. Changes in thoseand other areasneedto be taken into account in working out long-term strategies for development.resources.demographictrends. The prograrnmeareas proposedhereinare intendedto be over-arching.1 This chapterfocuses on the role and the useof the sciencesin supporting the prudent managementof the environmentand developmentfor the daily survival and future developmentof humanity.Thus. it will be essential to enhance scientific understanding.robotic monitoring instrumentsand computing and modelling capabilities. through scientific assessments of currentconditionsand future prospects for the Earth system. atmosphere and their interlocking water. 35.2 Scientistsare improving their understandingin areas suchasclimaticchange. The sciences are playing an important role in linking the fundamental significance of the Earth system as life supportto appropriatestrategies for developmentwhich build on its continuedfunctioning.One role of the sciences shouldbe to provide information to betterenableformulation and selection of environment and development policiesin thedecision-making process. and transportation.nutrientandbiogeochemical cyclesandenergy flows which all form part of the Earth system. This is essentialif a more accurateestimateis to be provided of the carrying capacity of the planet Earth and of its resilience under the many stresses placed upon it by human activities.Such assessments. lack of full scientific understanding should not be an excusefor postponingactions which are justified in their own right. effective and efficient tools that are now available.3 5 Science forsustoinoble development INTRODUCTION 35. agriculture. oceans. strengthen scientific capacities in all countries and ensure thatthesciences areresponsive to emerging needs. An increase in the scientific capacity and capability to achievethesegoals will also be required. shouldbe usedin the decision-making process and in the interactiveprocesses betweenthe sciences and policy-making. There is a need for the sciences constantly to reassess and promote lessintensivetrendsin resource utilization. In thefaceof threats of irreversible environmental damage.Of crucial importanceis the need for scientists in developingcountriesto participatefully in internationalscientific researchprogrammesdealing with the global problems of environmentand development so as to allow all countriesto participateon equal footing in negotiations on global environmental and developmental issues.The sciences can provide this understandingthrough increasedresearchinto the underlying ecologicalprocesses andthroughthe applicationof modem. In orderto fulfil this requirement. including lessintensiveutilization of energy in industry. basedon existing and emerging innovationswithin the sciences.and alternatives. The precautionary approach could provide a basis for policies relating to complexsystems thatarenotyet fully understood andwhose consequences of disnrrbances cannotyet be predicted. in order to supportthe specific scientific requirements identified in the otherAgenda21 chapters. The sciencesshould continue to play an increasingrole in providing for an improvementin the efficiency of resource utilization and in finding new developmentpractices. There needs to be an increasedoutput from the sciences in order to enhanceunderstanding and facilitate interaction between science and society. 257 . A first step towards improving the scientific basis for these strategiesis a better understandingof land.

4T he pro g ra m m ea re a s . (d) Building up scientificcapacityand capability. P R O G R A M MA ER E A S BASIS A) STRENGTHENTNG THESCTENTTF|C FOR SUSTAINABTE MANAGEMENT tion.5 Sustainable perspectives.and the public at large. integrating local and regionaleffects term global process. (b) Enhancing scientiflcunderstanding. to knowledge identify the state of its scientific and its research needs and prioritiesin orderto achieve. whoseinterests by both governmental and arearticulated governmen s.Currentresearch in this area shouldbe broadened to includemore involvementof the publicin establishing goalsforformulong-termsocietal lating the sustainable development scenarios. (f) Participation of people in setting priorities and in decision-making relatingto sustainable development. (c) Strengthenand design appropriate institutional mechanisms at the highest appropriatelocal. (c) Improvinglong-termscientificassessment. as requested.w h i c h a re i n harmony of the wit h t he c o n c l u s i o n sa n d re c o m m e n d a ti ons InternationalConference on an Agcnda of Sciencefor Environmentand Developrnentinto the ZIst Century (ASCEND/21) are (a) Strengthening the scientific basis for sustainable management. to changethe existing patternsof production and consumptionand to gain time for reducing uncertainty with respect of policy options. keep a range tifically seekingto open of options precautionary flexibility of response. to the selection (d) The generationand application of knowledge. building upon the best scientitic knowledge and assessments. and the economy. taking into account interrelationsat the national.social welfare.especially indigenous and local knowledge. the future is uncertain.should: (a) Prepare an inventory of their natural and social sciencedata holdingsrelevantto the promotionof sustainabledevelopment. decisionmakers. Better nontal organization communication is requiredamong scientists. priate.Even so. regional and international levels. whererequired.5.35.7 Countries. health.and the general public. (d) Develop. (e) Improving cooperation betweenscientists by proprogrammes moting interdisciplinaryresearch and activities. national.to the capacities of different environmentsand cultures.in areasrelevantto environmentand developnlent: (b) Environmental policy formulaanddevelopmental 258 . as soon in: substantial improvements as possible. (a) Large-scale widening of the scientific base and of scientific and research and strengthening capacities . state of the environment.and Good environmental and develtherervill be surprises.thoseof developingcouncapabilities tries . BASIS FOR ACTION requirestaking longerdeveloprnent 35. for example. into the developrnent andusing of change and traditional knowledge available. policies management must therefore be scienopmental robust. subregional and regional levels and within the United Nationssystem for developing a stronger scientificbasis for the improvementof environmentaland developmental policy formulationconsistent with long-termgoalsof sustainable development. in light of the findings of scientific research.apply and institutethe necessary toolsfor sustainable development. The apto ensure gap is proachis important. (e) Collect.with the assistance of international organizations. using the precautionary whereapproapproach. (c) The interaction betweenthe sciences and decisionmaking. and taking into accountthe needto enhance international cooperationand the relative uncertainties of the variousprocesses and optionsinvolved.to achieve sustainedlevels of development.analyse and integratedataon the linkages betweenthe stateof ecosystems and the healthof hurnan OBJECTIVES 3. education.6 The primaryobjectiveis for eachcountrywith the supportof intemationalorganizations. (iii) Long-termenvironmental policy formulation. ACTIVITIES 35. amongscientists.risk management andenvironmentally soundtechnology assessment. (ii) Economic approaches to environmentallysound development andnew andimprovedincentivestructures for better resourcemanagement.in particular. with regardto: (i) Quality-of-life indicators covering. the best scientific process The development shouldbe constantly re-evaluto ated. utilizationhas reducedimpactson ensurethat resource the Earth system. Often. (b) Identify their researchneeds and priorities in the context of internationalresearch efforts.there a communication policy makers.

The globalenvironment is changingmorerapidly thanat any time in recent centuries. inter ulia. particularlyin developingcountries. includingthe processes thatcould eitherimpair or enhance its ability to supportlife. the humanconsumption of energy. (c) Supporting researchby developing relative-risk evaluationmethodsto assistpolicy makersin ranking scientifi c research priorities. at the community. includingtheir socio-ecclnomic andhumanaspects.national.regions and culture. levels. as a result. coordinated by an internationalscienceeffort. (0 Conductscientificstudiesof nationaland regional pathways to sustainable development.with particularfocus on disserninatingand applying the results to environmental protectionand sustainable development. Such studies. theagro-ecosystem and otherterrestrial and aquaticecosystems: (b) Developingand applying new analyticaland pre- 259 . more extensiveknowledge is required of the Earth's carrying capacity. will dependupon.andshortages may ensuein many partsof the world even if environmental conditionswere to remain unchanged. and the next century coul d see si gni fi cant envi ronment al changes.communities in order to improve knowledgeof the cost and benefit of different development policies and strategiesin relation to health and the environment. the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideuponfor implementation. (g) Improve capabilities for determiningscientificreprioritiesat thenational.includingany thatarenon-concessional. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION Ai F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 35. socio-economic.surprises may be expected. They shouldbe developed at the local level and shouidconcentrate on the links betweenthe traditional knowledgeof indigenoLls groupsandcorresponding. search regionalandgloballevels to meetthe needsof sustainable development. subregional.10In ordertopromotesustainable development.11One key objective is to improveand increase the fundamental understandingof the linkages between human and naturalenvironmental systems and improve the analytical and predictive tools required to better understand the environmentalimpactsof development optionsby: (a) Carrying out research programmesin order better to understand thecarryingcapacityof the Eafih asconditioned by its naturalsystems. current "advancedscience".8 The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost (1993-2000) of implementingthe activitiesof this programme to be about$150 million. It shouldbe adaptiveand responsive to perceived "userneeds andbe carriedout via transparent. B / S C/ F NI I F I C A N D T E C H N OL OGICME AL AN S 35. study of the human dimensionsof the causesand consequences of environmental changeand of more sustainable development pathsi s essenti al . risk-evaluation methodologies : (h) Developmethodsto link the findings of the establishedsciences with the indigenous knowledge of different cultures. Human factors are key driving forcesin theseintricate setsof relationships and exert their influencedirectly on global change. friendly". the atmosphereftrydro sphere/l i thosphere/cryo sph ere system.. Social processes are subjectto multiple variationsacrosstime and space. B) ENHANCTNG SC|ENTIFIC UNDERSTANDTNG BASIS FOR ACTION 35. on both a total anda per capitabasis. Actual costsand financiai terms.9. They both affect and are influencedby changingenvironmental conditions.This is a processthat involves scientific judgementsregarding short-term andlong-ternt benefits andpossible long-term costsand risks.At the sametime.9 The scientific and technoloeical means includethe follorving: (a) Supportingnew scientific researchprogrammes. usingcomparable and complementary methodologies. asappropriate andaccording to national capacities and the availableresources.to complement andencourage synergies between traditional and conventionalscientific knowledge and practicesand strengthening interdisciplinaryresearch relatedto environmentaldegradation and rehabilitation: (b) Settingup demonstration modelsof differenr types (e.The methodsshould be testedusing pilot studies. environmentalconditions) to studymethodologies and formulateguidelines.Theseareindicative andorder-of'-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.thebiosphere andbiodiversity.waterand non-renewable resources is increasing. Therefore. including about$30 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms. should to a largeextentinvolve local expertise and be conducted by multidisciplinaryteamsfrom regionalnetworksand/or research centres. regional and global OBJEC'IIVES 35. suchas the biogeochemical cycles.

13 The Conference secretariat hasestimated theaver_ age totai annualcosr (1993-2000) of implemenringthe activitiesof this programmeto be about $2 billion. the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.economicand social responses to global change. anddevelopfurtherrestoration ecology.14The scientificandtechnological means includethe following: (a) Supporting and usingtherelevantnational research 260 . (c) Integrating physical.and long-term pernrrbations of the environment. hydrosphere andlithosphere. including modelling of the f'unctioningof these systemsassumingdifferent intensities of human impact. strengthen global terrestrial databases of their components. (c) Support national.12The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) Supportdevelopment of an expandedmonitoring networkto describe cycles(for example.economicand socialsciences in orderbetter to understand the impacts of economic and socialbehaviour on theenvironment andof environmental degradation on local and global economies.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. freshwater.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms. (0 Studythe role of biodiversityandthe lossof species in the functioningof ecosystems and the global life-support system: (g) Initiate a global observing system of parameters needed for therationalmanagement of coastal andmountain zones and significantly expand freshwaterquantity/ quality monitoring systems. The researchprogrammes shouldincludethe programmes mentioned in otherAgenda 2l chapters which suppoft mechanisms for cooperation and coherence of research programmes on global change.includinganythatarenon-concessional. particularlyin developing countries. coastaland marineecosystems and biodiversityto short. including about $ 1. (b) Supportnational. and demographic trends. the contributionof the engineering 0) Enhance sciences to multidisciplinary researchprogrammes on the Earth system. in particular: (i) Developresearch on humanattitudes andbehaviouras driving forcescentralto an understanding of the causes and consequences of environmental changeand resource use. provide informationand know_ ledgefor decisionmakersand the generalpublic. expand correspondi ng systern sfor monitoring their changingstates and enhance predictivemodellingof the Earth systemand its subsystems. and ensurethat the resultsare presented in a publicly accessible and understandable form. (l) Supportdevelopment of new user-friendlytechnologiesand systems thatfacilitatetheintegration of multidisciplinary. regionaland international observationand researchprogrammesin global atmosphericchemistryand the sources and sinks of greenhousegases. continuousand long-termmeasurements of the interactions of theatmosphere. and improveresearch into the interactions among the various global cycles and their consequences at national. regionalandinternational researchprograrnmeson marine and terrestrial systems. (ii) Promoteresearch on human.the networks. (d) Encouragecoordinationof satellitemissions.dictive tools in orderto assess more accurately the ways in which the Earth'snaturalsystems are being increasingly influencedby human actions. subregional. ACTIVITIES 35. in order to monitor marine.and the impact and consequences of thoseactionsand trends. MEANS OFIMPTEMENTATION Ai F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALTJATTON 35. Bi sc/ENI/FtCAND TECHNOLOGTCAL MEANS 35.biologicalanclsocialhuman processes which.subregional. in particular with regard to increasing emergencypreparedness and reducing the negativeef_ fectsof major naturaldisasters.economic and social sciences to better understand the impactsof economicand socialbehaviouron the environment and of environmentaldegradationon local and global economies and. inter alia. will depend upon.both deliberate and inadvertent. in tum. (i) Develop and apply sysremsand technologythat automaticallycollect.physical. global. (e) Developthe capacityfor predictingthe responses of terrestrial. regional and global levelsas guidesto tolerance and vulnerability. anddevelopa distribution system for datawhich will facilitate the utilizationof dataobtained throughobservation.and developthe intertacewith the research usersof Earth observationdata and with the United NarionsEARTHWATCH sysrem. (h) In order to undentandthe Earth as a system.terrestrialandatmospheric processes andprovide advance warningof naturaldisasters.chemical. subregional.biogeochemical and hydrologicalcycles) and test hypotheses regarding their behaviour. (k) Intensify researchto integratethe physical.recordand transmitdataand information to data and analysiscentres. Actual costsandfinancial terms.develop Eatth observationsystemsfrom spacewhich will provide integrated. systemsand procedures for processing and disseminating their data.

. This task would involve the integrationof arl rerevantsciences at the national.g. Earth-andocean-based observational technologies. Althoughmany of the long_term environ_ mental changes that are likely to affect peopleand the biosphere are globarin scare. data management and database technologies and. researchinstitutesand governmental and non-governmental organizations. health impacts and demographic trends. Theseaudits shouldthen be madeavailableto the generalpublic. ACTIVITIES 35'17 The following activitiesshourdbe under-taken: (a) Coordinateexisting data.15 Meeting scientificresearch needsin the environment/development field is only the first stepin the sup_ port that the sciences can provide for the sustainabre development process. supporishould provided be for nationaldatacollectionand warningsystems.for example. using the best avairablemoders. human activitiesat the locar and regionarlevels often contributeto global threats. Many countries and organizationsalready preparereports on the environment and deveropment which review current conditionsand indicate future trends. 35. and global levels. (b) Increasing the useof appropriate enablingsystems and technologies. c) |frrpRovtNc t oNG-TERlr SCtENTtFtc ASSESSMENT ing indigenous approaches. Full use shouldbe made of traditionalknowredgeof the rocal e n v ir onm ent . key chang". und pro_ moting their active participationin regionalano gtobat programmes.and statistics-gathering systemsrelevantto developmental and environ . The knowledge acquired may then be usedto provide scientificassessments (audits)of the currentstatusand for a rangeof possiblefuture conditions. This would involve setting up database. universities and researchinititutions.andpromotethe wide distribution of the assessments in a form that is responsive to public needs and can be widely understood. . regionar andgloballevelson thebasisof the bestavailable scientific knowledge in orderto deverop artemative strategies..thespeci fic strategies and programmes Governments decid. (b) Develop a methodorogy to carryout nationaland regionalauditsand a five-yeargtobaraudit on an integrated basis. for the differentscales of time and spacerequiredfor long-termpolicy formulation.rpoi.including any that are non_ concessi onal ..dataon resource assessments depletion. Such assersments should be designedto map out manageable develop_ ment pathwayswithin the environmentaland socioeconomiccarrying capacityof each region.Regional and global assessments courd make full use of such reports but shouldbe broaderin scopeand include the results of detailedstudiesof future conditionsfor a rangeof assumptions about possiblefuture human . space_based observational technology. in particular.subregional.activities of academia. upon for implementation. regional and local levels.regionalandlocallevers.€.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not beenreviewedby Governments. examiningin particularthe capacities of globarand regionarlife-s"upporting systemsto meet the needsof human and non_ human life forms and identifying areasand resources vulnerableto further degradation.JATION 35'18 The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annualcost (1993_2000) of implementingthe activities of this progranrme to be about $35 million. and would be or_ ganized by governmentalagencies.apply the dataobtained throughthe activities identified in programmearea B to environment/development assessments at the global. Actuarcosts and financial terms.r. import/export flows. such as supercomputers. i ncl udi ng about $18 mi l l i on from the i nternati on al community on grant or concessional terms. regional. developingand expand_ ing the Global Climate ObservingSystem. assisted by internationalgovernmentaland non_govern_ mentalorganizations and united Nations bodiei when necessary and as appropriate.This impliesthatthe biosphere mustbe maintained in a healthystateand that losses in biodiversitymust be sloweddown.19 With regard to the existing data requirements underprogrammeareaA. information and OBJECNVES 35. Thus scientificassessments and projections arerequired at theglobal. i l l depend w upon. energy use.At the same time. stratospheric ozone depletion.i nteral i a. particularlyin developingcountries.non_governmental or ganization s. BASIS FOR ACTION 35. MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALI.16The primaryobjective is to provideassessments of the currentstafusand trendsin major developmental and environmental issues at the national.ntur issues soasto support preparation of rong-term scientific . includ- 261 . The standardized auditsshould helpto refine the patternand character of development.un often be madeat the nationarand local revels.

theeducation but alsoin theirability to identili. Increasettre applications retrievalsysdevelopingcountries of cornputer-based temsin ordertocopewith thegrowthof scientiflcliterature.regional and global capacities of scientificand techmote the full and open exchange nologicaldataandinformationand to facilitatetechnical soundand sustainrelatedto environmentally assistance This shouldbe done throughthe deable development. knowledgeof sustainability: (b) A substantialincreaseby the year 2000 in the . andallowing full andopenaccess tory libraries of regional scientific and technological of scientific submission informationnetworks.Suchmech- OBJECTIVES 35. collect. meetnational. bases. in view of the sizeandcomplexityof globalenvironmental disciplines in several problems.with the aim of improving in decision-making. in science tries to improve infrastructuresfor researchand developto work more producment which could enablescientists research and to encourage of incentives tively. in schools. (e) Develop. public awareness and participation 262 .indevelopment cluding regional linking vr'ithnational scientiflc datafor research.particularly those in developingcountries. regionaldatacentres (d) Developand expandregionaland global scientific informationnetworkswhich arebased and technological on and linked to national scientific and technological infonnation databases. only in theirdisciplines manageand incorporateenvironmentalconsiderations into researchand developmentprojects:ensurethat a ecology and resource sound base in natural systetns.21The primary objectiveis to improve the scientific of all countries. trainingand monitoring. processand disseminate expand from regional and global scientificprogrammes. strengthenand forge new partnerships tcl proamong national.with specificregardto: velopingcountries (a) Education.it is necessary suchcapacityin all countries.to enablethem to participate in developingcountries and applicationof the resultsof fully in the generation sustainconcerning and development scientificresearch There are many ways to build up able development. capable management is provided:anddevelopspecialists relatedto of working in interdisciplinaryprogrammes environmentand development.i n c l u d i n g d a ta a s sessment i n e a c h re g ion.by the provision of adequatescientific equipment and accessto current scientific literature.thoseof decapacities . development and greaterutilizationof their resultsin the development.20In view of the increasing anddevelof environment play in dealingwith the issues to build up scientificcapacityand opment.and the improvementand search.in particular. Prornote to globalor informationanddatabases andtechnological and network systems.Someof the most scientificand technological andtraining importantof themarethe following: education to developingcounassistance and technology.and r epor t ing s y s te ms .regionaland proresearch global environmental and developmental grammes. (b) Strengthen the scientificinfrastructure universities and researchinstitutions -. of intemationalnetworksand centres.lGUP SCIE].particularly strengthen . trainingand facilitiesfor local research and developmentand human resourcedevelopmentin basic scientific disciplinesand in environment-related andlocal traditional utilizing whereappropriate sciences.Suchcapacity-building would alsoform the basisfor improving public awareness must Specialemphasis of ttresciences. ACTION FOR BASIS haveto role the sciences 35.22The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: not (a) Promote andtrainingof scientists. regional andglobalchallenges. inf or m at i o nd i s s e mi n a ti o n AD. (c) Reducing from of scientists theexodus significantly those who have developingcountriesand encouraging left to return.ID C/N4BUTY CAPACITY D) BUlLDll. (d) Improvingaccess informationfor sciento relevant tists and decision makers. a needfor more specialists hasbecomeevidentworld wide. productivesectors of theeconomy. (f) P eri odi c academi c update o1' sci en t ist sf r om fields o1'knowdevelopingcountriesin their respective ledse. (c) Developandexpandnationalscientificandtechnoprocessing datain unifiedformatsand logical databases.InFrc (e) Involvementof scientists in national. ACTIVITIES 35. capacity. includingmultidisciplinaryresearch. and understanding be put on the need to assist developingcountriesto bases to studytheirown resource theircapacities strengthen them betterin orderto and manage andecologicalsystems Furthermore.particularly in differences. activitiesto reduceinformationbarriersdue to language .particularly womenscientists numberof scientists in thosedevelopingcountrieswhere their number is at present insufficient.for the purposeof achieving and in of highly qualifiedscientists a criticalmass sustaining thesecountries. for the sharingof basic revelopmentof mechanisms data and inforrnation. to thedeposisystems.including the field of appliedsocialsciences.

the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.regionaland global capacities forcarrying out scientificresearch andapplyingscientific and technologicalinformation to environmentallysound and sustainable development. analyseand pubiish information on indigenous environmental and developmental knowledge.g.libraries) to ensure that the scientists will work effectively in their home countries. (e) Establishmentand maintenanceof information. monitoringand assessment systems and databases. salaries. inter alia.These areindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Govemments. for example: (a) Supportand coordination of scientificcooperation amongall nationsin the region. equipment. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F'NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 35.so that they will be able to function effectively and efflcientlyin satisfying the scientificneeds of developingcountries.professional anismsshouldbe designed so asto enhance cooperationamong scientistsin all countriesand to establish strong national and regional alliancesbetween industryand research institutions. (0 Improve and develop new links betweenexisting networksof naturaland socialscientists and universities at the internationallevel in order to strengthen national capacities in the formulation of policy optionsin thefield of environment and development. The function of such networks and centrescould include.Promote and use the potentialof independent initiativesand indigenousinnovationsand entrepreneurship. cilitiesandassociated sustainable development andtechnology supportsystems in developing regions.24Suchmeansincludeincreasing and strengthening regional multidisciplinary researchand training networks and centresmaking optimal use of existing fa- 263 . (b) Linking with monitoringcentresand carryingout assessment of environmental and developmental conditions. (b) Enhancingnational. This includesa need to increase financial resource sfor globalandregionalscientific and technological informationnetworks. Actual costs and financial terms.. including about $470 million from the intemationalcommunityon grantor concessional terms. c) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 35.23 The Conference secretariat hasestimated the average total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $750 million. (g) Compile. and assist the communities that possess suchknowledge to benefit from them.includinganyttratarenon-concessional.as may be appropriate. (d) Organizationof scienceeducationand training. will depend upon. (c) Support and coordinationof national studies of pathways towardssustainable development. Ensurethe capacity-building of women by recruitingmore women in research and research trainins.25Capacity-building includesthe fbllowing: (a) Creatingconditions(e. 8/ SC/FNilF'C AND TECHNOLOG\CAL MEANS 35.

and even all areas are linked to needs.including formal education. opment.regionaland interwill developtheir own priorities nationalorganizations with in accordance fbr irnplementation and schedules policiesand programmes. Conference mendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental organizecl by UNESCO Environmental Education. can reachtheir b1' which human beingsand societies Education is criticalfor promotingsusfullestpotential. the following obtheir needs.. Effortsshor-rld focuson reducingthehigh illiteracy levelsand redressing among the lack of basiceducation women and shouldbring their literacylevelsinto line with thoseof men: A REAS PROGRAMM E TOWARDS EDUCATTON A) REORTENTTNG DEVETOPMENT SUSTAINABLE FOR ACTION BASIS 36. jectivesareproposed: (a) To endorsethe recommendations arisingfrom the World Conf'erence on Educationfor All: Meeting Basic (Jomtien. employ formal and non-formal rnethodsand effective means of communication.Thailand.skills and behaviourconsistent developmentand for effective public participationin To be eff'ective.5-9 March 1990) Learning Needs2 to basiceducation.l on provided the funheld in l9ll. peopleto address environment and development 264 . for the damental in the presentchapter 36.3 Education.public asa process should berecognized awareness andtraining. with sustainable tudes. virtually in Agenda 21. and improvingthe capacityof the tainabledevelopment issues. andto striveto ensure universal access primary education and to achieve for at least80 per cent of girls and 80 per cent of boys of prirnary schoolage through formal schoolingor non-fornraleducationand to reduce theadultilliteracyrateto at leasthalf of its I 990 level. groups. velopmenteducationshould deal with the dynamicsof enviand socio-economic both the physical/biological ronmentandhuman(which may includespiritual)develandshould shouldbeintegrated in all disciplines. have and and UNEP proposals principles in this document. OBJECTIVES 36.ondtroining public oworeness educotion.2 Programmeareasdescribed are: (a) Reorienting develeducation towardssustainable opment: (b) Increasing publicawareness: (c) Prornotingtraining. proposals. meeting basic capacmore closelyto the oneson role information.the latter part of leaming.1 Education.1Recognizing that countries and. and the and data ity-building. Promoting 3 6 INTRODUCTION raising of publicawareness andtraining 36. needsto be incorporated as an essential Both fonnal educationand non-formal educationare so that they to changingpeople'sattitudes indispensable their sustainable havethe capacityto assess and address It is also critical for achieving development concerns" values and attienvironmentaland ethical awareness. environmentand dedecision-making. science. for any providesthe underpinning While basiceducation environmentaland developmenteducation. sets out broad This chapter of major relatedto sectoralissuesare while specificsuggestions The Deciaration andRecomin contained otherchapters.

and in relevantactivities. developmental. broadening the means and scope of education. with the participation of studentsand staff. ecological heritagesitesetc.They should alsorecognize appropriate traditionaleducation systems in local communities.including dernography.5 Recognizing thatcountries andregionalandinternational organizationswill develop their own priorities and schedules for implementationin accordance with policiesand prografitmes. includingscience.with environmentand development issuesand their socioculturaland demographicaspectsand linkages. in particular theanalysis of thecauses of major environment and development issues in a local context. includingnon-governmental organizations. (c) To striveto achieve theaccessibility of environmental and development education. the following activities are proposed: (a) All countries areencouraged to endorse the recommendationsof the Jomtien Conferenceand strive to ensure its Frameworkfor Action. cost. educational.to reassess priorities and reallocateresources. culturaland socialsensitivities.(b) To achieve environmental anddevelopment awarenessin all sectorsof societyon a world-wide scaleas soonas possible. A thoroughreview of curricula should be undertaken to ensurea multidisciplinaryapproach. are recommendedto assist or set up pre-serviceand in-servicetraining programmes fbr all teachers. linked to social education. addressing the nature and methodsof environmentaland development educationand making use of reler. (g) Within two yearstheUnited Narionssystem should undertakea comprehensive review of its educational programmes.Non-governmentalorganizations canmake an importantcontribution in designing andimplementing educational programmes and shouldbe recognized.establish a programniewithin two yearsto integrate thedecisions of the Conference into the existingUnited Nationsframework adapted to the needsof eclucators at differentlevelsand circumstances. (h) There is a need to strengthen. genderand other interests.as well as non-formaleducators in all sectors.wildlife reserves. universalizing access and promoting equity.and giving special emphasisto the further training of decision makers at all levels. to encourage partnerships. developing a supporting policy context. and provide a source of information and focal point for international ties. Schoolsshould involve schoolchildren in local and regional studieson environmental health. The UNESCO/LTNEP Internati onal EnvironmentalEducation Programme should. (e) Relevant authorities shouldensure thateveryschool is assistedin designing environmentalactivity work plans. in all educationalprogrammes. Governments. Regional organizations andnational authoritiesshouldbe encouraged to elaborate similarparallel programmes andopportunities biuconducting an analysis of how to mobilize differentsectors of the populationin order to assessand addresstheir environmentaland development education needs . The strategies shouldsetout policiesand activities. This would encompass the preparation of national strategiesand actions for meetingbasiclearningneeds.administrators.in cooperation with the appropriate bodiesof the UnitedNationssystem. (0 Educational authorities shouldpromoteproveneducational methods and the developmentof innovative teachingmethodsfor educational settings.'ant experience of non-governmentalor ganizati ons. nongovernmental organizations and others.including safe drinking-water. from primary school age through adulthood to all groups of people. information exchangeby enhancingtechnologies and capacities necessarv to promoteenvironment and development education and public atvareness. sanitation and food and ecosystems. (d) To promote integrationof environmentand development concepts.linking thesestudies with services andresearch in nationalparks. encompassing training and public awareness. and educationalplanners. evaluationand review. drawingon thebestavailable scientificevidence and other appropriate sources of knowledge. within five years. their needs. and identify needs.. ACTIVITIES 36. with theappropriate assistance from community groups or non-governmental organizations. help mobilize resources. Countries 265 . This should be done in cooperation with all sectorsof society. social and gender disparities which interferewith theseaims. These bodies would help mobilize and facilitate different populationgroupsand communitiesto assess their own needsand to develop the necessary skills to createand implemeuttheir own environment and developmentinitiatives: (d) Educational authorities. (b) Governments should strive to update or prepare strategies aimedat integratingenvironmentand development as a cross-cutting issueinto education at all levels within the next three years. (c) Countriesare encouraged to set up nationaladvisory environmentaleducationcoordinating bodies or round tables representativeof various environmental. mobilizing resources and strengthening internationalcooperation to redressexisting economic. means and schedulesfor their implementation. Due respect shouldbe givento community-defined needs anddiverse knowledgesystems.

r'ith of an intemational tht: dr-r'cloptnent tions should c-rtcountsc educationalaims.assistcd governmental organizations and other sectors. suggestsustaitrable (l) Educational authoritics. nonby internationalorganizations.and should discussertviront.should cooperatc rvith cach other and with the various social sectors and population grclups to prepare educaticlnaltools that include regional environment and development issues and initiativcs. l'hc applopriatc bodies of the tJnited Nations non-govemrnentalorganizasystern irt cooperittiort'.should promote all kinds of adult educatron progralnmes for continuing education in environntent and delelclpment. could or cstablishnatiotlalor rcgional centresof excelstrengthen and educalionin environresearch lence in irrterdisciplinary rnental and developtttetttalsciences. inter upon. will depend any that are non-concessional. on education and non-governWith Governrnents Nations agencies. a n dc l i n r i r t a t c b e d o r r eh r i r n p r o v t n ge n r o l m e n to p p o r t u n i t i e si.n c l u d i n g andinstrucprogrammes asstudents in advanced females tors. and Actualcosts Governments. mental organizations.industlial and agricultrrral schocllsto in'Ihe corporate sector clude such topics in their curricula.su t t l t c l o c a l . prornotitig coopel'ativcresearchand infonnation At the giobal level these funcsharing and disscrnirtatiott. basing acschools and local tivities around eletuentarv/secondauy problerns. At network fbr the achiei entcrtttr1-global forums the nationaland ltrcal lcrcls. developrttcntin their education could include sustainable and training programtncs.in appropriate as the following: in budget (a) Giving higher priority to thosesectors recutting protecting them from structural allocations. of Conference implications of the educational in particularthroughrelevanteventsand conferences. by legislationif necessary. (n) Governments shouldaffirrnthc rightsof indigenous to use their experipeoples. Crclss-disciplinary courses could be Existing regionalnetworks made availableto ailstr"rdents. more situations. it shouldpresent as appropriate. (nr ) Gor ernments and educational authoritics should opportunitics for wollten itl non-traditional fields l'ostc-r' This could g en d er s t e r e o t y p i n g in curricula. promoting literacy young femalesand to programmes amongwomen.rc izations. using learning materials and resourcessuited to their owtt requirentcnts: (i) Countriescould supportuniversity and othertertiary activities and networks for environmental and development education.7 In the light of country-specific public itwareness support for education. r e g i o n a l a n c l n a t i o n a l levcls bl.Theseare indicatir.u'ith appropriateassistance of non-governmental orgattizations. aud knowledge exchange. environment and development. 266 . Such centres or cristing networks in each country could be urtiversitir's or region. decisionsin a variety of fonns. and and disseminate andreview implementation thecontinuous shouldensure decisions. be provided.reforming entranceanclteacherstaffingpoliciesand facilities. quirernents. and national university actions which proand ac:tivities on susmote researchand cotntnon teaching apprclaches tainable develclpntent should be built upon. (c) Promotingconditiclns where a larger shareof the with rich comcost is borne by local communities.6 The Conference (1993-2000) the of implementing age total annualcost to billion about programme to be $8 activitiesof this billion to billion $4. public and scholastic and development issues. (b) S hi fti ng al l ocati onsw i thi n exi sti ng educat ion with focus on budgetsin favour of primarv education.tcntal altctratil'cs to policy makers. 36. includingabout $3. the specific strategies mentsdecideupon for irnplementation.law and the managernent of specific environntental problems. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND COSI EVALUATION F/NANC/NG the averhas estimated secretariat 36. know-how.as well as with all countries. to development of sustainable ence and understanding and training: play a part in education (o) The United Nationscould maintaina monitoring and evaluativerole regardingdecisionsof the United on }invironmentand Developlnent NationsConference throughthe relevantUnited andawareness.including women's and indigenous pr-oplcs'orgartizations. cooperatitt-ruith ancl supporting the efforts of ators alid ot hcr cotnntunity -basedorg annon.5 from the intemationalcommunity on grant or concesand order-ot--magnisional terms. poorerones: munities assisting (d) Obtaining additional funds fiom private donors on the poorestcountries. and ncw partnershipsand bridges created with the businessand other independent sectors.These authoritics and industry should encourage business. for technology.t. programmes Governand alia.and thosewith concentrating ratesof literacybelow 40 per cent. Prograrnntcs at a postgraduatc includc specitic courscsainting at the f'urther ler el shoLrld t r a i n i n g o f d e c i s i o nm a k e r s . shingchild-care vesfor establi providing incenti Priority shouldbe given to educationof as appropriate.5 $9 billion.fbnn al cch. 0) Countries. tions should Lrcperlirnred by appropriateinstitutions: (k) Countrics :hoLtlcl l'acilitateand promote non-formal e d u c a t i o n a c t i r i t i c .'c not treen reviewed by tude estimatesonly and have including financial terms.training and could anddevelopment related to environment activities such measures through cases.

National and local educationalauthoritiesand relevantLlnitedNationsagencies shouldexpand.popular theatre groups. recognizing theneeds and contributions of specificcommunitygroups. Bl TNGREASTNG PUBUCAWARENESS AC-TON BASIS FOR lack of awareness of the 36. Such cooperation wouldalsoincrease theactivepublicparticipationin thedebate on theenvironment. especially the tertiary sector. tivities are proposed: (a) Countries should strengthenexisting advisory bodies or establishnew ones for public environment and development information. of open universities (h) Facilitatinglow-costor no-costuseof massmedia for the purposes of education. proSystematicsun/eys of the impact of awareness grammes shouldbeconducted. accountability and resources to the most appropriatelevel with preference given to local responsibilityand control over activities.behavioural and socialsciences.especiallyits informationbodiesand regionaland countryoperations. gov er nm enta lo rg a n i z a ti o n sa n d i mp o rta nt medi a. natural.f or the primarylevel. stress theprincipleof devolvingauthority'. and entertainment and advertising industries by initiatingdiscussions to mobilizetheirexperiencein shapingpublic behaviourand consumption patternsand making wide use of their methods. (i) Encouraging twinning of universities in developed and developingcountries. (e) Countriesand the United Nations system should promotea cooperative relationship with the media.UNESCO. (0 Lifting restrictions andincreason privateschooling ing the flow of funds from and to non-govemmental grass-roots including small-scale organiorganizations. public participationin discusThey shouldencourage s ions of env i ro n me n ta lp o l i c i e s a n d a s s essments.There is a need to increase public sensitivity to environment and development problemsand involvementin their solutions and foster responsibilityand a senseof personalenvironmental greatermotivation and commitmenttowards sustainable development.(e) Encouraging debt for educationswaps. zations. the following actheir needs. (d) Countries should stimulate educationalestablishmentsin all sectors. eU n i te dN a ti ons. UNICEF should make child-orientedmaterial availableto rnediaas an educational tool. especially in rural areasin mobile units. employing interactivemultimedia methods and integratingadvancedmethodswith fblk media.ensuring closecooperation between the out-of-schoolpublic information sectorand the school cuniculum.due to inaccurate Developingcountriesin particularlack relevanttechnologies and expertise. the useof audio-visual methods.by producingtelevisionand radio prograrnmes for developingcountries. patible with sustainable It is inrportantto development. a m o n go th e rs th nonac t iv it ies . awareness-buildins ACTMTIES that countries and regionalandinter36. for example.UNEP and universities shouldenrichpre-service curriculafor journalists on environment and development topics. asappropriate. should establishways of employing rnodern communicationtechnologiesfor effective public outreach.10 Recognizing will developtheir own priorities nationalorganizations with for implementationin accordance and schedules policiesand programmes.in cooperation with the scientificcommunity. making suitableuse of museums. environmentallysoundleisureand tourisrnactivities.9 The objectiveis to promotebroadpublic awareness as an essential part of a global education effort to valuesand actionswhich are comstrengthen attitudes. ronment. (b) The United Nationssystem shouldimproveits outreachin the course of a review of its education andpublic awareness involvement activitiesto promotegreater and coordinationof all parts of the system.the private sectorand particularly decisionmakers.multiple schoolshifts. (f) Countries. heritage 267 . (g) Promotingthe effective use of existing facilities. Educational terialsof all kinds arrdfor all audiences shouldbe based on thebestavailable includingthe scientificinformation. to providepublic environmental and development informationservices for raisingthe awareness of all groups. (c) Countries and regionalorganizations shouldbe encouraged. buil